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1

Hydatidosis of slaughtered cattle in Wolaita Sodo Abattoir, southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was carried out from July 2007 to June 2008 in Wolaita Sodo Abattoir to assess the status of hydatidosis in cattle.\\u000a Routine meat inspection, hydatid cyst count and characterization were conducted. Out of 400 cattle slaughtered in Wolaita\\u000a Sodo Abattoir 64 (16%) animals were found harboring hydatid cysts. Thorough meat inspection in the abattoir revealed that\\u000a 74 visceral

Nigatu Kebede; Habtamu Mekonnen; Abebe Wossene; Getachew Tilahun

2009-01-01

2

Hydatidosis of slaughtered cattle in Wolaita Sodo Abattoir, southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The study was carried out from July 2007 to June 2008 in Wolaita Sodo Abattoir to assess the status of hydatidosis in cattle. Routine meat inspection, hydatid cyst count and characterization were conducted. Out of 400 cattle slaughtered in Wolaita Sodo Abattoir 64 (16%) animals were found harboring hydatid cysts. Thorough meat inspection in the abattoir revealed that 74 visceral organ were found harboring one or more hydatid cysts. The infection of the lung, liver, spleen and kidney were found to be 45.94% 45.94%, 6.75% and 1.35% respectively. From the total of 283 hydatid cysts counted 153(54.06%), 17(6.00%), 5(1.76%), 108(38.16%) were found to be small, medium, large and calcified cysts respectively and 170(60.28%), 5(1.76%) and 108(38.16%) were sterile, fertile and calcified cysts respectively. The rate of cyst calcification was higher in the liver than in the lung while fertility rate was higher among the cysts of the lung. Hydatid cyst viability rate of 40% was observed. PMID:18787969

Kebede, Nigatu; Mekonnen, Habtamu; Wossene, Abebe; Tilahun, Getachew

2009-04-01

3

Bovine fasciolosis: coprological, abattoir survey and its economic impact due to liver condemnation at Soddo municipal abattoir, Southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the species of liver flukes in indigenous adult cattle, to compare\\u000a the diagnostic efficiency of fecal and post mortem examination and to assess the economic significance of bovine fasciolosis\\u000a due to liver condemnation in the abattoir. Of the 406 livers and fecal samples examined, 57 (14.0%) and 20 (4.9%) were

Fufa Abunna; Loma Asfaw; Bekele Megersa; Alemayehu Regassa

2010-01-01

4

Bovine fasciolosis: coprological, abattoir survey and its economic impact due to liver condemnation at Soddo municipal abattoir, Southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the species of liver flukes in indigenous adult cattle, to compare the diagnostic efficiency of fecal and post mortem examination and to assess the economic significance of bovine fasciolosis due to liver condemnation in the abattoir. Of the 406 livers and fecal samples examined, 57 (14.0%) and 20 (4.9%) were positive for fasciolosis. The most common liver fluke species affecting the cattle was Fasciola gigantica, 9.1% of cattle were infected with F. gigantica while, Fasciola. hepatica, mixed infections and unidentified or immature forms of Fasciola spp. were present in 3.2 %, 0.7% and 1 % of cattle, respectively. A retrospective abattoir survey revealed that the prevalence of fasciolosis was 12.7%. The prevalence of fasciolosis recorded in this study was lower than that reported by other researchers in this country. There was a strong relationship between fecal examination and postmortem findings of liver lesions, (K = 0.23) but under local conditions, postmortem examination was considered a better diagnostic tool for fasciolosis. Fasciolosis is of significant economic importance as the resultant liver condemnations caused an average loss of 4000 USD per annum. Hence, this disease deserves serious attention by the various stakeholders in order to promote the beef industry in the study area in particular and in the country in general. PMID:19680772

Abunna, Fufa; Asfaw, Loma; Megersa, Bekele; Regassa, Alemayehu

2010-02-01

5

Hydatidosis of slaughtered animals in Bahir Dar Abattoir, Northwestern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted from May 2005 to December 2006 in Bahir Dar Abattoir to assess the current status of hydatidosis in\\u000a cattle and sheep. Hydatid cyst count and characterization were conducted based on routine meat inspection. Of the total 420\\u000a cattle and 340 sheep slaughtered in Bahir Dar Abattoir 143 (34.05%) and 36 (10.6%) animals were found harboring hydatid

Nigatu Kebede; Abebe Mitiku; Getachew Tilahun

2009-01-01

6

Hydatidosis of slaughtered animals in Bahir Dar Abattoir, Northwestern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The study was conducted from May 2005 to December 2006 in Bahir Dar Abattoir to assess the current status of hydatidosis in cattle and sheep. Hydatid cyst count and characterization were conducted based on routine meat inspection. Of the total 420 cattle and 340 sheep slaughtered in Bahir Dar Abattoir 143 (34.05%) and 36 (10.6%) animals were found harboring hydatid cysts respectively. Thorough meat inspection in the abattoir revealed that 202 and 54 visceral organs were found harboring one or more hydatid cysts in cattle and sheep respectively. Differences in prevalence rates between the two species of animals were highly significant (P < 0.001). The infection of the lung, liver, kidney, spleen and heart were found to be 57.9% , 36.6% , 3% , 1.5% , 1% in cattle and 50%, 48.1% and 1.9% in sheep respectively. From the total of 864 in cattle and 138 in sheep hydatid cysts counted 315 (36.4%), 268 (31.0%), 65 (7.5%), 216 (25.0%) in cattle and 92 (66.7%), 20 (14.5%), 1 (0.7%), 25 (18.1%) in sheep were found to be small, medium, large and calcified cysts respectively and 484 (56.0%), 164 (18.9%), 216 (25%) in cattle and 35 (25.4%), 78 (56.5%), 25 (18.1%) in sheep were sterile, fertile and calcified cysts respectively. Viability rates of 62.2% in cattle and 78.2% in sheep were observed. The rate of cyst calcification was higher in the liver than in the lung while fertility rate was higher among the cysts of the lung for both cattle and sheep. PMID:19052901

Kebede, Nigatu; Mitiku, Abebe; Tilahun, Getachew

2009-01-01

7

Diagnostic efficiency of abattoir meat inspection service in Ethiopia to detect carcasses infected with Mycobacterium bovis: Implications for public health  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for

Demelash Biffa; Asseged Bogale; Eystein Skjerve

2010-01-01

8

Diagnostic efficiency of abattoir meat inspection service in Ethiopia to detect carcasses infected with Mycobacterium bovis: Implications for public health  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection and discussed its public health implications in light of a high risk of human exposure. Methods The study was conducted in five abattoirs: Addis Ababa, Adama, Hawassa, Yabello and Melge-Wondo abattoirs. The efficiency of routine abattoir (RA) inspection was validated in comparison to detailed abattoir (DA) inspection, followed by culture and microscopy (CM) and region of difference (RD) deletion analysis. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity) and likelihood estimations using web-based SISA diagnostic statistics software. Post-test probability of detecting TB infected carcasses was estimated using nomograms. Agreement between RA and DA inspections was measured using kappa statistics. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy (STARD) requirements. Both routine and detailed meat inspection protocols were performed on a subpopulation of 3322 cattle selected randomly from among 78,269 cattle slaughtered during the study period. Three hundred thirty seven carcasses identified through detailed meat inspection protocols were subjected to culture and microscopy; of the 337, a subset of 105 specimens for culture and microscopy were subjected to further molecular testing. Results There was a substantial agreement between RA and DA inspections in Addis Ababa (Kappa = 0.7) and Melge-Wondo abattoirs (Kappa = 0.67). In Adama, Hawassa and Yabello abattoirs, the agreement was however poor (Kappa ? 0.2). RA inspection was able to detect only 117 of the total 3322 carcasses inspected (3.5%). The sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) of RA inspection were 28.2% (95/337) [95%CI: 23.4-33.0] and 99.3% (2963/2985) [95%CI: 99.0-99.6], respectively, when DA inspection was considered as reference test. When culture and microscopy (CM) was considered as reference test, the Sn and Sp of RA were 55.2% (58/105) [95%CI: 45.7-64.7] and 84.1% (195/232) [95%CI: 79.3-88.8]. RA inspection failed to detect 71.8% (242/337) and 44.8% (47/105) of TB infected carcasses as judged by DA inspection and CM, respectively. On the other hand, a much higher sensitivity of DA was obtained when CM and RD deletion analysis were considered as reference tests (96.3% (105/109) and 100.0% (24/24), respectively). Conclusions The study results indicate that meat inspection protocols currently utilized in abattoirs are insufficient to detect the majority of TB lesions at the gross level. DA inspection protocols were demonstrated to improve the detection level by approximately 3-fold. The failure of current inspection techniques to detect approximately 70% of carcasses presented with grossly-visible lesions of TB at the slaughter-plants indicates the magnitude of meat-borne zoonotic TB as an on-going risk to public health. Standardization of abattoir inspection protocols (in line with international sanitary requirements), enhanced training and proficiency testing of meat inspections, and raising public awareness are recommended as essential and cost-effective interventions to improve meat inspection service in Ethiopia, with subsequent protection of consumers' health.

2010-01-01

9

Intrahousehold Allocation of Food in Southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to examine the patterns of intrahousehold food allocation among rural families in Southern Ethiopia. Individual food sufficiency is measured by the total calorie intake of each individual divided by the Recommended Dietary Allowance of calories. This is divided by the household total of this variable to get the individual's share in household food resources.

Kimhi Ayal; Nathan Sosner

2000-01-01

10

Hydatidosis: Prevalence and its economic importance in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir, Central Oromia, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2007 to April 2008 to estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir. An attempt was also made to estimate the annual economic loss due to condemnation of organs during meat inspection. A retrospective analysis of data spanning a 10-year period (1997–2007) was also undertaken to determine the presence

A. Getaw; D. Beyene; D. Ayana; B. Megersa; F. Abunna

2010-01-01

11

Gross and histopathological studies on pulmonary lesions of camel (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered at Addis Ababa abattoir, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

This study was carried out with the aim of identifying types of gross and histopathological lesions in lungs of camels slaughtered between October 2009 and April 2010 at Addis Ababa abattoir enterprise, Ethiopia. All camels were originated from Borana and Kereyu areas. A total of 387 slaughtered camel lungs were inspected during the study period. Of which, one or more gross lesions were encountered on 300 lungs. Lesions were further subjected for detail gross and histopathological examinations. The occurrence of pulmonary lesions was 77.5%. The gross and histopathological examination of these lesions had revealed 60.2% emphysema, 21.2% hydatidosis, 18.6% pneumonia, 10.6% atelectasis, 4.9% aspiration of blood, 3.9% pneumoconiosis, 2.6% pulmonary edema and congestion, 1.6% abscess, 1% pleurisy, and 0.8% granulomatous pneumonia. Most camels had one or more pulmonary lesions on postmortem examination, but they were apparently healthy during antemortem inspection. Therefore, the prevailing stressful environmental condition coupled with the existing poor level of veterinary service in camel-rearing areas of the country might reverse these hidden inactive lesions and thereby contributed for the higher occurrence of respiratory diseases in camels. PMID:21909867

Jenberie, Shiferaw; Awol, Nesibu; Ayelet, Gelagay; Gelaye, Esayas; Negussie, Haileleul; Abie, Getnet

2012-04-01

12

Hydatidosis: prevalence and its economic importance in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir, Central Oromia, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2007 to April 2008 to estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir. An attempt was also made to estimate the annual economic loss due to condemnation of organs during meat inspection. A retrospective analysis of data spanning a 10-year period (1997-2007) was also undertaken to determine the presence of the parasite during this period. A total of 1152 ruminants (852 cattle, 92 sheep and 208 goats) were inspected following slaughter. Hydatidosis was prevalent in 46.8% cattle, 29.3% sheep, and 6.7% goats. In cattle, 326 (55.2%) of the lung, 219 (37.1%) of the liver, 21 (3.6%) of the spleen, 15 (2.5%) of the heart and 10 (1.7%) of the kidney were found to be infected with hydatid cysts. In sheep, hydatid cysts were recovered from 22 (55.0%) of the lung, 16 (40.0%) of the liver and 2 (5.0%) of the spleen while none of the heart and kidney were recorded positive. In goats, the degree of infection was 6 (33.3%) of lung, 10 (55.6%) of liver, 1 (5.6%) of spleen and kidney each. According to the retrospective data, a total of 107,333 cattle were slaughtered and during this period 13,519 of the liver, 18,304 of the lung, 1142 of the kidneys, 537 of the hearts and 150 of the spleens were found to be infected with hydatidosis. The total annual economic loss incurred due to hydatidosis in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir was estimated to be to 52,828 ETB (5869.8 USD). The current results suggest that a thorough investigation that leads to a disease control strategy is required to reduce the economic and public health consequences of hydatidosis. PMID:19883622

Getaw, A; Beyene, D; Ayana, D; Megersa, B; Abunna, F

2010-03-01

13

Study on the prevalence of cystic hydatidosis and its economic significance in cattle slaughtered at Hawassa Municipal abattoir, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2008 to March 2009 to assess the status of cystic hydatidosis in cattle slaughtered at Hawassa Municipal abattoir. Out of the total 632 cattle examined visually and manually (palpation and incision), 333 (52.69%) were found harboring hydatid cysts. A significantly higher infection was detected in older cattle (P < 0.05, chi(2) = 4.36) than young. Regarding body condition score, no significant variation (P > 0.05, chi(2) = 2.148) was observed as the prevalence was 54.55% for lean cattle followed by medium (53.83%) and fat (46.88%). Of the total 333 infected, 123 (36.9%) had hydatid cysts only in the lung, 23 (6.9%) in the liver, 12 (3.6%) in the spleen, five (1.5%) in the heart, and three (0.9%) in the kidney while the rest 167 (50.2%) had multiple organ infections. Of the 530 viscera harboring hydatid cysts, the highest (52.83%) was lung followed by liver (34.15%), spleen (9.06%), heart (3.39%), and kidney (0.56%). Size assessment made on 874 cysts indicated that 308 (35.3%) were small, 251 (28.7%) medium, 89 (10.2%) large, and 226 (25.9%) were calcified. The distribution of characterized cysts in different organs based on their size was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). In addition, out of the total 874 cysts collected, 26.9% were fertile, 47.3% sterile, and 25.9% calcified or purulent cysts. There was a significant difference in fertility of cyst from different organs (P < 0.05, chi(2) = 27.96), those of lung origin being highly fertile. Likewise, out of the 121 fertile cysts subjected for viability test, 68 (56.2%) were viable. Considering the current result, the total annual economic loss from organ condemnation and carcass weight loss due to bovine hydatidosis at Hawassa Municipal abattoir was estimated at 1,791,625.89 Ethiopian Birr (ETB; 1USD = 12.93ETB). Results in the study were discussed in light of the situation in different parts of Ethiopia and abroad, and finally, relevant recommendations were forwarded. PMID:20111997

Regassa, Feyesa; Molla, Alemante; Bekele, Jemere

2010-06-01

14

Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea. It has the distinction of being the oldest independent country in Africa. In 1936, fascist Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia, but Ethiopia regained its independence 5 years later with the help of colonial British forces. In 1974, civil unrest led to a coup and the armed forces deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. Today, the socialist government has a national legislature and a new constitution, both of which were created 13 years after the revolution. This government is faced with armed separatist movements in the autonomous regions of Eritrea and Tigre and also with periodic border conflicts with Somali forces. These conflicts combined with a massive drought in 1983-1985 and another in 1987 led to widespread famine in which an estimated 7.9 million people faced starvation and up to 1 million people died. Ethiopia has the potential for self-sufficiency in grains, livestock, vegetables, and fruits. Yet it's agriculture has been plagued not only with drought; but also soil degradation caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and high population density; dislocation due to the economy's rapid centralization; and government policies that do not provide incentives to producers. Still agriculture provides the basis of the nation's economy. Ethiopia has good relations with the Soviet Union, and the foreign policy of Ethiopia generally supports and parallels that of the USSR. After the revolution, the United States' relationship with Ethiopia has cooled because of differences over human rights. The US does assist with drought relief, however. PMID:12177998

1988-07-01

15

Evolution, distribution, and characteristics of rifting in southern Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethiopia is a key region to understand the evolution of the East African rift system, since it is the area of interaction between the main Ethiopian rift (MER) and the Kenyan rift. However, geological data constraining rift evolution in this remote area are still relatively sparse. In this study the timing, distribution, and style of rifting in southern Ethiopia are constrained by new structural, geochronological, and geomorphological data. The border faults in the area are roughly parallel to preexisting basement fabrics and are progressively more oblique with respect to the regional Nubia-Somalia motion proceeding southward. Kinematic indicators along these faults are mainly dip slip, pointing to a progressive rotation of the computed direction of extension toward the south. Radiocarbon data indicate post 30 ka faulting at both western and eastern margins of the MER with limited axial deformation. Similarly, geomorphological data suggest recent fault activity along the western margins of the basins composing the Gofa Province and in the Chew Bahir basin. This supports that interaction between the MER and the Kenyan rift in southern Ethiopia occurs in a 200 km wide zone of ongoing deformation. Fault-related exhumation at ~10-12 Ma in the Gofa Province, as constrained by new apatite fission track data, occurred later than the ~20 Ma basement exhumation of the Chew Bahir basin, thus pointing to a northward propagation of the Kenyan rift-related extension in the area.

Philippon, Melody; Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Bonini, Marco; Balestrieri, Maria-Laura; Molin, Paola; Willingshofer, Ernst; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Cloetingh, Sierd

2014-04-01

16

Innovation in forage development: empirical evidence from Alaba Special District, southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forage development is one of the strategies to address feed scarcity and low livestock productivity in Ethiopia. In line with government strategy, multiple actors took part in a forage development programme for six years (2004–09) in Alaba Special District, in southern Ethiopia. This paper analyses the six-year forage development programme, comparing its two phases, from an innovation systems perspective to

Abebe Shiferaw; Ranjitha Puskur; Azage Tegegne; Dirk Hoekstra

2011-01-01

17

High prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Drug resistance of P. falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) is frequent and intense in some areas. METHODS: In 100 patients with uncomplicated malaria from Dilla, southern Ethiopia, P. falciparum dhfr and dhps mutations as well as P. vivax dhfr polymorphisms associated with resistance to SP

Mirjam Schunk; Wondimagegn P Kumma; Isabel Barreto Miranda; Maha E Osman; Susanne Roewer; Abraham Alano; Thomas Löscher; Ulrich Bienzle; Frank P Mockenhaupt

2006-01-01

18

Bovine cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered at Awassa municipal abattoir, Ethiopia: prevalence, cyst viability, distribution and its public health implication.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2005 to April 2006 on bovine cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered at Awassa municipal abattoir with the objective of determining the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis, cyst viability, distribution and its public health implication. Questionnaire survey involving 120 respondents was also conducted on human taeniasis. A total of 400 carcasses were examined during the study period, of which 105 (26.25%) were infected with T. saginata metacestodes. From a total of 3200 samples inspected, 500 cysticerci were detected in 141 samples, of which 221 (44.2%) were alive. The anatomical distribution of cysticerci were 65 (29.2%) heart, 56 (25.3%) shoulder muscle, 59 (26.7%) masseter, 23 (10.4%) tongue, 12 (5.4%) diaphragm, three (1.4%) liver, two (0.9%) lung and one (0.5%) kidney samples. The prevalence varied significantly between local and crossbred animals (OR = 3.15, P < 0.05), but not varied between sex, age groups and origin of the animals. T. saginata taeniasis was a widespread public health problem in the town with an overall prevalence of 64.2% (77 of 120). The potential risk factors for disease contraction were raw meat consumption, religion and occupational risks. In conclusion, the study revealed high prevalence of T. saginata metacestodes throughout the edible organs together with existence of deep-rooted tradition of raw meat consumption. This may magnify the public health hazards of T. saginata in the study area. As a result, the disease deserves due attention to safeguard the public health and further promote beef industry in the country. PMID:18234026

Abunna, F; Tilahun, G; Megersa, B; Regassa, A; Kumsa, B

2008-01-01

19

Epidemiological studies on intestinal schistosomiasis in Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was made on intestinal schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni in Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia, in 1999 to generate preintervention parasitological and malacological baseline data to be used as a reference in evaluation of community-based pilot control trial to be launched using wild-growing Endod. A total of 3000 stool specimens were collected from schoolchildren enrolled in 14 schools and microscopically examined using Kato method. The overall prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis mansoni was 34.6% and 184 eggs per gram of stool (EPG), respectively. Children excreting Schistosoma mansoni eggs were found in all of the 14 schools surveyed with a prevalence of infection ranging from 1.9% in Abaye School to 80.6% in Shesha Kekele School. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection among males and females was 38.4% and 27.3%, respectively (P = 0.0001, 95% C.I = 7.5%-14.7%) where as the intensity of infection was 186 EPG and 181 EPG, respectively (P = 0.8045, 95% C.I = 1.17%-1.23%). Malacological surveys of 27 water contact sites revealed the occurrence of Biomphalaria pfeifferi in 8 sites out of which 3 harbored infected snails shedding schistosome cercariae. The necessity for initiating community-based sustainable control programme is discussed. PMID:12240565

Erko, Berhanu; Medhin, Girmay; Berhe, Nega; Abebe, Fekadu; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Gundersen, S G

2002-01-01

20

Flow regime change in an Endorheic basin in Southern Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endorheic basins, often found in semi-arid and arid climates, are particularly sensitive to changes in climatological fluxes such as precipitation, evaporation and runoff, resulting in variability of river flows as well as of water levels in end-point lakes that are often present. In this paper we apply the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) to characterise change to the natural flow regime of the Omo-Ghibe basin in Southern Ethiopia. This endorheic basin is considered relatively pristine, with the basin being the main source of flow to Lake Turkana, the end-point lake in the East-African rift valley. The water level in Lake Turkana shows significant fluctuation, but an increasing trend can be observed over the past 20 yr. The reasons are currently not well understood. Of the five groups of metrics in the IHA, only those related to magnitude were found to show significant trends, with the main trend being the increase of flow during the dry season. This trend was not reflected in climatological drivers such as rainfall, evaporation, and temperature (which shows an increasing trend), but rather is attributed to the substantial changes in Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) in the basin. The impact on the basin hydrology is apparent mainly in the more humid part of the basin. The significant shift from forest and woodland to grassland and cropland results in a decrease of actual evaporation and subsequent increase in (dry season) runoff. The long term trend of the increasing levels in lake Turkana are related to these trends in dry season flows, while shorter term fluctuations of the lake levels are attributed primarily to anomalies in consecutive wet and dry season rainfall.

Worku, F. F.; Werner, M.; Wright, N.; van der Zaag, P.; Demissie, S.

