Regassa, Alemayehu; Moje, Nebyou; Megersa, Bekele; Beyene, Desta; Sheferaw, Dessie; Debela, Etana; Abunna, Fufa; Skjerve, Eystein
A retrospective study and active abattoir survey were conducted from December 2009 to April 2010 to determine the major causes of organs and carcasses condemnation and to estimate the associated direct financial loss at Luna Export Abattoir, Central Ethiopia. The active abattoir survey was conducted on 674 goats and 451 sheep (n=1125) and three years (2007, 2008 and 2009), retrospective data of 718,395 sheep and goats were also collected. From the retrospective data it was observed that liver was the most frequently condemned organ with condemnation rate of 32.4%, 46.7% and 70.5%, respectively. The major causes of condemnation for liver, lung, heart, kidneys and brain were cirrhosis (12.3%, 17.0% and 12.8%), pneumonia (6.6%, 11.6% and 12.5%), pericarditis (0.6%, 0.8% and 0.4%), nephritis (0.6%, 0.8% and 1.2%) and abscess (0.005%, 0.007% and 0.012%), respectively. Consequently, the overall direct financial loss from organs and carcass condemnation during the three years was estimated to be 22,993,591 Ethiopian birr (ETB) or 1,323,257 United State Dollar (USD). On the other hand, detailed post mortem inspection of liver, heart, kidneys, tongue, brain and carcass during the active abattoir survey revealed that higher losses were caused mainly due to cirrhosis (89.3 kg, 2998 ETB), pericarditis (5.4 kg, 308 ETB), faulty evisceration (8.4 kg, 472 ETB), calcification (8.4 kg, 469 ETB) and Coenurus cerebralis (4.3 kg, 243 ETB) and poor carcass condition (bonny carcass) (1390 kg, 78,500 ETB), respectively. Other causes of condemnation were also recorded and totally, about 110,361 ETB (6351 USD) was lost only from organs and carcasses condemnation during the active abattoir survey. In conclusion, this study identified the major causes of organs and carcass condemnation in Luna Export Abattoir and estimated the associated direct financial losses. PMID:23245843
Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Taddele, Habtamu; Adhana, Kelali; Kalayou, Shewit
Objective To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city. PMID:23646306
Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea. It has the distinction of being the oldest independent country in Africa. In 1936, fascist Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia, but Ethiopia regained its independence 5 years later with the help of colonial British forces. In 1974, civil unrest led to a coup and the armed forces deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. Today, the socialist government has a national legislature and a new constitution, both of which were created 13 years after the revolution. This government is faced with armed separatist movements in the autonomous regions of Eritrea and Tigre and also with periodic border conflicts with Somali forces. These conflicts combined with a massive drought in 1983-1985 and another in 1987 led to widespread famine in which an estimated 7.9 million people faced starvation and up to 1 million people died. Ethiopia has the potential for self-sufficiency in grains, livestock, vegetables, and fruits. Yet it's agriculture has been plagued not only with drought; but also soil degradation caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and high population density; dislocation due to the economy's rapid centralization; and government policies that do not provide incentives to producers. Still agriculture provides the basis of the nation's economy. Ethiopia has good relations with the Soviet Union, and the foreign policy of Ethiopia generally supports and parallels that of the USSR. After the revolution, the United States' relationship with Ethiopia has cooled because of differences over human rights. The US does assist with drought relief, however. PMID:12177998
Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael
Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…
A. Teklu; B. Asseged; E. Yimer; M. Gebeyehu; Z. Woldesenbet
Summary The efficacy of the meat inspection procedures implemented for the detection of tuberculous cattle was evaluated by testing for bovine tuberculosis in 751 animals. The study involved routine inspection at slaughter, collection of tissues for detailed examination in the laboratory, and bacteriological investigation to identify Mycobacterium bovis. Of the 751 carcasses examined, 34 (4.5%) were found to have tuberculous
This document is a text dealing mainly with Ethiopia's rich cultural heritage and current lifestyles. It gives students the opportunity to go beyond the media coverage that has led to the perception of the whole of Ethiopia as a famine stricken land, and to discover the realities of this new nation, that about 15 percent of the population, mainly…
Worku, F. F.; Werner, M.; Wright, N.; van der Zaag, P.; Demissie, S. S.
Endorheic basins, often found in semi-arid and arid climates, are particularly sensitive to variation in fluxes such as precipitation, evaporation and runoff, resulting in variability of river flows as well as of water levels in end-point lakes that are often present. In this paper we apply the indicators of hydrological alteration (IHA) to characterise change to the natural flow regime of the Omo-Ghibe Basin in southern Ethiopia. Little water resource infrastructure has been developed in the basin to date, and it is considered pristine. The basin is endorheic and is the main source of flow to Lake Turkana in the East African Rift Valley. The water level in Lake Turkana shows significant fluctuation, but increase of its level can be observed over the past 20 years. The reasons are currently not well understood. Of the five groups of hydrological characteristics in the IHA (magnitude, timing, duration, frequency and variability), only those related to magnitude were found to show significant trends, with the main trend being the increase of flow during the dry season. This trend was not reflected in climatological drivers such as rainfall, evaporation and temperature (which shows a positive trend), but rather is attributed to the substantial changes in land use and land cover in the basin. The change in the basin hydrology is apparent mainly in the more humid part of the basin. The significant shift from forest and woodland to grassland and cropland results in a decrease of actual evaporation and subsequent increase in (dry season) runoff. The long-term trend of the increasing levels in Lake Turkana are related to these trends in dry season flows, while shorter-term fluctuations of the lake levels are attributed primarily to anomalies in consecutive wet and dry season rainfall.
Worku, F. F.; Werner, M.; Wright, N.; van der Zaag, P.; Demissie, S.
Endorheic basins, often found in semi-arid and arid climates, are particularly sensitive to changes in climatological fluxes such as precipitation, evaporation and runoff, resulting in variability of river flows as well as of water levels in end-point lakes that are often present. In this paper we apply the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) to characterise change to the natural flow regime of the Omo-Ghibe basin in Southern Ethiopia. This endorheic basin is considered relatively pristine, with the basin being the main source of flow to Lake Turkana, the end-point lake in the East-African rift valley. The water level in Lake Turkana shows significant fluctuation, but an increasing trend can be observed over the past 20 yr. The reasons are currently not well understood. Of the five groups of metrics in the IHA, only those related to magnitude were found to show significant trends, with the main trend being the increase of flow during the dry season. This trend was not reflected in climatological drivers such as rainfall, evaporation, and temperature (which shows an increasing trend), but rather is attributed to the substantial changes in Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) in the basin. The impact on the basin hydrology is apparent mainly in the more humid part of the basin. The significant shift from forest and woodland to grassland and cropland results in a decrease of actual evaporation and subsequent increase in (dry season) runoff. The long term trend of the increasing levels in lake Turkana are related to these trends in dry season flows, while shorter term fluctuations of the lake levels are attributed primarily to anomalies in consecutive wet and dry season rainfall.
Community participation is a term frequently used and often cited in international educational development. In this article, Jennifer Swift-Morgan investigates the definition and impact of community participation in schooling in rural Ethiopia. Although national governments, development agencies, and nongovernmental organizations across the…
Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael
Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…
Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf
Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.
Deyessa, N; Kassaye, M; Demeke, B; Taffa, N
The seriousness in magnitude of physical violence globally, and lack of information on the dimensions and context of the problem in Ethiopia is very visible. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Meskanena Mareko Woreda, Southern Ethiopia, from November 1 to 30, 1995 to assess the magnitude, type and outcomes of physical violence against married women. A total of 673 married women were included in the study. The study found out the overall prevalence of physical violence against married women to be 45% and 10% in their lifetime and last three months, respectively. Two hundred and twenty nine (76%) and 39 (60%) of the lifetime and three month's physically abused women respectively, were slapped with fist. Four (1%) of the lifetime physically abused women have been abused using a knife or a gun. Among the 303 physically abused women, 161 (53%) reported minor and serious somatic injuries in their lifetime. One hundred and nine (46%) of them had acquired minor lacerations or scars; 22 (7%) had reported to have fracture or dislocation; and 5 (2%) had lost their vision. It is concluded that physical violence among married women is quite high and a serious problem. We recommended that policy makers need to urgently explore for appropriate strategies to curtail the problem of physical violence against married women. PMID:10214450
Background Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, with the greatest burden found in low-income countries. Cataract surgery is a curative and cost-effective intervention. Despite major non-governmental organization (NGO) support, the cataract surgery performed in Southern Region, Ethiopia is currently insufficient to address the need. We analyzed the distribution, productivity, cost and determinants of cataract surgery services. Methods Confidential interviews were conducted with all eye surgeons (Ophthalmologists & Non-Physician Cataract Surgeons [NPCS]) in Southern Region using semi-structured questionnaires. Eye care project managers were interviewed using open-ended qualitative questionnaires. All eye units were visited. Information on resources, costs, and the rates and determinants of surgical output were collected. Results Cataract surgery provision is uneven across Southern Region: 66% of the units are within 200 km of the regional capital. Surgeon to population ratios varied widely from 1:70,000 in the capital to no service provision in areas containing 7 million people. The Cataract Surgical Rate (CSR) in 2010 was 406 operations/million/year with zonal CSRs ranging between 204 and 1349. Average number of surgeries performed was 374 operations/surgeon/year. Ophthalmologists and NPCS performed a mean of 682 and 280 cataract operations/surgeon/year, respectively (p?=?0.03). Resources are underutilized, at 56% of capacity. Community awareness programs were associated with increased activity (p?=?0.009). Several factors were associated with increased surgeon productivity (p?0.05): working for >2 years, working in a NGO/private clinic, working in an urban unit, having a unit manger, conducting outreach programs and a satisfactory work environment. The average cost of cataract surgery in 2010 was US$141.6 (Range: US$37.6–312.6). Units received >70% of their consumables from NGOs. Mangers identified poor staff motivation, community awareness and limited government support as major challenges. Conclusions The uneven distribution of infrastructure and personnel, underutilization by the community and inadequate attention and support from the government are limiting cataract surgery service delivery in Southern Ethiopia. Improved human resource management and implementing community-oriented strategies may help increase surgical output and achieve the “Vision 2020: The Right to Sight” targets for treating avoidable blindness. PMID:24245754
Immunological monitoring is part of the standard of care for patients on antiretroviral treatment. Yet, little is known about the routine implementation of immunological laboratory monitoring and utilization in clinical care in Ethiopia. This study assessed the pattern of immunological monitoring, immunological response, level of immunological treatment failure and factors related to it among patients on antiretroviral therapy in selected hospitals in southern Ethiopia. A retrospective longitudinal analytic study was conducted using documents of patients started on antiretroviral therapy. Adequacy of timely immunological monitoring was assessed every six months the first year and every one year thereafter. Immunological response was assessed every six months at cohort level. Immunological failure was based on the criteria: fall of follow-up CD4 cell count to baseline (or below), or CD4 levels persisting below 100 cells/mm3, or 50% fall from on-treatment peak value. A total of 1,321 documents of patients reviewed revealed timely immunological monitoring were inadequate. There was adequate immunological response, with pediatric patients, females, those with less advanced illness (baseline WHO Stage I or II) and those with higher baseline CD4 cell count found to have better immunological recovery. Thirty-nine patients (3%) were not evaluated for immunological failure because they had frequent treatment interruption. Despite overall adequate immunological response at group level, the prevalence of those who ever experienced immunological failure was 17.6% (n=226), while after subsequent re-evaluation it dropped to 11.5% (n=147). Having WHO Stage III/IV of the disease or a higher CD4 cell count at baseline was identified as a risk for immunological failure. Few patients with confirmed failure were switched to second line therapy. These findings highlight the magnitude of the problem of immunological failure and the gap in management. Prioritizing care for high risk patients may help in effective utilization of meager resources. PMID:25961732
Tadesse, Estefanos; Negesse, Tegene; Abebe, Girma
A survey was conducted in Awassazuria district of southern Ethiopia to characterize sheep production system. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Using purposive sampling, a total of 120 households from the district were included in the survey. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Result indicated that Kajima neighbourhood has more (p?0.05) grazing land than the others. Communal grazing, roadside grazing, enset (false banana, Ensete ventricosum), banana leaf and private grazing land were major feed resources for sheep. Lake Awassa and tap water were permanent water sources. Watering frequency of sheep varies from once a day to once in 4 days. Sheep are primarily kept to generate income and equilibrate benefit and risk and for home consumption. The criteria used by the households for purchase and sale of sheep are physical characteristics (coat colour, horn and tail) (46.7 %), body conformation (35 %), age (10.8 %) and known local ecotype (7.5 %). The reasons of slaughter of sheep include festival (55 %), childbirth (18.3 %), wedding (12.5 %), mutton for home (9 %), circumcision (5 %) and for guest (1.7 %). Farmers fatten sheep for New Year (60 %), Easter (30.8 %), Christmas and Arefa (Eid al-Adha celebration (Feast of the Sacrifice); <10 %). The reasons for expansion of sheep flock in the future were market price, high market demand, immediate return, ease of management, equilibrium between benefits and risks and suitability for home consumption, ranked in decreasing order of importance. The sheep production in southern Ethiopia is constrained by shortage of grazing land (23.3 %), recurrent drought (17.5 %), disease and parasite (15 %), marketing (10.8 %), water shortage (9 %) and other constraints including predators and lack of input, capital and lack of extension service. The presence of diversified and environmentally adaptable sheep breeds, high demand of mutton in the Awassa town and presence of nutritious and unutilized feed resources like fish meal and poultry litter were some of the opportunities for sheep production in the area. PMID:25997416
Stoecker, BJ; Abebe, Y; Hubbs-Tait, L; Kennedy, TS; Gibson, RS; Arbide, I; Teshome, A; Westcott, J; Krebs, NF; Hambidge, KM
The relation between zinc status and cognitive function was examined in a cross-sectional study in the Sidama area of Southern Ethiopia. Pregnant women >24 weeks of gestation from three adjacent rural villages volunteered to participate. Mean (s.d.) plasma zinc of 99 women was 6.97 (1.07) ?mol/l (below the cutoff of 7.6 ?mol/l indicative of zinc deficiency at this stage of gestation). The Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) test was administered individually. Scores for the Raven’s scale A, which is the simplest scale, ranged from 4 to 10 of a possible 12. Women with plasma zinc <7.6 ?mol/l had significantly lower Raven’s CPM scale A scores than women with plasma zinc concentrations >7.6 ?mol/l. Plasma zinc and maternal age and education predicted 17% of the variation in Raven’s CPM scale A scores. We conclude that zinc deficiency is a major factor affecting cognition in these pregnant women. PMID:19190668
Shiferaw, M.; Abreham, W.; Tayu, B.; Klinkenberg, E.; Loha, E.
Setting: Health centres in Southern Ethiopia. Objective: To determine factors contributing to the large variations in the notification of smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) cases. Design: A cross-sectional study in selected health centres from areas with high and low case notification was conducted and health system and health care worker (HCW) related determinants were examined. Results: A total of 50 (61.0%) health centres and 172 (65.2%) HCWs from high case notification areas, and 32 (39.0%) health centres and 92 (33.8%) HCWs from low case notification areas were included in the study. Assignment of a full-time TB focal person at the TB clinic (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.8, 95%CI 1.5–22.4) and availability of TB recording tools (aOR 7.0, 95%CI 1.5–32.5) were independent predictors of high case notification rates. HCW knowledge about TB screening, diagnosis and treatment was positively associated with case notification (aOR 2.53, 95%CI 1.42–4.48). Conclusion: Increased TB case notification was associated with the presence of a full-time focal person, availability of TB recording tools and good knowledge about TB among HCWs. Putting in place these measures in all health centres could increase TB notification in the region.
Abebe, Aster; Eik, Lars Olav; Holand, Øystein; Adnøy, Tormod; Tolera, Adugna
A survey was conducted between April and July 2007 to generate information on dry season feeding management and livestock poisoning in the southern rangelands of Ethiopia. A total of 119 pastoralists were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Moreover, additional information was obtained through informal discussions. The study revealed that pastoralists have rich knowledge of natural resource management and utilization and employ various strategies such as migration, collection of grasses and pods, and cutting branches to overcome feed scarcity during dry/drought periods. Migration of livestock and people to areas with better grazing is the widely used strategy. However, the implementation of this strategy is diminishing as a result of changes such as bush encroachment, expansion of settlements, and crop cultivation in dry-season grazing lands. The respondents also indicated the presence of poisonous plants in the rangeland, and about 20 such plants were identified by the respondents. Various species and classes of livestock are reported to be affected by toxic plants particularly in the dry and early rainy seasons when feed is in short supply. A more extensive survey is required to document all poisonous plants in the rangelands and to identify the major toxic principles in the different species. Future development interventions should consider the prevailing constraints and potentials of the rangelands with active participation of the pastoralists. PMID:21656132
Background Around 80% of the people of Ethiopia are estimated to be relying on medicinal plants for the treatment of different types of human health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the use and management of medicinal plants used for the treatment of human health problems by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including individual and focus group discussions (18), observations, individual interviews (n?=?74), preference ranking and paired comparison were used. Data were collected in three study sites and from two markets; the latter surveyed every 15 days from February 2011 to February 2012. Results A total of 128 medicinal plant species, belonging to 111 genera and 49 families, used as herbal medicine by Maale and Ari communities were documented. Predominantly harvested plant parts were leaves, which are known to have relatively low impact on medicinal plant resources. Species with high familiarity indices included Solanum dasyphyllum, Indigofera spicata, Ruta chalepensis, Plumbago zeylanica and Meyna tetraphylla. Low Jaccards similarity indices (? 0.33) indicated little correspondence in medicinal plant use among sites and between ethnic communities. The dominant ways of medicinal plant knowledge acquisition and transfer is vertical: from parents to children through oral means. Gender and site significantly influenced the number of human medicinal plants known currently in the study sites. Age was only a factor of significance in Maale. Marketing of medicinal plants harvested from wild and semi-wild stands is not common. Expansion of agricultural land and lack of cultivation efforts by local communities are mentioned by locals to affect the availability of medicinal plant resources. Conclusion S. dasyphyllum, I. spicata, P. zeylanica, M. tetraphylla, and Oxalis radicosa need to be considered for phytochemical and pharmacological testing to verify their efficacy and determine their dosages. Land use planning and development initiatives in the area and beyond need to sharply focus on strategies that could alleviate the major threats affecting medicinal plant resources in the landscape and encourage their cultivation to enhance their availability and complement ex-and in-situ conservation. PMID:24898079
Wells, Christopher J.; Alano, Abraham
Introduction Risky sexual behavior among Ethiopian university students, especially females, is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. Ambaw et al. found that female university students in Ethiopia may fear the humiliation associated with procuring condoms. A study in Thailand suggests condom machines may provide comfortable condom procurement, but the relevance to a high-risk African context is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine if the installation of condom machines in Ethiopia predicts changes in student condom uptake and use, as well as changes in procurement related stigma. Methods Students at a large urban university in Southern Ethiopia completed self reported surveys in 2010 (N ?=?2,155 surveys) and again in 2011 (N?=? 2,000), six months after the installation of condom machines. Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests were conducted to evaluate significant changes in student sexual behavior, as well as condom procurement and associated stigma over the subsequent one year period. Results After installing condom machines, the average number of trips made to procure condoms on-campus significantly increased 101% for sexually active females and significantly decreased 36% for sexually active males. Additionally, reports of condom use during last sexual intercourse showed a non-significant 4.3% increase for females and a significant 9.0% increase for males. During this time, comfort procuring condoms and ability to convince sexual partners to use condoms were significantly higher for sexually active male students. There was no evidence that the condom machines led to an increase in promiscuity. Conclusions The results suggest that condom machines may be associated with more condom procurement among vulnerable female students in Ethiopia and could be an important component of a comprehensive university health policy. PMID:23565272
Tiki, Waktole; Oba, Gufu; Tvedt, Terje
This article uses the concepts of "human stewardship" and "ruined landscape" as a theoretical framework for analysing the community's perception of landscape change in the ancient tula well system of Borana in southern Ethiopia. The ancient tula well system, the main permanent water source, has been in operation for more than five centuries and it closely links human activity and the environment. The welfare of the tula well system and the performance of the Borana pastoral system are directly related. Borana management of the tula wells uses concepts such as laaf aadaa seeraa and laaf bade to differentiate between ‘land managed by customary laws’ (hereafter human stewardship) and ‘lost’ or ‘ruined’ land (laaf bade). The cultural landscapes of the ancient wells have undergone changes from ecosystems featuring ‘human stewardship’ (before the 1960s), that is, laaf aadaa seeraa to ‘ruined landscapes’ (after the 1960s), that is, laaf bade. Our interest is in understanding how the Borana perceive the impact of land use changes from these two conceptual perspectives. In group discussions, key informant interviews and household surveys across five of the nine well clusters, we found that the society described the changed tula cultural landscape in terms of drivers of well dynamics (i.e. use and disuse), break up of land use zonations, patterns of human settlement (traditional versus peri-urban), expansion of crop cultivation, and changes in environmental quality. Using the two concepts, we analysed linkages between changing patterns of land use that transformed the system from laaf aadaa seeraa, which ensured human stewardship, to laaf bade, which resulted in ruined landscapes. From these we analysed environmental narratives that showed how the society differentiated the past human stewardship that ensured sustainable landscape management from the present ruining of tula well cultural landscapes. PMID:21560273
Bogale, Alemtsehay; Stoecker, Barbara J; Kennedy, Tay; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Thomas, David; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael
The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status and cognitive performance of women and their 5-year-old children using a cross-sectional design. Cognitive performance of mothers and children was assessed with Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-II (KABC-II). Demographic characteristics, food consumption patterns and anthropometry were also measured. Four rural districts in Sidama, southern Ethiopia served as the setting for this study. Subjects were one hundred women and their 5-year-old children. Mean?±?standard deviation age of the mothers was 29?±?6 years and family size was 7.0?±?2.6. Maternal body mass index (BMI) ranged from 15.3 to 29.0 with 14% of the mothers having BMI?18.5. Anthropometric assessment of children revealed 29% to be stunted (height-for-age z-score?-2) and 12% to be underweight (weight-for-age z-score?-2). Mothers' education significantly contributed to prediction of both mothers' and children's cognitive test scores. There were significant differences in mean cognitive test scores between stunted and non-stunted, and between underweight and normal-weight children. Height-for-age z-scores were correlated with scores for short-term memory (r?=?0.42, P?0.001), and visual processing (r?=?0.42, P?0.001) indices and weight-for-age z-scores were also correlated with scores of short-term memory (r?=?0.41, P?0.001) and visual processing (r?=?0.43, P?0.001) indices. Malnutrition in the community likely contributed to the cognitive performance of the subjects. Performance on memory and visual processing tasks was significantly lower in children with growth deficits suggesting that efficient and cost effective methods to alleviate malnutrition and food insecurity would impact not only child health but also cognitive function. PMID:21806779
Gibson, Rosalind S; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael; Arbide, Isabel; Teshome, Aklilu; Stoecker, Barbara J
Whether current child feeding practices and behaviours among rural households in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia conform to the World Health Organization (WHO) guiding principles for complementary feeding is uncertain. We assessed socio-demographic status, anthropometry, breastfeeding, complementary feeding practices and behaviours, and motor development milestones in a convenience sample of 97 breastfed children aged 6-23 months from three rural Sidama communities. Energy and nutrient intakes from complementary foods were also calculated from 1-day in-home weighed records. Prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% for infants aged 6-8 months to 52% for children aged 12-23 months, whereas for wasting, the corresponding prevalence was 10% and 14%, respectively. Very few children were exclusively breastfed up to 6 months of age (n = 2), or received solids/semi-solids for the recommended minimum number of times containing the recommended number of food groups. Responsive feeding was not practised and no cellular animal products were consumed. Median intakes of energy, and intakes and densities of micronutrients from complementary foods (but not protein) were below WHO recommendations, assuming average breast milk intakes; greatest shortfalls were for retinol, vitamin C and calcium densities. Mothers of stunted children were shorter and lighter, and from households of lower socio-economic status than non-stunted children (P < 0.05). Acquisition of some motor development milestones was delayed in stunted infants compared with their non-stunted counter-parts. In conclusion, interventions that address the WHO guiding principles for complementary feeding practices and behaviours, as well as prenatal influences on growth, are urgently required in this setting. PMID:20572929
Gase, Fikre Enquselassie; Deressa, Melaku Umeta
A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and correlates of prenatal vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia. Seven hundred randomly-selected pregnant women took part in the study. Serum retinol concentration was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed by logistic and linear regression. Interpretation of data was made using adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and adjusted linear regression coefficient. The prevalence of VAD (serum retinol <0.7 µmol/L) was 37.9%. Advanced gestational age and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP ?5 mg/dL) were negatively associated with retinol concentration (p<0.05). The odds of VAD was significantly higher among the women with no education and those devoid of self-income. Women aged 35-49 years had 2.23 (95% CI 1.31-3.81) times higher odds compared to those aged 15-24 years. The lower the dietary diversity score in the preceding day of the survey, the higher were the odds of VAD. With reference to nulliparas, grand multiparas had 1.92 (95% CI 1.02-3.64) times increased odds of VAD. VAD and zinc deficiency (serum zinc <8.6 µmol/L during the first trimester, or <7.6 µmol/L during the second or third trimester) were significantly associated with AOR of 1.80 (95% CI 1.28-2.53). VAD has major public-health significance in the area. Accordingly, it should be combated through enhancement of diet diversity, birth control, and socioeconomic empowerment of women. PMID:23930336
Tadesse, Birkneh Tilahun; Foster, Byron Alexander; Berhan, Yifru
Background Disclosure of HIV positive status to children and adolescents is a complex process. However, disclosure has been found to be associated with improved outcomes. The objective of the current study was to identify the predictors that facilitate disclosure of HIV status to children and adolescents and to study the reasons for non-disclosure. Methods Interviews of caregivers and reviews of records were done to collect data on caregiver and child information and details regarding the disclosure status of children. Bivariate analysis was done to test the association between HIV status disclosure and different caregiver and child factors. To identify the independent predictors of disclosure, we did multivariable logistic regression. Results A total of 177 children attending an HIV clinic were included. The mean age of the participants was 10.1 years (SD = 2.8), and about half (50.8%) were female. Most caregivers, 137 (77.8%) stated that disclosure of HIV status to children is important and should be done. However, disclosure had only been made to 59 (33.3%) of the participants. Child age more than 10 years [AOR = 6.7; 95%CI: 1.73–26.01], duration of HIV diagnosis of 5 years or more [AOR = 4.4; 95%CI: 1.26–15.06] and taking a zidovudin (AZT) based regimen [AOR = 3.5; 95%CI: 1.31–9.53] predicted HIV positive status disclosure. Additionally, length of treatment of caregivers of more than 14 years [AOR = 3.9; 95%CI: 1.07–14.61], disclosure of caregiver’s HIV status to children and/or others [AOR = 4.7; 95%CI: 1.19–18.74], and the child’s inquiry about their condition [AOR = 4.5; 95%CI: 1.16–17.43] increased the odds of disclosure. Conclusion The rate of disclosure among HIV infected children in southern Ethiopia is low. Primarily time-based factors were associated with the probability of HIV positive status disclosure and a specific regimen which has not been found previously. Further qualitative research may elucidate more on these factors; educational strategies may address some of these determinants. PMID:26167687
I present geological and mineral chemistry results aiming at understanding the relationship between metamorphism and gold mineralization in the N-trending Neoproterozoic Kenticha-Katawicha area in the Adola belt of southern Ethiopia. The Kenticha-Katawicha area comprises low-grade metamorphic rocks including pelitic schists, marble, graphite schists and Fe-Mn quartzites (Kenticha marine metasedimentary rocks) and serpentinites and talc-tremolite-chlorite schists with podiform chromites (Kenticha ophiolite). Lenses of high-grade amphibolite schist are also locally present within the Kenticha-Katawicha area. These rocks are sandwiched between high-grade para- and ortho-gneisses, migmatites, schists and amphibolites. Post-orogenic granites intrude the metamorphic sequences. Mineral assemblages and textural data obtained from the high-grade rocks indicate that the dominant metamorphic condition is of upper amphibolite facies. Garnet-biotite (garnet-core-matrix-biotite) and amphibole-plagioclase geothermometry gave estimates for peak metamorphic temperatures of 630-650 °C and pressure of 7 kbar for the high-grade rocks. On the other hand, the low-grade rocks recrystallized in the greenschist facies conditions. The estimated peak T- P values for the high-grade rocks suggest a burial to ˜25 km depth and a clockwise P- T path is deduced from mineral thermometry and the textural and paragenetic relations. This combined with the geochemistry of the magmatic rocks and clockwise P- T is consistent with a collision setting in which rocks of the calc-alkaline, volcanic-arc, and oceanic fragments are assembled. In the study area, gold occurs in quartz veins and veinlets in lenses of biotite schists within ultramafic rocks that are confined to shear zones. Fluid inclusion studies of gold quartz veins and veinlets indicate a H 2O- and CO 2-rich fluid with low salinity (<5 wt% NaCl equivalent). The gold mineralization in the area is post-peak regional metamorphism and is associated with the low-grade wall-rock alteration.
Assefa, Shiferaw Alemu
The primary objective of this dissertation is to reconstruct the history of the Omotic societies of southwestern Ethiopia. Although historical, anthropological, and linguistic studies exist for this region, the gaps in our knowledge are great. Information on the history of Omotic people, their economic and political systems, beliefs and values,…
Background Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman is a major food security crop in Southern Ethiopia, where it was originally domesticated and during millennia became pivotal crop around which an entire farming system has developed. Although its cultivation is highly localized, the enset-based farming system provides sustenance to more than 20 million people. Precise ethnobotanical information of intra-specific enset diversity and local knowledge on how communities maintain, manage and benefit from enset genetic resources is imperative for the promotion, conservation and improvement of this crop and its farming system. Methods This study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia among the Wolaita 'enset culture' community. The research sample consisted of 270 households from 12 Kebeles (villages) representing three agro-ecological ranges. By establishing Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) based interactions and applying ethnobotanical interviewing methods of free-listing and open-ended questionnaires, information on the use and management of enset diversity, and its associated folk-biosystematics, food traditions and material culture was collected and analyzed. Results While enset agriculture is seen as cultural heritage and identity for the Wolaita, enset intra-specific diversity holds scenic, prestige and symbolic values for the household. In the present study we recorded 67 enset landraces under cultivation, and through a comprehensive literature review we identified 28 landraces reported from other areas of Wolaita, but not encountered in our survey. Landraces, identified using 11 descriptors primarily related to agro-morphological traits, are named after perceived places of origin, agro-morphological characteristics and cooking quality attributes. Folk classification of enset is based on its domestication status, 'gender', agro-ecological adaptability and landrace suitability for different food and other uses (fiber, feed, medicinal). Enset as a food crop is used to prepare 10 different dishes in Wolaita, 8 of which are exclusively prepared using enset, and their consumption ranges from daily staple to specialty food in festive occasions and ceremonies. On-farm landrace diversity and richness is guided by household needs; its dynamics is managed through regular propagation, harvesting restrain, control of landrace composition and arrangement in the enset homegardens. Conclusions This study reported on the knowledge system, socio-cultural process and community practices that drive the maintenance of intra-specific on-farm enset diversity in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia. The information is crucial for developing community based complementary in situ and ex situ conservation strategies to foster conservation of enset genetic resources and associated indigenous knowledge system. PMID:24885715
Engdawork, Assefa; Bork, Hans-Rudolf
The purpose of this study is to examine the origin, development, and characteristics of terraces (kella), plus their potentials and determinants for sustainable use in the Chencha-Dorze Belle area of southern Ethiopia. Field surveys were conducted to determine the various parameters of the indigenous terraces and in order to collect samples for radiocarbon dating. To identify farmers' views of the terrace systems, semi-structured interviews and group discussions were also carried out. Terraces were built and used-as radiocarbon dating proves-at least over the last 800 years. The long-term continued usage of the indigenous terraces is the result of social commitments, the structural features of the terraces, and the farmers' responses to the dynamics of social and cultural circumstances. We dubbed that the terraces are a success story of fruitful environmental management over generations. Thus, a strong need is to preserve and develop this important cultural heritage and example of sustainable land use. PMID:24805921
Ayana Angassa; Gufu Oba
This study focuses on community-based knowledge to analyze the impacts of range enclosures, crop farming, fire suppression\\u000a and bush encroachment on the communal rangelands of Borana, southern Ethiopia. The knowledge of local herders is the basis\\u000a for decision making in the utilization and management of grazing lands. We used Borana oral history associated with the period\\u000a of the gada system
Background With 75% of the Ethiopian population at risk of malaria, accurate diagnosis is crucial for malaria treatment in endemic areas where Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax co-exist. The present study evaluated the performance of regular microscopy in accurate identification of Plasmodium spp. in febrile patients visiting health facilities in southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design was employed to recruit study subjects who were microscopically positive for malaria parasites and attending health facilities in southern Ethiopia between August and December 2011. Of the 1,416 febrile patients attending primary health facilities, 314 febrile patients, whose slides were positive for P. falciparum, P. vivax or mixed infections using microscopy, were re-evaluated for their infection status by PCR. Finger-prick blood samples were used for parasite genomic DNA extraction. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to reconstruct the distribution of different Plasmodium spp. across the three geographical areas. Results Of the 314 patients with a positive thick blood smear, seven patients (2%) were negative for any of the Plasmodium spp. by nested PCR. Among 180 microscopically diagnosed P. falciparum cases, 111 (61.7%) were confirmed by PCR, 44 (24.4%) were confirmed as P. vivax, 18 (10%) had mixed infections with P. falciparum and P. vivax and two (1.1%) were mixed infections with P. falciparum and P. malariae and five (2.8%) were negative for any of the Plasmodium spp. Of 131 microscopically diagnosed P. vivax cases, 110 (84%) were confirmed as P. vivax, 14 (10.7%) were confirmed as P. falciparum, two (1.5%) were P. malariae, three (2.3%) with mixed infections with P. falciparum and P. vivax and two (1.5%) were negative for any of the Plasmodium spp. Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax mixed infections were observed. Plasmodium malariae was detected as mono and mixed infections in four individuals. Conclusion False positivity, under-reporting of mixed infections and a significant number of species mismatch needs attention and should be improved for appropriate diagnosis. The detection of substantial number of false positive results by molecular methodologies may provide the accurate incidence of circulating Plasmodium species in the geographical region and has important repercussions in understanding malaria epidemiology and subsequent control. PMID:24502664
Forsén, Emmanuel; Tadesse, Elazar; Berhane, Yemane; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is increasingly used in identifying and admitting children with acute malnutrition for treatment. It is easy to use because it does not involve height assessment, but its use calls for alternative discharge criteria. This study examined how use of percentage weight gain as discharge criterion would affect the nutritional status of children admitted into a community-based management programme for acute malnutrition in rural southern Ethiopia. Non-oedematous children (n?=?631) aged 6-59 months and having a MUAC of <125?mm were studied. By simulation, 10%, 15% and 20% weight was added to admission weight and their nutritional status by weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) was determined at each target. Moderate and severe wasting according to World Health Organization WHZ definitions was used as outcome. Applying the most commonly recommended target of 15% weight gain resulted in 9% of children with admission MUAC <115?mm still being moderately or severely wasted at theoretical discharge. In children with admission MUAC 115-124?mm, 10% of weight gain was sufficient to generate a similar result. Children failing to recover were the ones with the poorest nutritional status at admission. Increasing the percentage weight gain targets in the two groups to 20% and 15%, respectively, would largely resolve wasting but likely lead to increased programme costs by keeping already recovered children in the programme. Further research is needed on appropriate discharge procedures in programmes using MUAC for screening and admission. PMID:23941395
Alene, Mulugeta; Barker, Andrew J.
Utilising geochemical data, various discriminant diagrams have been employed to establish the magma type and original tectonic environment for some Neoproterozoic amphibolites, ultrabasic rocks and gabbros of the Moyale area, southern Ethiopia. The gneissic amphibolites are found to have mixed geochemical characteristics indicative of island arc and/or ocean ridge basalts with tholeiitic composition whereas the porphyritic amphibolites show alkalic features with no clear tectonic setting. The ultrabasic and gabbroic units of the Moyale area are described in terms of their relation with mantle melts and parental material. The majority of ultrabasics relate to a cumulate origin and the gabbroic rocks appear as more differentiated magma from the same source. The mainly dunite bodies in the eastern sub-area at Moyale probably represent refractory residues left after variable degree of partial melting of a periodotite mantle. It is concluded that the gneissic amphibolites were probably part of an accreting arc associated with closure of a pre-existing oceanic basin. The ultrabasic and gabbroic rocks (together with the porphyritic amphibolite) are considered to be remnants of oceanic crust.
Moges, Awdenegest; Holden, Nicholas M.
A study was conducted in southern Ethiopia to evaluate the nutrient status on smallholder farms with respect to land use class (garden, grassland, and outfield) and slope position (upper, middle, and lower). Soil physical and chemical properties were quantified using soil samples collected at two depths (0 15 and 15 30 cm). Available phosphorous was significantly different among the three land use classes. However, organic carbon and total nitrogen were lower in the outfield compared to the garden and grass land but not significantly different. The lower than expected nutrient status of the garden and grassland, which receive almost all available organic supplements, was attributed to the overall low availability of these inputs. Similarly, pH and cation exchange capacity were not significantly different among the different land use classes. However, the sum of the exchangeable cations was significantly higher in the garden compared to the outfields. Comparison at landscape level revealed that the sand fraction was significantly greater, whereas the silt fractions were significantly smaller, on the lower slopes relative to the middle slopes. Moreover, the organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, Ca, and Mg values were significantly less on lower slopes than upper and middle slopes. Perhaps this is because of leaching and the effect of deposition of coarser sediments from the prevailing gully system. Overall, the fertility of the soil was adequate for supporting smallholder farming, but consideration must be given to reducing pressure on the land resources, addressing erosion problems, and providing a line of credit for purchasing inputs.
Azage Tegegne; Eshete Dejen; Dirk Hoekstra; Worku Teka
This study was undertaken in the arid to semi-arid lowlands of Metema district, North-western Ethiopia with the objective of introducing the right animal to match the environment. The Metema district covers 440,000 ha, and is mainly occupied by settlers from the highlands of Amhara and Tigray Regions, who brought the highland Zebu breeds along with them. Rutana and Felata, the
Rufael, T; Catley, A; Bogale, A; Sahle, M; Shiferaw, Y
Participatory epidemiology (PE) was used on the Borana plateau of southern Ethiopia to understand pastoralist's perceptions of the clinical and epidemiological features of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in cattle. Matrix scoring showed good agreement between informant groups on the clinical signs of acute and chronic FMD, and findings were cross-checked by clinical examination of cattle and assessment of previous clinical FMD at herd level by detection of antibody to non structural proteins of FMD virus. The positive predictive value of pastoralist's diagnosis of FMD at herd level was 93.1%. The annual age-specific incidence and mortality of acute FMD in 50 herds was estimated using proportional piling. The estimated mean incidence of acute FMD varied from in 18.5% in cattle less than two years of age to 14.0% in cattle three to four years of age. The estimated mean mortality due to acute FMD varied from 2.8% in cattle less than two years of age to 0.3% in cattle three of age or older. Pearson correlation coefficients for acute FMD by age group were -0.12 (p>0.05) for incidence and -0.59 (p<0.001) for mortality. Estimates of the annual incidence of chronic FMD varied from 0.2% in cattle less than two years of age to 1.8% in cattle three to four years of age. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the incidence of chronic FMD by age group was 0.47 (p<0.001). Outbreaks of FMD peaked in Borana cattle during the two dry seasons and were attributed to increased cattle movement to dry season grazing areas. The mean seroprevalence of FMD was estimated at 21% (n=920) and 55.2% of herds (n=116) tested seropositive. Serotyping of 120 seropositive samples indicated serotypes O (99.2%), A (95.8%), SAT 2 (80%) and C (67.5%). The endemic nature of FMD in Borana pastoral herds is discussed in terms of the direct household-level impact of the disease, and the increasing export of cattle and chilled beef from Ethiopia. PMID:18551776
Desta, Takele Taye; Wakeyo, Oli
Rearing of scavenging chickens is among the most commonly practiced farm activities in Ethiopia. This system is dominated by indigenous chickens. Output from indigenous chickens is low due to poor management and absence of intense selection that is intended to improve economically important traits. This showed that village chickens are rather evolved for adaptation traits. However, the level of risk is low, and this has made rearing of scavenging chickens a choice of farm activity for smallholder farmers. The objective of this study was to characterize the scavenging chickens' production system in Wolaita Zone. Single-visit survey involving individual interview of 119 farmers and 6 focus group discussions was used to collect the data. Our results showed that rearing of scavenging chickens was constrained especially by disease and predation problems. However, farmers proposed a set of solutions to minimize the effect of these problems. Rearing of scavenging chickens fulfils the multi-functional need of the society. This system has special features because it can sustain in its own without the need for modern commercial chicken farming facilities. However, farmers also reported the drawbacks of rearing of scavenging chickens and these mainly include uproot of garden crops and tiresomeness of the night watching. Selection of chickens was mainly depending on physically observed traits like body size and plumage colour. The initial foundation flock was mainly obtained from the local market. The ideal place for scavenging chickens production is the one that has intermediate weather condition and has some trees that can be used as shade; however, it was substantiated that it has to be free from bush and shrubs, weeds and wet lands. Therefore, these pieces of knowledge embedded among smallholder farmers need to be well documented and synthesized to design an appropriate type of technology packages that can be communicated back to farmers to improve productivity of the scavenging chickens. PMID:21800214
Background Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease. Methods A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using the rose Bengal test as screening and complement fixation test as confirmatory tests. The Stata survey command was used to establish prevalences for the overall and individual variables, while potential risk factors for seropositivity were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The results showed that 3.5% (95% CI = 2.4, 4.5%) of the animals and 26.1% (95% CI = 18.6, 33.7) of the herds tested had antibodies against Brucella species. Village level seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 100%. A higher seroprevalence was observed in pastoral system than mixed farming although this variable was not significant in the final model. The final logistic regression model identified herd size; with large (odd ratio (OR) = 8.0, 95% CI = 1.9, 33.6) and medium herds (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.9, 34.2) showing higher risk of Brucella infection when compared to small herds. Similarly, the odds of Brucella infection was higher in cattle aged above 4 years when compared to age groups of 1-2 (OR = 5.4, 2.1, 12.9) and 3-4 years (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.0, 9.6). Herd level analysis of the risk factors revealed that large and medium herds as well as herds kept with multiple livestock species were at higher risk of acquiring Brucella infection. Brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practices certainly poses a zoonotic risk to the public, in consequence of raw milk consumption, close contact with animals and provision of assistance during parturition. Due to lack of diagnostic facilities and information on its occurrence, human brucellosis is most likely misdiagnosed for other febrile diseases prevailing in the areas and treated empirically. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that bovine brucellosis is widely prevalent in the study areas particularly in pastoral production system. Hence, the study suggests the need for implementing control measures and raising public awareness on prevention methods of brucellosis. PMID:21473760
Background A mosquito repellent has the potential to prevent malaria infection, but there has been few studies demonstrating the effectiveness of combining this strategy with the highly effective long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). This study aimed to determine the effect of combining community-based mosquito repellent with LLINs in the reduction of malaria. Methods A community-based clustered-randomised trial was conducted in 16 rural villages with 1,235 households in southern Ethiopia between September and December of 2008. The villages were randomly assigned to intervention (mosquito repellent and LLINs, eight villages) and control (LLINs alone, eight villages) groups. Households in the intervention villages received mosquito repellent (i.e., Buzz-Off® petroleum jelly, essential oil blend) applied every evening. The baseline survey was followed by two follow-up surveys, at one month interval. The primary outcome was detection of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, or both parasites, through microscopic examination of blood slides. Analysis was by intention to treat. Baseline imbalances and clustering at individual, household and village levels were adjusted using a generalized linear mixed model. Results 3,078 individuals in intervention and 3,004 in control group were enrolled into the study. Compared with the control arm, the combined use of mosquito repellent and LLINs significantly reduced malaria infection of all types over time [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR)?=?0.66; 95% CI?=?0.45-0.97]. Similarly, a substantial reduction in P. falciparum malaria infection during the follow-up surveys was observed in the intervention group (aOR?=?0.53, 95% CI?=?0.31-0.89). The protective efficacy of using mosquito repellent and LLINs against malaria infection of both P. falciparum/P. vivax and P. falciparum was 34% and 47%, respectively. Conclusions Daily application of mosquito repellent during the evening followed by the use of LLINs during bedtime at community level has significantly reduced malaria infection. The finding has strong implication particularly in areas where malaria vectors feed mainly in the evening before bedtime. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01160809. PMID:24678612
Solomon, T B; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N
A survey was conducted in the Borana pastoral areas of southern Ethiopia to assess current livestock production systems, rangeland management practices and the perceptions of the pastoralists towards rangeland degradation. This information is considered vital to future pastoral development planning and interventions. Data were collected from a total of 20 villages that were identified from 5 peasant associations, namely Did Yabello, Moyatte, Did Harra, Dubuluk and Melbana. The average household size in the study area was 7.23. The majority of the pastoralists relied on both livestock and crop farming. The average livestock holding per household was 14 cattle, 10 goats, 6 sheep and 2 camels. Livestock holdings, with the exception of camels, has shown a declining trend over time. The two most important traditional rangeland management strategies adopted by the pastoralists included burning and mobility, but since 1974/75 burning has no longer been practised. With regard to mobility, the livestock herding falls in two categories, namely: home based and satellite herding. The former involves the herding of milking cows, calves and immature animals (<2 years) close to the encampments. The latter constitutes the herding of bulls and immatures (>2 years) further away from the encampments. Based on the pastoralists' perceptions, the major constraints on livestock production in descending order, were recurrent drought, feed and water scarcity, animal diseases, predators and communal land ownership. All the respondents considered the condition of the rangelands to have declined dramatically over time. In the past most development policies were based on equilibrium theories that opposed the communal use of the rangelands and traditional range management practices. The way in which the pastoral system affects the rangeland ecosystem functioning is contentious to this theory and the 'tragedy of the commons'. There was also a perceived problem of bush encroachment and the ban on traditional burning practices and recurrent droughts were seen as aggravating factors to this invasion process. The increasing practice of crop cultivation on the rangelands was identified as a serious threat to future livestock production and traditional resource management practices. Suggestions for possible interventions to improve the productivity and sustainable use of these rangelands are made. PMID:16616986
The school curricula are widely believed to be the best vehicle for generating public awareness of and action related to areas of energy concern. In an attempt to build the capacity of schools to address key environmental issues in Ethiopia, a pilot project had been designed in 2004. The principal aim of the project was to bring about positive…
Background The use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) has not kept step with that of short-acting methods such as oral pills and injectable in Africa. This study explores the association between women’s awareness, attitude and barriers with their intention to use LAPMs among users of short term methods, in Southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design of mixed methods was conducted in the public health facilities of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia, in January 2013. Women who were using short term contraceptive methods were the study population (n?=?416). Moreover, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted among family planning providers and women who have been using short term methods. Data were entered into EPI Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. The odds ratios in the binary logistic regression model along with 95% confidence interval were used. Results One hundred fifty six (38%) of women had the intention to use LAPMs while nearly half of them (n?=?216) had a negative attitude to use such methods. Moreover, two-third of study participants (n?=?276) held myths and misconceptions about such methods. The women who had a positive attitude were found to be 2.5 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had a negative attitude (AOR =2. 47; 95% CI: 1.48- 4.11). Women who had no myths and misconceptions on LAPMs were found to be 1.7 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had myths and misconceptions (AOR?=?1.71; 95% CI: 1.08- 2.72). Likewise, women who attained secondary and higher level of education were found to be 2 and 2.8 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women with no education, respectively (AOR?=?2. 10; 95% CI: 1.11- 3.98) and AOR?=?2. 80; 95% CI: 1.15- 6.77). Conclusions Intention to use LAPMs was low and nearly half of women had a negative attitude to use such methods. Positive attitude, absence of myths and misconceptions on LAPMs and secondary and plus level of education predicts intention to use LAPMs. Educating communities to change the attitude, myths and misconceptions on LAPMs should be aggressively done. PMID:25216640
Background Breastfeeding is one of the components of Primary Health Care in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia a wide range of harmful infant feeding practices has been documented despite the implementation of infant and young child feeding guidelines. However, there is no well documented study of women’s perception of breastfeeding patterns and factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding (with timely initiation of breastfeeding being within the first hour) in rural communities of Arba Minch Zuria. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Arba Minch Zuria from January to February, 2012. Quantitative data were collected from a sample of 383 respondents supplemented by qualitative data generated using in-depth interviews of 10 key informants. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of delayed initiation of breastfeeding practices. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic frameworks. Results In the rural communities of Arba Minch Zuria almost all mothers (98.2%) have ever breastfed their children. More than three-fourth (89%) of mothers provided colostrum to their infants while others discarded the first milk until the white milk was produced. A large number of mothers (42.8%) started breastfeeding one hour after childbirth. Delayed initiation of breastfeeding was positively associated with lack of maternal education (AOR 1.91; 95% CI 1.02, 3.44). Maternal knowledge about the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95% CI 0.15, 0.93), attending a primary health education (AOR 0.74; 95% 0.15, 0.98) and health personnel support for women at delivery time (AOR 0.52; 95% CI 0.21, 0.58) were inversely associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding practices. Conclusions A large number of mothers (42.8%) were short of the national and global recommendations about breastfeeding initiation. Therefore, sustained health and community based nutritional education is recommended for pregnant and lactating mothers to promote optimal breastfeeding for the initiation of breastfeeding practices using health extension workers and local community resource people as key actors. PMID:24971154
Background Plants have traditionally been used for treatment of human and livestock ailments in Ethiopia by different ethnic and social groups. However, this valuable source of knowledge is not adequately documented, which impedes their widespread use, evaluation and validation. Here, we recorded indigenous knowledge and standard practices for human and livestock disease control, of three ethnic groups (Aari, Maale and Bena-Tsemay) in South Omo Zone of Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out using a semi-structured questionnaire to document knowledge of 50 traditional healers (40 male and 10 female) in medicinal plant use for treatment of human and livestock ailments. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and summarize the ethno-botanical data. Results Ninety-one plants, with claimed medicinal properties against a total of 34 human and livestock ailments, were reported and botanically identified as belonging to 57 genera and 33 plant families. Most of the plant species reported belonged to one of seven major families: Lamiaceae, Solanaceae, Menispermiaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Plumbaginaceae and Geraniaceae. Woody plants (shrubs 21% and trees 29%) were the major growth form used, whilst roots (40%) and leaves (35%) were the major plant parts used in the study areas. Healers mostly practice oral administration of plant preparations (65%). Multiple medicinal plants were cited against particular ailments, and mixing of two or more different medicinal plants (14.3%) against a single ailment was also commonly reported. Conclusion This study showed that traditional medicine, mainly involving the use of medicinal plants, is playing a significant role in meeting the primary healthcare needs of the three ethnic groups. Acceptance of traditional medicine and limited access to modern healthcare facilities could be considered as the main factors for the continuation of the practice. Documented knowledge of the traditional healers can be used to support the country’s human and livestock health care system and improve lives and livelihoods. Information generated will be used in future studies to validate bioactivity of selected medicinal plants used by traditional healers, so to increase their acceptability in health care systems both nationally and internationally. PMID:23680260
Admassu, B; Nega, S; Haile, T; Abera, B; Hussein, A; Catley, A
Participatory methods were used to assess the impact of a community-based animal health worker (CAHW) project in two remote pastoralist districts of Ethiopia. The CAHW project had been operating for 3 years at the time of the assessment. Participatory methods were standardized and repeated with 10 groups of informants in the project area. The assessment showed significant reductions in disease impact for diseases handled by CAHWs compared with diseases not handled by CAHWs. In camels, there was significant reduction (p < 0.001) in the impact of mange, trypanosomosis, helminthosis, anthrax and non-specific respiratory disease. In cattle there was a signficant reduction (p < 0.001) in the impact of blackleg, anthrax and helminthosis. In sheep and goats there was a sign reduction (p < 0.001) in the impact of mange, helminthosis, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, orf and non-specific diarrhoea. In order of importance, these reductions in disease impact were attributed to (1) increased use of modern veterinary services provided by CAHWs, (2) vaccination campaigns involving CAHWs, (3) good rainfall and availability of grazing and (4) decreased herd mobility. Decreased herd mobility was also associated with negative impact of tick infestation. Community-based animal health workers were considered to be highly accessible, available, affordable and trustworthy relative to other service providers. They were also perceived to be suppliers of a good quality service. Specific types of positive impact attributed to CAHW activities were increases in milk, meat, income and draught power. PMID:15729896
of farmer seed exchange that influence farmers' use of and access to agricultural biodiversity, and the waysFarmer Seed Exchange and Crop Diversity in a Changing Agricultural Landscape in the Southern of biodiversity. Crop diversity serves both to buffer the global food supply against environmental change and pest
Olivera, Pablo; Newcomb, Maria; Szabo, Les J; Rouse, Matthew; Johnson, Jerry; Gale, Samuel; Luster, Douglas G; Hodson, David; Cox, James A; Burgin, Laura; Hort, Matt; Gilligan, Christopher A; Patpour, Mehran; Justesen, Annemarie F; Hovmøller, Mogens S; Woldeab, Getaneh; Hailu, Endale; Hundie, Bekele; Tadesse, Kebede; Pumphrey, Michael; Singh, Ravi P; Jin, Yue
A severe stem rust epidemic occurred in southern Ethiopia during November 2013 to January 2014, with yield losses close to 100% on the most widely grown wheat cultivar, 'Digalu'. Sixty-four stem rust samples collected from the regions were analyzed. A meteorological model for airborne spore dispersal was used to identify which regions were most likely to have been infected from postulated sites of initial infection. Based on the analyses of 106 single-pustule isolates derived from these samples, four races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici were identified: TKTTF, TTKSK, RRTTF, and JRCQC. Race TKTTF was found to be the primary cause of the epidemic in the southeastern zones of Bale and Arsi. Isolates of race TKTTF were first identified in samples collected in early October 2013 from West Arsi. It was the sole or predominant race in 31 samples collected from Bale and Arsi zones after the stem rust epidemic was established. Race TTKSK was recovered from 15 samples from Bale and Arsi zones at low frequencies. Genotyping indicated that isolates of race TKTTF belongs to a genetic lineage that is different from the Ug99 race group and is composed of two distinct genetic types. Results from evaluation of selected germplasm indicated that some cultivars and breeding lines resistant to the Ug99 race group are susceptible to race TKTTF. Appearance of race TKTTF and the ensuing epidemic underlines the continuing threats and challenges posed by stem rust not only in East Africa but also to wider-scale wheat production. PMID:25775107
Tefera, Solomon; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N
The structure and advancement of woody vegetation was studied in a semi-arid rangeland of southern Ethiopia under three land-use systems (communal land, a government ranch and a traditional grazing reserve enclosure) and along a distance gradient (near, middle and far) from water sources. A total of 54 woody plant species were identified. Based on the subjective opinions of the pastoralists, 85% of the identified woody plants have forage values to livestock. Cadaba farinsoa, Ormocarpum trichocarpum, Rhus natalensis, Acacia brevispica, Cordia gharaf and Hibiscus sparseaculeatus were reported to have fair to good palatability. Tree equivalent (TE) density of all woody plants combined was greater (P <0.01) in the government ranch (1) 188 TE ha(-1)) and the communal land (1083 TE ha(-1)) than in the traditional grazing reserve (419 TE ha(-1)), whereas this did not vary significantly (P >0.05) along the distance gradient from water. The most important encroaching woody plant species in the study areas were in descending order: Commiphora africana, Acacia drepanolobium, A. brevispica, Acacia. tortilis, Grewia tembensis and Lannea floccosa. The density of individual encroaching woody plant species along the distance gradient from water was not consistent. All encroaching woody species had the highest TE density in the communal land. The prevalence of these species followed the pattern of intensity of use within the communal grazing area. Most of the woody species had the highest abundance in the height class >0-2m regardless of land use and distance gradient from water. This study investigated the advance of severe woody encroachment in the communal and government sites as well as along the distance gradient from water. Some of the important contributing factors that can be suggested are heavy grazing pressure (in both the communal and government sites), expansion of cultivation and reduced mobility of livestock due to settlement of the pastoralists in the communal land. PMID:17141403
Background Culture affects the way people conceptualize causes of severe mental disturbance which may lead to a variation in the preferred intervention methods. There is a seemingly dichotomous belief regarding what causes severe mental disturbance: people living in western countries tend to focus mainly on biological and psychosocial risk factors; whereas, in non-western countries the focus is mainly on supernatural and religious factors. These belief systems about causation potentially dictate the type of intervention preferred. Studying such belief systems in any society is expected to help in planning and implementation of appropriate mental health services. Methods A qualitative study was conducted among the Borana semi-nomadic population in southern Ethiopia to explore perceived causes of severe mental disturbance and preferred interventions. We selected, using purposive sampling, key informants from three villages and conducted a total of six focus group discussions: three for males and three for females. Results The views expressed regarding the causes of mental disturbance were heterogeneous encompassing supernatural causes such as possession by evil spirits, curse, bewitchment, ‘exposure to wind’ and subsequent attack by evil spirit in postnatal women and biopsychosocial causes such as infections (malaria), loss, ‘thinking too much’, and alcohol and khat abuse. The preferred interventions for severe mental disturbance included mainly indigenous approaches, such as consulting Borana wise men or indigenous healers, prayer, holy water treatment and seeking modern mental health care as a last resort. Conclusions These findings will be of value for health care planners who wish to expand modern mental health care to this population, indicating the need to increase awareness about the causes of severe mental disturbance and their interventions and collaborate with influential people and indigenous healers to increase acceptability of modern mental health care. It also provides information for further research in the area of mental health in this semi-nomadic population. PMID:22789076
DiMaggio, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Campisano, C. J.; Reed, K.; Deino, A.
During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene (~ 3-2.5 Ma), the Afar region of Ethiopia was undergoing major structural reorganization (e.g., change in extension direction, increased spreading rate) leading to significant landscape modification. Concurrent with these changes in paleogeography, regional trends towards a cooler and drier climate coincide with a clustering of first appearance and extinction events in the faunal record, including the diversification of the early hominin genus Australopithecus and the emergence of our own genus, Homo. However, sediments that span the 3 to 2.5 Ma interval are sparse in eastern Africa, and are especially rare at paleoanthropological sites in the Afar. Here we present new geologic mapping results that indicate extensive deposits of late Pliocene sediments in a previously unmapped region of the lower Awash Valley referred to as the Eastern Ledi-Geraru (ELG). Numerous interbedded airfall tephras enable geochemical comparisons to the existing regional tephrostratigraphic framework as well as high precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of tephras with suitable feldspars. Feldspars from 8 such tephra deposits span the time period of 3.0 to 2.8 Ma, providing the first glimpse of depositional environments and associated landscapes that existed at that time. Geologic mapping and stratigraphic analysis shows that over a 100 meter thick section of lacustrine to fluvial sediments are exposed along faulted basalt flows following both the Red Sea Rift and Main Ethiopian Rift structural trends. We interpret the geology at ELG to reflect a northeastern migration of paleo Lake Hadar, possibly into a series of smaller basins responding to the migration of the triple junction, a thinning lithosphere, and an increased period of volcanism. Combined with recently collected paleontological assemblages this work provides an opportunity to test proposed links between biotic events, global/regional climate change, and local tectonic events during a critical interval of evolutionary and structural change in southern Afar.
Foerster, V.; Trauth, M. H.; Junginger, A.; Asrat, A.; Lamb, H. F.; Gebru, T.; Wennrich, V.; Weber, M.; Rethemeyer, J.; Nowaczyk, N.; Frank, U.; Brown, M. C.; Schaebitz, F.