2014-01-01

21

Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks Under Plantations in Gambo District, Southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of six plantation species in comparison to natural forest (NF) on soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) stocks, depth-wise distribution, biomass carbon (C), and N was investigated on plantations and cultivated lands on an Andic paleudalf soil in Southern Ethiopia. The SOC, N, and bulk density were determined from samples taken in 4 replicates from 10-,

Ambachew Demessie; Bal Ram Singh; Rattan Lal

2011-01-01

22

Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

2011-01-01

23

Risk factors associated with prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions and associated mycobacteria in cattle slaughtered at public and export abattoirs in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at investigating risk factors associated with prevalence of tuberculosis (TB)-like lesions and associated\\u000a mycobacteria in Ethiopian cattle slaughtered. The study was carried out during 2006–2007 in five selected municipal and export\\u000a abattoirs. Methods of investigation involved detailed necropsy examination of carcasses and isolation of mycobacteria from\\u000a pathologic tissue specimens. Factors of animal and environment origin were

Demelash Biffa; Francis Inangolet; Asseged Bogale; James Oloya; Berit Djønne; Eystein Skjerve

2011-01-01

24

Determinants of Treatment Adherence Among Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDefaulting from treatment remains a challenge for most tuberculosis control programmes. It may increase the risk of drug resistance, relapse, death, and prolonged infectiousness. The aim of this study was to determine factors predicting treatment adherence among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients.Methods and FindingsA cohort of smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed and registered in Hossana Hospital in southern Ethiopia from 1 September

Estifanos Biru Shargie; Bernt Lindtjørn

2007-01-01

25

Plant biodiversity and ethnobotany of Borana pastoralists in Southern Oromia, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of plant biodiversity and ethnobotanical studies was conducted in southern Ethiopia using an integrated approach\\u000a of botanical collections, group discussions, interviews and questionnaires. Species richness, growth forms and uses of native\\u000a wild plants are described. Borana pastoralists distinguished and named 86% of the plant species identified. A total of 327\\u000a plant species distributed among 197 genera and 69

T. Gemedo-Dalle; Brigitte L. Maass; Johannes Isselstein

2005-01-01

26

Soil seed banks in plantations and adjacent natural dry Afromontane forests of central and southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil seed bank was investigated in plantation stands and adjacent natural forests at Menagesha-Suba and Munessa-Shashemene forest sites in central and southern Ethiopia, respectively. The total numbers of species identified in the 0-9 cm soil layer were 58 at Menagesha-Suba and 52 at Munessa-Shashemene with the corresponding soil seed bank densities ranging between 27,200 and 82,600, and 4,500 and

FEYERA SENBETA; DEMEL TEKETAY

27

Regeneration of seven indigenous tree species in a dry Afromontane forest, southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regeneration of seven indigenous tree species having significant ecological and economic importance was investigated in the Munessa-Shashemene dry Afromontane forest (MSF), southern Ethiopia. Densities and distributions of seedlings, saplings and trees were assessed along gradients of altitude, light and disturbance using quadrat sizes of 10×5m (for seedlings) and 20×20m (saplings and trees) following line transects. The number of individuals, frequency

Getachew Tesfaye; Demel Teketay; Masresha Fetene; Erwin Beck

2010-01-01

28

Utilization of selected hospitals, health centres and health stations in Central, Southern and Western Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This first, extensive, facility-based study of health services utilization in central, southern and western Ethiopia reveals steep distance decay gradients and underutilization of rural health services, the result of numerous geographical, socioeconomic, cultural and facility-based barriers. Out-patient statistics of 280,656 first-visit polyclinic patients in 8 hospitals, 8 health centres and 9 health stations in 7 administrative regions and of 10,885

Helmut Kloos

1990-01-01

29

Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Researchers tested male and female infants from rural Ethiopia to investigate relations among hemoglobin, anthropometry, and attention. They utilized a longitudinal design to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron status and growth delays. Stunting (length-for-age z-scores < ?2.0) and attention performance [t(30) = ?2.42, p = .022] worsened over time. Growth and hemoglobin predicted attention at 9 months [R2 = .15, p < .05], but not at 6. The use of the attention task at 9 months was supported. The study contributes to the knowledge base of hemoglobin, growth, and attention.

Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

2011-01-01

30

Prevalence of tuberculosis in pigs slaughtered at two abattoirs in Ethiopia and molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from tuberculous-like lesions in pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious, granulomatous disease caused by acid-fast bacilli of the genus Mycobacterium. The disease affects practically all species of vertebrates. Although mammalian tuberculosis has been nearly controlled in many developed countries, it is still a serious problem in humans and domestic animals including pigs in developing countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of TB in pigs is not known. Therefore, this study was designed to estimate the prevalence of TB in pigs in central Ethiopia and to characterize the causative agents using molecular techniques. Results The estimated prevalence of TB was 5.8% (49/841). Age and origin of pigs were significantly associated (P<0.001) with the prevalence. In contrast, an association of sex, floor type and water source with the prevalence could not be shown. Culture positivity was confirmed in 30.6% (15/49) of the tuberculous-like lesions. Of the 15 isolates, 12 were acid fast positive while five of the latter were confirmed by multiplex PCR as members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Speciation of the five isolates further confirmed that they were M. tuberculosis, belonging to SIT1088 (two isolates) and SIT1195 (one isolate). The remaining two isolates belong to an identical spoligotype, the pattern of which was not found in the spoligotype database (SpolDB4). Conclusions The isolation of M. tuberculosis from pigs suggests a possible risk of transmission between humans and pigs. Hence, establishing feasible control methods is required.

2013-01-01

31

Cattle-rangeland management practices and perceptions of pastoralists towards rangeland degradation in the Borana zone of southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted in the Borana pastoral areas of southern Ethiopia to assess current livestock production systems, rangeland management practices and the perceptions of the pastoralists towards rangeland degradation. This information is considered vital to future pastoral development planning and interventions. Data were collected from a total of 20 villages that were identified from 5 peasant associations, namely Did

T. B. Solomon; H. A. Snyman; G. N. Smit

2007-01-01

32

Teachers of Poor Communities: The Tale of Instructional Media Use in Primary Schools of "Gedeo" Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of working conditions at school on teachers' level of instructional media use in the primary school system of Gedeo Zone, southern Ethiopia. The survey was made on a sample of 139 (24.4% female and male 75.6%) teachers who were randomly drawn from 9 primary schools (four rural and five urban…

Abdo, Mehadi; Semela, Tesfaye

2010-01-01

33

Factors related to discontinued clinic attendance by patients with podoconiosis in southern Ethiopia: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Podoconiosis is a lymphoedema of non-infectious cause which results in long-term ill health in affected individuals. Simple, effective treatment is available in certain parts of Ethiopia, but evidence indicates that not all patients continue collecting treatment supplies from clinic sites once started. We used qualitative techniques to explore factors related to discontinued attendance at outreach clinics of a non-government organization in southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in four clinic sites through unstructured in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions with the involvement of 88 study subjects. Results Discontinuation of clinic visits is common among podoconiosis patients. The reasons were: remoteness from the clinic sites, unrealistic expectation of ‘special’ aid, worry about increasing stigma, illness and misconceptions about treatment. Conclusions Several of these factors are remediable through community and individual information and education. Appropriate routes to deliver this information must be identified. Certain factors (such as distance to clinic sites and stigma) require substantial expansion of services or liaison with village-level government health services.

2012-01-01

34

Induced Abortion and Associated Factors in Health Facilities of Guraghe Zone, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR?=?4.28, CI: (1.24–14.71)), age of 30–34 years (AOR?=?0.15, CI: (0.04–0.55)), primary education (AOR?=?0.26, CI: (0.13–0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR?=?0.44, CI: (0.14–0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care.

Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

2014-01-01

35

Cattle herd vulnerability to rainfall variability: responses to two management scenarios in southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

We examine how the system of grazing management of cattle in savanna rangelands affects the herd response to drought. We have used long-term time series data to evaluate the effects of management on drought-induced cattle mortality using traditional livestock management practices. There was no control of stocking densities, as compared to a government ranch where stocking densities would be adjusted in accordance with available pasture. We tested the responses under two scenarios. Scenario 1: Response of cattle herds to inter-annual rainfall variability (IRV) under a regulated grazing management system; this provides more reliable predictions of cattle population and performance in terms of herd mortality and calving rates than does the communal land use system. Scenario 2: Regardless of the management system, similar trends in cattle populations will be observed in response to IRV. The results of the study showed that fluctuations in cattle numbers, herd mortality and calving rates were highly correlated with IRV, with stronger linear impacts in accordance with scenario 2. In both management systems, cattle herd sizes and calving rates declined during periods of drought, followed by slow recovery. Cattle populations in Borana rangelands in southern Ethiopia did not recover for a period of two decades. We conclude that a management system based on control of stocking densities did not improve herd survival, as compared with traditional drought management strategies. This contradicts common expectations. Increased drought frequencies aggravated cattle mortality and lowered calving rates. The implication of the findings is that regardless of adjusted stocking density, livestock populations in the arid savanna ecosystems of southern Ethiopia remain at risk from climate change. PMID:23054807

Angassa, Ayana; Oba, Gufu

2013-03-01

36

Hydatidosis of sheep and goats slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir: prevalence and risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abattoir survey was conducted on 1,053 sheep and 639 goats slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir, Ethiopia, between October\\u000a 2007 and May 2008, with the objective to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis and assess the associated risk factors. Routine\\u000a meat inspection procedure was employed to detect the presence of the cyst in visceral organs (lung, liver, and omentum). Hydatid\\u000a cysts were

Kebebe Erbeto; Girma Zewde; Bersissa Kumsa

2010-01-01

37

Cataract surgery in Southern Ethiopia: distribution, rates and determinants of service provision  

PubMed Central

Background Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, with the greatest burden found in low-income countries. Cataract surgery is a curative and cost-effective intervention. Despite major non-governmental organization (NGO) support, the cataract surgery performed in Southern Region, Ethiopia is currently insufficient to address the need. We analyzed the distribution, productivity, cost and determinants of cataract surgery services. Methods Confidential interviews were conducted with all eye surgeons (Ophthalmologists & Non-Physician Cataract Surgeons [NPCS]) in Southern Region using semi-structured questionnaires. Eye care project managers were interviewed using open-ended qualitative questionnaires. All eye units were visited. Information on resources, costs, and the rates and determinants of surgical output were collected. Results Cataract surgery provision is uneven across Southern Region: 66% of the units are within 200 km of the regional capital. Surgeon to population ratios varied widely from 1:70,000 in the capital to no service provision in areas containing 7 million people. The Cataract Surgical Rate (CSR) in 2010 was 406 operations/million/year with zonal CSRs ranging between 204 and 1349. Average number of surgeries performed was 374 operations/surgeon/year. Ophthalmologists and NPCS performed a mean of 682 and 280 cataract operations/surgeon/year, respectively (p?=?0.03). Resources are underutilized, at 56% of capacity. Community awareness programs were associated with increased activity (p?=?0.009). Several factors were associated with increased surgeon productivity (p?2 years, working in a NGO/private clinic, working in an urban unit, having a unit manger, conducting outreach programs and a satisfactory work environment. The average cost of cataract surgery in 2010 was US$141.6 (Range: US$37.6–312.6). Units received >70% of their consumables from NGOs. Mangers identified poor staff motivation, community awareness and limited government support as major challenges. Conclusions The uneven distribution of infrastructure and personnel, underutilization by the community and inadequate attention and support from the government are limiting cataract surgery service delivery in Southern Ethiopia. Improved human resource management and implementing community-oriented strategies may help increase surgical output and achieve the “Vision 2020: The Right to Sight” targets for treating avoidable blindness.

2013-01-01

38

Foot and mouth disease in the Borana pastoral system, southern Ethiopia and implications for livelihoods and international trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participatory epidemiology (PE) was used on the Borana plateau of southern Ethiopia to understand pastoralist’s perceptions\\u000a of the clinical and epidemiological features of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in cattle. Matrix scoring showed good agreement\\u000a between informant groups on the clinical signs of acute and chronic FMD, and findings were cross-checked by clinical examination\\u000a of cattle and assessment of previous

T. Rufael; A. Catley; A. Bogale; M. Sahle; Y. Shiferaw

2008-01-01

39

A geochemical survey of spring water from the main Ethiopian rift valley, southern Ethiopia: implications for well-head protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report discusses the stable isotope values and major solute compositions of 16 springs and river-water samples along a topographic gradient in the main rift valley of southern Ethiopia. Most of the springs used for drinking water supplies discharge from local flow systems at scales of only tens of meters. The delta18O and deltaD values of waters unaffected by shallow

Jeffrey M. McKenzie; Donald I. Siegel; D. Jonathan McKenzie

2001-01-01

40

Geochemistry, Pb?Pb single zircon ages and Nd?Sr isotope composition of Precambrian rocks from southern and eastern Ethiopia: implications for crustal evolution in East Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical and isotope data for granitoid rocks from southern and eastern Ethiopia delineate the presumed margin of the Pan-African juvenile terrain of the Arabian-Nubian Shield against an older crustal segment of unknown origin extending from eastern Ethiopia to northern Somalia. Granitoids from southern Ethiopia have higher Na 2O and {Na20 }/{K2O} and lower Cr and Ni than granitoids with comparable SiO 2 values from eastern Ethiopia. In southern Ethiopia three periods of magmatism are identified on the basis on single zircon {207Pb}/{206Pb} evaporation ages, namely at ˜850, ˜750-700 and ˜650-550 Ma, and these correlate well with events documented from other parts of Ethiopia and the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The initial ?Nd(700 Ma) and ?sr(700 Ma) values range from -1.2 to +3.2 and from -13.4 to + 3.7, respectively, which precludes any significant contribution from much older continental crust in the generation of these rocks. Neodymium mean crustal residence ages, based on a depleted mantle model, range from 0.96 to 1.26 Ga. These data support the interpretation that southern Ethiopia constitutes part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. In contrast, granitoids from eastern Ethiopia show geochemical features of S-type granites. In eastern Ethiopia Pal aeo-Neoproterozoic zircon ages (781-2489 Ma) are found. Initial ?Nd(700 Ma) and ?sr(700 Ma) values range from-4.3 to -18.3 and + 33.3 to + 99.8, respectively. Neodymium mean crustal residence ages range from 1.62 to 2.88 Ga. These data, in comparison to the western and southern parts of Ethiopia, are indicative of considerable reworking of pre-Pan-African crust. Variations in age, Sr?Nd isotope ratios and chemistry of the granitoids on a regional scale also suggest the existence of two separate basement terrains between southern and eastern Ethiopia, which may be separated by a tectonic line now concealed by Phanerozoic rocks. This tectonic line may represent a major tectonic boundary between the juvenile Arabian-Nubian Shield in the west and a pre-Pan-African gneissic terrain to the east, thus delineating the eastern margin of the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

Teklay, M.; Kröner, A.; Mezger, K.; Oberhänsli, R.

1998-02-01

41

Association of ABO blood group and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Dore Bafeno Area, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the distribution of ABO blood group and their relationship with Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria among febrile outpatients who sought medical attention at Dore Bafeno Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A total of 269 febrile outpatients who visited Dore Bafeno Health Center, Southern Ethiopia, were examined for malaria and also tested for ABO blood groups in January 2010. The blood specimens were collected by finger pricking, stained with Geimsa, and examined microscopically. Positive cases of the parasitemia were counted. CareStart™ Malaria Pf/Pv Combo was also used to test the blood specimens for malaria. ABO blood groups were determined by agglutination test using ERYCLONE® antisera. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and treatment status of the participants were also collected. Chi-square and ANOVA tests were used to assess the difference between frequencies and means, respectively. Results Out of a total of 269 participants, 178 (66.2%) febrile patients were found to be infected with Plasmodium parasites, among which 146 (54.3%), 28 (10.4%), and 4 (1.5%) belonged to P. falciparum, P. vivax, and mixed infections, respectively. All febrile patients were also tested for ABO blood groups and 51.3%, 23.5%, 21.9% and 3.3% were found to be blood types of O, A, B and AB, respectively. Both total malaria infection and P. falciparum infection showed significant association with blood types (P<0.05). The proportion of A or B but not O phenotypes was higher (P<0.05) in individuals with P. falciparum as compared with non-infected individuals. The chance of having P. falciparum infection in patients with blood groups A, B and AB was 2.5, 2.5 and 3.3 times more than individuals showing blood O phenotypes, respectively. The mean P. falciparum malaria parasitaemia for blood groups A, B, AB, and O were 3 744/µL, 1 805/µL, 5 331/µL, and 1 515/µL, respectively (P<0.01). Conclusions The present findings indicate that individuals of blood groups A, B and AB are more susceptible to P. falciparum infection as compared with individuals of blood group O. Nevertheless, further in depth studies are required to clearly establish the role that ABO blood group plays in P. falciparum malaria.

Zerihun, Tewodros; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

2011-01-01

42

Structural evidence for the allochthonous nature of the Bulbul terrane in southern Ethiopia: A west-verging thrust nappe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neoproterozoic basement of southern Ethiopia links the low-grade Pan-African province of the Arabian-Nubian Shield to the high-grade Mozambique Belt to the south. In this intervening area, a northward terminating low-grade metavolcano-sedimentary and mafic-ultramafic sequence of the Bulbul terrane gently overlies moderately to steeply dipping granitic migmatites of the Alghe gneissic terrane. The contact between the two terranes is a right lateral thrust. In the Bulbul terrane, rocks are part of an overturned sequence with a gently east-dipping composite D1/D2 foliation containing downdip and NE-plunging stretching lineations and westerly verging intrafolial folds. These structures are interpreted to have been developed during westward thrusting. The Bulbul sequence was therefore detached and tectonically transported to the west as a thrust nappe of which the lower inverted limb is still preserved. Structural evidence suggest yet another smaller nappe sequence (terrane) is present in southern Ethiopia and further suggest that Neoproterozoic obducted crust of the Arabian-Nubian Shield in eastern Ethiopia may be located beneath Phanerozoic cover.

Yihunie, Tadesse; Tesfaye, Melaku

2002-02-01

43

A prevalence study of bovine tuberculosis by using abattoir meat inspection and tuberculin skin testing data, histopathological and IS6110 PCR examination of tissues with tuberculous lesions in cattle in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post mortem surveillances, for the detection of tuberculous lesions in particular depend on the work load time and the diligence of the inspector conducting the examination. The first aim of the study was to determine the trend of occurrence of tuberculous lesions in two abattoirs in Addis Ababa and Debre-Zeit (Ethio - pia). The second aim of the study was

J. E. SHITAYE; B. GETAHUN; T. ALEMAYEHU; M. SKORIC; F. TREML; P. FICTUM; V. VRBAS; I. PAVLIK

44

The Prevalence of Precancerous Cervical Cancer Lesion among HIV-Infected Women in Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The magnitude of precancerous cervical cancer lesions as well as invasive cervical cancer is higher in HIV-infected women than non HIV-infected women. Thus, screening targeting HIV-infected women is being undertaken in developing countries, including Ethiopia. However, data on the prevalence and determinants of precancerous cervical cancer lesion among HIV-infected women in southern Ethiopia is lacking. Thus, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with precancerous cervical cancer lesion among HIV- infected women in southern Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013 among HIV-infected women in Southern Ethiopia. Four hundred forty eight HIV-infected women who had been screened and treated for precancerous cervical cancer lesion were included in the study. Data were collected by using structured and pretested questionnaire. Visual inspection with acetic acid was applied for screening and treatment. SPSS version 16.0 was used for data entry and analysis. Logistic regression analysis was fitted and odds ratios with 95% Confidence intervals and p-values were computed to identify factors associated with precancerous cervical cancer lesion. Results Out of 448 study participants, 99 (22.1%) were found to be positive for precancerous cervical cancer. Being currently on highly active antiretroviral treatment (AOR=0.52, 95%CI: 0.35, 0.92), history of sexually transmitted disease (AOR=2.30, 95%CI: 1.23, 4.29) and having only one lifetime sexual partner (AOR=0.33, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.56) were factors associated with precancerous cervical cancer lesion. Conclusions The prevalence of precancerous cervical cancer lesion among HIV-infected women in southern Ethiopia was found to be high. Intervention to access all HIV-infected women like scaling up the limited services and awareness creation should be undertaken. Measures aimed at preventing the acquisition and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and reducing the number of sexual partners are required. Besides, early initiation of highly active antiretroviral treatment is important.

2013-01-01

45

Determinants of Treatment Adherence Among Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Defaulting from treatment remains a challenge for most tuberculosis control programmes. It may increase the risk of drug resistance, relapse, death, and prolonged infectiousness. The aim of this study was to determine factors predicting treatment adherence among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Methods and Findings A cohort of smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed and registered in Hossana Hospital in southern Ethiopia from 1 September 2002 to 30 April 2004 were prospectively included. Using a structured questionnaire, potential predictor factors for defaulting from treatment were recorded at the beginning of treatment, and patients were followed up until the end of treatment. Default incidence rate was calculated and compared among preregistered risk factors. Of the 404 patients registered for treatment, 81 (20%) defaulted from treatment. A total of 91% (74 of 81) of treatment interruptions occurred during the continuation phase of treatment. On a Cox regression model, distance from home to treatment centre (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.97; p < 0.001), age > 25 y (HR = 1.71; p = 0.02), and necessity to use public transport to get to a treatment centre (HR = 1.59; p = 0.06) were found to be independently associated with defaulting from treatment. Conclusions Defaulting due to treatment noncompletion in this study setting is high, and the main determinants appear to be factors related to physical access to a treatment centre. The continuation phase of treatment is the most crucial time for treatment interruption, and future interventions should take this factor into consideration.

2007-01-01

46

Impact of a commercial destocking relief intervention in Moyale district, southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A commercial destocking intervention was piloted in southern Ethiopia during the drought of early 2006. The intervention led to the purchase of an estimated 20,000 cattle valued at USD 1.01 million. On average, destocked households received USD 186 from the sale of cattle--approximately 5,405 households were involved. In terms of aid investment, the approximate cost-benefit ratio was 41:1. During the drought, income from destocking accounted for 54.2 per cent of household income (n = 114 households), and was used to buy food, care for livestock, meet various domestic expenses, support relatives, and either pay off debts or augment savings. Seventy-nine per cent of the income derived from destocking was used to buy local goods or services. Expenditure on livestock care amounted to 36.5 per cent of local spending, and included the private transportation of livestock to better grazing areas. The buoyant livestock export trade was considered to be an important driver of commercial destocking, demonstrating a positive link between livestock and meat exports, and pastoral vulnerability during drought. PMID:18380850

Abebe, Dawit; Cullis, Adrian; Catley, Andy; Aklilu, Yacob; Mekonnen, Gedlu; Ghebrechirstos, Yodit

2008-06-01

47

Duration and determinants of birth interval among women of child bearing age in Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Longer intervals between consecutive births decrease the number of children a woman can have. This results in beneficial effects on population size and on the health status of mothers and children. Therefore, understanding the practice of birth interval and its determinants is helpful to design evidence based strategies for interventions. The objective of this study was to determine duration and determinants of birth interval among women of child bearing age in Lemo district, southern Ethiopia in March 2010. Methods A community based cross sectional study design with stratified multistage sampling technique was employed. A sample of 844 women of child bearing age were selected by using simple random sampling technique after complete census was conducted in selected kebeles prior to data collection. Structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Actual birth interval was measured with the respondents' memory since majority of the women or their children in the area had no birth certificate. Results Majority (57%) of women were practicing short birth interval length with the median birth interval length of 33 months. Actual birth interval length is significantly shorter than preferred birth interval length. Birth interval showed significant variation by contraceptive use, residence, wealth index, breast feeding and occupation of husbands. Conclusion low proportion of optimal birth spacing practices with short actual birth interval length and longer preferred birth interval lengths were evident among the study subjects. Hence interventions to enhance contraceptive utilization behaviors among women in Lemo district would be helpful to narrow the gap between optimal and actual birth spacing.