Chew Bahir, today a saline mudflat in a tectonically-bounded basin in southern Ethiopia, lies between the Main Ethiopian Rift and the Omo-Turkana basin, site of the oldest known anatomically modern human fossils. Sedimentary records from Chew Bahir can therefore provide fundamental data for reconstructing Late Quaternary environments in the source region of Homo sapiens. This project focuses on rapid climate shifts and their influence on the biosphere, and is a preliminary study for the ICDP "Hominid Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project", and part of Cologne University's CRC-806 programme "Our Way to Europe", which aim to determine climatic and environmental history of East Africa during the last 200 ka - 1 Ma. Reconstruction of the major dry-wet-dry alternations is crucial for understanding the impact of climate variability on the emergence and dispersal of Homo sapiens from Africa into Eurasia. We present new results from six cores (9-18 m depth) drilled in a NW-SE transect across the basin. Sedimentological, geochemical, physical, magnetic and biological indicators, and a suite of AMS radiocarbon dates, reveal substantial variations in moisture availability during the last 45 ka. The data provide valuable insight into the timing, possible abruptness and synchronicity of precession-driven climate shifts like the African Humid Period (AHP ~ 15-5 ka BP), the last major alternation from dry to wet to dry conditions, and show that the site responded sensitively to older climatic fluctuations on millennial to centennial timescales. Chew Bahir therefore presents a suitable climate archive of a highly variable environment and offers an opportunity to retrieve 200 ka sediment records of paleoenvironmental history during the physical and cultural evolution of Homo sapiens.
Motsoela, Cynthia; Collison, Ernest K; Gashe, Berhanu A
A 1-year study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella in two abattoir environments coded "A" and "B" in Gaborone, Botswana. The total number of environmental samples collected from abattoirs A and B was 250 and 300, respectively. The samples were taken from soils in the corrals, knife blades, saw blades, cattle-drinking water, cattle feces, and feed. Preenrichment, enrichment, and selective/differential media, which enabled the favorable growth of Salmonella, were used in the study. Salmonellae were present in all sampled environments. The most common serotypes found in the environment at abattoir A were E1, C1, C2, and B. Serotypes B, C1, C2, C3, and E1 were common in abattoir B. Antigenic characterization of the salmonellae isolates showed that Salmonella Anatum, Salmonella Azteca, Salmonella Saintpaul, Salmonella Cerro, and Salmonella Westhampton were predominant in abattoir A, whereas Salmonella Anatum, Salmonella Mbandaka, Salmonella Molade, Salmonella Reading, and Salmonella Oranienburg were dominant in abattoir B. Implementing hazard analysis critical control point principles in work procedures would definitely reduce the gross contamination taking place in abattoirs. PMID:12495003
Summoro, Temesgen Sidamo; Gidebo, Kassa Daka; Kanche, Zewde Zemma; Woticha, Eskinder Wolka
Background Rational prescribing is a primary step to ensure rational drug use. Often, half of the medicines are prescribed irrationally and half of these are even used incorrectly as the patients fail to take their medicines appropriately. The aim of this research was to evaluate drug-prescribing patterns of four hospitals in southern Ethiopia. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted between May 15 and June 25, 2014, to evaluate the drug-prescribing patterns based on the World health Organization (WHO) prescribing indicators. The prescription papers, kept for the last 1 year in the outpatient departments of the four hospitals, were analyzed according to WHO guidelines. Also, prescriptions in the hospitals were analyzed to determine the most frequently prescribed drugs. All the statistical calculations were performed using SPSS® version 20.0 software. Results and discussion The average number of drugs per prescription ranges from 1.82±0.90 to 2.28±0.90, whereas the percentage of use of antibiotics and injections ranged from 46.7 to 85 and 15 to 61.7, respectively. The average percentages of drugs prescribed by generic name and from the essential drugs list were 95.8 and 94.1, respectively. Anti-infective and analgesic drugs are found to be the most frequently prescribed medicines. In terms of polypharmacy, there was a slight deviation in prescribing patterns from what is acceptable according to the WHO criteria. Prescribing by generic name and from essential drug list was almost optimal. There was a significant deviation in the use of injectables in two of the four hospitals (50%), whereas their use in the other two hospitals was within the acceptable range. The use of antibiotics in all the hospitals in present study was higher than the acceptable range. Conclusion Generally, it seems that there is need for improvement of the prescribing patterns in the hospitals, although this should be consolidated with further studies to link the patient diagnosis and the prescribed medications. PMID:26309400
Foerster, V. E.; Chew Bahir Science Team
Chew Bahir is a tectonically bounded basin in the southern part of the Main Ethiopian Rift and in close proximity to the Omo valley, which contains some of the oldest known early modern human sites. As East African palaeoenvironments are highly variable and marked by extreme fluctuations in moisture availability, this in turn bears far reaching implications for the life, evolution and most notably for the expansion of Homo sapiens beyond the limits of the African continent. This study is a prerequisite for the ICDP- Hominin Sites And Paleolakes Drilling Project and part of the CRC-806 "Our way to Europe". The Chew Bahir Project will provide fundamental data to reconstruct late Quaternary East African environments including the timing, amplitude, synchronicity and abruptness of dry-wet-dry cycles and focuses on the interaction between those rapid climate shifts and their influence on the biosphere. This poster presents results from six cores (9-18m depth) from a NW-SE transect across the Chew Bahir basin that have recorded the climatic history of the past 45 ka and therewith can potentially elucidate those highly variable East African palaeoenvironments with emphasis on the last of the wet periods, the African Humid Period (AHP). Based on a series of multi-proxy analyses, comprising geochemical, physical and biological indicators as well as AMS 14C dates, it becomes obvious that the Chew Bahir responds decidedly sensitive towards even minor climatic fluctuations on millennial to even centennial timescales. Therefore, the Chew Bahir represents a unique site to reveal the impact of timing and mechanisms of local, regional and global climate events on the key region for humankind.
Marmion, B P; Ormsbee, R A; Kyrkou, M; Wright, J; Worswick, D A; Izzo, A A; Esterman, A; Feery, B; Shapiro, R A
During the period 1981-8 a clinical trial of a Q fever vaccine (Q-vax; Commonwealth Serum Laboratories, Melbourne) has been conducted in abattoir workers and other at-risk groups in South Australia. Volunteers in four abattoirs and visitors to the abattoirs were given one subcutaneous dose of 30 micrograms of a formalin-inactivated, highly-purified Coxiella burnetii cells, Henzerling strain, Phase 1 antigenic state, in a volume of 0.5 ml. During the period, over 4000 subjects have been vaccinated and the programme continues in the abattoirs and related groups. 'Common' reactions to the vaccine comprised tenderness and erythema, rarely oedema at the inoculation site and sometimes transient headache. Two more serious 'uncommon' reactions, immune abscess at the inoculation site, were observed in two subjects, and two others developed small subcutaneous lumps which gradually dispersed without intervention. Protective efficacy of the vaccine appeared to be absolute and to last for 5 years at least. Eight Q fever cases were observed in vaccinees, but all were in persons vaccinated during the incubation period of a natural attack of Q fever before vaccine-induced immunity had had time (greater than or equal to 13 days after vaccination) to develop. On the other hand, 97 Q fever cases were detected in persons working in, or visiting the same abattoir environments. Assays for antibody and cellular immunity showed an 80-82% seroconversion after vaccination, mostly IgM antibody to Phase 2 antigen, in the 3 months after vaccination. This fell to about 60%, mostly IgG antibody to Phase 1 antigen, after 20 months. On the other hand, 85-95% of vaccinees developed markers of cell mediated immunity as judged by lymphoproliferative responses with C. burnetii antigens; these rates remained elevated for at least 5 years. The Q fever vaccine, unlike other killed rickettsial vaccines, has the property of stimulating long-lasting T lymphocyte memory and this may account for its unusual protective efficacy as a killed vaccine. PMID:2323360
Bourguet, Cécile; Deiss, Véronique; Tannugi, Carole Cohen; Terlouw, E M Claudia
Behavioural, physiological and metabolic reactions of cattle to handling and slaughter procedures were evaluated in a commercial abattoir, from arrival until slaughter. Different genders or breeds were not subjected to the same procedures due to abattoir equipment or organisational aspects of the abattoir. Reactions to similar slaughter procedures varied according to animal characteristics and could have consequences for subsequent handling procedures. Factors that appeared to cause handling problems and vocalisation were excessive pressure during restraint, and distractions in the corridor such as noise, darkness, seeing people and activity. Post-mortem muscle metabolism depended on slaughter procedures. Following stunning or halal slaughter, some animals showed head rising movements despite the abolition of the corneal reflex, suggesting that head rising is not always indicative of consciousness. Overall, this study presents concrete data on how different types of cattle may react to slaughter procedures with a direct interest for the abattoir itself but also for scientific purposes. PMID:21236588
D. M. Prendergast; D. J. Daly; J. J. Sheridan; D. A. McDowell; I. S. Blair
This study investigated the relationship between aerial and beef carcass contamination and examined the effect of abattoir design and time of slaughter on the aerobiology of slaughter operations in two commercial beef abattoirs. A dual head impaction air sampler and swab samples taken from 100cm2 of the brisket of beef carcasses, were used to examine Total Viable, Psychrotrophic, Enterobacteriaceae and
A conventional view of regional conflict in Ethiopia is that it is the result of the domination and exploitation of conquered peoples by the central Ethiopian state. The pattern of regional conflict does not, however, fit this explanation. The most important threat to the central government today comes not from the recently conquered pastoral and sedentary peoples of southern Ethiopia but from the northern highlands (Eritrea, Tigray, northern Wollo and Gonder) which have been associated with the Ethiopian state for many centuries. A more satisfactory explanation needs to take into account both the political and economic bases of revolt in northern Ethiopia following the 1974 revolution. Politically, the people were alienated from a national government of which they had previously often been a dominant part. Economically, the progressive marginalisation and agricultural degradation of the northern highlands was accelerated by the policies of the post-1974 government, policies which brought immediate and important benefits to the southern regions. PMID:20958727
Background Female Genital Cutting is a cultural practice among many ethnic groups in Ethiopia that has affected many girls over the past centuries. Although the trend is slowly decreasing in Ethiopia, the magnitude is still very high as the procedure has no known benefit but has many consequences. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and belief in the continuation of FGC among High School Girls in Hadiya Zone. Methods A cross-sectional quantitative survey was carried out among high school girls in Hadiya Zone from January to February 2011. A multi-staged cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. In total, 780 girls completed a self-administered questionnaire for this study. Statistical analysis was done using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Of 780 high school girls, 82.2% were circumcised at a mean age of 11(±2.3) years. Half of the total participants responded that FGC was being practiced in their village. About 60% of the circumcisions were performed by traditional circumcisers while health professionals had performed 30% of them. A few of the circumcised girls (9.4%) supported their status as a circumcised girl, but only 5% believe in the continuation of FGC. The odds of being cut was higher among girls whose fathers and mothers had educational status under high school level (AOR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.25, 3.09) and (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.38) respectively when compared to those whose parents had attended high school and above. The odds of believing in the continuation of FGC was 2.33(95% CI: 1.01, 5.33) times higher among those who responded that FGC was practiced in their areas. Conclusion While there is an urgent need to stop the practice of FGC in Hadiya Zone, cultural beliefs related to the hygiene of female genitalia and other social factors contribute to sustaining the practice. Local organizations in collaboration with religious institutions and community leaders should work together to engage in a process of change within the entire community by arranging awareness creation programmes on the harmfulness of the practice especially in the rural areas of the zone. PMID:24304497
Zweifel, Claudio; Capek, Michel; Stephan, Roger
Cattle carcasses from two abattoirs were examined at selected stages of slaughter (skinning, evisceration, trimming, washing, blast chilling) for aerobic colony counts (ACC) and Enterobacteriaceae. At each stage and abattoir, 50 carcasses were sampled by swabbing at the neck, brisket, flank and rump. After skinning, average ACC on carcasses was 1.5logCFUcm(-2) and Enterobacteriaceae frequencies at sites were ?6%. From skinned to washed carcasses, certain abattoir- and site-specific changes occurred. Blasting clearly reduced ACC and Enterobacteriaceae results on carcasses from abattoir B, but reductions were limited or lacking in abattoir A. In addition, 100 hides and corresponding chilled carcasses were examined. On hides, average ACC was 5.6logCFUcm(-2) and Enterobacteriaceae frequencies at sites ranged from 74 to 96%. Average carcass-hide ratios of the two abattoirs were comparable for ACC (0.0182-0.0202%) but differed for Enterobacteriaceae counts (abattoir A: 0.4627%; abattoir B: 0.0941%). Such ratios allow comparing process performance between abattoirs in the daily practice. PMID:24967539
Dreyfus, Anou; Benschop, Jackie; Collins-Emerson, Julie; Wilson, Peter; Baker, Michael G.; Heuer, Cord
Leptospirosis is an important occupational disease in New Zealand. The objectives of this study were to determine risk factors for sero-prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in abattoir workers. Sera were collected from 567 abattoir workers and tested by microscopic agglutination for Leptospira interrogans sv. Pomona and Leptospira borgpetersenii sv. Hardjobovis. Association between prevalence and risk factors were determined by species specific multivariable analysis. Eleven percent of workers had antibodies against Hardjobovis or/and Pomona. Workers from the four sheep abattoirs had an average sero-prevalence of 10%–31%, from the two deer abattoirs 17%–19% and the two beef abattoirs 5%. The strongest risk factor for sero-positivity in sheep and deer abattoirs was work position. In sheep abattoirs, prevalence was highest at stunning and hide removal, followed by removal of the bladder and kidneys. Wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves and facemasks did not appear to protect against infection. Home slaughtering, farming or hunting were not significantly associated with sero-prevalence. There is substantial risk of exposure to leptospires in sheep and deer abattoirs in New Zealand and a persisting, but lower risk, in beef abattoirs. Interventions, such as animal vaccination, appear necessary to control leptospirosis as an occupational disease in New Zealand. PMID:24503973
Ahland, Colleen Anne
Gumuz is a Nilo-Saharan dialect cluster spoken in the river valleys of northwestern Ethiopia and the southeastern part of the Republic of the Sudan. There are approximately 200,000 speakers, the majority of which reside in Ethiopia. This study is a phonological and grammatical analysis of two main dialects/languages: Northern Gumuz and Southern…
Massenet, D; Tesfaye, G; Dandera, B
Nearly 30,000 bags of blood are collected per year in Ethiopia for a population of 56 million people. Eighty percent of this volume is obtained from family donors at the ten blood banks run by the National Transfusion Blood Service (NTBS) under the auspices of the International Red Cross. The remaining 20% are collected in hospital laboratories not affiliated with the NTBS but where blood bank procedures are used including the ability to screen for HIV contamination. Transfusion is thus a safe procedure in the major towns of Ethiopia. Screening for hepatitis B is performed only on blood to be administered to children and foreigners. PMID:10088111
Normanno, Giovanni; Dambrosio, Angela; Lorusso, Vanessa; Samoilis, Georgios; Di Taranto, Pietro; Parisi, Antonio
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen present in the hospital environment (HA-MRSA), in the community (CA-MRSA) and in livestock, including pigs (LA-MRSA). MRSA may enter the human food chain during slaughtering and may infect humans coming into direct contact with pigs or pork products. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of MRSA isolated from pigs and workers at industrial abattoirs in southern Italy. A total of 215 pig nasal swabs were screened for the presence of MRSA using PCR. An MRSA isolate was detected from each mecA/nuc PCR-positive sample and characterized by spa-typing, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, SCC-mec and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL), and also tested for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Eighty-one MRSA isolates (37.6%) were obtained from the 215 pig nasal swabs; 37 of these isolates were further characterized, and showed 18 different spa-types and 8 different STs. The most frequently recovered STs were ST398 (CC398-t034, t011, t899, t1939 - 43.2%) followed by ST8 (CC8-t008, t064, t2953, t5270 - 24.3%) and ST1 (CC1-t127, t174, t2207 - 10.8%). Nine MRSA isolates were obtained from the 113 human swabs; the isolates showed 5 different spa-types and 5 different STs, including the novel ST2794 (t159). The most representative STs recovered were ST1 (CC1-t127) and ST398 (CC398-t034) (33.3%). None of the MRSA isolates showed the ability to produce SEs and PVL and all resulted resistant to two or more classes of antimicrobials. This study shows the great genetic diversity of MRSA strains in slaughtered pigs and in abattoir employees in Italy, and clearly demonstrates the need for improved hygiene standards to reduce the risk of occupational and food-borne infection linked to the handling/consumption of raw pork containing MRSA. PMID:26187827
Foerster, V.; Junginger, A.; Asrat, A.; Lamb, H. F.; Weber, M.; Rethemeyer, J.; Frank, U.; Brown, M. C.; Trauth, M. H.; Schaebitz, F.
Rapid changes in environmental conditions are considered to be an important driver for human evolution, cultural and technological innovation, and expansion out of Africa. However, the nature of these environmental changes, their amplitude and correlation with steps in human evolution is the subject of current debates. Here we present a high-resolution (~3-12 yr) and well-dated (32 AMS 14C ages) lake-sediment record of the last 46 000 yr from the Chew Bahir basin in the southern Ethiopian Rift. The record was obtained from six cores along a NW-SE transect across the basin, which has been selected as the drilling location within the ICDP Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP). Multi-proxy data and the comparison between the transect coring sites provide initial insight into intra-basin dynamics and major mechanisms controlling the sedimentation of the proxies that was used to develop a basic proxy concept for Chew Bahir for the last two wet-dry cycles. The environmental response to orbitally induced sinusoidal insolation changes is usually nonlinear, as climate changes abruptly compared to changes in the forcing, or gradual but punctuated by multi-decadal intervals of drier conditions. The second major control on the environment is millennial-scale climate variability lasting ~1500 yr, similar in duration to the high-latitude Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles and Heinrich events including the Younger Dryas cold reversal at the end of the last glacial, mostly causing abrupt shifts from extreme arid to wet conditions. The duration and character of orbitally induced, high-latitude controlled, and multi-decadal climate shifts provides important constraints for the adaptation of humans to the changing environment. Therefore, Chew Bahir is a perfect site to study and understand climatic variability on different timescales.
Belay Tessema, Solomon
Ancient astronomy had contributed away for the modern development of astronomy. The history of astronomy development in Ethiopian was liked with different beliefs and culture of the society. The Ethiopians were the first who invented the science of stars, and gave names to the planets, not at random and without meaning, but descriptive of the qualities which they conceived them to possess; and it was from them that this art passed, still in an imperfect state, to the Egyptians. Even though, Ethiopian’s contributions for astronomy in the world were immense but the journey of modern astronomy is still in the infant stage. The modern astronomy and space program in Ethiopia was started in 2004 in well organized form from three individuals to the public. In the past eleven years of journey of astronomy development in Ethiopia was the most challenging from national to international level. After strong struggle of a few committed individuals for the past eleven years the development of astronomy is completely changed from dark age to bright age. This paper will try to address the details of journey of astronomy in Ethiopia.
Background The transmission of malaria is the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. From the total area of Ethiopia, more than 75% is malarious. The aim of this study was to identify socio-economic, geographic and demographic risk factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT) survey results and produce the prevalence map of the area illustrating variation in malaria risk. Methods This study accounts for spatial correlation in assessing the effects of socio- economic, demographic and geographic factors on the prevalence of malaria in Ethiopia. A total of 224 clusters of about 25 households each were selected from the Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People’s (SNNP) regions of Ethiopia. A generalized linear mixed model with spatial covariance structure was used to analyse the data where the response variable was the presence or absence of malaria using the RDT. Results The results showed that households in the SNNP region were found to be at more risk than Amhara and Oromiya regions. Moreover, households which have toilet facilities clean drinking water, and a greater number of rooms and mosquito nets in the rooms, have less chance of having household members testing positive for RDT. Moreover, from this study, it can be suggested that incorporating spatial variability is necessary for understanding and devising the most appropriate strategies to reduce the risk of malaria. PMID:23773317
According to Dr. Axumite, urban agriculture in Ethiopia would 1) provide food and income, 2) reduce fuel consumption and damage to roads by decreasing the need for food transport into cities, 3) encourage the cooperation of extended families because of the collective work effort needed, and 4) lead to greater numbers of people who own their own homes and have higher education levels because less job income would be spent on food. Unfortunately, government frowns on the use of public lands for farming, and credit is hard to find. For example, in Addis Ababa, which housed 30.2% of Ethiopia's urban population in 1984, 60% of the city's households made less than 200 Birr per month (equivalent to 40 U.S. dollars). 56% of this money was spent on food. In 1983, 17% of 1352 surveyed households produced their own food. They did so on less than 25 sq. meters of land. 90% of those who did not farm cited lack of land as the reason. If the City Council would allow access to public land, grant tax rebates, or coordinate activities of both governmental and nongovernmental agencies, urban agricultural cooperatives in the city situated along waterways, which produce food for member consumption and sale to the public. The income of members of the largest cooperative is 70% higher than that of people who do not farm in the city. However, because the cooperative has not been legalized by the government, it cannot get loans to improve productivity. PMID:12287222
Mittal, Gauri S
Pre-treatments are screening, catch basins, flotation, equalization, and settlers for recovering proteins and fats from abattoir wastewater. With chemical addition, dissolved air flotation (DAF) units can achieve chemical oxygen demand (COD) reductions ranging from 32% to 90% and are capable of removing large amounts of nutrients. Aerobic trickling towers reduced soluble COD by additional 27% but did not reduced total COD. Chemical-DAF reduced 67% of total COD and soluble COD. About 40-60% of the solids or approximately 25-35% of the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load can be separated by pre-treatment screening and sedimentation. Anaerobic systems are lagoon, anaerobic contact (AC), up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequence batch reactor (ASBR), and anaerobic filter (AF) processes. Abattoir wastewater is well suited to anaerobic treatment because it is high in organic compounds. Typical reductions of up to 97% BOD, 95% SS and 96% COD are reported. UASB's average COD removal efficiencies are of 80-85%. UASB seems to be a suitable process for the treatment of abattoir wastewater, due to its ability to maintain a sufficient amount of viable sludge. Wastewater in abattoirs can be reduced by treatment of immersion chiller effluent by membrane filtration which can produce recyclable water. Total organic C can be reduced below 100mg/L, and bacteria can not pass through the membrane pores. The abattoir waste minimization options are also discussed. PMID:16551533
John Anaelom Nwanta; Joseph Onunkwo; Ekenne Ezenduka
This study was conducted to determine the quantum of waste generation and management and presence of major bacteria genera of public health importance in Nsukka municipal abattoir\\/slaughter house. The environment and public health implications of unhygienic sanitary condition at the abattoir and environs as a consequence of poor waste disposal and management were studied. A total of 194 kg of
Wolde-Gebriel, Z; Demeke, T; West, C E; van der Haar, F
A stratified goitre survey was conducted on 35,635 schoolchildren and 19,158 household members in all Regions of Ethiopia except Eritrea and Tigrai. The gross goitre prevalence (mean of male and female values) among schoolchildren and household members was 30.6 and 18.7% respectively, while that of visible goitre was 1.6 and 3.2% respectively. Prevalence was higher in females (27.3% in household members and 36.1% in schoolchildren) than in males (10.1% in household members and 25.1% in schoolchildren) and increased with age more in females than in males. The prevalence rates at higher altitudes were higher than those at lower altitudes in both schoolchildren and household members. Using an epidemiological model the consequences of iodine deficiency, including cretinism and maternal wastage, have been estimated. PMID:8457532
Bussert, Robert; Schrank, Eckart
Palynomorphs extracted from glacigenic sediments in Northern Ethiopia are latest Carboniferous-Early Permian in age. These sediments were hitherto thought to be either of Upper Ordovician or of Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age. The predominantly glaciolacustrine and glaciofluviatile sediments were deposited in glacial troughs and valleys that were eroded into Precambrian basement rocks and into Early Palaeozoic deposits, possibly equivalents of Upper Ordovician sediments in Eritrea. In the latest Carboniferous-Early Permian, glaciated uplands to the north of Ethiopia must have existed in Eritrea and/or in southern or central Saudi Arabia.
Jury, Mark R.; Funk, Chris
This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year?1 and downward trends in rainfall of ? 0.4 mm month?1 year?1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts.
Spadacini, B; Nichols, P
In Ethiopia, the Italian Association for Women in Development (AIDOS) has been working with Ethiopia's National Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children for 5 years. AIDOS began working on female genital mutilation in the early 1980s and rejects charges of cultural imperialism that are applied to Northern organizations attempting to help African organizations address this violation of universal human rights. In Ethiopia, 85% of women are mutilated, with most undergoing Sunna, or removal of the prepuce of the clitoris. The joint project seeks to increase awareness about the health consequences of female genital mutilation in the target group. The primary technique used is provision of training of trainers courses and presentation of four modular units and audiovisual materials specifically designed for use with socially influential women, male and female secondary school students, community leaders, and health workers. In addition, an information/education campaign uses videos and sound and slide shows with accompanying story books. A second category of communication tools was developed for a mass information campaign, including radio spots, posters, information leaflets, and a newsletter. When the project was ready for expansion into the southern region of the country, it became clear that a new participatory communication strategy was required to stimulate discussion, such as the use of role playing and theater. Working together, the two organizations have successfully confronted project constraints such as the difficulty in assessing project impact, scheduling problems, and gender-biased assess to information. PMID:12294046
Olorode, Oluwayemisi A
This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of common disinfectants- these are (parachlorometaxylenol) dettol, savlon purit and jik (sodium hypochlorite) on Candida albicans isolated from displaying and cutting tables in five different abattoirs in Port Harcourt (Niger Delta region); the abattoirs include Trans Amadi, Agip, Woji, Rumuokoro, and Rumuodara. This research was carried out between January 2005 and June 2006. Swab samples were collected from abattoirs cutting tables with sterile swab sticks and immediately transferred and cultured in the laboratory on a selective medium Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). The disinfectants’ concentrations were prepared at 10%, 20%, 40%, and 70%, in triplicates and the mean values calculated. 0.5 Mc Farland turbidity method of standardization and Agar diffusion method were used for disinfectants testing of the isolates. Statistical analysis of the data showed no significant difference in the effectiveness of these disinfectants at (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study has shown that savlon and dettol were the most potent antimicrobial agents at 10% concentration on Candida albicans isolates when compared with purit and jik in this study, hence they are good sanitizing agents to be applied on the abattoirs cutting tables, before meat products can be displayed for sale. PMID:24358834
Clements, Andrew; Speers, Geoff
The abattoir (meat processing) industry is facing a number of challenges in Australia, including introduction of technology, safety standards, restructuring, and development and implementation of an effective training culture. The training strategy will effectively target existing training resources for the industry and upskill employees in a…
Casale, Carolyn Frances
Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…
Scherrer, D. K.; Moldwin, M.; Rabella-Soares, M.; Reiff, P.; Sumners, C.; Yizengaw, E.
Africa needs to develop a space physics research structure, and a key goal of the United Nations-sponsored International Heliophysical Year (IHY) is to provide support to those efforts. One key focus of IHY is the deployment of networks of small instruments to encourage development of space science research and educational infrastructures in developing nations. In addition to new scientific discoveries and advancing space science research in Africa by establishing scientific collaborations between scientists in developed and developing nations, an IHY objective is to increase the number of space scientists and increase the scientific awareness about the importance of the space science In order to develop space science research infrastructure, space science educational infrastructure also needs to be developed to support the long-term operation and use of the science instrumentation. Developing nations need to develop the necessary training and encouragement of students to enter and excel in scientific fields. In response to these needs, the authors, working under the auspices of the AGU Space Physics and Aeronomy Education and Public Outreach (SPA EPO) Committee, organized a Geophysics Information for Teachers (GIFT) workshop for Ethiopian high school physics educators on 10 November 2007 in Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia. The workshop, held in conjunction with the IHY-Africa Space Weather Science and Education Workshop, gathered together 62 high school physics teachers from around the country for a one-day professional development program that focused on fundamental physics concepts relevant to space weather. Our presentation will describe the workshop, the challenges of launching such a program, and present results from the assessment surveys taken by teachers at the end of the workshop.
This week's In the News takes a look at the renewed fighting in the border war between Ethiopia and Eritrea. The eleven resources discussed provide news, analysis, and commentary. Horn of Africa neighbors Ethiopia and Eritrea were a single nation until May 1993, when Eritrea achieved sovereignty and seceded from Ethiopia after a protracted war of independence that lasted nearly thirty years. Eritrea, a nation of 3.6 million located on the Red Sea, was a former Italian colony (1890-1941) that was put under British administration during World War II, federated as an autonomous unit by Ethiopia in 1952, and then finally absorbed by the Ethiopian empire in 1962. Since Eritrea's independence from Ethiopia in 1993, the two nations have disputed the demarcation of their 620-mile shared boundary, which was ostensibly delimited earlier this century in a series of treaties between the Imperial Government of Ethiopia and the Italian colonial government in Eritrea. Despite recent bilateral attempts to delineate the former colonial divide, a joint border commission has failed to settle the dispute. This on-going border conflict, compounded by severe economic tensions between the two states, erupted into war when Ethiopian and Eritrean forces clashed on May 6, 1998, in the Ethiopian-administered region of Badme. The skirmish resulted in about five weeks of fierce battle that ended last June with an unofficial peace plan brokered by the US and Rwanda. However, on February 6, the tenuous seven month stalemate snapped as heavy fighting re-ignited at several flashpoints along the contested border where both countries had amassed troops. Last weekend amid continued fighting, a delegation from the European Union failed to reach a cease-fire agreement between Eritrean President Isayas Afewerki and Ethiopian Foreign Minister Seyoum Mesfin. The unsuccessful proposal, based on a framework drafted by the Organization of African Unity, called for Eritrea to concede its current positions and return to the territory it held before the border conflict last May. As military involvement between the two countries escalates, the EU, the OAU, and the United Nations Security Council promise to re-initiate the mediation process as soon as possible before the Horn War further destabilizes east Africa.
The severity and temporal dynamics of anthracnose on susceptible (BTx623 and AL70) and resistant lines (2001PWColl#022 and 2001HararghieColl#12) were studied in field plots during the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in southern Ethiopia. The initial, final, and mean anthracnose severities and area un...
Ngbede, Emmanuel O; Raji, Mashood A; Kwanashie, Clara N; Okolocha, Emmanuel C; Gugong, Victor T; Hambolu, Sunday E
Leptospirosis is an occupational zoonosis caused by pathogenic leptospires. In this study, the presence and prevalence of antibodies specific to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo in 142 cattle slaughtered between June and July 2011 was investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Five (3.50%) of the 142 cattle sampled were seropositive for antibodies to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo. Despite the fact that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in seropositivity between sexes and between breeds sampled, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in sero-positivity between the different age groups examined. Leptospirosis is present in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir; butchers and abattoir workers are exposed to infected animals and are at risk of being infected by Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo. PMID:22718334
Bishop, G C
A total of 5059 sera were collected from adult female beef cattle at Cato Ridge Abattoir and tested for Brucella abortus antibody levels over the period November, 1981 to August, 1982. The sera were screened using the Rose Bengal Plate Test, and the Complement Fixation Test was used as the definitive test. Seventy-seven sera (1,5%) had titres of 30 IU complement fixing B. abortus antibody per ml serum or greater. PMID:6442735
Reyes, Maria M; Taramona, Claudia P; Saire-Mendoza, Mardeli; Gavidia, Cesar M; Barron, Eduardo; Boufana, Belgees; Craig, Philip S; Tello, Luis; Garcia, Hector H; Santivañez, Saul J
Echinococcus granulosus infections are a major public health problem in livestock-raising regions around the world. The life cycle of this tapeworm is sustained between dogs (definitive host, canine echinococcosis), and herbivores (intermediary host, cystic hydatid disease). Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru; nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically unknown. Migration into Lima, an 8-million habitant's metropolis, creates peripheral areas where animals brought from endemic areas are slaughtered without veterinary supervision. We identified eight informal, unlicensed abattoirs in a peripheral district of Lima and performed a cross-sectional study in to assess the prevalence of canine echinococcosis, evaluated by coproELISA followed by PCR evaluation and arecoline purge. Eight of 22 dogs (36%) were positive to coproELISA, and four (18%) were confirmed to be infected with E. granulosus tapeworms either by PCR or direct observation (purge). Later evaluation of the human population living in these abattoirs using abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays and serology, found 3 out of 32 (9.3%) subjects with echinococcal cysts in the liver (two viable, one calcified), one of whom had also lung involvement and a strongly positive antibody response. Autochthonous transmission of E. granulosus is present in Lima. Informal, unlicensed abattoirs may be sources of infection to neighbouring people in this urban environment. PMID:22509413
Deribe, Kebede; Cano, Jorge; Newport, Melanie J.; Golding, Nick; Pullan, Rachel L.; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P.; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J.; Aseffa, Abraham; Hay, Simon I.; Reithinger, Richard; Enquselassie, Fikre; Davey, Gail; Brooker, Simon J.
Background Ethiopia is assumed to have the highest burden of podoconiosis globally, but the geographical distribution and environmental limits and correlates are yet to be fully investigated. In this paper we use data from a nationwide survey to address these issues. Methodology Our analyses are based on data arising from the integrated mapping of podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) conducted in 2013, supplemented by data from an earlier mapping of LF in western Ethiopia in 2008–2010. The integrated mapping used woreda (district) health offices’ reports of podoconiosis and LF to guide selection of survey sites. A suite of environmental and climatic data and boosted regression tree (BRT) modelling was used to investigate environmental limits and predict the probability of podoconiosis occurrence. Principal Findings Data were available for 141,238 individuals from 1,442 communities in 775 districts from all nine regional states and two city administrations of Ethiopia. In 41.9% of surveyed districts no cases of podoconiosis were identified, with all districts in Affar, Dire Dawa, Somali and Gambella regional states lacking the disease. The disease was most common, with lymphoedema positivity rate exceeding 5%, in the central highlands of Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples regional states. BRT modelling indicated that the probability of podoconiosis occurrence increased with increasing altitude, precipitation and silt fraction of soil and decreased with population density and clay content. Based on the BRT model, we estimate that in 2010, 34.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.2–51.7) million people (i.e. 43.8%; 95% CI: 25.3–64.8% of Ethiopia’s national population) lived in areas environmentally suitable for the occurrence of podoconiosis. Conclusions Podoconiosis is more widespread in Ethiopia than previously estimated, but occurs in distinct geographical regions that are tied to identifiable environmental factors. The resultant maps can be used to guide programme planning and implementation and estimate disease burden in Ethiopia. This work provides a framework with which the geographical limits of podoconiosis could be delineated at a continental scale. PMID:26222887
Adjemian, Jennifer Zipser; Howell, James; Holzbauer, Stacy; Harris, Julie; Recuenco, Sergio; McQuiston, Jennifer; Chester, Thomas; Lynfield, Ruth; Devries, Aaron; Belay, Ermias; Sejvar, Jim
In November 2007 a novel neuropathy, immune-mediated polyradiculoneuropathy (IP), was identified among workers at a Minnesota swine abattoir where a unique compressed air technique was used to remove porcine brains. An epidemiologic investigation at another abattoir in Indiana that also uses this process was launched to evaluate workers self-reporting neurologic illness compatible with IP. A nested case-control study was performed to identify cases and risk factors. Six confirmed, one probable, and three possible IP cases were detected. IP cases were 28-52 years old, of Latino origin, and 62.5% female. Onset dates ranged from April 2005-December 2007; 60% were hospitalized. IP cases at this plant were similar in clinical presentation and exposure risks to those detected in Minnesota. Swine abattoirs using similar brain extraction methods should discontinue this process. PMID:19886343
Kanshie, Tadesse K.; Romeijn, Paul P.; Nezry, Edmond; Yakam-Simen, Francis
This paper reports the operational implementation of radargrammetry for the production of Digital Elevation Models, or DEMs, to areas of rugged topography. The Southern Ethiopian Highlands east of lake Abaya, with elevations between ca. 900 and 4,400 meters, were mapped. Currently available topographical maps are of insufficient quality to assist a study of the area's unique land use system, which is arguably the oldest and most durably sustained land use system of the planet. Without external inputs or terracing, the land use system maintains soil fertility and staves-off hunger. It has been doing so during the past 30 years of unrest and civil war, in one of the most crowded regions of Ethiopia. However, the central role of the staple crop enset within the land use system and its production cycles has hardly been the subject of scientific study. Understanding of this system is most likely to be relevant to enhancement of health and productivity in many regions of the world. Upon the request of the Agricultural Bureau for Gedeo Zone, geocoded and georeferenced topographical maps with accuracy of 20 meters (x, y and z) were made by PRIVATEERS N.V. on the basis of RADARSAT multi-incidence (S2/S7) images. These maps are now incorporated as the basic layer within the Bureau's GIS system. Map production techniques proved to be cost effective and relevant; especially for mountainous areas with poor accessability where correct geographic information is not available. The ease of orientation proved of invaluable help to rationalize execution and planning of cost-effective environmental field work and reporting.
Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn
Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253
Rafiq, M; Hailemariam, A
This article studies the emerging patterns of urbanization in Ethiopia. Over the period from 1967-1984, a number of structural changes have occurred which are likely to play a dominant role in the future urban growth in Ethiopia. In spite of its long history of settled population, Ethiopia did not witness sustained growth of urban centers. Ethiopia is 1 of the least urbanized areas in the Third World. A 3rd aspect of urbanization in Ethiopia is the wide range of regional differentials in the level of urbanization. Most of the urban population is concentrated in 2 administrative regions--Shoa and Eritrea. A more balanced urban growth may, inter alia, involve a better spread in terms of higher education, industrialization, provision of health and social services, and the development of communication and commercial infrastructure. Another striking feature of urbanization in Ethiopia is that growth has not been disproportionately concentrated in the largest urban centers. The largest urban centers have not assumed an inordinately higher level of primacy. The basic form of the curve depicting the relationship between the size of a locality and its rank has remained unchanged over the period. The post-revolution land reforms and the new socioeconomic structure emerging from reorganization of the society appear to have a rural-urban migration inhibiting effect. Some of the country's regional differentials may be associated with environmental factors. PMID:12143695
Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn
Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253
Moolenbeek, W. J.; Surgeoner, G. A.
An eight month survey of bovine eyes from an abattoir in southern Ontario revealed the presence of the eyeworms Thelazia gulosa and T. lacrymalis in 32% of the cattle. In the same area, 3% of the natural population of face flies (Musca autumnalis) harbored larval eyeworms. A review of the literature is provided. PMID:7189135
Herenda, D; Jakel, O
During the period April 1991 to March 1992, data concerning the condemnation rate of standard, vegetarian, and free-range chickens were collected and summarized from one federally inspected abattoir in Ontario. The purpose of this study was to discuss the effects of diet, management, and breed of chickens on pathological lesions, ensuing condemnation rates, and consequent losses to the growers and the poultry industry. The data collected at this abattoir revealed that vegetarian chickens showed a higher condemnation rate (5.23%) for disease and nondisease conditions compared with standard (1.48%) and free-range (0.94%) chickens. Free-range chickens were approximately two weeks older than vegetarian and standard chickens at the time of slaughter. The most common causes of condemnation in vegetarian chickens was cellulitis (1.18%), followed by ascites (0.77%). Ascites and cellulitis (0.26% both) were also the most common causes of condemnation in standard chickens. Cyanosis (0.21%) and mutilation (0.17%) represented the highest rate of condemnation in free-range chickens. The low rate of pathological lesions in free-range chickens is a positive trend in poultry disease management. PMID:8050075
Al-Kitani, Fadya; Baqir, Senan; Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Roberts, Derek
A passive surveillance study was conducted from April 2012 to April 2013 to determine the incidence, the affect of age, sex and cyst location, fertility, and viability on the occurrence of cystic hydatidosis in slaughtered goats from six municipal abattoirs around Oman. Morphologic characterization of suspected visceral organs has shown that Echinococcos granulosus (E. granulosus) metacestodes were present in 9.2 % of the total samples (682). Incidence (per 10,000) varied from 1.4 to 1.5. There was a significant difference between abattoirs, with Salalah having the highest infection (63.2 %), followed by Nizwa (27.2 %), Al Buraimi (10.8 %), Bousher (7.2 %), and the lowest in Sohar (1.6 %). Infection was significantly higher in indigenous goats (22.1 %) compared with imported breeds (2.5 %) from Somalia. The visceral organs were found harboring one or more hydatid cysts. Greatest cyst infection was recorded in lungs (53.4 %), followed by heart (50 %), liver (6.2 %), and multiple organs (14 %). A significant difference was observed between females (25 %) and male goats (6 %). Furthermore, the fertility of the hydatid cysts was found higher in heart and lungs (100 %, 51.6 %) and the viability rate of protoscolices was high (64 %). The findings of this study demonstrated that cystic hydatidosis is common and widely distributed in local goats, and they might play an important role in the life cycle and transmission of this zoonosis in Oman. PMID:25096054
R. P. Smith; M. J. Sanchez-Vazquez; A. J. C. Cook; S. A. Edwards
Abattoir data collected from three British pig health monitoring schemes were combined to investigate the associations between Salmonella infection and the presence of gross lesions detected in slaughtered pigs. Each set of results was linked back to the farm from which the pigs were submitted, and the Salmonella results and lesions reports were connected at farm level. Salmonella infection was
Sa'idu, A. S.; Okolocha, E. C.; Dzikwi, A. A.; Gamawa, A. A.; Ibrahim, S.; Kwaga, J. K. P.; Usman, A.; Maigari, S. A.
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic infectious and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It poses a public health threat and economic losses due to abattoir condemnation of infected carcasses during meat inspection of slaughtered animals. Bovine tuberculosis is widespread in Africa including Nigeria affecting both cattle and humans, particularly Northern Nigeria. A prospective survey was conducted from June to August 2013 in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. A total of 150 structured close-ended questionnaires were administered to abattoir personnel to assess their level of awareness of bTB. This study was aimed at determining the level of public health awareness, attitude, and practices of abattoir workers of bTB in Bauchi State, Nigeria. There was a statistically significant association between respondents' awareness of bTB and their occupational status, age, and duration of exposure to cattle carcasses (P < 0.05); the odds of being aware of bTB were 9.4, 7.3, and 2.1, respectively. In conclusion, these demonstrate the urgent need for public health authorities to intervene in bTB control. The risk of bTB transmission as indicated by the personnel's practices and awareness levels in Bauchi State could be prevented through the use of protective clothing (PPEs).
Recent research has indicated that the holding pens of swine abattoirs may be an important source of Salmonella infection in swine entering the food chain. The risk posed by this Salmonella source is difficult to gauge because little work has been done on how to properly measure the amounts of Salm...
Background Increased resistance by Plasmodium falciparum parasites led to the withdrawal of the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Ethiopia. Since 2004 artemether-lumefantrine has served to treat uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. However, increasing reports on delayed parasite clearance to artemisinin opens up a new challenge in anti-malarial therapy. With the complete withdrawal of CQ for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, this study assessed the evolution of CQ resistance by investigating the prevalence of mutant alleles in the pfmdr1 and pfcrt genes in P. falciparum and pvmdr1 gene in Plasmodium vivax in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia. Methods Of the 1,416 febrile patients attending primary health facilities in Southern Ethiopia, 329 febrile patients positive for P. falciparum or P. vivax were recruited. Similarly of the 1,304 febrile patients from Eastern Ethiopia, 81 febrile patients positive for P. falciparum or P. vivax were included in the study. Of the 410 finger prick blood samples collected from malaria patients, we used direct sequencing to investigate the prevalence of mutations in pfcrt and pfmdr1. This included determining the gene copy number in pfmdr1 in 195 P. falciparum clinical isolates, and mutations in the pvmdr1 locus in 215 P. vivax clinical isolates. Results The pfcrt K76 CQ-sensitive allele was observed in 84.1% of the investigated P.falciparum clinical isolates. The pfcrt double mutations (K76T and C72S) were observed less than 3%. The pfcrt SVMNT haplotype was also found to be present in clinical isolates from Ethiopia. The pfcrt CVMNK-sensitive haplotypes were frequently observed (95.9%). The pfmdr1 mutation N86Y was observed only in 14.9% compared to 85.1% of the clinical isolates that carried sensitive alleles. Also, the sensitive pfmdr1 Y184 allele was more common, in 94.9% of clinical isolates. None of the investigated P. falciparum clinical isolates carried S1034C, N1042D and D1246Y pfmdr1 polymorphisms. All investigated P. falciparum clinical isolates from Southern and Eastern Ethiopia carried only a single copy of the mutant pfmdr1 gene. Conclusion The study reports for the first time the return of chloroquine sensitive P. falciparum in Ethiopia. These findings support the rationale for the use of CQ-based combination drugs as a possible future alternative. PMID:24964730
Tadesse, Tsegaye; Demisse, Getachew Berhan; Zaitchik, Ben; Dinku, Tufa
An experimental drought monitoring tool has been developed that predicts the vegetation condition (Vegetation Outlook) using a regression-tree technique at a monthly time step during the growing season in Eastern Africa. This prediction tool (VegOut-Ethiopia) is demonstrated for Ethiopia as a case study. VegOut-Ethiopia predicts the standardized values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at multiple time steps (weeks to months into the future) based on analysis of "historical patterns" of satellite, climate, and oceanic data over historical records. The model underlying VegOut-Ethiopia capitalizes on historical climate-vegetation interactions and ocean-climate teleconnections (such as El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)) expressed over the 24 year data record and also considers several environmental characteristics (e.g., land cover and elevation) that influence vegetation's response to weather conditions to produce 8 km maps that depict future general vegetation conditions. VegOut-Ethiopia could provide vegetation monitoring capabilities at local, national, and regional levels that can complement more traditional remote sensing-based approaches that monitor "current" vegetation conditions. The preliminary results of this case study showed that the models were able to predict the vegetation stress (both spatial extent and severity) in drought years 1-3 months ahead during the growing season in Ethiopia. The correlation coefficients between the predicted and satellite-observed vegetation condition range from 0.50 to 0.90. Based on the lessons learned from past research activities and emerging experimental forecast models, future studies are recommended that could help Eastern Africa in advancing knowledge of climate, remote sensing, hydrology, and water resources.
Funk, Chris; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon
This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.
Fang, F; Collins-Emerson, J M; Cullum, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J
A cross-sectional study was carried out on sheep and cattle slaughtered at a New Zealand abattoir from September to November 2010 to investigate the supplier-specific shedding rate, renal carriage rate and seroprevalence of leptospires. In the 2008/2009 season, this abattoir experienced three human leptospirosis cases from 20 staff, of which two were hospitalized. Urine, kidney and blood samples were collected from carcasses of 399 sheep (six suppliers, 17 slaughter lines) and 146 cattle (three suppliers, 22 slaughter lines). The urine and kidney samples were tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), while serum samples (from coagulated blood samples) were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In total, 27% (73/274; 95% CI: 18-37) of urine samples tested positive by qPCR. Species-specific shedding rates (prevalence of positive urine qPCR) were 31% (95% CI: 17-48) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 14-30) for cattle. For 545 kidney samples tested, 145 were qPCR positive (27%; 95% CI: 17-39). The average prevalence of kidney qPCR positivity was 29% (95% CI: 17-45) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 15-28) for cattle. Three hundred and thirty of 542 sampled sheep and cattle had antibodies against Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjobovis (Hardjobovis) and/or Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona), based on reciprocal MAT titre ?1 : 48 (overall seroprevalence of 61%; 95% CI: 48-73). Seroprevalence was 57% (95% CI: 40-72) for sheep and 73% (95% CI: 59-83) for cattle. Among the seropositive animals, 41% (70/170; 95% CI: 30-54) were shedding (tested positive by urine qPCR) and 42% (137/330; 95% CI: 30-54) had renal carriage (tested positive by kidney qPCR). Some risk management options for abattoirs or farms to prevent human leptospirosis infections include vaccination of maintenance hosts, the use of personal protective equipment, and the application of urine qPCR to detect shedding status of stock as surveillance and as an alert. PMID:25043226
Tefera, Solomon; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N
The distribution and compositional pattern of the grass layer, as well as soil quality of southern Ethiopian semi-arid rangelands were examined under three land-use systems (communal land, government ranch and a traditional grazing reserve enclosure) and along a distance gradient (near, middle and far) from water sources. In total, 49 grass species were identified, 65% of which were perennials. Of the most commonly distributed highly desirable species, Chrysopogon aucheri showed the greatest frequency under the traditional grazing reserve (27.6%), and the lowest in the communal land (14.0%). The frequency of Cenchrus ciliaris was similar in all the study sites. The proportion of Lepthotrium senegalensis was low under the land-use systems (3.9%) and increased away from water sources (2.3%). Of the less desirable species, Sporobulus nervosus was extremely more abundant (<0.05) in the communal land (13.3%) than the traditional grazing reserve (3.3%) and the government ranch (1.9%). Sporobolus pyramidalis was dominant in the study sites, with similar (P>0.05) frequency percentages under the land-use systems and along the distance gradients from water. Basal cover was low and similar on all the study sites (3.3%). Concerning the soil texture, sand (71.1%) constituted the largest proportion, followed by silt (21.3%) and lastly, clay (7.7%). With regard to soil exchangeable cations, organic C and total nitrogen were generally low and did not show marked variation in all the study sites. The study showed significant differences for most of the vegetation variables between the communal land and the other land-uses. This suggested that grazing intensity was higher in the communal land and moderate in the government ranch and in the traditional grazing reserves (kallos). The lack of significant differences in most of the studied (vegetation) variables along the distance gradient from water could be ascribed to the fact that grazing disturbance has already exceeded a certain threshold of degradation. Under the present low states of soil nutrients and rainfall, cultivation is neither sustainable nor environmentally friendly and this will lead to further degradation of the soil in these marginal lands. PMID:17129661
Gutiérrez, A M; Villa, M I; Marsilla, B A; Martinez-Subiela, S; Montes, A M; Cerón, J J
The possible application of acute phase protein measurements of meat extract in porcine carcass inspection at abattoir, under routine conditions, was studied. Concentrations of two acute phase proteins, C-reactive protein and haptoglobin, were quantified in 357 samples from carcasses subjected to official veterinary inspection at slaughterhouses. Carcasses were classified according to their sanitary status in five groups of animals ranging from healthy animals, without any organ alteration (group 1), to completely condemned carcasses with gross alteration in several organic systems (group 5). The concentration of both acute phase proteins appeared significantly higher in groups 2 to 5 in comparison to group 1. Sensitivity of these proteins to detect animals with organ alterations was 86% when the values of both proteins were taken into account. The quantification of the levels of acute phase proteins could be of help during routine veterinary meat inspection by offering an objective tool for active disease detection. PMID:26267093
Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi; Naidu, Ravi
This study evaluated the effect of alkaline industrial by-products such as flyash (FA) and redmud (RM) on phosphorus (P) mobilisation in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils, using incubation, leaching and plant growth (Napier grass [Pennisetum purpureum]) experiments. The soil outside the wastewater irrigated area was also collected and treated with inorganic (KH2PO4 [PP]) and organic (poultry manure [PM]) P treatments, to study the effect of FA and RM on P mobilisation using plant growth experiment. Among the amendments, FA showed the highest increase in Olsen P, oxalic acid content and phosphatase activity. The highest increase in Olsen P for PM treated non-irrigated soils showed the ability of FA and RM in mobilising organic P better than inorganic P (PP). There was over 85 % increase in oxalic acid content in the plant growth soils compared to the incubated soil, showing the effect of Napier grass in the exudation of oxalic acid. Both amendments (FA and RM) showed an increase in phosphatase activity at over 90 % at the end of the 5-week incubation period. The leaching experiment indicated a decrease in water soluble P thereby ensuring the role of FA and RM in minimising P loss to water bodies. FA and RM showed an increase in plant biomass for all treatments, where FA amended soil showed the highest increase as evident from FA's effect on Olsen P. Therefore, the use of FA and RM mobilised P in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils and increased biomass production of Napier grass plants through root exudation of oxalic acid. PMID:24862480
Spescha, C; Stephan, R; Zweifel, C
At sequential steps of slaughter (scalding, dehairing, singeing, polishing, trimming, washing, and chilling), 200 pig carcasses from two abattoirs were examined for total viable bacteria count (TVC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CPS) by the wet-dry double-swab technique at the neck, belly, back, and ham. Before scalding, mean TVCs ranged from 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU cm(-2), and Enterobacteriaceae and CPS were detected on all carcasses. At abattoir A, mean TVCs and the percentage of Enterobacteriaceae-positive carcasses were reduced (P < 0.05) after scalding (1.9 log CFU cm(-2) and 12%, respectively), singeing (1.9 log CFU cm(-2) and 66%, respectively), and blast chilling (2.3 log CFU cm(-2) and 17%, respectively) and increased (P < 0.05) after dehairing (3.4 log CFU cm(-2) and 100%, respectively) and polishing (2.9 log CFU cm(-2)). The proportion of CPS-positive samples decreased to < or = 10% after scalding and remained at this level. At abattoir B, mean TVCs and the percentages of Enterobacteriaceae- and CPS-positive carcasses were reduced (P < 0.05) after scalding (2.4 log CFU cm(-2) and 29 and 20%, respectively), polishing (3.7 log CFU cm(-2)), and chilling (2.6 log CFU cm(-2) and 55 and 77%, respectively) and increased (P < 0.05) after the combined dehairing-singeing (4.7 log CFU cm(-2) and 97 and 100%, respectively). Among sites, the neck tended to yield higher levels of contamination from trimming to chilling at both abattoirs (P < 0.05). Consequently, scalding, singeing, and chilling may be integrated in a hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system for pig slaughter. As indicated by the higher levels of contamination on carcasses after dehairing-singeing and the following stages at abattoir B, each abattoir should develop its own baseline data and should customize HACCP systems to match process- and site-specific circumstances. PMID:17133797
Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh
Elephantiasis is a symptom of a variety of diseases that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts. Some conditions having this symptom include: Elephantiasis nostras, due to longstanding chronic lymphangitis; Elephantiasis tropica or lymphatic filariasis, caused by a number of parasitic worms, particularly Wuchereria bancrofti; non-filarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis, an immune disease caused by heavy metals affecting the lymph vessels; proteus syndrome, the genetic disorder of the so-called Elephant Man, etc. Podoconiosis is a type of lower limb tropical elephantiasis distinct from lymphatic filariasis. Lymphatic filariasis affects all population at risk, whereas podoconiosis predominantly affects barefoot subsistence farmers in areas with red volcanic soil. Ethiopia is one of the countries with the highest number of podoconiosis patients since many people are at risk to red-clay soil exposure in many parts of the country. The aim of this review was to know the current status and impact of podoconiosis and its relevance to elephantiasis in Ethiopia. To know the epidemiology and disease burden, the literatures published by different scholars were systematically reviewed. The distribution of the disease and knowledge about filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are not well known in Ethiopia. It is relatively well studied in southern Ethiopia but data from other parts of the country are limited. Moreover, programmes that focus on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are also non-existent even in endemic areas. Furthermore, the disease mapping has not been carried out country-wide. Therefore, in order to address these gaps, Ethiopian Ministry of Health needs to take initiative for undertaking concrete research and mapping of the disease in collaboration with stakeholders. PMID:26119541
An author relates memorable experiences of living in Ethiopia and describes how her brother's friendship with a poor boy in the city of Addis Ababa who cared for pigeons led to a children's book. Includes a descriptive list of books on pigeons, Africa, pets and wild animals, and cities, and a list of books by the author. (AEF)
Tadesse, Luche; Tafesse, Fikru; Hamamy, Hanan
The rates of congenital and genetic disorders in low and middle income countries are similar or might be higher than in high income countries due to a multitude of risk factors and the dearth of community genetic services. To direct effective preventive, diagnostic and counseling services, collecting data on the incidence and prevalence of various congenital and genetic disorders and their risk factors is a pre-requisite for establishing genetic services at the community level and mainly at the primary health care setting. This brief review is meant to assess the available epidemiological data in Ethiopia pertaining to congenital and genetic disorders on which the future community genetic services could be built. Existing epidemiological data on congenital and genetic disorders in Ethiopia is limited, and the few studies conducted revealed that folate and iodine deficiencies are prevalent among women in the reproductive age. Pregnant women's infection with syphilis and rubella is prevailing. Based on available data, cleft lip and palate, congenital heart diseases, club-foot, and gastro-intestinal malformations are the most common birth defects in Ethiopia. Community based studies to accurately demonstrate the incidence and prevalence levels of these disorders are almost unavailable. To plan for organization and implementation of community genetic services at the primary health care level in Ethiopia, conducting standardized epidemiological studies is currently highly recommended. PMID:25404975
Statisticians cleaned and adjusted data from the 1970 and 1981 demographic surveys conducted by the Central Statistics Office of Ethiopia to do this demographic analysis. The mean age at marriage increased from 1970-1981 in all administrative regions of Ethiopia (data did not include Eritrea and Tigrai) with the most change occurring in the southern regions (20.5% vs. 5%). Even though the biggest increases occurred in the female population, the mean age at marriage remained low hence having little impact on fertility. Indeed total fertility grew in all administrative regions with the greatest increase in the southern regions (26% vs. 19%). This change could be attributable to the increased disposable income in the southern regions bringing about better nutrition and better health facilities. Since the population of 2 regions in the south consisted of nomads who normally maintain low fertility levels, the total fertility did not change. In the northern regions, the population of 2 regions experienced no change in total fertility because of the continuing drought and famine. Despite widespread underreporting, researchers estimated at 26% and 27% of the population in the northern and southern regions respectively died before age 5 in 1970. There was little reduction in mortality in 1981 (22% and 26% respectively). The population grew between 1970-1981 in both regions. In the northern region, the growth rate increased from 2.44- 2.76 (13% change) while in the southern region, it increased from 2.36- 2.69 (14% change). Little voluntary control of fertility occurred in this time span. Clearly the government must pass legislation to raise the age at marriage and implement a comprehensive family planning program countrywide. PMID:12283869
Lee, Michael R F; Scott, Mark B; Veberg-Dahl, Annette; Evans, Phil R; Theobald, Vince J; Lundby, Frank; Scollan, Nigel D; Wold, Jens-Petter
The use of fecal fluorescence to improve detection of contamination of carcasses in the abattoir was previously reported. However, incidents of false negatives can result when animals are offered diets that contain little chlorophyll (e.g., concentrate). Here, we investigated the potential of incorporating a high-chlorophyll-containing feed ingredient (concentrated alfalfa extract; CAE) into the diets of sheep and cattle to improve fecal fluorescence intensity. The sheep experiment evaluated the fecal fluorescence of animals from pasture, when fed a concentrate-barley straw diet and when the concentrate diet incorporated CAE (100 g of dry matter a day). Fecal chlorophyll and metabolite content was highest on the pasture-fed animals and increased significantly over the concentrate diet when CAE was included. Subsequently fluorescent intensity was increased from 15,000 to 36,000 arbitrary units for concentrate and CAE-concentrate diets, respectively, compared with 59,000 for the pasture-fed animals. The cattle experiment investigated the potential of CAE to improve fluorescence of feces from a concentrate diet as well as a silage diet at two levels of incorporation (75 and 150 g CAE/kg of dry matter intake). This study also determined the fluorescence of digesta and carcass contamination in the abattoir on a subset of carcasses. In agreement with the sheep study, CAE significantly improved fluorescence of feces and digesta when added to a concentrate diet, but had little effect on improving fecal fluorescence from the silage-fed animals. This was thought to be related to greater chlorophyll degradation in the rumen or/and the dark nature of the silage feces acting as a quencher of emitted fluoresced light. Incorporating high-chlorophyll-containing plant ingredients into ruminant concentrate diets will improve detection of fecal contamination by reducing false-negative readings. However, they will have little effect on false-positive readings due to the range of wavelengths emitted by natural chlorophyll and its metabolites. Implications and potential solutions for this are discussed. PMID:23462091
Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent progenitor cells characterized by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate into tissues of mesodermal origin. The plasticity or transdifferentiation potential of MSC is not limited to mesodermal derivatives, since under appropriate cell culture conditions and stimulation by bioactive factors, MSC have also been differentiated into endodermal (hepatocytes) and neuroectodermal (neurons) cells. The potential of MSC for hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation has been well documented in different animal models; however, few reports are currently available on large animal models. In the present study we sought to characterize the hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation and multipotent potential of bovine MSC (bMSC) isolated from bone marrow (BM) of abattoir-derived fetuses. Results Plastic-adherent bMSC isolated from fetal BM maintained a fibroblast-like morphology under monolayer culture conditions. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that bMSC populations were positive for MSC markers CD29 and CD73 and pluripotency markers OCT4 and NANOG; whereas, were negative for hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45. Levels of mRNA of hepatic genes ?-fetoprotein (AFP), albumin (ALB), alpha1 antitrypsin (?1AT), connexin 32 (CNX32), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) were up-regulated in bMSC during a 28-Day period of hepatogenic differentiation. Functional analyses in differentiated bMSC cultures evidenced an increase (P?0.05) in albumin and urea production and glycogen storage. bMSC cultured under neurogenic conditions expressed NESTIN and MAP2 proteins at 24 h of culture; whereas, at 144 h also expressed TRKA and PrPC. Levels of MAP2 and TRKA mRNA were up-regulated at the end of the differentiation period. Conversely, bMSC expressed lower levels of NANOG mRNA during both hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation processes. Conclusion The expression patterns of linage-specific markers and the production of functional metabolites support the potential for hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation of bMSC isolated from BM of abattoir-derived fetuses. The simplicity of isolation and the potential to differentiate into a wide variety of cell lineages lays the foundation for bMSC as an interesting alternative for investigation in MSC biology and eventual applications for regenerative therapy in veterinary medicine. PMID:25011474
Khanjari, Ali; Bahonar, Alireza; Fallah, Sepideh; Bagheri, Mahboube; Alizadeh, Abbas; fallah, Marjan; Khanjari, Zahra
Objective The liver flukes, Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, infect ruminants and other mammalian extensively and cause major diseases of livestock that produce considerable economic losses. Methods A survey of 2391 sheep and goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Amol region, northern Iran was used to determine the prevalence of the liver flukes infection based on season, sex and specie of the animals. Results The results revealed that the prevalence rate of Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum was 6.6% and 4.3% respectively. Dicrocoeliosis was more dominant in female animals (7.1%) whereas there was no sex-related difference in the prevalence of Fasciola spp. in male and female animals. Furthermore, Fasciolosis was significantly more prevalent than dicrocoeliosis in both sheep and goats. The Seasonal prevalence of Fasciola spp. was highest (P<0.005) during spring (8.3%) followed in order by autumn (8.1%), winter (5.9%) and summer (4.0%) but Dicrocoeliosis did not follow any seasonal pattern. Conclusions According to this study, it can be concluded that Amol is regarded as an endemic region for Fasciola spp and D. dandriticum infection. Moreover, Fasciola spp. is the most widespread liver fluke found in sheep and goats which is more dominant in sheep than goats.