2011-01-01

48

Human helminthiasis in Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia, with emphasis on geohelminthiasis.  

PubMed

A parasitological survey was made in 1999 and 2002 to determine the magnitude of geohelminthiasis (soil-transmitted helminthiasis) and generate reference baseline helminthological data for Wondo Genet area, southern Ethiopia. Stool specimens were collected using Kato technique from 3167 schoolchildren, 92 schoolteachers, and 1160 residents of two Peasant Associations (PAs) and microscopically examined. The prevalence of infection for Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura among schoolchildren was 83.4% and 86.4%, respectively, and the respective intensity of infection was 7343 eggs per gram of stool (EPG) and 461 EPG. The prevalence of infection for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Schistosoma mansoni among schoolteachers was 33.7%, 35.9% and 17.4%, respectively, with the respective intensity of 1089 EPG, 194 EPG and 89 EPG. Similarly, the prevalence of infection among the residents of Shesha Kekele and Wondo Wosha Peasant Associations for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Schistosoma mansoni was 77%, 88% and 30%, respectively, with the respective intensity of 4673 EPG, 452 EPG and 125 EPG. Both the prevalence and intensity of infection were low among the schoolteachers possibly due to a better personal hygiene. The most prevalent soil-transmitted helminth in the area was Trichuris trichiura. Other rare helminths encountered were Taenia species, hookworms, Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis nana, all occurring in less than 4% prevalence of infection. The heavy helminth burden among the schoolchildren calls for immediate intervention to reduce morbidity and transmission of helminthiasis in Wondo Genet. PMID:15296415

Erko, Berhanu; Medhin, Girmay

2003-10-01

49

Use and management of traditional medicinal plants by Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Around 80% of the people of Ethiopia are estimated to be relying on medicinal plants for the treatment of different types of human health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the use and management of medicinal plants used for the treatment of human health problems by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including individual and focus group discussions (18), observations, individual interviews (n?=?74), preference ranking and paired comparison were used. Data were collected in three study sites and from two markets; the latter surveyed every 15 days from February 2011 to February 2012. Results A total of 128 medicinal plant species, belonging to 111 genera and 49 families, used as herbal medicine by Maale and Ari communities were documented. Predominantly harvested plant parts were leaves, which are known to have relatively low impact on medicinal plant resources. Species with high familiarity indices included Solanum dasyphyllum, Indigofera spicata, Ruta chalepensis, Plumbago zeylanica and Meyna tetraphylla. Low Jaccards similarity indices (? 0.33) indicated little correspondence in medicinal plant use among sites and between ethnic communities. The dominant ways of medicinal plant knowledge acquisition and transfer is vertical: from parents to children through oral means. Gender and site significantly influenced the number of human medicinal plants known currently in the study sites. Age was only a factor of significance in Maale. Marketing of medicinal plants harvested from wild and semi-wild stands is not common. Expansion of agricultural land and lack of cultivation efforts by local communities are mentioned by locals to affect the availability of medicinal plant resources. Conclusion S. dasyphyllum, I. spicata, P. zeylanica, M. tetraphylla, and Oxalis radicosa need to be considered for phytochemical and pharmacological testing to verify their efficacy and determine their dosages. Land use planning and development initiatives in the area and beyond need to sharply focus on strategies that could alleviate the major threats affecting medicinal plant resources in the landscape and encourage their cultivation to enhance their availability and complement ex-and in-situ conservation.

2014-01-01

50

Q fever vaccination in Queensland abattoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outbreaks of Q fever continue to be recorded in abattoirs despite a protective vaccine being available. All accredited abattoirs in Queensland were surveyed to ascertain the number that conducted Q fever vaccination programs. Only ten of the 30 abattoirs had vaccination pro- grams. Vaccination programs were present at all abattoirs with more than 360 employees. Thirty-seven per cent of abattoir

Morton Bell; Mahomed Patel; John Sheridan

51

Cost-effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy at a district hospital in southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As the resource implications of expanding anti-retroviral therapy (ART) are likely to be large, there is a need to explore its cost-effectiveness. So far, there is no such information available from Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of ART for routine clinical practice in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia. METHODS: We estimated the unit cost of HIV-related care

Asfaw Bikilla; Degu Jerene; Bjarne Robberstad; Bernt Lindtjørn

2009-01-01

52

Prevalence and Correlates of Prenatal Vitamin A Deficiency in Rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and correlates of prenatal vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia. Seven hundred randomly-selected pregnant women took part in the study. Serum retinol concentration was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed by logistic and linear regression. Interpretation of data was made using adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and adjusted linear regression coefficient. The prevalence of VAD (serum retinol <0.7 µmol/L) was 37.9%. Advanced gestational age and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP ?5 mg/dL) were negatively associated with retinol concentration (p<0.05). The odds of VAD was significantly higher among the women with no education and those devoid of self-income. Women aged 35-49 years had 2.23 (95% CI 1.31-3.81) times higher odds compared to those aged 15-24 years. The lower the dietary diversity score in the preceding day of the survey, the higher were the odds of VAD. With reference to nulliparas, grand multiparas had 1.92 (95% CI 1.02-3.64) times increased odds of VAD. VAD and zinc deficiency (serum zinc <8.6 µmol/L during the first trimester, or <7.6 µmol/L during the second or third trimester) were significantly associated with AOR of 1.80 (95% CI 1.28-2.53). VAD has major public-health significance in the area. Accordingly, it should be combated through enhancement of diet diversity, birth control, and socioeconomic empowerment of women.

Gase, Fikre Enquselassie; Deressa, Melaku Umeta

2013-01-01

53

The tectonic evolution of the Precambrian metamorphic rocks of the Adola Belt (Southern Ethiopia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Adola area of Southern Ethiopia comprises two main tectono-stratigraphic units which have undergone polyphase deformation and regional metamorphism. The first one consists of an heterogeneous sequence of high grade and complexly deformed gneisses which are intruded by syn- and post-tectonic granitoids; the second unit comprises an extemsive N-S trending volcano-sedimentary sequence and ultrabasic rocks of greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphic grade and relatively simple deformation state. The contact between the two units is usually extensively tectonized. Recent structural analysis of the Adola Belt shows that: (1) the tectonic evolution started with extensional faulting and development of basin into which volcano-sedimentary sequence and associated ultrabasic suites were deposited, (2) the first stage compressional event led to the inversion of the Precambrian sedimentary basin and development of thrust tectonics and associated folding phase with sub-horizontal axes and (3) the late-stage in the tectonic evolution is dominated by N-S trending sub-vertical ductile strike-slip shear zones and related sub-vertical folds. The thrust and strike-slip shear belts are up to 500 m wide and occur both within the units defined above and along their boundaries reactivating previous N-S trending discontinuities. These reactivation events locally segment the sequence into five fault-bound tectonic domains each with different deformation style. The shear zones are characterized by the extensive development of mylonitic fault rocks which carry strong superimposed stretching lineations indicating their respective tectonic transport directions. Sense of displacement in all types of shear zones is indicated by shear criteria. The field character of the belt suggests that it is underlain by sialic basement and that it developed from an ensialic basin and not from Wilson cycle plate tectonic processes.

Worku, Hailu; Yifa, Kinetebeb

1992-01-01

54

Married women's decision making power on modern contraceptive use in urban and rural southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Women in developing countries are either under collective decision making with their partners or completely rely on the male partner's decision on issues that affect their reproductive live. Identifying the major barriers of married women's decision making power on contraceptive use has significant relevance for planning contextually appropriate family planning interventions. The objective of this study was to determine current modern contraceptive practices and decision making power among married women in Tercha Town and surrounding rural areas of Dawro zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods Community based comparative cross-sectional design with both quantitative and Qualitative study has been employed in March and April 2010. The respondents were 699 married women of child bearing age from urban and rural parts of Dawro zone. After conducting census, we took the sample using simple random sampling technique. Results Current modern contraceptive use among married women in the urban was 293 (87.5%) and 243 (72.8%) in rural. Married women who reside in urban area were more likely to decide on the use of modern contraceptive method than rural women. Having better knowledge about modern contraceptive methods, gender equitable attitude, better involvement in decisions related to children, socio-cultural and family relations were statistically significant factors for decision making power of women on the use of modern contraceptive methods in the urban setting. Better knowledge, fear of partner's opposition or negligence, involvement in decisions about child and economic affairs were statistically significant factors for better decision making power of women on the use of modern contraceptive methods in the rural part. Conclusions High level of current modern contraceptive practice with reduced urban-rural difference was found as compared to regional and national figures. Urban women had better power to make decisions on modern contraceptive than rural women. Modern family planning interventions in the area should be promoted by considering empowering of women on modern contraceptive use decision making.

2011-01-01

55

Inadequate feeding practices and impaired growth among children from subsistence farming households in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Whether current child feeding practices and behaviours among rural households in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia conform to the World Health Organization (WHO) guiding principles for complementary feeding is uncertain. We assessed socio-demographic status, anthropometry, breastfeeding, complementary feeding practices and behaviours, and motor development milestones in a convenience sample of 97 breastfed children aged 6-23 months from three rural Sidama communities. Energy and nutrient intakes from complementary foods were also calculated from 1-day in-home weighed records. Prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% for infants aged 6-8 months to 52% for children aged 12-23 months, whereas for wasting, the corresponding prevalence was 10% and 14%, respectively. Very few children were exclusively breastfed up to 6 months of age (n = 2), or received solids/semi-solids for the recommended minimum number of times containing the recommended number of food groups. Responsive feeding was not practised and no cellular animal products were consumed. Median intakes of energy, and intakes and densities of micronutrients from complementary foods (but not protein) were below WHO recommendations, assuming average breast milk intakes; greatest shortfalls were for retinol, vitamin C and calcium densities. Mothers of stunted children were shorter and lighter, and from households of lower socio-economic status than non-stunted children (P < 0.05). Acquisition of some motor development milestones was delayed in stunted infants compared with their non-stunted counter-parts. In conclusion, interventions that address the WHO guiding principles for complementary feeding practices and behaviours, as well as prenatal influences on growth, are urgently required in this setting. PMID:20572929

Gibson, Rosalind S; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael; Arbide, Isabel; Teshome, Aklilu; Stoecker, Barbara J

2009-07-01

56

A cross-sectional study on bovine tuberculosis in Hawassa town and its surroundings, Southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hawassa town and its surroundings from October 2007 to May 2008 to estimate the prevalence\\u000a of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) based on comparative interadermal tuberculin test (CIDT) and abattoir survey. Accordingly, 39\\u000a herds comprising 413 cattle were subjected to CIDT, and the herd and individual animal prevalence were 48.7% (19\\/39) and 11.6%\\u000a (48\\/413), respectively. One

Alemayehu Regassa; Asmelash Tassew; Kebede Amenu; Bekele Megersa; Fufa Abunna; Berhanu Mekibib; Tanguy Macrotty; Gobena Ameni

2010-01-01

57

Cysticercosis of slaughtered cattle in northwestern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of cysticercosis due to Taenia saginata in cattle slaughtered for meat in Amhara National Regional State, northwestern Ethiopia between September 2005 and February 2007 was investigated. Routine meat inspection of various organs of 4456 cattle in eight abattoirs of this region showed that 824 (18.49%) were infected with Cysticercus bovis. The occurrence rate did not vary significantly from

Nigatu Kebede

2008-01-01

58

Metasomatized lithospheric mantle beneath Turkana depression in southern Ethiopia (the East Africa Rift): geochemical and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mantle xenoliths entrained in Quaternary alkaline basalts from the Turkana Depression in southern Ethiopia (the East Africa Rift) were studied for their geochemical and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic compositions to constrain the evolution of the lithosphere. The investigated mantle xenoliths are spinel lherzolites in composition with a protogranular texture. They can be classified into two types: anhydrous and hydrous spinel lherzolites; the

Ryuichi Shinjo; Risa Matsumura

2011-01-01

59

Soil seed bank characteristics in relation to land use systems and distance from water in a semi-arid rangeland of southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size and species composition of the soil seed bank of southern Ethiopia rangelands were examined under three land use systems (communal land, a government ranch and traditional grazing reserves) and along a distance gradient (near, middle and far) from water sources. Soil seed bank sampling was carried out at the end of the growing season from 0.25 m?2 quadrates

T. B. Solomon; H. A. Snyman; G. N. Smit

2006-01-01

60

Zinc,Gravida,Infection,andIron,butNotVitamin B12 or Folate Status, Predict Hemoglobin during Pregnancy in Southern Ethiopia1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology of anemia during pregnancy in rural Southern Ethiopia is uncertain. Intakes of animal-source foods are low and infections and bacterial overgrowth probably coexist. We therefore measured the dietary intakes of a convenience sample of Sidama women in late pregnancy who consumed either maize (n ¼ 68) or fermented enset (Enset ventricosum )( n ¼ 31) as their major

Rosalind S. Gibson; Yewelsew Abebe; Sally Stabler; Robert H. Allen; Jamie E. Westcott; Barbara J. Stoecker; Nancy F. Krebs; K. Michael Hambidge

61

Petrological and geochemical data of volcanic rocks from the southern Afar Depression, Ethiopia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geological and petrological investigations (FWF Project P15196) in the southern Afar Depression of Ethiopia support an international palaeoanthropological research-team (PAR) under the leadership of Horst Seidler. Mount Galila is the conspicuous centre of the research area [N 9° 44.101', E 40° 27.368'], situated about 20 km E of the NNE-SSW striking, recently active Hertale Graben, which represents a northernmost segment of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). Stratigraphically, the fossiliferous lacustrine and fluvial deposits, as well as the intercalated volcanic layers of the Galila area, belong to the "Upper Stratoid Series" (5-1.4 Ma) and will be named the Mount Galila Formation. They are similar to the Awash Group, from which very famous early hominid fossils have been described. In the Mount Galila Fm., 7 main volcanic horizons serve as marker beds comprising basalts, ignimbrites, tuffs and tuffaceous sands. The basalt horizons in the research area represent basaltic lava flows each consisting of one single flow unit c. 5 meters thick with maximum 5 cooling units. A first set of geochemical data from XRF spectrometry comprising main and trace element analysis shows characteristics for the volcanic marker beds as following: The basalts are clearly tholeiitic in the main elements (FeO/MgO/Alk) and show typical trace element distributions (e.g. Zr/Y-Zr; Ti/100-Yx3-Zr) as Within Plate Tholeiit Basalts. All basalt samples contain access 40Ar which can be explained by specific erruption mechanisms that leads to analytical problems for 40Ar/39Ar dating. In the TAS diagram after LeMaitre 1984 the ignimbrites vary at high alkali levels (7-9%) from trachytic to dacitic and rhyolitic composition, whereas at low alkali contents (<7%) they plot into the andesitic field. Compared to the basalts, the geochemistry of the ignimbrites is much more inhomogenous. Tuffs and tuffaceous sands are relevant as marker beds especially for the palaeoanthropological excavations in the Galila area because some great fossil findings, e.g. a tooth of an Australopithecus cf. afarensis and some primate remains, are stratigraphically related to them. Petrologically their compositions vary from basaltic andesitic to andesitic and dacitic dependent on their clastic input.

Urbanek, Ch.; Faupl, P.; Richter, W.; Seidler, H.

2003-04-01

62

Development of a scale to measure stigma related to podoconiosis in Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Health-related stigma adds to the physical and economic burdens experienced by people suffering from neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Previous research into the NTD podoconiosis showed significant stigma towards those with the disease, yet no formal instrument exists by which to assess stigma or interventions to reduce stigma. We aimed to develop, pilot and validate scales to measure the extent of stigma towards podoconiosis among patients and in podoconiosis-endemic communities. Methods Indicators of stigma were drawn from existing qualitative podoconiosis research and a literature review on measuring leprosy stigma. These were then formulated into items for questioning and evaluated through a Delphi process in which irrelevant items were discounted. The final items formed four scales measuring two distinct forms of stigma (felt stigma and enacted stigma) for those with podoconiosis and those without the disease. The scales were formatted as two questionnaires, one for podoconiosis patients and one for unaffected community members. 150 podoconiosis patients and 500 unaffected community members from Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia were selected through multistage random sampling to complete the questionnaires which were interview-administered. The scales were evaluated through reliability assessment, content and construct validity analysis of the items, factor analysis and internal consistency analysis. Results All scales had Cronbach’s alpha over 0.7, indicating good consistency. The content and construct validity of the scales were satisfactory with modest correlation between items. There was significant correlation between the felt and enacted stigma scales among patients (Spearman’s r?=?0.892; p?

2013-01-01

63

Self-treatment of malaria in rural communities, Butajira, southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the use of self-treatment and to determine the actions taken to manage malaria illness. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in six peasant associations in Butajira district, southern Ethiopia, between January and September 1999. Simple random sampling was used to select a sample of 630 households with malaria cases within the last six months. FINDINGS: Overall, 616 (>97%) of the study households acted to manage malaria, including the use of antimalarial drugs at home (112, 17.8%), visiting health services after taking medication at home (294, 46.7%), and taking malaria patients to health care facilities without home treatment (210, 33.3%). Although 406 (64.5%) of the households initiated treatment at home, the use of modern drugs was higher (579, 92%) than that of traditional medicine (51, 8%). Modern drugs used included chloroquine (457, 73.5%) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (377, 60.6%). Malaria control programmes were the main sources of antimalarials. In most cases of malaria, treatment was started (322, 52.3%) or health services visited (175, 34.7%) within two days of the onset of symptoms. Cases of malaria in the lowland areas started treatment and visited health services longer after the onset of malaria than those in the midland areas (adjusted odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.30-0.64; and adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.25-0.56, respectively). Similarly, those further than one hour's walk from the nearest health care facility initiated treatment later than those with less than one hour's walk (adjusted odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI 0.43-0.87). This might be because of inaccessibility to antimalarial drugs and distant health care facilities in the lowland areas; however, statistically insignificant associations were found for sex, age, and religion. CONCLUSION: Self-treatment at home is the major action taken to manage malaria. Efforts should be made to improve the availability of effective antimalarials to communities in rural areas with malaria, particularly through the use of community health workers, mother coordinators, drug sellers, and shop owners.

Deressa, Wakgari; Ali, A.; Enqusellassie, F.

2003-01-01

64

Pan-African deformations in the basement of the Negele area, southern Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polydeformed and metamorphosed Neoproterozoic rocks of the East African Orogen in the Negele area constituted three lithostructurally distinct and thrust-bounded terranes. These are, from west to east, the Kenticha, Alghe and Bulbul terranes. The Kenticha and Bulbul terranes are metavolcano-sedimentary and ultramafic sequences, representing parts of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), which are welded to the central Alghe gneissic terrane of the Mozambique Belt affinity along N-S-trending sheared thrust contacts. Structural data suggest that the Negele basement had evolved through three phases of deformation. During D1 (folding) deformation, north-south upright and inclined folds with north-trending axes were developed. East and west-verging thrusts, right-lateral shearing along the north-oriented Kenticha and Bulbul thrust contacts and related structural elements were developed during D2 (thrusting) deformation. The pervasive D1 event is interpreted to have occurred at 620-610 Ma and the D2 event ended prior to 554 Ma. Right-lateral strike-slips along thrust contacts are interpreted to have been initiated during late D2. During D3, left-lateral strike-slip along the Wadera Shear Zone and respective strike-slip movements along conjugate set of shear zones were developed in the Alghe terrane, and are interpreted to have occurred later than 557 Ma. The structural data suggest that eastward thrusting of the Kenticha and westward tectonic transport of the Bulbul sequences over the Alghe gneissic terrane of the Mozambique Belt, during D2, were accompanied by right-lateral strike-slip displacements along thrust contacts. Right-lateral strike-slip movements along the Kenticha thrust contact, further suggest northward movement of the Kenticha sequence during the Pan-African orogeny in the Neoproterozoic. Left-lateral strike-slip along the orogen-parallel NNE-SSW Wadera Shear Zone and strike-slip movements along a conjugate set of shear zones completed final terrane amalgamation between the Arabian-Nubian Shield and the Mozambique Belt in Neoproterozoic southern Ethiopia.

Yihunie, Tadesse

2002-03-01

65

Holocene Paleomagnetic Field Variations Recorded in Lake Sediments from Southern Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent compilations of paleomagnetic data from lake sediments have been used in the construction of temporally continuous global spherical harmonic models of the Holocene geomagnetic field. Data are currently biased to the northern hemisphere with few data in the southern hemisphere and at equatorial latitudes. To improve data distribution we have obtained inclination and relative paleointensity records from two equatorial lakes ~150 km apart within the East African Ridge System in southern Ethiopia: Lake Chamo and Chew Bahir. Lake Chamo is large (514 km2) and has a water depth of ~10 m in the vicinity of the coring site. In comparison, Chew Bahir is currently a saline mudflat in a basin with a catchment of ~2000 km2. During wet phases it has been covered by a lake up to 50 m deep. The Lake Chamo record consists of 16 closely taken, partially overlapping, up to two meter core segments, which extend to a composite depth of ~14 m. Fourteen calibrated AMS 14C ages were obtained and the base of the core is ~7.5 ka. The Chew Bahir record is a composite of three cores taken at different sites across the mudflat. Based on three calibrated AMS 14C ages for the Holocene, the sedimentation rate is far lower than at Lake Chamo; in the highest sedimentation rate core the last 10 ka is covered in the top ~3 m. Suites of remanence measurements (NRM, ARM, IRM, S-ratio, HIRM), in-field measurements (susceptibility, thermomagnetic, hysteresis, FORC), bulk geochemical analyses (e.g., Ti, Fe, K), and scanning electron microscopy on magnetic extracts have allowed detailed characterization of these sediments. Discrete measurements of NRM, ARM and IRM were made on ~1400 continuously sub-sampled 6 cm3 specimens. NRM and ARM were AF demagnetized in multiple steps to 100 mT. The majority of specimens from both lakes showed well defined characteristic remanence directions with MAD < 3°. There is a broad agreement in the pattern of inclination changes recorded in the two lakes; however, the records are offset in time. We discuss the factors causing this time shift, in particular the reliability of the 14C ages and the construction of the age-depth models. Relative paleointensity was determined by normalizing NRM to ARM or IRM with further calibration to global spherical harmonic geomagnetic field model CALS3k.3. Two approaches were taken to assess the fidelity of the relative paleointensity records: 1) a statistical assessment of NRM and ARM spectra, with assignment of uncertainties and data rejection using selection criteria that incorporate rock magnetic properties; and 2) incorporation of relative paleointensity into a CALS3k type model with iterative outlier rejection. Method (1) rejected substantially more data compared with method (2) and resulted in less variation with lower amplitudes; however, for some periods broad trends were maintained regardless of the method. For Lake Chamo a coupling of negative inclination and a lowering of intensity is observed at two times over the last 3 ka. This coupling may imply earlier occurrences of the presently observed South Atlantic Anomaly. This study has provided the first high resolution inclination and relative paleointensity records from equatorial Africa.