Fayemi, Peter Olutope; Muchenje, Voster
Animals of both sexes are slaughtered for meat and meat products at the abattoirs. It has been found in few countries that one-out-of-every-three ewe and one-out-of-every-four doe with single, twin or multiple foetuses are slaughtered in registered slaughterhouses. In quest for meat, numerous viable embryos and foetuses are wasted unnoticed since the productive pregnant animals are not spared in the process. The trend in the slaughter of pregnant animals for meat (ranging from 54.5% to 70.1%) therefore calls for a review to reminisce issues on slaughter reforms, emphasize its implication on losses of genetic materials and sustainability of meat production. As a way of ensuring that welfare quality® assessment is not compromised and cruelty is prevented during animal slaughter, the quantitation of housekeeping genes and naturally occurring microRNAs (miRNAs) are recommended for identifying candidate pain biomarkers. In order to respect consumers' right however, the manuscript suggests meat branding where the consumption of meat from pregnant animals is ethical. PMID:23577300
Borji, H; Azizzadeh, M; Afsai, A
A 6-year retrospective study based on abattoir records was carried out to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in dromedaries in Khorasan province in north-eastern Iran. Between 20 March 2004 and 19 March 2010, 25,255 dromedaries were slaughtered in the study area and the livers of 2791 (11.1%) and the lungs of 3289 dromedaries (13.2%) were discarded due to hydatidosis. The annual prevalence of liver condemnations due to hydatidosis decreased from 24.1% in 2004-2005 to 13.3% in 2009, and finally to 6.8% in 2010. The corresponding features for lung condemnation due to hydatidosis were relatively higher than liver, declining from 28.7% in 2004-2005 to 14.9% in 2009, and finally to 7.1% in 2010. Liver and lung condemnations due to hydatidosis were significantly higher in the spring. This could be attributed to various factors such as sources of slaughtered animals, changes in management practice and ecological factors. The present survey provides baseline data for the future monitoring of this potentially important parasitic disease in the region. PMID:21251343
Borji, H; Azizzadeh, M; Afsai, A
A 6-year (2004-2010) retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in livestock slaughtered in Mashhad abattoir, Mashhad, in north-eastern Iran and the capital of Khorasan province. Between 20 March 2004 and 19 March 2010, 5,131,485 animals (411,163 cattle; 4,547,618 sheep; 172,704 goats) were slaughtered in the study area and 388,399 (7.5%) livers and 1,139,529 (22.2%) lungs were discarded. Hydatidosis was responsible for 4% and 6.5% of total livers and lungs inspected, respectively. Of the cattle livers and lungs inspected over the survey period, 5.5% and 7.9% were condemned, respectively, because they held hydatid cysts. The corresponding values for livers and lungs of sheep (2%, 4%) and of goats (4.5%, 7.8%), respectively, were also condemned due to hydatidosis. Data showed a prominent seasonal pattern for hydatidosis. Liver condemnations due to hydatidosis were higher in winter and autumn for cattle and sheep, respectively, whereas lung condemnations were higher in summer for sheep and cattle. In goats, liver and lung condemnations were higher in winter. This could be attributed to various factors, such as sources of slaughtered animals, changes in management practice and ecological factors. The present survey provides baseline data for the future monitoring of this potentially important parasitic disease in the region. PMID:21729380
Osete, María Luisa; Catanzariti, Gianluca; Chauvin, Annick; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier; Roperch, Pierrick; Fernández, Víctor M.
First archaeointensity determinations have been obtained from Ethiopia. Seven bricks (34 specimens) from the Däbsan archaeological remains were subjected to archaeointensity determination by means of classical Thellier-Thellier experiment including tests for magnetic anisotropy and magnetic cooling rate dependency. The age of the Däbsan Palace is well controlled by historical information: between 1603, when land grants were conceded to the Jesuits and the Catholicism was established as the official religion in Ethiopia, and the age of the Palace foundation in 1626-27. Successful archaeointensity determinations were obtained in 27 specimens from five individual bricks revealing an average field value of 33.5 ± 1.1 ?T, which is 11-26% lower than expected values from global geomagnetic models based on historical and archaeomagnetic data. Global models for 1615 AD predict a low in central-southern Africa related to past location of the present Southern Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). Our results suggest that the field intensity in central Africa may have been slightly lower than global model predictions. This would indicate that the low could be probably more extended towards central-eastern Africa (or more intense) than previously considered. Further data from this region are especially welcome to delineate the evolution of the SAA.
Background Abattoir data have the potential to provide information for geospatial disease surveillance applications, but the quality of the data and utility for detecting disease outbreaks is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify non-disease factors that may bias these data for disease surveillance and 2) determine if major disease events that took place during the study period would be captured using multi-level modelling and scan statistics. We analyzed data collected at all provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario, Canada during 2001-2007. During these years there were outbreaks of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and swine influenza that produced widespread disease within the province. Negative binomial models with random intercepts for abattoir, to account for repeated measurements within abattoirs, were created. The relationships between partial carcass condemnation rates for pneumonia and nephritis with year, season, agricultural region, stock price, and abattoir processing capacity were explored. The utility of the spatial scan statistic for detecting clusters of high partial carcass condemnation rates in space, time, and space-time was investigated. Results Non-disease factors that were found to be associated with lung and kidney condemnation rates included abattoir processing capacity, agricultural region and season. Yearly trends in predicted condemnation rates varied by agricultural region, and temporal patterns were different for both types of condemnations. Some clusters of high condemnation rates of kidneys with nephritis in time and space-time preceded the timeframe during which case clusters were detected using traditional laboratory data. Yearly kidney condemnation rates related to nephritis lesions in eastern Ontario were most consistent with the trends that were expected in relation to the documented disease outbreaks. Yearly lung condemnation rates did not correspond with the timeframes during which major respiratory disease outbreaks took place. Conclusions This study demonstrated that a number of abattoir-related factors require consideration when using abattoir data for quantitative disease surveillance. Data pertaining to lungs condemned for pneumonia did not provide useful information for predicting disease events, while partial carcass condemnations of nephritis were most consistent with expected trends. Techniques that adjust for non-disease factors should be considered when applying cluster detection methods to abattoir data. PMID:22225910
Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew
From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success. PMID:24323662
SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE TOURISM PLANNING IN ETHIOPIA: AN ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK by Stefanie Jones B Management Project No.: 532 Title: Sustainable Heritage Tourism Planning in Ethiopia: An Assessment Framework government decide if tourism is appropriate for a heritage site? And, how can that site be conserved while
Rural Food Security in Tigray, Ethiopia: Policy Impact Evaluation Tagel Gebrehiwot March, 2008 #12;Rural Food Security in Tigary, Ethiopia: Policy Impact Evaluation by Tagel Gebrehiwot Thesis submitted on the effectiveness of food security policy in ensuring rural food security and poverty reduction in Tigray region
Kiros, Gebre-Egzbiabher; White, Michael J
This paper examines the relationship between parental migration status and child immunization in Southern Ethiopia, a region characterized by high mortality and morbidity. Using the 1997 Community and Family Survey and a multilevel modeling approach, we find that children born to rural-rural migrant mothers have significantly less chance of receiving full immunization coverage than children born to non-migrant mothers. The social mechanism that explains this huge disparity is that rural-rural migrant women have limited social networks in the host community. In addition, significant variation in receiving complete immunization is found by age of child (a likely period effect), mother's education, and distance to nearest health center. Marked child immunization differentials are also observed by ethnicity. The results from the multilevel analysis confirm the persistence of substantial community effects, even after controlling for a standard array of personal and household characteristics. Given the low levels of vaccination among children born to migrant women, health policy interventions and information campaigns might be effectively augmented to reach such migrant women and their children. Community and ethnic group effects suggest that further targeting of health activities could be efficient and effective. PMID:15474213
Phoenix, David A.
The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southern Ethiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.
Mège, Daniel; Purcell, Peter; Jourdan, Fred; Pochat, Stéphane
A new map of Tertiary volcanics occurrences in the Ogaden region of southeast Ethiopia and adjacent areas of Somalia has been prepared. Outcrop areas, mapped using satellite images and helicopter--supported field work in 2008, are more widespread than previously recognized, while magnetic and drill data reveal the vast subsurface extent of the magmatism. Several spectacular 'meandering' outcrops, over 100 km long, are undoubtedly exhumed canyon--filling flows and magnetic data show that many other apparently isolated outcrops are actually part of similar flows, the bulk of which are now subsurface. Age dating and well intersections show several volcanic episodes, with the major outpouring occurring across a broad peneplain in the Oligocene. Geological and aeromagnetic mapping, and 40Ar/39Ar age dating, reveal a dyke swarm extending SSE from the southern Afar margin more than 600 km across the Somali Plate, and coeval with dyke injection in the Red Sea rift at ~25 Ma. The Ogaden Dyke Swarm, which occurs in an area historically considered remote from the impact of the Afro--Arabian rifting and volcanism, appears associated with the Marda Fault and marks a zone of crustal dilation along the Red Sea trend across the Horn of Africa. Contemporaneous rifts, also trending WNW/ESE and over 120 km long, occur in NE Somalia, confirming the predominantly NE/SW--directed crustal stress regime in the Ogaden and adjacent region at this time.
Yibar, Artun; Selcuk, Ozgur; Senlik, Bayram
An abattoir survey was conducted from July 2012 to December 2012 to determine the major causes of organ and carcass condemnation and to estimate the associated direct financial loss at two abattoirs in Bursa Province in Turkey. A total of 22,872 sheeps and 5363 cattle were examined by postmortem inspection using standard inspection procedures. The total economic loss in two abattoirs was estimated from the summation of organ and carcass condemnation in six-month period. The retail prices of offal (lung, liver, kidney, heart, and spleen) and kg price of cattle and sheep carcasses were obtained from local markets. The results of postmortem examination indicated that a total of 658 (2.33%) offals and 93 (0.32%) carcasses were condemned. While the main causes of organ condemnation were hydatidosis and fasciolosis, carcasses were condemned mainly due to tuberculosis and jaundice. The total revenue in 2012 for all animals (164,080 sheeps and 56,035 cattle) slaughtered in 15 abattoirs in Bursa Province was 144,401,765 USD. This study showed that financial loss due to organ and carcass condemnations at two abattoirs in six-month period was 245,483 USD (0.17% of the total annual revenue of all slaughtered animals at 15 abattoirs). In sheep, six-month financial loss was estimated at 3281 USD and 4015 USD from organ condemnation due to fasciolosis and hydatidosis, respectively. In cattle, total loss was calculated as 4042 USD and 12,321 USD due to fasciolosis and hydatidosis, respectively. A common cause of carcass condemnation in cattle was tuberculosis, totalling 214,995 USD in losses, whereas condemnation due to tuberculosis was not determined in sheep. The current study also showed that six-month monetary losses from carcass condemnation of sheep and cattle due to jaundice were 8099 USD and 6026 USD, respectively. From the data obtained in this study, it can be concluded that bacterial and parasitic diseases remain common and cause considerable economic loss in Bursa Province, Turkey. The result of this abattoir study provided regional information on major causes of organ and carcass condemnation in sheep and cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs as well as giving an estimation of the direct financial losses. PMID:25481623
Henderson, P L; Biellik, R J
The civil chaos created by a combination of drought and hostilities in the Ogaden region of southern Ethiopia during the past five years has caused the majority of the indigenous, principally nomadic population to flee the area and seek refuge either in Somali refugee camps or in Ethiopian shelters for displaced persons. This paper compares the provision of basic food rations, selective feeding programs, primary health care, and preventive health measures between the two groups. During 1980-1981 Somalia received more international assistance per capita than Ethiopia. Large numbers of Western personnel provided health and nutrition services in Somali refugee camps, whereas no foreigners were involved in Ethiopian shelters. These disparities were largely due to inadequate publicity concerning the problems Ethiopia faces, partly resulting from real and perceived political limitations related to the Soviet presence in that country. Refugee needs in Somalia have been publicized far more adequately, partly due to that country's alignment with the West. The Ethiopians nevertheless demonstrated greater efficiency in assisting their disaster victims; camp services comparable to those in Somalia were available despite greater logistic difficulties and fewer donated resources. The effectiveness of relief operations in Somalia was reduced by political constraints on governmental agencies. PMID:6853004
Tanih, Nicoline F.; Sekwadi, Eunice; Ndip, Roland N.; Bessong, Pascal O.
Pathogenic food-borne bacteria have been associated with severe morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli present in cattle and pigs slaughtered in selected abattoirs in Vhembe District and at determining the susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics. A total of 176 swab samples (28 cattle and 16 pigs) of the rump, flank, brisket, and neck of the animals were analyzed using standard microbiological methods. E. coli isolates were genotyped to detect pathogenic strains. Of the 176 samples, 104 (67.5%) were positive for E. coli and 50 (32.5%) for S. aureus. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in the isolation rate from the different animal parts or abattoirs. Overall, 14/104 (13.46%) of the E. coli isolates were pathogenic strains which included enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (bfpA) 1.9%, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (LT) 3.8%, and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (aaiC) 7.6%. E. coli isolates were resistant (100%) to vancomycin and bacitracin. S. aureus (100%) were resistant to oxacillin and nalidixic acid. The presence of resistant strains of these bacteria in food of animal origin could serve as important vehicles transmitting these bacteria to humans. This finding is of epidemiological significance. PMID:25811040
This paper focuses on peasant farmers in Ethiopia, and their behaviour as serious famine sets in. In many of the last seventeen years the crop yields on rain-fed plots in drought-prone areas have failed to meet the requirements of the peasant farmers and their families. Significant numbers have received food aid either at distribution points or in the shelters which developed in 1973 and 1984. Seeking food relief from external sources, however, is the last resort of peasants who have managed their dwindling resources for months, if not years, in order to survive. PMID:20958664
Ross, D. H.
This publication compiles the findings and conclusions of the 3-year first phase (1980-83) of the Unesco Sub-regional Project for Special Education in Eastern and Southern Africa. It presents the state of the art of special education and prospects for future development in Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Seychelles, Somalia,…
Borji, Hassan; Azizzadeh, Mohammad; Kamelli, Mehrab
A 5-yr retrospective study in livestock slaughtered in abattoirs was carried out in Khuzestan Province (southwestern Iran) to determine the prevalence of parasitic infections responsible for condemnation of slaughtered animals' carcasses and viscera. The economic importance of such infections in terms of lost meat and offal were also estimated. Between 20 March 2006 and 19 March 2011, 125,593 cattle, 1,191,871 sheep, 240,221 goats, and 25,010 buffalos were slaughtered in the study area; the livers of 58,753 (3.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-3.8%), the lungs of 34,522 (2.2%; 95% CI: 2.1-2.2%), and the carcasses of 78 (0.0049% 95% CI: 0.0048-0.0049%) of these animals were condemned. Proportions of liver, lung, and carcass condemnations during the 5-yr study period in buffalos were significantly greater than the other species (P < 0.001). Frequency of liver condemnation during the 5-yr period for cattle was greater than sheep and goats (P < 0.001), but condemnation of lungs in goat was significantly greater than sheep and cattle (P < 0.001). The parasitic lesions observed in the condemned livers were attributed to Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica, or Dicrocoelium dendriticum, or some combination of these species. All the parasitic lesions observed in the condemned lungs from cattle, sheep, goats, and buffalos are ascribed to E. granulosus. Sarcocystis spp. cysts were found in ovine and buffalo muscles, whereas Taenia sp. cysticerci were detected in bovine muscle. Muscles of goats were devoid of any parasitic lesions. Parasites were responsible for 54.1% of the condemned organs or carcasses, with a retail value (based on market prices in 2011) of $1,148,181 (U.S.) ($137,880 for cattle, $602,699 for sheep, $280,955 for goats, and $126,647 for buffalos). The parasites contributing most to the condemnation of otherwise marketable organs and flesh were E. granulosus (29.2%) and F. hepatica (18.6%). These parasites clearly remain the most common, causing considerable economic loss in Khuzestan Province and, presumably, other areas of Iran. PMID:22568697
Abay, Fetien; Waters-Bayer, Ann; Bjørnstad, Asmund
Farmers' innovation and selection of barley varieties were studied in the Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. Two districts each in the central and southern zones and three districts in the eastern zone of Tigray were randomly selected for this study, which sought to understand the current status of local barley varieties and to measure their relative preference by farmers. Household surveys were conducted covering 240 households to elicit farmers' views on the values, constraints, and opportunities of growing local varieties of barley. This was supported by focus-group and informal discussions with elders, key informants, and women's groups. Case studies were made of local farmers whom the community recognized as barley breeders. Twenty-four barley varieties and their major descriptors were recorded. Seed and varietal-selection criteria depended on the environmental and varietal characteristics. Investigation of intrahousehold decision making indicated that, while men tended to decide on the type of variety to grow, seed storage and processing were exclusively the responsibility of women. Farmers undertook preharvest and postharvest selection, giving emphasis mainly to earliness and spike characteristics. The distinct varietal-selection and seed-renewal procedures revealed their potential for use in further plant breeding. The case-study analysis of farmer-developed varieties provided knowledge that, if combined with scientists' knowledge, could lead to identification and development of valuable cultivars with a wide potential for use in semiarid areas of Tigray and other parts of Ethiopia. PMID:18686512
Kabiru, Lawan Mohammed; Bello, Mohammed; Kabir, Junaid; Grande, Laura; Morabito, Stefano
Pathogenic Escherichia coli can be released with the wastes coming from slaughterhouses into the environment, where they can persist. We investigated the presence of diarrheagenic E. coli in specimens taken at an abattoir located in the Zaria region, Nigeria, in samples of water from the river Koreye, where the effluent from the abattoir spills in, and vegetable specimens taken at a nearby farm. All the isolated E. coli were assayed for the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) by using the Ridascreen verotoxin Immunoassay and by PCR amplification of genes associated with the diarrheagenic E. coli. Three strains from the rectal content of two slaughtered animals and a cabbage were positive for the presence of the Stx-coding genes. Additionally we have isolated one Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC) from the abattoir effluent and two Subtilase-producing E. coli from the slaughterhouse’s effluent and a sample of carrots. Our results provide evidence that pathogenic E. coli can contaminate the environment as a result of the discharge into the environment of untreated abattoir effluent, representing a reservoir for STEC and other diarrheagenic E. coli favouring their spread to crops. PMID:25590145
Getachew, Tesfaye; Alemu, Biruk; Sölkner, Johann; Gizaw, Solomon; Haile, Aynalem; Gosheme, Shenkute; Notter, David Russell
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative resistance of Menz and Washera sheep breeds to artificial infection with Haemonchus contortus. The challenge trial was conducted at the Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Center in Ethiopia. A total of 39 (Menz?=?21, Washera?=?18) lambs of about 6 months old were used for the trial. All lambs were initially treated against internal parasite using albendazole and Fasinex to free them from internal parasites and kept indoors. H. contortus third-stage larvae (L3) were prepared according to standard procedure from adult female parasite collected from abattoirs and recovered using the Baerman technique. Approximately 5000 infective larvae were inoculated to the experimental lambs at about 5 weeks after deworming. Fecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), FAffa MAlan CHArt (FAMACHA) score, lamb body weight, and survival of lambs were recorded at 28, 35, and 42 days after challenge. Breed effect was not significant (P?>?0.05), whereas time of measurement and the interaction of breed and time had significant (P?0.05) effects on FEC and PCV. At 28 days after challenge, Menz sheep had lower FEC than Washera sheep, whereas at days 35 and 42, the Washera sheep had lower FEC than Menz lambs. The PCV decreased significantly throughout the post-challenge period. Despite their parasite burden, Menz sheep were able to maintain live weight during the 42 days of challenge. Chi-square tests for breed differences in lamb survival were not significant at any time (28, 35, and 42 days after challenge). Lower FEC at 28 days and delayed rise in FEC after infection in Menz lamb would allow in delaying anthelmintic treatment. In addition to maintain body weights during the infection period, sheep of both breeds exhibited substantial variability in PCV and FEC, suggesting opportunity to consider parasite resistance in selection program. PMID:25868601
Gonzales-Barron, Ursula; Cadavez, Vasco; Sheridan, James J; Butler, Francis
The effect of chilling on the occurrence of Salmonella on pig carcasses was investigated at study, abattoir and batch level by meta-analysis. Both the fixed-effects and random-effects model confirmed (p<0.05) the significant effect of chilling in decreasing Salmonella occurrence on pig carcasses; although the random-effects solution was preferred to account for the significant variability in effect size (p<0.001) estimated from the 13 primary studies considered, the 32 abattoirs surveyed, and the 51 sampled batches. Conservatively, it can be said that chilling reduces the Salmonella incidence on pig carcasses by a mean ratio of ~1.6 (95% CI: 1.0-2.6). Multilevel meta-analysis models investigating study characteristics that could explain the heterogeneity (?(2)) in the true effect size among primary studies (?(2)=0.578), among surveyed abattoirs (?(2)=0.431), and among sampled batches (?(2)=0.373), revealed that study size (represented by the moderating variables of 'total sample size' and 'number of batches sampled in an abattoir') and 'carcass swabbed area' have a significant impact (p<0.05) on the measured effect size of chilling. The fact that swabbed area explained between 56 and 62% and total sample size between 23 and 38% of the total heterogeneity in the chilling true effect size, indicates that differences in experimental design greatly affect our substantive conclusion about the effect of chilling on Salmonella occurrence. This inconsistency to elucidate the effect of chilling arises because of the many factors influencing both the performance of the chilling operation and the measurement itself. Meta-analysis was not only instrumental to show that small-size studies (i.e., only one batch sampled per abattoir, total number of sampled carcasses per batch<50) and small swabbed areas (<100 cm(2)) lead to imprecise and even conflicting conclusions, but most importantly, enabled definition of the characteristics of a well-designed study having a minimum statistical power to produce precise results. A sound experimental design derived by multilevel meta-analysis consists of swabbing carcass areas of at least 500 cm(2) from 25 pre-chill and 25 post-chill carcasses from a single production batch, with a minimum of two batches sampled per surveyed abattoir. If the survey were to be conducted in more than one abattoir, the total sample size should not be less than 400. Two methods to test for publication bias, a common problem in meta-analysis, suggested that whilst the presence of unpublished small-size studies is probable, it is not likely that this would significantly bias the overall chilling effect estimated in this study. PMID:23558193
Fekadu, Abebaw; Thornicroft, Graham
Background Global mental health (GMH) advocates for access to and the equitable provision of mental health care. Although the treatment gap is a useful construct to measure access and equitability of care, it fails to communicate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the urgent need to address care disparities. Objective The aim of this article is to present a perspective on the practical application of the principles of GMH to understand the real-life impact of the treatment gap and the approaches taken to improve treatment coverage in Ethiopia. Design A case study method is used. Results Multiple international collaborations undertaken in Ethiopia and facilitated by GMH to improve care, capacity, and the evidence base for increased treatment coverage are described briefly. A series of steps taken at the local and national levels to address the treatment gap are highlighted. The stories of two patients are also presented to illustrate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the potential transformational impact of addressing the treatment gap on patients, families, and communities. Conclusions GMH has a key role to play in addressing the treatment gap, which improves the life of people with mental disorders, their families, and their communities. However, national-level policy support and coordination are essential for any realistic improvement in treatment coverage. The reflections offered through the case examples may have utility in similar low-income settings. PMID:25280740
Adesiyun, Abiodun; Campbell, Mervyn; Rahaman, Saed; Bissessar, Sham; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Dookeran, Shakti; Gittens-St Hilaire, Marquita
Toxoplasma gondi, Leptospira spp., and Brucella abortus are all established parasitic and bacterial zoonoses that manifest themselves in several forms of human diseases. They have been associated with occupational exposures, particularly amongst workers associated with livestock farms. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii immunoglobulin M (IgM) immunoglobulins (serum antibodies), Leptospira IgM immunoglobulins, and B. abortus IgG immunoglobulins, suggestive of acute or chronic infections, in livestock/farm and abattoir workers in Trinidad, and to relate to risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 394 consenting livestock/farm workers and 99 abattoir workers across the island of Trinidad. Serological status was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for T. gondii IgM, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Leptospira IgM immunoglobulins, and buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and competitive ELISA for B. abortus IgG immunoglobulins. Of 394 apparently healthy livestock/farm workers sampled, 150 (38.1%) were seropositive for T. gondii IgM immunoglobulins, compared with 44 (44.4%) of 99 abattoir workers (p > .05; ?(2) test). Five (1.3%) of 371 and 1 (1.0%) of 99 livestock/farm and abattoir workers respectively were positive for Leptospira IgM immunoglobulins. All samples from livestock/farm workers and abattoir workers were negative for B. abortus immunoglobulins. None of the risk factors investigated was statistically significantly (p > .05; ?(2) test) associated with T. gondii and Leptospira spp. infections. PMID:21728871
Negash, Seifu; Sibhat, Berhanu; Sheferaw, Desie
A cross-sectional study was conducted on ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats) slaughtered at Haramaya University and Haramaya municipal abattoirs from November 2013 to April 2014 in Haramaya, eastern Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to identify types and estimate the prevalence of foreign bodies in the rumen and reticulum of domestic ruminants in the area. From 810 randomly selected study animals, 422 (52.1%) were found to have foreign bodies. Of the 332 cattle, 193 sheep and 285 goats examined, 144 (43.4%), 109 (56.5%) and 169 (59.3%) respectively were found with various types of foreign bodies. The prevalence of foreign bodies was significantly (?² = 17.53, p < 0.05) higher in sheep (59.3%) and goats (56.7%) than in cattle (43.4%). Overall the prevalence of foreign bodies in study animals with poor body condition was significantly higher (?² = 38.57, p < 0.05) than in those with medium and good body condition. A higher percentage of foreign bodies occurred in the rumen alone (87.9%) than in the reticulum alone (5.0%), with the rest present in both. Significantly higher proportions of foreign bodies were observed in the rumen of cattle (?² = 332, p < 0.05), sheep (?² = 193, p < 0.05) and goats (?² = 285.0, p = 0.000) than in the reticulum. Plastic was the most commonly encountered (79.2%) foreign body, followed by cloth (15.3%) and rope (12.3%). In addition, metal (0.9%) and calcified material and/or stone (1.0%) were found in the reticulum of cattle. Lack of a plastic waste disposal system in the area as well as communal/free grazing of livestock in highly waste-polluted areas seemed to be major factors in the high occurrence of foreign bodies in ruminants. To change this, collaborative intervention schemes involving professionals, policy makers, livestock keepers and environmental activists are needed. PMID:26244677
Beyene, Yonas; Katoh, Shigehiro; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Uto, Kozo; Sudo, Masafumi; Kondo, Megumi; Hyodo, Masayuki; Renne, Paul R.; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane
The Acheulean technological tradition, characterized by a large (>10 cm) flake-based component, represents a significant technological advance over the Oldowan. Although stone tool assemblages attributed to the Acheulean have been reported from as early as circa 1.6–1.75 Ma, the characteristics of these earliest occurrences and comparisons with later assemblages have not been reported in detail. Here, we provide a newly established chronometric calibration for the Acheulean assemblages of the Konso Formation, southern Ethiopia, which span the time period ?1.75 to <1.0 Ma. The earliest Konso Acheulean is chronologically indistinguishable from the assemblage recently published as the world’s earliest with an age of ?1.75 Ma at Kokiselei, west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. This Konso assemblage is characterized by a combination of large picks and crude bifaces/unifaces made predominantly on large flake blanks. An increase in the number of flake scars was observed within the Konso Formation handaxe assemblages through time, but this was less so with picks. The Konso evidence suggests that both picks and handaxes were essential components of the Acheulean from its initial stages and that the two probably differed in function. The temporal refinement seen, especially in the handaxe forms at Konso, implies enhanced function through time, perhaps in processing carcasses with long and stable cutting edges. The documentation of the earliest Acheulean at ?1.75 Ma in both northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia suggests that behavioral novelties were being established in a regional scale at that time, paralleling the emergence of Homo erectus-like hominid morphology. PMID:23359714
Bryant, Jeffrey; Brereton, Donald A; Gill, Colin O
To guide the implementation of a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system at a small abattoir, the microbiological conditions of pig carcasses at various stages of processing were assessed by enumerating total aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli in samples collected from randomly selected sites on the carcasses. Those data indicated that carcasses were contaminated with bacteria mainly during dehairing and operations on the head. When carcasses were pasteurized after head removal, the numbers of total aerobes on dressed carcasses were reduced by about 1 order and the numbers of coliforms and E. coli were reduced by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Implementation of an HACCP system on the basis of the microbiological data gave cooled carcasses with mean numbers of total aerobes < 100/cm2, and mean numbers of coliforms and E. coli about 1/1000 cm2. PMID:12619556
Masana, M O; D'Astek, B A; Palladino, P M; Galli, L; Del Castillo, L L; Carbonari, C; Leotta, G A; Vilacoba, E; Irino, K; Rivas, M
The non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) contamination in carcasses and feces of 811 bovines in nine beef abattoirs from Argentina was analyzed during a period of 17 months. The feces of 181 (22.3%) bovines were positive for non-O157 STEC, while 73 (9.0%) of the carcasses showed non-O157 STEC contamination. Non-O157 STEC strains isolated from feces (227) and carcasses (80) were characterized. The main serotypes identified were O178:H19, O8:H19, O130:H11, and O113:H21, all of which have produced sporadic cases of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Argentina and worldwide. Twenty-two (7.2%) strains carried a fully virulent stx/eae/ehxA genotype. Among them, strains of serotypes O103:[H2], O145:NM, and O111:NM represented 4.8% of the isolates. Xba I pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern analysis showed 234 different patterns, with 76 strains grouped in 30 clusters. Nine of the clusters grouped strains isolated from feces and from carcasses of the same or different bovines in a lot, while three clusters were comprised of strains distributed in more than one abattoir. Patterns AREXSX01.0157, AREXBX01.0015, and AREXPX01.0013 were identified as 100% compatible with the patterns of one strain isolated from a hemolytic-uremic syndrome case and two strains previously isolated from beef medallions, included in the Argentine PulseNet Database. In this survey, 4.8% (39 of 811) of the bovine carcasses appeared to be contaminated with nonO157 STEC strains potentially capable of producing sporadic human disease, and a lower proportion (0.25%) with strains able to produce outbreaks of severe disease. PMID:22186039
Billi, Paolo; Fazzini, Massimiliano; Tadesse Alemu, Yonas; Ciampalini, Rossano
Rainfall and river flow variability have been deeply investigated and and the impact of climate change on both is rather well known in Europe (EEA, 2012) or in other industrialized countries. Reports of international organizations (IPCC, 2012) and the scientific literature provide results and outlooks that were found contrasting and spatially incoherent (Manton et al., 2001; Peterson et al., 2002; Griffiths et al., 2003; Herath and Ratnayake, 2004) or weakened by limitation of data quality and quantity. According to IPCC (2012), in East Africa precipitation there are contrasting regional and seasonal variations and trends, though Easterling et al. (2000) and Seleshi and Camberlin (2006) report decreasing trends in heavy precipitation over parts of Ethiopia during the period 1965-2002. Literature on the impact of climate change on river flow is scarce in Africa and IPCC Technical Paper VI (IPCC, 2008) concluded that no evidence, based on instrumental records, has been found for a climate-driven globally widespread change in the magnitude/frequency of floods during the last decades (Rosenzweig et al., 2007), though increases in runoff and increased risk of flood events in East Africa are expected. Some papers have faced issues regarding rainfall and river flow variability in Ethiopia (e.g. Seleshi and Demaree, 1995; Osman and Sauerborn, 2002; Seleshi and Zanke, 2004; Meze-Hausken, 2004; Korecha and Barnston, 2006; Cheung et al., 2008) but their investigations are commonly geographically limited or used a small number of rain and flow gauges with the most recent data bound to the beginning of the last decade. In this study an attempt to depict rainfall and river flow variability, considering the longer as possible time series for the largest as possible number of meteo-stations and flow gauge evenly distributed across Ethiopia, is presented. 25 meteo-stations and 21 flow gauges with as much as possible continuous data records were selected. The length of the time series ranges between 35 to 50 and 9 to 49 years for rainfall and river flow, respectively. In order to improve the poor linear correlation model to describe rainfall gradient with altitude a simple topographic parameter is introduced capable to better depict the spatial variability of annual rainfall and its coefficient of variation. The small rains (Belg) were found to be much more unpredictable than the long, monsoon-type rains (Kiremt) and hence much more out of phase with the variation of annual precipitation amount that is significantly influenced by the Kiremt rains. In order to investigate the long term trends, rainfall anomalies were calculated as Z score for annual, Belg and Kiremt precipitation for all the stations and average values are calculated and plotted against time. The three Z trend lines obtained show no marked deviation from the mean as only an almost negligible decreasing trend is observed. Rainfall intensity in 24 hours is analyzed and the trend line of the maximum intensity averaged over the maximum value of each year recorded at each meteo-station is constructed. These data indicate a general decrease in daily rainfall intensity across Ethiopia with clear exceptions in a few selected areas. The same procedure, based on the Z scores, used to analyze rainfall variability is applied also to the river flow data and a similar result is obtained. If compared with rainfall, annual runoff shows a much wider range of variation among the study rivers. This issue is discussed and possible explanations are presented.
De Sole, G; Kloos, H
The three transmission patterns found till now in Ethiopia are described. The forest area contains ideal conditions for the breeding of Simulium, but the sparse human population makes the transmission rate low. Only a few people were found to be infected. The subsistence crop farming area is a less ideal habitat for the vector due to the scarcity of bush and shade. However the presence of a largest population can explain the slightly higher prevalence of the disease than in the forest. The coffee farming area is densely populated, rich in bush and shade, with heavy rainfall and numerous rivers. Here the number of Simulium and their chance to reach the infective stages, are considered to be high. A high prevalence of the disease was found in this zone. PMID:1032332
Kwast, B E; Rochat, R W; Kidane-Mariam, W
Between July and September 1983, a two-stage probability survey was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to obtain data on pregnancy outcomes for all women aged 13-49 in 32,215 houses. The survey covered a two-year period, from 11 September 1981 to 10 September 1983. Of the 9,315 women who were pregnant during those two years, 45 died from complications of pregnancy, delivery, and the puerperium. The maternal mortality rate for 1982-83 was estimated to be 566 per 100,000 live births. Mortality was highest for nullipara, the unmarried, women employed as maids/janitresses, and students. The most common cause of death was abortion. It appears that reliable data on maternal mortality can be obtained retrospectively through a probability survey. PMID:3798492
Berhanu, B.; Terefe, M.; Viglione, A.; Fant, C.; Gebretsadik, Y.; Cullis, J.; Mekonnen, G.; Alamirew, T.; Sivapalan, M.
Ethiopia is climatically and environmentally extremely heterogeneous. The highlands receive a lot of rainfall (more than 2000 mm/year) concentrated in only three months. Most of Ethiopian runoff is produced in these highlands (part of this water reaches the Mediterranean sea through the Nile river). Lowlands vary from forests to deserts. The hottest place on earth is there (the Danakil depression, more than 150 meters below see level). This makes the spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic signatures very strong in the country. We present the results of a comparative hydrology exercise performed during a three-week Winter Research Workshop held in Addis Ababa during Christmas time this year. There, a new institution, the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR), and a new education program (18 PhD + 24 MSc) has been started less than one year ago. Instead of the traditional approach of education, based on lectures, reading and exercises, a learner-centered approach has been used: the students have been asked to collect available rainfall and runoff data, to interpret them by comparing and contrasting different catchments in the country, to develop conceptual models and use them to critically test ideas. The R software has been used in the workshop for two reason: (1) its flexibility makes it an ideal language for learner-centered education, since students can easily define new functions and extensions and can autonomously develop and test their hypothesis; (2) it is open source, light and free of charge, which makes it particularly appealing in developing countries like Ethiopia.
The Bale mountain range is located between the wet east African mountains (proper) and the dry northeast African mountains, Southeast Ethiopia. This mountain range hosts some of endemic flora and fauna which are endangered of extinction. The most extensive Ericaceous vegetation in the continent is found in Bale Mountains. The southern slope of this mountain range is known for its
This article reviews the literature on migration and the spread of HIV/AIDS in Eastern and Southern Africa. It includes Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The literature focuses separately on AIDS or migration. HIV/AIDS is widespread and prevalent in these regions. The major concern is that migrants are at risk due to their migration and HIV infection is spread after a return to their home countries. Populations at risk include rural-to-urban migrants, displaced persons in the Sudan and in the Horn of Africa, refugees crossing borders, and pastoralists moving within rural areas. In 1997, there were an estimated 1.3 million refugees in east African countries and 5 million internally displaced due to conflicts in Angola, Mozambique, and South Africa. Risk factors among migrant groups include high rates of partner change, unprotected sexual intercourse, nonuse of condoms, prior sexually transmitted diseases, IV drug use, and residence in a high HIV-prevalence community. Confounding factors may be age, gender, occupation, and mobility. Health services for migrants vary between countries. There are successful models for prevention of HIV. 13 targeted interventions are identified. PMID:12295095
Dawit, Enkurie L.
Palynological investigation was carried out on surface samples from up to 400 m thick continental siliciclastic sediments, here referred to as “Fincha Sandstone”, in the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia. One hundred sixty species were identified from 15 productive samples collected along a continuous road-cut exposure. Six informal palynological assemblage zones have been identified. These assemblage zones, in ascending order, are: “Central Ethiopian Permian Assemblage Zone - CEPAZ I”, earliest Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian); “CEPAZ II”, late Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian); CEPAZ III - Late Permian (Kazanian-Tatarian); “CETAZ IV”, Lower Triassic (Olenekian Induan); “CETAZ V”, Middle Triassic (Anisian Ladinian); “CETAZ VI”, Late Triassic (Carnian Norian). Tentative age ranges proposed herein are compared with faunally calibrated palynological zones in Gondwana. The overall composition and vertical distribution of miospores throughout the studied section reveals a wide variation both qualitatively and quantitatively. The high frequency of monosaccate pollen in CEPAZ I may reflect a Glossopterid-dominated upland flora in the earliest Permian. The succeeding zone is dominated by straite/taeniate disaccate pollen and polyplicates, suggesting a notable increase in diversity of glossopterids. The decline in the diversity of taeniate disaccate pollen and the concomitant rise in abundance of non-taeniate disaccates in CEPAZ III may suggest the decline in Glossopteris diversity, though no additional evidence is available to equate this change with End-Permian extinction. More diverse and dominant non-taeniate, disaccate, seed fern pollen assignable to FalcisporitesAlisporites in CETAZ IV may represent an earliest Triassic recovery flora. The introduction of new disaccate forms with thick, rigid sacci, such as Staurosaccites and Cuneatisporites, in CETAZ V and VI may indicate the emergence of new gymnospermous plants that might have favourably adapted to coastal plain wetland environments with the return of humid conditions in the Middle to early Late Triassic. The present data constitute the first paleontologically substantiated record for the existence of Permian strata in the Blue Nile Basin. The new results allow for the first time a reliable biostratigraphic subdivision of the central Ethiopia Karoo and its correlation with coeval strata of adjacent regions in Gondwana. From a phytogeographic point of view, the overall microfloral evidence is in support of the position of central Ethiopia occupying the northern part of the southern Gondwana palynofloral province. In view of palaeoecological and paleoclimatic conditions, the microfloral change from the base to the top of the studied section may indicate a response to shifting climatic belts from warm- and cool-temparate climate in the earliest Permian to progressively drier seasonal conditions at successively higher palaeolatitudes during the Late Permian to Middle Triassic.
Background Although, Plasmodium vivax is a rare parasite in most parts of Africa, it has significant public health importance in Ethiopia. In some parts of the country, it is responsible for majority of malaria associated morbidity. Recently severe life threatening malaria syndromes, frequently associated to P. falciparum, has been reported from P. vivax mono-infections. This prompted designing of the current study to assess prevalence of severe malaria complications related to P. vivax malaria in Ethiopia. Methods The study was conducted in two study sites, namely Kersa and Halaba Kulito districts, located in southwest and southern parts of Ethiopia, respectively. Children, aged ? 10 years, who visited the two health centers during the study period, were recruited to the study. Clinical and demographic characteristics such as age, sex, temperature, diarrhea, persistent vomiting, confusion, respiratory distress, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, hemoglobinuria, and epitaxis were assessed for a total of 139 children diagnosed to have P. vivax mono-infection. Parasitological data were collected following standard procedures. Hemoglobin and glucose level were measured using portable hemocue instrument. Results Median age of children was 4.25 ± 2.95 years. Geometric mean parasite count and mean hemoglobin level were 4254.89 parasite/?l and 11.55 g/dl, respectively. Higher prevalence rate of malaria and severe malaria complications were observed among children enrolled in Halaba district (P < 0.001). However, severe parasitemia was higher (72.4%) among children who visited Serbo health center (Kersa district). Male children had significantly higher risk of malaria infection (OR = 1.9, 95% CI, 1.08 to 3.34), while female had higher risk to anemia (OR = 1.91, 95% CI, 1.08 - 3.34). The observed number of anemic children was 43%, of which most of them were found in age range from 0–3 years. Furthermore, P. vivax malaria was a risk factor for incidence of anemia (P < 0.05) in the two sites. Conclusion P. vivax associated severe malaria complications observed in this study was lower than those reported from other countries. However, incidence of severe malaria complications in one of the sites, Halaba district, where there is highest treatment failure to first line drug, could have significant impact on national malaria prevention and control activities. PMID:23834734
Walley, J D; McDonald, M
In Wollo region of Ethiopia, various non-governmental officers have been working closely with each other and with the Regional Health Department to implement the policy of daily integrated mother and child health services. The record cards, registers, procedures and training courses of the separate 'vertically' organized services were brought together to enable the development of a model integrated service. There were improvements in accessibility, acceptability and output of the services. The system was evaluated by a joint Ministry of Health and UNICEF team, and was adopted for use in the rest of Ethiopia. PMID:1998221
The Health Extension Program is one of the most innovative community-based health programs in Ethiopia. It is based on the assumption that access to and quality of primary health care in rural communities can be improved through transfer of health knowledge and skills to households. Since it became operational in 2004-2005, the Program has had a tangible effect on the thinking and practices of rural people regarding disease prevention, family health, hygiene and environmental sanitation. It has enabled Ethiopia to increase primary health care coverage from 76.9% in 2005 to 90% in 2010. PMID:21778960
The article begins by outlining the extent and origins of environmental degradation in northern Ethiopia. Soil conservation and related environmental rehabilitation measures adopted by the Ministry of Agriculture, with donor assistance, are outlined and shown to be inadequate to reverse the trend of environmental degradation. Their scope and financing are too limited, there are too few immediate production returns for the peasants, and the conventional 'top-down' implementation of the measures means that peasants participate in rehabilitation programmes as paid workers (food-for-work) rather than as responsible landowners. The post-revolutionary government has continued the centralising and state-building policies of its predecessors, substituting the state for feudal lords as the appropriator of peasant production and labour. The wars in Eritrea and Tigray consume the lion's share of the state's resources and development programmes have become increasingly extractive (procurement of grain at low prices, labour campaigns, etc.) and penetrative (relocation of population, collectivisation of agriculture, etc). The problem of land degradation is ultimately a political one: how to find a political formula within which efficient development administration can be combined with power sharing and cultural pluralism. PMID:20958700
Pijuan, Maite; Yuan, Zhiguo
A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used for the treatment of abattoir wastewater to produce effluent with desirable nitrogen and phosphorus levels for irrigation. The SBR cycle consisted of an anaerobic phase with wastewater feeding, a relatively short aerobic period (allowing full ammonium oxidation), a second anoxic period with feeding, followed by settling and decanting. This design of operation allowed biological nitrification and denitrification via nitrite, and therefore with reduced demand for aeration and COD for nitrogen removal. The design also allowed ammonium, rather than oxidized nitrogen, being the primary nitrogen species in the effluent. Biological phosphorus removal was also achieved, with an effluent level desirable for irrigation. A high-level of nitrite accumulation (40 mg N/L) in the reactor caused inhibition to the biological P uptake. This problem was solved through process optimization. The cycle time of the SBR was reduced, with the wastewater load per cycle also reduced, while the daily hydraulic loading maintained. This modification proved to be an effective method to ensure reliable N and P removal. N(2)O accumulation was measured in two experiments simulating the anoxic phase of the SBR and using nitrite and nitrate respectively as electron donors. The estimated N(2)O emissions for both experiments were very low. PMID:20389009
Osaili, Tareq M; Alaboudi, Akram R; Rahahlah, Majdi
Cattle are the main asymptomatic reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7 which can cause illness to human. The objectives of the study were to measure the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 on cattle slaughtered in Amman abattoir, detect virulence factors in the isolates, determine antibacterial resistance of the isolates, and know how the isolates are different or similar when compared to characterized isolates from developed countries. A total of 540 samples (feces, hide, and carcass) were tested for E. coli O157:H7 using the method of ISO 16654:(E). Conventional and multiplex PCR assays were used for serotype confirmation and virulence factor detection, respectively. Fifty E. coli O157:H7 isolates were identified and virulence factors eaeA and hlyA were present in all of the isolates. 60%, 12%, and 22% of the isolates harbored stx(1), stx(2), and stx(1) and stx(2), respectively. The prevalence rates of enterotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 (n=47) were 8.3%, 10%, and 7.8% in feces, hides and carcasses, respectively. The antimicrobial profiles of the isolates showed an extensive resistance to erythromycin, neomycin and vancomycin and high sensitivity to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin and tetracycline. PMID:23273451
Sadler, Charlotte; Hytowitz, Sarah Gail; Frutiger, Eliso
This report presents information to help teachers work with diverse students. The report includes: information regarding the countries and cultures of Haiti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia (for helping to establish rapport with diverse learners); characteristics of Haitians, Eritreans, and Ethiopians as contrasted with American students' characteristics…
Berry, Chris; Bogale, Solomon Shiferaw
Ethiopia is a large country in the Horn of Africa. It has a diverse population of eighty million people who speak over thirty distinct languages. Approximately 80% of the population live in rural areas and rely on subsistence agriculture. Despite economic growth and an abundance of natural resources, it is a country with a per-capita income of…
Abafita, Jemal; Kim, Chang-Soo
We analyze the determinants of educational outcomes of primary school children in Tigray region of Ethiopia using a survey data gathered from four villages in 2013. Four different measures of schooling were used to examine the impact of household and child-specific factors. First, we examine the determinants of school attendance (ever-attendance,…
The major purpose of the study was to look into change and continuity in the policy and practices of adult basic literacy initiatives in Ethiopia and to deduce lessons that can be drawn from the experiences for the future of adult basic literacy program in the country and elsewhere. Data was obtained through critical review of documents on the…
Kyle Claude Jahnke
Developing countries suffer from an array of diseases, of which the developed world is unfamiliar. In order to facilitate the development of community interventions and streamline NGO partnership, needs assessments in targeted areas are conducted. The purpose of this assessment was to attain baseline descriptive data to further understand the needs of the village of Robit, Ethiopia. A trained team
A Female Homo erectus Pelvis from Gona, Ethiopia Scott W. Simpson,1,2 Jay Quade,3 Naomi E. Levin,4 describe a nearly complete early Pleistocene adult female H. erectus pelvis from the Busidima Formation fossil hom- inid adult pelves are from small-bodied females (such as the 3.2-million
Akalu, Girmaw Abebe
This article chronicles the key challenges facing Ethiopia as it embarks on an ambitious, ideologically-driven and aggressive expansion of its higher education system in an effort to address its national goals of economic growth and poverty reduction. It is argued that the urge for higher education expansion has placed undue pressures particularly…
Graaf de M
The 15 Barbus species of Lake Tana, a large shallow lake located at an altitude of 1830 m in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia, form the only remaining intact species flock of large (max. 100cm) cyprinid fishes. Lake Tana is the source of the Blue Nile and high waterfalls (40 m) at Tissisat ('smoking water'), 30 km downstream from the
Salvatore Di Falco; Mintewab Bezabih; Mahmud Yesuf
This paper uses a farm level panel data from Ethiopia and a comprehensive empirical strategy to investigate the contribution of crop biodiversity on food production. We find that increasing the number of crop variety increases production. This result is stronger when rainfall level is lower. Moreover, the productivity analysis is complemented with the study of the determinants of farm level
The purpose of this article is to provide a more comprehensive picture of teacher preparation in Ethiopia on top of a closer scrutiny of current teacher education reforms. In particular, it presents teacher education within the context of policy implementation over the last six decades by highlighting key reforms and how these reforms impacted the…
Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine
This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…
Eticha, Tadele; Mesfin, Kalkidan
Background Self-medication makes consumers more health conscious, reduces treatment burden on healthcare facilities and curtails the cost and time of obtaining access to treatment. However, it increases risks such as drug resistance, adverse drug reactions, incorrect diagnosis, drug interactions and polypharmacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices and factors associated with self-medication in Mekelle, Tigray region, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Mekelle from February to March 2013. A structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection to assess self-medication practices. Data were analyzed using of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Results Among self-medicated study participants, 199(73.7%) were males and 71(26.3%) were females with mean age of 28.65 years. The most frequently reported illnesses or symptoms of illnesses that prompted self-medication of study participants were headache/fever (20.7%), gastrointestinal diseases (17.3%) and respiratory tract infections (15.9%) with the main reasons being mildness of the disease, prior experience and less expensive. The majority of drug consumers made their requests by telling their symptoms, by mentioning specific names of the drugs and by showing old samples. Analgesics/antipyretics, gastrointestinal drugs, respiratory drugs and oral rehydration salt were the most frequently requested categories of drugs. Pharmacists followed by other healthcare providers were the most frequently reported source of drug information for self-medication. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that self-medication practices were common for a wide range of illnesses. Health professionals, especially community pharmacists need to educate people on the benefits and risks of self-medication to encourage responsible self-medication. PMID:24820769
...Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...91, SFAR No. 87 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87—Prohibition...
...Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...91, SFAR No. 87 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87—Prohibition...
...Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...91, SFAR No. 87 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87—Prohibition...
Wilhelm, Barbara; Raji?, Andrijana; Greig, Judy D; Waddell, Lisa; Harris, Janet
Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) programs have been endorsed and implemented globally to enhance food safety. Our objective was to identify, assess, and summarize or synthesize the published research investigating the effect of HACCP programs on microbial prevalence and concentration on food animal carcasses in abattoirs through primary processing. The results of microbial testing pre- and post-HACCP implementation were reported in only 19 studies, mostly investigating beef (n=13 studies) and pork (n=8 studies) carcasses. In 12 of 13 studies measuring aerobic bacterial counts, reductions were reported on beef (7/8 studies), pork (3/3), poultry (1/1), and sheep (1/1). Significant (p<0.05) reductions in prevalence of Salmonella spp. were reported in studies on pork (2/3 studies) and poultry carcasses (3/3); no significant reductions were reported on beef carcasses (0/8 studies). These trends were confirmed through meta-analysis of these data; however, powerful meta-analysis was precluded because of an overall scarcity of individual studies and significant heterogeneity across studies. Australia reported extensive national data spanning the period from 4 years prior to HACCP implementation to 4 years post-HACCP, indicating reduction in microbial prevalence and concentration on beef carcasses in abattoirs slaughtering beef for export; however, the effect of abattoir changes initiated independent of HACCP could not be excluded. More primary research and access to relevant proprietary data are needed to properly evaluate HACCP program effectiveness using modeling techniques capable of differentiating the effects of HACCP from other concurrent factors. PMID:21568689
During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate ‘trimming’ of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry. Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic. This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example. PMID:22738170
Masana, M O; Leotta, G A; Del Castillo, L L; D'Astek, B A; Palladino, P M; Galli, L; Vilacoba, E; Carbonari, C; Rodríguez, H R; Rivas, M
In Argentina, Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM (STEC O157) is the prevalent serotype associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is endemic in the country with more than 400 cases per year. In order to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 in beef cattle at slaughter, a survey of 1,622 fecal and carcass samples was conducted in nine beef exporting abattoirs from November 2006 to April 2008. A total of 54 samples were found positive for STEC O157, with an average prevalence of 4.1% in fecal content and 2.6% in carcasses. Calves and heifers presented higher percentages of prevalence in feces, 10.5 and 8.5%, respectively. All STEC O157 isolates harbored stx(2) (Shiga toxin 2), eae (intimin), ehxA (enterohemolysin), and fliC(H7) (H7 flagellin) genes, while stx(1) (Shiga toxin 1) was present in 16.7% of the strains. The prevalent (56%) stx genotype identified was stx(2) combined with variant stx(2c (vh-a)), the combination of which is also prevalent (>90%) in STEC O157 post-enteric HUS cases in Argentina. The clonal relatedness of STEC O157 strains was established by phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The 54 STEC isolates were categorized into 12 different phage types and in 29 XbaI-PFGE patterns distributed in 27 different lots. STEC O157 strains isolated from 5 of 21 carcasses were identical by PFGE (100% similarity) to strains of the fecal content of the same or a contiguous bovine in the lot. Five phage type-PFGE-stx profiles of 10 strains isolated in this study matched with the profiles of the strains recovered from 18 of 122 HUS cases that occurred in the same period. PMID:20377952
Regassa, Alemayehu; Golicha, Gelma; Tesfaye, Dawit; Abunna, Fufa; Megersa, Bekele
A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2010 up to April 2011 to estimate mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors and to assess its bacterial causes in traditionally managed camels in Borana Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Thus, 348 lactating camels were examined clinically, and subclinical cases were checked with California mastitis test (CMT). The overall prevalence of mastitis was 44.8 % (156/348), comprising clinical (19, 5.4 %) and subclinical (137, 39.4 %) cases. The quarter level prevalence of mastitis was 24.0 % (334/1,392). Of the total 1,392 examined teats, 30 were blind, and hence, from the 1,362 non-blind CMT-examined teats, 22.3 % (304/1,362) were CMT positive. Of the 304 CMT-positive samples, 264 were culture positive (197 Gram-positive, 41 Gram-negative, and 26 mixed isolates), and 40 were culture negative. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the highest at both the animal (12.8 %, 39/304) and quarter level (2.9 %, 39/1,362). Regression analysis revealed higher likelihood of mastitis occurrence among camels from Dharito (OR = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.8, 6.4), Gagna (OR = 3.4, 95 % CI = 1.8, 6.5), and Haro Bake (OR = 2.6, 95 % CI = 1.3, 5.1) than camels from Surupha. Likewise, there was higher chance of mastitis occurrence among camels at the early lactation stage (OR = 2.3, 95 % CI = 1.1, 4.6) and camels with udder/teat lesions (OR = 13.7, 95 % CI = 1.7, 109.4) than among camels at late lactation stage and camels with healthy udder/teats, respectively. In conclusion, this study reveals the current status of camel mastitis in Southern Ethiopia. PMID:23563738
Background As part of a situational analysis for a research programme on the integration of mental health care into primary care (Programme for Improving Mental Health Care-PRIME), we conducted a baseline study aimed at determining the broad indicators of the population level of psychosocial distress in a predominantly rural community in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a population-based cross-sectional survey of 1497 adults selected through a multi-stage random sampling process. Population level psychosocial distress was evaluated by estimating the magnitude of common mental disorder symptoms (CMD; depressive, anxiety and somatic symptoms reaching the level of probable clinical significance), harmful use of alcohol, suicidality and psychosocial stressors experienced by the population. Results The one-month prevalence of CMD at the mild, moderate and severe threshold levels was 13.8%, 9.0% and 5.1% respectively. The respective one-month prevalence of any suicidal ideation, persistent suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was 13.5%, 3.8% and 1.8%. Hazardous use of alcohol was identified in 22.4%, significantly higher among men (33.4%) compared to women (11.3%). Stressful life events were widespread, with 41.4% reporting at least one threatening life event in the preceding six months. A similar proportion reported poor social support (40.8%). Stressful life events, increasing age, marital loss and hazardous use of alcohol were associated with CMD while stressful life events, marital loss and lower educational status, and CMD were associated with suicidality. CMD was the strongest factor associated with suicidality [e.g., OR (95% CI) for severe CMD?=?60.91 (28.01, 132.48)] and the strength of association increased with increase in the severity of the CMD. Conclusion Indicators of psychosocial distress are prevalent in this rural community. Contrary to former assumptions in the literature, social support systems seem relatively weak and stressful life events common. Interventions geared towards modifying general risk factors and broader strategies to promote mental wellbeing are required. PMID:24999041
Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.
Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.
Jenberie, Shiferaw; Lynch, Stacey E; Kebede, Fekadu; Christley, Robert M; Gelaye, Esayas; Negussie, Haileleul; Asmare, Kassahun; Ayelet, Gelagay
The objective of the investigation was to characterise infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDV) circulating in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia between 2009 and 2011. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence for VP2 hypervariable region of ten IBDVs were determined by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to well characterised IBDV isolates worldwide. IBDV genetic material was amplified directly from bursa or cell passaged material. Phylogenetically, Ethiopian IBDVs represented two genetic lineages: very virulent (vv) IBDVs or variants of the classical attenuated vaccine strain (D78). The nucleotide identity between Ethiopian vvIBDVs ranged between 0% and 2.6%. Ethiopian vvIBDVs are clustered phylogenetically with the African IBDV genetic lineage, independent of the Asian/European lineage. This report demonstrates the circulation of vvIBDV in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia. PMID:24145155
Hammond, James; Kendall, J.-Michael; Wookey, James; Stuart, Graham; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay
Ethiopia is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and use shear-wave splitting tomography to invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due aligned melt due to sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominate the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal magma storage dominate the signal and little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment, possibly due to a lack of mantle lithosphere. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is absent beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates in the upper mantle.
Block, P. J.
Numerous hydroclimate forecast models, tools, and guidance exist for application across Ethiopia and East Africa in the agricultural, water, energy, disasters, and economic sectors. This has resulted from concerted local and international interdisciplinary efforts, yet little evidence exists of rapid forecast uptake and use. We will review projected benefits and gains of seasonal forecast application, impediments, and options for the way forward. Specific case studies regarding floods, agricultural-economic links, and hydropower will be reviewed.
Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera
An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 ?g m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 ?g m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 ?g m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 ?g m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P < 0.05), post hoc pairwise comparison indicated no significant difference in mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.
Impact of climate change on the hydroclimatology of Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia Shimelis G. Setegn,1; revised 3 January 2011; accepted 17 February 2011; published 19 April 2011.  Climate change has investigated the sensitivity of water resources to climate change in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia, using
A. Y. Nuru
Ethiopia is one of the developing countries with the highest maternal mortality ratio (MMR) at 673 per 100,000 live births. Tigray, the study area and located in the north, is one of the nine regions of Ethiopia. It has a shortage of skilled birth attendants and has a low utilization of obstetric care. In Tigray, rural women have poor access
Alemu, Daniel S.
Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led…
Kassegne, Samuel Kinde
Page 1 Notes and Proposed Guidelines on Updated Seismic Codes in Ethiopia - Implications for Large of major building structures as well as other infrastructures such as railways, mass-housing, dams, bridges, etc, this paper reviews the extent of seismic hazard in Ethiopia and proposes a review and update
Describes the historical development of libraries in Ethiopia. Examines the National Library of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa University Libraries, the Institute of Ethiopian Studies Library, and the Ethiopian Science and Technology Documentation and Information Center. Discusses the development of special libraries, libraries and documentation centers of…
Vermont, University of
Investing in human and natural capital: An alternative paradigm for sustainable development capital Human capital Ethiopia Reforestation Ecosystem services Carbon Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city
Lindtjørn, B; Alemu, T; Bjorvatn, B
To assess the population dynamics of drought-prone communities, we investigated 605 households in the pastoralist Boran community of Dubluk and in the agricultural community of Elka, both located in southern Ethiopia. The age and sex composition of the population as well as records of births, deaths and patterns of migration were observed for 2 consecutive years. Repeated surveys of the same households revealed much higher rates for deaths and births than did cross-sectional surveys with a one-year recall period. Indirect mortality estimates showed that the under 5 years mortality rates (per 1000 births) were 135 in Dubluk and 219 in Elka. Highest crude death rates were observed in Elka during periods of meningitis and malaria epidemics. During the period of observation, death rates fluctuated to a greater extent than birth rates. Both communities had very high rates of natural increase: in Dubluk 39.0/1000 and in Elka 37.1/1000. In Dubluk, this rate was far higher than any previously recorded and may have indicated that fertility regulating mechanisms, traditionally inherent in the pastoralist social organization, had become weaker as part of cultural changes. Dubluk represented a semi-nomadic society with a moderately high mobility pattern. Peak periods of migration coincided with times of food scarcity in Elka. PMID:8465386
This paper reports on the plant use of laypeople of the Oromo in Southern Ethiopia. The Oromo in Bale had names/uses for 294 species in comparison to 230 species documented in the lower reaches of the Bale area. Only 13 species was used for veterinary purposes, or as human medicine (46). Plant medicine served mostly to treat common everyday ailments such as stomach problems and diarrhea, for wound treatment and as toothbrush-sticks, as anthelmintic, for skin infections and to treat sore muscles and. Interestingly, 9 species were used to treat spiritual ailments and to expel demons. In most cases of medicinal applications the leaves or roots were employed. Traditional plant knowledge has clearly declined in a large part of the research area. Western style health care services as provided by governments and NGOs, in particular in rural areas, seem to have contributed to a decline in traditional knowledge, in part because the local population simply regards western medicine as more effective and safer. PMID:21943288
Zachariah, R.; Keiluhu, A.; Van den Brande, K.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Ayada, L.; Jima, D.; Hinderaker, S. G.; Harries, A. D.
Setting: Forty-eight nutritional rehabilitation centres in southern Ethiopia. Objective: To determine 1) the frequency of temperature recording under programme conditions, 2) the proportion of malnourished children with and without fever who had falciparum malaria and 3) the association between malaria and grade of malnutrition. Design: This was a retrospective analysis of routine programme data. Results: Of 19 200 malnourished children, 16 716 (mean age 4.4 years, 7412 males) underwent a rapid malaria diagnostic test (Paracheck Pf ®). Malnutrition was graded as severe (38%), moderate (35%) and mild (27%). Temperature was not recorded in 15 248 (91%) children. Malaria was diagnosed in 57 (28%) children with fever (n = 206) and 122 (10%) children with no fever (n = 1262). The prevalence of falciparum malaria was 9%. Malaria prevalence was significantly associated with grade of malnutrition: Paracheck Pf was positive in respectively 5%, 8% and 10% of children with mild, moderate and severe malnutrition (?2 for trend 78, P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study shows the value of routine malaria screening in malnourished children, especially those with more severe grades of malnutrition, irrespective of fever. Operational shortcomings are highlighted and ways forward to address these problems are discussed.
Amorim, Ariane Ribeiro; Fornells, Luz Alba Maria Garcete; Reis, Felicidade da Costa; Rezende, Daiana Jacinto; Mendes, Gabriella da Silva; Couceiro, José Nelson dos Santos Silva; Santos, Norma Suely de Oliveira
Asymptomatic influenza virus infections in pigs are frequent and the lack of measures for controlling viral spread facilitates the circulation of different virus strains between pigs. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the circulation of influenza A virus strains among asymptomatic piglets in an abattoir in Brazil and discuss the potential public health impacts. Tracheal samples (n = 330) were collected from asymptomatic animals by a veterinarian that also performed visual lung tissue examinations. No slaughtered animals presented with any noticeable macroscopic signs of influenza infection following examination of lung tissues. Samples were then analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that resulted in the identification of 30 (9%) influenza A positive samples. The presence of asymptomatic pig infections suggested that these animals could facilitate virus dissemination and act as a source of infection for the herd, thereby enabling the emergence of influenza outbreaks associated with significant economic losses. Furthermore, the continuous exposure of the farm and abattoir workers to the virus increases the risk for interspecies transmission. Monitoring measures of swine influenza virus infections and vaccination and monitoring of employees for influenza infection should also be considered. In addition regulatory agencies should consider the public health ramifications regarding the potential zoonotic viral transmission between humans and pigs. PMID:23903968
ADACHI, Yasumoto; MAKITA, Kohei
Mycobacteriosis in swine is a common zoonosis found in abattoirs during meat inspections, and the veterinary authority is expected to inform the producer for corrective actions when an outbreak is detected. The expected value of the number of condemned carcasses due to mycobacteriosis therefore would be a useful threshold to detect an outbreak, and the present study aims to develop such an expected value through time series modeling. The model was developed using eight years of inspection data (2003 to 2010) obtained at 2 abattoirs of the Higashi-Mokoto Meat Inspection Center, Japan. The resulting model was validated by comparing the predicted time-dependent values for the subsequent 2 years with the actual data for 2 years between 2011 and 2012. For the modeling, at first, periodicities were checked using Fast Fourier Transformation, and the ensemble average profiles for weekly periodicities were calculated. An Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was fitted to the residual of the ensemble average on the basis of minimum Akaike’s information criterion (AIC). The sum of the ARIMA model and the weekly ensemble average was regarded as the time-dependent expected value. During 2011 and 2012, the number of whole or partial condemned carcasses exceeded the 95% confidence interval of the predicted values 20 times. All of these events were associated with the slaughtering of pigs from three producers with the highest rate of condemnation due to mycobacteriosis. PMID:25913899
article title: Southern Africa View larger JPEG image ... These Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Africa were acquired on August 25, 2000, during Terra orbit 3655. The left ... of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. Distinctive ...
Yilma, J M; Malone, J B
A geographic information system (GIS) forecast model based on moisture and thermal regime was developed to assess the risk of Fasciola hepatica, a temperate species, and its tropical counterpart, Fasciola gigantica, in Ethiopia. Agroecological map zones and corresponding environmental features that control the distribution and abundance of the disease and its snail intermediate hosts were imported from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Crop Production System Zones (CPSZ) database on east Africa and used to construct a GIS using ATLAS GIS 3.0 software. Base temperatures of 10 degrees C and 16 degrees C were used for F. hepatica and F. gigantica, respectively, to calculate growing degree days in a previously developed climate forecast system that was modified to allow use of monthly climate data values. The model was validated by comparison of risk indices and environmental features to available survey data on fasciolosis. Monthly Fasciola risk indices of four climatic regions in Ethiopia were used to project infection transmission patterns under varying climatic conditions and strategic chemotherapeutic fasciolosis control schemes. Varying degrees of F. hepatica risk occurred in most parts of the country and distinct regional F. hepatica transmission patterns could be identified. In the humid west, cercariae-shedding was predicted to occur from May to October. In the south it occurred from April to May and September to October, depending on the annual abundance of rain. In the north-central and central regions, risk was highest during heavy summer rains and pasture contamination with metacercariae was predicted to occur during August-September, except in wet years, when it may start as early as July and extend up to October. At cooler sites above altitude of 2800 m, completion of an infection cycle may require more than a year. Fasciola gigantica risk was present in the western, southern and north-central regions of the country at altitudes of 1440-2560 m. However, a transmission cycle could be completed in a single year only at elevations below 1700 m. The greatest risk of F. gigantica infection was in the humid western region. Regional strategic chemotherapy schemes of two or three treatments per year were developed. Results suggest that the model can be extrapolated to all CPSZ in the country and adapted for use in control of other vector-borne diseases of economic and public health importance. PMID:9735916
... View Larger image Vigorous vegetation growth in the Southern United States after heavy rains fell during April and ... for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and use plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar ...
Nega, Desalegn; Dana, Daniel; Tefera, Tamirat; Eshetu, Teferi
Background In Sub-Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia, malaria in pregnancy is a major public health threat which results in significant morbidities and mortalities among pregnant women and their fetuses. In malaria endemic areas, Plasmodium infections tend to remain asymptomatic yet causing significant problems like maternal anemia, low birth weight, premature births, and still birth. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and predictors of asymptomatic Plasmodium infection among pregnant women in the rural surroundings of Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study comprising multistage sampling was conducted between April and June, 2013. Socio-demographic data were collected by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Plasmodium infection was diagnosed by using Giemsa-stained blood smear microscopy and a rapid diagnostic test (SD BIOLINE Malaria Ag Pf/Pv POCT, standard diagnostics, inc., Korea). Results Of the total 341 pregnant women participated in this study, 9.1% (31/341) and 9.7% (33/341) were confirmed to be infected with Plasmodium species by microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), respectively. The geometric mean of parasite density was 2392 parasites per microliter (?l); 2275/ ?l for P. falciparum and 2032/ ?l for P. vivax. Parasitemia was more likely to occur in primigravidae (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 9.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.3–60.5), secundigravidae (AOR: 6.3, 95% CI: 2.9–27.3), using insecticide treated bed net (ITN) sometimes (AOR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.8- 57.9), not using ITN at all (AOR: 4.6, 95% CI: 1.4–14.4) compared to multigravidae and using ITN always, respectively. Conclusion Asymptomatic malaria in this study is low compared to other studies’ findings. Nevertheless, given the high risk of malaria during pregnancy, pregnant women essentially be screened for asymptomatic Plasmodium infection and be treated promptly via the antenatal care (ANC) services. PMID:25849587
Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Deneer, John W; Van den Brink, Paul J
Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small stream and for two types of small ponds. Seven selected pesticides were selected since they were estimated to bear the highest risk to humans on the basis of volume of use, application rate and acute and chronic human toxicity, assuming exposure as a result of the consumption of surface water. Potential ecotoxicological risks were not considered as a selection criterion at this stage. Estimates of exposure concentrations in surface water were established using modelling software also applied in the EU registration procedure (PRZM and TOXSWA). Input variables included physico-chemical properties, and data such as crop calendars, irrigation schedules, meteorological information and detailed application data which were specifically tailored to the Ethiopian situation. The results indicate that for all the pesticides investigated the acute human risk resulting from the consumption of surface water is low to negligible, whereas agricultural use of chlorothalonil, deltamethrin, endosulfan and malathion in some crops may result in medium to high risk to aquatic species. The predicted environmental concentration estimates are based on procedures similar to procedures used at the EU level and in the USA. Addition of aquatic macrophytes as an ecotoxicological endpoint may constitute a welcome future addition to the risk assessment procedure. Implementation of the methods used for risk characterization constitutes a good step forward in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia. PMID:25481716
Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe
In Ethiopia, information on the transmission of human zoonotic pathogens through ixodid ticks remains scarce. To address the occurrence and molecular identity of spotted fever group rickettsiae using molecular tools, a total of 767 ixodid ticks belonging to thirteen different species were collected from domestic animals from September 2011 to March 2014. Rickettsia africae DNA was detected in 30.2% (16/53) Amblyommma variegatum, 28.6% (12/42) Am. gemma, 0.8% (1/119) Am. cohaerens, 18.2% (4/22) Amblyomma larvae, 6.7% (2/60) Amblyomma nymphs, 0.7% (1/139) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus and 25% (1/4) nymphs of Rh. (Bo.) decoloratus. A markedly low prevalence of R. africae was recorded in both Am. cohaerens and Rh. (Bo.) decoloratus (p<0.0001) compared with that in Am. variegatum and Am. gemma. The prevalence of R. africae was markedly low in the western districts (Gachi and Abdela) (p<0.0001); however, the prevalence of R. africae was relatively high in the central (Ada'a, Wolmara and Arsi) and eastern (Arero, Moyale and Yabelo) districts, where Am. variegatum and Am. gemma were predominantly associated with R. africae, respectively. R. aeschlimannii DNA was detected in 45.4% (5/11) Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and 2.2% (1/46) Hy. truncatum. Moreover, the first report of R. massiliae DNA in 1.9% (1/52) Rhipicephalus praetextatus ticks in Ethiopia is presented herein. Altogether, these results suggest that the transmission of spotted fever group rickettsiae through ixodid ticks is a potential risk for human health in different parts of Ethiopia. Clinicians in this country should consider these pathogens as a potential cause of febrile illness in patients. PMID:25262832
Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Wookey, J.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.
is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow, or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study, we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and we directly invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due to shear segregated melt along sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominates the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from regions with significant lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal and uppermost mantle magma storage dominate the signal in localized regions. In general, little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle beneath Afar suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is lacking beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates flow in the upper mantle.
Steenhuis, Tammo; Collick, Amy; Wondie, Ayalew; Jemberu, Tsehai
This presentation will highlight our experience in teaching 19 Master's students from diverse backgrounds hydrology and watershed management in Ethiopia. Although the program was based at Bahir Dar University on the shores of Lake Tana in Ethiopia, the students received an US degree. The goal was to train professionals who can help to institute more effective and sustainable watershed management practices in Ethiopia. Teaching hydrology was a challenge. From the literature and personal observation, it was obvious that the traditional techniques of predicting runoff based on infiltration excess runoff and SCS curve number method were not satisfactory. Saturation excess runoff was more likely. However there was no research to prove that it actually was the case. In class we taught both runoff principles but stressed the saturation excess runoff. It was impossible to convince the students that the techniques that came from the western world be incorrect. For their Masters thesis, eight students did field research on runoff and erosion processes in watershed (some of which has a long record of discharge and sediment data). The students recorded water table heights, measured infiltration rates and determined where most erosion took place in the landscape. Based on this data they modeled the previously observed discharge successful using a saturation excess type model. From these studies we could establish that saturation in the landscape had a great effect on both runoff and sediment losses. As result of the field work, students had changed their mind about the appropriateness of using for example the SCS curve number method in Ethiopian highlands Perhaps the lesson to be learned is that we do not need a lot of funds to teach students the right hydrology. However, there is no substitute for going out in the field and experiencing what the right hydrology is by studying the processes in the landscape itself. By simply teaching in class, students will and cannot accept that the hydrologic processes that were taught for a century might be incorrect.
Gadisa, Endalamaw; Tsegaw, Teshome; Abera, Adugna; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin; den Boer, Margriet; Aseffa, Abraham; Jorge, Alvar
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, Kala-azar) is one of the growing public health challenges in Ethiopia with over 3.2 million people at risk and estimated up to 4000 new cases per year. Historically, VL was known as the diseases of the lowlanders; in the lower and upper Kola agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia. The 2005-07 out breaks in highlands of Libo Kemkem and Fogera, in the Woina Degas, that affected thousands and claimed the life of hundreds misdiagnosed as drug resistance malaria marked that VL is no more the problem of the lowlanders. The Kola (lower and upper) and the Woina Dega are the most productive agroecological zones, supporting both the ongoing and planned expansions of large or small scale agriculture and/or agriculture based industries. Thus, the (re)emergence of VL is not only a public health and social problem but also have a direct implication on the country's economy and further development. Thus is high time for its control and/or elimination. Yet, the available data seem incomplete to plan for a cost-effective and efficient VL control strategy: there is a need to update data on vector behaviour in specific ecosystems and the roles of domestic animals need to be ascertained. The effectiveness and social acceptability of available vector control tools need be evaluated. There is a need for identifying animal reservoir(s), or establish the absence of zoonosis in Ethiopia. The planning of prevention of (re)emergence and spread of VL to areas adjacent to endemic foci need be supported with information from spatio-temporal mapping. In affected communities, available data showed that their knowledge about VL is generally very low. Thus, well designed studies to identify risk factors, as well as better tools for social mobilization with the understanding of their knowledge, aptitude and practice towards VL are necessary. PMID:26187584
Strong, N.; Willenbring, J.; Terwilliger, V. J.
The Tigray Plateau of Northern Ethiopia is a key region for the study of relationships between climate, land use and the rise and fall of complex societies. Tigray has been the home to a succession of highly developed and powerful kingdoms and has a long history of agriculture, dating back to ~ 6,000 yrs BP. Unfortunately its mountainous topography makes the region particularly susceptible to accelerated erosion and mass wasting from intense land use practices and its location along the ITCZ and the East African rift system make the area prone to climatic changes. Today, after 6,000 years of agriculture, of which the last ~3,000 years have involved intense land use, the once fertile Tigray region is now highly degraded with frequent famine and some of the highest rates of soil erosion in the world. We find, based on a comparison of background (long-term) and anthropogenic short-term time-averaged erosion rates that deforestation and a transition to cropland farming likely increased rates of localized upstream erosion and downstream deposition by up to an order of magnitude greater than the natural background rates. We define three distinct periods of note in terms of rates and patterns of Holocene erosion and deposition in the east Tigray Plateau of Ethiopia. First, we take note of the depositional record and paleo-flaural reconstructions of a time of regional climate change yet little landuse change in Ethiopia, 7,500 - 6,000 cal yr BP (Late Prehistory and the beginning of the migration of peoples out of the Sahara and into Sudan and the highlands of Ethiopia). Second, we look at the stratigraphic record of the beginning of intense landuse and cultivation in the gently sloping lowland areas, 3200 -2300 Cal yrs BP (Pre-Aksumite period and the establishment of the first large centralized government in the upper Highlands). Third, we identify from the geological record a period of deforestation and farming of higher elevation, steep sloped hillsides and terraces 2300 -1300 Cal yrs BP (a period spanning the rise and subsequent fall of the Aksumite kingdom.)
Vemming, Ditte C; Steenkamp, Gerhard; Carstens, Ann; Olorunju, Steve A S; Stroehle, Ruth M; Page, Patrick C
Dental care is an integral part of equine veterinary practice. The objectives of this cross sectional study were to describe the prevalence of dental disorders in an abattoir population of horses, and to compare oral examination of intact and bisected heads. Heads from 40 horses, 19 males and 21 females, were examined and divided into immature, adult or older horses based on dental age. Older horses had a significantly higher prevalence of infundibular caries (91.7%), diastemata (66.7%) and fractures (58.3%), whereas dental wear disorders affected all age groups. Gasterophilus spp. larvae were detected in 20% of the horses. A short oral examination performed on intact heads was adequate for diagnosing major disorders, but the occurrence of many conditions had only fair to poor agreement with the bisected heads. A more detailed oral examination may be needed for reliable diagnosis of many disorders. PMID:25979819
Delsol, Anne A; Halfhide, Deborah E; Bagnall, Mary C; Randall, Luke P; Enne, Virve I; Woodward, Martin J; Roe, John M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of an Escherichia coli with the multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) phenotype to withstand the stresses of slaughter compared to an isogenic progenitor strain. A wild type E. coli isolate (345-2RifC) of porcine origin was used to derive 3 isogenic MAR mutants. Escherichia coli 345-2RifC and its MAR derivatives were inoculated into separate groups of pigs. Once colonisation was established, the pigs were slaughtered and persistence of the E. coli strains in the abattoir environment and on the pig carcasses was monitored and compared. No significant difference (P>0.05) was detected between the shedding of the different E. coli strains from the live pigs. Both the parent strain and its MAR derivatives persisted in the abattoir environment, however the parent strain was recovered from 6 of the 13 locations sampled while the MAR derivatives were recovered from 11 of 13 and the number of MAR E. coli recovered was 10-fold higher than the parent strain at half of the locations. The parent strain was not recovered from any of the 6 chilled carcasses whereas the MAR derivatives were recovered from 3 out of 5 (P<0.001). This study demonstrates that the expression of MAR in 345-2RifC increased its ability to survive the stresses of the slaughter and chilling processes. Therefore in E. coli, MAR can give a selective advantage, compared to non-MAR strains, for persistence on chilled carcasses thereby facilitating transit of these strains through the food chain. PMID:20452075
Njisane, Yonela Z; Muchenje, Voster
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality. PMID:25049733
Tembo, Wilfred; Nonga, Hezron E
Slaughterhouses provide a safeguard that prevents the public from consuming meat of poor quality or meat which may be infected with zoonotic diseases. This work reviews a 3-year database of cattle that were slaughtered and inspected between 2010 and 2012 at Dodoma abattoir, Tanzania. In addition, meat inspection was undertaken for 1 month (December 2013). The aim of this study was to establish causes of organ and carcass condemnations and their financial implications as well as the magnitude of slaughter of pregnant cows at Dodoma abattoir. During retrospective study, it was found that a total of 9015 (10.5%) lungs, 6276 (7.3%) intestines, 5402 (6.3%) livers, 3291 (3.8%) kidneys and 41 (0.05%) carcasses were condemned. Pulmonary emphysema (3.4%), fasciolosis (4.5%), pimply gut (5.7%), kidney congenital cysts (1.9%) and hydatidosis (3.1%) were major causes of organ condemnations. This large number of condemned edible organs and/or carcasses implies that public health considerations result in deprivation of valuable protein. Occurrence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, fasciolosis and tuberculosis illustrates the possible public health problem and presence of environmental infections. Of the 794 cows slaughtered in December 2013, 46% were pregnant. Financial loss as a result of organ and/or carcass condemnations was estimated at $9892. Condemnation of organs and/or carcasses and indiscriminate slaughter of pregnant cows represent a significant loss of meat and revenue and a reduction in growth of future herds, which has a negative effect on the livestock industry. This justifies appropriate surveillance and disease control programmes coupled with strict enforcement of legislation governing animal welfare to curb the slaughter of pregnant animals. PMID:26017465
Haile-Selassie, Yohannes; Gibert, Luis; Melillo, Stephanie M; Ryan, Timothy M; Alene, Mulugeta; Deino, Alan; Levin, Naomi E; Scott, Gary; Saylor, Beverly Z
Middle Pliocene hominin species diversity has been a subject of debate over the past two decades, particularly after the naming of Australopithecus bahrelghazali and Kenyanthropus platyops in addition to the well-known species Australopithecus afarensis. Further analyses continue to support the proposal that several hominin species co-existed during this time period. Here we recognize a new hominin species (Australopithecus deyiremeda sp. nov.) from 3.3-3.5-million-year-old deposits in the Woranso-Mille study area, central Afar, Ethiopia. The new species from Woranso-Mille shows that there were at least two contemporaneous hominin species living in the Afar region of Ethiopia between 3.3 and 3.5 million years ago, and further confirms early hominin taxonomic diversity in eastern Africa during the Middle Pliocene epoch. The morphology of Au. deyiremeda also reinforces concerns related to dentognathic (that is, jaws and teeth) homoplasy in Plio-Pleistocene hominins, and shows that some dentognathic features traditionally associated with Paranthropus and Homo appeared in the fossil record earlier than previously thought. PMID:26017448
Kassahun, Aysheshm; Sadlova, Jovana; Benda, Petr; Kostalova, Tatiana; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Baneth, Gad; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan
The leishmaniases, a group of diseases with a worldwide-distribution, are caused by different species of Leishmania parasites. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis remain important public health problems in Ethiopia. Epidemiological cycles of these protozoans involve various sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors and mammalian hosts, including humans. In recent years, Leishmania infections in bats have been reported in the New World countries endemic to leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to survey natural Leishmania infection in bats collected from various regions of Ethiopia. Total DNA was isolated from spleens of 163 bats belonging to 23 species and 18 genera. Leishmania infection was detected by real-time (RT) PCR targeting a kinetoplast (k) DNA and internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) gene of the parasite. Detection was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Leishmania kDNA was detected in eight (4.9%) bats; four of them had been captured in the Aba-Roba and Awash-Methara regions that are endemic for leishmaniasis, while the other four specimens originated from non-endemic localities of Metu, Bedele and Masha. Leishmania isolates from two bats were confirmed by ITS1 PCR to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, isolated from two individual bats, Cardioderma cor and Nycteris hispida, respectively. These results represent the first confirmed observation of natural infection of bats with the Old World Leishmania. Hence, bats should be considered putative hosts of Leishmania spp. affecting humans with a significant role in the transmission. PMID:26232657
The year 2013 marks exactly 200 years since John Snow, known as the father of modern epidemiology, was born. In 19th century, epidemiologists like John Snow, concentrated almost entirely upon infectious diseases of humans measuring the burden of disease, describing pattern and attempting to understand the transmission dynamics. During the second half of the 20th century; big changes occurred so that epidemiologists in the developed world started to use systematized approaches to investigate the etiologies, conditions and to evaluate interventions through different study designs. However, the situation in the developing world is not the same as the rest of the world. Even 200 years after Snow's birth, epidemiological capacity is lowest in Africa. This article attempts to describe that Ethiopia is not exceptional. In the past few decades, there have been some attempts to build capacity in the country by launching training programs in clinical epidemiology, general epidemiology and field epidemiology. However, not only few epidemiologists are trained, but, limited funding, high-teaching burdens, poor working conditions and low salaries are among important contributors for epidemiological brain drain in Ethiopia. Thus, strengthening learning opportunities and rewarding career paths are required to increase human resource capacity and retain skilled personnel in the field of epidemiology. PMID:24696979
Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H O; Lemenih, Mulugeta
Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time-before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term. PMID:24488085
Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H. O.; Lemenih, Mulugeta
Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.
Endo, Noriko S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
This thesis applies the HYDRology, Entomology and MAlaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS) to the environment around a water resources reservoir in Ethiopia. HYDREMATS was modified to simulate the local hydrology and the ...
Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of NTDs, integrated mapping, rapid scale up of interventions and operational research into co implementation of intervention packages will be crucial. PMID:23095679
Sara E. Buchanan; Barbara Pose
Despite 25 years of development assistance, Ethiopia experiences one of the highest child mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa. In northwestern Ethiopia, CARE International implemented a five-year child survival project in the Farta district from 2002 to 2007.Although similar to other child survival projects in terms of behavioral change communication approaches, the Farta Child Survival Project exceeded targets, including those for
Background Infections account for up to a half of neonatal deaths in low income countries. The umbilicus is a common source of infection in such settings. This qualitative study investigates practices and perspectives related to umbilical cord care in Ethiopia. Methods In-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted in a district in each of the four most populous regions in the country: Oromia, Amhara, Tigray and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR). In each district, one community was purposively selected; and in each study community, IDIs were conducted with 6 mothers, 4 grandmothers, 2 Traditional Birth Attendants and 2 Health Extension Workers (HEWs). The two main questions in the interview guide related to cord care were: How was the umbilical cord cut and tied? Was anything applied to the cord stump immediately after cutting/in the first 7 days? Why was it applied/not applied? Results The study elucidates local cord care practices and the rational for these practices. Concepts underlying cord tying practices were how to stem blood flow and facilitate delivery of the placenta. Substances were applied on the cord to moisturize it, facilitate its separation and promote healing. Locally recognized cord problems were delayed healing, bleeding or swelling. Few respondents reported familiarity with redness of the cord - a sign of infection. Grandmothers, TBAs and HEWs were influential regarding cord care. Conclusions This study highlights local rationale for cord practices, concerns about cord related problems and recognition of signs of infection. Behavioral change messages aimed at improving cord care including cleansing with CHX should address these local perspectives. It is suggested that HEWs and health facility staff target mothers, grandmothers, TBAs and other community women with messages and counseling. PMID:24742223
Mesfin, Fisseha; Demissew, Sebsebe; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun
Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR). Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF) were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'). Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71%) from natural vegetation and 27 (29%) from home gardens. Forty-five (62%) were used for humans, 15(21%) for livestock and 13(18%) for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2%) were Shrubs, 28(34.5%) herbs, 17 (20.9%) trees and 1(1.2%) climbers. The root (35.8%) was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4%) in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%). Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies. PMID:19821994
Tonini, Francesco; Jona Lasinio, Giovanna; Hochmair, Hartwig H.
The analysis and forecasting of extreme climatic events has become increasingly relevant to plan effective financial and food-related interventions in third-world countries. Natural disasters and climate change, both large and small scale, have a great impact on non-industrialized populations who rely exclusively on activities such as crop production, fishing, and similar livelihood activities. It is important to identify the extent of the areas prone to severe drought conditions in order to study the possible consequences of the drought on annual crop production. In this paper, we aim to identify such areas within the South Tigray zone, Ethiopia, using a transformation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) called Absolute Difference NDVI (ADVI). Negative NDVI shifts from the historical average can generally be linked to a reduction in the vigor of local vegetation. Drought is more likely to increase in areas where negative shifts occur more frequently and with high magnitude, making it possible to spot critical situations. We propose a new methodology for the assessment of drought risk in areas where crop production represents a primary source of livelihood for its inhabitants. We estimate ADVI return levels pixel per pixel by fitting extreme value models to independent monthly minima. The study is conducted using SPOT-Vegetation (VGT) ten-day composite (S10) images from April 1998 to March 2009. In all short-term and long-term predictions, we found that central and southern areas of the South Tigray zone are prone to a higher drought risk compared to other areas.
Tonini, F.; Hochmair, H. H.; Jona Lasinio, G.
The analysis and forecasting of extreme climatic events has become increasingly relevant to planning effective financial and food-related interventions in third-world countries. Natural disasters and climate change, both large and small scale, have a great impact on non-industrialized populations who rely exclusively on activities such as crop production, fishing, and similar livelihood activities. It is important to identify the extent of the areas prone to severe drought conditions in order to study the possible consequences of the drought on annual crop production. In this paper, we aim to identify such areas within the South Tigray zone, Ethiopia, using a transformation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) called Absolute Difference NDVI (ADVI). Negative NDVI shifts from the historical average can generally be linked to a reduction in the vigor of local vegetation. Drought is more likely to increase in areas where negative shifts occur more frequently and with high magnitude, making it possible to spot critical situations. We propose a new methodology for the assessment of drought risk in areas where crop production represents a primary source of livelihood for its inhabitants. We estimate ADVI return levels pixel per pixel by fitting extreme value models to independent monthly minima. The study is conducted using SPOT-Vegetation (VGT) ten-day composite (S10) images from April 1998 to March 2009. In all short-term and long-term predictions, we found that central and southern areas of the South Tigray zone are prone to a higher drought risk compared to other areas.; Temporal autocorrelation among monthly minima within the Alamata woreda. (a) ACF-Boxplot and (b) PACF-Boxplot. ; ADVI return level estimates. (a) 10-Month return levels. (b) 100-Month return levels. (c) 1000-Month return levels.
Grandin, R.; Socquet, A.; Binet, R.; Klinger, Y.; Jacques, E.; de Chabalier, J.-B.; King, G. C. P.; Lasserre, C.; Tait, S.; Tapponnier, P.; Delorme, A.; Pinzuti, P.
We provide a new set of complementary geodetic data for the 2005 rifting event of Afar (Ethiopia). Interferometric synthetic aperture radar and subpixel correlations of synthetic aperture radar and SPOT images allow us to deduce 3-D surface displacement unambiguously. We determine the geometry of the dike and neighboring magma chambers and invert for the distribution of opening of the dike, as well as slip on rift border faults. The volume of the 2005 dike (1.5-2.0 km3) is not balanced by sufficient volume loss at Dabbahu and Gabho volcanoes (0.42 and 0.12 km3, respectively). Taking into account the deflation of a suspected deep midsegment magma chamber simultaneously to dike intrusion produces a smoother opening distribution along the southern segment. Above the dike, faults slipped by an average 3 m, yielding an estimated geodetic moment of 3.5 × 1019 Nm, one order of magnitude larger than the cumulative seismic moment released during the earthquake swarm. Between Dabbahu and Ado'Ale volcanic complexes, significant opening occurred on the western side of the dike. The anomalous location of the dike at this latitude, offset to the east of the axial depression, may explain this phenomenon. A two-stage intrusion scenario is proposed, whereby rifting in the northern Manda Hararo Rift was triggered by magma upwelling in the Dabbahu area, at the northern extremity of the magmatic segment. Although vigorous dike injection occurred during the September 2005 event, the tectonic stress deficit since the previous rifting episode was not fully released, leading to further intrusions in 2006-2009.
Levin, Naomi E.; Zipser, Edward J.; Cerling, Thure E.
Oxygen and deuterium isotopic values of meteoric waters from Ethiopia are unusually high when compared to waters from other high-elevation settings in Africa and worldwide. These high values are well documented; however, the climatic processes responsible for the isotopic anomalies in Ethiopian waters have not been thoroughly investigated. We use isotopic data from waters and remote data products to demonstrate how different moisture sources affect the distribution of stable isotopes in waters from eastern Africa. Oxygen and deuterium stable isotopic data from 349 surface and near-surface groundwaters indicate isotopic distinctions between waters in Ethiopia and Kenya and confirm the anomalous nature of Ethiopian waters. Remote data products from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis project show strong westerly and southwesterly components to low-level winds during precipitation events in western and central Ethiopia. This is in contrast to the easterly and southeasterly winds that bring rainfall to Kenya and southeastern Ethiopia. Large regions of high equivalent potential temperatures (?e) at low levels over the Sudd and the Congo Basin demonstrate the potential for these areas as sources of moisture and convective instability. The combination of wind direction data from Ethiopia and ?e distribution in Africa indicates that transpired moisture from the Sudd and the Congo Basin is likely responsible for the high isotopic values of rainfall in Ethiopia.
Fekadu, Abebaw; Teferra, Solomon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Addissie, Adamu; Deressa, Wakgari; Yimer, Getnet; Reja, Ahmed
Low income countries like Ethiopia are underrepresented in clinical research. As a major public commitment to clinical research, Ethiopia celebrated the International Clinical Trial Day (ICTD) for the first time on 20 May 2014 under the auspices of Addis Ababa University. The motto for the day was 'Clinical Trials for Excellence in Patient Care'. The celebration offered an opportunity to inform academic staff, researchers, students and the leadership about clinical trials being conducted and to discuss the future of clinical trials in the country. Although clear challenges to the conduct of trials abound, clinical trials registered from Ethiopia in trial registration databases is increasing. Cross-country collaborations, international funding support, motivation of academic staff to conduct clinical trials and the commitment and engagement of the leadership in research are all improving. The overall impact of clinical trials is also encouraging. For example, some of the trials conducted in Ethiopia have informed treatment guidelines. However, administrative capacity, research infrastructure as well as financial support remain weak. There is a need for enhanced university-industry linkage and translation of research findings into locally relevant evidence. Ethiopia, as well as the whole of Africa, has an unparalleled opportunity to lead the way in clinical trials, given its prospect of development and the need to have locally relevant evidence for its growing population. In this commentary we reflect on the celebration of ICTD, the status and opportunities for conducting clinical trials and the way forward for facilitating clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa. PMID:25526797
Mebatsion, T; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Gottelli, D; Cox, J H
Varying levels of rabies antibody have been detected both by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT) in the sera collected from wild and domestic canids in the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) of Southern Ethiopia. Rabies antibody was detected in 80% (8 out of 10) of domestic dog samples, 13.3% (2 out of 15) of Simien jackal samples and in one common jackal. Rabies virus was isolated from one dog in an area where contact with the Simien jackal could possibly occur. All samples examined from wild rodents as possible reservoir hosts for rabies were found negative. The presence of large proportion of susceptible Simien jackals in the population should be a cause of great concern in saving this endangered species from the ravages of rabies. PMID:1642078
Studies indicate that girls and women encounter sexual violence in their day-to-day social life in all cultures and societies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual violence against female students in Wolaita Sodo University; 374 female students provided responses to self-administered questionnaire. The study revealed 23.4% (95%…
Studies indicate that girls and women encounter sexual violence in their day-to-day social life in all cultures and societies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual violence against female students in Wolaita Sodo University; 374 female students provided responses to self-administered questionnaire. The study revealed 23.4% (95% CI = 18.7-27.3) attempted rape, 8.7% (95% CI = 3.6-12.9) completed rape, 24.2% (95% CI = 17.7-26.1) committed physical harassment, 18.7% (95% CI = 12.8-20.3) committed verbal harassment, and 11.3% (95% CI = 6.6-12.6) forced sexual initiation. Reported level of these perpetrations was experienced mainly at high school and during enrollment year in the university. Boyfriends, close friends, family members and relatives, school and university teachers, other employees, and strangers were found to be the key perpetrators of sexual violence against women. Interventions are required to create a safe learning environment for female students through prevention and rehabilitation programs. PMID:23400881
Abattoirs as Non-Hospital Source of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Producers: Confirmed by the Double Disc Synergy Test and Characterized by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry
Ikegbunam, Moses Nkechukwu; Anagu, Linda Onyeka; Iroha, Ifeanyi R.; Ejikeugwu, Chika Ebiye; Esimone, Charles Okey
In this study, the presence of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms in abattoirs, a non-hospital community was investigated. The presence of ESBL-producing phenotypes was confirmed by the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST). Out of the 99 isolates screened for ESBL, 28 (28.3%) were confirmed positive. The positive isolates were characterised by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of flight Mass Spectrometry. 50% of the isolates were Pseudomonas spp., the rest were different species of Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas and Achromobacter. Pseudomonas monteilli and Pseudomonas putida were the most occurring in the intestine. The entire positive ESBL producers were subjected to plasmid curing to ascertain the location of the resistant marker. The result of the plasmid curing indicated that the resistant genes were chromosomally borne. The findings have therefore established the presence of ESBL producing organisms in the gut of animals from abattoirs and the table were the meat are sold, and its rate of occurrence is comparable to hospital ICUs. Abattoir communities could probably be a source of human infection with ESBL expressing pathogens and possible transfer to non-ESBL producers. PMID:24728403
Kebede, Meselu Taye; Hilden, Per Kristian; Middelthon, Anne-Lise
In contemporary Ethiopia, abortion decision-making is a challenging process involving moral and/or religious dilemmas, as well as considerations of health and safety. Amidst widespread condemnation of female premarital sex and clear moral sanction against induced abortion, young Ethiopian women are nevertheless sexually active and induced abortions are still sought and performed, with the potential for grave physical harm and social stigmatization. This paper examines young unmarried Ethiopian women's narratives of abortion decision-making. In particular, it identifies and explores the operations of a particular discursive shape from within in such narratives, here described as The tale of the hearts. Analysing The tale of the hearts as a decision-making resource, it is argued, allows us to explore the particular, local, historical and cultural character of Ethiopian women's abortion decision-making dilemmas and the culturally available resources contributing to their resolution. PMID:22250576
Rampey, Michael L.; Oppenheimer, Clive; Pyle, David M.; Yirgu, Gezahegn
Despite their significance for understanding the potential environmental factors involved in hominin evolution in Ethiopia, very few modern volcanologic studies have been carried out on the Quaternary calderas and associated silicic tephra deposits of the Ethiopian Rift. We present here the second of a set of papers reporting the findings of fieldwork and laboratory analyses of one of the largest of these structures, Kone Caldera, located within the Kone Volcanic Complex in the northern Main Ethiopian Rift. The most recent major episode of explosive eruptive activity at Kone Caldera was apparently associated with formation of part of the overall 8-km-diameter collapse area, and deposited a widely-dispersed alkali rhyolite tephra that reaches a thickness of up to 60 m in vent-proximal deposits. We report here the physical characteristics of this unit in order to constrain eruptive conditions. The pumice fall deposit suggests that an abrupt decrease in magma discharge rate occurred part way through the eruption.
Silkin, T; Hendrie, B
The paper engages in the discussion of conducting research in war zones, initiated in Disasters by Barakat and Ellis. It looks specifically at possibilities for research in the war zones of Eritrea and Northern Ethiopia during the 1980s, and notes the ways in which this context differs from wars in the former Yugoslavia to which Barakat and Ellis mainly refer. The authors suggest that the unique context of every internal war, and the institutional actors that converge around this context, create both the potential and the demand for particular kinds of information, especially when humanitarian programmes involving international donors are under way. De-contexualising research in war zones from the specific context in which it occurs, in order to derive general guidelines, can thus be problematic. PMID:9204632
Background Anemia during childhood impairs physical growth, cognitive development and school performance. Identifying the causes of anemia in specific contexts can help efforts to prevent negative consequences of anemia among children. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence and identify correlates of anemia among school children in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2012 in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia. The study included randomly selected primary school students. Hemoglobin concentration was measured using a Hemocue haemoglobinometer. A child was identified as anemic if the hemoglobin concentration was <11.5 g/dl for children (5–11 yrs) and < 12 g/dl for child older than 12 years age. Poisson regression model with robust variance was used to calculate prevalence ratios. Result The overall prevalence of anemia was 27.1% (95% CI: 24.98, 29.14): 13.8% had mild, 10.8% moderate, and 2.3% severe anemia. Children with in the age group of 5-9 years (APR, 1.083; 95% CI, 1.044- 1.124) were at higher risk for anemia. Paternal education (Illiterate, 1.109; 1.044 - 1.178) was positively associated with anemia. Children who had irregular legume consumption (APR, 1.069; 95% CI, 1.022 -1.118) were at higher risk for anemia. Conclusion About a quarter of school children suffer from anemia and their educational potential is likely to be affected especially for those with moderate and severe anemia. Child age, irregular legume consumption, and low paternal schooling were associated with anemia. Intervention programmes aimed to reduce anemia among school children are crucial to ensure proper growth and development of children. PMID:25902055
Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M
Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to semi-intensive producer, and require support to slowly build up a flock into a profitable venture. PMID:25466215
Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.
Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M.
Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to semi-intensive producer, and require support to slowly build up a flock into a profitable venture. PMID:25466215
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
1 Book review: Elizabeth E. Watson, 2009, Living Terraces in Ethiopia Konso Landscape, Culture & Development, Woodbridge and New York: James Currey (an imprint of Boydell and Brewer) Eastern Africa Series'Ethiopie. Quotation: Demeulenaere, Elise. 2010. "Book review of Watson E. E., 2009, 'Living Terraces in Ethiopia
Belachew, Tefera; Yimam, Ebrahim
Background. Workplace turnover is destructive to nursing and patient outcomes as it leads to losing competent and qualified nurses. However, developments of coping strategies demand a clear understanding of workplace variables that either motivate nurses to remain employed or lead them to leave their current jobs. Objective. This study was designed toassess factors influencing job satisfaction and intention to turnover among nurses in Sidama zone public health facilities, in Southern Ethiopia. Method. Cross-sectional study design was carried out on 278 nurses using both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods from May 12 to June 05, 2010. Result. A total of 242 nurses were interviewed giving a response rate of 87%. Nearly two-third (68.6%) of the participants were female, and the mean age was 28 (±6.27) years for both sexes. All job satisfaction subscale except benefit and salary subscale were significant predictors of overall job satisfaction. Satisfactions with work environment and group cohesion (AOR: 0.25 [95% CI: 0.12, 0.51]), single cohesion (AOR: 2.56 [95% CI: 1.27, 5.13]), and working in hospital (AOR: 2.19 [95% CI: 1.12, 4.30]) were the final significant predictors of anticipated turnover of Sidama zone nurses. Conclusions. More than any factors managers should consider the modification of working environment and group cohesions rather than trying to modify nurses to retain and maintain more experienced nurses for the organizations. PMID:24707397
Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; Santo, Edilene; Marin, Jose Moacir
A survey was performed to estimate the frequency of Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in carcasses obtained from an abattoir in Brazil between February 2006 and June 2007. A total of 216 beef carcasses were sampled at three stages of the slaughter process--preevisceration, postevisceration, and postprocessing--during the rain and dry seasons, respectively. Of the carcasses sampled, 58% were preevisceration E. coli positive, 38% were postevisceration positive, and 32% postprocessing positive. At the postprocessing stage, the isolation of E. coli was twice as high in the rain season. E. coli was isolated from 85 carcasses of which only 3 (1.4%) were positive for stx-encoding genes. No E. coli O157 serogroup isolates were detected. No antimicrobial resistance was found in nine of the isolates (10% of the total). The most frequent resistances were seen against cephalothin (78%), streptomycin (38%), nalidixic acid (36%), and tetracycline (30%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) to three or more antimicrobial agents was determined in 28 (33%) E. coli isolates. The presence of STEC and MDR strains among the isolates in the beef carcasses emphasizes the importance of proper handling to prevent carcass contamination. PMID:18991542
Kumai, Yuko; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Shima, Kensuke; Bhadra, Rupak K.; Yamasaki, Shinji; Kuroda, Koichi; Endo, Ginji
A total of 455 highly tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli strains were isolated from 84 healthy swine from abattoirs and it was found that 56.9, 43.1, 22.2, 15.4, 2.6 and 1.5% of strains were resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, kanamycin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, ofloxacin and gentamicin respectively. Interestingly, E. coli strains isolated from certain finisher hog groups exhibited resistance against 2-7 antimicrobials, but strains isolated from multiparous sow groups in each herd were resistant to only 2-4 antimicrobial agents. When randomly selected 108 tetracycline-resistant isolates were tested for the presence of resistance genes, the following genes tet(A) (n = 6), tet(B) (n = 95), tet(D) (n = 1) or both tet(A) and tet(B) (n = 6) were found to be distributed among them. Furthermore, 52 isolates carried the integrase 1 gene and 24 strains gave five different PCR amplicon profiles using primers from the variable region of integron. Extensive nucleotide sequence analyses of these amplicons revealed the presence of dhfrI, dhfrXII, dfr17, aadA, aadA2, aadA5, aadA21, aacA4 and catB3 genes which code for different antibacterial resistance proteins. PMID:15724712
Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support, resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This unit describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, and subsequent immobilization by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in the second alternate protocol is therefore more rapid and can result in more complete transfer. PMID:18432697
Phiri, Isaac K; Ngowi, Helena; Afonso, Sonia; Matenga, Elizabeth; Boa, Mathias; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Githigia, Samuel; Saimo, Margaret; Sikasunge, Chummy; Maingi, Ndichu; Lubega, George W; Kassuku, Ayub; Michael, Lynne; Siziya, Seter; Krecek, Rosina C; Noormahomed, Emilia; Vilhena, Manuela; Dorny, Pierre; Willingham, A Lee
Pig production has increased significantly in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region during the past decade, especially in rural, resource-poor, smallholder communities. Concurrent with the increase in smallholder pig keeping and pork consumption, there have been increasing reports of porcine cysticercosis in the ESA region. This article reviews the findings concerning the presence and impact of porcine cysticercosis in seven of the ESA countries. Most of the reported findings are based on surveys utilising lingual palpation and post-mortem examination, however, some also used serological assays. In Tanzania, community-based studies on porcine cysticercosis indicate a prevalence of 17.4% in the northern highlands district of Mbulu and a prevalence range of 5.1-16.9% in the southern highlands. In Kenya recent surveys in the southwestern part of the country where smallholder pig keeping is popular indicate that 10-14% of pigs are positive for cysticercosis by lingual examination. Uganda has the most pigs in Eastern Africa, most of which are kept under smallholder conditions. Preliminary surveys in 1998 and 1999 at slaughterhouses in Kampala indicated a prevalence of porcine cysticercosis between 0.12 and 1.2%, however, a rural survey in northern Uganda in 1999 indicated 34-45% of pigs slaughtered in selected villages were infected. Additionally, a new survey of 297 pigs slaughtered in Kampala in 2002 indicated that pigs from the central region of the country were negative for cysticercosis while 33.7% of the pigs coming from the rural Lira district in the north were positive. Interestingly 8 piglet foetuses removed from an infected slaughtered sow coming from Lira district were all found to harbour cysts of T. solium providing evidence of congenital transmission of porcine cysticercosis. In Mozambique, abattoir records indicate that porcine cysticercosis is present in all provinces of the country. A serological survey on pigs in rural Tete Province found 15% of pigs positive. In Zimbabwe, a retrospective study in official abattoirs around the country from 1994 to 2001 reported a mean prevalence of 0.34% which is in contrast to a post-mortem survey in 1999, which showed that the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in rural west Zimbabwe where smallholder pig keeping is popular was 28.6%. In Zambia, abattoir records reported porcine cysticercosis in six of the nine provinces. Routine meat inspection of 1316 pigs at a slaughter slab in Lusaka showed that 20.6% of the pigs had cysticercosis whereas serological testing of 874 pigs at the same abattoir indicated that 56.6% were found to have circulating antigens of Taenia solium. Field surveys based on lingual palpation in Southern and Eastern Provinces of Zambia revealed prevalences of 8.2-28.4 and 5.2%, respectively. South Africa has the largest number of pigs in Southern Africa and cysticercosis has been recognised as a problem in the country for many decades. There is strong evidence supporting the high prevalence of neurocysticercosis infecting humans from resource-poor areas of the country where pigs are being raised under smallholder conditions. In spite of this community-based surveys on porcine cysticercosis have never been conducted in South Africa and the last slaughterhouse survey was conducted nearly 40 years ago. The prevalences of porcine cysticercosis found in these ESA countries rank among the highest in the world and the disease is emerging as an important constraint for the nutritional and economic well being of resource-poor smallholder farming communities. The current findings suggest the widespread presence of human tapeworm carriers and thus a high risk of human cysticercosis in both rural areas and urban centres in the ESA region. More research is required in the region to assess the extent and public health and economic impact of T. solium infection in order to determine whether and what prevention and control efforts are needed. PMID:12781374
Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in the second alternate protocol is therefore more rapid than the basic protocol and can result in more complete transfer. Although the ease and reliability of capillary transfer methods makes this far and away the most popular system for Southern blotting with agarose gels, it unfortunately does not work with polyacrylamide gels, whose smaller pore size impedes the transverse movement of the DNA molecules. The third alternate protocol describes an electroblotting procedure that is currently the most reliable method for transfer of DNA from a polyacrylamide gel. Dot and slot blotting are also described. PMID:18429082
Background Accurate early diagnosis and prompt treatment is one of the key strategies to control and prevent malaria in Ethiopia where both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are sympatric and require different treatment regimens. Microscopy is the standard for malaria diagnosis at the health centres and hospitals whereas rapid diagnostic tests are used at community-level health posts. The current study was designed to assess malaria microscopy capacity of health facilities in Oromia Regional State and Dire Dawa Administrative City, Ethiopia. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2011 in 122 health facilities, where health professionals were interviewed using a pre-tested, standardized assessment tool and facilities’ laboratory practices were assessed by direct observation. Results Of the 122 assessed facilities, 104 (85%) were health centres and 18 (15%) were hospitals. Out of 94 health facilities reportedly performing blood films, only 34 (36%) used both thin and thick smears for malaria diagnosis. The quality of stained slides was graded in 66 health facilities as excellent, good and poor quality in 11(17%), 31 (47%) and 24 (36%) respectively. Quality assurance guidelines and malaria microscopy standard operating procedures were found in only 13 (11%) facilities and 12 (10%) had involved in external quality assessment activities, and 32 (26%) had supportive supervision within six months of the survey. Only seven (6%) facilities reported at least one staff’s participation in malaria microscopy refresher training during the previous 12 months. Although most facilities, 96 (79%), had binocular microscopes, only eight (7%) had the necessary reagents and supplies to perform malaria microscopy. Treatment guidelines for malaria were available in only 38 (31%) of the surveyed facilities. Febrile patients with negative malaria laboratory test results were managed with artemether-lumefantrine or chloroquine in 51% (53/104) of assessed health facilities. Conclusions The current study indicated that most of the health facilities had basic infrastructure and equipment to perform malaria laboratory diagnosis but with significant gaps in continuous laboratory supplies and reagents, and lack of training and supportive supervision. Overcoming these gaps will be critical to ensure that malaria laboratory diagnosis is of high-quality for better patient management. PMID:25073561
Exploring the American South is a splendid idea, and this online journal is a great way to think about the "real and imagined places" of this unique cultural region. Southern Spaces is a peer-reviewed Internet journal and forum that "provides open access to essays, interviews and performances, events and conferences, gateways, timescapes, and annotated links about real and imagined spaces and places of the U.S. South." Their work is supported by the Robert W. Woodruff Library of Emory University, and visitors will want to browse around the site more than once. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking at interactive features like "Negotiating Gender Lines: Women's Movement across Atlanta Mosques" and "The Other Side of Paradise: Glimpsing Slavery in the University's Utopian Landscapes". The site also includes information about the journal's editorial board and a set of thematically organized weblinks.
Alemu, Daniel S.
Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led to mixed feelings among the Ethiopian public. While some laud the opportunities and advantages these new institutions bring, others are apprehensive that the quality of education might be compromised by an expansion motivated by monetary gain. This article sheds light on these paradoxes and provides suggestions for policy and practices.
Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Ali Abdel Megid, Ada; El Kammar, Ahmed
Detrital modes of modern Nile sands, together with estimates of sediment volumes trapped in Sudanese reservoirs, allow us to calculate sediment loads of major tributaries (Blue Nile, White Nile, Atbara) and erosion rates in the Nile catchment. A tridimensional array of high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral data was obtained on both levee (suspended load) and bar (bedload) deposits, analysed separately for each grain-size subclass at 0.5 ? intervals. From available information on sediments stored in the Roseires, Khashm el Girba and Lake Nasser reservoirs between 1964 and 1990, the total Nile load is reassessed at 230 ± 20 10 6 t/a, an estimate two to four times higher than figures reported so far, on which previous estimates of sediment yields and erosion rates were based. Of such huge amount of detritus, 82 ± 10 10 6 t/a are contributed by River Atbara, which carries more volcanic rock fragments, brown augite and olivine from basaltic rocks, and 140 ± 20 10 6 t/a by the Blue Nile, which carries more K-feldspar and hornblende from amphibolite-facies basement rocks. The additional ? 10 7 t/a of almost purely quartzose sediments supplied by the rest of the Nile catchment, corresponding to insignificant average yields and erosion rates, represent the stable residue which survived extreme subequatorial weathering in southern Sudan swamps (White Nile, Bahr ez Zeraf, and Sobat sands) or fluvial and eolian recycling of ancient quartzarenites in hyperarid climates (Nubian sands). Sediment production is thus markedly focused on Ethiopian rift highlands, where rainfall is concentrated in a single July-August peak. High average yields and erosion rates (800 ± 150 t/km 2 a, 0.29 ± 0.05 mm/a) partly reflect anthropically-accelerated erosion caused by deforestation and intensive land use, and cannot be extrapolated far in the past. Erosion patterns may have changed repeatedly during Quaternary climatic oscillations, and possibly also in the longer term during the multistage rift-related events which, since impingement of the Afar plume and eruption of flood basalts in the Oligocene, caused elevated topography and monsoonal climate in Ethiopia.
Background Despite a substantial decrease in child mortality in Ethiopia over the past decade, neonatal mortality remains unchanged (37/1000 live-births). This paper describes a qualitative study on beliefs and practices on immediate newborn and postnatal care in four rural communities of Ethiopia conducted to inform development of a package of community-based interventions targeting newborns. Methods The study team conducted eight key informant interviews (KII) with grandmothers, 27 in-depth interviews (IDI) with mothers; seven IDI with traditional birth attendants (TBA) and 15IDI with fathers, from four purposively selected communities located in Sidama Zone of Southern Nationalities, Nations, and Peoples (SNNP) Region and in East Shewa and West Arsi Zones of Oromia Region. Results In the study communities deliveries occurred at home. After cutting the umbilical cord, the baby is put to the side of the mother, not uncommonly with no cloth covering. This is largely due to attendants focusing on delivery of the placenta which is reinforced by the belief that the placenta is the ‘house’ or ‘blanket’ of the baby and that any “harm” caused to the placenta will transfer to the newborn. Applying butter or ointment to the cord “to speed drying” is common practice. Initiation of breastfeeding is often delayed and women commonly report discarding colostrum before initiating breastfeeding. Sub-optimal breastfeeding practices continue, due to perceived inadequate maternal nutrition and breast milk often leading to the provision of herbal drinks. Poor thermal care is also demonstrated through lack of continued skin-to-skin contact, exposure of newborns to smoke, frequent bathing—often with cold water baths for low-birth weight or small babies; and, poor hygienic practices are reported, particularly hand washing prior to contact with the newborn. Conclusion Cultural beliefs and newborn care practices do not conform to recommended standards. Local perspectives related to newborn care practices should inform behaviour change messages. Such messages should target mothers, grandmothers, TBAs, other female family members and fathers. PMID:24885760
Teklu, T.; Desalegn, F.; Tesfay, M.; Klinkenberg, E.; Mulugeta, A.
Setting: Tuberculosis (TB) patients in Mekelle Zone, Tigray Region, in Ethiopia. Objective: To investigate adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment. Design: A cross-sectional study in health facilities providing anti-tuberculosis treatment was conducted. Adherence was measured in three ways: through self-reported missed doses, by visual analogue scale whereby patients rate their own adherence and by record review. A patient was considered to be adherent if 90% or more of the prescribed medication was taken. Result: Of 278 TB patients included, 101 were in the intensive and 177 in the continuation phase. Respectively 67 (24.1%), 130 (46.8%) and 80 (28.8%) patients had smear-positive, smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB. Self-report of missed doses and record review indicated adherence of respectively 273 (97.3%) and 271 (97.5%) patients. By visual analogue scale, 250 (91.6%) patients rated themselves as adherent. History of drug side effects (aOR 0.25, 95%CI 0.08–0.77) and knowledge about TB prevention (aOR 0.19, 95%CI 0.05–0.8) were independently associated with being adherent in this setting. Conclusion: Adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment was high in our study. Adherence support should be given to the poor, the elderly, patients co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, alcohol abusers and smokers. Health education on TB prevention should be given to all TB patients regularly.