Brown, M. C.; Frank, U.; Foerster, V. E.; Gebru, T.; Nowaczyk, N.; Schaebitz, F.; Korte, M. C.

2012-12-01

66

Indigenous knowledge, use and on-farm management of enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) diversity in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman is a major food security crop in Southern Ethiopia, where it was originally domesticated and during millennia became pivotal crop around which an entire farming system has developed. Although its cultivation is highly localized, the enset-based farming system provides sustenance to more than 20 million people. Precise ethnobotanical information of intra-specific enset diversity and local knowledge on how communities maintain, manage and benefit from enset genetic resources is imperative for the promotion, conservation and improvement of this crop and its farming system. Methods This study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia among the Wolaita 'enset culture' community. The research sample consisted of 270 households from 12 Kebeles (villages) representing three agro-ecological ranges. By establishing Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) based interactions and applying ethnobotanical interviewing methods of free-listing and open-ended questionnaires, information on the use and management of enset diversity, and its associated folk-biosystematics, food traditions and material culture was collected and analyzed. Results While enset agriculture is seen as cultural heritage and identity for the Wolaita, enset intra-specific diversity holds scenic, prestige and symbolic values for the household. In the present study we recorded 67 enset landraces under cultivation, and through a comprehensive literature review we identified 28 landraces reported from other areas of Wolaita, but not encountered in our survey. Landraces, identified using 11 descriptors primarily related to agro-morphological traits, are named after perceived places of origin, agro-morphological characteristics and cooking quality attributes. Folk classification of enset is based on its domestication status, 'gender', agro-ecological adaptability and landrace suitability for different food and other uses (fiber, feed, medicinal). Enset as a food crop is used to prepare 10 different dishes in Wolaita, 8 of which are exclusively prepared using enset, and their consumption ranges from daily staple to specialty food in festive occasions and ceremonies. On-farm landrace diversity and richness is guided by household needs; its dynamics is managed through regular propagation, harvesting restrain, control of landrace composition and arrangement in the enset homegardens. Conclusions This study reported on the knowledge system, socio-cultural process and community practices that drive the maintenance of intra-specific on-farm enset diversity in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia. The information is crucial for developing community based complementary in situ and ex situ conservation strategies to foster conservation of enset genetic resources and associated indigenous knowledge system.

2014-01-01

67

Health Extension Workers Improve Tuberculosis Case Detection and Treatment Success in Southern Ethiopia: A Community Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Background One of the main strategies to control tuberculosis (TB) is to find and treat people with active disease. Unfortunately, the case detection rates remain low in many countries. Thus, we need interventions to find and treat sufficient number of patients to control TB. We investigated whether involving health extension workers (HEWs: trained community health workers) in TB control improved smear-positive case detection and treatment success rates in southern Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Finding We carried out a community-randomized trial in southern Ethiopia from September 2006 to April 2008. Fifty-one kebeles (with a total population of 296, 811) were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. We trained HEWs in the intervention kebeles on how to identify suspects, collect sputum, and provide directly observed treatment. The HEWs in the intervention kebeles advised people with productive cough of 2 weeks or more duration to attend the health posts. Two hundred and thirty smear-positive patients were identified from the intervention and 88 patients from the control kebeles. The mean case detection rate was higher in the intervention than in the control kebeles (122.2% vs 69.4%, p<0.001). In addition, more females patients were identified in the intervention kebeles (149.0 vs 91.6, p<0.001). The mean treatment success rate was higher in the intervention than in the control kebeles (89.3% vs 83.1%, p?=?0.012) and more for females patients (89.8% vs 81.3%, p?=?0.05). Conclusions/Significance The involvement of HEWs in sputum collection and treatment improved smear-positive case detection and treatment success rate, possibly because of an improved service access. This could be applied in settings with low health service coverage and a shortage of health workers. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803322

Datiko, Daniel G.; Lindtj?rn, Bernt

2009-01-01

68

Podoconiosis and Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STHs): Double Burden of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Wolaita Zone, Rural Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Both podoconiosis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections occur among barefoot people in areas of extreme poverty; however, their co-morbidity has not previously been investigated. We explored the overlap of STH infection and podoconiosis in Southern Ethiopia and quantified their separate and combined effects on prevalent anemia and hemoglobin levels in podoconiosis patients and health controls from the same area. Methods and Principal Findings A two-part comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita zone, southern Ethiopia. Data were collected from adult patients presenting with clinically confirmed podoconiosis, and unmatched adult neighborhood controls living in the same administrative area. Information on demographic and selected lifestyle factors was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and examined qualitatively using the modified formalin-ether sedimentation method. Hemoglobin level was determined using two different methods: hemoglobinometer and automated hematology analyzer. A total of 913 study subjects (677 podoconiosis patients and 236 controls) participated. The prevalence of any STH infection was 47.6% among patients and 33.1% among controls (p<0.001). The prevalence of both hookworm and Trichuris trichiura infections was significantly higher in podoconiosis patients than in controls (AOR 1.74, 95% CI 1.25 to2.42, AOR 6.53, 95% CI 2.34 to 18.22, respectively). Not wearing shoes and being a farmer remained significant independent predictors of infection with any STH. There was a significant interaction between STH infection and podoconiosis on reduction of hemoglobin level (interaction p value?=?0.002). Conclusions Prevalence of any STH and hookworm infection was higher among podoconiosis patients than among controls. A significant reduction in hemoglobin level was observed among podoconiosis patients co-infected with hookworm and ‘non-hookworm STH’. Promotion of consistent shoe-wearing practices may have double advantages in controlling both podoconiosis and hookworm infection in the study area.

Birhanu, Asaye; Desta, Kassu; Addisu, Sisay; Petros, Beyene; Davey, Gail; Tsegaye, Aster

2013-01-01

69

Descriptions of members of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) from southern Africa, Ethiopia and Tanzania.  

PubMed

This paper presents cytotaxonomic details of five populations of the Simulium damnosum complex from South Africa, Swaziland and Ethiopia. The 'Nkusi SW' and 'Pienaars' forms are newly designated members of the complex from South Africa, but the taxonomic rank of an isolate indistinguishable chromosomally from the 'Nkusi' cytoform remains unclear. From Ethiopia two cytoforms were identified, one of which shares two diagnostic chromosome inversions with the cytoform 'Kisiwani' from Tanzania. The second form belongs to S. kaffaense, and is the suspected local vector of Onchocerca volvulus. In addition, a re-analysis of the cytoform 'Kibwezi' from north-eastern Tanzania provided further insights into its population subdivision, and its genetic and morphological characteristics. Cytotaxonomic similarities between 'Kibwezi', S. mengense and S. pandanophilum, along with their biogeography, indicate a relict status of each of these taxa. PMID:15829137

Krüger, A; Car, M; Maegga, B T A

2005-04-01

70

Traditional medicinal uses and essential oil composition of leaves and rhizomes of korarima ( Aframomum corrorima (Braun) P.C.M. Jansen) from southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in Gamo Gofa, Debub Omo and Kaffa; which are the three major korarima (Aframomum corrorima (Braun) P.C.M. Jansen) growing regions of southern Ethiopia. Plant parts used as a medicine for different aliments were documented. Eighty-three percent of key informants replied that seeds were mostly used as traditional medicine followed by leaves (75%) and rhizomes (72%). The remedies

S. Eyob; M. Appelgren; J. Rohloff; A. Tsegaye; G. Messele

2008-01-01

71

Hydatidosis of sheep and goats slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir: prevalence and risk factors.  

PubMed

Abattoir survey was conducted on 1,053 sheep and 639 goats slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir, Ethiopia, between October 2007 and May 2008, with the objective to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis and assess the associated risk factors. Routine meat inspection procedure was employed to detect the presence of the cyst in visceral organs (lung, liver, and omentum). Hydatid cysts were found in 206 (19.94%) and 102 (16%) of the sheep and goats inspected, respectively. Statistically significant difference in infection rates was noted between the two species. Likewise, there was significant difference in infection rates between the two sexes and different age groups in both sheep and goats (P < 0.5). The study showed that hydatidosis is prevalent in Ethiopia. Thus, there is a need to introduce appropriate control measures to minimize the rate of infection and reduce the ensuing economic losses. PMID:19911295

Erbeto, Kebebe; Zewde, Girma; Kumsa, Bersissa

2010-06-01

72

Multilocus sequence analyses reveal several unnamed Mesorhizobium genospecies nodulating Acacia species and Sesbania sesban trees in Southern regions of Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Leguminous trees play an important role in agroforestry in Ethiopia, but studies of their rhizobial symbionts are scarce. In earlier studies, we surveyed natural nodulation of native leguminous trees growing in different agro-ecological zones in Southern Ethiopia, isolated 400 rhizobia, and characterized them based on different phenotypic and genotypic methods. In the present study we characterized 18 strains belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium, isolated from nodules of Acacia abyssinica, A. senegal, A. tortilis and Sesbania sesban. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene grouped the test strains into three distinct clades separated from all currently recognized Mesorhizobium species. Three divergent strains formed separate branches while the other 15 strains formed three distinct groups, genospecies I-III. Grouping of the isolates under study based on the house-keeping genes recA, gyrB, rpoB and gltA were consistent and in agreement with that of 16S rRNA. Similarly phylogenetic relationships based on the symbiosis-related genes nodC, nodA and nifH were generally similar to those shown by the core genes, suggesting that these Acacia and Sesbania symbionts have a long history of separate evolution within Mesorhizobium. Cross inoculation experiments demonstrated a large variation in the ability of the test strains to elicit effective nodules. The Sesbania isolates, occupying a distinct clade in the nodC phylogenetic tree, formed effective nodules only with this host legume. The study strongly suggests that this collection of Mesorhizobium strains comprises several new species, and also indicates the role of the symbiotic genes in determining the host range of these bacteria. PMID:21194867

Degefu, Tulu; Wolde-meskel, Endalkachew; Frostegård, Asa

2011-05-01

73

Re-evaluation of microscopy confirmed Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria by nested PCR detection in southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background With 75% of the Ethiopian population at risk of malaria, accurate diagnosis is crucial for malaria treatment in endemic areas where Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax co-exist. The present study evaluated the performance of regular microscopy in accurate identification of Plasmodium spp. in febrile patients visiting health facilities in southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design was employed to recruit study subjects who were microscopically positive for malaria parasites and attending health facilities in southern Ethiopia between August and December 2011. Of the 1,416 febrile patients attending primary health facilities, 314 febrile patients, whose slides were positive for P. falciparum, P. vivax or mixed infections using microscopy, were re-evaluated for their infection status by PCR. Finger-prick blood samples were used for parasite genomic DNA extraction. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to reconstruct the distribution of different Plasmodium spp. across the three geographical areas. Results Of the 314 patients with a positive thick blood smear, seven patients (2%) were negative for any of the Plasmodium spp. by nested PCR. Among 180 microscopically diagnosed P. falciparum cases, 111 (61.7%) were confirmed by PCR, 44 (24.4%) were confirmed as P. vivax, 18 (10%) had mixed infections with P. falciparum and P. vivax and two (1.1%) were mixed infections with P. falciparum and P. malariae and five (2.8%) were negative for any of the Plasmodium spp. Of 131 microscopically diagnosed P. vivax cases, 110 (84%) were confirmed as P. vivax, 14 (10.7%) were confirmed as P. falciparum, two (1.5%) were P. malariae, three (2.3%) with mixed infections with P. falciparum and P. vivax and two (1.5%) were negative for any of the Plasmodium spp. Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax mixed infections were observed. Plasmodium malariae was detected as mono and mixed infections in four individuals. Conclusion False positivity, under-reporting of mixed infections and a significant number of species mismatch needs attention and should be improved for appropriate diagnosis. The detection of substantial number of false positive results by molecular methodologies may provide the accurate incidence of circulating Plasmodium species in the geographical region and has important repercussions in understanding malaria epidemiology and subsequent control.

2014-01-01

74

Innovative Community-Based Approaches Doubled Tuberculosis Case Notification and Improve Treatment Outcome in Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background TB Control Programmes rely on passive case-finding to detect cases. TB notification remains low in Ethiopia despite major expansion of health services. Poor rural communities face many barriers to service access. Methods and Findings A community-based intervention package was implemented in Sidama zone, Ethiopia. The package included advocacy, training, engaging stakeholders and communities and active case-finding by female Health Extension Workers (HEWs) at village level. HEWs conducted house-to-house visits, identified individuals with a cough for two or more weeks, with or without other symptoms, collected sputum, prepared smears and supervised treatment. Supervisors transported smears for microscopy, started treatment, screened contacts and initiated Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for children. Outcomes were compared with the pre-implementation period and a control zone. Qualitative research was conducted to understand community and provider perceptions and experiences. HEWs screened 49,857 symptomatic individuals (60% women) from October 2010 to December 2011. 2,262 (4·5%) had smear-positive TB (53% women). Case notification increased from 64 to 127/100,000 population/year resulting in 5,090 PTB+ and 7,071 cases of all forms of TB. Of 8,005 contacts visited, 1,949 were symptomatic, 1,290 symptomatic were tested and 69 diagnosed with TB. 1,080 children received IPT. Treatment success for smear-positive TB increased from 77% to 93% and treatment default decreased from 11% to 3%. Service users and providers found the intervention package highly acceptable. Conclusions Community-based interventions made TB diagnostic and treatment services more accessible to the poor, women, elderly and children, doubling the notification rate and improving treatment outcome. This approach could improve TB diagnosis and treatment in other high burden settings.

Yassin, Mohammed A.; Datiko, Daniel G.; Tulloch, Olivia; Markos, Paulos; Aschalew, Melkamsew; Shargie, Estifanos B.; Dangisso, Mesay H.; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Sahu, Suvanand; Blok, Lucie; Cuevas, Luis E.; Theobald, Sally

2013-01-01

75

Cysticercosis of slaughtered cattle in northwestern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The occurrence of cysticercosis due to Taenia saginata in cattle slaughtered for meat in Amhara National Regional State, northwestern Ethiopia between September 2005 and February 2007 was investigated. Routine meat inspection of various organs of 4456 cattle in eight abattoirs of this region showed that 824 (18.49%) were infected with Cysticercus bovis. The occurrence rate did not vary significantly from abattoir to abattoir (P>0.5). The tongue, masseter muscles, heart muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. Of 4102 male cattle, examined, 768 (18.72%) had cysts of C. bovis while 56 (15.82%) of the 354 female animals investigated were infected. The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in occurrence was recorded between the sexes. Monthly occurrence of the cysts in the animals revealed a rise of infected animals during the dry season. PMID:18321540

Kebede, Nigatu

2008-12-01

76

Soil Fertility in Relation to Slope Position and Agricultural Land Use: A Case Study of Umbulo Catchment in Southern Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted in southern Ethiopia to evaluate the nutrient status on smallholder farms with respect to land use class (garden, grassland, and outfield) and slope position (upper, middle, and lower). Soil physical and chemical properties were quantified using soil samples collected at two depths (0 15 and 15 30 cm). Available phosphorous was significantly different among the three land use classes. However, organic carbon and total nitrogen were lower in the outfield compared to the garden and grass land but not significantly different. The lower than expected nutrient status of the garden and grassland, which receive almost all available organic supplements, was attributed to the overall low availability of these inputs. Similarly, pH and cation exchange capacity were not significantly different among the different land use classes. However, the sum of the exchangeable cations was significantly higher in the garden compared to the outfields. Comparison at landscape level revealed that the sand fraction was significantly greater, whereas the silt fractions were significantly smaller, on the lower slopes relative to the middle slopes. Moreover, the organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, Ca, and Mg values were significantly less on lower slopes than upper and middle slopes. Perhaps this is because of leaching and the effect of deposition of coarser sediments from the prevailing gully system. Overall, the fertility of the soil was adequate for supporting smallholder farming, but consideration must be given to reducing pressure on the land resources, addressing erosion problems, and providing a line of credit for purchasing inputs.

Moges, Awdenegest; Holden, Nicholas M.

2008-11-01

77

Sero-prevalence and risk factors study of brucellosis in small ruminants in Southern Zone of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

This study reports a prevalence and risk factor survey of brucellosis in small ruminants in Southern Zone of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia between October 2011 and April 2012 to determine the sero-prevalence of small-ruminant brucellosis and to identify associated risk factors for the occurrence of disease in small ruminants under extensive production system. Multistage random sampling was followed to select locations, flocks, and individual animals. Laboratory analysis of serum samples provided sero-prevalence estimates for flocks and geographic location. Information on risk factors at the individual and flock level was obtained by examination of individual animal and a questionnaire interview to flock owners. The overall individual animal-level sero-prevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants was 3.5 % and flock level sero-prevalence was 28.3 %, and the within-flock sero-prevalence was ranged from 0 % to 22.2 % based on the Complement Fixation Test. Multivariable logistic regression showed that the major risk factors for flock level sero-positivity were flock size and abortion history. This study showed that small-ruminant brucellosis is prevalent in the study area. Larger flock size and history of previous abortion in the flock were major risk factors identified for sero-positivity of small-ruminant brucellosis. PMID:23884704

Teklue, Teshale; Tolosa, Tadele; Tuli, Getachew; Beyene, Belay; Hailu, Birhanu

2013-11-01

78

Women's perception and risk factors for delayed initiation of breastfeeding in Arba Minch Zuria, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Breastfeeding is one of the components of Primary Health Care in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia a wide range of harmful infant feeding practices has been documented despite the implementation of infant and young child feeding guidelines. However, there is no well documented study of women’s perception of breastfeeding patterns and factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding (with timely initiation of breastfeeding being within the first hour) in rural communities of Arba Minch Zuria. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Arba Minch Zuria from January to February, 2012. Quantitative data were collected from a sample of 383 respondents supplemented by qualitative data generated using in-depth interviews of 10 key informants. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of delayed initiation of breastfeeding practices. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic frameworks. Results In the rural communities of Arba Minch Zuria almost all mothers (98.2%) have ever breastfed their children. More than three-fourth (89%) of mothers provided colostrum to their infants while others discarded the first milk until the white milk was produced. A large number of mothers (42.8%) started breastfeeding one hour after childbirth. Delayed initiation of breastfeeding was positively associated with lack of maternal education (AOR 1.91; 95% CI 1.02, 3.44). Maternal knowledge about the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95% CI 0.15, 0.93), attending a primary health education (AOR 0.74; 95% 0.15, 0.98) and health personnel support for women at delivery time (AOR 0.52; 95% CI 0.21, 0.58) were inversely associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding practices. Conclusions A large number of mothers (42.8%) were short of the national and global recommendations about breastfeeding initiation. Therefore, sustained health and community based nutritional education is recommended for pregnant and lactating mothers to promote optimal breastfeeding for the initiation of breastfeeding practices using health extension workers and local community resource people as key actors.

2014-01-01

79

Effectiveness of a Simple Lymphoedema Treatment Regimen in Podoconiosis Management in Southern Ethiopia: One Year Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Background Podoconiosis is a non-filarial elephantiasis caused by long-term barefoot exposure to volcanic soils in endemic areas. Irritant silicate particles penetrate the skin, causing a progressive, debilitating lymphoedema of the lower leg, often starting in the second decade of life. A simple patient-led treatment approach appropriate for resource poor settings has been developed, comprising (1) education on aetiology and prevention of podoconiosis, (2) foot hygiene (daily washing with soap, water and an antiseptic), (3) the regular use of emollient, (4) elevation of the limb at night, and (5) emphasis on the consistent use of shoes and socks. Methodology/Principal Findings We did a 12-month, non-comparative, longitudinal evaluation of 33 patients newly presenting to one clinic site of a non-government organization (the Mossy Foot Treatment & Prevention Association, MFTPA) in southern Ethiopia. Outcome measures used for the monitoring of disease progress were (1) the clinical staging system for podoconiosis, and (2) the Amharic Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), both of which have been recently validated for use in this setting. Digital photographs were also taken at each visit. Twenty-seven patients completed follow up. Characteristics of patients completing follow-up were not significantly different to those not. Mean clinical stage and lower leg circumference decreased significantly (mean difference -0.67 (95% CI ?0.38 to ?0.96) and ?2.00 (95% CI ?1.26 to ?2.74), respectively, p<0.001 for both changes). Mean DLQI diminished from 21 (out of a maximum of 30) to 6 (p<0.001). There was a non-significant change in proportion of patients with mossy lesions (p?=?0.375). Conclusions/Significance This simple, resource-appropriate regimen has a considerable impact both on clinical progression and self-reported quality of life of affected individuals. The regimen appears ideal for scaling up to other endemic regions in Ethiopia and internationally. We recommend that further research in the area include analysis of cost-effectiveness of the regimen.

Sikorski, Catherine; Ashine, Meskele; Zeleke, Zewdie; Davey, Gail

2010-01-01

80

Foot and mouth disease in the Borana pastoral system, southern Ethiopia and implications for livelihoods and international trade.  