Diop, Gora; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane; Ito, Akira
Genetic diversity of Moniezia spp. from domestic ruminants in Senegal and Ethiopia was investigated based on the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA). A total of 64 adult tapeworms were collected from sheep, goat and cattle, and the tapeworms from cattle were all morphologically identified as Moniezia benedeni. On the other hand, the tapeworms obtained from sheep and goat were identified as Moniezia expansa or could not be identified because of the lack of diagnostic morphologic character, i.e. interproglottidal glands (IPGs). Phylogenetic analysis based on cox1 gene sequences revealed that the worms from sheep/goat and cattle formed distinct clades, and three mitochondrial lineages were confirmed within the sheep/goat tapeworms. The maximum pairwise divergences among the three mitochondrial linages were about 3% in cox1 and 0.1% in SSU rDNA, while that between the worms from sheep/goat and cattle reached 13% in cox1 and 2.7% in SSU rDNA. All of the three mitochondrial lineages contained tapeworms morphologically identified as M. expansa, and the tapeworms without IPGs were confirmed in one of the three lineages, indicating the tapeworms without IPGs were also M. expansa. PMID:25752566
Masuda, Yuta J.; Fortmann, Lea; Gugerty, Mary Kay; Smith-Nilson, Marla; Cook, Joseph
Time use researchers working in least developed countries (LDCs) face difficulties collecting data from illiterate populations who may conceptualize time differently than those in industrialized countries. We identify existing gaps in time use data collection methods and discuss two novel, pictorial methods to collect time use data from these populations. The first method is a modified recall interview modeled on participatory rural appraisal (PRA) methods that asks respondents to place macaroni on pictures of activity categories in proportion to the amount of time spent on that activity during the previous day. The second is a simplified pictorial time diary that uses a timer and sequentially-numbered stickers to re-create the temporal order of activities in 30-minute increments. The latter method also avoids recall bias problems. We present time use data collected in 2009 using these methods in a study examining the impacts of water infrastructure on women and children’s time use in rural Ethiopia. In total, we collected information using the first method from 263 household members over age 10, including 167 water collectors, and pilot-tested the pictorial diary approach with 10 adult respondents. PMID:25620832
A community based cross sectional study was conducted in a rural district of North West Ethiopia between February and April 1997 to determine the magnitude of marriage through abduction ('Telefa') and identify problems associated with it. Randomly selected and currently married 1,168 women were interviewed. The prevalence of marriage through abduction was 6.2% (72/1168). All the abductions reported were only once in lifetime during the first marriage. The median age at first marriage of abducted women was 13 years with a range of 13 (Minimum = 7 and Maximum 20). About two third (66.7%) of abducted women had been married more than once in their life time. Following a multivariate analysis in a logistic regression model abducted women were likely to be victims of abortion [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.71 (1.10-3.05)], marital instability [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.87 (1.10-3.18)], rape [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 7.77 (3.78-15.95)] and domestic violence [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.69 (1.11-2.81)]. The recognition of the magnitude and the associated health problems of marriage through abduction (Telefa) is important. Appropriate strategies that address the health needs of abducted women must be designed. Enforcing the judiciary system to discourage this harmful practice and empowerment of young girls and rural women is needed. PMID:11501287
Poppe, Ludwin; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; Admasu, Teshager; Dessie, Mekete; Adgo, Enyew; Deckers, Jozef; Frankl, Amaury
The geomorphological map of Lake Tana basin (15 077 km², Nile basin, Ethiopia) was prepared from fieldwork data, maps and satellite data that were processed in a GIS system. It contains four major components: (i) hydrography, (ii) morphology and -metry, (iii) materials and (iv) processes. The scale is 1:500 000. The geomorphological setting of the basin consists of lavas that erupted from fissures or (shield) volcanoes during the Tertiary and Quaternary eras, were uplifted and ultimately sculpted by (mainly water) erosion. Lake Tana emerged by the combination of a lava barrier blocking the Blue Nile to the south and by epirogenetic subsidence. Since the time that the lake reached its maximum extent, extensive floodplains were created, river valleys have been filled with sediment and higher laying topography has been eroded. Today, the lake plays a lesser role in landscape formation because of a decreased lake extent (3041 km² now) as compared to the ancient maximum (6602 km²). Dominant processes today are merely fluvial and denudative. Recent (1886-2010) changes in lake coast are small with exception of the delta of the major feeding river, Gilgel Abay, which increased disproportionally the last 15 years. This indicates a large input of sediment which is mainly due to rivers flowing through Quaternary lavas. The recent sediment input increase is most probably related to human induced land-use changes.
Yilmaz, Aysun; Gun, Huseyin; Ugur, Muammer; Turan, Nuri; Yilmaz, Huseyin
The aim of this study was to detect VT1, VT2 and eaeA genes and to determine the frequency of these genes in Escherichia coli O157 and O157:H7 strains isolated from cattle, cattle carcasses and environmental samples of the 5 abattoirs located in Istanbul, Turkey. For this, the presence of VT1, VT2 and eaeA genes in 26 strains of E. coli O157:H7 and 6 strains of O157 was investigated by multiplex-PCR. The results have shown that eaeA gene was detected in all O157 and O157:H7 strains tested. Both VT2 and eaeA genes were detected in 4 (80%) of 5 strains of E. coli O157 and eaeA alone in 1 strain of O157. In 27 strains of O157:H7, 5 (18.5%) strains were found to be positive for VT1, VT2 and eaeA genes, 19 (70.3%) strains for both VT2 and eaeA and, 3 (11.1%) strains for only eaeA gene. Either VT1 alone or VT2 alone was not detected in any strains tested. eaeA gene alone in 2 strains, VT2-eaeA genes in 9 strains and VT1-VT2-eaeA genes in 2 strains were detected in 13 of E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from cattle. eaeA alone in 1 strain, VT2-eaeA genes in 5 strains and VT1-VT2-eaeA genes in 2 strains were detected in 8 of E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from carcasses. VT2-eaeA genes in 5 strains (isolated from hands, apron, knife and floor) and VT1-VT2-eaeA genes in 1 strain (isolated from knife) were also detected in 6 of E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from environmental samples. This study reveals that most of the strains are found to be toxigenic and it is most likely that strains isolated from carcasses and abattoir environment originated from cattle feces. Therefore, HACCP systems are necessary from farm to table especially in the abattoirs to prevent contamination of meat and abattoir environment with intestinal content. PMID:16307816
2005-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03026 Southern Clouds This image shows a system of clouds just off the margin of the South Polar cap. Taken during the summer season, these clouds contain both water-ice and dust. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.2S, Longitude 57.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
2005-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03583 Southern Crater This crater is located south of Agassiz Crater. It is likely that the polar freeze/thaw/frost cycle is responsible for unusual appearance of the ejecta region around the crater. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 76.2S, Longitude 247.8E. 17 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
2005-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03092 Southern Spots This VIS image of the south polar region was collected during the summer season. The markings of the pole are very diverse and easy to see after the winter frost has been removed. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79.7S, Longitude 56.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the Beechmont Historic District, showing changes in landscaping, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY
Kurtz, Kimberly M.; Shepherd, Terry L.
In many countries, children with disabilities seldom receive the educational services they need. Economic instability has often forced a reduction in services for children with disabilities. Cultural values have also impacted support for children with disabilities. A special education residential facility in Ethiopia that serves orphaned children…
Osterwalder, Lars; Johnson, C Annette; Yang, Hong; Johnston, Richard B
Elevated concentrations of naturally-occurring fluoride in groundwater pose a serious health risk to millions of people living in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. In the absence of low-fluoride water resources of sufficient capacity, fluoride removal from drinking water is the accepted mitigation option. To date, five different community-level fluoride-removal technologies have been implemented in Ethiopia, although only a few units have been found in a functional state in the field. Which technology should be promoted and up-scaled is the subject of controversial debate amongst key stakeholders. This paper describes a multi-criteria decision analysis exercise, which was conducted with the participation of stakeholders in Ethiopia during a one-day workshop, to assess in an objective and transparent manner the available technology options. Criteria for technology comparison were selected and weighted, thus enabling the participants to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the different technologies and hear the views of other stakeholders. It was shown that there is no single most-preferable, technical solution for fluoride removal in Ethiopia. Selection of the most suitable solution depends on location-specific parameters and on the relative importance given to different criteria by the stakeholders involved. The data presented in this paper can be used as reference values for Ethiopia. PMID:24238810
Stefan Dercon; Pramila Krishnan
To investigate risk-sh aring within the household, we model nutritional status as a durable good and we look at the consequences of individual health shocks. For household allocation to be pareto-efficient, households should pool shocks to income. We also investigate whether households can smooth nu tritional levels over time. Using data from rural Ethiopia on adult nutritional status, we find
Stefan Dercon; Pramila Krishnan
Much of the literature on consumption smoothing and on risk sharing has focused on the ability of the household as a unit to protect its consumption. Little is known about the ability of individual members of the household to keep consumption smooth over time or relative to other members of the household. We use data on adult nutrition in Ethiopia
Admasu Gebru, Demewoz
Ethiopia, a country containing more than 80 ethnic groups, has remarkably expanded the higher education sector and established universities based on equitable regional distribution in the two past decades. This article discusses and analyzes attitudes and behaviors of university students from various ethnic groups toward their own and other…
Mediannikov, Oleg; Abdissa, Alemseged; Socolovschi, Cristina; Diatta, Georges; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier
We collected 284 ticks in Ethiopia (109 Amblyomma cohaerens, 173 Rhipicephalus decoloratus, and 2 Rhipicephalus praetextatus). We found no rickettsiae and bartonellae. In 7.3% of the A. cohaerens, we found a Borrelia sp. that may represent a new species distant from both relapsing fever group and Lyme borreliae. PMID:23421894
Harries, A. D.; Ade, S.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Ali, E.; Firdu, N.; Yifter, H.
Setting: The Black Lion Referral Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Objective: To document indications for admission, complications and outcomes of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) admitted between 2010 and 2013. Design: A descriptive retrospective study using medical files. Results: Of 8048 admissions, 523 (6.5%) had DM; of these, 418 medical records were retrieved: 301 (72%) patients had type 2 and 104 (28%) type 1 disease, with male sex (62%) and older age (median age 60 years) being features of type 2 disease. Main admission diagnoses for type 2 disease were diabetic foot ulcer (39%) and cardiovascular disease (21%); for type 1 disease, it was diabetic ketoacidosis (62%). Hypertension, neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy and diabetic foot accounted for 85% of the 756 existing complications. Overall in-patient mortality was 21%. Of the 89 deaths, 77 occurred among patients with type 2 disease; the main indications for admission were diabetic foot ulcer/gangrene and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: DM, especially type 2 DM, is an important cause of admission to Ethiopia’s largest referral hospital. Many patients had already developed disease-related complications at admission, and mortality was high. There is a need to improve awareness about and care for DM in Ethiopia.
Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.
Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…
Waktola, Daniel Kassahun
Lack of environmental awareness is one of the underlying causes of severe environmental degradation in Ethiopia. As teachers' colleges are a seedbed of such awareness, assessment of college curricula should shed light on the possibilities they offer to develop capacities to address environmental degradation. This small-scale study is based on the…
Daniel Fitamo; Seyoum Leta; Gurja Belay; Bekele Lemma; Mats Olsson
Irrigation with untreated wastewater from several industrial, commercial, and domestic discharges for decades caused accumulation of various heavy metals and metalloids in soils along the Akaki River in Ethiopia. Assessment of environmental threats and the potential phytoremediation of the soils require understanding of the toxic elements’ uptake and distribution in plant parts. Hence, a greenhouse study was performed to examine
The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…
Using the theory of correspondence and contradiction, the author analyzes the interaction between socioeconomic and educational changes in Ethiopia from 1942 to 1974. An introductory section sets forth the principles of correspondence and contradiction, which refer to how the means of economic production determine conditions in the noneconomic…
Daniel C. Clay; Daniel Molla; Debebe Habtewold
This paper examines the efficiency of food aid targeting in rural Ethiopia based on empirical evidence from a survey of a nationally representative sample of 4,166 farm households conducted by the Grain Market Research Project (GMRP) of MEDAC in collaboration with the Central Statistical Authority (CSA). The survey was administered in June 1995 and covered the 12-month period from the
Menale Kassie; Precious Zikhali; Kebede Manjur; Sue Edwards
In the wake of resource constraints faced by farmers in developing countries in using external farm inputs, sustainable agricultural production practices that rely on local or farm renewable resources present desirable options for enhancing agricultural productivity. In this paper we use plot-level data from the semi-arid region of Ethiopia, Tigray, to investigate the factors influencing farmers' decisions to adopt sustainable
Endeshaw, Meheret; Walson, Judd; Rawlins, Sarah; Dessie, Abere; Alemu, Shitaye; Andrews, Nancy; Rao, Deepa
Rates of depression among people living with HIV can be as high as 50%. In many settings, HIV-related stigma has been associated with depressive symptoms which may lead to poor engagement in care and ultimately, poorer health outcomes. Stigma is a major issue in Ethiopia but data examining the relationship between stigma and depression in Ethiopia are lacking. We performed a mixed-methods cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between stigma of HIV/AIDS and depressive symptoms in Gondar, Ethiopia. We interviewed patients who presented for routine HIV care at Gondar University Hospital during the study period, examining depressive symptoms and HIV/AIDS-related stigma using standardized measures. Multiple-regression was used to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms, stigma, and gender. Of 55 patients included in this analysis, 63.6% were female and most participants had limited formal education (69%, less than 12th grade education). The majority reported experiencing both stigma (78%) and depressive symptoms (60%) ranging in severity from mild to moderately severe. Higher levels of HIV-related stigma were significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms (? = 0.464, p ? 0.001). Although gender was associated with stigma, it was not associated with depressive symptoms (? = -0.027, p > 0.05). Results suggest the importance of psychosocial issues in the lives of people with HIV in Ethiopia. PMID:24382290
M. Lemenih; S. Feleke; W. Tadesse
Frankincense, an aromatic exudate obtained from several Boswellia species, is an important commodity with the potential to invigorate economic development of the drylands of Ethiopia. Local people have been producing and trading frankincense for centuries to diversify their income sources. However, local people's involvement in the production of frankincense varies considerably among the producing dryland regions of the country. The
M. Tilahun; B. Muys; E. Mathijs; C. Kleinn; R. Olschewski; K. Gebrehiwot
Boswellia papyrifera, a frankincense producing tree, grows in the arid lowlands of Ethiopia. It is a multipurpose tree species with ecological, environmental, cultural and socio-economic values. The resource has been declining due to unsustainable management. This study is aimed at estimating frankincense yield in a single production year, assessing the relationship between yield and dendrometric variables, and developing predictive yield
Kindeya Gebrehiwot; Bart Muys; Mitiku Haile; Ralph Mitloehner
Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst is a dryland tree species native to Ethiopia and widely known for its frankincense production. Besides, it has also other numerous environmental, socio-economic, traditional and industrial benefits. However, the population of the species is declining at an alarming rate due to extensive human encroachment. This paper presents the importance of the species, techniques of tapping, harvesting
Emiru Birhane; Thomas W. Kuyper; Frank J. Sterck; Frans Bongers
This study assessed the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) status of Boswellia papyrifera (frankincense-tree) dominated dry deciduous woodlands in relation to season, management and soil depth in Ethiopia. We studied 43 woody species in 52 plots in three areas. All woody species were colonized by AM fungi, with average root colonization being relatively low (16.6% – ranging from 0% to 95%). Mean
Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga
This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in Ethiopia,…
Swancott, Rachel; Uppal, Gobinderjit; Crossley, Jon
The present article reports on the variation of mental health resources across the globe and considers the merits or otherwise of the process of globalization in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), with a specific emphasis on Ethiopia. Although globalization has gained momentum in recent years, there is a concern that the globalization of Western mental health frameworks is problematic, as these concepts have been developed in a different context and do not accommodate the current diversity in understanding in LMIC countries. The importance of understanding the mental health frameworks of LMIC like Ethiopia, prior to considering if and how aspects of high-income countries (HIC) conceptualizations may be appropriately imported, is therefore reflected upon. Traditional approaches in managing mental health difficulties and possible reasons for the limited engagement with clinical psychology in Ethiopia are considered. Current developments within the fields of mental health and clinical psychology in Ethiopia are discussed, and the need to develop more local research in order to increase understanding and evaluate treatment interventions is recognized. Further consideration and debate by Ethiopian mental health professionals as well as those from HIC are recommended, to promote both reciprocal learning and new local discourses about mental health. PMID:25343634
H. Hindorf; A. Ritschel
Coffee (Coffea arabica) as a qualified beverage with a great demand in many countries and coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix) as a quarantine pathogen causing high losses have attracted world-wide high attention. Ethiopia as the source of origin for perhaps both, the host and pathogen, plays an important role in science either for breeders or pathologists. Coffee leaf rust occurs
Macphee, Paula-Louise; Fitz-Gerald, Ann
This paper argues for the importance, benefits and wider impact of a donor-funded, locally supported postgraduate programme in security sector management (SSM) for government officials in Ethiopia. With the exception of specialised education and training programmes within the field of peace and conflict studies, the role of education in…
The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…
Yilma Melkamu; Fikre Enquselassie; Ahmed Ali; Hailemichael Gebresilassie; Lukman Yusuf
Background: Abortion related complications are known to be among the leading causes of maternal mortality and disabilities in developing countries. Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of post-abortion patients, regarding return of fertility and pregnancy intentions. Methods: Cros s sectional study was undertaken in four government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from November 2001 to
Addis Alene, Kefyalew; Mohamed Dohe, Abdulahi
This research work presents the magnitude of anemia and its determinant factors among pregnant women. As far as this research is done in the eastern part of Ethiopia, where there is a different cultural issue related to pregnancy and dietary habit, it will help the researchers to know the problem in different parts of the country. PMID:25215230
(Persson 1995). Thereafter, several Eucalyptus spp. including E. camaldulensis Dehnh., E. saligna Sm., EMycosphaerella species associated with leaf disease of Eucalyptus globulus in Ethiopia By Alemu), University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa. E-mail: email@example.com Summary Eucalyptus
Morgan, L. E.; Renne, P. R.; Woldegabriel, G.; White, T. D.
In past work at hominid sites in Ethiopia, 40Ar/39Ar dating was used to constrain obsidian from the base of the Upper Herto Member of the Bouri Formation to 160 ± 2 ka. An overlying vitric tuff was then geochemically correlated to one from the Konso region of Ethiopia, which is constrained to be older than 154 ± 7 ka, thus leaving only 6 ± 7 ky between eruption and deposition of the fossils and artifacts at Herto. To continue these studies, we have collected and are currently analyzing obsidian and associated volcanic ashes from Middle Stone Age (MSA) archaeological and paleontological sites in the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Distinctive geochemical signatures among most obsidian fragments collected (n=20 per site) suggest that obsidian was being derived from a variety of sources. By comparing our geochemical data with that from known obsidian deposits in Ethiopia and elsewhere in East Africa, we hope to determine the source localities for the obsidian and thus gauge the extent of trade networks during the MSA. Thus, by characterizing obsidian using both 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and trace element geochemistry, will make it possible to temporally refine the stratigraphy and prehistory at hominid sites, which in turn improves understanding of hominid behavior and evolution.
Fassil Fanta; Mukti P. Upadhyay
We study the factors that determine the household supply of labour in food-for-work (FFW) projects that seek to address food insecurity and help capital formation in development. Based on data from a survey conducted in 2003 in Tigray, Ethiopia, our probit analysis identifies factors that significantly affect the household decision to participate in FFW programmes. We correct for selection bias,
Bridges, David; Asgedom, Amare; Kenaw, Setargew
This paper explores some of the indigenous sources available in Ethiopia as a resource for philosophy and philosophy of education. In the process it makes a small contribution to the ongoing debate among philosophers as to whether there is a distinctive African philosophy. The paper illustrates, first, what is sometimes referred to as the "deep…
The highlands of northern Ethiopia suffer from severe land degradation manifested by widespread gully and channel erosion and network development. Research on the geomorphic adjustment of similar landscapes in the midcontinental United States has resulted in the development of the computer models BS...
Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...
J. M Yilma; J. B Malone
A geographic information system (GIS) forecast model based on moisture and thermal regime was developed to assess the risk of Fasciola hepatica, a temperate species, and its tropical counterpart, Fasciola gigantica, in Ethiopia. Agroecological map zones and corresponding environmental features that control the distribution and abundance of the disease and its snail intermediate hosts were imported from the Food and
Gemechu, Tufa; Tinsae, Mihrete; Ashenafi, Senait; Rodriguez, Victor Manuel; Lori, Alfredo; Collins, Michelle; Hurford, Rosemary; Haimanot, Rahel; Sandoval, Melissa; Mehari, Enawgaw; Langford, T Dianne
In Ethiopia, like many developing countries, autopsy is rare unless conducted in the medico-legal arena, making vital statistics that include pathological diagnoses sparse. To determine the most common factors contributing to death among individuals who died from natural or injury-related events in Ethiopia 200 consecutive autopsies were conducted in 2006 at the Forensic Medico-legal Pathology Department, Menelik II Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The results describe significant pathological observations, putative cause of death, age distribution, and gender ratios. Eighty-one percent of the cases were male, and the mean age was 38.9 (+/-15.5 years). Fifty-two percent of the individuals died from natural causes, including infections, and 48% died from injury-related events. In the natural deaths group, as determined by gross examination at autopsy pulmonary complications were the most commonly reported cause of death, with suspected tuberculosis accounting for 12%. Tuberculosis (21, 8%) and liver disease (14, 5%) were the most common histopathological findings in the natural and injury-related causes groups, respectively. In the injury-related group, automobile accident was the most common cause of accidental death (80%), and homicide by beating was the most common cause of death in the intentional injury group (31%). These data provide valuable unbiased analyses of causes of death among individuals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PMID:19321271
This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…
Waste management is a growing public concern in Ethiopia. This study examined the patterns and determinants of solid waste disposal practices adopted by families using a random sample of 200 households from Jimma town. The descriptive results revealed that open-dumping, burying, burning and composting are the four most important kinds of household solid waste disposal practices. Estimation results of a
Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew
CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the current situation. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, engineers, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has started to produce research outputs suitable for use in evidence-based planning activities in the case study cities. Indeed, climate change projections at 8 km resolution are ready for regions containing each of the case study cities; a preliminary hazard assessment for floods, drought and heat waves has already been performed, based on historical data; urban morphology and related green structures have been characterized; preliminary findings in social vulnerability have been achieved; a GIS based identification of Urban Residential hotspots to flooding is completed; and the vulnerability of informal settlements to flooding has been evaluated for one of the hotspots identified (Little Akaki case study area). Furthermore, a set of indicators relevant for Addis Ababa has been selected by local stakeholders to identify especially vulnerable, high risk areas and communities and an investigation of existing urban planning and governance systems and its interface with climate risks and vulnerability is ongoing. Evidence from the CLUVA project is being used to develop the next Master Plan for the Addis Ababa metropolitan area.
Rijkee, Pim; Keesstra, Saskia; Mekonnen Gethahun, Mulatie
Land degradation and related processes such as gullying, flooding and sedimentation, are global phenomena. Their economic consequences however are more severe in developing countries, which lack resources for prevention and mitigation. In Ethiopia, therefore, gully erosion as a form of land degradation is a prime issue. Over the past decade, gullies have formed in the foothills of the Minizr sub-catchment in the highlands of North-Western Ethiopia. Local extension workers have reported increased gully growth rates in the past five years in the downslope foothill areas. This study answers the following questions: has the gully growth rate indeed increased over the past five years compared to historical rates? What is the mechanism behind gully formation in the study area? In addition, this study looked at three possible root causes for increased erosion rates: changing land use, an increase in the ground water level, and the implementation of soil and water conservation measures in the watershed of the study area. The merit of this study is twofold. First, it shows the applicability of a fast, accessible and accurate way to digitally represent gullies through the use of video footage and photogrammetry. Secondly, it shows the dominant processes in gully formation in the area, allowing for a justified selection of measures to halt further gully growth and rehabilitate existing gullies. Two medium and one large gully were selected for detailed analysis. All gullies were located in gently-sloped areas (0-5%), with Vertisol-dominated soils. Gully shape and volume were derived using terrestrial photogrammetry in AgiSoft PhotoScan Professional. Still frames exported from video footage served as input. Approximately 30 points per gully were sampled weekly for soil moisture content over the course of September, November, and December 2014. In addition, the sites were checked for signs of subsurface flow at the end of the rainy season and again 3 months into the dry season. We expect that erosion rates have increased compared to historical rates. Gully formation in the study area is primarily driven by subsurface flow, leading to dispersion and bank collapse. Extensive signs of subsurface flows are visible in and around all research gullies. Land use has not changed significantly over the past decade, so will not have played a role in the increased erosion rates. The influence of the change in groundwater level since reservoir construction (2011) is pending analysis of current groundwater levels. With the implementation of stone bunds and fanja yuu on all fields on every hillslope surrounding the study area, infiltration will have increased significantly. Although this has decreased overland runoff, it will have increased ground water flows toward the study area and therefore made the area more susceptible to erosion through subsurface flow mechanisms.
Mekonnen, H; Dehninet, G; Kelay, B
Factors influencing dairy technology adoption and impact on milk yield were studied in 240 smallholder farms in Dejen district, Ethiopia. The majority of the smallholders had more than 20 years of farming experience and were living at more than 10 km distance from market or trading centers (67% and 54% in that order). The dairy technologies studied included the use of crossbred animals, improved feed technologies and improved management practices. Application of acaricides, deworming, vaccination, heat-detection and haymaking had wide application (more than 80% adoption levels) while urea straw treatment, silage making, rotational grazing and fodder beet development were the least practiced ones. Only 20 percent of the cows were crossbred animals. It has been found that higher level of technology adoption is associated with better milk yield regardless of the breed of cattle (local or crossbred) owned by the farmers. Milk yields in local breeds increased by 0.07 times when the number of technologies increased by one unit. In crossbred cows, this rate of increase was five fold higher (0.38 times for one unit increase). Correlation coefficients between and within farm household characteristics and technologies adoption were, generally, significant. Male-headed households adopted significantly higher number of technologies than female-headed households (P < 0.001). Technology adoption rates increased significantly with increased education level and family size and decreasing distance from market or trade centers (P < 0.01). The level of technology adoption by smallholder farmers is still unsatisfactory and is highly dependent on gender, family size and level of education of smallholder farmers and location of farms. PMID:19669662
Berhe, T.; Wu, W.
The Tendaho dam is found in the Afar regional state, North Eastern part of Ethiopia. It is located within an area known as the ‘Tendaho Graben' ,which forms the center of Afar triangle, a low lying area of land where East African, Red sea and the Gulf of Eden Rift systems converge. The dam is an earthfill dam with a volume of about 4 Million cubic meters and with mixed clay core. The geological setting associated with the site of the dam, the geotechnical properties of the dam materials and seismicity of the region are reviewed. Based on this review, the foundation materials and dam body include some liquefiable granular soils. Moreover, the active East African Rift Valley fault, which can generate an earthquake of magnitude greater than 6, passes through the dam body. This valley is the primary seismic source contributing to the hazard at the Tendaho dam site. The availability of liquefiable materials beneath and within the dam body and the presence of the active fault crossing the dam site demand a thorough seismic analysis of the dam. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) is selected as a measure of ground motion severity. The PGA was selected according to the guidelines of the International Commission on Large Dams, ICOLD. Based on the criteria set by the ICOLD, the dam is analyzed for two different earthquake magnitudes, the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) and the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE). Numerical codes are useful tools to investigate the safety of dams in seismic prone areas. In this paper, FLAC3D numerical tool is used to investigate the performance of the dam under dynamic loading. Based on the numerical analysis, the seismic performance of the dam is investigated.
Background Chloroquine is an anti-malarial drug being used to treat Plasmodium vivax malaria cases in Ethiopia. However, emergence of chloroquine resistant strains of the parasite has challenged the current efficacy of the drug. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chloroquine against P. vivax strains in one of the malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia, namely Halaba district, located in South Nations and Nationalities Peoples Region (SNNPR) of South Ethiopia Results Among 87 malaria patients enrolled in the study, only 80 of them completed the 28-days follow-up. Seven of them dropped from the study for different reasons. Among those study participants that completed their follow-up, 69 were classified under the category of adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR). However, the remaining 11 cases were considered as under treatment failure mainly due to recurrence of parasitemia on day 7 (four patients), day 14 (six patients), and day 21 (one patient). The age of all cases of treatment failures was found to be less than 20 years. The load of parasitemia of patients with treatment failure on day of admission (4709.4/?l) was higher than day of recurrence (372.37/?l). Parasite reduction ratio (PRR) of treatment failure cases was 12.6/?l. Conclusion This report revealed the rise in treatment failure (13% [95% CI = 0.074 - 0.217]) as compared to earlier reports from Ethiopia. It signals the spreading of chloroquine resistant P. vivax (CRPv) strains to malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia. It is recommended that all concerned bodies should act aggressively before further expansion of the current drug resistant malaria. PMID:21453465
Revolution’ in Africa. Ethiopia, a country marked by dramatic famines in the last century, is trying to adopt a paradigm lying on technological innovation, commodification of seeds and providing access to the market for smallholder farmers. This dissertation...
Johnson, Nicholas Edward
The Afar region of Ethiopia is slowly being torn apart by the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Main Ethiopian rifts which all meet at this remote, barren corner of Africa. Prior to rifting, volcanism probably started here some ...
The World Food Programme (WFP), the United Nations food agency, has recently acquired the difficult task of transporting aid into the Somali region of Ethiopia. The political instability, rebel activity, ethnic tensions, ...
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]Released 9 January 2004Long before the MER landers were named or launched, the two orbiters at Mars were asked to examine landing sites. Both the Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft have been collecting landing site data for the past two years. The MGS and ODY data were used as part of the decision making process in the final selection of the two landing sites. The types of data collected by the two orbiters included not only images of the surface but also thermal data about the surface composition, atmospheric data about the climate at each location, and the tracking of major dust storms in the region prior to landing. The presence of, and data collected by, the MGS and ODY orbiters have proven invaluable in MER mission planning.This image, captured 22 June 2002, shows the southern area of Gusev crater and the northern end of Ma'adim Vallis, which is thought to have brought water into Gusev crater in the distant past.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -15.4, Longitude 175.6 East (184.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Karim, Ali Mehryar; Admassu, Kesetebirhane; Schellenberg, Joanna; Alemu, Hibret; Getachew, Nebiyu; Ameha, Agazi; Tadesse, Luche; Betemariam, Wuleta
Background Improving newborn survival is essential if Ethiopia is to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4. The national Health Extension Program (HEP) includes community-based newborn survival interventions. We report the effect of these interventions on changes in maternal and newborn health care practices between 2008 and 2010 in 101 districts, comprising 11.6 million people, or 16% of Ethiopia’s population. Methods and Findings Using data from cross-sectional surveys in December 2008 and December 2010 from a representative sample of 117 communities (kebeles), we estimated the prevalence of maternal and newborn care practices, and a program intensity score in each community. Women with children aged 0 to 11 months reported care practices for their most recent pregnancy and childbirth. The program intensity score ranged between zero and ten and was derived from four outreach activities of the HEP front-line health workers. Dose-response relationships between changes in program intensity and the changes in maternal and newborn health were investigated using regression methods, controlling for secular trend, respondents’ background characteristics, and community-level factors. Between 2008 and 2010, median program intensity score increased 2.4-fold. For every unit increase in the score, the odds of receiving antenatal care increased by 1.13 times (95% CI 1.03–1.23); the odds of birth preparedness increased by 1.31 times (1.19–1.44); the odds of receiving postnatal care increased by 1.60 times (1.34–1.91); and the odds of initiating breastfeeding immediately after birth increased by 1.10 times (1.02–1.20). Program intensity score was not associated with skilled deliveries, nor with some of the other newborn health care indicators. Conclusions The results of our analysis suggest that Ethiopia’s HEP platform has improved maternal and newborn health care practices at scale. However, implementation research will be required to address the maternal and newborn care practices that were not influenced by the HEP outreach activities. PMID:23750240
Fuller, G K; Lemma, A; Haile, T; Gemeda, N
The Leishmanin skin test was performed on 1353 people in a kala-azar endemic region of south-west Ethiopia. Physical examinations were also carried out on 2723. Two of these individuals, both males, had active visceral leishmaniasis with Leishmania organisms demonstrated by spleen puncture. Two other males, including one member of the research team, had parasitologically proven cutaneous leishmaniasis. Because there was negligible migration and little movement of individuals outside of their tribal territories, the geographical distribution of skin test positivity and clinical findings could be determined and correlated with environmental parameters. The level of positive skin tests for the groups tested ranged from over 64% for the three tribes collectively inhabiting the lower regions of the Omo Valley (altitude approx. 500 m) to 6.4% for the Suri tribe, which lives at 1400 m. Skin test positivity was highest in areas of deeply fissuring montmorillonite soils and where Phlebotomus langeroni orientalis have been collected. Termite mounds of the pipe-organ type seemed to occur independently of the proportion of positive skin tests, possibly because alternative resting and breeding sites for sandflies were available in the cotton clay soil or because of the cultural patterns of the people. Almost always, males had a markedly higher prevalence of positive skin tests than did females. The degree of positivity was strongly correlated with increasing age, most positive conversions occurring in the ten to 20 year olds, the age at which males join cattle camps as part of their herding activities. Splenomegaly reached a prevalence of nearly 50% among the Hamar speaking people to the east of the Omo River, where the pattern of disease suggests malaria as the principal cause. Hepatomegaly, however, was highest in the lower Omo Basin among the Nyangatom, Dassanetch and Kerre, where hydatid disease was a major cause of liver enlargement, but seemed unrelated to the proportion of positive Leishmanin skin tests. PMID:534446
Khatir, Hadj; Anouassi, AbdelHaq
Dromedary offspring have never been produced fully in vitro. We have previously demonstrated that embryos obtained by culture in semi-defined medium (mKSOMaa) have better in vitro development ability than those cultured with oviductal epithelial cells. The aim of the present experiment was to study the pregnancy rate after embryo transfer of in vitro-produced (IVP) dromedary embryos cultured in semi-defined modified medium (mKSOMaa). IVM/IVF procedures were conducted on six hundred and sixty four (664) cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) aspirated from ovaries collected at a local slaughterhouse and cultured in vitro (38.5 degrees C; 5% CO2, and maximum humidity >95%). Maturation was completed by incubation in TCM-199 medium supplemented with 10% heat-treated Fetal Calf Serum (FCS), 10 ng/mL EGF, 1 microg/mL FSH, 1 microg/mL E2 and 500 microM cysteamine for 30 h. In vitro fertilization was performed using fresh semen (0.5 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL in modified TALP-solution). Fertilized oocytes were cultured in mKSOMaa, under 38.5 degrees C, 5% CO2 and 90% N2 with maximum humidity (>95%). All IVC steps were done in seven replicates. The cleavage rate (two cells to blastocyst stage) was 64% (425/664) and the percentage of oocytes reaching the blastocyst stage was 23% (155/664). The hatching rate of blastocyst obtained after culture was 46% (71/155). Good quality hatched blastocysts (n = 66) were transferred individually to synchronized recipients. Pregnancy rates, determined by ultrasonography at 15, 60 and 90 days after embryo transfer (ET), were 38%, 32% and 27%, respectively. Out of 18 pregnant females 5 aborted between the fifth and seventh month of pregnancy and 13 females (20%) remained pregnant. After 385 days of pregnancy, the first healthy and normal male-dromedary offspring produced fully in vitro was born at a birth weight of 38 kg. More dromedary calves (n = 4) were born later on. The remaining pregnant females (n = 8) are due to calf within the next months. In conclusion, this is the first reported offspring in camelids obtained by transfer of embryos produced by IVM, IVF and IVC using abattoir-derived oocytes, fresh semen and culture in a semi-defined medium. PMID:16263162
Dessie, T; Ogle, B
Participatory rural appraisal (PRA), supported by checklists and intensive case studies on individual households, was carried out in three villages at three different altitudes in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The chicken production system in each village is described and the problems are discussed. More than 60% of the families kept chickens, and in most cases the women owned and managed the birds and controlled the cash from the sales. The production systems followed were mainly low-input and small-scale, with 7-10 mature birds per household, reared in the back yards with inadequate housing, feeding and health care. The average egg production per clutch was 15-20, with 3-4 clutches per year. The mean number of eggs set per bird was 12.9 +/- 2.2 (n = 160), depending on the size of the bird and season, and the hatching rate was 80.9% +/- 11.1%, range 44%-100% (n = 160). Poultry meat and eggs were generally accepted and appreciated in all three villages. In addition to the small amount of cash income they provide, scavenging chickens have nutritional, cultural and social functions. The flock composition, price of poultry and poultry products, disease outbreaks and hatching of chicks were strongly affected by season. Disease was cited as the most important problem by most of the members of the community, followed by predation, lack of feed, poor housing, insufficient water and parasites. Disease periodically decimated the flocks, and consequently, about 50% of the eggs produced were incubated in order to replace the birds that had died. The major source of loss in the system was the high mortality of chicks (61%) that occurred between hatching and the end of brooding at 8 weeks of age. The system was characterized by no or few inputs and a low output level. The major input was the cost of foundation stock, but after that virtually no cost was involved. The major source of feed for the birds was from the scavenging feed resource base, which comprised table leftovers, small grain supplements and anything edible from the immediate environment. PMID:11770206
Brown, Francis H; Fuller, Chad R
The Kibish Formation in southwestern Ethiopia, with an aggregate thickness of approximately 105 m, consists of lacustrine, marginal lacustrine, and deltaic deposits. It is divided into four members numbered I to IV on the basis of erosion surfaces (disconformities) between the strata of each member. It overlies the Mursi and Nkalabong formations, the latter of which is here shown to correlate with the Shungura Formation. Tephra layers in each member allow for secure correlation between geographically separated sections on the basis of the composition of their volcanic glass. Members I, III, and IV of the Kibish Formation appear to have been deposited at the same times as sapropels S7 (197 ka), S4 (104 ka), and S1 (8 ka) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, respectively. We correlate the KHS Tuff of the Kibish Formation with a >154-kyr-old unnamed tuff in the Konso Formation. Tephra in Member IV may derive from Mount Wenchi, a volcano situated on the divide between the Omo and Blue Nile drainage basins. Thin-bedded sedimentary layers probably represent annual deposition reflecting rapid sedimentation (approximately 30 m/kyr) of parts of the formation. This conclusion is supported by variation in paleomagnetic inclination through a sequence of these layers at KHS. Two fossils of early Homo sapiens (Omo I and Omo II) derive from Member I. Their stratigraphic placement is confirmed by analysis of the KHS Tuff in the lower part of Member II at both fossil sites. The KHS Tuff lies above a disconformity, which itself lies above the fossils at both sites. (40)Ar/(39)Ar dates provide an estimated age of approximately 195 kyr for these fossils. Omo III, a third fossil H. sapiens, probably also derives from Member I of the Kibish Formation and is of similar age. Hominin fossils from AHS, a new site, also derive from Member I. Hominin fossils from CHS can only be placed between 104 ka and 10 ka, the H. sapiens specimen from JHS is most likely 9-13 kyr in age, and a partial skeleton of H. sapiens from Pelvic Corner is most likely approximately 6.6 kyr in age. PMID:18692219
Reeler, A V; Sikora, K; Solomon, B
The incidence of breast cancer is rising in many developing countries. Here we describe a programme to improve the support infrastructure for the management of patients with breast cancer in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Tamoxifen, a cheap, oral, yet effective, anti-cancer agent was made available freely to encourage staff and patients to follow well-defined, but achievable, protocols of care. Mammography, improved histopathological review, tissue hormone receptor assays, agreed treatment algorithms with a cycle of continuous audit of over 250 patients and cross-departmental patient management groups led to a considerable improvement in the management of breast cancer patients in a single institution. Aspects of this programme are now being extended to other regional hospitals in Ethiopia. Fairly limited investments in programmes for cancer can stimulate considerable improvements in the overall approach to malignant disease by encouraging a positive approach, even in very low resource environments. PMID:18248968
Dassoni, Federica; Morrone, Aldo; Padovese, Valeska
Reports of congenital diseases in Africa are scanty, probably because of their rarity, the lack of knowledge among health workers, and the difficult political and social situation in different African countries. We describe here the spectrum of genetic and rare congenital cutaneous conditions encountered at the Italian Dermatological Center of Ayder referral hospital of Mekele, Ethiopia, over a 3-year period. All patients attending the Italian Dermatological Center were registered in a database, and medical records of genetic and congenital disorders diagnosed from January 2008 to December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Over the total, 24 different genetic and congenital disorders affecting 122 individuals (0.4% of the total case load) were observed. In our case series, we did not report any patient affected by albinism, in contrast with literature from other African countries. To our knowledge, this is the first report from northern Ethiopia. A brief update on the commonest disorders is included. PMID:25257394
Gonsalves, Lianne; Donovan, Samuel E; Ryan, Victoria; Winch, Peter J
In rural Ethiopia, environmental degradation and a shortage of arable land impose a major toll on the population. Population, health, and environment (PHE) programs, such as that of the Ethio-Wetlands and Natural Resources Association (EWNRA), have evolved to address these issues. This article examines the community-based distribution (CBD) of family planning commodities in rural Ethiopia through EWNRA's large, multisectoral PHE program. Participants indicated that the integrated program encouraged acceptance of family planning and reduced geographic barriers to access. Through peer education and collaboration across government ministries, EWNRA leveraged integrated population-environment messages to garner support for its network of CBD providers. These integration strategies are a model for PHE programs worldwide, especially amid the global response to climate change. Because of the complex nature of PHE organizations, researchers often find it difficult to effectively document and evaluate their programs. With this in mind, we propose a framework to assess PHE integration. PMID:25753058
DiMaggio, Erin N; Campisano, Christopher J; Rowan, John; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Deino, Alan L; Bibi, Faysal; Lewis, Margaret E; Souron, Antoine; Garello, Dominique; Werdelin, Lars; Reed, Kaye E; Arrowsmith, J Ramón
Sedimentary basins in eastern Africa preserve a record of continental rifting and contain important fossil assemblages for interpreting hominin evolution. However, the record of hominin evolution between 3 and 2.5 million years ago (Ma) is poorly documented in surface outcrops, particularly in Afar, Ethiopia. Here we present the discovery of a 2.84- to 2.58-million-year-old fossil and hominin-bearing sediments in the Ledi-Geraru research area of Afar, Ethiopia, that have produced the earliest record of the genus Homo. Vertebrate fossils record a faunal turnover indicative of more open and probably arid habitats than those reconstructed earlier in this region, which is in broad agreement with hypotheses addressing the role of environmental forcing in hominin evolution at this time. Geological analyses constrain depositional and structural models of Afar and date the LD 350-1 Homo mandible to 2.80 to 2.75 Ma. PMID:25739409
This paper examines the 1998-2000 'border' war between Eritrea and Ethiopia and its continuing legacies from the perspective of food security. Focusing on the food crisis that hit both countries during the same period and was allowed to develop into a famine in southeast Ethiopia, it argues that this was linked with the war in more ways than hitherto recognised. Such connections can be appreciated only by taking a longer-term view of the decline of the rural economy of which this food crisis was part, factoring in the role played by this and other conflicts that have flared up in the region. An analysis of this kind might have helped donors and aid agencies to respond more effectively both to short-term humanitarian needs in the midst of an inter-state war and to the need for longer-term support for food security in a region beset by endemic conflict. PMID:15910679
Simpson, Scott W; Kleinsasser, Lynnette; Quade, Jay; Levin, Naomi E; McIntosh, William C; Dunbar, Nelia; Semaw, Sileshi; Rogers, Michael J
Since 2000, significant collections of Latest Miocene hominin fossils have been recovered from Chad, Kenya, and Ethiopia. These fossils have provided a better understanding of earliest hominin biology and context. Here, we describe five hominin teeth from two periods (ca. 5.4 Million-years-ago and ca. 6.3 Ma) that were recovered from the Adu-Asa Formation in the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area in the Afar, Ethiopia that we assign to either Hominina, gen. et sp. indet. or Ardipithecus kadabba. These specimens are compared with extant African ape and other Latest Miocene and Early Pliocene hominin teeth. The derived morphology of the large, non-sectorial maxillary canine and mandibular third premolar links them with later hominins and they are phenetically distinguishable and thus phyletically distinct from extant apes. PMID:25795338
The improvement of surgical and anaesthetic safety in low-resource settings is hampered by a lack of reliable information on the current provision of these services. Ethiopia is one of the world's poorest countries and, despite large amounts of both foreign and domestic investment, still reports some of the worst health outcomes. However, information on anaesthesia and surgical provision is sparse. This work reproduces a questionnaire study, first used in Uganda in 2006, to survey practising anaesthetists regarding the current state of anaesthesia services across Ethiopia. The results indicate that a large proportion of centres remain unable to provide safe general, spinal, paediatric and obstetric anaesthesia, at all levels of hospital and across almost all of the country's regions. In addition to a lack of equipment and pharmaceuticals, anaesthetists report problems with professional recognition and a lack of access to continuing professional development as key barriers to service development. PMID:24240776
Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Melka, Alemu Sufa
Introduction People living with HIV (PLHIV) have diverse family planning (FP) needs. Little is reported on FP needs among women living with HIV in Ethiopia. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the demand for modern FP among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia. Methods A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 401 married women living with HIV selected from Nekemte Referral Hospital and Health Center, Nekemte, Oromia, Ethiopia. Convenience sampling of every other eligible patient was used to recruit respondents. Data were collected using a pretested, structured questionnaire. We first calculated frequency and percentage of unmet need, met need and total demand by each explanatory variable, and performed chi-squared testing to assess for differences in groups. We then fitted logistic regression models to identify correlates of unmet need for modern FP at 95% CL. Results The proportion of respondents with met need for modern FP among married women living with HIV was 61.6% (30.7% for spacing and 30.9% for limiting). Demand for family planning was reported in 77.0% (38.2% for spacing and 38.8% for limiting), making unmet need for modern FP prevalent in 15.4% (7.5% for spacing and 7.9% for limiting). Whereas age 25–34 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) ?=?.397 (.204–.771)] was protective against unmet need for modern FP, not having knowledge of MTCT [AOR (95% CI) ?=?2.531 (1.689–9.290)] and not discussing FP with a partner [AOR (95% CI) ?=?3.616(1.869–6.996)] were associated with increased odds of unmet need for modern FP. Conclusions There is high unmet need for modern FP in HIV-positive married women in western Ethiopia. Health care providers and program managers at a local and international level should work to satisfy the unmet need for modern family planning. PMID:25390620
by CGHR Associates related to the Centre’s research projects. It also welcomes papers from further afield on topics related to the CGHR research agenda. Series Editors: Sharath Srinivasan & Thomas Probert Publisher: Centre of Governance and Human... Ibrahim Index of African Governance (38th in the sub-categories of “safety and rule of law”, and “participation and human rights”). The Economist classified Ethiopia as an “authoritarian” regime in its 2010 Democracy Index.13 This paper will discuss...
Background Antiretroviral treatment (ART) was provided to more than nine million people by the end of 2012. Although ART programs in resource-limited settings have expanded treatment, inadequate retention in care has been a challenge. Ethiopia has been scaling up ART and improving retention (defined as continuous engagement of patients in care) in care. We aimed to analyze the ART program in Ethiopia. Methods A mix of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Routine ART program data was used to study ART scale up and patient retention in care. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with program managers. Results The number of people receiving ART in Ethiopia increased from less than 9,000 in 2005 to more than 439, 000 in 2013. Initially, the public health approach, health system strengthening, community mobilization and provision of care and support services allowed scaling up of ART services. While ART was being scaled up, retention was recognized to be insufficient. To improve retention, a second wave of interventions, related to programmatic, structural, socio-cultural, and patient information systems, have been implemented. Retention rate increased from 77% in 2004/5 to 92% in 2012/13. Conclusion Ethiopia has been able to scale up ART and improve retention in care in spite of its limited resources. This has been possible due to interventions by the ART program, supported by health systems strengthening, community-based organizations and the communities themselves. ART programs in resource-limited settings need to put in place similar measures to scale up ART and retain patients in care. PMID:24886686
Helmut Kloos; Tadesse Wuhib; Damen Haile Mariam; Bernt Lindtjorn
The main objective of this review is to provide a preliminary evaluation of the suitability of community-based organizations (CBOs) to contribute to HIV\\/AIDS prevention, care\\/support and control programs in Ethiopia. In order to put CBOs and programs in the context of HIV transmission and spread, the role of the Multisectoral HIV\\/AIDS Strategy (2000-2004) and other government policies and programs in
Andargachew Mulu; Afework Kassu; Belay Tessema; Gizachew Yismaw; Moges Tiruneh; Feleke Moges; Yared Wondmikun; Takeshi Nishikawa; Fusao Ota
SUMMARY: Ethiopia is one of the countries in which sexually transmitted infections are highly prevalent. However, the data needed to present a realistic picture of the infections are lacking. This study was therefore designed to determine the seroprevalence of syphilis and HIV-1 among pregnant women at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. A prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted between
Leulseged Demelash; Mulualem Tigabu; Per Christer Odén
The IDS (Incubation, Drying and Separation) method was tested on Schinus molle L. seeds collected from Ethiopia in an attempt to sort non-viable from viable seeds. Seeds were incubated for 24 h followed by one, three, four, five, six, nine and twelve hours of drying and then separated in water. All IDS treatments gave 80.5–93.5% germination in the sunken fraction
Menale Kassie; Precious Zikhali; John Pender; Gunnar Köhlin
Organic farming practices, in as far as they rely on local or farm renewable resources, present desirable options for enhancing agricultural productivity for resource-constrained farmers in developing countries. In this paper we use plot-level data from semi-arid area of Ethiopia to investigate the impact of organic farming practices on crop productivity, with a particular focus on conservation tillage. Specifically we
Takele Taye Desta; Workneh Ayalew; B. P. Hegde
Like their smallholder subsistence counterparts in developing countries, breed and trait preferences of Sheko cattle keepers\\u000a have broad perspectives. Our study has documented breed and trait preferences of Sheko cattle keepers in southwestern Ethiopia—the\\u000a natural breeding tract of Sheko cattle. Our results showed that due to their multifunctionality, cattle are the most preferred\\u000a livestock species. Overall, farmers showed slightly more
W. Tadesse; G. Desalegn; R. Alia
Ethiopia is one of the countries well endowed with various species of Acacia, Boswellia and Commiphora that are known to produce gum arabic, frankincense and myrrh, respectively. Over 60 gum and resin bearing species are found in the country. The total area of oleo-gum resin bearing woodlands cover about 2.9 million ha of land in the country, with over 300,000
The growth rate of tobacco production and of cigarette smoking is rapidly increasing in developing countries. This article examines smoking as a health problem in Ethiopia. According to the author, Ethiopia is in a favorable position for action in this area because smoking is not yet extensive (restricted largely to urban areas) and the Government is committed to preventing a smoking epidemic. However, tobacco plays an important and growing role in Ethiopia's economy. Commercial production tobacco, which is a state monopoly, accounted for 5% of the total industrial gross value of production in 1977 and over 1% of the total number of employees in industry. Of total government revenues in 1977, 1.6% was from tobacco. Household expenditure on tobacco was 1.5-2.9% in 1975, compared with 1.8-3% for medical care. The smoking habit is extensively promoted through advertising. Given the general problems of poverty and unemployment in Ethiopia, it seems unreasonable to press for changes that would entail a loss of government revenues and create unemployment. An alternative solution to this problem is to stimulate self-reliance in the environment of the working people. Smoking must be made into a politicl issue at both the national and international level. On the national level, health workers would have to continue spreading knowledge on the harmful effects of smoking, study and disseminate better ways to prevent smoking, and lobby for better legislation on the issue. The international level is particularly significant, not only because tobacco interests are transnational, but because the success of an antismoking campaign is related to the struggle for a New Economic order. Such an approach could provide the economic basic for effective action to reduce tobacco production and consumption. PMID:3734089
Background The consequences of maternal mortality on orphaned children and the family members who support them are dramatic, especially in countries that have high maternal mortality like Ethiopia. As part of a four country, mixed-methods study (Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, and Tanzania) qualitative data were collected in Butajira, Ethiopia with the aim of exploring the far reaching consequences of maternal deaths on families and children. Methods We conducted interviews with 28 adult family members of women who died from maternal causes, as well as 13 stakeholders (government officials, civil society, and a UN agency); and held 10 focus group discussions with 87 community members. Data were analyzed using NVivo10 software for qualitative analysis. Results We found that newborns and children whose mothers died from maternal causes face nutrition deficits, and are less likely to access needed health care than children with living mothers. Older children drop out of school to care for younger siblings and contribute to household and farm labor which may be beyond their capacity and age, and often choose migration in search of better opportunities. Family fragmentation is common following maternal death, leading to tenuous relationships within a household with the births and prioritization of additional children further stretching limited financial resources. Currently, there is no formal standardized support system for families caring for vulnerable children in Ethiopia. Conclusions Impacts of maternal mortality on children are far-reaching and have the potential to last into adulthood. Coordinated, multi-sectorial efforts towards mitigating the impacts on children and families following a maternal death are lacking. In order to prevent impacts on children and families, efforts targeting maternal mortality must address inequalities in access to care at the community, facility, and policy levels. PMID:26001276
Hawks, John; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Berger, Lee R
Villmoare et al. (Reports, 20 March 2015, p. 1352) report on a hominin mandible from the Ledi-Geraru research area, Ethiopia, which they claim to be the earliest known representative of the genus Homo. However, certain measurements and observations for Australopithecus sediba mandibles presented are incorrect or are not included in critical aspects of the study. When correctly used, these data demonstrate that specimen LD 350-1 cannot be unequivocally assigned to the genus Homo. PMID:26089505
Cherinet Abuye; Yemane Berhane
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency is severe public health problem in Ethiopia. Although urinary iodine excretion level (UIE) is a better indicator for IDD the goitre rate is commonly used to mark the public health significance. The range of ill effect of IDD is however beyond goitre in Ethiopia. In this study the prevalence of goitre and its association with reproductive failure,
Deribe, Kebede; Beyene, Biruk Kebede; Tolla, Anbessu; Memiah, Peter; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Amberbir, Alemayehu
Background Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health problem with serious consequences. This study was conducted to assess the magnitude of IPV in Southwest Ethiopia in predominantly rural community. Methods This community based cross-sectional study was conducted in May, 2009 in Southwest Ethiopia using the World Health Organization core questionnaire to measure violence against women. Trained data collectors interviewed 851 ever-married women. Stata version 10.1 software and SPSS version 12.0.1 for windows were used for data analysis. Result In this study the life time prevalence of sexual or physical partner violence, or both was 64.7% (95%CI: 61.4%–67.9%). The lifetime sexual violence [50.1% (95% CI: 46.7%–53.4%)] was considerably more prevalent than physical violence [41.1% (95%:37.8–44.5)]. A sizable proportion [41.5%(95%CI: 38.2%–44.8%)] of women reported physical or sexual violence, or both, in the past year. Men who were controlling were more likely to be violent against their partner. Conclusion Physical and sexual violence is common among ever-married women in Southwest Ethiopia. Interventions targeting controlling men might help in reducing IPV. Further prospective longitudinal studies among ever-married women are important to identify predictors and to study the dynamics of violence over time. PMID:22558376
Kassa, Getu Dereje
Conventional research approaches have tried to address the major research and development problems in Ethiopia. However, these approaches could not achieve the desired level of improvement unless they are supported by modern biotechnological tools. Biotechnological facilities exist scattered in different institutions in Ethiopia, a country with immense genetic biodiversity, but no precise information is available as to their capacities, capabilities and the associated technical and administrative gaps. A study based on structured questionnaires, interviews with key informants and reviewing secondary sources was initiated in 2006 by the Horn Biotechnology Forum to generate such information and design strategies for bridging the gaps. The study showed that seven institutions with a total of 24 branches are engaged in biotechnology research/teaching and development at different stages, mainly tissue culture, but including bio-fertilizers, molecular marker, embryo transfer, immunology, vaccine and diagnostic kit development and epidemiology. Ten centers have modest to well equipped laboratories and a few other laboratories are also under expansion. By and large, the future success of biotechnological research and development in Ethiopia depends on the level of attention to be given by the government on capacity building and on the level of collaboration among the institutions. PMID:20940026
On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors. PMID:23580251
Drake, F.; Mulugetta, Y.
This paper describes how data from a variety of sources are merged to present new countrywide maps of the solar energy distribution over Ethiopia. The spatial coverage of stations with radiation data was found to be unsatisfactory for the purpose of a countrywide solar energy assessment exercise. Therefore, radiation had to be predicted from sunshine hours by employing empirical models. Using data from seven stations in Ethiopia, linear and quadratic correlation relationships between monthly mean daily solar radiation and sunshine hours per day have been developed. These regional models show a distinct improvement over previously employed countrywide models. To produce a national solar-energy distribution profile, a spatial extension of the radiation/sunshine relationships had to be carried out. To do this, the intercepts(a) and slopes(b) of each of the seven linear regression equations and another six from previous studies, completed in neighbouring Sudan, Kenya and Yemen, were used to interpolate the corresponding values to areas between them. Subsequent to these procedures, 142 stations providing only sunshine data were assigned their `appropriate` a and b values to estimate the amount of solar radiation received, which was then used to produce annual and monthly solar radiation distribution maps for Ethiopia. The results show that in all regions solar energy is an abundant resource. 19 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.
Alemneh, M.; Koye, D. N.; Kassie, Y.; Assefa, M.; Ayalew, W.; Temesgen, C.; Klinkenberg, E.; Tadesse, T.
Setting: In 2011, Ethiopia introduced a strategy of symptomatic tuberculosis (TB) screening for patients attending out-patient services to increase identification of presumptive TB. Objective: To assess implementation and factors affecting symptomatic TB screening at out-patient departments in health centres in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Design: Using a cross-sectional study design, 86 randomly selected public health centres providing DOTS were included in the study. Data were captured by reviewing TB registers and interviewing key informants at out-patient services. Results: Of 86 health centres, 24 (28%) had poor symptomatic TB screening practices, defined as screening <80% of attending out-patients. Having an actively functioning multidisciplinary health centre team to assess TB services (aOR 2.29, 95%CI 2.23–30.80) and partner support for TB activities (aOR 4.84, 95%CI 1.05–22.40) were associated with higher TB screening rates, whereas availability of antiretroviral therapy was negatively associated. In all health centres combined, 1.6% of out-patient department attendees were identified as having presumptive TB. Conclusion: A quarter of health centres had poor symptomatic TB screening practices in the out-patient services in this study. Strengthening multidisciplinary teams and expanding partner support are recommended to improve TB screening practices at out-patient services in Ethiopia.