PubMed

Participatory epidemiology (PE) was used on the Borana plateau of southern Ethiopia to understand pastoralist's perceptions of the clinical and epidemiological features of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in cattle. Matrix scoring showed good agreement between informant groups on the clinical signs of acute and chronic FMD, and findings were cross-checked by clinical examination of cattle and assessment of previous clinical FMD at herd level by detection of antibody to non structural proteins of FMD virus. The positive predictive value of pastoralist's diagnosis of FMD at herd level was 93.1%. The annual age-specific incidence and mortality of acute FMD in 50 herds was estimated using proportional piling. The estimated mean incidence of acute FMD varied from in 18.5% in cattle less than two years of age to 14.0% in cattle three to four years of age. The estimated mean mortality due to acute FMD varied from 2.8% in cattle less than two years of age to 0.3% in cattle three of age or older. Pearson correlation coefficients for acute FMD by age group were -0.12 (p>0.05) for incidence and -0.59 (p<0.001) for mortality. Estimates of the annual incidence of chronic FMD varied from 0.2% in cattle less than two years of age to 1.8% in cattle three to four years of age. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the incidence of chronic FMD by age group was 0.47 (p<0.001). Outbreaks of FMD peaked in Borana cattle during the two dry seasons and were attributed to increased cattle movement to dry season grazing areas. The mean seroprevalence of FMD was estimated at 21% (n=920) and 55.2% of herds (n=116) tested seropositive. Serotyping of 120 seropositive samples indicated serotypes O (99.2%), A (95.8%), SAT 2 (80%) and C (67.5%). The endemic nature of FMD in Borana pastoral herds is discussed in terms of the direct household-level impact of the disease, and the increasing export of cattle and chilled beef from Ethiopia. PMID:18551776

Rufael, T; Catley, A; Bogale, A; Sahle, M; Shiferaw, Y

2008-01-01

81

Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Pregnant Women in Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Birth preparedness and complication preparedness (BPACR) is a key component of globally accepted safe motherhood programs, which helps ensure women to reach professional delivery care when labor begins and to reduce delays that occur when mothers in labor experience obstetric complications. Objective This study was conducted to assess practice and factors associated with BPACR among pregnant women in Aleta Wondo district in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted in 2007, on a sample of 812 pregnant women. Data were collected using pre-tested and structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS for windows version 12.0.1. The women were asked whether they followed the desired five steps while pregnant: identified a trained birth attendant, identified a health facility, arranged for transport, identified blood donor and saved money for emergency. Taking at least two steps was considered being well-prepared. Results Among 743 pregnant women only a quarter (20.5%) of pregnant women identified skilled provider. Only 8.1% identified health facility for delivery and/or for obstetric emergencies. Preparedness for transportation was found to be very low (7.7%). Considerable (34.5%) number of families saved money for incurred costs of delivery and emergency if needed. Only few (2.3%) identified potential blood donor in case of emergency. Majority (87.9%) of the respondents reported that they intended to deliver at home, and only 60(8%) planned to deliver at health facilities. Overall only 17% of pregnant women were well prepared. The adjusted multivariate model showed that significant predictors for being well-prepared were maternal availing of antenatal services (OR?=?1.91 95% CI; 1.21–3.01) and being pregnant for the first time (OR?=?6.82, 95% CI; 1.27–36.55). Conclusion BPACR practice in the study area was found to be low. Effort to increase BPACR should focus on availing antenatal care services.

Hailu, Mesay; Gebremariam, Abebe; Alemseged, Fissehaye; Deribe, Kebede

2011-01-01

82

Risk factors for foot and mouth disease seroprevalence in indigenous cattle in Southern Ethiopia: the effect of production system.  

PubMed

A serological survey to investigate risk factors for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) occurrence was conducted between October 2007 and March 2008 in Southern Ethiopia. Antibodies against non-structural protein of FMD virus (using 3abc ELISA) were measured as indicator of exposure to the virus. The seroprevalence of FMD was 9.5% (95%CI = 7.7 - 11.3, n = 1020) and 48.1% (95% CI = 36.8 - 59.4%, n = 79), respectively at animal and herd levels. Within herd seropositivity was ranged from 6.7 to 46.7% with 18.6% (95%CI = 14.6 - 22.5%) risk of being seropositive for an animal in positive herds. The most important herd level risk factors identified were pastoral system (OR = 16.3, 95% CI = 2.0 -133.7) compared to sedentary, low altitude (OR = 7.5, 95% CI 1.4 -40.7) compared to high altitude, keeping cattle with small ruminants (OR = 5.1, 95% CI 1.0 -25.2) when compared to one species or alone. Seroprevalence was significantly higher (P <0.05) in South Omo than Sidama and Gamo Gofa areas. The odds of seropositivity were 2.8 and 2.3 times higher in the adult (>4 years) and maturing animals (3-4 years) compared to young age category (<3 years). Both multivariable logistic and negative binomial regressions depicted that production system was the major risk factor for FMD seropositivity. Consequently, higher prevalence of FMD in pastoral system where animals are an integral part of life has substantial livelihood and economic implications, which signifies the need for devising control measures. PMID:19052894

Megersa, B; Beyene, B; Abunna, F; Regassa, A; Amenu, K; Rufael, T

2009-08-01

83

Bovine Tuberculosis at the Wildlife-Livestock-Human Interface in Hamer Woreda, South Omo, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in cattle in the Ethiopian Highlands but no studies have been done so far in pastoralists in South Omo. This study assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) at an intensive interface of livestock, wildlife and pastoralists in Hamer Woreda (South Omo), Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey including a comparative intradermal skin testing (CIDT) was conducted in 499 zebu cattle and 186 goats in 12 settlements. Sputum samples from 26 symptomatic livestock owners were cultured for TB. Fifty-one wildlife samples from 13 different species were also collected in the same area and tested with serological (lateral flow assay) and bacteriological (culture of lymph nodes) techniques. Individual BTB prevalence in cattle was 0.8% (CI: 0.3%–2%) with the >4 mm cut-off and 3.4% (CI: 2.1%–5.4%) with the >2 mm cut-off. Herd prevalence was 33.3% and 83% when using the >4 and the >2 mm cut-off respectively. There was no correlation between age, sex, body condition and positive reactors upon univariate analysis. None of the goats were reactors for BTB. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) were detected in 50% of the wildlife cultures, 79.2% of which were identified as Mycobacterium terrae complex. No M. bovis was detected. Twenty-seven percent of tested wildlife were sero-positive. Four sputum cultures (15.4%) yielded AFB positive colonies among which one was M. tuberculosis and 3 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The prevalence of M. avium-complex (MAC) was 4.2% in wildlife, 2.5% in cattle and 0.5% in goats. In conclusion, individual BTB prevalence was low, but herd prevalence high in cattle and BTB was not detected in goats, wildlife and humans despite an intensive contact interface. On the contrary, NTMs were highly prevalent and some Mycobacterium spp were more prevalent in specific species. The role of NTMs in livestock and co-infection with BTB need further research.

Tschopp, Rea; Aseffa, Abraham; Schelling, Esther; Berg, Stefan; Hailu, Elena; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Habtamu, Meseret; Argaw, Kifle; Zinsstag, Jakob

2010-01-01

84

Cattle brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practice in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, and its zoonotic implication  

PubMed Central

Background Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease. Methods A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using the rose Bengal test as screening and complement fixation test as confirmatory tests. The Stata survey command was used to establish prevalences for the overall and individual variables, while potential risk factors for seropositivity were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The results showed that 3.5% (95% CI = 2.4, 4.5%) of the animals and 26.1% (95% CI = 18.6, 33.7) of the herds tested had antibodies against Brucella species. Village level seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 100%. A higher seroprevalence was observed in pastoral system than mixed farming although this variable was not significant in the final model. The final logistic regression model identified herd size; with large (odd ratio (OR) = 8.0, 95% CI = 1.9, 33.6) and medium herds (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.9, 34.2) showing higher risk of Brucella infection when compared to small herds. Similarly, the odds of Brucella infection was higher in cattle aged above 4 years when compared to age groups of 1-2 (OR = 5.4, 2.1, 12.9) and 3-4 years (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.0, 9.6). Herd level analysis of the risk factors revealed that large and medium herds as well as herds kept with multiple livestock species were at higher risk of acquiring Brucella infection. Brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practices certainly poses a zoonotic risk to the public, in consequence of raw milk consumption, close contact with animals and provision of assistance during parturition. Due to lack of diagnostic facilities and information on its occurrence, human brucellosis is most likely misdiagnosed for other febrile diseases prevailing in the areas and treated empirically. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that bovine brucellosis is widely prevalent in the study areas particularly in pastoral production system. Hence, the study suggests the need for implementing control measures and raising public awareness on prevention methods of brucellosis.

2011-01-01

85

Filling the temporal gap in Plio-Pleistocene sedimentological records from the southern Afar Depression, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural development of the Afar Depression controls sedimentary basin architecture and thus directly influences the spatial and temporal pattern of depositional environments. Over the past 5 Myr these processes, in addition to climate variations and volcanic eruptions, influenced the composition and variation of early human habitats and their record is preserved in the sediment record of synchronous rift basins. Here we present results from field investigations at Geraru located within the Ledi-Geraru field site, part of the greater Hadar sedimentary basin in the Afar region of Ethiopia. We aim to characterize local basin structure and expand and refine interpretations of the complex Plio-Pleistocene history of local and regional-scale landscape change during a time of critical importance for understanding hominin evolution. We mapped Geraru geology (1:7000), measured stratigraphic sections, and sampled 20 tephra deposits for absolute age dating (40Ar/39Ar) and for compositional studies and correlation using glass shard chemistry. We mapped over 16 km2 and identified lacustrine to fluvial sediments that are well-exposed along NW-SE to NE-SW trending faulted basalt hills that offset sediment blocks up to ~30 m. Although stratigraphic sections are not continuous, faulting relationships and marker beds suggest that at least 65m of strata are accessible. The lower ~40m of sediments are lacustrine deposits indicated by finely laminated silts and clays, two <2m thick diatomite layers, and gastropod shells. Conformably overlying them, we found ~25m of coarse fluvial sands and gravels that are locally cross-bedded and contain fossils of terrestrial fauna. Compositional results of glass shards from 4 tephra samples indicate that they not chemically similar to tephras from the Hadar (ca. 3.8-2.9 Ma) or Busidima (ca. 2.7-0.16 Ma) Formations. One tephra sample collected from the central portion of the stratigraphic section yielded a plateau age of 2.814 ± 0.017 Ma (more dates are being processed). Based on our preliminary stratigraphic interpretation and mapping, and review of notes from early workers in the region, Geraru strata likely represent depositional environments ca. 2.9-2.7 Ma. Other observations that support deposition at Geraru at that time include glass chemistry correlation and sedimentation patterns. Elsewhere in the Awash region, sediments spanning ca. 2.9-2.7 Ma are scarcely documented due to a period of non-deposition and erosion. Therefore, we are re-assessing structural models of basin geometry that indicate basin-wide reorganization near 2.9 Ma because models infer that the paleolandscape was erosional at that time (evidenced by an unconformity surface) rather than depositional (as suggested by strata at Geraru) - implying that Geraru may have been in a separate basin. Our work demonstrates that the sedimentary sequences at Geraru provide access to an important depositional record with good geochronological controls. It corresponds to important changes in regional tectonics and local basin configuration, climate patterns, and diversification and adaptive shifts in hominins.

Dimaggio, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Reed, K.; Campisano, C. J.

2009-12-01

86

Morpho-tectonic Evolution of the Western Afar Margin (southern Red Sea, Ethiopia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The western Afar margin represents the southern end of the Red Sea rift system. It developed in the heart of the Afar plume related volcanic province which lies at the famous triple junction connecting the East African, the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea rifted systems. This margin is presently separating the Afar depression from the Ethiopian Highlands and is topographically expressed by an impressive altitudinal gradient (more than 3000 m in less than 50 km). This topographical passive margin has been developed during Miocene times from the top of an uplifted dome, which has been related principally to the Afar plume impingement and the associated extrusion and differentiation of Ethiopian Continental Flood Basalts 30 Ma ago (Pik et al. 2003). This margin is also typically separating the edge of a thick continental block (below the Oligocene CFB) from an extremely thinned domain (the Afar depression) which most probably represents one of the rare worldwide rifting step corresponding to the Ocean Continent Transition zone at the rift to drift transition. Mechanisms invocated to explain this geodynamical phenomenon of extreme lithospheric thinning, predating continental break-up and sea floor spreading, are up to know controversial and do not really satisfy geological and geophysical observations along old passive margins bounding well developed oceanic domains. In this context, the on-shore western Afar margin is an ideal case study to try to precise geodynamic and structural thinning processes because time lapse since the initiation of rifting is so reduce (less than 30 Ma) that outcropping morphological expression of implicated geological events has been preserved and can be easily documented and investigated with traditional approaches. A particular geological characteristic of this southern part of the Red Sea margin resides in the well developed marginal basins, morphologically expressed (but at various altitude) all along the topographical gradient from the Eritrean margin to the heart of the volcanic province at the transition with the East African Rift branch. Such morphological steps have been variously described and interpreted in the past. In this study we will present a new geomorphological view and interpretation of these marginal basins development, as well as the potential structural and geodynamic implications of this new interpretation in the margin development and thinning.

Pik, R.; Lave, J.; Foeken, J.; Carignan, J.; Ayalew, D.; Yirgu, G.

2009-12-01

87

Cattle-rangeland management practices and perceptions of pastoralists towards rangeland degradation in the Borana zone of southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A survey was conducted in the Borana pastoral areas of southern Ethiopia to assess current livestock production systems, rangeland management practices and the perceptions of the pastoralists towards rangeland degradation. This information is considered vital to future pastoral development planning and interventions. Data were collected from a total of 20 villages that were identified from 5 peasant associations, namely Did Yabello, Moyatte, Did Harra, Dubuluk and Melbana. The average household size in the study area was 7.23. The majority of the pastoralists relied on both livestock and crop farming. The average livestock holding per household was 14 cattle, 10 goats, 6 sheep and 2 camels. Livestock holdings, with the exception of camels, has shown a declining trend over time. The two most important traditional rangeland management strategies adopted by the pastoralists included burning and mobility, but since 1974/75 burning has no longer been practised. With regard to mobility, the livestock herding falls in two categories, namely: home based and satellite herding. The former involves the herding of milking cows, calves and immature animals (<2 years) close to the encampments. The latter constitutes the herding of bulls and immatures (>2 years) further away from the encampments. Based on the pastoralists' perceptions, the major constraints on livestock production in descending order, were recurrent drought, feed and water scarcity, animal diseases, predators and communal land ownership. All the respondents considered the condition of the rangelands to have declined dramatically over time. In the past most development policies were based on equilibrium theories that opposed the communal use of the rangelands and traditional range management practices. The way in which the pastoral system affects the rangeland ecosystem functioning is contentious to this theory and the 'tragedy of the commons'. There was also a perceived problem of bush encroachment and the ban on traditional burning practices and recurrent droughts were seen as aggravating factors to this invasion process. The increasing practice of crop cultivation on the rangelands was identified as a serious threat to future livestock production and traditional resource management practices. Suggestions for possible interventions to improve the productivity and sustainable use of these rangelands are made. PMID:16616986

Solomon, T B; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N

2007-03-01

88

Schools Serving as Centres for Dissemination of Alternative Energy Know-How and Technologies: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The school curricula are widely believed to be the best vehicle for generating public awareness of and action related to areas of energy concern. In an attempt to build the capacity of schools to address key environmental issues in Ethiopia, a pilot project had been designed in 2004. The principal aim of the project was to bring about positive…

Dalelo, Aklilu

2008-01-01

89

Efficacy and side effects of praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosomiasis mansoni in schoolchildren in Shesha Kekele Elementary School, Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of praziquantel (PZQ) in the treatment of schistosomiasis in Ethiopia. Methods In a cross-sectional study, stool specimens were collected from randomly selected 299 school children in Shesha Kekele Elementary School, Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia, in April 2010. Stool specimens were examined using a single Kato-Katz thick smear for Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) ova. Children who were found positive for S. mansoni were treated with a single oral dose of PZQ at 40 mg/kg bw and interviewed for treatment-related symptoms 24 hours after drug administration. Four weeks post-treatment, stool specimens were collected from the same children and examined following the same procedure as in the pre-treatment. Drug efficacy was determined based on cure and egg reduction rates. Results Pre-treatment prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 74.9% with geometric mean egg count of 268. The evaluated generic PZQ produced an overall cure rate of 73.6% (P<0.000 1, OR: 8.33, CI: 5.3–13.1) and egg reduction rate of 68.2% (P=0.03, F=0.64). The cure rate showed significant association with age (?2=11, P=0.004), the highest rate being observed in the 15–22 age group. 83% of S. mansoni infected children showed various treatment-related symptoms, the most frequent being headache, nausea, and abdominal pain. These symptoms were associated with age (P<0.001) and pre-treatment intensity of infection (P<0.05). Conclusions The present observations revealed relatively lower cure and egg reduction rates of the PZQ evaluated as compared to previous reports for other PZQ brands in Ethiopia. Hence, in depth studies are recommended to clarify whether the present relatively lower cure rate is the actual cure rate of the praziquantel evaluated, treatment failure, or reduced susceptibility of the parasite. Treatment-related side effects observed were transient and tolerable.

Erko, Berhanu; Degarege, Abraham; Tadesse, Konjit; Mathiwos, Asnake; Legesse, Mengistu

2012-01-01

90

Expanded program of immunization coverage and associated factors among children age 12 - 23 months in Arba Minch town and Zuria District, Southern Ethiopia, 2013  

PubMed Central

Background Immunization averts an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths every year globally. In Ethiopia only quarter of children are fully immunized; the rest are remained at risk for vaccine-preventable mortality. To increase the immunization, its coverage and predictors has to be identified. This study has measured immunization coverage and identified the predictors. Methods Cross-sectional community based study has been conducted within 630 age 12–23 months children in 15 districts of Arba Minch town and Arba Minch Zuria district, Southern Ethiopia in March 2013. Census was done to identify eligible children. The 2005 world health organization expanded program of immunization cluster sampling method has been used. Data were collected using semi-structured pretested Amharic version questionnaire by interviewing index children’s mothers/caretakers, copying from vaccine card and observing BCG vaccine scar. Data were processed using SPSS version 16. Associations between dependent and independent variables has been assessed and presented using three consecutive logistic regression models. Result Nearly three fourth (73.2%) of children in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch Zuria district were fully immunized. The rest 20.3% were partially immunized and 6.5% received no vaccine. Mother education, mothers’ perception to accessibility of vaccines, mothers’ knowledge to vaccine schedule of their site, place of delivery and living altitude were independent predictors of children immunization status. Conclusion Expanded program of immunization (EPI) coverage at Arba Minch town and Arba Minch Zuria district is better than the national immunization coverage but still below the goal. Educating mother, promoting institution delivery could help to maintain and enhance current immunization coverage. More emphasis should be given to the highland areas of the area.

2014-01-01

91

Determinants of inter birth interval among married women living in rural pastoral communities of southern Ethiopia: a case control study  

PubMed Central

Background Though birth interval has beneficial effects on health status of the mother and their children, it is affected by range of factors some of which are rooted in social and cultural norms and the reproductive behaviors of individual women. However, there was limited data showed the determinants of birth intervals in rural pastoral communities of South Ethiopia. Therefore, the study was aimed to assess the determinants of inter birth interval among women’s of child bearing age in Yaballo Woreda, Borena zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods A community based unmatched case–control study with multi stage sampling technique was conducted from January to March 2012. Cases were women with two subsequent birth intervals of less than three years and controls were women with two subsequent birth intervals between three and above years. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select six hundred fifty two (326 cases and 326 controls) study subjects. All explanatory variables that were associated with the outcome variable (birth interval) during bivariate analysis were included in the final logistic model. Multivariable backward logistic regression when P values less than or equal to 0.05 and 95% CI were used to determine independent determinants for the outcome of interest. Results The median duration of birth interval was 31 & 40 months among cases and controls respectively. Variables such as number of children (AOR 3.73 95% CI: (1.50, 9.25), use of modern contraceptives (AOR 5.91 95% CI: (4.02, 8.69), mothers’ educational status (AOR 1.89 95% CI: (1.15, 3.37), and sex of the child (AOR 1.72 95% CI: (1.17, 2.52) were significantly associated with birth intervals. Conclusions Concerted efforts to encourage modern contraceptive use, women education, and breastfeeding should be made.

2013-01-01

92

Cryptosporidium and Strongyloides stercoralis infections among people with and without HIV infection and efficiency of diagnostic methods for Strongyloides in Yirgalem Hospital, southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Cryptosporidiosis and strongyloidiasis have been reported to be associated with HIV/AIDS. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Strongyloides stercoralis infections among people with and without HIV infection and also assess the efficient methods for detection of Strongyloides. Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in Yirgalem Hospital, southern Ethiopia from March, 2007 to October, 2007. Demographic data and stool samples were collected from 384 individuals (192 from each HIV serogroup). Samples were processed using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique for detection of Cryptosporidium species. Stool samples were also processed using the direct saline mount, the formol-ether and the water-emergence techniques for diagnosis of S. stercoralis. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and S. stercoralis among HIV infected individuals was 25% and 12.0%, respectively. HIV positive individuals had significantly higher rate of infection with Cryptosporidium (OR = 15.7; 95% CI 5.5 to 44.5) and S. stercoralis (OR = 6.4; 95% CI 2.2 to 18.9). Among the three diagnostic methods, the larvae of S. stercoralis were more efficiently detected by the water-emergence technique. Conclusions In this study, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and S. stercoralis infections was significantly higher among people with HIV/AIDS. Educating HIV infected individuals to prevent acquisition of Cryptosporidium infection and screening for S. stercoralis using the water-emergence technique is likely to be helpful.

2010-01-01

93

Newly discovered Bale monkey populations in forest fragments in southern Ethiopia: evidence of crop raiding, hybridization with grivets, and other conservation threats.  