Nyanjom, S R G; Chen, H; Gebre-Michael, T; Bekele, E; Shililu, J; Githure, J; Beier, J C; Yan, G
This study examined the population genetic structure of the major malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes, in Ethiopia and Eritrea. Ethiopia and Eritrea have great geographical diversity, with high mountains, rugged plateaus, deep gorges, and rolling plains. The plateau is bisected diagonally by the Great Rift Valley into the Northwestern Highlands and the Southeastern Highlands. Five A. arabiensis populations from the Northwestern Highlands region and two populations from high-altitude sites in the Great Rift Valley were genotyped using six microsatellite markers to estimate the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of A. arabiensis. We found that A. arabiensis populations from the Northwestern Highlands and the Great Rift Valley region showed a similar level of genetic diversity. The genetic differentiation (F(ST)) of the five mosquito populations within the Northwestern Highlands region was 0.038 (P <.001), while the two populations within the Great Rift Valley showed little genetic differentiation (F(ST) = 0.007, P <.01). The degree of genetic differentiation between the Northwestern Highlands region and the Great Rift Valley region was small but statistically significant (F(ST) = 0.017, P <.001). The population genetic structure of A. arabiensis in the study area did not follow the isolation-by-distance model (r(2) = 0.014, P >.05). The low F(ST) estimates for A. arabiensis populations in Ethiopia and Eritrea are consistent with the general population genetic structure of this species in East Africa based on other molecular markers. PMID:14691312
The introduction and development of psychology in Ethiopia has been mainly limited to Addis Ababa University in the capital city, and also to educational and school psychology which was highly influenced by the field of education at this pioneering university. Similarly, mental health services have been principally developed at the Amanuel Mental Hospital in Addis Ababa that has existed since the 1950s. However, the expansion of higher learning institutions on one hand, and the apparent growing prevalence of mental illness on the other, seem to have contributed to the development of both mental health training and services in other regional cities and towns. Although the influence of the education-oriented psychological training of the Addis Ababa University is still present, clinical psychology education and services are now being started in other universities. One of these is the master's programme in clinical psychology opened for the first time in the University of Gondar. This article sheds light on the development of psychology in Ethiopia and addresses some of the issues raised about the factors that have influenced its development such as traditional beliefs, poverty and comparisons between mental health in lower middle-income countries and higher middle-income countries ( Uppal et al., 2014 ). The paper also proposes future directions for the education, research, infrastructure and services of clinical psychology and mental health in Ethiopia. PMID:25343635
Background Little is known about factors contributing to inequities in antenatal care use in Ethiopia. We aimed to assess inequities in the use of antenatal care on the basis of area of residence, administrative region, economic status and education. Methods This study was based on data from repeated cross-sectional surveys carried out by Measure Demographic and Health Survey and Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia. The surveys were conducted in February-June 2000, April-August 2005, and December 2010-June 2011. The surveys employed a cluster sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of 15–49 year-old women. The main outcome variable was at least one antenatal care visit for the last live birth in the 5 years preceding the surveys. Statistical analysis was completed by applying the sampling weights in order to consider the complex sampling design. Results A total of 7978, 7307 and 7908 weighted number of women participated in the three surveys, respectively. The rate of antenatal care coverage in Ethiopia has increased from 26.8% in 2000 to 42.7% in 2011. The odds of antenatal care use were 2.4 (95% CI: 1.7-3.2, p?0.0001), 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.2, p?=?0.003) and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3-2.6, p?=?0.001) times higher among women from urban areas than those from rural areas at the three time points, respectively. The odds ratio of antenatal care use among women with secondary or higher education compared with women of no education increased from 2.6 (95% CI: 2.0-3.4, p?0.0001) in 2000 to 5.1 (95% CI: 2.8-9.4, p?0.0001) in 2011. Moreover, the odds of use among women from the richest households at the three time points were 2.7 (95% CI: 2.1-3.6, p?0.0001), 4.4 (95% CI: 3.3-6.0, p?0.0001), and 3.9 (95% CI: 2.8-5.5, p?0.0001) times higher compared with their counterparts from the poorest households. Furthermore, we have observed a wide regional variation in the use of ANC in Ethiopia. Conclusions The wide inequities between urban and rural areas, across economic and educational strata in the use of antenatal care highlight the need to put more resources to poor households, rural areas, and disadvantage regions. We suggest further study to understand additional factors for the deep unmet need in rural areas and some regions of Ethiopia. PMID:23767975
Williams, A. Park; Funk, Chris
An estimated 14.3 million people are currently (July 2010) food insecure in Kenya and Ethiopia, and the U.S. government has spent more than $972 million on food aid in these two countries since 2009 (USAID, 2010). This insecurity stems from recent drought and rapid population growth that has outpaced agricultural development (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Brown, 2009). Previous work by Funk and others (2005, 2008) and Verdin and others (2005) has linked drought conditions in Kenya and Ethiopia with warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Indian Ocean. Recent work has shown that Indian Ocean SSTs substantially affect rainfall in this region from March through June (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Verdin, 2009). This season is known as the 'long rains' in Kenya and the 'Belg' rains in Ethiopia.
The USDA-ARS Southern Horticulture has developed and released a new productive early ripening southern highbush blueberry cultivar, Pearl. 'Pearl', tested as MS 812, came from the cross Bluecrisp X Magnolia. The pedigree of Bluecrisp is unknown but it was tested as Fla 84-40, and Magnolia came fr...
This image shows ice-front retreat in part of the southern Antarctic Peninsula from 1947 to 2009. USGS scientists are studying coastal and glacier change along the entire Antarctic coastline. The southern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula is one area studied as part of this project, and is summariz...
Sohier, N.; Fréjacques, L.; Gagnayre, R.
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has been implementing medical assistance programs in Ethiopia since 1994, including the rehabilitation of health structures and the supply of drugs and medical equipment. In 1995, the serious shortage of surgeons in Ethiopia prompted MSF to add a programme to train general practitioners to perform surgery in the Woldya region. The results of the relevant feasibility study were encouraging. The programme's design is based on recent educational data and MSF's experience with introducing transcultural training in countries where unstable conditions prevail. The training programme is currently being studied by the Ethiopian Health Ministry for use as a model for training general practitioners in surgery throughout the country. PMID:10655888
Shargie, Estifanos Biru; Mørkve, Odd; Lindtjørn, Bernt
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether case-finding through community outreach in a rural setting has an effect on case-notification rate, symptom duration, and treatment outcome of smear-positive tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: We randomly allocated 32 rural communities to intervention or control groups. In intervention communities, health workers from seven health centres held monthly diagnostic outreach clinics at which they obtained sputum samples for sputum microscopy from symptomatic TB suspects. In addition, trained community promoters distributed leaflets and discussed symptoms of TB during house visits and at popular gatherings. Symptomatic individuals were encouraged to visit the outreach team or a nearby health facility. In control communities, cases were detected through passive case-finding among symptomatic suspects reporting to health facilities. Smear-positive TB patients from the intervention and control communities diagnosed during the study period were prospectively enrolled. FINDINGS: In the 1-year study period, 159 and 221 cases of smear-positive TB were detected in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Case-notification rates in all age groups were 124.6/10(5) and 98.1/10(5) person-years, respectively (P = 0.12). The corresponding rates in adults older than 14 years were 207/10(5) and 158/10(5) person-years, respectively (P = 0.09). The proportion of patients with >3 months' symptom duration was 41% in the intervention group compared with 63% in the control group (P<0.001). Pre-treatment symptom duration in the intervention group fell by 55-60% compared with 3-20% in the control group. In the intervention and control groups, 81% and 75%, respectively of patients successfully completed treatment (P = 0.12). CONCLUSION: The intervention was effective in improving the speed but not the extent of case finding for smear-positive TB in this setting. Both groups had comparable treatment outcomes. PMID:16501728
Background Parasitic infection is the most prevalent among rural communities in warm and humid regions and where water, hygiene and sanitation facilities are inadequate. Such infection occurs in rural areas where water supplies are not enough to drink and use, and in the absence of environmental sanitation, when the rubbish and other wastes increased, and sewage and waste water are not properly treated. Hence the aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and associated risk factors. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted on children of the selected primary schools in Chencha town from March to May, 2012. Children were selected within age group 5–15 years. The socio-demographic, environmental and behavioral variables data were collected using structured questionnaire from the guardians of children and school teachers to assess the risk factors. Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was determined using direct method and formol-ether concentration method. Participants’ data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results Of 422 selected school children, 400 participated in the study with full information for analysis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was high (81.0%). Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) infections (63.0%) were more prevalent than protozoa infections (23.5%). The predominant parasites were A.lumbricoides (60.5%), E.histolytica/dispar (16.25%), Giardia lamblia (11.7%) and T.trichuria (9.7%). The presence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections (IPIs) have statistically significant association with the educational status of the household heads, absence of washing facility, home cleanness condition and type of latrine used with (p?0.05). Conclusions The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections, especially soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) is very high in the school children. The high prevalence of parasitic infections in these children indicates that the protozoa and helminths concerned are very common in the environment of these villages and the results of the risk factors analysis suggests that the transmission is from several routes. Therefore, multiple intervention strategies should be implemented for the school children, households and the environment to reduce the disease burden. PMID:24528627
A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…
Dougherty, Leanne; Pomeroy, Amanda M.; Karim, Ali M.; Mekonnen, Yared M.; Mulligan, Brian E.
ABSTRACT This paper describes the integrated approach taken by the Government of Ethiopia with support from the Essential Services for Health in Ethiopia (ESHE) Project and assesses its effect on the coverage of six child health practices associated with reducing child mortality. The ESHE Project was designed to contribute to reducing high child mortality rates at scale among 14.5 million people through the ‘three pillars’ approach. This approach aimed to (i) strengthen health systems, (ii) improve health workers’ performance, and (iii) engage the community. The intervention was designed with national and subnational stakeholders’ input. To measure the Project's effect on the coverage of child health practices, we used a quasi-experimental design, with representative household survey data from the three most populous regions of Ethiopia, collected at the 2003-2004 baseline and 2008 endline surveys of the Project. A difference-in-differences analysis model detected an absolute effect of the ESHE intervention of 8.4% points for DTP3 coverage (p=0.007), 12.9% points for measles vaccination coverage (p<0.001), 12.6% points for latrines (p=0.002), and 9.8% points for vitamin A supplementation (p<0.001) across the ESHE-intervention districts (woredas) compared to all non-ESHE districts of the same three regions. Improvements in the use of modern family planning methods and exclusive breastfeeding were not significant. Important regional variations are discussed. ESHE was one of several partners of the Ministry of Health whose combined efforts led to accelerated progress in the coverage of child health practices. PMID:25895187
Mekonnen, Mulatie; Keesstra, Saskia; Baartman, Jantiene; Ritsema, Coen
Gully erosion is a prime problem in Ethiopia. This study assessed the severity of gully erosion and the role of sediment storage dams (SSD) in restoring gullies and preventing further gully development, its sediment trapping efficacy (STE) and its capacity in converting degraded gully lands to productive land. On average 2.5 m deep, 6.6 m wide and 28.3 m long gullies were formed in Minizr watershed, northwest Ethiopia, in 2013. Concentrated surface runoff, traditional ditches, graded terraces without suitable water ways and road construction are the main causes of such serious gully erosion. Over grazing, tunnel flow and lack of proper immediate gully treatment actions after gully initiation are found to be additional causes of the problem. Gully erosion was also found as the major source of sediment for downstream rivers and water reservoirs. The annual volume of soil eroded from only four gullies was 1941.3 m3. To control gully erosion, SSDs were found to be important physical structures, which can trap significant amount of sediment within gullies and they can convert unproductive gully land to productive agricultural land for fruit and crop production. Eight SSDs trapped about 44*103 m3 of sediment within 2 to 8 years. Two representative SSDs constructed using gabion and stone were tested for their STE. Results showed that their efficacy was 74.1% and 66.4% for the gabion and stone SSDs, respectively. Six of the older SSDs were already full of sediment and created 0.75 ha of productive land within 2 to 8 years. SSDs best fits to treat large size and deep gullies where other gully control measures, check dams, could not function well. To prevent gully formation, controlling its causes that is avoiding traditional ditches, practicing grassed water ways to safely remove runoff water from graded terraces, integrated watershed and road side management practices are important solutions. KEY WORDS: Sediment storage dam, gully erosion, sediment trapping efficacy, productive land, Ethiopia
Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Taddesse, Mieraf; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Abdullah, Muna; Miljeteig, Ingrid
Reproductive health services are crucial for maternal and child health, but universal health coverage is still not within reach in most societies. Ethiopia's goal of universal health coverage promises access to all necessary services for everyone while providing protection against financial risk. When moving towards universal health coverage, health plans and policies require contextualized knowledge about baseline indicators and their distributions. To understand more about the factors that explain coverage, we study the relationship between socioeconomic and geographic factors and the use of reproductive health services in Ethiopia, and further explore inequalities in reproductive health coverage. Based on these findings, we discuss the normative implications of these findings for health policy. Using population-level data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (2011) in a multivariate logistic model, we find that family planning and use of antenatal care are associated with higher wealth, higher education and being employed. Skilled attendance at birth is associated with higher wealth, higher education, and urban location. There is large variation between Addis Ababa (the capital) and other administrative regions. Concentration indices show substantial inequalities in the use of reproductive health services. Decomposition of the concentration indices indicates that difference in wealth is the most important explanatory factor for inequality in reproductive health coverage, but other factors, such as urban setting and previous health care use, are also associated with inequalities. When aiming for universal health coverage, this study shows that different socioeconomic factors as well as health-sector factors should be addressed. Our study re-confirms the importance of a broader approach to reproductive health, and in particular the importance of inequality in wealth and geography. Poor, non-educated, non-employed women in rural areas are multidimensionally worse off. The needs of these women should be addressed through elimination of out-of-pocket costs and revision of the formula for resource allocation between regions as Ethiopia moves towards universal health coverage. PMID:26419910
Alemu, Abere Shiferaw; Kempker, Russell R.; Tenna, Admasu; Smitson, Christopher; Berhe, Nega; Fekade, Daniel; Blumberg, Henry M.; Aseffa, Abraham
Background Cryptococcal disease is estimated to be responsible for significant mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa; however, only scarce epidemiology data exists. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for cryptococcal antigenemia in Ethiopia. Methods Consecutive adult HIV-infected patients from two public HIV clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia were enrolled into the study. A CD4 count ?200 cells/?l was required for study participation. Patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART) were not excluded. A cryptococcal antigen test was performed for all patients along with an interview, physical exam, and medical chart abstraction. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for cryptococcal antigenemia. Results 369 HIV-infected patients were enrolled; mean CD4 123 cells/?l and 74% receiving ART. The overall prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia was 8.4%; 11% in patients with a CD4 count <100 cells/?l, 8.9% with CD4 100 to 150 cells/?l and 5.7% with CD4150-200 cell/?l. 84% of patients with cryptococcal antigenemia were receiving ART. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, self reported fever, CD4 count <100 cells/?l, and site of screening were associated with an increased risk of cryptococcal antigenemia. No individual or combination of clinical symptoms had optimal sensitivity or specificity for cryptococcal antigenemia. Conclusion Cryptococcal antigenemia is high in Ethiopia and rapid scale up of screening programs is needed. Screening should be implemented for HIV-infected patients with low CD4 counts regardless of symptoms or receipt of ART. Further study into the effect of location and environment on cryptococcal disease is warranted. PMID:23469276
Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres
Background Ethiopia is one of the six countries which have contributed to more than 50% of all maternal deaths across the world. This country has adopted the millennium development goals (MDGs) including reducing the maternal mortality by three-quarter, and put improvement in maternal health as one of the health sector development program (HSDP) performance indicators. The purpose of this study was to review the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Ethiopia in the past 30 years using available literature. Methods A computer based literature search in the databases of MEDLINE, PubMed, HINARI, EBASE, MEASURE DHS, The Cochrane Library, Google Search and Google Scholar was carried out. Manual search for local articles that are not available electronically in full document were also conducted. Eighteen data sources (3 nationally representative surveys, 2 secondary data analyses, 5 small scale community based studies, and 8 hospital based studies) were included in the review. The results of this review are presented in the form of line and stock graphs. Results The national maternal mortality trend estimated by the central statistics agency of Ethiopia, The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, WHO and other UN agencies showed inconsistent results. Similarly, although there were marked variations in the 95% confidence intervals among individual studies, the small scale community based and hospital based studies have shown that there has been no significant change in maternal mortality over the last three decades. A 22-year cohort analysis from Atat Hospital is the only evidence that demonstrated a very significant drop in maternal mortality among mothers who were kept in the maternity waiting area before the onset of labor. Conclusion Although the MDG and HSDP envisaged significant improvement in maternal health by this time, this review has shown that the performances are still far from the target. The multisectoral huge investment by the Ethiopian Government is a big hope to reduce the maternal mortality by three-quarters in the near future beyond 2015. PMID:25489179
Mekonen, Seblework; Lachat, Carl; Ambelu, Argaw; Steurbaut, Walter; Kolsteren, Patrick; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Wondafrash, Mekitie; Houbraken, Michael; Spanoghe, Pieter
Infants in Ethiopia are consuming food items such as maize as a complementary diet. However, this may expose infants to toxic contaminants like DDT. Maize samples were collected from the households visited during a consumption survey and from markets in Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia. The residues of total DDT and its metabolites were analyzed using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method combined with dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup (d-SPE). Deterministic and probabilistic methods of analysis were applied to determine the consumer exposure of infants to total DDT. The results from the exposure assessment were compared with the health based guidance value in this case the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI). All maize samples (n=127) were contaminated by DDT, with a mean concentration of 1.770 mg/kg, which was far above the maximum residue limit (MRL). The mean and 97.5 percentile (P 97.5) estimated daily intake of total DDT for consumers were respectively 0.011 and 0.309 mg/kg bw/day for deterministic and 0.011 and 0.083 mg/kg bw/day for probabilistic exposure assessment. For total infant population (consumers and non-consumers), the 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake were 0.265 and 0.032 mg/kg bw/day from the deterministic and probabilistic exposure assessments, respectively. Health risk estimation revealed that, the mean and 97.5 percentile for consumers, and 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake of total DDT for total population were above the PTDI. Therefore, in Ethiopia, the use of maize as complementary food for infants may pose a health risk due to DDT residue. PMID:25569581
Background Human Salmonellosis is one of the major diseases in Ethiopia and several factors including under and mal-nutrition and HIV-AIDS may substantially contribute to its occurrence. Despite its importance, surveillance and monitoring systems are not in place and a comprehensive picture of its epidemiology is not available. The objectives of this study were to systematically review and estimate the prevalence of the disease and identify the dominant serogroups and serotypes in Ethiopia. Methods Published studies on Salmonellosis in Ethiopia were electronically and manually searched. Eligible studies were selected by using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Generic, methodological and statistical information were extracted from the eligible studies. The extracted data included sample sizes, the numbers of Salmonella positive samples, serogroups and serotypes. The variations in prevalence estimates attributable to heterogeneities were assessed and pooled prevalence was estimated by the random effects model. Results Twenty studies carried out between 1974 and 2012 were eligible. The pooled prevalence estimates of Salmonella in stool samples of diarrheic children, diarrheic adults and carriers were 8.72%, 5.68%, and 1.08% respectively. Invasive infections in children (5.71%) and adults (0.76%) were significantly different (p?0.001). Non-typhi isolates accounted for 57.9% of the isolates from patients. Serogroup D occurred more frequently than serogroups C and B. S. Concord, S. Typhi, S. Typhimurium and S. Paratyphi were dominant and accounted for 82.1% of the serotypes isolated from patients. Conclusion The prevalence of Salmonellosis is considerable and most infections are due to four serotypes. The results imply the need for a policy to promote public hygiene and regularly screen individuals in contact with food items for public consumption. PMID:24552273
Background Reservoirs created by damming rivers are often believed to increase malaria incidence risk and/or stretch the period of malaria transmission. In this paper, we report the effects of a mega hydropower dam on P. falciparum malaria incidence in Ethiopia. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted over a period of 2 years to determine Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence among children less than 10 years of age living near a mega hydropower dam in Ethiopia. A total of 2080 children from 16 villages located at different distances from a hydropower dam were followed up from 2008 to 2010 using active detection of cases based on weekly house to house visits. Of this cohort of children, 951 (48.09%) were females and 1059 (51.91%) were males, with a median age of 5 years. Malaria vectors were simultaneously surveyed in all the 16 study villages. Frailty models were used to explore associations between time-to-malaria and potential risk factors, whereas, mixed-effects Poisson regression models were used to assess the effect of different covariates on anopheline abundance. Results Overall, 548 (26.86%) children experienced at least one clinical malaria episode during the follow up period with mean incidence rate of 14.26 cases/1000 child-months at risk (95% CI: 12.16 - 16.36). P. falciparum malaria incidence showed no statistically significant association with distance from the dam reservoir (p?=?0.32). However, P. falciparum incidence varied significantly between seasons (p?0.01). The malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, was however more abundant in villages nearer to the dam reservoir. Conclusions P. falciparum malaria incidence dynamics were more influenced by seasonal drivers than by the dam reservoir itself. The findings could have implications in timing optimal malaria control interventions and in developing an early warning system in Ethiopia. PMID:23566411
Using data from the 2002 Eritrea and 2005 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), this study was carried out to investigate the link between women's autonomy and maternal health care utilization in relation to socioeconomic factors. Although some dimensions of women's autonomy are significantly linked to an increased likelihood of receiving health care, they do not emerge to be mediators of the link between socioeconomic factors and use of health services for antenatal care and delivery care. In order to derive a complete understanding of the determinants of maternal health care utilization, both women's autonomy and socioeconomic indicators should be analyzed. PMID:20526926
The Antarctic Dipole (ADP) is a dipole-like pattern seen in various atmospheric and oceanic variables between the Atlantic and Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean, respectively. It has been used to infer teleconnections between the Eastern...
Estimates of age and growth of southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) from Matagorda Bay, Texas were made by analyzing thin sections of otoliths (sagittae) from 892 specimens collected along the Texas coast from May 1992 to January 1995...
Campbell & Louise Turner) The Ormand Factor (Editor: Louise Turner) Bounty Hunter #4 (Editor: James Simmonds) Bound by the Force Voices of the Force International Brotherhood of Jedi Knights "Man to Man" by Carol Hines-Stroede (A Tremor in the Force...), Shooting Star #1, Sith Yearbook. Southern Knights #1, Southern Lights #1.5 (all adult), Syndicated Images #1-#4 (Australian mediazine), The Old Republic Reader, The Princess Tapes. The Princess Tapes: The Prologue. The Wookiee Commode #1-#2, Universal...
Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.
Bogale, Gebeyehu W.; Boer, Henk; Seydel, Erwin R.
In Ethiopia the level of illiteracy in rural areas is very high. In this study, we investigated the effects of an audio HIV/AIDS prevention intervention targeted at rural illiterate females. In the intervention we used social-oriented presentation formats, such as discussion between similar females and role-play. In a pretest and posttest…
Alem, Atalay; Pain, Clare; Araya, Mesfin; Hodges, Brian D.
Background: Globalization in medical education often means a "brain drain" of desperately needed health professionals from low- to high-income countries. Despite the best intentions, partnerships that simply transport students to Western medical schools for training have shockingly low return rates. Ethiopia, for example, has sent hundreds of…
Edilegnaw Wale; John Mburu
On top of its role in the national economy, Ethiopia's coffee diversity is important not only nationally but also in international research and conservation centers. Despite a tremendous attention to salvage its diversity loss through on-farm conservation, there is no attempt to link on-farm conservation, variety adoption, farmers' preferences for variety traits. This paper aims to study coffee farmers' preferences
Mesfin Tilahun; Roland Olschewski; Christoph Kleinn; Kindeya Gebrehiwot
In Ethiopia, environmental degradation leads to a reduction of forest areas with economically important tree species like Boswellia papyrifera. In an attempt to reverse this development and assist natural rehabilitation, closing degraded forest from free grazing, fuel wood collection and other interference is practiced in Tigray. Sustainability of this management will, among other things, depend on the resources' tangible benefits.
Much research has suggested that focusing on the determinants of female enrolment and dropout tells us little about girls' experiences of schooling in developing countries and cannot explain variation in their educational trajectories. This paper draws on quantitative (n = 1177) and qualitative data (n = 15) collected by "Young Lives" in Ethiopia…
Bekalo, S.; Bangay, C.
Whether talking to local farmers or studying academic papers there is general agreement that environmental degradation is impacting upon agricultural productivity in Ethiopia. In a country, where around 90% of the population are dependent on agriculture for subsistence requirements and a similar fraction of the country's export income is generated…
Marco Piccolino; Stanley Finger; Jean-Gaël Barbara
The electric catfishes of African rivers and lakes, once depicted on Egyptian tomb art, have been largely overlooked in histories and reviews of electric fish biology and animal electricity. This article examines how Westerners, especially Dominican and Jesuit missionaries, discovered them in Ethiopia and other parts of Africa at the beginning of the seventeenth century. What transpired took place against
A survey of Fusarium head blight (FHB)-contaminated wheat in Ethiopia recovered 31 isolates resembling members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex. Results of a multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay for FHB species and trichothecene chemotype determination suggested that 22 of these isolates m...
Teachers and teacher center personnel were used to gather evaluative information on Awraja Pedagogical Centers (APCs) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Teachers discussed their access to center facilities and services, and ratings of center materials and personnel. APC staff discussed their work, hours of center operation, procedures followed in the…
Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is the standard of care for children suffering from noncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The objective was to develop a comprehensive linear programming (LP) tool to create novel RUTF formulations for Ethiopia. A systematic approach that surveyed inter...
Tekleselassie, Abebayehu A.
In response to the ever-declining status of the teaching profession, and its adverse effects on the country's educational system, the Federal Ministry of Education in Ethiopia introduced a policy of the teachers' career ladder in 1994. While reformers believe that the introduction of the policy has improved the condition of the teaching…
Gondo, Tendayi; Dafuleya, Gift
Technical vocational education and training (TVET) programmes have recently received increased attention as an area of priority for stimulating growth in developed and developing countries. This paper considers the situation in Ethiopia where the promotion of micro and small-sized enterprises (MSEs) has been central to the development and…
STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of Omo River Delta and Lake Turkana in Ethiopia / Kenya. The Omo Delta at the north end of Lake Turkana (Rudolph) is one of the long-term environmental study sites of the Space Shuttle program. The environmental interest in this instance is the documentation of the delta's extension into the lake. This delta extension, or aggradation, is felt to be the result of large-scale soil erosion in the recently deforested areas of Ethiopia in the watershed of the Omo River. Using digitized, rectified, machine-classified, and mensurated NASA photography, it has been determined that the Omo Delta has increased in area by approximately 400% to about 1,800 square kilometers since it was first photographed during the Gemini program in 1965. This photograph documents the long-term and increasing turbidity of Lake Turkana and the continuing delta extension southward by both the northwest and northeast distributaries of the Om
Kebede, Mengistu; Kebebe Borga, Dereje; Mulisa Bobasa, Eshetu
Background Sustaining the availability and rational use of safe and effective drugs is a major problem in developing countries. Irrational drug use affects quality of health care more than accessibility of drugs. Objective To assess drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone from January 21–28, 2012 by using structured questionnaires. Results Of 50 prescribers and 30 dispensers, 58% and 83.3% were males, respectively. The result showed that majority of prescribers agreed on availability of essential drugs (72%) and had access to up-to-date drug information (76%). However, 43.3% of dispensers didn’t get access to up-to-date drug information. 86% and 88% of prescribers note cost of drugs and stick to standard treatment guidelines of Ethiopia during prescription, respectively. All drug dispensers check the name of the drug (100%), age of the patient (90%), the dosage form of drug (96.7%), the route of administration (90%), the duration of therapy (86.7%), and frequency of administration (86.7%) for prescription papers. Conclusion In general, drug utilization at the study sites was found to be good, although there are major deviations from the concept of rational drug use.
Kedir, Haji; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu
Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia). Data on the study subjects' background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/obstetric histories were collected via a structured questionnaire. UIC of <150??g/L defined subclinical iodine deficiency. Data were analyzed by Stata 11. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency. Results. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) was 58.1??g/L and 82.8% of the women who had subclinical iodine deficiency. The risk of subclinical iodine deficiency was reduced by the use of iodized salt (AOR = 0.13) and by intake of milk twice a month or more (AOR = 0.50), but it was increased by maternal illiteracy (AOR = 3.52). Conclusion. Iodine nutritional status of the pregnant women was poor. This shows that women and their children are exposed to iodine deficiency and its adverse effects. Thus, they need urgent supplementation with iodine and improved access to and intake of iodized salt and milk during pregnancy. PMID:25132987
Delesa, Effa Kefena; Yohannes, Aster; Alemayehu, Mengistu; Samuel, Temesgen; Yehualaeshet, Teshome
A study was undertaken with the objective to identify some intrinsic (genotype of the cow, estrus time and parity) and extrinsic factors (service type, service time and estrus seasons) that affect calf sex ratio in naturally and artificially bred cattle in the central highlands of Ethiopia. A total of 4657 calving events were extracted from the long-term dairy cattle genetic improvement experiment at Holetta Agricultural Research Center. Factors that affect the logit of the probability of a female calf being born were obtained by using PROC GENMODE in Statistical Analysis System. Moreover, multivariate analysis was performed using PROC LOGISTIC procedure using forward selection procedure. Accordingly, genotype of the cow, parity, estrus season, and service type had considerable influences on calf sex ratio. However, estrus time and service time did not affect calf sex ratio (?(2) = 0.83 and 0.79, respectively). In Ethiopia, smallholder dairy farmers often complain that artificial insemination (AI) skewed to producing more male calves. However, our study showed that AI did not alter female-to-male calf sex ratio. On the contrary, natural mating increases the probability of female calves born (odds ratio 1.38) over AI. Heifer/cows that showed estrus and bred during the harsh seasons of the years produced more female calves than those that bred during the good seasons of the year. This strongly agreed with Trivers and Willard sex allocation theory. PMID:24908336
Tschopp, Rea; Schelling, Esther; Hattendorf, Jan; Aseffa, Abraham; Zinsstag, Jakob
This study shows a representative stratified cluster sample survey of the prevalence of comparative intradermal tuberculin test in cattle from four regions in Ethiopia. Using a cut-off for positivity of 2 mm, it assesses possible risk factors for tuberculin-positive reaction in cattle. Seventy-three villages in 24 kebeles (administrative units) were randomly selected, from which 2216 cattle from 780 owners were tested. In addition, 450 of these cattle owners were interviewed for risk factor assessment. Ninety-nine percent of the tested cattle in this rural livestock production system were traditional zebus. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bovine tuberculosis (BTB)e was 3%, with the highest found in Meskan Mareko, in Central Ethiopia (7.9%) and the lowest in Woldia, in the North East edge of the Rift Valley (1.2%). Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) with random effect on kebeles was used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors and human tuberculosis (TB) infection. Purchase of cattle and presence of other livestock in the herd were statistically significant, with OR: 1.7, p-values of 0.03 and OR: 2, p = 0.05, respectively. Family members diagnosed with TB or showing clinical signs of extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) were reported in 86 households (19%). None of the assessed potential risk factors of disease transmission between cattle and human (food consumption, livestock husbandry and presence of BTB-positive cattle) were statistically significant. PMID:19339066
Abiy, Dessalegn Samuel; Kabeta, Genet Gelana; Mihiretie, Dawit Mekonnen
Initiated by a "Pilot workshop on developing capacity for establishing lifelong learning systems in UNESCO Member States" held at the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, the purpose of this study was to develop a Lifelong Learning system in Ethiopia. Preparations for its conceptualisation included the review of relevant national policy documents and an analysis of the Ethiopian educational, economic and social context. Focused group and one-to-one interviews were conducted with policy researchers, experts from the Ministry of Education, adult educators and coordinators at different levels. It emerged that some of the existing policy provisions and contexts reflecting the highly formalised and structured educational opportunities available to Ethiopian youth and adults require re-conceptualisation. Despite the enormous progress made in increasing children's access to primary school, more than two million children remain out of school and adult literacy rates are still far from reaching the targets set both by the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and by national educational programmes. Moreover, as many youth drop out after completing primary education, and as the quality of learning appears to have suffered due to efforts of expansion, it is necessary to revisit the responsiveness of Ethiopia's formal educational provisions in the face of these challenges. Based on the opportunities and challenges identified, the authors explore some major considerations believed to be fundamental in creating a platform for the conceptualisation of Lifelong Learning in the Ethiopian context and conclude with some suggestions for the way forward.
Mahmud, Mahmud Abdulkader; Spigt, Mark; Mulugeta Bezabih, Afework; López Pavon, Ignacio; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Blanco Velasco, Roman
Research on associated risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition in various geographic regions is needed for the development of appropriate control strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections, anaemia, and malnutrition in school children, living in urban and rural areas of northern Ethiopia. Six hundred school children, aged 6-15 years, were randomly selected in a cross-sectional survey from 12 primary schools. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were collected. Faecal samples were examined using direct, concentration, and the Kato-Katz methods. Urine specimens were analysed for Schistosoma haematobium ova. Haemoglobin was measured using a HemoCue spectrometer. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 66-76%). The prevalence of anaemia, stunting, and thinness were 11% (95% CI: 8-13%), 35% (95% CI: 31-38%), and 34% (95% CI: 30-38%), respectively. Poor personal hygiene habits were generally associated with anaemia and nutritional deficiency (low body mass index). Multivariate logistic regression models related Schistosoma mansoni infection with boys. Boys were also more likely to be malnourished. Hookworm infection was associated with anaemia and unhygienic finger nails. Access to clean water and latrines, with some hygiene and sanitation communication activities, could improve health of children in Ethiopia. The use of smartphone technology in demographic data collection proved to be successful. The potential advantage offered by this technology for parasitological field surveys merits further investigation. PMID:23683331
Hawaze, S; Deti, H; Suleman, S
THE LEAVES EXTRACTS OF TWO INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF ETHIOPIA: Clematis longicauda steud ex A. Rich. and Clematis burgensis Engl. are used in Southwestern Ethiopia to treat otorrhoea and eczema. Antimicrobial activity and MIC of crude extracts were determined by disk diffusion and broth dilution. Phytochemical screening was performed on the extracts. The methanol and petroleum ether extracts of both plants showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. Sensitivity of reference strains was concentration dependent. Methanol and petroleum ether extracts of C. burgensis leaves exerted greater inhibitory effects than C. longicauda extracts whereas aqueous extracts of both plants were inactive. The MIC study revealed a concentration of 0.78 mg/ml on bacteria and 3.125 mg/ml on fungi for methanol extract and 1.56 mg/ml on both fungi and bacteria for petroleum ether extract. Phytochemical screening results indicated the presence of proteins, fixed oils, carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and steroids. Preliminary chromatographic investigation showed fluorescing spots with R(f) values that ranged from 0.05 to 0.96 for phenolic compounds and saponins. As the study is one of the first reports on the two indigenous species of Clematis; isolation, purification and characterization of the different primary and secondary metabolites may further yield alternative options to the microbial chemotherapy. PMID:23204619
Lindstaedt, M.; Mechelke, K.; Schnelle, M.; Kersten, Th.
In autumn 2009 the Almaqah Temple of Yeha in Ethiopia has been recorded by terrestrial laser scanning and digital photogrammetry in cooperation between the Sana'a Branch of the Orient Department of the German Archaeological Institute and the HafenCity University Hamburg. The temple dates from the 7th Century BC and is one of the best preserved buildings of Sabaean architecture in Africa. As a basis for all future project works a geodetic network was established in UTM-coordinates by GPS measurements. The geodata collected will form the basis for all future work on the temple. The deformations of the facades were determined for restoration issues and the existing parts of the temple were modelled by meshing (3D triangulation). Using the scanned point cloud and a technical analysis of the building the Propylon, which is no longer existent today, was virtually reconstructed. In future, the data will also be included in the master plan for touristic development of the region of Axum and Yeha in northern Ethiopia.
Dubey, J P; Darrington, C; Tiao, N; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A
Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia, were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined with the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25); 33 cats were seropositive. Hearts of all 36 cats were homogenized, digested in pepsin, and bioassayed in mice. Feces were examined for T. gondii oocysts by bioassay in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from heart of 26 by bioassay in mice and from 25 seropositive and 1 seronegative cats. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from feces (oocysts) by bioassay in mice. In total, viable T. gondii was isolated from 27 of the 36 cats, and these isolates were designated TgCatEt1 to TgCatEt27. The high prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in feces of 8 (19.4%) of 36 cats is of high epidemiologic significance. This is the first report of isolation of viable T. gondii from any host in Ethiopia. PMID:22924928
Background Habitat loss and fragmentation may have detrimental impacts on genetic diversity, population structure and overall viability of tropical trees. The response of tropical trees to fragmentation processes may, however, be species, cohort or region-specific. Here we test the hypothesis that forest fragmentation is associated with lower genetic variability and higher genetic differentiation in adult and seedling populations of Prunus africana in North-western Ethiopia. This is a floristically impoverished region where all but a few remnant forest patches have been destroyed, mostly by anthropogenic means. Results Genetic diversity (based on allelic richness) was significantly greater in large and less-isolated forest patches as well as in adults than seedlings. Nearly all pairwise FST comparisons showed evidence for significant population genetic differentiation. Mean FST values were significantly greater in seedlings than adults, even after correction for within population diversity, but varied little with patch size or isolation. Conclusions Analysis of long-lived adult trees suggests the formerly contiguous forest in North-western Ethiopia probably exhibited strong spatial patterns of genetic structure. This means that protecting a range of patches including small and isolated ones is needed to conserve the extant genetic resources of the valuable forests in this region. However, given the high livelihood dependence of the local community and the high impact of foreign investors on forest resources of this region, in situ conservation efforts alone may not be helpful. Therefore, these efforts should be supported with ex situ gene conservation actions. PMID:24602239
Lemma, Seblewengel; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.
Purpose This study assessed the association of sleep quality with academic performance among University students in Ethiopia. Methods this cross sectional study of 2173 college students (471 female and 1672 male) was conducted in two Universities in Ethiopia. Students were selected in to the study using a multistage sampling procedure and data were collected through a self administered questionnaire. Sleep quality was assessed using Pittsburgh sleep quality index and academic performance was based on self reported cumulative grade point average. The Student ‘t’ test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression were used to evaluate associations. Results We found that students with better sleep quality score achieved better on their academic performance (P-value =0.001) while sleep duration was not associated with academic performance in the final model. Conclusion Our study underscores the importance of sleep quality on better academic performance. Future studies need to identify the possible factors which influence sleep quality other than the academic environment repeatedly reported by other literature. It is imperative to design and implement appropriate interventions to improve sleep quality in light of the current body of evidence to enhance academic success in the study setting. PMID:23928956
Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina
Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is one of the most common ectoparasites that contributes to enormous economic losses in the productivity of sheep in many countries. The present study was conducted from January 2012 to July 2013 on M. ovinus collected from sheep at three sites in Ethiopia. Of the sheep studied, 65.7% (88/134) were infested with M. ovinus. The prevalence of M. ovinus was 76% (76/100), 47% (8/17) and 23.5% (4/17) at the Kimbibit, Chacha and Shano sites, respectively. An overall number of 229 M. ovinus specimens (138 females, 86 males and five pupae) and 554 M. ovinus specimens (272 females, 282 males) were collected from young and adult sheep, respectively. Bartonella DNA was detected in 89% (694/783) of M. ovinus using a quantitative Bartonella genus-specific PCR assay targeting the 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The sequencing of the PCR products of fragments of the gltA and rpoB genes showed 99.6-100% and 100% homology, respectively, with B. melophagi. Statistically significant variation was not noted in the overall prevalence of Bartonella DNA between female and male M. ovinus. All of the sheep infested with M. ovinus 100% (88/88) harbored at least one M. ovinus specimen that contained Bartonella DNA. This study highlights that B. melophagi in M. ovinus from sheep in highlands in Ethiopia possibly has certain zoonotic importance. PMID:24326024
Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres
Background Although the common direct obstetric causes of maternal mortality are known from the literature, the contribution of each cause and the change in trend over decades is unknown in Ethiopia. The objective of this review was to assess the trend of proportion of maternal mortality due to the common direct causes. Methods This systematic review was done on eighteen health facility based maternal mortality studies conducted between 1980 and 2012 in Ethiopia. Emphasis was given to the proportion of maternal mortality due to direct causes and their case fatality rates. Results The summary of the findings has shown that the top four causes of maternal mortality in the year 1980–1999 were abortion related complications (31%), obstructed labor/uterine rupture (29%), sepsis/infection (21%) and hemorrhage (12%). In the last decade, however, the top four causes of maternal mortality were obstructed labor/uterine rupture (36%), hemorrhage (22%), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (19%) and sepsis/infection (13%). Conclusion Abortion and infection related maternal deaths have declined significantly in the last decade. Obstructed labor continues to be the major cause of maternal deaths; maternal deaths due to hypertensive disorders and hemorrhage showed an increasing trend. The findings in this review were somehow comparable with the WHO analysis for Africa in the same period with the exception of obstructed labor. PMID:25489180
Sbhatu, Desta Berhe
Metacognition is increasingly recognized as an important component in successful learning. In science, metacognitive instructional interventions have been successfully incorporated to promote conceptual change learning, facilitate negotiating and constructing of meanings, and foster reading and problem solving abilities of learners. The present study investigated the contribution of three metacognitive instructional methods, namely graphic organizers, metacognitive reflection, and metacognitive reading in learning science among primary school students (age 10-14 years) in Mekelle, Ethiopia. The metacognitive instructional methods were believed to be efficient to introduce and transform learner-centeredness in science instruction under Ethiopia's primary school settings by allowing students to think productively and regulate their own learning. Qualitative study indicated that the metacognitive instructional methods fostered student conceptual understanding of science topics and enhanced active student participation. Quantitative study of post-scores of Immediate test-groups revealed that graphic organizers had some contribution in helping students perform better in 'application' type tests. Metacognitive reflection activities enabled students to perform better in 'application' and 'transfer' type tests as well as enhancing mean post-test scores. Metacognitive reading activities did not yield any apparent effects on post-intervention tests. The effects of the metacognitive methods were diminished among Delayed post-test groups.
West, A. M.; Wakie, T.; Luizza, M.; Evangelista, P.
Invasion of non-native species is among the most critical threats to natural ecosystems and economies world-wide. Mesquite (which includes some 45 species) is an invasive deciduous tree which is known to have an array of negative impacts on ecosystems and rural livelihoods in arid and semi-arid regions around the world, dominating millions of hectares of land in Asia, Africa, Australia and the Americas. In Ethiopia, Prosopis juliflora (the only reported mesquite) is the most pervasive plant invader, threatening local livelihoods and the country's unique biodiversity. Due to its rapid spread and persistence, P. juliflora has been ranked as one of the leading threats to traditional land use, exceeded only by drought and conflict. This project utilized NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) data and species distribution modeling to map current infestations of P. juliflora in the Afar region of northeastern Ethiopia, and forecast its suitable habitat across the entire country. This project provided a time and cost-effective strategy for conducting risk assessments of invasive mesquite and subsequent monitoring and mitigation efforts by land managers and local communities.
Uraguchi, Zenebe B
Based on household food security surveys conducted in Ethiopia, this study seeks to understand the roles and limitations of income transfer projects as determinants of households’ food security. By covering the Food-For-Work Programs (FFWPs) and the Productive Safety Net Programs (PSNPs), the study shows that these programs served as temporary safety nets for food availability, but they were limited in boosting the dietary diversity of households and their coping strategies. Households which participated in the programs increased their supply of food as a temporary buffer to seasonal asset depletion. However, participation in the programs was marred by inclusion error (food-secure households were included) and exclusion error (food-insecure households were excluded). Income transfer projects alone were not robust determinants of household food security. Rather, socio-demographic variables of education and family size as well as agricultural input of land size were found to be significant in accounting for changes in households’ food security. The programs in the research sites were funded through foreign aid, and the findings of the study imply the need to reexamine the approaches adopted by bilateral donors in allocating aid to Ethiopia. At the same time the study underscores the need to improve domestic policy framework in terms of engendering rural local institutional participation in project management. PMID:22451986
WoldeGabriel, G; Haile-Selassie, Y; Renne, P R; Hart, W K; Ambrose, S H; Asfaw, B; Heiken, G; White, T
The Middle Awash study area of Ethiopia's Afar rift has yielded abundant vertebrate fossils (approximately 10,000), including several hominid taxa. The study area contains a long sedimentary record spanning Late Miocene (5.3-11.2 Myr ago) to Holocene times. Exposed in a unique tectonic and volcanic transition zone between the main Ethiopian rift (MER) and the Afar rift, sediments along the western Afar rift margin in the Middle Awash provide a unique window on the Late Miocene of Ethiopia. These deposits have now yielded the earliest hominids, described in an accompanying paper and dated here to between 5.54 and 5.77 Myr. These geological and palaeobiological data from the Middle Awash provide fresh perspectives on hominid origins and early evolution. Here we show that these earliest hominids derive from relatively wet and wooded environments that were modulated by tectonic, volcanic, climatic and geomorphic processes. A similar wooded habitat also has been suggested for the 6.0 Myr hominoid fossils recently recovered from Lukeino, Kenya. These findings require fundamental reassessment of models that invoke a significant role for global climatic change and/or savannah habitat in the origin of hominids. PMID:11449271
Esser, Kjell B; Semagn, Kassa; Wolde-Yohannes, Legesse
Berries from Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit. (endod in Amharic) offer a readily available molluscicide to control schistosomiasis. Parts of the endod plant have been used as a detergent and as traditional medicine for centuries in Ethiopia. An interview survey was performed in the highlands of Ethiopia to provide information on the distribution of the plant, people's traditional use of it, their perception of the plant, and the potential for increased production and use of endod as a soap for indirect control of schistosomiasis. People of all ages report that they are familiar with the plant and its detergent and medicinal uses. The plant is largely disappearing from unprotected areas due to land clearing. Younger people appear to use endod as a soap whenever it is available. Older women prefer commercial soap and consider endod to be associated with poor people. Common medicinal uses include treatment of skin itching (ringworm), abortion, gonorrhea, leeches, intestinal worms, anthrax and rabies. Two thirds of the people express interest in cultivating endod for personal use if supplied with rooted cuttings. Increased cultivation of endod and use of berries for washing might be possible if information about schistosomiasis and its control is disseminated among people. Preference for commercial soap and lack of land for cultivation are major obstacles for increasing the availability and use of endod. PMID:12639751
Tesgaye, F.; Defar, A.; Beyene, T.; Shafi, O.; Klinkenberg, E.
Background: Smear-negative and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) comprise two thirds of TB cases reported in Ethiopia. Neither treatment outcomes nor underlying associated factors are routinely reported for these cases. Objective: To assess treatment outcomes and associated risk factors of smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB in comparison with smear-positive cases. Design: Record review of all TB cases registered in 14 randomly selected public and private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, over a 1-year period. Results: Percentages of smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB were independent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and were not evenly distributed among health facilities. Extra-pulmonary TB was overrepresented in the private sector, and smear-negative TB was more frequent in health clinics than in hospitals. Outcomes reported by clinics were more favourable than those of the hospitals; no differences were observed when comparing public and private health facilities. Only 54% of the TB registers were complete; missing information correlated with unfavourable outcomes. Younger age, but not sex or HIV status, was associated with favourable outcomes. Conclusion: The uneven distribution of smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB among different health facilities requires further study and may provide important insight into diagnosis and care of these patients. Incomplete TB register information may be an underappreciated factor contributing to unfavourable outcomes.
Kumssa, H.; Tefera, M.; Tesfaye, A.; Klinkenberg, E.; Yimer, G.
Setting: Ethiopia is one of the high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) burden countries. Efforts by the National TB Programme to control MDR-TB include expanding ambulatory care. Objective: To investigate the opportunities and challenges faced by treatment follow-up health centres (TFCs) when managing MDR-TB patients, with greater focus on recording, TB infection control (IC) and supervision practices. Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing the records of all MDR-TB cases in all 25 TFCs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The TB focal point, pharmacy and laboratory heads were also interviewed. Result: A total of 221 MDR-TB patients were registered; 157 (71%) patients had been referred from one of the two treatment initiating centres. While some TFCs oversaw up to 41 patients, others had just one patient. The majority of the TFCs (n = 21, 84%) followed standardised TB IC procedures. Poor documentation of patient information was observed at all sites; for example, human immunodeficiency virus and current treatment status was not indicated for respectively 86 (38%) and 41 (18%) patients. Conclusion: The study revealed that infection prevention practices were largely adhered to. Documentation of patient-related information was a major challenge, and regular supervision of the TFCs should be emphasised. Record keeping is critical.
Faris, Solomon Belay
It has been repeatedly observed that home and local context matter in the education of children. A smooth transition between home and classroom prepares children for enjoyable and meaningful life-long learning. Knowledge building in children is influenced by previous experience, values, beliefs and sociocultural factors associated with community. Against this theoretical background, the thesis examined the integration of local spiritual and cultural values to improve science education in Ethiopia. This autoethnographic research used in-depth interviews, supplementary observations and focus group discussion and my biography to identify the perception and practice of common and unique spiritual and cultural values. The study examined whether these values were included and/or excluded in the school curriculum and explored the possibilities for incorporating values in science education and the anticipated tensions resulting from their inclusion. Students, science teachers, parents, employers, curriculum experts, policymakers, elders, and religious leaders participated in the research, conducted in a randomly selected secondary school in Addis Ababa. The sampling followed a kind of snowball method, with a total of twenty key informants participating in interviews, fifteen classroom observations, and one focus group discussion. The data collection aimed at generating stories, which underlie the auto-ethnography methodology. Findings indicated that belief in and fear of God animated and sustained the Ethiopian way of life. Although spiritual teachings derived from sacred writings were the initial foundation for Ethiopian cultural norms, the two merged together later, creating a mosaic pervading every aspect of life in Ethiopia. Education was sustained on this merger of spiritual and cultural norms and values. It was also shown that the now century-old system of formal education did not incorporate those local spiritual and cultural values. Current science education also has little relationship to Ethiopian spiritual and cultural norms and is, therefore, in need of restoration. Findings showed that efforts to recapture local spiritual and cultural values in the curriculum may encounter obstacles and tensions. Clearly, the future of a more prosperous Ethiopia depends on the extent to which curriculum stakeholders can overcome these obstacles and put in place a relevant, contextual, and holistic education.
The Late Palaeozoic sediments in northern Ethiopia record a series of depositional environments during and after the Late Paleozoic ice age (LPIA). These sediments are up to 200 m thick and exceptionally heterogeneous in lithofacies composition. A differentiation of numerous types of lithofacies associations forms the basis for the interpretation of a large range of depositional processes. Major glacigenic lithofacies associations include: (1) sheets of diamictite, either overlying glacially eroded basement surfaces or intercalated into the sediment successions, and representing subglacial tillites, (2) thick massive to weakly stratified muddy clast-poor diamictites to lonestone-bearing laminated mudstones originating from a combination of suspension settling of fines and iceberg rainout, (3) lensoidal or thin-bedded diamictites deposited from debris flows, (4) wedges of traction and gravity transported coarse-grained sediments deposited in outwash fans, (5) irregular wedges or sheets of mudstones deformed primarily by extension and incorporating deformed beds or rafts of other lithofacies formed by slumping, and (6) irregular bodies of sandstone, conglomerate and diamictite deformed by glacial pushing. The dominance of laminated or massive clast-bearing mudstones in most successions indicates ice-contact water bodies as the major depositional environment. Into this environment, coarse-grained sediments were transported by various gravity driven transport processes, including dropstone activity of ice-bergs, slumping, cohesive debris flow, hyperconcentrated to concentrated flow, hyperpycnal flow, and by turbidity flow. Close to glacier termini, wedge-shaped bodies of conglomerate, sandstone, diamictite and mudstone were deposited primarily in subaqueous outwash-fans. Soft-sediment deformation of these sediments either records ice push during glacier advance or re-sedimentation by slumping. Apart from an initial glacier advance when thick ice of temperate or polythermal glaciers covered the whole basin, many sections document at least a second major phase of ice advance and retreat, and some sections additional minor advance-retreat cycles. Whether most of the LPIA sediments in northern Ethiopia were deposited in lakes or in fjords is not yet clear. Although univocal evidence of marine conditions is missing, the presence of carbonate-rich beds and the trace fossil assemblage are compatible with a restricted marine environment such as broad palaeofjords affected by strong freshwater discharge during deglaciation. A restricted marine environment for most of the sediments in northern Ethiopia could challenge models of the LPIA sediments in Arabia as primarily glaciolacustrine and glaciofluviatile deposits.
Yeshiwondim, Asnakew K; Tekle, Afework H; Dengela, Dereje O; Yohannes, Ambachew M; Teklehaimanot, Awash
Plasmodium vivax is the second most important cause of morbidity in Ethiopia. There is, however, little information on P. vivax resistance to chloroquine and chloroquine plus primaquine treatment although these drugs have been used as the first line treatment for over 50 years. We assessed the efficacy of standard chloroquine and chloroquine plus primaquine treatment for P. vivax infections in a randomized open-label comparative study in Debre Zeit and Nazareth in East Shoa, Ethiopia. A total of 290 patients with microscopically confirmed P. vivax malaria who presented to the outpatient settings of the two laboratory centers were enrolled: 145 patients were randomized to receive CQ and 145 to receive CQ+PQ treatment. Participants were followed-up for 28-157 days according to the WHO procedures. There were 12 (6.5%) lost to follow-up patients and 9 (3.1%) withdrawals. In all, 96% (277/290) of patients were analysed at day 28. Baseline characteristics were similar in all treatment groups. In all, 98.6% (275/277) of patients had cleared their parasitemia on day 3 with no difference in mean parasite clearance time between regimens (48.34+/-17.68, 50.67+/-15.70 h for the CQ and CQ+PQ group, respectively, P=0.25). The cumulative incidence of therapeutic failure at day 28 by a life-table analysis method was 5.76% (95% CI: 2.2-14.61) and 0.75% (95% CI: 0.11-5.2%) in the CQ and CQ+PQ group, respectively (P=0.19). The relapse rate was 8% (9/108) for the CQ group and 3% (4/132) for the comparison group (P=0.07). The cumulative risk of relapse at day 157 by a life-table method was 61.8% (95% CI: 20.1-98.4%) in the CQ group, compared with 26.3% (95% CI: 7.5-29.4%) in the CQ+PQ group (P=0.0038). The study confirms the emergence of CQ and PQ resistance/treatment failure in P. vivax malaria in Ethiopia. Although treatment failures were detected, they were similar between the treatment groups. We recommend regular monitoring and periodic evaluation of the efficacy of these antimalarial drugs in systematically selected sentinel sites to detect further development of resistance and to make timely national antimalarial drug policy changes. PMID:19835832
1 Southern Region Watershed Management Project September 15, 2000 to September 14, 2005 Terminal Report A network of Land Grant University Extension and research personnel in the Southern region and technology transfer programs. #12;Southern Region Watershed Management Project September 15, 2000
Logue, Cal M., Ed.; Dorgan, Howard, Ed.
This book examines the rhetorical strategies of influential southern United States politicians, termed "southern demagogues," and their particular appeal to the poor working class whites of the South during the early twentieth century. Following an introductory chapter that discusses the origins of the southern demagogue, the remaining chapters…
‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...
‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...
On the night of December 4, 2004, a Texas Southern University (TSU) student named Ashley Sloan was gunned down near campus, struck in the temple by a bullet after leaving a party with her friends. The murder prompted an outpouring of accusations concerning poor campus security. For many Houstonians, the shooting raised old fears of the…
Southern sclerotium root rot, caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii, is a problem in warm beet-growing areas, especially when sugar beet is grown as a winter crop. The effects of the disease on the plants are devastating: a blackish rot develops rapidly in the taproots, which become completely cov...
Behrman, Julia Andrea
Demographic scholarship suggests that schooling plays an important role in transforming fertility preferences in the early stages of fertility decline. However, there is limited evidence on the relationship between schooling and fertility preferences that addresses the endogeneity of schooling. I use the implementation of Universal Primary Education (UPE) policies in Malawi, Uganda, and Ethiopia in the mid-1990s to conduct a fuzzy regression discontinuity analysis of the effect of schooling on women's desired fertility. Findings indicate that increased schooling reduced women's ideal family size and very high desired fertility across all three countries. Additional analyses of potential pathways through which schooling could have affected desired fertility suggest some pathways--such as increasing partner's education--were common across contexts, whereas other pathways were country-specific. This analysis contributes to demographic understandings of the factors influencing individual-level fertility behaviors and thus aggregate-level fertility decline in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25951799
Stork, A. L.; Stuart, G. W.; Henderson, C. M.; Keir, D.; Hammond, J. O. S.
The Afar Depression, Ethiopia, offers unique opportunities to study the transition from continental rifting to oceanic spreading because the process is occurring onland. Using traveltime tomography and data from a temporary seismic deployment, we describe the first regional study of uppermost mantle P-wave velocities (VPn). We find two separate low VPn zones (as low as 7.2 km s-1) beneath regions of localized thinned crust in northern Afar, indicating the existence of high temperatures and, potentially, partial melt. The zones are beneath and off-axis from, contemporary crustal magma intrusions in active magmatic segments, the Dabbahu-Manda-Hararo and Erta'Ale segments. This suggests that these intrusions can be fed by off-axis delivery of melt in the uppermost mantle and that discrete areas of mantle upwelling and partial melting, thought to characterize segmentation of the uppermost mantle at seafloor spreading centres, are initiated during the final stages of break-up.
Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.
In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, subsistence agriculture is characterized by significant fluctuations in yield and production due to variations in moisture availability to staple crops. Widespread drought can lead to crop failures, with associated deterioration in food security. Ground data collection networks are sparse, so methods using geospatial rainfall estimates derived from satellite and gauge observations, where available, have been developed to calculate seasonal crop water balances. Using conventional crop production data for 4 years in Ethiopia (1996-1999), it was found that water-limited and water-unlimited growing regions can be distinguished. Furthermore, maize growing conditions are also indicative of conditions for sorghum. However, another major staple, teff, was found to behave sufficiently differently from maize to warrant studies of its own.
Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Legesse, Worku; Van Bortel, Wim; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Kloos, Helmut; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko
Background Ethiopia plans to increase its electricity power supply by five-fold over the next five years to fulfill the needs of its people and support the economic growth based on large hydropower dams. Building large dams for hydropower generation may increase the transmission of malaria since they transform ecosystems and create new vector breeding habitats. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia on malaria transmission and changing levels of prevalence in children. Methods A cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out between October and December 2005 in Jimma Zone, south-western Ethiopia, among children under 10 years of age living in three 'at-risk' villages (within 3 km from dam) and three 'control' villages (5 to 8 km from dam). The man-made Gilgel-Gibe dam is operating since 2004. Households with children less than 10 years of age were selected and children from the selected households were sampled from all the six villages. This included 1,081 children from 'at-risk' villages and 774 children from 'control' villages. Blood samples collected from children using finger prick were examined microscopically to determine malaria prevalence, density of parasitaemia and identify malarial parasite species. Results Overall 1,855 children (905 girls and 950 boys) were surveyed. A total of 194 (10.5%) children were positive for malaria, of which, 117 (60.3%) for Plasmodium vivax, 76 (39.2%) for Plasmodium falciparum and one (0.5%) for both P. vivax and P. falciparum. A multivariate design-based analysis indicated that, while controlling for age, sex and time of data collection, children who resided in 'at-risk' villages close to the dam were more likely to have P. vivax infection than children who resided farther away (odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.32) and showed a higher OR to have P. falciparum infection than children who resided in 'control' villages, but this was not significant (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 0.84, 6.88). A classification tree revealed insights in the importance of the dam as a risk factor for malaria. Assuming that the relationship between the dam and malaria is causal, 43% of the malaria occurring in children was due to living in close proximity to the dam. Conclusion This study indicates that children living in close proximity to a man-made reservoir in Ethiopia are at higher risk of malaria compared to those living farther away. It is recommended that sound prevention and control programme be designed and implemented around the reservoir to reduce the prevalence of malaria. In this respect, in localities near large dams, health impact assessment through periodic survey of potential vectors and periodic medical screening is warranted. Moreover, strategies to mitigate predicted negative health outcomes should be integral parts in the preparation, construction and operational phases of future water resource development and management projects. PMID:19178727
Siraj, A S; Santos-Vega, M; Bouma, M J; Yadeta, D; Ruiz Carrascal, D; Pascual, M
The impact of global warming on insect-borne diseases and on highland malaria in particular remains controversial. Temperature is known to influence transmission intensity through its effects on the population growth of the mosquito vector and on pathogen development within the vector. Spatiotemporal data at a regional scale in highlands of Colombia and Ethiopia supplied an opportunity to examine how the spatial distribution of the disease changes with the interannual variability of temperature. We provide evidence for an increase in the altitude of malaria distribution in warmer years, which implies that climate change will, without mitigation, result in an increase of the malaria burden in the densely populated highlands of Africa and South America. PMID:24604201
Alelign, Tilahun; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu
Identifying determinants of soil transmitted helminth infection is vital to design control strategy for the disease. This study assessed the prevalence of STH infections and associated factors among schoolchildren in Durbete town, northwestern Ethiopia. Data about the sociodemographic and socioeconomic status of the children were collected using a questionnaire and stool samples were diagnosed using thick Kato-Katz smear. STH infection was more common among school-age children in Durbete town. Hookworm was the most frequent helminth species detected. The prevalence of STH infection was more in children who did not practice wearing shoes and washing hands before eating and in those who were older in age. Deworming of school-age children in the study area would be important. In addition, provision of health education about helminths and the importance of wearing shoes and washing hands before eating would be important to reduce the burden of STH infection in the study area. PMID:26161265
Gedlu, E; Tesemma, T
A cluster sample survey using the Expanded Programme for Immunization (EPI) methodology was conducted in April 1995 in Gondar town and surrounding villages in north west Ethiopia to assess immunisation coverage in the area and problems associated with vaccination delivery. Two hundred and thirteen children aged 12-24 months were enrolled into the study from the chosen thirty clusters. Among the sampled children, 101 (47.4%) were fully immunised while 64(30%) were not immunised at all. Only 38% of the mothers had received tetanus toxoid vaccination more than once. Reasons given for not immunising a child were lack of knowledge (39.8%), social problems (38.7%) and various obstacles (22.8%), such as child sickness and health institution related problems. A strategy of strengthening of health education, primary health care and extension of the eligibility criteria are suggested as solutions to improve coverage. PMID:9299826
ASTER succeeded in acquiring this image at night, which is something Visible/Near Infrared VNIR) and Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) sensors cannot do. The scene covers the Red Sea coastline to an inland area of Ethiopia. White pixels represent areas with higher temperature material on the surface, while dark pixels indicate lower temperatures. This image shows ASTER's ability as a highly sensitive, temperature-discerning instrument and the first spaceborne TIR multi-band sensor in history.The size of image: 60 km x 60 km approx., ground resolution 90 m x 90 m approximately.The ASTER instrument was built in Japan for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint United States/Japan Science Team is responsible for instrument design, calibration, and data validation. ASTER is flying on the Terra satellite, which is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.
Background The emergence of drug resistance is a major problem in malaria control. Combination of molecular genotyping and characterization of mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) correlated with drug resistance can provide information for subsequent surveillance of existing and developing drug resistance patterns. The introduction of artemether/lumefantrine (AL) as first-line treatment, never used before in Ethiopia, allowed the collection of baseline data of molecular polymorphisms before a selection due to AL could occur. Method 97 patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were recruited from April to June 2006 and treated with either AL, quinine (Q) or atovaquone/proguanil (AP) in Jimma University Hospital, Ethiopia. Mutations or SNPs associated with resistance to these drugs were analysed by RFLP (pfdhfr, pfmdr1) and sequencing of the target genes (pfcytb, pfserca ). Results SNPs previously reported to be associated with resistance to the study drugs were identified in recrudescent and treatment sensitive isolates. A total of seven recrudescences were obtained. The pfmdr1 N86Y mutation was found in 84.5% of isolates. The triple mutation 51I,59R,108N of the pfdhfr gene occured in high frequency (83.3%) but no pfcytb mutation was detected. Sequencing showed a variety of previously described and new mutations in the pfserca gene. Conclusion The prevalence of mutations was in accordance with the expected patterns considering recent drug regimens. The broad introduction of AL and the cessation of former drug regimens might probably change the current distribution of polymorphisms, possibly leading to decreased sensitivity to AL in future. Continuous surveillance of molecular patterns in this region is, therefore, recommended. PMID:20691106
Mann, B. F.; Small, C.
Weather-based index insurance projects are rapidly expanding across the developing world. Many of these projects use satellite-based observations to detect extreme weather events, which inform and trigger payouts to smallholder farmers. While most index insurance programs use precipitation measurements to determine payouts, the use of remotely sensed observations of vegetation is currently being explored. In order to use vegetation indices as a basis for payouts, it is necessary to establish a consistent relationship between the vegetation index and the health and abundance of agriculture on the ground. The accuracy with which remotely sensed vegetation indices can detect changes in agriculture depends on both the spatial scale of the agriculture and the spatial resolution of the sensor. This study analyzes the relationship between meter and decameter scale vegetation fraction estimates derived from linear spectral mixture models with a more commonly used vegetation index (NDVI, EVI) at hectometer spatial scales. In addition, the analysis incorporates land cover/land use field observations collected in Tigray Ethiopia in July 2013. . It also tests the flexibility and utility of a standardized spectral mixture model in which land cover is represented as continuous fields of rock and soil substrate (S), vegetation (V) and dark surfaces (D; water, shadow). This analysis found strong linear relationships with vegetation metrics at 1.6-meter, 30-meter and 250-meter resolutions across spectrally diverse subsets of Tigray, Ethiopia and significantly correlated relationships using the Spearman's rho statistic. The observed linear scaling has positive implications for future use of moderate resolution vegetation indices in similar landscapes; especially index insurance projects that are scaling up across the developing world using remotely-sensed environmental information.
Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward A.; Margoles, Lindsay; Kacha, Ermias; Blumberg, Henry M.; Kempker, Russell R.
Objective To better understand hospital infection control practices in Ethiopia. Design A cross-sectional evaluation of healthcare worker (HCW) knowledge, attitudes and practices about hand hygiene and tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures. Methods An anonymous, 76-item questionnaire was administered to HCWs at two university hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Knowledge items were scored as correct/incorrect. Attitude and practice items were assessed using a Likert scale. Results 261 surveys were completed by physicians (51%) and nurses (49%). Fifty-one percent of respondents were male; mean age was 30 years. While hand hygiene knowledge was fair, self-reported practice was suboptimal. Physicians reported performing hand hygiene 7% and 48% before and after patient contact, respectively. Barriers for performing hand hygiene included lack of hand hygiene agents (77%), sinks (30%), proper training (50%), and irritation and dryness (67%) caused by hand sanitizer made per WHO formulation. TB infection control knowledge was excellent (>90% correct). Most HCWs felt at high risk for occupational acquisition of TB (71%) and that proper TB infection control can prevent nosocomial transmission (92%). Only 12% of HCWs regularly wore a mask when caring for TB patients. Only 8% of HCWs reported masks were regularly available and 76% cited a lack of infrastructure to isolate suspected/known TB patients. Conclusions Training HCWs about the importance and proper practice of hand hygiene along with improving hand sanitizer options may improve patient safety. Additionally, enhanced infrastructure is needed to improve TB infection control practices and allay HCW concerns about acquiring TB in the hospital. PMID:24225614
Asfaw, Elias; Palen, John G H; Wong, Wendy; Bekele, Abebe; Kebede, Amha; Johns, Benjamin
Formalized task shifting structures have been used to rapidly scale up antiretroviral service delivery to underserved populations in several countries, and may be a promising mechanism for accomplishing universal health coverage. However, studies evaluating the quality of service delivery through task shifting have largely ignored the patient perspective, focusing on health outcomes and acceptability to health care providers and regulatory bodies, despite studies worldwide that have shown the significance of patient satisfaction as an indicator of quality. This study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in hospitals and health centres in four regions of Ethiopia. This cross-sectional study used data collected from a time–motion study of patient services paired with 665 patient exit interviews in a stratified random sample of antiretroviral therapy clinics in 21 hospitals and 40 health centres in 2012. Data were analyzed using f-tests across provider types, and multivariate logistic regression to identify determinants of patient satisfaction. Most (528 of 665) patients were satisfied or somewhat satisfied with the services received, but patients who received services from nurses and health officers were significantly more likely to report satisfaction than those who received services from doctors [odds ratio (OR) 0.26, P < 0.01]. Investments in the health facility were associated with higher satisfaction (OR 1.07, P < 0.01), while costs to patients of over 120 birr were associated with lower satisfaction (OR 0.14, P < 0.05). This study showed high levels of patient satisfaction with task shifting in Ethiopia. The evidence generated by this study complements previous biomedical and health care provider/regulatory acceptability studies to support the inclusion of task shifting as a mechanism for scaling-up health services to achieve universal health coverage, particularly for underserved areas facing severe health worker shortages. PMID:25274640
Tefera, Ephrem; Mohammed, Jemal; Mitiku, Habtamu
Introduction Intestinal helminthic infections are important public health problems in developing countries. In Ethiopia, intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent because of low living standards and poor environmental sanitation. There are several areas in Ethiopia from which epidemiological information is lacking including Babile town. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection among students of Babile town. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from May 14 to June 08, 2012. Stool samples collected from 644 students were examined by the McMaster method. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Univariate analysis was carried out using the Chi-square test to check for presence or absence of association between exposure and the presence of infection and odds ratios with 95% CI were computed to measure the strength of association. Logistic regression was used to calculate predictors of helminthic infection. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results The prevalence of intestinal helminths was 13.8%, of which three students were infected with soil transmitted helminths with a prevalence rate of 0.47%. The prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichiura trichiura infections were 13, 0.6, 0.3, and 0.2% respectively. Intestinal helminthic infection was significantly associated with grade and sex of the school children. Conclusion The prevalence of intestinal helminths was low. Health information dissemination is recommended. Since infection by Hymenolepis nana is a long term health problem in the area, provision of regular treatment by anthelminthic drug of choice for hymenolepiasis is also recommended PMID:26090008
Temesgen, Melesse; Rockstrom, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Hoogmoed, W. B.; Alemu, Dawit
Traditional tillage systems practiced by farmers in semi-arid regions of Ethiopia are characterized by repeated and cross plowing with an indigenous plow called Maresha. Repeated and cross plowing have led to land degradation. Conservation tillage systems that advocate minimum soil disturbance can alleviate land degradation problems. However, before introducing reduced tillage systems, it was found necessary to study why farmers undertake repeated plowing. The study was undertaken in two semi-arid areas called Melkawoba and Wulinchity located in the central rift valley of Ethiopia and on two major crops; Tef ( Eragrostis Tef (Zucc.)) and maize ( Zea mays XX). Fifty farmers from each area were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The results showed that farmers in the study area plow repeatedly in order to completely disturb unplowed strips of land left between adjacent furrows. Unplowed strips are the results of the V-shaped furrows created by the Maresha plow. Farmers generally do not plow before the soil is wetted by rainfall. Wetting and drying cycles due to dry spells occurring between rainfall events force farmers to plow frequently to avoid moisture losses through surface runoff, evaporation and weed transpiration. Tef fields are plowed 4-5 times while maize fields are plowed 3-4 times. Tillage frequency increased with the education level and experience of farmers; with their perception about the purpose of tillage such as moisture conservation, weed control and soil warming; and with resource availability such as area of land and family labor. Tillage frequency was higher for Tef than for maize and in heavy soils than in light soils.
Asfaw, Elias; Dominis, Sarah; Palen, John G H; Wong, Wendy; Bekele, Abebe; Kebede, Amha; Johns, Benjamin
Formalized task shifting structures have been used to rapidly scale up antiretroviral service delivery to underserved populations in several countries, and may be a promising mechanism for accomplishing universal health coverage. However, studies evaluating the quality of service delivery through task shifting have largely ignored the patient perspective, focusing on health outcomes and acceptability to health care providers and regulatory bodies, despite studies worldwide that have shown the significance of patient satisfaction as an indicator of quality. This study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in hospitals and health centres in four regions of Ethiopia. This cross-sectional study used data collected from a time-motion study of patient services paired with 665 patient exit interviews in a stratified random sample of antiretroviral therapy clinics in 21 hospitals and 40 health centres in 2012. Data were analyzed using f-tests across provider types, and multivariate logistic regression to identify determinants of patient satisfaction. Most (528 of 665) patients were satisfied or somewhat satisfied with the services received, but patients who received services from nurses and health officers were significantly more likely to report satisfaction than those who received services from doctors [odds ratio (OR) 0.26, P < 0.01]. Investments in the health facility were associated with higher satisfaction (OR 1.07, P < 0.01), while costs to patients of over 120 birr were associated with lower satisfaction (OR 0.14, P < 0.05). This study showed high levels of patient satisfaction with task shifting in Ethiopia. The evidence generated by this study complements previous biomedical and health care provider/regulatory acceptability studies to support the inclusion of task shifting as a mechanism for scaling-up health services to achieve universal health coverage, particularly for underserved areas facing severe health worker shortages. PMID:25274640
Background Antimicrobial resistant Salmonella is a global problem and recently, a strain on the verge of pan-resistance was reported. In Ethiopia, the therapeutic management of Salmonellosis is difficult because drug sensitivity tests are not routinely carried out and treatment alternatives are not available in most health care facilities. The objectives of this study were to estimate the temporal changes and proportions of drug resistant isolates in Ethiopia. Methods Published studies on drug resistant Salmonella isolates were searched in Medline, Google Scholar and the lists of references of articles. Eligible studies were selected by using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Generic, methodological and statistical information were extracted from the eligible studies. The extracted data included the proportions of ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and multi-drug resistant isolates. Pooled proportions were estimated by a random effects model. Results The odds of multi-drug resistant isolates in the 2000s was higher than before the 1990s (OR =18.86, 95% CI?=?13.08, 27.19). The pooled proportions of ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and multi-drug resistant isolates in the 2000s were 86.01%, 68.01%, 62.08%, 3.61% and 79.56% respectively. S. Concord (>97%) was resistant to ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone. Conclusion The proportion of drug resistant isolates has increased since the 1970s. All drugs currently used for the treatment of Salmonellosis but ciprofloxacin are not reliable for an empirical therapy. Alternative drugs should be included in the essential drug list and measures should be taken to re-enforce the drug use policy. PMID:25213011
Nguyen, Nga; Fashing, Peter J; Boyd, Derek A; Barry, Tyler S; Burke, Ryan J; Goodale, C Barret; Jones, Sorrel C Z; Kerby, Jeffrey T; Kellogg, Bryce S; Lee, Laura M; Miller, Carrie M; Nurmi, Niina O; Ramsay, Malcolm S; Reynolds, Jason D; Stewart, Kathrine M; Turner, Taylor J; Venkataraman, Vivek V; Knauf, Yvonne; Roos, Christian; Knauf, Sascha
Parasitism is expected to impact host morbidity or mortality, although the fitness costs of parasitism have rarely been quantified for wildlife hosts. Tapeworms in the genus Taenia exploit a variety of vertebrates, including livestock, humans, and geladas (Theropithecus gelada), monkeys endemic to the alpine grasslands of Ethiopia. Despite Taenia's adverse societal and economic impacts, we know little about the prevalence of disease associated with Taenia infection in wildlife or the impacts of this disease on host health, mortality and reproduction. We monitored geladas at Guassa, Ethiopia over a continuous 6½ year period for external evidence (cysts or coenuri) of Taenia-associated disease (coenurosis) and evaluated the impact of coenurosis on host survival and reproduction. We also identified (through genetic and histological analyses) the tapeworms causing coenurosis in wild geladas at Guassa as Taenia serialis. Nearly 1/3 of adult geladas at Guassa possessed ?1 coenurus at some point in the study. Coenurosis adversely impacted gelada survival and reproduction at Guassa and this impact spanned two generations: adults with coenuri suffered higher mortality than members of their sex without coenuri and offspring of females with coenuri also suffered higher mortality. Coenurosis also negatively affected adult reproduction, lengthening interbirth intervals and reducing the likelihood that males successfully assumed reproductive control over units of females. Our study provides the first empirical evidence that coenurosis increases mortality and reduces fertility in wild nonhuman primate hosts. Our research highlights the value of longitudinal monitoring of individually recognized animals in natural populations for advancing knowledge of parasite-host evolutionary dynamics and offering clues to the etiology and control of infectious disease. PMID:25716944
Tesfaye, Kindie; Jaleta, Moti; Jena, Pradyot; Mutenje, Munyaradzi
Conservation agriculture (CA) is being promoted as an option for reducing soil degradation, conserving water, enhancing crop productivity, and maintaining yield stability. However, CA is a knowledge- and technology-intensive practice, and may not be feasible or may not perform better than conventional agriculture under all conditions and farming systems. Using high resolution (?1 km(2)) biophysical and socioeconomic geospatial data, this study identified potential recommendation domains (RDs) for CA in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Malawi. The biophysical variables used were soil texture, surface slope, and rainfall while the socioeconomic variables were market access and human and livestock population densities. Based on feasibility and comparative performance of CA over conventional agriculture, the biophysical and socioeconomic factors were first used to classify cultivated areas into three biophysical and three socioeconomic potential domains, respectively. Combinations of biophysical and socioeconomic domains were then used to develop potential RDs for CA based on adoption potential within the cultivated areas. About 39, 12, and 5% of the cultivated areas showed high biophysical and socioeconomic potential while 50, 39, and 21% of the cultivated areas showed high biophysical and medium socioeconomic potential for CA in Malawi, Kenya, and Ethiopia, respectively. The results indicate considerable acreages of land with high CA adoption potential in the mixed crop-livestock systems of the studied countries. However, there are large differences among countries depending on biophysical and socio-economic conditions. The information generated in this study could be used for targeting CA and prioritizing CA-related agricultural research and investment priorities in the three countries. PMID:25331642
Aserse, Aregu Amsalu; Räsänen, Leena A; Assefa, Fassil; Hailemariam, Asfaw; Lindström, Kristina
The diversity and phylogeny of 32 rhizobial strains isolated from nodules of common bean plants grown on 30 sites in Ethiopia were examined using AFLP fingerprinting and MLSA. Based on cluster analysis of AFLP fingerprints, test strains were grouped into six genomic clusters and six single positions. In a tree built from concatenated sequences of recA, glnII, rpoB and partial 16S rRNA genes, the strains were distributed into seven monophyletic groups. The strains in the groups B, D, E, G1 and G2 could be classified as Rhizobium phaseoli, R. etli, R. giardinii, Agrobacterium tumefaciens complex and A. radiobacter, respectively, whereas the strains in group C appeared to represent a novel species. R. phaseoli, R. etli, and the novel group were the major bean nodulating rhizobia in Ethiopia. The strains in group A were linked to R. leguminosarum species lineages but not resolved. Based on recA, rpoB and 16S rRNA genes sequences analysis, a single test strain was assigned as R. leucaenae. In the nodC tree the strains belonging to the major nodulating groups were clustered into two closely linked clades. They also had almost identical nifH gene sequences. The phylogenies of nodC and nifH genes of the strains belonging to R. leguminosarum, R. phaseoli, R. etli and the putative new species (collectively called R. leguminosarum species complex) were not consistent with the housekeeping genes, suggesting symbiotic genes have a common origin which is different from the core genome of the species and indicative of horizontal gene transfer among these rhizobia. PMID:22265597
Maes, Kenneth; Kalofonos, Ippolytos
Many global health practitioners are currently reaffirming the importance of recruiting and retaining effective community health workers (CHWs) in order to achieve major public health goals. This raises policy-relevant questions about why people become and remain CHWs. This paper addresses these questions, drawing on ethnographic work in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, between 2006 and 2009, and in Chimoio, a provincial town in central Mozambique, between 2003 and 2010. Participant observation and in-depth interviews were used to understand the life histories that lead people to become CHWs, their relationships with intended beneficiaries after becoming CHWs, and their social and economic aspirations. People in Ethiopia and Mozambique have faced similar political and economic challenges in the last few decades, involving war, structural adjustment, and food price inflation. Results suggest that these challenges, as well as the socio-moral values that people come to uphold through the example of parents and religious communities, influence why and how men and women become CHWs. Relationships with intended beneficiaries strongly influence why people remain CHWs, and why some may come to experience frustration and distress. There are complex reasons why CHWs come to seek greater compensation, including desires to escape poverty and to materially support families and other community members, a sense of deservingness given the emotional and social work involved in maintaining relationships with beneficiaries, and inequity vis-à-vis higher-salaried elites. Ethnographic work is needed to engage CHWs in the policy process, help shape new standards for CHW programs based on rooting out social and economic inequities, and develop appropriate solutions to complex CHW policy problems. PMID:23631778
Abebe, Tatek; Aase, Asbjorn
The astounding rise in the number of orphans due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic has left many Ethiopian families and communities with enormous childcare problems. Available studies on the capacity and sustainability of the extended family system, which culturally performs the role of care for children in need, suggest two competing theories. The first is grounded in the social rupture thesis and assumes that the traditional system of orphan care is stretched by the impact of the epidemic, and is actually collapsing. By contrast, the second theory counter-suggests that the flexibility and strength of the informal childcare practise, if supported by appropriate interventions, can still support a large number of orphans. Based on a seven-month period of child-focused, qualitative research fieldwork in Ethiopia involving observations; in-depth interviews with orphans (42), social workers (12) and heads of households (18); focus group discussions with orphans (8), elderly people and community leaders (6); and story-writing by children in school contexts, this article explores the trade-offs and social dynamics of orphan care within extended family structures in Ethiopia. It argues that there is a rural-urban divide in the capacity to cater for orphans that emanates from structural differences as well as the socio-cultural and economic values associated with children. The care of orphans within extended family households is also characterised by multiple and reciprocal relationships in care-giving and care-receiving practices. By calling for a contextual understanding of the 'orphan burden', the paper concludes that interventions for orphans may consider care as a continuum in the light of four profiles of extended families, namely rupturing, transient, adaptive, and capable families. PMID:17379371
Getaneh, Gezahegne; Bert, Wim; Decraemer, Wilfrida
Abstract A total of six soil samples were collected around rhizosphere of citrus plants during 2010 from Melkassa Agricultural Research Center experimental station, Ethiopia. From these samples two most important ecto-plant parasitic nematodes of the genus Xiphinema were found and analysed. The genus Xiphinema is a large group of the phylum nematoda which constitutes more than 260 species. They are polyphagous root- ectoparasites of many crop plants and some species of this genus cause damage by direct feeding on root tips and transmit nepoviruses. The delimitation and discrimination of two species in the genus is presented, described herein as Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Morphological and morphometric data were done using light microscopy and results of both species were fit within the previously described nematode species of Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum. 18S rDNA were analysed using Bayesian inference (BI) method to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the studied Xiphinema sp. (KP407872 Xiphinema elongatum and KP407873 Xiphinema pachtaicum) with other Xiphinema species. The 18S rDNA sequence of Xiphinema pachtaicum was alike to previously described species from the GenBank but Xiphinema elongatum exhibited very small levels of nucleotides differences (0.4%) which might be possible intra-specific divergence. Though this region of rDNA has less resolution on complex species, its combination with morphological and morphometric analyses, suggests these species as Xiphinema elongatum and Xiphinema pachtaicum with the GenBank accession number of KP407872 and KP407873, respectively. Short notes, morphological measurements, illustrations, and molecular data are given to these species. These species are reported for the first time from Ethiopia and it provides new geographical information of these organisms. PMID:25878528
Wondimu, Abrham; Molla, Fantahun; Demeke, Birhanu; Eticha, Tadele; Assen, Admassu; Abrha, Solomon; Melkam, Wondim
Introduction The presence of medicines in households is a risk factor for irrational drug use. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and factors associated with home storage of medicines in Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Method A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in April 2013 in Tigray Region, Ethiopia. A total of 1034 participants were enrolled in the study. A multi-stage sampling method was employed to select households. Data were collected with the help of a pre-tested structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Result Of the total households visited, 293(29%) stored drugs. The mean number of drugs per household was 1.73. The most common classes of drugs found in households were analgesics 149(29%) and antibiotics 128(25%). Most of the medicines kept in households were used for ongoing treatments 316(62%) and available in tablet dosage form (70%). More than half of the medications kept at homes were not adequately labeled while drawer 180(36%) were reported as the main place of drug storage. The proportion of home storage of medicines in rural area (AOR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.39–0.81) was lower than that of urban area. However, households having family member(s) working in health facilities (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.09–3.77) were associated with an increased home storage of medicines. Conclusion Most drugs kept at home were not appropriately labeled and stored in a safe place. Residence area (rural versus urban) and the presence of health professional(s) in the households affects household drug storage. Hence, public education campaign should be considered as an intervention to improve the storage condition of medicines in the households. PMID:26275057
Brown, Douglas R; Dettmann, Paul; Rinaudo, Tony; Tefera, Hailu; Tofu, Assefa
Poverty, hunger and demand for agricultural land have driven local communities to overexploit forest resources throughout Ethiopia. Forests surrounding the township of Humbo were largely destroyed by the late 1960s. In 2004, World Vision Australia and World Vision Ethiopia identified forestry-based carbon sequestration as a potential means to stimulate community development while engaging in environmental restoration. After two years of consultation, planning and negotiations, the Humbo Community-based Natural Regeneration Project began implementation--the Ethiopian organization's first carbon sequestration initiative. The Humbo Project assists communities affected by environmental degradation including loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and flooding with an opportunity to benefit from carbon markets while reducing poverty and restoring the local agroecosystem. Involving the regeneration of 2,728 ha of degraded native forests, it brings social, economic and ecological benefits--facilitating adaptation to a changing climate and generating temporary certified emissions reductions (tCERs) under the Clean Development Mechanism. A key feature of the project has been facilitating communities to embrace new techniques and take responsibility for large-scale environmental change, most importantly involving Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR). This technique is low-cost, replicable, and provides direct benefits within a short time. Communities were able to harvest fodder and firewood within a year of project initiation and wild fruits and other non-timber forest products within three years. Farmers are using agroforestry for both environmental restoration and income generation. Establishment of user rights and local cooperatives has generated community ownership and enthusiasm for this project--empowering the community to more sustainably manage their communal lands. PMID:21132292
Background In Ethiopia the average fertility rate in rural areas is about 6 children per woman, while it is 2.4 children per woman in urban areas. It is with this concept in mind that the investigators of this study wanted to correlate the promotion of after-child-birth-use of family planning and desire to limit childbearing in Ethiopia. Postpartum amenorrhea signifies the interval between childbirth and the return of menstruation. Objectives The specific objective is to examine the desire to limit family size, along with cases of sterilized, fecund, postpartum amenorrhoea, declared in-fecund and menopausal women within the study area. Methods The study is based on the analysis of secondary data obtained from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). This study is concentrated on couples because we need to know more about married people’s desire to limit their family size. The bivariate, ANOVA, and multivariate analyses were used to analyse the association. Results The total number of respondents was 6,745 (78.3% rural and 21.7% urban), with 93.6% of them being currently married and 6.4% of them living with a partner. The mean duration of amenorrhea among women who gave birth in the five years preceding the survey is 16 months. Women with equal numbers of sons and daughters were found to be 75.4% (OR?=?0.25) less likely to desire more children, compared to women with more sons than daughters. Conclusion Achievable resolutions include increasing females’ ages at marriage, avoiding unwanted teenage pregnancies, completely eradicating home delivery, and inspiring young people to use modern methods of family planning to achieve Millennium Development Goals 4 & 5. PMID:25026977
Tesfaye, Kindie; Jaleta, Moti; Jena, Pradyot; Mutenje, Munyaradzi
Conservation agriculture (CA) is being promoted as an option for reducing soil degradation, conserving water, enhancing crop productivity, and maintaining yield stability. However, CA is a knowledge- and technology-intensive practice, and may not be feasible or may not perform better than conventional agriculture under all conditions and farming systems. Using high resolution (?1 km2) biophysical and socioeconomic geospatial data, this study identified potential recommendation domains (RDs) for CA in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Malawi. The biophysical variables used were soil texture, surface slope, and rainfall while the socioeconomic variables were market access and human and livestock population densities. Based on feasibility and comparative performance of CA over conventional agriculture, the biophysical and socioeconomic factors were first used to classify cultivated areas into three biophysical and three socioeconomic potential domains, respectively. Combinations of biophysical and socioeconomic domains were then used to develop potential RDs for CA based on adoption potential within the cultivated areas. About 39, 12, and 5 % of the cultivated areas showed high biophysical and socioeconomic potential while 50, 39, and 21 % of the cultivated areas showed high biophysical and medium socioeconomic potential for CA in Malawi, Kenya, and Ethiopia, respectively. The results indicate considerable acreages of land with high CA adoption potential in the mixed crop-livestock systems of the studied countries. However, there are large differences among countries depending on biophysical and socio-economic conditions. The information generated in this study could be used for targeting CA and prioritizing CA-related agricultural research and investment priorities in the three countries.
Background This study, the first of its kind carried out at sub-national level in Ethiopia, was conducted in order to understand the dynamics of HIV transmission at regional and district level in Tigrai, Ethiopia; and to assess the adequacy of the HIV prevention response. Methods Routine data from health centres, data from available published and grey literature and studies, and primary qualitative information were triangulated to draw an updated picture of the HIV epidemic, HIV response and resource allocation in Tigrai. Results HIV prevalence in Tigrai was 1.8% in 2011 (EDHS). ANC data show that there has been a continuous decline in the prevalence of HIV in both urban and rural areas (urban: 14.9% in 2001 to 5.0% in 2009; rural: 5.2% in 2001 to 1.3% in 2009, ANC surveillance data). Variability in prevalence by zone and by district was observed. Possible reasons for higher prevalence include the presence of mobile seasonal workers, highly urbanized centres, a high concentration of economic activity and connecting roads and large commercial farms. Sex workers, seasonal farm workers and HIV negative partners in discordant couples were identified as being at higher risk. There is no evidence that programme planning is done on the basis of geographical variations in HIV prevalence and there are gaps in programmes and services for certain high risk population groups. Conclusion Considerable efforts have been invested in the HIV prevention response in Tigrai however, these efforts do not fully respond to the actual needs. For a more effective and targeted HIV prevention response, studies and data syntheses need to be carried out at sub-national level in order to accurately identify local specificities and plan accordingly. Resources should be targeted towards areas where transmission is linked to sex work, mobility and the mobile labour workforce. PMID:24951053
Tram, Khai Hoan; Bertrand, Jane T.
Background Despite the importance of male circumcision (MC) prevalence to HIV prevention efforts in Eastern and Southern Africa, there has been no systematic analysis on the correlates of male circumcision. This analysis identifies correlates of MC in 12 countries in the region with available data. Methods Data from the male questionnaire of DHS surveys collected between 2006–2011 in Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed. The dependent variable was self-reported male circumcision status. Independent variables included age, education, wealth quintile, place of residence, ethnicity, religion and region. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted separately for each country. Results MC prevalence ranged from 8.2 percent in Swaziland to 92.2 percent in Ethiopia. Bivariate analyses showed a consistent positive association between age (being older) and male circumcision. Education, wealth quintile, and place of residence were either not significantly related or differed in the direction of the relationship by country. Multivariate logistic regression showed three variables consistently associated with MC status: age (being older), religion (being Muslim) and ethnicity. Discussion These data were collected prior to the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs in 11 of the 12 countries. As the VMMC scale-up intensifies in countries across Eastern and Southern Africa, the correlates of VMMC are likely to change, with (younger) age and education emerging as key correlates of VMMC performed in medical settings. The centuries-long tradition among Muslims to circumcise should continue to favor MC among this group. Non-circumcising ethnicities may become more open to MC if promoted as a health practice for decreasing HIV risk. PMID:24955963
Dumon, Mathijs; Capon, Boris; Detavernier, Christophe; Van Ranst, Eric
Planosols, characterised by a surface horizon abruptly overlying a dense subsoil, are a very common soil type in Ethiopia. The origin of the abrupt textural change is still often debated in literature. One of the processes frequently put forward to explain the coarse textured material in the topsoil, is 'ferrolysis': an oxidation-reduction sequence driven by bacterial decomposition of soil organic matter, resulting in the destruction of open 2:1 clay minerals. Recent studies of representative profiles of Vertic Planosols in south-western Ethiopia indicate that these these soils are composed of a weathered volcanic ash layer deposited on top of a deflated vertic subsoil, which refutes the ferrolysis hypothesis. To strengthen the geogenetic origin of these profiles, a quantitative mineralogical analysis of the clay fraction was undertaken. Textural analysis of the fine earth fraction (
Fantaw Yimer; Stig Ledin; Abdu Abdelkadir
Study of soil property variations resulting from topographic aspect and vegetation changes will have implication on the proper management of marginal and environmentally sensitive areas. This study addressed the effects of topographic aspect and vegetation community types on soil physical and chemical properties in the Bale Mountains, south-eastern highlands of Ethiopia. At each stratified vegetation community; Schefflera–Hagenia, Hypericum–Erica–Schefflera, and Erica
Yemane Tsehaye; Trygve Berg; Bayush Tsegaye; Tesema Tanto
Tigray (region) is one of the major finger millet growing regions in Ethiopia and an important site from an archeobotanical\\u000a point of view. Three zones of Tigray (east, central and west) were identified as representative sites in the region and a\\u000a total of 14 districts\\/ ‘Woreda’ were surveyed. Thirty-seven landraces\\/farmers’ varieties of finger millet were identified\\/recorded.\\u000a Farmers in Tigray undertake
Diriba Muleta; Fassil Assefa; Sileshi Nemomissa; Ulf Granhall
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are associated with the root system of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plants, but their distribution in smallholder agroforestry and monocultural coffee systems is not well known. This study\\u000a investigates the spatial distribution of AMF spores in a field study in southwestern Ethiopia. Soil samples from different\\u000a depths (0–50 cm) were collected under the tree canopies of Acacia
Sombo, Melaku; Hailu, Elena; Erenso, Girume; Kiros, Teklu; Yamuah, Lawrence; Vordermeier, Martin; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Young, Douglas; Gordon, Stephen V.; Sahile, Mesfin; Aseffa, Abraham; Berg, Stefan
Background Ethiopia has the largest cattle population in Africa. The vast majority of the national herd is of indigenous zebu cattle maintained in rural areas under extensive husbandry systems. However, in response to the increasing demand for milk products and the Ethiopian government's efforts to improve productivity in the livestock sector, recent years have seen increased intensive husbandry settings holding exotic and cross breeds. This drive for increased productivity is however threatened by animal diseases that thrive under intensive settings, such as bovine tuberculosis (BTB), a disease that is already endemic in Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings An extensive study was conducted to: estimate the prevalence of BTB in intensive dairy farms in central Ethiopia; identify associated risk factors; and characterize circulating strains of the causative agent, Mycobacterium bovis. The comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT), questionnaire survey, post-mortem examination, bacteriology, and molecular typing were used to get a better understanding of the BTB prevalence among dairy farms in the study area. Based on the CIDT, our findings showed that around 30% of 2956 tested dairy cattle from 88 herds were positive for BTB while the herd prevalence was over 50%. Post-mortem examination revealed gross tuberculous lesions in 34/36 CIDT positive cattle and acid-fast bacilli were recovered from 31 animals. Molecular typing identified all isolates as M. bovis and further characterization by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing indicated low strain diversity within the study area. Conclusions/Significance This study showed an overall BTB herd prevalence of 50% in intensive dairy farms in Addis Ababa and surroundings, signalling an urgent need for intervention to control the disease and prevent zoonotic transmission of M. bovis to human populations consuming dairy products coming from these farms. It is suggested that government and policy makers should work together with stakeholders to design methods for the control of BTB in intensive farms in Ethiopia. PMID:23285202
Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes considerable morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. Data on the prevalence and associated risk factors on malnutrition among VL patients in Ethiopia are scarce. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and its associated risk factor among VL patients in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2012 at four leishmaniasis treatment sites in Northwest Ethiopia. Four hundred and three adult VL patients were enrolled in the study. Malnutrition was defined as a body mass index (BMI)???18.5 kg/m2. The data collected from the VL patients included sex, age, residence, occupation, weight, height, laboratory results (HIV, hemoglobin, intestinal parasites). Multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the strength of association between malnutrition and associated risk factors. Results Among 403 adult VL patients 385 (95.5%) were malnourished. Twenty eight percent (n?=?113), 30.3% (n?=?122), and 37.2% (n?=?150) were mildly, moderately and severely malnourished, respectively. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.6% (n?=?192) and it was associated with malnutrition (P?=?0.01). The prevalence of VL-HIV co-infection was 10.4% (n?=?42). Hook worm, Giardia intestinalis and Ascaris lumbircoides were the leading prevalent intestinal parasites. Factors such as age, sex, residence, occupation, HIV status and anemia were not associated with severe malnutrition. Conclusions The prevalence of malnutrition in VL patients was very high and it was associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Therefore, screening of severely malnourished VL patients for intestinal parasitic infections during admission is recommended. PMID:24490749
Azene Dessie; Bayeh Abera; Fisseha Wale
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of major transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors at Felege Hiwot referral hospital, northwest Ethiopia. The overall seroprevalence of major blood- borne pathogens among blood donors was 43.2%, of which HBsAg, anti-HCV IgG, HIV seropositivity and syphilis accounted for 25%, 13.3%, 11.7% and 1.2% respectively. Crude seroprevalence of major blood born pathogens
Summary A total of 708 strains belonging to different bacterial genera were isolated from fresh tomatoes, eggs, green peppers and fish sold in open markets in Awassa, Ethiopia. They mainly consisted of coliforms (54%),Staphylococcus aureus (26%) andProteus (16%).Shigella was isolated from 26% of the tomato specimens. Total counts for the various food items varied between 2.4 × 106 c.f.u.\\/g and
Eusebius of Caesarea, in (Onomasticon) said that: "Ailath (Aila) is situated at the extremity of Palestine between the southern desert and the Red Sea where cargo was transported by ship from both Egypt and India". There is no doubt that port of Aila- 'Aqaba was important for the sea trade during the Byzantine Period and ancient times. Aila acquired significance in the Byzantine Empire commerce and seafaring according to the information derived from the Byzantine historians, documents and pilgrim's archaeological excavations. This paper focuses on Byzantine Maritime Trade in port of Aila during the period between the fourth and seventh centuries A.D, its importance in the flourishing of trade of southern Jordan, and its relations with other major trade centers such as Gaza, Alexandria and Ethiopia. It appears that port of Aila played a major role in the economy of Byzantine Empire and international trade as attested in the accounts of historians, pilgrims who visited the area during this period, and archaeological excavations which revealed that Aila was at least a transit point and perhaps even a production site for fish sauce or related products in the Byzantine period.
Background The rural populations in Ethiopia have a rich knowledge of wild edible plants and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of the different cultures in the country. In the southern part of the country, wild edible plants are used as dietary supplements and a means of survival during times of food shortage. Therefore, the aim of this study is to document the wild edible plants gathered and consumed by Kara and Kwego people, and to analyze patterns of use between the two people. Methods A cross sectional ethnobotanical study of wild edible plant species was conducted from January 2005 to March 2007. About 10% of each people: 150 Kara and 56 Kwego were randomly selected to serve as informants. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and group discussions. Analysis of variance (? = 0.05) was used to test the similarity of species richness of wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego people; Pearson's Chi-square test (? = 0.05) was used to test similarity of growth forms and plant parts of wild edible plants used between the two people. Results Thirty-eight wild plant species were reported as food sources that were gathered and consumed both at times of plenty and scarcity; three were unique to Kara, five to Kwego and 14 had similar local names. The plant species were distributed among 23 families and 33 genera. The species richness: families, genera and species (p > 0.05) were not significantly different between Kara and Kwego. Nineteen (50%) of the reported wild edible plants were trees, 11 (29%) were shrubs, six (16%) were herbs and two (5%) were climbers. Forty plant parts were indicated as edible: 23 (58.97%) fruits, 13 (33.33%) leaves, 3 (7.69%) roots and one (2.56%) seed. There was no difference between wild edible plants growth forms reported (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3) = 0.872) and plant parts used (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3) = 0.994) by Kara and Kwego people. The majority of wild edible plants were gathered and consumed from 'Duka' (March) to 'Halet' (May) and from 'Meko' (August) to 'Tejo' (November). Sixteen (41%) of the plant parts were used as a substitute for cultivated vegetables during times of scarcity. The vegetables were chopped and boiled to make 'Belesha' (sauce) or as a relish to 'Adano' (porridge). The ripe fruits were gathered and consumed fresh and some were made into juices. The seeds and underground parts were only consumed in times of famine. Thirty-seven percent of the wild edible plants were used as medicine and 23.6% were used for other functions. Conclusions The wild edible plants were used as supplements to the cultivated crops and as famine foods between harvesting seasons. But information on the nutritional values and possible toxic effects of most of the wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego, and others in different part of Ethiopia is not available. Therefore, the documented information on the wild edible plants may serve as baseline data for future studies on nutritional values and possible side effects, and to identify plants that may improve nutrition and increase dietary diversity. Some of these wild edible plants may have the potential to be valuable food sources (if cultivated) and could be part of a strategy in tackling food insecurity. PMID:20712910
Wild coffee production in Ethiopia: the role of coffee certification for forest conservation 1 Introduction This is the html version of the file http://web.fu-berlin.de/ffu/akumwelt/bc2006/papers/Schmitt_Grote_Coffee.pdf.
Wild coffee production in Ethiopia: the role of coffee certification for forest conservation 1 been highlighted: forest certification 2006 Page 1 Wild coffee production in Ethiopia: the firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract The Ethiopian rainforests are internationally renowned for their high biodiversity and their wild
This paper details how exposure to new clinics, diagnostic technologies, and pharmaceuticals during humanitarian relief operations in the Somali Region of Ethiopia shaped local pluralistic health systems and altered the ways in which residents subsequently conceived of and treated illness and disease. Despite rising demand for pharmaceuticals and diagnostic technologies among Somalis in Ethiopia, local ethnophysiologies continued to draw upon popular ideas about humoral flows, divine action, and spirit possession. Demands for therapeutic camel milk, Qur'anic spiritual healing, herbal remedies, and other historically popular therapies persisted, but were shaped by concurrent demands for and understandings of diagnostic biotechnologies and pharmaceutical medications. The reverse was also true: contemporary understandings and uses of non-biomedical healing modalities among Somalis shaped evaluations of clinical care, including healthcare during humanitarian responses. To illustrate these phenomena, based on ethnographic research in eastern Ethiopia between 2007 and 2009, this paper explores three topics vital to Somalis' pluralistic healthcare systems: camel milk and the management of digestive bile; women's experiences and clinical presentations with pain and disorder in their reproductive systems; and the rising popularity of high-tech diagnostic tests. I conclude that medical humanitarian aid never happens in a vacuum or among truly treatment-naïve populations. Instead, aid unfolds within ever-changing and pluralistic health cultures, and it permanently alters and is altered by the frames within which people evaluate and make future decisions about healthcare. PMID:24673888
Kebede, Seifu; Ketema, Abebe; Tesema, Zenaw
The implementation of laws relating to transboundary aquifers necessitates field knowledge so that the laws can be coincident with reality on the ground. The definition of ‘shared aquifer’ is more complex than the mere physically shared body of groundwater flowing from country A to country B. The border between Ethiopia and Kenya is characterized by low-volume groundwater storage and low transboundary flows. However, groundwater has visible environmental, social and economic functions. The characteristics of groundwater flow and storage in aquifers shared between Ethiopia and Kenya are different from those used in setting the foundation of the international legal framework on shared aquifers. By describing the characteristics of the groundwaters that are shared between Ethiopia and Kenya, this work demonstrates that the international legal framework is inadequate when applied in this region. The main inadequacies are: (1) international law does not specify the minimum volume of transboundary flow in an aquifer for it to qualify to be treated under the law, and (2) the physical aspects of water get more emphasis than the functions of groundwater. A more adequate international legal framework would be one that considers specific types of groundwater and local needs.
Residents of the American South love food and various culinary delights, and have performed Epicurean wonders with everything from okra all the way to the legendary barbecue pits that can be found along just about every highway and byway in the region. Working with the Center for the Study of Southern Culture at the University of Mississippi, the Southern Foodways Alliance is dedicated to preserving and cultivating the various food cultures of the American South. These programs include an ongoing oral history project, recipe books, a series of field trips, and the annual Keeper of the Flame award, which is given to a foodways tradition "bearer of note." The site's features section includes tributes to jambalaya, South Georgia cheese, and some fine essays on legendary BBQ locales. The oral history initiative area is truly a wonder, as visitors can browse through two sections, one devoted to barbecue, and the other to the foodways traditions of the Mississippi Delta region.
The well known Documenting the American South Project (discussed in the April 18, 1997 Scout Report) has recently added this section, highlighted by twenty-five full texts, available in SGML (standard generalized markup language) and HTML formats. Included are A Diary From Dixie, by Mary Boykin Miller Chesnut, five works by the African American writer Charles Waddell Chesnutt, two works by Ellen Anderson Gholson Glasgow, Tales, by Edgar Allen Poe, and Up From Slavery, by Booker T. Washington. Images of covers, title pages, frontispieces, and illustrations may be available, depending on the work. In addition, there are explanatory introductions for selected authors. The site also includes a list of "the one hundred most important Southern literary texts" compiled by the late Professor Robert Bain, and an article from the Encyclopedia of Southern Culture.
Biadglegne, Fantahun; Merker, Matthias; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C.; Niemann, Stefan
Background Recently, newly defined clades of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains, namely Ethiopia 1–3 and Ethiopia H37Rv-like strains, and other clades associated with pulmonary TB (PTB) were identified in Ethiopia. In this study, we investigated whether these new strain types exhibit an increased ability to cause TB lymphadenitis (TBLN) and raised the question, if particular MTBC strains derived from TBLN patients in northern Ethiopia are genetically adapted to their local hosts and/or to the TBLN. Methods Genotyping of 196 MTBC strains isolated from TBLN patients was performed by spoligotyping and 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. A statistical analysis was carried out to see possible associations between patient characteristics and phylogenetic MTBC strain classification. Results Among 196 isolates, the majority of strains belonged to the Delhi/CAS (38.8%) lineage, followed by Ethiopia 1 (9.7%), Ethiopia 3 (8.7%), Ethiopia H37RV-like (8.2%), Ethiopia 2 and Haarlem (7.7% each), URAL (3.6%), Uganda l and LAM (2% each), S-type (1.5%), X-type (1%), and 0.5% isolates of TUR, EAI, and Beijing genotype, respectively. Overall, 15 strains (7.7%) could not be allocated to a previously described phylogenetic lineage. The distribution of MTBC lineages is similar to that found in studies of PTB samples. The cluster rate (35%) in this study is significantly lower (P = 0.035) compared to 45% in the study of PTB in northwestern Ethiopia. Conclusion In the studied area, lymph node samples are dominated by Dehli/CAS genotype strains and strains of largely not yet defined clades based on MIRU-VNTR 24-loci nomenclature. We found no indication that strains of particular genotypes are specifically associated with TBLN. However, a detailed analysis of specific genetic variants of the locally contained Ethiopian clades by whole genome sequencing may reveal new insights into the host-pathogen co-evolution and specific features that are related to the local host immune system. PMID:26376441
Almost all of southern Louisiana (30.5N, 92.0E) can be seen in great detail in this single view from space. The rich river bottom land flanking both sides of the Mississippi River and the patchwork mosiac of agricultural fields of the farms stand out. The lush vegetation of the marshlands and bayous can also be seen. New Orleans, on the south shore of Lake Pontchartrain and the vehicle causeway also stand out in good detail.
~. ! Southern Bncluue June 1984 Issue No.4 Some Revolutionary Thoughts Sandra Before I start with the main body of this article, let me state that the kind of analysis this article concerns itself with has little if any bearing on George... the Alliance as just a bunch of minority mal contents, terrorists and bullies, thereby lulling the galactic population into be lieving the rebels have no legitimacy. And certainly any sporadic, exceptional in stances of Alliance abuse of violence (con...
Landsat satellite images of Southern Vancouver Island are among the collection of the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's Images of Canada series (reviewed in the June 7, 2000 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). Below the full-color .jpeg images are tables documenting the satellites and sensors used, date of acquisition, image resolution, area (km), and links to a reference map. Educational, hyperlinked text about the featured region and close-ups of important topographic features accompany the images.
1999-01-01August 2, 1999, marks the spring equinox for the martian southern hemisphere. It is also the start of autumn for regions north of the equator. Winter in the south has finally come to a close, and the seasonal frosts of the wintertime south polar cap are retreating. Small, local dust storms frequently occur along the margins of the polar cap, as the colder air blowing off the cap moves northward into warmer regions. The wide angle camera view of Mars shown here was obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera in late July 1999, about 1 week before the start of southern spring. The frosty, retreating south polar cap (white) is seen in the lower quarter of the image, and wisps of dust storm clouds (grayish-orange in this view) occur just above the cap at the lower left. The southern most of the large environmental changes volcanoes, Arsia Mons, is seen at the upper left. Arsia Mons is about 350 kilometers(220 miles) across. Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.
This SeaWiFS true-color image acquired over Southern Africa on Sept. 4, 2000, shows a thick shroud of smoke and haze blanketing much of the southern half of the continent. The smoke in this scene is being generated by a tremendous number of fires burning over a large area across the countries of Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and the Northern Province of South Africa. In this image, the smoke (grey pixels) is easily distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels). Refer to the Images and Data section for a larger scale view of the fires in Southern Africa. Data from both the SeaWiFS and Terra satellites are being used by an international team of scientists participating in the SAFARI field experiment. The objective of SAFARI is to measure the effects of windblown smoke and dust on air quality and the Earth's radiant energy budget. This image was produced using SeaWiFS channels 6, 5, and 1 (centered at 670 nm, 555 nm , and 412 nm, respectively). The data were acquired and provided by the Satellite Applications Center in Pretoria, South Africa. Image courtesy Gene Feldman, SeaWiFS Project and Orbital Sciences
Background The lack of trained mental health professionals has been an important barrier to establishing mental health services in low income countries. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of child psychiatry training within a graduate program in mental health for non-physician clinicians in Ethiopia. Methods The existing needs for competent practitioners in child psychiatry were identified through discussions with psychiatrists working in Ethiopia as well as with relevant departments within the Federal Ministry of Health Ethiopia (FMOHE). As part of a curriculum for a two year Master of Science (MSC) in Mental Health program for non-physician clinicians, child psychiatry training was designed and implemented by Jimma University with the involvement of experts from Addis Ababa University (AAU), Ethiopia, and Ludwig-Maximillian’s University, (LMU), Germany. Graduates gave feedback after completing the course. The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Mental Health Gap Action Program (mhGAP) intervention guide (IG) adapted for Ethiopian context was used as the main training material. Results A two-week child psychiatry course and a four week child psychiatry clinical internship were successfully implemented during the first and the second years of the MSC program respectively. During the two week psychiatry course, trainees learned to observe the behavior and to assess the mental status of children at different ages who had a variety of mental health conditions. Assessment of the trainees’ clinical skills was done by the instructors at the end of the child psychiatry course as well as during the subsequent four week clinical internship. The trainees generally rated the course to be ‘very good’ to ‘excellent’. Many of the graduates have become faculty at the various universities in Ethiopia. Conclusion Child psychiatry training for non-physician mental health specialist trainees was developed and successfully implemented through collaboration with other universities. The model of institutional collaboration in training mental health professionals in the context of limited resources provides a useful guide for other low income countries where there is scarcity of psychiatrists. PMID:24568565
Teklemariam Gebremeskel, Dereje; Witlox, Frank; Azadi, Hossein; Haile, Mitiku; Nyssen, Jan
Following the global raise in demand for food and biofuel production, transnational companies are acquiring large scale agricultural land in developing countries such as Ethiopia. Considering land as one of the factors to be outsourced for development, the government of Ethiopia is supplying millions of hectares of land to transnational companies in the form of longterm lease. Many of the companies which engage in large scale land acquisition are of Indian, Chinese, Ethiopian diaspora, German, Malaysian, Italian, British, Dutch, Turkish, and Saudi-Arabian origin. The boom in the acquisition of farm land in the country has sparked an all-rounded debate among civil society groups, international institutions, nongovernmental organizations and independent development experts. The common reflections concerning the land deals in Ethiopia and elsewhere contain much rhetoric and hype which lack analysis of the real situation "on the ground" giving different connotations such as 'land grabbing', 'agricultural outsourcing', 'neo-colonialism', 'agrarian colonialism', and 'land underdevelopment'. However, deforestation, soil degradation, marginalization of local indigenous communities, and minimally unfair gains from investment by the host country are among the real points of concern arising out of the long term land lease contracts. Scientific evidence is lacking concerning the pragmatic impacts of large scale agricultural land acquisitions by transnational companies upon the natural environment (forest and land), local peoples' livelihood, and the contacting parties (the host country and the companies). The major objective of this study is to investigate the impacts in the context of Ethiopia, orienting to reinvent win-win land use models which constitute sustainable land use, local peoples' livelihood and the company-host country interests. To achieve this overall objective, the study employs a number of methods and methodologies constituting both qualitative and quantitative data analyses at different levels of focus ranging from household and farm levels to national and transnational. The study focuses on the western lowlands of Ethiopia where there are many companies engaged in large scale commercial farming, where 75% of it is below 1500 m a.s.l with average annual temperature of 20-25°C and annual rainfall of 500-1800 mm. Some preliminary exploratory findings indicate that there is massive land use conversion (deforestation) and 'voluntary' displacement of indigenous communities, which requires further triangulation. Key words: agricultural outsourcing; environmental services; land grabbing; sustainable livelihood; soil conservation
Suleman, Sultan; Zeleke, Gemechu; Deti, Habtewold; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Duchateau, Luc; Levecke, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef; D'Hondt, Matthias; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Spiegeleer, Bart
Background The presence of poor quality medicines in the market is a global threat on public health, especially in developing countries. Therefore, we assessed the quality of two commonly used anthelminthic drugs [mebendazole (MEB) and albendazole (ALB)] and one antiprotozoal drug [tinidazole (TNZ)] in Ethiopia. Methods/Principal Findings A multilevel stratified random sampling, with as strata the different levels of supply chain system in Ethiopia, geographic areas and government/privately owned medicines outlets, was used to collect the drug samples using mystery shoppers. The three drugs (106 samples) were collected from 38 drug outlets (government/privately owned) in 7 major cities in Ethiopia between January and March 2012. All samples underwent visual and physical inspection for labeling and packaging before physico-chemical quality testing and evaluated based on individual monographs in Pharmacopoeias for identification, assay/content, dosage uniformity, dissolution, disintegration and friability. In addition, quality risk was analyzed using failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) and a risk priority number (RPN) was assigned to each quality attribute. A clinically rationalized desirability function was applied in quantification of the overall quality of each medicine. Overall, 45.3% (48/106) of the tested samples were substandard, i.e. not meeting the pharmacopoeial quality specifications claimed by their manufacturers. Assay was the quality attribute most often out-of-specification, with 29.2% (31/106) failure of the total samples. The highest failure was observed for MEB (19/42, 45.2%), followed by TNZ (10/39, 25.6%) and ALB (2/25, 8.0%). The risk analysis showed that assay (RPN?=?512) is the most critical quality attribute, followed by dissolution (RPN?=?336). Based on Derringer's desirability function, samples were classified into excellent (14/106,13%), good (24/106, 23%), acceptable (38/106, 36%%), low (29/106, 27%) and bad (1/106,1%) quality. Conclusions/Significance This study evidenced that there is a relatively high prevalence of poor quality MEB, ALB and TNZ in Ethiopia: up to 45% if pharmacopoeial acceptance criteria are used in the traditional, dichotomous approach, and 28% if the new risk-based desirability approach was applied. The study identified assay as the most critical quality attributes. The country of origin was the most significant factor determining poor quality status of the investigated medicines in Ethiopia. PMID:25473966
Medupe, Thebe Rodney
The cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples has been a subject of many studies spanning atleast over a century. Some of the studies were biased against the notion that Southern African could have any interest in studying the natural environment to benefit their societies. In this chapter, I summarize the current knowledge about cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples and highlight points of further research.
Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Getachew, Assefa
Background Hypertension, being the root cause of many of the body sytem and organs failure, remains to be a major public health challenge globally. Though the problem is huge in both developed and developing countries, data are scarce in developing countries like Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the magnitude and associated factors of hypertension in North West Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on adults aged 35 years and above in the rural and urban communities of Dabat district and Gondar town in 2012. The data were collected using the WHO STEPwise strategy. Hypertension was defined as having a Systolic blood pressure of ?140 mmHg and/ or a Diastolic BP of ? 90mmHg or a reported use of anti-hypertensive medications for raised blood pressure. Prevalence was computed with a 95% confidence interval. Selected risk factors were assessed using a biviarete logistic regression. Results A total of 2200 participants were included in the study. The median age (±SD) was 47 (±12.4) years. The overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 27.9% [95% CI 26.0, 29.8], with the proportion in the urban and rural residents being 30.7% and 25.3% respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 29.3% for women and 26.3% for men. Out of the 598 hypertensive patients 241 (40.3%) had blood pressure measurements, and 99 (16.6%) had known hypertension and were on treatment. The proportion of systolic and diastolic hypertension in this subgroup of adults was 133(6.2%). The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed older age (AOR = 1.06; 1.05, 1.07), raised fasting glucose (AOR = 1.01; 1.001, 1.01), alcohol consumption (AOR = 1.71; 1.24, 2.36), and raised BMI (AOR =1.07; 1.04, 1.10) were significantly associated with hypertension. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension was considerably higher in rural areas than previously reported. The health system needs to develop strategies to increase the reach of relevant screening and diagnostic services to both rural and urban populations. PMID:25909382
Background Evidence shows that the three delays, delay in 1) deciding to seek medical care, 2) reaching health facilities and 3) receiving adequate obstetric care, are still contributing to maternal deaths in low-income countries. Ethiopia is a major contributor to the worldwide death toll of mothers with a maternal mortality ratio of 676 per 100,000 live births. The Ethiopian Ministry of Health launched a community-based health-care system in 2003, the Health Extension Programme (HEP), to tackle maternal mortality. Despite strong efforts, universal access to services remains limited, particularly skilled delivery attendance. With the help of ‘the three delays’ framework, this study explores health-service providers’ perceptions of facilitators and barriers to the utilization of institutional delivery in Tigray, a northern region of Ethiopia. Methods Twelve in-depth interviews were carried out with eight health extension workers (HEWs) and four midwives. Each interview lasted between 90 and 120 minutes. Data were analysed through a thematic analysis approach. Results Three themes emerged from the analysis: the struggle between tradition and newly acquired knowledge, community willingness to deal with geographical barriers, and striving to do a good job with insufficient resources. These themes represent the three steps in the path towards receiving adequate institutional delivery care at a health facility. Of the themes, ‘increased community awareness’, ‘organization of the community’ and ‘hospital with specialized staff’ were recognized as facilitators. On the other hand, ‘delivery as a natural event’, ‘cultural tradition and rituals’, ‘inaccessible transport’, ‘unmet community expectation’ and ‘shortage of skilled human resources’ were represented as barriers to institutional delivery. Conclusions The participants in this study gave emphasis to the major barriers to institutional delivery that are closely connected with the three delays model. Despite the initiatives being implemented by the Tigray Regional Health Bureau, much is still needed to enhance the humanization approach of delivery care on a broader level of the region. A quick solution is needed to address the major issue of lack of transport accessibility. The poor capacity of the HEWs to provide delivery services, calls for reconsidering staffing patterns of remote health posts and readdressing the issue of downgraded health facilities would address unmet community needs. PMID:24716750
Adgo, Enyew; Teshome, Akalu
Widespread soil and water conservation activities have been implemented in many parts of eastern Africa to control soil erosion by water and improve land productivity for the last few decades. Following the 1974 severe drought, soil and water conservation became more important to Ethiopia and the approach shifted to watershed based land management initiatives since the 1980s. To capture long-term impacts of these initiatives, a study was conducted in Anjenie Watershed of Ethiopia, assessing fanya juu terraces and grass strips constructed in a pilot project in 1984, and which are still functional nearly 30 years later. Data were collected from government records, field observations and questionnaire surveys administered to 60 farmers. Half of the respondents had terraced farms in the watershed former project area (with terrace technology) and the rest were outside the terraced area. The crops assessed were teff, barley and maize. Cost-benefit analyses were used to determine the economic benefits with and without terraces, including gross and net profit values, returns on labour, water productivity and impacts on poverty. The results indicated that soil and water conservation had improved crop productivity. The average yield on terraced fields was 0.95 t ha-1 for teff (control 0.49), 1.86 t ha-1 for barley (control 0.61), and 1.73 t ha-1 for maize (control 0.77). The net benefit was significantly higher on terraced fields, recording US 20.9 (US -112 control) for teff, US 185 (US -41 control) for barley and US -34.5 (US - 101 control) ha-1 yr-1 for maize. The returns on family labour were 2.33 for barley, 1.01 for teff, and 0.739 US per person-day for maize grown on terraced plots, compared to US 0.44, 0.27 and 0.16 per person-day for plots without terraces, respectively. Using a discount rate of 10%, the average net present value (NPV) of barley production with terrace was found to be about US 1542 over a period of 50 years. In addition, the average financial internal rate of return (FIRR) was 301%. Other long-term impacts of terracing included farmers' growing of maize on terraced fields as a result of water conservation. Currently, farmers also grow barley on terraced fields for two crop seasons per year unlike the experiences on farms without terraces. Household incomes and food security had improved and soil erosion drastically reduced. Many farmers had adopted terracing doubling the original area under the soil conservation pilot project and consequently improving environmental conservation in the watershed.