PubMed

Until recently, the Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis), an arboreal primate endemic to the southern Ethiopian highlands, remained virtually unstudied, and its distribution pattern inadequately documented. To broaden our knowledge of the species' distribution and abundance, we carried out interviews with local people and total count surveys for Bale monkeys across 67 fragmented forest sites in human-dominated landscapes in the Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Regions, Ethiopia. From January 2010 to May 2011, we discovered 26 new Bale monkey populations inhabiting forest fragments at elevations ranging from 2,355 to 3,204 m asl. Across these populations, we recorded 37 groups ranging in size from 9 to 29 individuals (Mean = 19.5, SD = 4.5), for a total of 722 individuals. Black-and-white colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) were sympatric with Bale monkeys at all sites, while grivet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) were found only at sites where Bale monkeys did not occur. All of the newly discovered Bale monkey sites once contained bamboo forest, though at 35% of the sites bamboo forest had been eliminated during the past two decades. The persistence of Bale monkeys at fragmented sites lacking bamboo suggests greater habitat flexibility for the species than previously thought, though the long-term viability of populations both with and without bamboo remains uncertain. Human hunting in response to crop raiding, a behavior the monkeys engaged in at all sites, represents a major threat facing the newly discovered Bale monkey populations. Furthermore, despite their current lack of sympatry, apparently hybrid individuals between Bale monkeys and grivets were noted at three sites, posing yet another potential obstacle to Bale monkey conservation. Community conservation programs aimed at (1) protecting remaining habitat fragments, (2) planting bamboo and trees within and between fragments, and (3) reducing crop raiding represent the only hope for survival of the newly discovered Bale monkey populations. PMID:22311711

Mekonnen, Addisu; Bekele, Afework; Fashing, Peter J; Lernould, Jean-Marc; Atickem, Anagaw; Stenseth, Nils Chr

2012-05-01

94

Impact assessment of a community-based animal health project in Dollo Ado and Dollo Bay districts, southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Participatory methods were used to assess the impact of a community-based animal health worker (CAHW) project in two remote pastoralist districts of Ethiopia. The CAHW project had been operating for 3 years at the time of the assessment. Participatory methods were standardized and repeated with 10 groups of informants in the project area. The assessment showed significant reductions in disease impact for diseases handled by CAHWs compared with diseases not handled by CAHWs. In camels, there was significant reduction (p < 0.001) in the impact of mange, trypanosomosis, helminthosis, anthrax and non-specific respiratory disease. In cattle there was a signficant reduction (p < 0.001) in the impact of blackleg, anthrax and helminthosis. In sheep and goats there was a sign reduction (p < 0.001) in the impact of mange, helminthosis, contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, orf and non-specific diarrhoea. In order of importance, these reductions in disease impact were attributed to (1) increased use of modern veterinary services provided by CAHWs, (2) vaccination campaigns involving CAHWs, (3) good rainfall and availability of grazing and (4) decreased herd mobility. Decreased herd mobility was also associated with negative impact of tick infestation. Community-based animal health workers were considered to be highly accessible, available, affordable and trustworthy relative to other service providers. They were also perceived to be suppliers of a good quality service. Specific types of positive impact attributed to CAHW activities were increases in milk, meat, income and draught power. PMID:15729896

Admassu, B; Nega, S; Haile, T; Abera, B; Hussein, A; Catley, A

2005-01-01

95

Chronostratigraphy and correlation of the Plio-Pleistocene tephra layers of the Konso Formation, southern Main Ethiopian Rift, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plio-Pleistocene Konso Formation is widely exposed in the Konso area located at the southwestern end of the southern sector of the Main Ethiopian Rift. It is known for its rich Acheulean archeological occurrences and abundant vertebrate fossils, including those of A. boisei and H. erectus. The formation also contains more than 30 tephra layers. The lithologic characterization and major

Shigehiro Katoh; Shinji Nagaoka; Giday WoldeGabriel; Paul Renne; Majorie G. Snow; Yonas Beyene; Gen Suwa

2000-01-01

96

The association between multiple intestinal helminth infections and blood group, anaemia and nutritional status in human populations from Dore Bafeno, southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

In this cross-sectional study, the associations between helminth infections and ABO blood group, anaemia and undernutrition were investigated in 480 febrile outpatients who visited Dore Bafeno Health Centre, southern Ethiopia, in December 2010. Stool specimens were processed using the Kato-Katz method and examined for intestinal helminth infections. Haemoglobin level was measured using a HemoCue machine and blood group was determined using an antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using height and weight measurements. Among the study participants, 50.2% were infected with intestinal helminths. Ascaris lumbricoides (32.7%), Trichuris trichiura (12.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (11.9%) and hookworm (11.0%) were the most frequently diagnosed helminths. The odds of infection and mean eggs per gram of different intestinal helminth species were comparable between the various blood groups. Among individuals who were infected with intestinal helminth(s), the mean haemoglobin level was significantly lower in individuals harbouring three or more helminth species and blood type AB compared to cases with double or single helminth infection and blood type O, respectively. The odds of being underweight was significantly higher in A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infected individuals of age ? 5 and ? 20 years, respectively, when compared to individuals of the matching age group without intestinal helminths. In conclusion, infection with multiple intestinal helminths was associated with lower haemoglobin level, which was more severe in individuals with blood type AB. Future studies should focus on mechanisms by which blood group AB exacerbates the helminth-related reduction in mean haemoglobin level. PMID:23286203

Degarege, A; Animut, A; Medhin, G; Legesse, M; Erko, B

2014-06-01

97

Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene geologic history of Eastern Ledi-Geraru, Ethiopia: implications for the evolution of the southern Afar Depression and hominin paleoenvironments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene (~ 3-2.5 Ma), the Afar region of Ethiopia was undergoing major structural reorganization (e.g., change in extension direction, increased spreading rate) leading to significant landscape modification. Concurrent with these changes in paleogeography, regional trends towards a cooler and drier climate coincide with a clustering of first appearance and extinction events in the faunal record, including the diversification of the early hominin genus Australopithecus and the emergence of our own genus, Homo. However, sediments that span the 3 to 2.5 Ma interval are sparse in eastern Africa, and are especially rare at paleoanthropological sites in the Afar. Here we present new geologic mapping results that indicate extensive deposits of late Pliocene sediments in a previously unmapped region of the lower Awash Valley referred to as the Eastern Ledi-Geraru (ELG). Numerous interbedded airfall tephras enable geochemical comparisons to the existing regional tephrostratigraphic framework as well as high precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of tephras with suitable feldspars. Feldspars from 8 such tephra deposits span the time period of 3.0 to 2.8 Ma, providing the first glimpse of depositional environments and associated landscapes that existed at that time. Geologic mapping and stratigraphic analysis shows that over a 100 meter thick section of lacustrine to fluvial sediments are exposed along faulted basalt flows following both the Red Sea Rift and Main Ethiopian Rift structural trends. We interpret the geology at ELG to reflect a northeastern migration of paleo Lake Hadar, possibly into a series of smaller basins responding to the migration of the triple junction, a thinning lithosphere, and an increased period of volcanism. Combined with recently collected paleontological assemblages this work provides an opportunity to test proposed links between biotic events, global/regional climate change, and local tectonic events during a critical interval of evolutionary and structural change in southern Afar.

DiMaggio, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Campisano, C. J.; Reed, K.; Deino, A.

2012-12-01

98

Perceived causes of severe mental disturbance and preferred interventions by the Borana semi-nomadic population in southern Ethiopia: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Culture affects the way people conceptualize causes of severe mental disturbance which may lead to a variation in the preferred intervention methods. There is a seemingly dichotomous belief regarding what causes severe mental disturbance: people living in western countries tend to focus mainly on biological and psychosocial risk factors; whereas, in non-western countries the focus is mainly on supernatural and religious factors. These belief systems about causation potentially dictate the type of intervention preferred. Studying such belief systems in any society is expected to help in planning and implementation of appropriate mental health services. Methods A qualitative study was conducted among the Borana semi-nomadic population in southern Ethiopia to explore perceived causes of severe mental disturbance and preferred interventions. We selected, using purposive sampling, key informants from three villages and conducted a total of six focus group discussions: three for males and three for females. Results The views expressed regarding the causes of mental disturbance were heterogeneous encompassing supernatural causes such as possession by evil spirits, curse, bewitchment, ‘exposure to wind’ and subsequent attack by evil spirit in postnatal women and biopsychosocial causes such as infections (malaria), loss, ‘thinking too much’, and alcohol and khat abuse. The preferred interventions for severe mental disturbance included mainly indigenous approaches, such as consulting Borana wise men or indigenous healers, prayer, holy water treatment and seeking modern mental health care as a last resort. Conclusions These findings will be of value for health care planners who wish to expand modern mental health care to this population, indicating the need to increase awareness about the causes of severe mental disturbance and their interventions and collaborate with influential people and indigenous healers to increase acceptability of modern mental health care. It also provides information for further research in the area of mental health in this semi-nomadic population.

2012-01-01

99

Metasomatized lithospheric mantle beneath Turkana depression in southern Ethiopia (the East Africa Rift): geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mantle xenoliths entrained in Quaternary alkaline basalts from the Turkana Depression in southern Ethiopia (the East Africa Rift) were studied for their geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions to constrain the evolution of the lithosphere. The investigated mantle xenoliths are spinel lherzolites in composition with a protogranular texture. They can be classified into two types: anhydrous and hydrous spinel lherzolites; the latter group characterized by the occurrences of pargasite and phlogopite. The compositions of whole-rock basaltic component (CaO = 3.8-5.6 wt%, Al2O3 = 2.5-4.1 wt%, and MgO = 34.7-38.1 wt%), spinel (Cr# = 0.062-0.117, Al2O3 = 59.0-64.4 wt%) and clinopyroxene (Mg# = 88.4-91.7, Al2O3 = 5.2-6.7 wt%) indicate that the lherzolites are fertile and have not experienced significant partial melting. Both types are characterized by depleted 87Sr/86Sr (0.70180-0.70295) and high 143Nd/144Nd (0.51299-0.51348) with wide ranges of 206Pb/204Pb (17.86-19.68) isotopic compositions. The variations of geochemical and isotopic compositions can be explained by silicate metasomatism induced by different degree of magma infiltrations from ascending mantle plume. The thermobarometric estimations suggest that the spinel lherzolites were derived from depths of 50-70 km (15.6-22.2 kb) and entrained in the alkaline magma at 847-1,052°C. Most of the spinel lherzolites from this study record an elevated geotherm (60-90 mW/m2) that is related to the presence of rising mantle plume in an active tectonic setting. Sm-Nd isotopic systematic gives a mean TDM model age of 0.95 Ga, interpreted as the minimum depletion age of the subcontinental lithosphere beneath the region.

Meshesha, Daniel; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Matsumura, Risa; Chekol, Takele

2011-11-01

100

Rangeland dynamics of southern Ethiopia: (2). Assessment of woody vegetation structure in relation to land use and distance from water in semi-arid Borana rangelands.  

PubMed

The structure and advancement of woody vegetation was studied in a semi-arid rangeland of southern Ethiopia under three land-use systems (communal land, a government ranch and a traditional grazing reserve enclosure) and along a distance gradient (near, middle and far) from water sources. A total of 54 woody plant species were identified. Based on the subjective opinions of the pastoralists, 85% of the identified woody plants have forage values to livestock. Cadaba farinsoa, Ormocarpum trichocarpum, Rhus natalensis, Acacia brevispica, Cordia gharaf and Hibiscus sparseaculeatus were reported to have fair to good palatability. Tree equivalent (TE) density of all woody plants combined was greater (P <0.01) in the government ranch (1) 188 TE ha(-1)) and the communal land (1083 TE ha(-1)) than in the traditional grazing reserve (419 TE ha(-1)), whereas this did not vary significantly (P >0.05) along the distance gradient from water. The most important encroaching woody plant species in the study areas were in descending order: Commiphora africana, Acacia drepanolobium, A. brevispica, Acacia. tortilis, Grewia tembensis and Lannea floccosa. The density of individual encroaching woody plant species along the distance gradient from water was not consistent. All encroaching woody species had the highest TE density in the communal land. The prevalence of these species followed the pattern of intensity of use within the communal grazing area. Most of the woody species had the highest abundance in the height class >0-2m regardless of land use and distance gradient from water. This study investigated the advance of severe woody encroachment in the communal and government sites as well as along the distance gradient from water. Some of the important contributing factors that can be suggested are heavy grazing pressure (in both the communal and government sites), expansion of cultivation and reduced mobility of livestock due to settlement of the pastoralists in the communal land. PMID:17141403

Tefera, Solomon; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N

2007-10-01

101

Malaria and helminth co-infections in outpatients of Alaba Kulito Health Center, southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Distribution of malaria and intestinal helminths is known to overlap in developing tropical countries of the world. Co-infections with helminth and malaria parasites cause a significant and additive problem against the host. The aim of this study was to asses the prevalence of malaria\\/helminth co-infection and the associated problems among febrile outpatients that attended Alaba Kulito Health Center, southern

Abraham Degarege; Abebe Animut; Mengistu Legesse; Berhanu Erko

2010-01-01

102

Plume dynamics beneath the African plate inferred from the geochemistry of the Tertiary basalts of southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Ethiopian flood basalts erupted in two episodes: the pre-rift Amaro and Gamo transitional tholeiites (45-35 million years) followed by the syn-extensional Getra-Kele alkali basalts (19-11 million years). These two volcanic episodes are distinct in both trace element and isotope ratios (Zr\\/Nb ratios in Amaro\\/Gamo lavas fall between 7 and 14, and 3-4.7 in the Getra-Kele lavas whereas 206Pb\\/204Pb ratios

R. M. George; N. W. Rogers

2002-01-01

103

Recent drought and precipitation tendencies in Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2011, drought in the Horn of Africa again made news headlines. This study aims to quantify the meteorological component of this and other drought episodes in Ethiopia since 1971. A monthly precipitation data set for 14 homogeneous rainfall zones was constructed based on 174 gauges, and the standardized precipitation index was calculated on seasonal, annual, and biannual time scales. The results point to 2009 as a year of exceptionally widespread drought. All zones experienced drought at the annual scale, although in most zones, previous droughts were more extreme. Nationally, 2009 was the second driest year, surpassed only by the historic year 1984. Linear regression analysis indicates a precipitation decline in southern Ethiopia, during both February-May and June-September. In central and northern Ethiopia, the analysis did not provide evidence of similar tendencies. However, spring droughts have occurred more frequently in all parts of Ethiopia during the last 10-15 years.

Viste, Ellen; Korecha, Diriba; Sorteberg, Asgeir

2013-05-01

104

Total Delay in Treatment among Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Five Primary Health Centers, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The global burden of Tuberculosis (TB) remains enormous. Delay in TB diagnosis may lead to a higher infectious pool in the community and a more advanced disease state at presentation increasing the risk of mortality. This study is conducted to determine the total delay before treatment among smear positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) patients. Methods A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted in five primary health centers in southern Ethiopia from June to December 2012. A total of 328 smear positive PTB patients were enrolled in the study. A structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used. Median patient, diagnostic, and treatment delays were calculated to determine the total delay. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with total delay. Results The median patient, diagnostic, treatment and total delays measured in days were 30 (IQR 20.2, 60), 7 (IQR: 3, 14), 3 (IQR: 1, 4) and 45 (IQR: 34.5, 69.5) days respectively. Patients for whom treatment was not initiated within 45 days of onset of symptom(s) (total delay) constituted 49% of the study participants (59.5% among males and 39.2% among females; P<0.001). Total delay was found to be associated with: being female [AOR ?=?0.34, 95% CI: 0.18–0.62], having attended tertiary level education [AOR ?=?0.11, 95% CI: 0.02–0.55], perceived severity of stigma during the current TB disease course [AOR?=?2. 18, 95% CI: 1.07, 4.42] and living in houses with higher family size [AOR?=?0.26, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.61]. Conclusion Total delay in treatment of TB is still high in the study area. Patient's sex, perceived stigma, educational status and family size are significantly contributing for total delay. Therefore, a concerted effort should be taken in order to improve health seeking behavior of the community on TB and to reduce delays from seeking care after experiencing TB symptoms.

Asefa, Anteneh; Teshome, Wondu

2014-01-01

105

Chronostratigraphy and correlation of the Plio-Pleistocene tephra layers of the Konso Formation, southern Main Ethiopian Rift, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plio-Pleistocene Konso Formation is widely exposed in the Konso area located at the southwestern end of the southern sector of the Main Ethiopian Rift. It is known for its rich Acheulean archeological occurrences and abundant vertebrate fossils, including those of A. boisei and H. erectus. The formation also contains more than 30 tephra layers. The lithologic characterization and major element compositions of discrete glass shards of these tephra, combined with single-crystal 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of seven tuffs, have established the tephrostratigraphy and age range of the 200-m thick formation. The succession at Konso was deposited between approximately 1.9 and 1.4 Ma and is divided into the Sorobo, Turoha, Kayle, and Karat Members in ascending stratigraphic order. Two of the Konso tephra are correlative to the Pliocene KBS and the early Pleistocene Chari Tuffs of the Omo-Turkana Basin along the Ethiopian and Kenyan border. This correlation enables precise time-controlled comparisons of faunal and archeological remains between the two regions.

Katoh, Shigehiro; Nagaoka, Shinji; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Renne, Paul; Snow, Majorie G.; Beyene, Yonas; Suwa, Gen

2000-09-01

106

The Chew Bahir Project, southern Ethiopia: Reconstructing East African palaeoenvironments in the source region of modern man  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chew Bahir is a tectonically bounded basin in the southern part of the Main Ethiopian Rift and in close proximity to the Omo valley, which contains some of the oldest known early modern human sites. As East African palaeoenvironments are highly variable and marked by extreme fluctuations in moisture availability, this in turn bears far reaching implications for the life, evolution and most notably for the expansion of Homo sapiens beyond the limits of the African continent. This study is a prerequisite for the ICDP- Hominin Sites And Paleolakes Drilling Project and part of the CRC-806 "Our way to Europe". The Chew Bahir Project will provide fundamental data to reconstruct late Quaternary East African environments including the timing, amplitude, synchronicity and abruptness of dry-wet-dry cycles and focuses on the interaction between those rapid climate shifts and their influence on the biosphere. This poster presents results from six cores (9-18m depth) from a NW-SE transect across the Chew Bahir basin that have recorded the climatic history of the past 45 ka and therewith can potentially elucidate those highly variable East African palaeoenvironments with emphasis on the last of the wet periods, the African Humid Period (AHP). Based on a series of multi-proxy analyses, comprising geochemical, physical and biological indicators as well as AMS 14C dates, it becomes obvious that the Chew Bahir responds decidedly sensitive towards even minor climatic fluctuations on millennial to even centennial timescales. Therefore, the Chew Bahir represents a unique site to reveal the impact of timing and mechanisms of local, regional and global climate events on the key region for humankind.

Foerster, V. E.; Chew Bahir Science Team

2011-12-01

107

A retrospective survey of liver fluke disease in livestock based on abattoir data in Shiraz, south of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat-inspection records in an abattoir located in the Fars province (southern part of Iran) from 20 March 1999 to 19 March 2004 were used to determine the prevalence and long-term trend of liver fluke disease in sheep, cattle and goats in the region. A total of 844,039 animals (cattle 131,716; sheep 577,090; goats 135,233) slaughtered in the 5-year period and

Maryam Ansari-Lari; Mohammad Moazzeni

2006-01-01

108

Earliest magmatism in Ethiopia: Evidence for two mantle plumes in one flood basalt province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tertiary magmatism in Ethiopia has been linked to the thermal influence of the Afar mantle plume. However, new laser 40Ar\\/39Ar ages for the volcanic succession in southern Ethiopia confirm the presence of two distinct magmatic phases at 45 35 Ma and 19 12 Ma. The earliest phase predates both extension and magmatism in northern Ethiopia by 15 m.y. and cannot

Rhiannon George; Nick Rogers; Simon Kelley

1998-01-01

109

Which nets are being used: factors associated with mosquito net use in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regions of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There has been recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia where transmission is unstable. While household\\u000a ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) has increased greatly, there are concerns about inadequate net use. This\\u000a study aimed to investigate factors associated with net use at two time points, before and after mass distribution of nets.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Two cross sectional surveys were

Jeremiah M Ngondi; Patricia M Graves; Teshome Gebre; Aryc W Mosher; Estifanos B Shargie; Paul M Emerson; Frank O Richards Jr

2011-01-01

110

Epidemiology of nematode parasites of sheep around Jimma, southwestern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

An investigation was made into the epidemiology of nematode infections of sheep in two districts of Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia. We used two approaches--long-term monitoring of identified sheep for nematode infection and abattoir or market survey for analysis. In the first monitoring regime, we used 80 lambs [40 sheep (20 per sex) from each district (Dedo and Yebu)] averaging 4-5 months of age. Faecal egg counts (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV) and body weight changes were monitored over a period of 1 year. Additionally, faecal samples were collected (on a weekly basis) from sheep brought to abattoir/market for 1 year to monitor faecal egg counts. The nematode parasite burden, as judged by FEC and PCV, was generally low indicating that the climatic conditions are not conducive to the development and survival of nematode eggs and the free-living stages; hence, little transmission occurred. In the experimental flocks, the highest FEC and lower PCV were recorded during the long rainy season (June to September) with peak in August and September. Faecal samples collected from abattoir/market also followed the same trend. Results from experimental sheep indicated that location had a significant (P < 0.01) effect on FEC, PCV and average daily body weight gain. The FEC and PCV for sheep in Yebu (mid-altitude) district were 126 +/- 3.33 and 30.6 +/- 0.26, whereas the values for Dedo (highland) were 93 +/- 4.35 and 32.0 +/- 0.21, respectively. The results indicate that the highland areas are comparatively less favourable to the survival and development of nematodes. Female lambs had lower FEC and higher PCV compared to male lambs (P < 0.05). The overall nematode parasite challenge in the area, however, is low. We, therefore, recommend rotational grazing management combined with monitoring parasite load and selective treatment to reduce productivity loses and pasture contamination. PMID:19882224

Haile, Aynalem; Gashaw, Abebaw; Tolemariam, Taye; Tibbo, Markos

2010-06-01

111

Exploring the apparent absence of psychosis amongst the Borana pastoralist community of Southern Ethiopia. A mixed method follow-up study  

PubMed Central

There are few reports of the prevalence of psychotic disorders among isolated population groups. Where present, variations in prevalence estimates raise questions about the validity of methods of case ascertainment in such settings. In a previous population-based survey of the Borana pastoralist community in Ethiopia using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, no cases of schizophrenia were identified. In order to further explore this finding and investigate how serious mental disorder is conceptualized, we conducted focus group discussions with key members of the Borana pastoralist community. Subsequently, focus group participants were used as key informants to identify cases with possible psychotic disorder, based on their conceptualization. Cases identified by key informants were interviewed by a trained psychiatrist using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), to confirm presence of disorder. Focus group discussions were subjected to thematic analysis. The incongruity between local and psychiatric concepts lay mainly in the fact that key informants described characteristics of marata (“madness”) in terms of overt behavioural symptoms. Following the focus group discussions, participants identified eight individuals with schizophrenia and 13 with a psychotic mood disorder, confirmed through SCAN interview. Studies of psychotic disorders in such communities are likely to benefit from combining structured interviews with the key informant method.

SHIBRE, TESHOME; TEFERRA, SOLOMON; MORGAN, CRAIG; ALEM, ATALAY

2010-01-01

112

Exploring the apparent absence of psychosis amongst the Borana pastoralist community of Southern Ethiopia. A mixed method follow-up study.  

PubMed

There are few reports of the prevalence of psychotic disorders among isolated population groups. Where present, variations in prevalence estimates raise questions about the validity of methods of case ascertainment in such settings. In a previous population-based survey of the Borana pastoralist community in Ethiopia using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, no cases of schizophrenia were identified. In order to further explore this finding and investigate how serious mental disorder is conceptualized, we conducted focus group discussions with key members of the Borana pastoralist community. Subsequently, focus group participants were used as key informants to identify cases with possible psychotic disorder, based on their conceptualization. Cases identified by key informants were interviewed by a trained psychiatrist using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), to confirm presence of disorder. Focus group discussions were subjected to thematic analysis. The incongruity between local and psychiatric concepts lay mainly in the fact that key informants described characteristics of marata ("madness") in terms of overt behavioural symptoms. Following the focus group discussions, participants identified eight individuals with schizophrenia and 13 with a psychotic mood disorder, confirmed through SCAN interview. Studies of psychotic disorders in such communities are likely to benefit from combining structured interviews with the key informant method. PMID:20671898

Shibre, Teshome; Teferra, Solomon; Morgan, Craig; Alem, Atalay

2010-06-01

113

Potential microbiological contamination of effluents in poultry and swine abattoirs.  

PubMed

Health risks in the effluents of seven swine abattoirs and of seven poultry abattoirs were evaluated with regard to environment degradation and to dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms during the rainy and dry seasons. Supply-water samples from affluents and effluents of the treatment systems at different sites within the abattoir processing system were analysed. Similarly, water samples from the three recipient sites (emission point, 100 m upstream, 100 m downstream) were also analysed. Temperature, free residual chlorine (FRC), total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, enterococci, identification and serotyping of salmonellae were assessed. Scalding is the most significant stage in the slaughtering chain (P<0.05) when temperature is taken into account. Temperatures at effluents and at the sampled sites in the water bodies accorded to state and federal legislation standards. Supply waters did not meet the standards for FRC and microbial count standards according to the Ministry of Health and within limits imposed by the Industrial and Sanitary Inspection Regulations for Animal Products. Feather plucking and evisceration in poultry slaughter and the cleansing of carcasses and facilities in poultry and swine slaughtering had the highest contamination impact. The three loci at the water bodies were above the microbiological standards for classes II and III sites, in conformity with Law 8468 of the state of São Paulo, Brazil and Conama. Salmonella was found at several sites during slaughter, at both types of abattoirs, including in the effluent treatment system. This showed that these sites were the dissemination sources of the microorganism. PMID:16893484

Barros, L S S; Amaral, L A; Lorenzon, C S; Junior, J L; Neto, J G Machado

2007-04-01

114

Which nets are being used: factors associated with mosquito net use in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regions of Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background There has been recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia where transmission is unstable. While household ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) has increased greatly, there are concerns about inadequate net use. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with net use at two time points, before and after mass distribution of nets. Methods Two cross sectional surveys were carried out in 2006 and 2007 in Amhara, Oromia and SNNP regions. The latter was a sub-sample of the national Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS 3R). Each survey wave used multi-stage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster (224 clusters with 5,730 households in Baseline 2006 and 245 clusters with 5,910 households in MIS 3R 2007). Net ownership was assessed by visual inspection while net utilization was reported as use of the net the previous night. This net level analysis was restricted to households owning at least one net of any type. Logistic regression models of association between net use and explanatory variables including net type, age, condition, cost and other household characteristics were undertaken using generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM). Results A total of 3,784 nets in 2,430 households were included in the baseline 2006 analysis while the MIS 3R 2007 analysis comprised 5,413 nets in 3,328 households. The proportion of nets used the previous night decreased from 85.1% to 56.0% between baseline 2006 and MIS 3R 2007, respectively. Factors independently associated with increased proportion of nets used were: LLIN net type (at baseline 2006); indoor residual spraying (at MIS 3R 2007); and increasing wealth index at both surveys. At both baseline 2006 and MIS 3R 2007, reduced proportion of nets used was independently associated with increasing net age, increasing damage of nets, increasing household net density, and increasing altitude (>2,000 m). Conclusion This study identified modifiable factors affecting use of nets that were consistent across both surveys. While net replacement remains important, the findings suggest that: more education about use and care of nets; making nets more resistant to damage; and encouraging net mending are likely to maximize the huge investment in scale up of net ownership by ensuring they are used. Without this step, the widespread benefits of LLIN cannot be realized.

2011-01-01

115

Incidence of aeromonads in samples from an abattoir processing lambs.  

PubMed

Two hundred and thirty three samples of lamb carcasses, livers, kidneys and faeces, collected at a local abattoir, were examined to determine the incidence of motile Aeromonas spp. Wash water from the abattoir was also tested. Direct plating on starch ampicillin agar and enrichment in alkaline peptone water were used. The incidence of aeromonads was low. They were detected only after enrichment in 5/47 faecal samples and 11/50 carcass samples. The 41 strains of Aeromonas isolated were identified to species level and 93% of them were able to grow at 5 degrees C. The ability to produce both haemolysin and enterotoxin was species-related and was more common in Aeromonas hydrophila and A. sobria strains than in A. caviae strains. PMID:2613594

Majeed, K N; Egan, A F; Mac Rae, I C

1989-12-01

116

Sero-prevalence and risk factors for leptospirosis in abattoir workers in New Zealand.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is an important occupational disease in New Zealand. The objectives of this study were to determine risk factors for sero-prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in abattoir workers. Sera were collected from 567 abattoir workers and tested by microscopic agglutination for Leptospira interrogans sv. Pomona and Leptospira borgpetersenii sv. Hardjobovis. Association between prevalence and risk factors were determined by species specific multivariable analysis. Eleven percent of workers had antibodies against Hardjobovis or/and Pomona. Workers from the four sheep abattoirs had an average sero-prevalence of 10%-31%, from the two deer abattoirs 17%-19% and the two beef abattoirs 5%. The strongest risk factor for sero-positivity in sheep and deer abattoirs was work position. In sheep abattoirs, prevalence was highest at stunning and hide removal, followed by removal of the bladder and kidneys. Wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves and facemasks did not appear to protect against infection. Home slaughtering, farming or hunting were not significantly associated with sero-prevalence. There is substantial risk of exposure to leptospires in sheep and deer abattoirs in New Zealand and a persisting, but lower risk, in beef abattoirs. Interventions, such as animal vaccination, appear necessary to control leptospirosis as an occupational disease in New Zealand. PMID:24503973

Dreyfus, Anou; Benschop, Jackie; Collins-Emerson, Julie; Wilson, Peter; Baker, Michael G; Heuer, Cord

2014-02-01

117

Contamination of bovine carcasses and abattoir environment by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Istanbul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate contamination of carcasses and abattoir environment with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Five abattoirs in Istanbul were visited between January 2000 and April 2001. During visits, sampling was performed and a total of 330 cattle were selected. Cattle were examined for the presence of faeces on the hide (abdomen and legs) before slaughter. The

H. Gun; A. Yilmaz; S. Turker; A. Tanlasi; H. Yilmaz

2003-01-01

118

English Teaching Profile: Ethiopia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the status of English language instruction in Ethiopia begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and goes on to outline the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, higher, and teacher), the characteristics and training of English language…

British Council, London (England).

119

Human Trypanosomiasis in Ethiopia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four hundred fifty people living near Gambela Ethiopia were examined by the East African Trypanosomiasis Research Organization, by means of thick blood films, and the collection of blood on filter paper for the determination of IgM content and for indirec...

J. R. Baker E. McConnell

1969-01-01

120

Factors associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario 2001-2007: implications for food animal syndromic surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ontario provincial abattoirs have the potential to be important sources of syndromic surveillance data for emerging diseases of concern to animal health, public health and food safety. The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe provincially inspected abattoirs processing cattle in Ontario in terms of the number of abattoirs, the number of weeks abattoirs process cattle, geographical distribution,

Gillian D Alton; David L Pearl; Ken G Bateman; W Bruce McNab; Olaf Berke

2010-01-01

121

Molecular identification of unilocular hydatid cysts from domestic ungulates in Ethiopia: implications for human infections.  

PubMed

To identify the etiologic agents of cystic echinococcosis in Ethiopia, unilocular hydatid cysts were collected from 11 sheep, 16 cattle and 16 camels slaughtered in abattoirs of Aweday, Jijiga, Haramaya and Addis Ababa during June 2010 to February 2011. A PCR-based DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) was conducted for 40 cysts. The majority of cysts (87.5%) were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and the rest as Echinococcus canadensis. The fertile cysts of E. granulosus s.s. were found only from sheep, although it occurred in all the host species. The predominance of E. granulosus s.s. has important implications for public health since this species is the most typical causative agent of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide. The major cox1 haplotype of E. granulosus s.s. detected in Ethiopia was the same as that has been reported to be most common in Peru and China. However, a few cox1 haplotypes unique to Ethiopia were found in both of the two Echinococcus species. The present regional data would serve as baseline information in determining the local transmission patterns and in designing appropriate control strategies. PMID:22329916

Hailemariam, Zerihun; Nakao, Minoru; Menkir, Sissay; Lavikainen, Antti; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

2012-06-01

122

Afar Triangle, Ethiopia, Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Afar Triangle of Ethiopia (11.5N, 42.5E) is a very active plate tectonic region. The region is stressed by Saudi Arabia moving away from Africa and East Africa tearing itself away from the rest of Africa. Because of the plate movements in three different directions, The Afar Triangle is stretched thin and torn resulting in a series of faults seen as long parallel valleys. There is frequent volcanic activity and lava flows occur along the faults.

1992-01-01

123

Prevalence and economic implications of calf foetal wastage in an abattoir in Northcentral Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to evaluate the volume of pregnant cows slaughtered at Minna abattoir, Niger State, Nigeria between\\u000a 2001 and 2009 based on abattoir meat inspection records. Of the 98,407 cows slaughtered, 4,368 were pregnant, translating\\u000a to a ratio of one calf foetal wastage in every 23 cows slaughtered. The wastage was significantly (P?

Nma Bida Alhaji

2011-01-01

124

Bovine fetal wastage in Southwestern Nigeria: a survey of some abattoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of inadequate veterinary services and indiscriminate slaughter of animals in most Nigerian abattoirs, pregnant\\u000a animals are often slaughtered resulting in wastage of scarce protein made available to the people. To this end, an evaluation\\u000a of the volume of pregnant cows slaughtered at some abattoirs in Southwestern Nigeria between 2005 and 2007 based on meat inspection\\u000a records was

Simeon I. B. Cadmus; Hezekiah K. Adesokan

2010-01-01

125

Effect of abattoir effluent on the physical and chemical properties of soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of abattoir effluent on the physical and chemical properties of soils was investigated under natural environment\\u000a in pot experiment at Ambrose Alli University Teaching and Research farm, Ekpoma, Nigeria. A composite soil sample was used\\u000a in the experiment. The soil was treated to seven rates of abattoir effluent (viz. 0, 25, 50, 100, 125 and 150 ml\\/kg soil).\\u000a The

Osadebamwen Ikpotokin Osemwota

2010-01-01

126

Eritrean Options and Ethiopia's Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Note analyzes the present critical political/economic/military impasse in Ethiopia, with emphasis on Eritrea as the key to the problem. The solution of the Ethiopian crisis depends in large measure on resolving Eritrea's relationship to the Ethiopian...

P. B. Henze

1989-01-01

127

Recognizing Ethiopia's urban farmers.  

PubMed

According to Dr. Axumite, urban agriculture in Ethiopia would 1) provide food and income, 2) reduce fuel consumption and damage to roads by decreasing the need for food transport into cities, 3) encourage the cooperation of extended families because of the collective work effort needed, and 4) lead to greater numbers of people who own their own homes and have higher education levels because less job income would be spent on food. Unfortunately, government frowns on the use of public lands for farming, and credit is hard to find. For example, in Addis Ababa, which housed 30.2% of Ethiopia's urban population in 1984, 60% of the city's households made less than 200 Birr per month (equivalent to 40 U.S. dollars). 56% of this money was spent on food. In 1983, 17% of 1352 surveyed households produced their own food. They did so on less than 25 sq. meters of land. 90% of those who did not farm cited lack of land as the reason. If the City Council would allow access to public land, grant tax rebates, or coordinate activities of both governmental and nongovernmental agencies, urban agricultural cooperatives in the city situated along waterways, which produce food for member consumption and sale to the public. The income of members of the largest cooperative is 70% higher than that of people who do not farm in the city. However, because the cooperative has not been legalized by the government, it cannot get loans to improve productivity. PMID:12287222

Lee, M

1993-10-01

128

DOTS improves treatment outcomes and service coverage for tuberculosis in South Ethiopia: a retrospective trend analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: DOTS as a strategy was introduced to the tuberculosis control programme in Southern region of Ethiopia in 1996. The impact of the programme on treatment outcomes and the trend in the service coverage for tuberculosis has not been assessed ever since. The aim of the study was to assess trends in the expansion of DOTS and treatment outcomes for

Estifanos B Shargie; Bernt Lindtjørn

2005-01-01

129

Ethnobotanical Study of Edible Wild Plants in Some Selected Districts of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethnobotanical study on edible wild plants was carried out from May to December, 2001, in four districts of Ethiopia. The study areas included the rural and semiurban settings of Alamata, Cheha, Goma, and Yilmana Denssa districts of Tigray, Southern Peoples, Oromiya, and Amhara regional states, respectively. Voucher plant specimens were collected along with ethnobotanical information, and scientific names were

Getachew Addis; Kelbessa Urga; Dawit Dikasso

2005-01-01

130

Famine, gold and guns: the Suri of southwestern Ethiopia, 1985-91  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years (1985-1991), the Suri of the far southwest of Ethiopia have lived through a deep ecological and social crisis without substantial external aid from either the Ethiopian government or international aid agencies. They have experienced drought, cattle disease and an increasing level of violent conflict with their southern neighbours, the Nyangatom, leading to severe disruption of

JON ABBINK

1993-01-01

131

Hydrological research in Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost all major development problems in Ethiopia are water-related: food insecurity, low economic development, recurrent droughts, disastrous floods, poor health conditions, and low energy condition. In order to develop and manage existing water resources in a sustainable manner, knowledge is required about water availability, water quality, water demand in various sectors, and the impacts of water resource projects on health and the environment. The lack of ground-based data has been a major challenge for generating this knowledge. Current advances in remote sensing and computer simulation technology could provide alternative source of datasets. In this talk, I will present the challenges and opportunities in using remote sensing datasets and hydrological models in regions such as Africa where ground-based datasets are scarce.

Gebremichael, M.

2012-12-01

132

Transmission of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among pigs during transportation from farm to abattoir.  

PubMed

The prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pigs at abattoirs is higher than in pigs sampled on farms. This study investigated whether MRSA negative pigs can become MRSA positive during transportation from the farm to the abattoir after exposure to other pigs and environmental sources of MRSA. Nasal swabs were collected from four batches of pigs during loading at the farm, on arrival at the abattoir and after stunning. Environmental wipes were taken from lorries after transporting pigs and from lairages after holding pigs. All pigs (n=117) tested MRSA negative before transportation. On arrival at the abattoir, 12/117 (10.3%) pigs in two batches tested MRSA positive. In lorries that tested positive after transportation, the prevalence of MRSA positive pigs was 21.1%, whereas no MRSA was detected in pigs that had been transported in lorries that tested negative after transportation. At stunning, all batches and 70/117 (59.8%) pigs tested MRSA positive. Pigs can become MRSA positive in the short period of time during transportation from the farm to stunning at the abattoir. PMID:20850359

Broens, Els M; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Van der Wolf, Peter J; Van de Giessen, Arjen W; De Jong, Mart C M

2011-09-01

133

A comparison of microbial contamination on sheep\\/goat carcasses in a modern Indian abattoir and traditional meat shops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial load on sheep\\/goat carcasses was investigated in Deonar abattoir and traditional meat shops in Mumbai. A total of 96 swab samples from carcass sites were collected and analysed from the abattoir, while 144 swab samples from carcass sites were analysed from three meat shops. These samples were processed for total viable count (TVC) and differential counts. The average

Sudhakar G. Bhandare; A. T. Sherikar; A. M. Paturkar; V. S. Waskar; R. J. Zende

2007-01-01

134

Bacteriological screening of environmental sources of contamination in an abattoir and the meat shops in Mumbai, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriological screening of environmental sources of contamination was carried out in Deonar abattoir and traditional meat shops in Mumbai. A total of 54 swab samples from different environmental contaminants were collected and analyzed from the abattoir, while 81 swab samples were analyzed from three meat shops. These samples were processed for total viable count (TVC) and differential counts. The average

Sudhakar G. Bhandare; A. M. Paturkar; V. S. Waskar; R. J. Zende

135

Child mortality rate in ethiopia.  

PubMed

Ethiopia's childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussell's methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia's childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000). The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation. PMID:23113145

Susuman, A Sathiya

2012-01-01

136

Campaigning against female genital mutilation in Ethiopia using popular education.  

PubMed

In Ethiopia, the Italian Association for Women in Development (AIDOS) has been working with Ethiopia's National Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children for 5 years. AIDOS began working on female genital mutilation in the early 1980s and rejects charges of cultural imperialism that are applied to Northern organizations attempting to help African organizations address this violation of universal human rights. In Ethiopia, 85% of women are mutilated, with most undergoing Sunna, or removal of the prepuce of the clitoris. The joint project seeks to increase awareness about the health consequences of female genital mutilation in the target group. The primary technique used is provision of training of trainers courses and presentation of four modular units and audiovisual materials specifically designed for use with socially influential women, male and female secondary school students, community leaders, and health workers. In addition, an information/education campaign uses videos and sound and slide shows with accompanying story books. A second category of communication tools was developed for a mass information campaign, including radio spots, posters, information leaflets, and a newsletter. When the project was ready for expansion into the southern region of the country, it became clear that a new participatory communication strategy was required to stimulate discussion, such as the use of role playing and theater. Working together, the two organizations have successfully confronted project constraints such as the difficulty in assessing project impact, scheduling problems, and gender-biased assess to information. PMID:12294046

Spadacini, B; Nichols, P

1998-07-01

137

Climatic trends over Ethiopia: regional signals and drivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year?1 and downward trends in rainfall of ? 0.4 mm month?1 year?1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts.

Jury, Mark R.; Funk, Chris

2013-01-01

138

Prevalence of onchocerciasis in Blue Nile valley of western Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A epidemiological study of Onchocerciasis among different ethnic groups in the Blue Nile valley of Western Ethiopia was conducted to obtain baseline data on disease prevalence, skin snips samples were obtained from 493 persons, representing different ethnic groups (Nilotic and Oromos), living under different geographic and climatic conditions (lowlands, Midland and highland) or Mendi district for parasitological verification. A total of 169 (34%) had microfilariae of the skin by direct microscopy. The highest prevalence rate (81%) was found among the Nilotic people living along the southern banks of the Blue Nile River. Most patient had wide spread skin infection. Epidemiological differences were also observed. PMID:8077003

Jira, C

1993-01-01

139

Prevalence and risk factors of malaria in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background More than 75% of the total area of Ethiopia is malarious, making malaria the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate and the associated socio-economic, geographic and demographic factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT) survey results. Methods From December 2006 to January 2007, a baseline malaria indicator survey in Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP) regions of Ethiopia was conducted by The Carter Center. This study uses this data. The method of generalized linear model was used to analyse the data and the response variable was the presence or absence of malaria using the rapid diagnosis test (RDT). Results The analyses show that the RDT result was significantly associated with age and gender. Other significant covariates confounding variables are source of water, trip to obtain water, toilet facility, total number of rooms, material used for walls, and material used for roofing. The prevalence of malaria for households with clean water found to be less. Malaria rapid diagnosis found to be higher for thatch and stick/mud roof and earth/local dung plaster floor. Moreover, spraying anti-malaria to the house was found to be one means of reducing the risk of malaria. Furthermore, the housing condition, source of water and its distance, gender, and ages in the households were identified in order to have two-way interaction effects. Conclusion Individuals with poor socio-economic conditions are positively associated with malaria infection. Improving the housing condition of the household is one of the means of reducing the risk of malaria. Children and female household members are the most vulnerable to the risk of malaria. Such information is essential to design improved strategic intervention for the reduction of malaria epidemic in Ethiopia.

2012-01-01

140

Pacific SST influence on spring precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Ethiopia and other parts of East Africa, interannual variability of seasonal precipitation is dependent on variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation on both regional and global scales. The majority of research into large-scale atmospheric controls and predictability has focused on the heavier summer rains and the establishment of links to large-scale modes of climate variability such as ENSO. By contrast, relatively little work has focused on the potential for predictability of rainfall during the spring months, which is of great importance to much of southern Ethiopia. Additionally, failure of the spring rains may have important agricultural implications, particularly for crops requiring the full extent of the spring-summer growing season. Here, we analyse the links between Pacific SST and precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for a century-long period (1900-2004). A tripole correlation pattern between spring precipitation and SST is found in the Pacific basin. We develop regression-based models to estimate spring precipitation from Pacific SST with a lead time of 2-3 months. When subject to a rigorous cross-validation, models based on principal component multiple linear regression (PC-MLR) calibrated on Pacific SST during December show good skill in reproducing observed temporal variability in Addis Ababa precipitation during February (r = 0.48) and March (r = 0.40), and the period spanning February to April (r = 0.44). Reconstructed precipitation is correlated with temperature and specific humidity in the surrounding region; estimates of heavy spring precipitation are associated with anomalously warm, moist conditions across the western Indian Ocean. Our findings suggest that inclusion of Pacific SST in predictive models may benefit drought forecasting across Ethiopia. The relationships identified provide a potential basis for forecasting models for spring rainfall and further analysis may focus on drought forecasting using ROC and RPSS validation scores.

Eden, J. M.; Widmann, M.; Wild, S.; Evans, G. R.; Hughes, J. G.

2012-04-01

141

The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern provinces of Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and importance of porcine cysticercosis in rural areas of Zambia. The study involved an abattoir survey of 1316 pigs at a slaughter slab in Lusaka and two field surveys in villages in Southern and Eastern provinces. Lingual examination of live pigs and visual inspection of their carcass as well as

I. K. Phiri; P. Dorny; S. Gabriel; A. L. Willingham; N. Speybroeck; J. Vercruysse

2002-01-01

142

Review of SISA Student Dissertations on Library and Information Systems and Services in Eastern and Southern Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes student dissertations at the School of Information Studies for Africa (SISA) at Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia) in order to present an overview of the library and information systems and services available in seven eastern and southern African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. (Author/LRW)

Chowdhury, G. G.; Tadesse, Taye T.

1995-01-01

143

Development of an Industry Training Strategy for the Abattoir Industry in New South Wales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The abattoir (meat processing) industry is facing a number of challenges in Australia, including introduction of technology, safety standards, restructuring, and development and implementation of an effective training culture. The training strategy will effectively target existing training resources for the industry and upskill employees in a…

Clements, Andrew; Speers, Geoff

144

Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In

Naima Sahraoui; Borna Müller; Djamel Guetarni; Fadéla Boulahbal; Djamel Yala; Rachid Ouzrout; Stefan Berg; Noel H Smith; Jakob Zinsstag

2009-01-01

145

Impact of abattoir wastes based on some physicochemical parameters on Woji Creek, Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the environmental and health impacts of abattoir wastes due to unhygienic disposal methods and inadequate slaughtering facilities as it affects some physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of Woji Creek and its environs. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study involved the choice of five sampling stations for two different seasons: wet and dry. Standard

Umunnakwe Johnbosco Emeka; Solomon A. Braide; Alex C. Chindah

2009-01-01

146

First-time detection of mycobacterium species from goats in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) is an important zoonosis affecting a wide range of hosts. An abattoir study was conducted on 1,536 randomly selected male goats slaughtered at Modjo Modern Export Abattoir to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in slaughtered goats. Carcasses and organs of all the study animals were first examined by routine meat inspection followed by detailed meat inspection. Samples from tuberculous lesions were cultured for mycobacterial isolation and identification. Histopathology was done on 31 samples with tuberculous lesions. Detailed meat inspection detected 65 (4.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?3.3-5.4%) tuberculous lesions. From these, 20 (30.8%) samples were confirmed mycobacterium positive on culture, out of which 18 were Mycobacterium bovis and two were Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Routine meat inspection failed to detect tuberculous lesions in 23% of carcasses with TB lesions detected by detailed examination. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between both methods in detecting tuberculous lesions (Kappa?=?0.87). Origin and age of the goats did not statistically affect the disease prevalence (P?>?0.05). Histopathologic lesions were observed in 21 samples (68%; 95% CI?=?50.1-81.4%) out of the 31 carcasses with gross tuberculous lesions examined by histopathology. Eighteen (58%) tuberculous samples positive for histopathology were also culture positive. The sensitivity and specificity of histopathology were 90% (95% CI?=?76.9-100%) and 72.7% (95% CI?=?46.4-99%), respectively, using culture as a reference test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of caprine tuberculosis from Ethiopia. Further studies are required at the farm level to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in the general goat population. PMID:20725858

Hiko, Adem; Agga, Getahun Ejeta

2011-01-01

147

Eritrea-Ethiopia Border War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News takes a look at the renewed fighting in the border war between Ethiopia and Eritrea. The eleven resources discussed provide news, analysis, and commentary. Horn of Africa neighbors Ethiopia and Eritrea were a single nation until May 1993, when Eritrea achieved sovereignty and seceded from Ethiopia after a protracted war of independence that lasted nearly thirty years. Eritrea, a nation of 3.6 million located on the Red Sea, was a former Italian colony (1890-1941) that was put under British administration during World War II, federated as an autonomous unit by Ethiopia in 1952, and then finally absorbed by the Ethiopian empire in 1962. Since Eritrea's independence from Ethiopia in 1993, the two nations have disputed the demarcation of their 620-mile shared boundary, which was ostensibly delimited earlier this century in a series of treaties between the Imperial Government of Ethiopia and the Italian colonial government in Eritrea. Despite recent bilateral attempts to delineate the former colonial divide, a joint border commission has failed to settle the dispute. This on-going border conflict, compounded by severe economic tensions between the two states, erupted into war when Ethiopian and Eritrean forces clashed on May 6, 1998, in the Ethiopian-administered region of Badme. The skirmish resulted in about five weeks of fierce battle that ended last June with an unofficial peace plan brokered by the US and Rwanda. However, on February 6, the tenuous seven month stalemate snapped as heavy fighting re-ignited at several flashpoints along the contested border where both countries had amassed troops. Last weekend amid continued fighting, a delegation from the European Union failed to reach a cease-fire agreement between Eritrean President Isayas Afewerki and Ethiopian Foreign Minister Seyoum Mesfin. The unsuccessful proposal, based on a framework drafted by the Organization of African Unity, called for Eritrea to concede its current positions and return to the territory it held before the border conflict last May. As military involvement between the two countries escalates, the EU, the OAU, and the United Nations Security Council promise to re-initiate the mediation process as soon as possible before the Horn War further destabilizes east Africa.