Background Intimate partner violence against women is the psychological, physical, and sexual abuse directed to spouses. Globally it is the most pervasive yet underestimated human rights violation. This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of intimate partner violence against women in Western Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional, population based household survey was conducted from January to April, 2011 using standard WHO multi-country study questionnaire. A sample of 1540 ever married/cohabited women aged 15-49 years was randomly selected from urban and rural settings of East Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. Data were principally analyzed using logistic regression. Results Lifetime and past 12 months prevalence of intimate partner violence against women showed 76.5% (95% CI: 74.4-78.6%) and 72.5% (95% CI: 70.3-74.7%), respectively. The overlap of psychological, physical, and sexual violence was 56.9%. The patterns of the three forms of violence are similar across the time periods. Rural residents (AOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.98), literates (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.88), female headed households (AOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.27-0.76) were at decreased likelihood to have lifetime intimate partner violence. Yet, older women were nearly four times (AOR 3.36, 95% CI 1.27-8.89) more likely to report the incident. On the other hand, abduction (AOR 3.71, 95% CI 1.01-13.63), polygamy (AOR 3.79, 95% CI 1.64-0.73), spousal alcoholic consumption (AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.21-3.22), spousal hostility (AOR 3.96, 95% CI 2.52-6.20), and previous witnesses of parental violence (AOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.54-2.56) were factors associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime intimate partner violence against women. Conclusion In their lifetime, three out of four women experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence. This needs an urgent attention at all levels of societal hierarchy including policymakers, stakeholders and professionals to alleviate the situation. PMID:22151213
Background Malaria is a public health problem in Ethiopia, and increasingly so in highland areas, possibly because of global warming. This study describes the distribution, breeding habitat and monthly dynamics of anopheline larvae in Butajira, a highland area in south-central Ethiopia. Methods A study of the abundance and dynamics of Anopheles larvae was undertaken at different sites and altitudes in Butajira from July 2008 to June 2010. The sites included Hobe (1817?m.a.s.l), Dirama (1995m.a.s.l.) and Wurib (2196m.a.s.l.). Potential anopheline larval habitats were surveyed once per month in each village. The recorded characteristics of the habitats included habitat type, pH, surface debris, emergent plants, algae, substrate, turbidity, temperature, length, width, depth, distance to the nearest house and anophelines. The Spearman correlation coefficient and Mann–Whitney U test were used to calculate the degree of association between the density of anopheline species and key environmental factors. Results Among the different types of habitat surveyed, the Odamo, Akamuja and Assas streams and Beko swamp were positive for anopheline larvae. A total of 3,957 third and fourth instar larvae were collected from the three localities, and they represented ten species of anophelines. These were: Anopheles cinereus (32.5%), An. arabiensis (31.4%), An. chrysti (23%), An. demeilloni (12.2%), An. pretoriensis (0.6%), An. azaniae (0.1%), An. rufipes(0.1%), An. sergentii (0.06%), An. garnhami (0.06%) and An. pharoensis (0.03%). The density of anopheline larvae was highest during the dry months. An. arabiensis was widely distributed, and its density decreased from the lowest elevation in Hobe to the highest in Wurib. The density of An. arabiensis larvae was correlated positively with larval habitat temperature (r?=?0.33, p?0.05) and negatively with depth of larval habitat (r?=??0.56, p?0.05). Conclusion Ten species of anophelines were identified, including two known vectors of malaria (An. arabiensis and An. pharoensis), along streams in Butajira. Larvae of An. arabiensis were found in streams at 2200m.a.s.l. This possible expansion of the malaria vector to highland areas indicates an increasing risk of malaria because a large proportion of the Ethiopian population live above this altitude. PMID:22695178
Background- The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. Methods- We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face interviews by trained clinical nurses using the Kessler 10 scale. Several risk factors for CMD were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results- TB/HIV co-infected patients had significantly (p = 0.001) greater risk of CMD (63.7%) than the non-co-infected patients (46.7%). When adjusted for the effect of potential confounding variables, the odds of having CMD for TB/HIV co-infected individuals was 1.7 times the odds for non-co-infected patients [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.0, 2.9)]. Individuals who had no source of income [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.1, 2.8)], and day labourers [OR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.2, 5.1)] were more likely to have CMD as compared to individuals who had a source of income and government employees respectively. Patients who perceived stigma [OR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.5, 3.2)] and who rate their general health as "poor" [OR = 10.0, 95%CI: 2.8, 35.1)] had significantly greater risk of CMD than individual who did not perceive stigma or who perceived their general health to be "good". Conclusion- TB/HIV control programs should develop guidelines to screen and treat CMD among TB/HIV co-infected patients. Screening programs should focus on individuals with no source of income, jobless people and day labourers. PMID:20618942
Gebremedhin, E Z; Tesfamaryam, G; Yunus, H A; Duguma, R; Tilahun, G; DI Marco, V; Vitale, M
We performed a seroepidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-range chickens from October 2012 to May 2013. We used cross-sectional two-stage cluster sampling to collect blood samples from wing veins of 601 chickens from central Ethiopia. T. gondii-specific antibodies were assayed by modified agglutination test (MAT). We collected information about risk factors by questionnaire and used univariable and multivariable logistic regression to assess risk factors. An overall seroprevalence of 30·5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 26·27-34·14] and 54·2% (95% CI 47·06-61·36) was found at animal- and flock-level, respectively. The MAT end titre of seropositive chickens (n = 183) were 1 : 60 in 46, 1 : 180 in 28, 1 : 540 in 29, ?1 : 1620 in 48, 1 : 6000 in 22, 1 : 18,000 in five, 1 : 54,000 in one, and ?1 : 162,000 in four. Animal-level risk factors identified using multivariable logistic regression model were: midland altitude [odds ratio (OR) 2·53, 95% CI 1·12-5·72], cross and exotic breeds (OR 3·17, 95% CI 1·39-7·23), increased age of chickens (OR 2·32, 95% CI 1·19-4·49), extensive management (OR 6·92, 95% CI 1·34-35·86) and the presence of cats (OR 2·08, 95% CI 1·20-3·61). Similarly, flock-level risk factors were midland altitude (OR 3·62, 95% CI 1·31-9·99) and the presence of cats (OR 1·19-4·94). The knowledge of the local people about the health risk of cats to humans and animals is poor. Housing and management of cats and chickens are also poor. The widespread presence of T. gondii infection in free-range chickens of Central Ethiopia provides suggestive evidence for the high level of contamination of the living environment of people with T. gondii oocysts. Meat from free-range chickens might be an important source of infection for humans. Altitude, breed, age, management and presence of cats are independent predictors of seropositivity. Education of farmers about toxoplasmosis and further studies to elucidate the burden of toxoplasmosis in animals and humans warrants consideration. PMID:24763135
Easton, Z. M.; Fuka, D. R.; White, E. D.; Collick, A. S.; Biruk Asharge, B.; McCartney, M.; Awulachew, S. B.; Ahmed, A. A.; Steenhuis, T. S.
A multi basin analysis of runoff and erosion in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia was conducted to elucidate sources of runoff and sediment. Erosion is arguably the most critical problem in the Blue Nile Basin, as it limits agricultural productivity in Ethiopia, degrades benthos in the Nile, and results in sedimentation of dams in downstream countries. A modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was developed to predict runoff and sediment losses from the Ethiopian Blue Nile Basin. The model simulates saturation excess runoff from the landscape using a simple daily water balance coupled to a wetness index in ways that are consistent with observed runoff processes in the basin. The spatial distribution of landscape erosion is thus simulated more correctly. The model was parameterized in a nested design for flow at eight and sediment at two subbasin locations in the basin. Subbasins ranged in size from 4.8 to 174 000 km2, and interestingly, the partitioning of runoff and infiltrating flow could be predicted by topographic information. Model predictions showed reasonable accuracy (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiencies ranged from 0.53-0.92) with measured data across all sites except Kessie, where the water budget could not be closed; however, the timing of flow was well captured. Runoff losses increased with rainfall during the monsoonal season and were greatest from shallow soils. Analysis of model results indicate that upland landscape erosion dominated sediment delivery to the main stem of the Blue Nile in the early part of the growing season before the soil was wetted up and plant cover was established. Once plant cover was established in mid August landscape erosion was negligible and sediment export was dominated by channel processes and re-suspension of landscape sediment deposited early in the growing season. These results imply that targeting small areas of the landscape where runoff is produced can be the most effective at controlling erosion and protecting water resources. However, it is not clear what can be done to manage channel erosion, particularly in first order streams in the basin.
Easton, Z. M.; Fuka, D. R.; White, E. D.; Collick, A. S.; Biruk Ashagre, B.; McCartney, M.; Awulachew, S. B.; Ahmed, A. A.; Steenhuis, T. S.
A multi basin analysis of runoff and erosion in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia was conducted to elucidate sources of runoff and sediment. Erosion is arguably the most critical problem in the Blue Nile Basin, as it limits agricultural productivity in Ethiopia, degrades benthos in the Nile, and results in sedimentation of dams in downstream countries. A modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was developed to predict runoff and sediment losses from the Ethiopian Blue Nile Basin. The model simulates saturation excess runoff from the landscape using a simple daily water balance coupled to a topographic wetness index in ways that are consistent with observed runoff processes in the basin. The spatial distribution of landscape erosion is thus simulated more correctly. The model was parameterized in a nested design for flow at eight and sediment at three locations in the basin. Subbasins ranged in size from 1.3 to 174 000 km2, and interestingly, the partitioning of runoff and infiltrating flow could be predicted by topographic information. Model predictions showed reasonable accuracy (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiencies ranged from 0.53-0.92) with measured data across all sites except Kessie, where the water budget could not be closed; however, the timing of flow was well captured. Runoff losses increased with rainfall during the monsoonal season and were greatest from areas with shallow soils and large contributing areas. Analysis of model results indicate that upland landscape erosion dominated sediment delivery to the main stem of the Blue Nile in the early part of the growing season when tillage occurs and before the soil was wetted up and plant cover was established. Once plant cover was established in mid August landscape erosion was negligible and sediment export was dominated by channel processes and re-suspension of landscape sediment deposited early in the growing season. These results imply that targeting small areas of the landscape where runoff is produced can be the most effective at controlling erosion and protecting water resources. However, it is not clear what can be done to manage channel erosion, particularly in first order streams in the basin.
Background The measurement of condom use self-efficacy requires contextually suitable, valid and reliable instruments due to variability of the scale across nations with different cultural and ethnic backgrounds. This study aims to construct a condom use self-efficacy scale suitable to Ethiopia (CUSES-E), based on the original scale developed by Brafford and Beck. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 492 students at Hawassa University. A self-administered questionnaire containing 28 items from the original scale was used to collect the data. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation was used to extract factor structures. Cronbach’s alpha and item-total correlations were used to determine the internal consistency of the scale. The convergent and discriminant validity of the scale was verified using a correlation matrix. Results The PCA extracted three factors containing a total of 9-items. The extracted factors were labeled Assertiveness, Fear for partner rejection and Intoxicant Control, with internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach’s alpha) of 0.86, 0.86 and 0.92, respectively. Altogether, the factors explained 77.8% of variance in the items. An evaluation of CUSES-E showed a significantly higher self-efficacy score among students who ever used condoms; P?0.001. The correlation matrix revealed that all of the convergent correlations were higher than the discriminant ones, providing evidence in support of both types of validity. In the split sample validation, the communalities, factor loadings and factor structure were the same on the analysis on each half and the full data set, suggesting that the new scale is generalizable and replicable. Conclusion This study of CUSES using an Ethiopian population found a different dimension to emerge, suggesting that the scale should be validated to local contexts before application. The CUSES-E is valid, reliable and replicable. Therefore, health cadres and researchers in Ethiopia can apply this scale to promote condom utilization to Ethiopian school youths. However, future research to develop a suitable scale (highly valid and reliable) in concordance with the local vernacular using a prior qualitative study is needed. PMID:23617404
Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in Ethiopia since early times for the control of various ailments afflicting humans and their domestic animals. However, little work has been made in the past to properly document and promote the knowledge. Today medicinal plants and the associated knowledge in the country are threatened due to deforestation, environmental degradation and acculturation. Urgent ethnobotanical studies and subsequent conservation measures are, therefore, required to salvage these resources from further loss. The purpose of the present study was to record and analyse traditional medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Bench informants selected during transect walks made to houses as well as those identified as knowledgeable by local administrators and elders to gather data regarding local names of medicinal plants used, parts harvested, ailments treated, remedy preparation methods, administration routes, dosage and side effects. The same method was also employed to gather information on marketability, habitat and abundance of the reported medicinal plants. Purposive sampling method was used in the selection of study sites within the study district. Fidelity Level (FL) value was calculated for each claimed medicinal plant to estimate its healing potential. Results The study revealed 35 Bench medicinal plants: 32 used against human ailments and three to treat both human and livestock ailments. The majority of Bench medicinal plants were herbs and leaf was the most frequently used part in the preparation of remedies. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants was claimed by men, older people and illiterate ones as compared to women, younger people and literate ones, respectively. The majority of the medicinal plants used in the study area were uncultivated ones. Conclusion The study revealed acculturation as the major threat to the continuation of the traditional medical practice in the study area. Awareness should, therefore, be created among the Bench community, especially the young ones, by concerned organizations and individuals regarding the usefulness of the practice. PMID:19912633
Background Ethiopia has the highest proportion of vivax malaria, approximately 40% of all malaria infections, in contrast to African countries. Chloroquine (CQ) is the drug of choice for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection in the country, although CQ resistant P. vivax (CRPv) has started to challenge the efficacy of the drug. The present study was conducted to assess the current status of CRPv at Serbo, Jimma zone, south-west Ethiopia. Methods A 28-day in vivo therapeutic efficacy test was conducted from October 2007 to January 2008. Recurrence of parasitaemia and the clinical condition of patients were assessed on each visit during the follow-up. The levels of haemoglobin (Hb) in the study participants were determined. The patients' blood drug levels were measured using HPLC. Data was analysed using SPSS for windows version 10.0. HPLC data was computed using Chem Station for LC 3D systems software. Results Of the total 84 patients included in the study, 78 completed their 28-day follow-up, six of whom being excluded for different reasons. In three children (aged 7, 12 and 13 years), parasitaemia reappeared within the 28-days follow-up in spite of adequate absorption of the drug and absence of malaria symptom. In addition, on the day of recurrence of parasitaemia the levels of chloroquine-desethylchloroquine (CQ-DCQ) were above the minimum effective concentration (?100 ?g/ml) in all the three cases, showing that treatment failure could not be attributed to low level of drug in the patients blood. Conclusion Reappearance of the parasite within the 28 days of follow-up is due to parasite resistance to CQ. The 3.6% (95% CI = -0.038 - 0.0758) prevalence of CRPv malaria in the study area signals the need for launching monitory activities for CQ resistant P. vivax. Moreover, as former report from the same country, Debrezeit, also showed the occurrence of CRPv, survey on CRPv malaria should be made in P. vivax endemic areas in order to estimate the level of burden across the country. PMID:19642976
Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Hailu, Hiwot Amare; Fola, Abebe Alemu; Derebe, Mulatu Melese; Kebede, Aimro Tadese; Kebede, Abayneh Admas; Emiru, Manamnot Agegne; Gelaw, Zelalem Dessie
Introduction Reliable smear microscopy is an important component of Directly Observed Treatment Scheme (DOTS) strategy for TB control program in countries with limited resources. Despite external quality assessment is established in Ethiopia, there is lower TB detection rate (48%) in Amhara region compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate (70%). This highlights the quality of smear microscopy needs to be evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of sputum smear microscopy performance among health center laboratories in West Amhara region, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from July 08, 2013 to July 07, 2014. Data were collected from 201 public health center laboratories using a structured questionnaire. Slides were collected based on Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) method and rechecked blindly by trained laboratory technologists. The data were entered into EPI info V.7 and smear quality indicators and AFB results were analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results Among 201 laboratories enrolled in this study, 47 (23.4%) laboratories had major errors. Forty one (20.4%) laboratories had a total of 67 false negative and 29 (14.4%) laboratories had a total of 68 false positive results. Specimen quality, smear thickness and evenness were found poor in 134 (66.7%), 133 (66.2%) and 126 (62.7%) laboratories, respectively. Unavailability of microscope lens cleaning solution (AOR: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.25–6.75; P: 0.013) and dirty smears (AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.14–6.18; P: 0.024) were correlated with false negative results whereas no previous EQA participation (AOR: 3.43; 95% CI: 1. 39-8.45; P: 0.007) was associated with false positive results. Conclusion The performance of health facilities for sputum smear microscopy was relatively poor in West Amhara region. Hence, strengthening the EQA program and technical support on sputum smear microscopy are recommended to ensure quality tuberculosis diagnostic service. PMID:26376438
Background Anopheles arabiensis, the main malaria vector in Ethiopia, shows both anthropophilic and zoophilic behaviours. Insecticide resistance is increasing, and alternative methods of vector control are needed. The objectives of this study were to determine the blood meal origins and the susceptibility to insecticides of An. arabiensis from Chano village near Arba Minch in South-West Ethiopia. Methods Blood meal sources of anopheline mosquitoes collected using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps and pyrethrum spray catches (PSC) from human dwellings, and hand-held mouth aspirators from outdoor pit shelters were analysed using a direct enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The susceptibility of An. arabiensis to pyrethroid insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, deltamethrin, and cyfluthrin) and DDT was assessed using females reared from larval and pupal collections from natural breeding sites. Results The blood meal origins of 2967 freshly fed Anopheles mosquitoes were determined. An. arabiensis was the predominant species (75%), and it fed mainly on cattle. The densities of both freshly fed An. arabiensis and those fed on human blood followed similar seasonal patterns. The overall human blood index (HBI) of An. arabiensis, including mixed blood meals, was 44% and the bovine blood index (BBI) was 69%. The HBI of An. arabiensis from CDC light trap collections was 75% and this was higher than those for PSC (38%) and outdoor pit shelter collections (13%), while the BBI was 65% for PSC, 68% for outdoor pit shelters and 72% for CDC light traps. More freshly fed and human blood-fed An. arabiensis were sampled from houses close to the shore of Lake Abaya (the major breeding site). A high proportion of An. arabiensis was resistant to the pyrethroid insecticides, with a mortality rate of 56% for lambdacyhalothrin, 50% for cyfluthrin and alphacypermethrin, 47% for deltamethrin, and 10% for DDT. Conclusion Anopheles arabiensis is the predominant species of anopheline mosquito in this region, and cattle are the main source of its blood meals. The greater tendency of this species to feed on cattle justifies the application of insecticides on cattle to control it. However, An. arabiensis has already developed resistance to the available pyrethroid insecticides, and alternative insecticides are needed for malaria vector control. PMID:23433306
Background Although cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality among women in Ethiopia, there is lack of information regarding the perception of the community about the disease. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with men, women, and community leaders in the rural settings of Jimma Zone southwest Ethiopia and in the capital city, Addis Ababa. Data were captured using voice recorders, and field notes were transcribed verbatim from the local languages into English language. Key categories and thematic frameworks were identified using the health belief model as a framework, and presented in narratives using the respondents own words as an illustration. Results Participants had very low awareness of cervical cancer. However, once the symptoms were explained, participants had a high perception of the severity of the disease. The etiology of cervical cancer was thought to be due to breaching social taboos or undertaking unacceptable behaviors. As a result, the perceived benefits of modern treatment were very low, and various barriers to seeking any type of treatment were identified, including limited awareness and access to appropriate health services. Women with cervical cancer were excluded from society and received poor emotional support. Moreover, the aforementioned factors all caused delays in seeking any health care. Traditional remedies were the most preferred treatment option for early stage of the disease. However, as most cases presented late, treatment options were ineffective, resulting in an iterative pattern of health seeking behavior and alternated between traditional remedies and modern treatment methods. Conclusion Lack of awareness and health seeking behavior for cervical cancer was common due to misconceptions about the cause of the disease. Profound social consequences and exclusion were common. Access to services for diagnosis and treatment were poor for a variety of psycho-social, and health system reasons. Prior to the introduction or scale up of cervical cancer prevention programs, socio-cultural barriers and health service related factors that influence health seeking behavior must be addressed through appropriate community level behavior change communications. PMID:23273140
Introduction Ethiopia is one of the sub-Saharan countries most affected by high disease burden, aggravated by a shortage and imbalance of human resources, geographical distance, and socioeconomic factors. In 2004, the government introduced the Health Extension Program (HEP), a primary care delivery strategy, to address the challenges and achieve the World Health Organization Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) within a context of limited resources. Case description The health system was reformed to create a platform for integration and institutionalization of the HEP with appropriate human capacity, infrastructure, and management structures. Human resources were developed through training of female health workers recruited from their prospective villages, designed to limit the high staff turnover and address gender, social and cultural factors in order to provide services acceptable to each community. The service delivery modalities include household, community and health facility care. Thus, the most basic health post infrastructure, designed to rapidly and cost-effectively scale up HEP, was built in each village. In line with the country’s decentralized management system, the HEP service delivery is under the jurisdiction of the district authorities. Discussion and evaluation The nationwide implementation of HEP progressed in line with its target goals. In all, 40 training institutions were established, and over 30,000 Health Extension Workers have been trained and deployed to approximately 15,000 villages. The potential health service coverage reached 92.1% in 2011, up from 64% in 2004. While most health indicators have improved, performance in skilled delivery and postnatal care has not been satisfactory. While HEP is considered the most important institutional framework for achieving the health MDGs in Ethiopia, quality of service, utilization rate, access and referral linkage to emergency obstetric care, management, and evaluation of the program are the key challenges that need immediate attention. Conclusions This article describes the strategies, human resource developments, service delivery modalities, progress in service coverage, and the challenges in the implementation of the HEP. The Ethiopian approach of revitalization of primary care through innovative, locally appropriate and acceptable strategies will provide important lessons to other poorly resourced countries. It is hoped that the approaches and strategies described in this paper will aid in that process. PMID:23961920
Background Several micronutrients are essential for adequate growth of children. However, little information is available on multiple micronutrient status of school children in Ethiopia. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between multiple micronutrient levels and nutritional status among school children. Method In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood and stool samples were collected from 100 children at Meseret Elementary School in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Serum concentration of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Anthropometric indices of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to estimate the children's nutritional status. Stool samples were examined by standard microscopic methods for intestinal parasites. Results The prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting and intestinal parasitoses among school children was 23%, 21%, 11% and18%, respectively. The mean serum levels of magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum were 2.42±0.32 (mg/dl), 15.31±2.14 (mg/dl), 328.19±148.91 (?g/dl), 191.30±50.17 (?g/dl), 86.40±42.40 (?g/dl), 6.32±2.59 (?g/dl), and 0.23±0.15 (?g/dl), respectively. Selenium deficiency, zinc deficiency and magnesium deficiency occurred in 62%, 47%, and 2% of the school children, respectively. Height-for-age showed significant positive correlation with the levels of copper and molybdenum (p = 0.01) and with the levels of magnesium (p = 0.05). Conclusion Deficiencies of selenium and zinc were high among the school children although the deficiencies were not significantly related with their nutritional status. The prevalence of both malnutrition and intestinal parasitism was not negligible. These calls for the need to undertake multicentre studies in various parts of the country to substantiate the data obtained in the present study so that appropriate and beneficial strategies for micronutrient supplementation and interventions on nutritional deficiencies can be planned. PMID:23237638
Background In Ethiopia, although there are numerous small-scale and medium industries which use lead-based raw materials that may pose health risks to workers, there are no workplace regulations for lead exposure. Moreover, there are no studies carried out on the blood lead levels (BLLs) of workers or on the contribution of common workplace practices to lead poisoning. Method A cross-sectional study on the BLLs of 45 automotive garage workers and 40 non-garage workers was carried out in the town of Jimma, Ethiopia. In addition to BLL analysis, data on some risk factors such as smoking, and chewing ‘khat’ (the leaves of Catha adulis) were gathered through structured questionnaires and interviews and data analysis was performed using SPSS (version 16). The t-test was used to compare mean BLLs of study groups. The analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis, Pearson chi-square and odds ratio tests were used to investigate the associations between specific job type, smoking and/or ‘khat’ chewing, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs. Results The mean BLL of the automotive-garage workers was found to be significantly greater than that of the controls. The BLLs of all the lead-exposed individuals were found to be over 10??g/dL, and 53% of them had BLLs ranging 12 – 20??g/dL, with the remaining 47% having over 20??g/dL. The BLL of the workers increased with the duration of working in an automotive garage. Individuals involved in manual car painting comprise a larger percentage (58%) of those with the highest BLLs (? 20??g/dL). Lead accumulation in individuals who chew ‘khat’ in the work place was found to be faster than in those who are not used to chewing ‘khat’. ‘Khat’ is an evergreen shrub native to tropical East Africa, with dark green opposite leaves which are chewed when fresh for their stimulating effects. Conclusion The findings of the study have clearly demonstrated that the BLLs of automotive-garage workers in Jimma town are considerably high with a range of 11.73 – 36.52??g/dL and the workers are in danger of impending lead toxicity. The BLLs of the workers are influenced by their occupational practices, chewing Catha adulis leaves at the workplace, and the time spent working in an automotive garage. PMID:22776678
Gari, Akawak; Yarlagadda, Raghavendra; Wolde-Mariam, Messay
Background: Traditional medicine (TM) has maintained its popularity in all regions of the developing world. Even though, the wide acceptance of TM is a well-established fact, its status in a population with access to modern health is not well clear in the whole country. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practice and management of TM among the community of Burka Jato Kebele, West Ethiopia. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 282 sampled individuals’ selected using systematic random sampling from January 28, 2013 to February 8, 2013 in Burka Jato Kebele, Nekemte town, East Wollega Zone, West of Ethiopia. Results: The majority (94.22%) of people in the study area relied on TM. Most of them were aware of medicinal herbs (55.7%). About half (40.79%) of the respondents were aware of the major side-effects of TM such as diarrhea (36.64%). About 31.85% of them prefer traditional medical practices (TMP) because they are cheap. Most (50%) of the species were harvested for their leaves to prepare remedies, followed by seed (21.15%) and root (13.46%) and the methods of preparation were pounding (27.54%), crushing (18.84%), a concoction (15.95%) and squeezing (13.04%). About 53.84% of them were used as fresh preparations. Remedies were reported to be administered through oral (53.85%), dermal or topical (36.54%), buccal (3.85%) and anal (5.77%). Conclusion: The study revealed that the use of TMs were quite popular among the population and a large proportion of the respondents not only preferred, but also used TMs notwithstanding that they lived in the urban communities with better access to modern medical care and medical practitioners. To use TM as a valuable alternative to conventional western medicine, further investigation must be undertaken to determine the validity, efficacy of the plants to make it available as an alternative medicine to human beings. PMID:25883518
Mariam, Damen Haile; Ali, Ahmed; Araya, Tekebash
Impact of non-communicable diseases is not well-documented in Ethiopia. We aimed to document the prevalence and mortality associated with four major non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia: cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Associated risk factors: hypertension, tobacco-use, harmful use of alcohol, overweight/obesity, and khat-chewing were also studied. Systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature between 1960 and 2011 was done using PubMed search engines and local libraries to identify prevalence studies on the four diseases. In total, 32 studies were found, and half of these studies were from Addis Ababa. Two hospital-based studies reviewed the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and found a prevalence of 7.2% and 24%; a hospital-based study reviewed cancer prevalence and found a prevalence of 0.3%; two hospital-based studies reviewed diabetes prevalence and found a prevalence of 0.5% and 1.2%; and two hospital-based studies reviewed prevalence of asthma and found a prevalence of 1% and 3.5%. Few community-based studies were done on the prevalence of diabetes and chronic pulmonary obstructive disease among the population. Several studies reviewed the impact of these diseases on mortality: cardiovascular disease accounts for 24% of deaths in Addis Ababa, cancer causes 10% of deaths in the urban settings and 2% deaths in rural setting, and diabetes causes 5% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease causes 3% of deaths. Several studies reviewed the impact of these diseases on hospital admissions: cardiovascular disease accounts for 3%-12.6% and found to have increased between 1970s and 2000s; cancer accounts for 1.1%-2.8%, diabetes accounts for 0.5%-1.2%, and chronic obstructive diseases account for 2.7%-4.3% of morbidity. Overall, the major non-communicable diseases and related risk factors are highly prevalent, and evidence-based interventions should be designed. PMID:24847587
Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.
Da Costa, L.N.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Sargent, W.L.W.; Tonry, J.; Davis, M.
The general characteristics of the space distribution of galaxies in the SSRS sample, covering the southern Galactic cap, are examined, and maps of the space distribution are presented. The sample consists of 2028 galaxies in an area of 1.75 sr with declination south of -17.5 deg and galactic latitude below -30 deg. The survey provides useful information on large-scale structure to a depth of 120/h Mpc. The galaxy distribution exhibits prominent filaments, sheets, and voids. Some large-scale structures are highly subclustered; others are much more diffuse. 21 references.
The Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP) created the Southern and Central Swell Model experiments for those with a general interest in oceanography. After learning how the model works, users can view several up-to-date graphics illustrating regional and detailed swell heights on maps and plots. Although acknowledging possible errors, the website provides three day forecasts for coastal waves, tides, and swell heights. The Frequently Asked Questions link provides sufficient information on how to interpret the materials. All those interested in Californian coastal information from boaters and residents to researchers can find assistance at this website.
Grandin, R.; Socquet, A.; Binet, R.; Jacques, E.; Klinger, Y.; de Chabalier, J.; King, G.; Tait, S.; Tapponnier, P.; Delorme, A.; Elissalde, C.
In September 2005, a magmato-tectonic episode initiated in Western Afar (Ethiopia) when a swarm of moderate magnitude earthquakes (M<5.6) was recorded for several days. A small eruption also occurred on the eastern flank of Dabba'hu, a large silicic volcano located at the northern extremity of the Dabba'hu rift segment. The terrain is exceptionally favorable for InSAR imagery and surface fault mapping, making this event a rare opportunity to study how surface faulting and dike injection were mechanically coupled during the rifting event. Based on the combination of InSAR images shot on both ascending and descending tracks, and the correlation of SAR amplitude images, we deduced the vertical motions inside the rift during the main intrusion event. Together with the correlation of SPOT optical images, the horizontal component of opening can be retrieved. We provide evidence for an average of 6 m of opening across the 40 km northern Dabba'hu segment, during the September crisis. The inner floor of the rift subsided by ~ 2m, while the shoulders were uplifted by ~ 2m. A deficit of opening was observed in the southern segment during the main crisis. However, a second intrusive event occurred in mid-2006, leading to the further opening of this 20 km segment by an additional ~ 2m. A series of interferograms covering the post-crises periods show that significant motion also occurred between the crises and after the second crisis. Using a comparison between pre-crisis aerial photographs and post-crisis high-resolution Quickbird images, combined with SAR coherence images, we are able to map the structures that were reactivated during the crisis, and show extensive evidence of newly exposed fractures in recent basalts. The motion on a large number of en echelon faults and fissures could be observed with much greater detail than during the main rifting event. Using a DEM of the area, generated using SPOT images, the relation between faulting and rift morphology is addressed. Concentric subsidence and/or uplift occurred at various stages of the crisis on distinct volcanic edifices, pointing to a complex scenario for the possible connection between shallow and deep magmatic chambers. The estimated extension rate of 15 mm/year across the plate boundary [Vigny et al., 2006] yields a recurrence time of the order of 500 years for events of this magnitude. Surprisingly, despite the large volume of magma intruded during the September 2005 event (~ 15 km2), no basalt flows were observed.
Ebinger, C.; Eagles, G.; Elders, C.; Gloaguen, R.; McClay, K.; Tiberi, C.; Wolfenden, E.
Initial rifting in the Red Sea occurred concurrent with, or soon after flood basaltic mag- matism at~31 Ma in the Ethiopia-Yemen plume province. Yet, the development of the ca. 400 km-wide extensional province of the southern Red Sea between 31 Ma and the onset of seafloor spreading at ~4 Ma has been poorly understood, in large part owing to inaccessibility in the Afar depression. The Afar depression is a diffuse extensional province marking a triple point zone between plate boundaries in the Red Sea (Arabia Nubia), the Gulf of Aden (Arabia Somalia); and the Main Ethiopian Rift (Somalia Nu- bia). Complicating this setting, the Danakil horst is a microplate lying between oceanic provinces in the southernmost Red Sea and incipient seafloor spreading in the northern Afar depression. We have integrated exploration seismic, gravity, well, and magnetic data from offshore regions with remote sensing, geological and geophysical data from Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Yemen to evaluate models for continental break-up above mantle plumes. Plate kinematic reconstructions using a pole of rotation within the error ellipse of the Chu and Gordon (1999) pole predict real features in remote sensing and gravity data; these reconstructions provide a general framework for our interpretations. Field and geochronology studies along the western margin of Afar show a southward prop- agation of rifting since about 25 Ma when extension commenced offshore Red Sea and in Yemen. We also see an eastward migration of strain from the western border fault to narrow zones of primarily basaltic magmatism since mid-Miocene time. These magmatic sequences, where not onlapped by Pliocene-Recent sedimentary strata, dip steeply seaward and define a regional eastward flexure into transitional oceanic crust, as suggested by gravity models constrained by existing seismic data. Our synthesis suggests that the southern Afar depression, assumed to be most proximal to the plume, was the site of incipient seafloor spreading in Miocene time, but that this has ceased or stalled during plate reorganisation as the Aden rift propagated into Afar to make the Danakil a microplate.
The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.
Patricia A. Whitelock
The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.
Sheferaw, Desie; Gebru, Fikreysus; Asrat, Metenyelesh; Tesfaye, Dawit; Debela, Etana
Ruminants slaughtered in Bahir-Dar, northern Ethiopia, were studied to estimate the prevalence and types of foreign bodies in the rumen and reticulum. Of the 400 cattle, 320 sheep, and 320 goats examined between November 2011 and May 2012, 41.8, 20.6 and 11.9 %, respectively, contained one or more types of foreign bodies. The prevalence of foreign bodies was significantly (P?0.05) higher (i) in cattle than in sheep and goats, (ii) in cattle in poor body condition than those in good condition, and (iii) in the rumen than in the reticulum. The most commonly encountered materials were plastics, which resulted from the widespread use of plastic bags and improper waste disposal. Other materials found were cloth, rope, metal, and leather. The study demonstrated that ruminants in the area are ingesting various types of indigestible foreign bodies, which can hamper their health and productivity. To avert the problem, collaborative intervention schemes need to be applied involving professionals, policy makers, livestock keepers, and environmental activists. PMID:24170410
Setegn, Tesfaye; Takele, Abulie; Gizaw, Tesfaye; Nigatu, Dabere
Background. Although efforts have been made to reduce AIDS-related mortality by providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) services, still people are dying while they are on treatment due to several factors. This study aimed to investigate the predictors of mortality among adult antiretroviral therapy (ART) users in Goba Hospital, Southeast Ethiopia. Methods. The medical records of 2036 ART users who enrolled at Goba Hospital between 2007 and 2012 were reviewed and sociodemographic, clinical, and ART-related data were collected. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to measure risk of death and identify the independent predictors of mortality. Results. The overall mortality incidence rate was 20.3 deaths per 1000 person-years. Male, bedridden, overweight/obese, and HIV clients infected with TB and other infectious diseases had higher odds of death compared with their respective counterparts. On the other hand, ART clients with primary and secondary educational level and early and less advanced WHO clinical stage had lower odds of death compared to their counterparts. Conclusion. The overall mortality incidence rate was high and majority of the death had occurred in the first year of ART initiation. Intensifying and strengthening early ART initiation, improving nutritional status, prevention and control of TB, and other opportunistic infections are recommended interventions. PMID:25821596
Prata, Ndola; Holston, Martine; Fraser, Ashley; Melkamu, Yilma
Limited access to modern contraceptives in populations that desire smaller families can lead to repeat unintended pregnancy and repeat abortions. We conducted an analysis of the medical records of 1,200 women seeking abortion-related services in public and private facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from October 2008 to February 2009. We examined the characteristics of initial and repeat abortion clients including prior contraceptive use and subsequent method selection. The incidence of repeat abortion was 30%. Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used contraceptives and they were nearly twice as likely to leave the facility with a method. However, repeat abortion clients were significantly more likely to have ever used short-term reversible methods and to choose short-term methods post-abortion. Contraceptive counseling services for repeat abortion clients' should address reasons for previous contraceptive failure, discontinuation, or non-use. Post-abortion family planning services should be strengthened to help decrease repeat abortion. PMID:24558782
Anteneh, W; Getahun, A; Dejen, E; Sibbing, F A; Nagelkerke, L A J; De Graaf, M; Wudneh, T; Vijverberg, J; Palstra, A P
The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during the rainy season (July to October), whereas eight other species are absent from these rivers and probably developed a new strategy of lacustrine spawning (macro-spatial segregation). One species (L. intermedius) probably spawns in the lake as well as in the rivers. Between the early 1990s and 2000s, the riverine spawners showed a decline of 75% in both biomass and number in both fishery independent surveys and in commercial catches. Reproductive migration makes fishes vulnerable to fisheries and other threats like habitat modifications. Lacustrine spawners are probably more resilient as they are not known to form spawning aggregations that can easily be exploited by fishermen. In addition, upstream rivers and catchments around Lake Tana are highly degraded by erosion and recently subjected to intensive habitat modification for irrigation and hydroelectric power generation. This article reviews results of field studies on the Labeobarbus spawning migration from Lake Tana to spawning rivers, giving emphasis on segregation and homing. It also summarizes existing and emerging threats which form potential causes for the decline of the migratory Labeobarbus species. Knowledge gaps on the reproductive biology are identified for further investigation. PMID:22803734
Stevenson, Edward G J; Greene, Leslie E; Maes, Kenneth C; Ambelu, Argaw; Tesfaye, Yihenew Alemu; Rheingans, Richard; Hadley, Craig
Water insecurity is a primary underlying determinant of global health disparities. While public health research on water insecurity has focused mainly on two dimensions, water access and adequacy, an anthropological perspective highlights the cultural or lifestyle dimension of water insecurity, and its implications for access/adequacy and for the phenomenology of water insecurity. Recent work in Bolivia has shown that scores on a water insecurity scale derived from ethnographic observations are associated with emotional distress. We extend this line of research by assessing the utility of a locally developed water insecurity scale, compared with standard measures of water access and adequacy, in predicting women's psychosocial distress in Ethiopia. In 2009-2010 we conducted two phases of research. Phase I was mainly qualitative and designed to identify locally relevant experiences of water insecurity, and Phase II used a quantitative survey to test the association between women's reported water insecurity and the Falk Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-F), a measure of psychosocial distress. In multiple regression models controlling for food insecurity and reported quantity of water used, women's water insecurity scores were significantly associated with psychosocial distress. Including controls for time required to collect water and whether water sources were protected did not further predict psychosocial distress. This approach highlights the social dimension of water insecurity, and may be useful for informing and evaluating interventions to improve water supplies. PMID:22575697
Adugna, K E; Agga, G E; Zewde, G
Bovine brucellosis, an important bacterial zoonosis, is usually associated with intensive systems of production. A cross-sectional study was conducted in western Ethiopia to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in cattle undertraditional extensive husbandry. Sera collected from 1,152 cattle originating from 164 herds were screened, using the Rose Bengal test, and all positive sera were then examined, using complement fixation as a confirmatory test. Based on the results of two-step testing, the apparent seroprevalences were 1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5%, 1.7%) at the animal level and 4.9% (95% CI: 1.6%, 8.2%) at the herd level. A random-effects binary logistic regression model was used to examine potential risk factors, using 'herd' as a random effect. Herd size (p = 0.009) and abortion (p = 0.015) were significant risk factors for animal-level seropositivity, after controlling for other factors. Although bovine brucellosis was found at a low prevalence in the indigenous cattle population, the disease should be considered in any future expansion of dairy cattle production involving improved breeds. PMID:24761729
Getachew, A M; Innocent, G T; Trawford, A F; Feseha, G; Reid, S J W; Love, S
A cross-sectional coprological survey in the regions of Ada, Akaki, Bereh and Boset, and a retrospective postmortem investigation were conducted to study the epidemiology of Parascaris equorum in donkeys and horses in Ethiopia. Faecal samples from 803 working donkeys and 402 horses were collected, and the numbers of worms recovered from 112 donkeys examined postmortem between 1995 and 2004 were analysed. There was a high prevalence of infection and faecal egg output of P equorum in both donkeys and horses, and the severity of the infection in donkeys was increased irrespective of their age. The prevalence of the infection in the donkeys was 51.1 per cent and in the horses 16.2 per cent, and the prevalence in the donkeys examined postmortem was 55 per cent. There was no significant difference between different age groups of donkeys in either the prevalence or the intensity of the infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly higher in the Ada and Akaki regions than in the Bereh and Boset regions. PMID:18263917
Getachew, Adako Mulugeta; Innocent, Giles; Trawford, Andrew Francis; Reid, Stuart William James; Love, Sandy
A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the cause of rectal prolapse in working donkeys in Ethiopia. Analysis of data on rectal prolapse cases obtained from the Donkey Health and Welfare Project clinic at the School of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, from 1995 to 2004 revealed that 83.6% (n = 177) of the cases were associated with Gasterophilus nasalis. The rest 10.7% and 5.7% were associated with work-related (overloading) cause and diarrhoea, respectively. The mean and median numbers of G. nasalis recovered from the rectum of infected donkeys were 66 and 64, respectively, with a range of 2-195. Over 100 G. nasalis larvae were recovered from the rectum of 22% of the donkeys. Circular demarcated ulcer-like and deep circumferential pits or ring-like mucosal lesions were found at the larval attachment sites. G. nasalis infection and the associated rectal prolapse were observed year round. However, the intensity of rectal larval infection and incidence of rectal prolapse were significantly higher during the rainy season (P < 0.01). Age and sex of the donkeys had no significant effect on the intensity of rectal larval infection and incidence of rectal prolapse (P > 0.05). PMID:21870062
Mekonnen, H M; Asmamaw, K; Courreau, J F
Our study was conducted from November 2001 to April 2002 in the Debre-Zeit area (near Addis Ababa), Ethiopia to assess the husbandry practices and to identify health constraints in 100 market-oriented smallholder dairy farms. A questionnaire survey, farm visit and animal examination were conducted. Thirty-eight percent of the smallholder farms were owned by women. Women-owned farms had more cows (median=3) than men-owned ones. The median herd size (including young animals) was four animals per farm. Median age, parity number and daily milk production of cows were, respectively, 5 years, 3 and 10l. The housing conditions were tie-stall barns for 53% and shades for the rest. About 48% of the herd were kept under poor housing conditions; land-resource limitation was mentioned as the major problem. Twenty percent of the farms were using hired labour. Mastitis (both clinical and subclinical) was the most-frequently encountered disease condition (prevalence at herd level 30%) followed by foot-and-leg problems. Farms owned by men or using hired labour had higher disease prevalences. The poor housing conditions were associated with the observed prevalences of health constraints. PMID:16289383
Massebo, Fekadu; Tefera, Zenebe
Bactrocera invadens, the Asian fruit fly, was first reported in Kenya in 2003, and it spread fast to most tropical countries in Africa. To our knowledge, there is no detailed data on the fruit damage and status of fruit flies in Arba Minch and elsewhere in Ethiopia. Hence, information on the species composition and pest status of the fruit fly species is urgent to plan management strategies in the area. Fruit flies were captured using male parapheromone-baited traps. Matured mango (Mangifera indica) fruits were collected from randomly selected mango trees and incubated individually in cages (15 by 15 by 15?cm) with sandy soil. B. invadens was the predominant (96%; 952 of 992) captured species and the only fruit fly species emerging from mango fruits incubated in the laboratory. The mean number of adult B. invadens emerging per mango fruit was 35.25, indicating that the species is the most devastating mango fruit fly in the area. The loss due to this species would be serious if no management strategies are implemented. PMID:25612742
Eberhard, Mark L.; Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Yembo, Gole E.; Yibi, Makoy S.; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto
Thirty-seven unusual specimens, three from Ethiopia and 34 from South Sudan, were submitted since 2012 for further identification by the Ethiopian Dracunculiasis Eradication Program (EDEP) and the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program (SSGWEP), respectively. Although the majority of specimens emerged from sores or breaks in the skin, there was concern that they did not represent bona fide cases of Dracunculus medinensis and that they needed detailed examination and identification as provided by the World Health Organization Collaborating Center (WHO CC) at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All 37 specimens were identified on microscopic study as larval tapeworms of the spargana type, and DNA sequence analysis of seven confirmed the identification of Spirometra sp. Age of cases ranged between 7 and 70 years (mean 25 years); 21 (57%) patients were male and 16 were female. The presence of spargana in open skin lesions is somewhat atypical, but does confirm the fact that populations living in these remote areas are either ingesting infected copepods in unsafe drinking water or, more likely, eating poorly cooked paratenic hosts harboring the parasite. PMID:26055739
Tadesse, Abebayehu; Tsegaye, Biniam
A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2008 to February 2009 in Guraferda and Sheko districts of Bench Maji Zone, South Western Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and the density of its vectors. An overall prevalence of trypanosome infection in the study area was 4.4%. Trypanosoma congolense (36.36%) was the dominant trypanosome species followed by Trypanosoma vivax (18.18%) and Trypanosoma brucei (9.09%). Mean packed cell volume value of parasitemic animals (21.8%) was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of aparasitemic animals (27.7%). Biconical and NGU traps were deployed for 72 h, and the result indicated Glossina pallidipes followed by Glossina fuscipes as the only tsetse fly species caught in the study area along with other biting flies like Stomoxys and Tabanus. The apparent density of tsetse flies was 2.83 flies trap(-1) day(-1). NGU trap caught more of G. pallidipes while biconical trap caught more G. fuscipes, and the difference was significant (P<0.05). Although the current study indicated low prevalence of trypanosomosis in the study area, the impacts of trypanosomosis on cattle production and productivity should not be neglected. Therefore, attention should be given to control the disease and also the vector. PMID:20577803
Catley, Andy; Admassu, Berhanu; Bekele, Gezu; Abebe, Dawit
Participatory epidemiology methods were employed retrospectively in three pastoralist regions of Ethiopia to estimate the specific causes of excess livestock mortality during drought. The results showed that starvation/dehydration accounted for between 61.5 and 100 per cent of excess livestock mortality during drought, whereas disease-related mortality accounted for between 0 and 28.1 per cent of excess mortality. Field observations indicate that, in livestock, disease risks and mortality increase in the immediate post-drought period, during rain. The design of livelihoods-based drought response programmes should include protection of core livestock assets, and it should take account of the specific causes of excess livestock mortality during drought and immediately afterwards. This study shows that, when comparing livestock feed supplementation and veterinary support, relatively more aid should be directed at the former if the objective is to protect core livestock during drought. Veterinary support should consider disease-related mortality in the immediate post-drought period, and tailor inputs accordingly. PMID:24905708
Tebekaw, Yibeltal; James Mashalla, Yohana; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria
The main aim of this study was to examine factors determining women's preference for places to give birth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A quantitative and cross-sectional community based study design was employed. Data was collected using structured questionnaire administered to 901 women aged 15–49 years through a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique. Multinomial logistic regression model was employed to identify predictors of delivery care. More than three-fourth of slum women gave birth at public healthcare facilities compared to slightly more than half of the nonslum residents. Education, wealth quintile, the age of respondent, number of children, pregnancy intention, and cohabitation showed net effect on women's preference for places to give birth. Despite the high number of ANC attendances, still many pregnant women especially among slum residents chose to deliver at home. Most respondents delivered in public healthcare institutions despite the general doubts about the quality of services in these institutions. Future studies should examine motivating factors for continued deliveries at home and whether there is real significant difference between the quality of maternal care service offered at public and private health facilities.
Sixteen samples of packed tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) were purchased from supermarkets in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for metal analysis. Elements were measured by FAAS and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) employing external calibration curves. The levels in mg/kg dried weight basis varied from Cu: 4.7-12.9; Cd: 0.02-2.83; Pb: <0.01-2.29; Zn: 8.6-198.3; Mn: 81.7-962.2; Al: 3376.4-10,369.3; K: 7667.7-10,775; Li: 0.2-0.62; Ba: 9.4-1407.1; Mg: 1145.6-1834.1; Fe: 286.4-880.9; Ca: 1414.2-2646.0; Na: 147.1-557.7. Levels of exposure to the investigated metals by drinking tea were checked with the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of the WHO/FAO. Considering the average daily consumption rate of tea alone, the possible daily intakes of Al, Ba and Mn surpass the amenability to the side effects associated with these elements like Alzheimer's disease, kidney damage and Parkinson's disease, respectively, for which drinking tea should cause awareness. The other investigated elements are in the acceptable range. PMID:24779976
Alvergne, Alexandra; Gibson, Mhairi A.; Gurmu, Eshetu; Mace, Ruth
Socio-economic development has proven to be insufficient to explain the time and pace of the human demographic transition. Shifts to low fertility norms have thus been thought to result from social diffusion, yet to date, micro-level studies are limited and are often unable to disentangle the effect of social transmission from that of extrinsic factors. We used data which included the first ever use of modern contraception among a population of over 900 women in four villages in rural Ethiopia, where contraceptive prevalence is still low (<20%). We investigated whether the time of adoption of modern contraception is predicted by (i) the proportion of ever-users/non ever-users within both women and their husbands' friendships networks and (ii) the geographic distance to contraceptive ever-users. Using a model comparison approach, we found that individual socio-demographic characteristics (e.g. parity, education) and a religious norm are the most likely explanatory factors of temporal and spatial patterns of contraceptive uptake, while the role of person-to-person contact through either friendship or spatial networks remains marginal. Our study has broad implications for understanding the processes that initiate transitions to low fertility and the uptake of birth control technologies in the developing world. PMID:21799882
Terasaki, Dale J; Gelaye, Bizu; Berhane, Yemane; Williams, Michelle A
Background Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. The questionnaire incorporated the Spielberger Anger-Out Expression (SAOE) scale and symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results Symptoms of depression were evident in 23.6% of participants. Some 54.3% of students reported committing at least one act of violence in the current academic year; and 29.3% of students reported high (SAOE score ? 15) levels of anger-expression. In multivariate analysis, moderate (OR = 1.97; 95%CI 1.33–2.93) and high (OR = 3.23; 95%CI 2.14–4.88) outward anger were statistically significantly associated with increased risks of depressive symptoms. Violent behavior was noted to be associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 1.37–2.40). Conclusion Further research should be conducted to better characterize community and individual level determinants of anger-expression, violent behavior and depression among youths. PMID:19138431
Mebratie, Anagaw D; Van de Poel, Ellen; Yilma, Zelalem; Abebaw, Degnet; Alemu, Getnet; Bedi, Arjun S
Objectives To investigate the determinants of healthcare-seeking behaviour using five context-relevant clinical vignettes. The analysis deals with three issues: whether and where to seek modern care and when to seek care. Setting This study is set in 96 villages located in four main regions of Ethiopia. The participants of this study are 1632 rural households comprising 9455 individuals. Primary and secondary outcome measures Probability of seeking modern care for symptoms related to acute respiratory infections/pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria, tetanus and tuberculosis. Conditional on choosing modern healthcare, where to seek care (health post, health centre, clinic and hospital). Conditional on choosing modern healthcare, when to seek care (seek care immediately, the next day, after 2?days, between 3?days to 1?week, a week or more). Results We find almost universal preference for modern care. Foregone care ranges from 0.6% for diarrhoea to 2.5% for tetanus. There is a systematic relationship between socioeconomic status and choice of providers mainly for adult-related conditions with households in higher consumption quintiles more likely to seek care in health centres, private/Non-Government Organization (NGO) clinics as opposed to health posts. Delays in care-seeking behaviour are apparent mainly for adult-related conditions and among poorer households. Conclusions The analysis suggests that the lack of healthcare utilisation is not driven by the inability to recognise health problems or due to a low perceived need for modern care. PMID:24525391
Based on ethnographic research in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, this paper describes NGO efforts to encourage AIDS care volunteers to eschew material returns for their labor and instead reflect on the goodness of sacrificing to promote the survival of people living with HIV/AIDS. Consensus analysis of motivational survey data collected from a sample of AIDS care volunteers (n=110) suggests that they strongly share a sacrificial and prosocial motivational model. These results may be explained by several factors, including the efforts of the organizations to shape volunteers' motivations, the self-selection of volunteers, positive reinforcement in seeing one's patients become healthy, and social desirability bias. In-depth interviews examining the motivations and behaviors of volunteers reveal a more complicated picture: even ostensibly devoted and altruistic volunteers strongly question their service commitments. The complexity and ambivalence of volunteers' motivations reflect the profound uncertainty that they face in achieving improved socioeconomic status for themselves and their families amid widespread unemployment and sharply rising food prices. Their desires for economic opportunities explain why local NGOs exert so much effort to shape and sustain-and yet fail to completely control-their motivations. This recasts economically-insecure volunteers' consent to donate their labor as a process of negotiation with their organizers. Future research should explore how models of health care volunteerism and volunteer motivations are shaped by individual and collective experiences in political-economic context. PMID:24077802
Levin, Naomi E; Haile-Selassie, Yohannes; Frost, Stephen R; Saylor, Beverly Z
The incorporation of C4 resources into hominin diet signifies increased dietary breadth within hominins and divergence from the dietary patterns of other great apes. Morphological evidence indicates that hominin diet became increasingly diverse by 4.2 million years ago but may not have included large proportions of C4 foods until 800 thousand years later, given the available isotopic evidence. Here we use carbon isotope data from early to mid Pliocene hominin and cercopithecid fossils from Woranso-Mille (central Afar, Ethiopia) to constrain the timing of this dietary change and its ecological context. We show that both hominins and some papionins expanded their diets to include C4 resources as early as 3.76 Ma. Among hominins, this dietary expansion postdates the major dentognathic morphological changes that distinguish Australopithecus from Ardipithecus, but it occurs amid a continuum of adaptations to diets of tougher, harder foods and to committed terrestrial bipedality. In contrast, carbon isotope data from cercopithecids indicate that C4-dominated diets of the earliest members of the Theropithecus oswaldi lineage preceded the dental specialization for grazing but occurred after they were fully terrestrial. The combined data indicate that the inclusion of C4 foods in hominin diet occurred as part of broader ecological changes in African primate communities. PMID:26371308
Dubey, J P; Tilahun, G; Boyle, J P; Schares, G; Verma, S K; Ferreira, L R; Oliveira, S; Tiao, N; Darrington, C; Gebreyes, W A
Toxoplasma gondii oocysts are morphologically and antigenically similar to oocysts of another feline coccidian, Hammondia hammondi. The distinction between H. hammondi and T. gondii is important from an epidemiological perspective because all isolates of T. gondii are potentially pathogenic for humans and animals, whereas H. hammondi is not known to cause clinical disease in any naturally infected intermediate or definitive hosts. In the present report, H. hammondi (designated HhCatEt1 and HhCatEt2) oocysts were found microscopically in the feces of 2 of 36 feral domestic cats (Felis catus) from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Oocysts were orally infective to Swiss Webster and gamma interferon gene knockout mice; the inoculated mice developed tissue cysts in their muscles. Laboratory-raised cats fed mouse tissues of infected mice shed H. hammondi oocysts with a prepatent period of 5 days. The DNA extracted from sporulated oocysts reacted with H. hammondi-specific primers, and sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession nos. JX477424, and KC223619). This is the first report of isolation of H. hammondi from cats from the African continent. PMID:23517380
Eberhard, Mark L; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Yembo, Gole E; Yibi, Makoy S; Cama, Vitaliano A; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto
Thirty-seven unusual specimens, three from Ethiopia and 34 from South Sudan, were submitted since 2012 for further identification by the Ethiopian Dracunculiasis Eradication Program (EDEP) and the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program (SSGWEP), respectively. Although the majority of specimens emerged from sores or breaks in the skin, there was concern that they did not represent bona fide cases of Dracunculus medinensis and that they needed detailed examination and identification as provided by the World Health Organization Collaborating Center (WHO CC) at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All 37 specimens were identified on microscopic study as larval tapeworms of the spargana type, and DNA sequence analysis of seven confirmed the identification of Spirometra sp. Age of cases ranged between 7 and 70 years (mean 25 years); 21 (57%) patients were male and 16 were female. The presence of spargana in open skin lesions is somewhat atypical, but does confirm the fact that populations living in these remote areas are either ingesting infected copepods in unsafe drinking water or, more likely, eating poorly cooked paratenic hosts harboring the parasite. PMID:26055739
Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Tafesse, Biruk; Reschke, Konrad; Schröder, Harry
Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a pressing public health concern around the globe. Few existing reports, however, indicate the alarming rate at which the problem is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study is designed to investigate the psychosocial consequences of sexual abuse among child survivors in Ethiopia who were abused mainly through early marriage, rape, and child prostitution. Data are collected from 318 such CSA survivors-and 318 matched, non-sexually abused, normal controls- using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results reveal the CSA survivors to be significantly more symptomatic than the control group: They demonstrated a lower degree of social support, a lower degree of empowerment, as well as a higher degree of guilt and increased likelihood of viewing the world as dangerous. Finally, these CSA survivors show a lower degree of positive self-worth than their non-sexually abused counterparts. These findings have important implications for the formulation of appropriate preventions and interventions to be undertaken by various stakeholders ranging from family to policy makers. PMID:20587451
Martz, A. M.; Brown, F. H.
The Shungura Formation of southwestern Ethiopia has yielded many tens of thousands of vertebrate fossils including hominids and microvertebrates, and in addition has also yielded fossil wood, pollen, and invertebrates. Widespread tuffs have made subdivision and detailed mapping of the formation possible, have provided material for potassium-argon dating, and have allowed direct lithostratigraphic correlation with the Koobi Fora Formation in northern Kenya. The basis for correlation between the two formations is the distinctive chemistry of the tuffs, but systematic chemical variation within some tuffs invalidates some statistical correlation techniques. Here chemical analysis of glass separates and minerals from tuffs of the Shungura and Usno Formations are presented which may allow further ties to be established when data become available on other tuffs of the Koobi Fora Formation. The tuffs consist primarily of glass, but also contain phenocrysts of anorthoclase, hedenbergitic pyroxene, sodic amphibole, ilmenite, titanomagnetite, chevkinite, quartz, zircon, and rarely orthopyroxene and plagioclase. The glasses show evidence of alkali loss during hydration, and are not now peralkaline, although it is likely that they were initially. The source volcanoes were most likely situated within the Ethiopian rift valley, or on its margins.
Phillips-Conroy, J E; Hildebolt, C F; Altmann, J; Jolly, C J; Muruthi, P
Frontal and lateral intraoral photographs of 19 baboons from the Awash National Park, Ethiopia and 37 baboons from Amboseli National Park, Kenya, were used to assess periodontal health. The Awash baboons, and two groups (Alto's and Hook's) at Amboseli, fed entirely from natural sources, but baboons from the third Amboseli group (Lodge) fed largely on food refuse from one of the park's lodges. Juveniles and adults were evaluated separately. Intraoral photographs were seriated based on visual appraisals of periodontal health. In both age groups, the best periodontal health was seen in Awash animals; Alto's and Hook's animals were intermediate, and the poorest health was seen in the Lodge sample. The periodontal health decreased with age in adult baboons, as reported in humans. Geochemistry, genetics, a