Osmond, Andrew.

148

Child morbidity patterns in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

This study is based on the 1983 Rural Health Survey of Ethiopia. Patterns and levels of child morbidity by age, sex, geographic region, and sanitary facilities are examined. Morbidity levels peak in the second year of life. Diarrhoeal diseases are of major importance, especially among infants and toddlers. Parasitic diseases, and respiratory diseases other than pneumonia, become increasingly important with age. There are no significant sex differentials in morbidity except for higher rates of diarrhoeal diseases among female children. Geographic differentials are quite marked with particularly high morbidity levels from all disease types in the western mountainous regions of Ethiopia. Access to high quality drinking water, a latrine, and garbage disposal, are strongly related to reduced overall morbidity levels, though not necessarily to reduced diarrhoeal disease levels. PMID:1583029

Yohannes, A G; Streatfield, K; Bost, L

1992-04-01

149

A 6-year survey of pathological conditions of slaughtered animals at Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6-year retrospective study (2000–2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was\\u000a carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed.\\u000a A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered\\u000a for the period,

Clement B. I. Alawa; I. Etukudo-Joseph; Judith N. Alawa

2011-01-01

150

Rights of the Child in Ethiopia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the nation of Ethiopia. The report's introduction asserts that despite the considerable lip service being paid by Ethiopia's…

Schonveld, Ben; Mejia, Fernando

151

Epidemiologic Investigation of Immune-Mediated Polyradiculoneuropathy among Abattoir Workers Exposed to Porcine Brain  

PubMed Central

Background In October 2007, a cluster of patients experiencing a novel polyradiculoneuropathy was identified at a pork abattoir (Plant A). Patients worked in the primary carcass processing area (warm room); the majority processed severed heads (head-table). An investigation was initiated to determine risk factors for illness. Methods and Results Symptoms of the reported patients were unlike previously described occupational associated illnesses. A case-control study was conducted at Plant A. A case was defined as evidence of symptoms of peripheral neuropathy and compatible electrodiagnostic testing in a pork abattoir worker. Two control groups were used - randomly selected non-ill warm-room workers (n?=?49), and all non-ill head-table workers (n?=?56). Consenting cases and controls were interviewed and blood and throat swabs were collected. The 26 largest U.S. pork abattoirs were surveyed to identify additional cases. Fifteen cases were identified at Plant A; illness onsets occurred during May 2004–November 2007. Median age was 32 years (range, 21–55 years). Cases were more likely than warm-room controls to have ever worked at the head-table (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 6.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–26.7), removed brains or removed muscle from the backs of heads (AOR, 10.3; 95% CI, 1.5–68.5), and worked within 0–10 feet of the brain removal operation (AOR, 9.9; 95% CI, 1.2–80.0). Associations remained when comparing head-table cases and head-table controls. Workers removed brains by using compressed air that liquefied brain and generated aerosolized droplets, exposing themselves and nearby workers. Eight additional cases were identified in the only two other abattoirs using this technique. The three abattoirs that used this technique have stopped brain removal, and no new cases have been reported after 24 months of follow up. Cases compared to controls had higher median interferon-gamma (IFN?) levels (21.7 pg/ml; vs 14.8 pg/ml, P<0.001). Discussion This novel polyradiculoneuropathy was associated with removing porcine brains with compressed air. An autoimmune mechanism is supported by higher levels of IFN? in cases than in controls consistent with other immune mediated illnesses occurring in association with neural tissue exposure. Abattoirs should not use compressed air to remove brains and should avoid procedures that aerosolize CNS tissue. This outbreak highlights the potential for respiratory or mucosal exposure to cause an immune-mediated illness in an occupational setting.

Holzbauer, Stacy M.; DeVries, Aaron S.; Sejvar, James J.; Lees, Christine H.; Adjemian, Jennifer; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Medus, Carlota; Lexau, Catherine A.; Harris, Julie R.; Recuenco, Sergio E.; Belay, Ermias D.; Howell, James F.; Buss, Bryan F.; Hornig, Mady; Gibbins, John D.; Brueck, Scott E.; Smith, Kirk E.; Danila, Richard N.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Lachance, Daniel H.; Dyck, P. James. B.; Lynfield, Ruth

2010-01-01

152

Microbiological contamination of cattle and pig carcasses at five abattoirs determined by swab sampling in accordance with EU Decision 2001\\/471\\/EC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 800 cattle carcasses (abattoir A: n=200; B: n=150; C: n=150; D: n=150, E: n=150) and 650 pig carcasses (abattoir A: n=200; B: n=150; C: n=150; D: n=150) were examined at five Swiss abattoirs with an annual slaughtering capacity >10 million kg. Weekly, 10 cattle and 10 pig carcasses were sampled at four sites by the wet–dry double

C. Zweifel; D. Baltzer; R. Stephan

2005-01-01

153

Serological prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is an occupational zoonosis caused by pathogenic leptospires. In this study, the presence and prevalence of antibodies specific to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo in 142 cattle slaughtered between June and July 2011 was investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Five (3.50%) of the 142 cattle sampled were seropositive for antibodies to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo. Despite the fact that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in seropositivity between sexes and between breeds sampled, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in sero-positivity between the different age groups examined. Leptospirosis is present in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir; butchers and abattoir workers are exposed to infected animals and are at risk of being infected by Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo. PMID:22718334

Ngbede, Emmanuel O; Raji, Mashood A; Kwanashie, Clara N; Okolocha, Emmanuel C; Gugong, Victor T; Hambolu, Sunday E

2012-01-01

154

A study of preslaughter pig handling and stunning in selected South African Highveld Region abattoirs.  

PubMed

The study hypothesis was that pre-slaughter handling is not conducted in such a way that pigs can be considered humanely slaughtered, nor is it conducive to promoting those properties of fresh meat that could enhance pork quality. The 1st phase of the investigation was aimed at confirming the present compliance level within the prescribed norms. To this end the importance of stunning induction requirements for effective electrical stunning, the welfare implications relating to the pre-slaughter handling of pigs and the stunning and sticking techniques were investigated. Pre-slaughter welfare of the pigs at the abattoir was found to be influenced at the outset by the origin and type of pig slaughtered, the daily throughput range of pigs and the type of abattoir involved. A disappointing pre-arrival aspect was that deficiencies in road motor vehicles were observed while off-loading pigs. Through poor design or lack of maintenance, another factor that hampered free movement of pigs was the off-loading facilities. The nature of animal behaviour in the pens, in the passages and when going into the stunning area was directly related to the pig handling efficiency and to the nature and extent of design and maintenance problems with equipment. None of the abattoirs had a well designed in-feed to a well planned stunning area/facility, and a very high level of pig pre-slaughter stress prevailed. The optimum position of the electrodes is virtually impossible to attain under practical conditions and the practice of repeat application of electrical stunning is common. Of the total sample size (n = 1175), 34% were difficult to shackle, 90% of these being from the abattoirs tending to slaughter more routinely a wide range of different sized pigs. In this survey 149 pigs (13%) required more than a single sticking attempt to bleed out properly, considerably higher than in other published reports. PMID:21247016

Spencer, B T; Veary, C M

2010-06-01

155

Ratio between carcass-and skin-microflora as an abattoir process hygiene indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two abattoirs, each slaughtering both cattle and pigs, 100 cattle and 100 pigs were randomly selected and sampled. From each animal, two samples were taken: a) immediately after sticking of bovines or stunning of pigs, approximately 2000cm2 hide (cattle) or 1500cm2 skin (pigs) areas were sponge-swabbed; and b) at the end of slaughter line but before chilling, the same

B. Blagojevic; D. Antic; M. Ducic; S. Buncic

2011-01-01

156

Microbiological contamination of pig and cattle carcasses in different small-scale Swiss abattoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 750 pig carcasses and 535 cattle carcasses from 17 small-scale abattoirs were sampled by excision at four sites (pig: neck, belly, back, ham; cattle: neck, brisket, flank, rump). Samples were examined for total viable counts (TVC) and Enterobacteriaceae. Mean TVCs ranged from 2.4 to 4.2 log10CFUcm?2 on pig carcasses and from 2.7 to 3.8 log10CFUcm?2 on cattle

C. Zweifel; R. Fischer; R. Stephan

2008-01-01

157

Bovine fetal wastage in Southwestern Nigeria: a survey of some abattoirs.  

PubMed

As a result of inadequate veterinary services and indiscriminate slaughter of animals in most Nigerian abattoirs, pregnant animals are often slaughtered resulting in wastage of scarce protein made available to the people. To this end, an evaluation of the volume of pregnant cows slaughtered at some abattoirs in Southwestern Nigeria between 2005 and 2007 based on meat inspection records was carried out with a view to determining the level of fetal wastage in this part of the country. A total of 321,448 cows were slaughtered, out of which, 16,092 (5.01%) were pregnant. The fetal wastages across the four seasons of the study period were statistically significant (P < 0.05); the late dry season showing the highest percentage. There was a downward trend across the years, and this was considerably lower in 2007 than the other 2 years which were not statistically different from each other (X (A2005) = 224.33; X (A2006) = 216.38; X (B2007) = 126.38). Our results indicated a considerable level of slaughtering of pregnant cows in the abattoirs studied. Hence, we advocate stepping up routine veterinary checks and interventions among trade animals in order to salvage the high level of fetal wastage in the region and the country at large. PMID:19821049

Cadmus, Simeon I B; Adesokan, Hezekiah K

2010-04-01

158

Blood parameters and corneal-reflex of finishing pigs with and without lung affections observed post mortem in two abattoirs stunning with CO?.  

PubMed

In two pig abattoirs of different slaughter capacities, the stunning efficacy of CO2 on finishing pigs with and without pneumonic lesions (observed post mortem) was reflected against the corneal-reflex and blood parameters (blood pH, pCO2 and pO2) from individual finishers. Stunning duration was 120 s (abattoir A) and 90 s (abattoir B), respectively. Pneumonia in finisher pigs is frequently observed during post mortem inspection, which may raise concerns about a delay of unconsciousness because of hampered gas exchange in the lungs. The aim of this study was to examine possible pneumonia consequences for stunning efficacy under commercial conditions. For that, corneal reflex, O2 and CO2 partial pressure in the blood as well as blood pH were measured in 2650 finishers from abattoir A and 2100 from abattoir B. The partial pressure of O2 after stunning accounted to about 3 kPa, the partial pressure of CO2 was found at levels of about 24 kPa in abattoir A (after 120 s CO2 exposure) and 17.5 kPa in abattoir B (after 90 s CO2 exposure). In abattoir A, the blood pH was at 6.9, and at 7.0 in abattoir B. The corneal reflex was observed in 6.2% of pigs in abattoir A and 17.1% of pigs in abattoir B. A correlation between pneumonic lesions and blood status was not observed. However, for some individual farms, a significant correlation between pneumonia and corneal reflex was observed. PMID:22898535

Fries, R; Rindermann, G; Siegling-Vlitakis, C; Bandick, N; Bräutigam, L; Buschulte, A; Irsigler, H; Wolf, K; Hartmann, H

2013-02-01

159

To Feed Ourselves. A Proceedings of the First Eastern, Central and Southern Africa Regional Maize Workshop Held at Lusaka, Zambia, March 10-17, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proceedings from a March 1985 workshop on maize research and production in the eastern, central, and southern Africa regions are presented. Eighteen country reports are provided by scientists from Angola, Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mal...

1985-01-01

160

Innovation for Scale: Enhancing Health Extension Package in the Southern Nations and Nationalities People's Region (SNNPR) Shebedino and Lanfero Woredas. Report of the Final Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Save the Children was awarded a five-year Standard USAID/CSHGP Child Survival Project (CS-23) - Innovation for Scale: Enhancing Ethiopia's Health Extension Package in the Southern Nations and Nationalities People's Region (SNNPR) - to address four main ca...

2012-01-01

161

Country Commercial Guide: Ethiopia, Fiscal Year 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Country Commercial Guide (CCG) offers a comprehensive look at Ethiopia's commercial environment, using economic, political and market analyses. The CCG's were established by recommendation of the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee (TPCC), a multi...

1999-01-01

162

Health of Children Adopted from Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Since 2000, American families have adopted 1,700 children from Ethiopia. Little is known about the health and development\\u000a of these children. Patients and Methods Retrospective chart review of the arrival health status of all 50 (26F:24M) children from Ethiopia\\/Eritrea seen in the International\\u000a Adoption Clinic. Results Prior to adoption, most children resided with relatives; 36% were >18 months old prior

Laurie C. Miller; Beverly Tseng; Linda G. Tirella; Wilma Chan; Emily Feig

2008-01-01

163

Paleomagnetism of Lake Sediments, Chew Bahir, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasi-continuous variations of the Earth's magnetic field recorded in lake sediments can provide detailed time series describing the evolution of the geomagnetic field. To make robust conclusions about underlying geodynamo processes an improvement in the global coverage of recording sites is required. Current lake data for the late Brunhes are biased towards Europe and North America with only five studies reporting paleomagnetic results from equatorial Africa. We present inclination and relative paleointensity from Chew Bahir, southern Ethiopia; a saline mudflat located in the East African Ridge System, previously covered by a ~2000 km2 lake. Discrete measurements were made on two ten meter cores, which we continuously sub-sampled at 2 cm intervals. Calibrated AMS radiocarbon ages constrain the base of the cores to ~45 ka. NRM was demagnetized in ten steps up to 100 mT and well defined characteristic remanence directions, with MAD < 3°, were determined for the majority of specimens. Secondary components of magnetization were generally removed after alternating field demagnetization to 15 mT. Inclination is compared with previously obtained directional records from Lake Turkana, northern Kenya (~60 km to the southwest of Chew Bahir), and we discuss differences between these records. The ratio of NRM to ARM intensity at 20 mT was used as a proxy for relative paleointensity. Broad similarities in variations in relative paleointensity are seen between Chew Bahir and other globally distributed sites; most evidently through the Holocene. The magnetic mineralogy of the cores has been determined using a number of rock magnetic methods and has been used to assess the fidelity of the paleomagnetic records.

Frank, U.; Brown, M. C.; Foerster, V. E.; Schäbitz, F.

2011-12-01

164

Changes in soil seed bank composition and density following deforestation and subsequent cultivation of a tropical dry Afromontane forest in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the species composition and density of viable seeds in the soil seed banks (SSB) following deforestation and subsequent cultivation of a tropical dry Afromontane forest were assessed in the southern highlands of Ethiopia. Soil samples for the study were collected from a chronosequence of six farm fields having ages of 7, 10, 14, 26, 34 and 53 years

MULUGETA LEMENIH; DEMEL TEKETAY

165

Prevalence and seasonal incidence of larval and adult cestode infections of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A study on the prevalence and seasonal incidence of cestode parasite infections of sheep and goats was carried out in eastern Ethiopia for 2 years (May 2003-April 2005). During this period, viscera including liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and the gastro-intestinal tract were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at four abattoirs located in the towns of Haramaya, Harar, Dire Dawa and Jijiga. At the abattoirs the abdominal, thoracic and pelvic cavities as well as the muscle surfaces of all animals were visually examined for the presence of larval (cystic) stages of cestode parasites. The viscera were transported within 24 h to the parasitology laboratory of Haramaya University and were examined for larval and adult cestodes following standard procedures. The most prevalent metacestodes (larval cestodes) were Cysticercus ovis (Taenia ovis), Cysticercus tenuicollis (T. hydatigena) and hydatid cysts (Echinococcus granulosus). In sheep, the overall prevalence was 26% for C. ovis, 79% for C. tenuicollis, and 68% for hydatid cysts. Similarly, for goats, the corresponding prevalence was 22%, 53% and 65%, respectively. The difference between sheep and goats in prevalence of C. tenuicollis was significant. The high prevalence of hydatid cysts in both sheep and goats indicates that cystic echinococcosis/hydatidosis is a public health problem in these regions which requires implementation of control measures, including public health education, strict meat inspection and control of stray dogs. The results of the survey also implies that infections of small ruminants with these metacestodes are responsible for condemnation of substantial quantities of affected organs and muscles and therefore of direct economic importance. Intestinal infections with adult tapeworms of Moniezia expansa, Avitellina centripunctata and Stilesia globipunctata, and bile duct infections with Stilesia hepatica were also common in both sheep and goats. In sheep, the overall prevalence of these tapeworms were 61%, 20%, 24% and 39%, respectively. Similarly, the overall prevalence of these parasites in goats was 53%, 21%, 27% and 36%, respectively. PMID:18575964

Sissay, Menkir M; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J

2008-08-01

166

Human brucellosis: seroprevalence and associated exposure factors among abattoir workers in Abuja, Nigeria - 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Brucellosis, a neglected debilitating zoonosis, is a recognized occupational hazard with a high prevalence in developing countries. Transmission to humans can occur through contact with infected animals or animal products. Brucellosis presents with fever. In Nigeria, there is a possibility of missed diagnoses by physicians leading to a long debilitating illness. We conducted a study to determine the seroprevalence and factors associated with Human Brucellosis (HB) among abattoir-workers in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study and selected abattoir-workers using stratified random sampling. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data on demographics and exposure-factors. We tested the workers’ serum-samples using Rose-Bengal (RBPT) and ELISA tests. A worker with HB was one whose serum tested positive to RBPT or ELISA. We tested differences in proportions between workers with HB and those without HB using odds-ratio and X2 tests. Results Of 224 workers, 172 (76.8%) were male and mean age was 30 + 9.0 years. Of 224 sera collected, 54 were positive giving a seroprevalence of 24.1%. Of these, 32 (59.3%) were butchers, and 11 (20.4%) were meat-sellers. Slaughtering animals while having open-wounds (Odds-ratio (OR) = 2.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.15-4.04); occupational-exposure of >5years (OR = 2.30, CI = 1.11-4.78) and eating raw meat (OR = 2.75, CI = 1.21-6.26) were significantly associated with HB. Multivariate analyses showed that occupational-exposure of >5years (Adjusted OR (AOR) =2.45, CI = 1.15 – 5.30) and eating raw-meat (AOR = 2.64, CI = 1.14 - 6.14) remained significantly associated with HB. Conclusion Seroprevalence of HB among abattoir-workers in Abuja was high. Factors associated with HB were occupational-exposure of >5years and eating raw-meat. Abattoir-workers should be discouraged from eating raw-meat and educated on adherence to safe animal-product handling practices.

Aworh, Mabel Kamweli; Okolocha, Emmanuel; Kwaga, Jacob; Fasina, Folorunso; Lazarus, David; Suleman, Idris; Poggensee, Gabrielle; Nguku, Patrick; Nsubuga, Peter

2013-01-01

167

Satellite-based hybrid drought monitoring tool for prediction of vegetation condition in Eastern Africa: A case study for Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

experimental drought monitoring tool has been developed that predicts the vegetation condition (Vegetation Outlook) using a regression-tree technique at a monthly time step during the growing season in Eastern Africa. This prediction tool (VegOut-Ethiopia) is demonstrated for Ethiopia as a case study. VegOut-Ethiopia predicts the standardized values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at multiple time steps (weeks to months into the future) based on analysis of "historical patterns" of satellite, climate, and oceanic data over historical records. The model underlying VegOut-Ethiopia capitalizes on historical climate-vegetation interactions and ocean-climate teleconnections (such as El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)) expressed over the 24 year data record and also considers several environmental characteristics (e.g., land cover and elevation) that influence vegetation's response to weather conditions to produce 8 km maps that depict future general vegetation conditions. VegOut-Ethiopia could provide vegetation monitoring capabilities at local, national, and regional levels that can complement more traditional remote sensing-based approaches that monitor "current" vegetation conditions. The preliminary results of this case study showed that the models were able to predict the vegetation stress (both spatial extent and severity) in drought years 1-3 months ahead during the growing season in Ethiopia. The correlation coefficients between the predicted and satellite-observed vegetation condition range from 0.50 to 0.90. Based on the lessons learned from past research activities and emerging experimental forecast models, future studies are recommended that could help Eastern Africa in advancing knowledge of climate, remote sensing, hydrology, and water resources.

Tadesse, Tsegaye; Demisse, Getachew Berhan; Zaitchik, Ben; Dinku, Tufa

2014-03-01

168

Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) reveals heterogeneity of Mycobacterium bovis strains and multiple genotype infections of cattle in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) remains a major threat to animal and human health, and obstructs international and inter-regional livestock trade in Ethiopia. Many aspects of epidemiology of BTB and its causative agent, Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) are not well known. Aims of the study were to elucidate molecular characteristics of M. bovis strains using MLVA typing method. Further aim was to determine infection pressure associated with occurrence of multiple genotypes in individual infected cattle. Data and samples were collected in the period July 2006-January 2007 in cattle slaughtered at five representative abattoirs across the country. Molecular investigation of the isolates was carried out using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) of 28 variable numbers of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci, and the results were compared to spoligotyping. This study is believed to contribute to the knowledge of molecular genetics and epidemiology of M. bovis in Ethiopia and elsewhere with similar BTB epidemic situation and livestock production settings. Four-hundred and six tissue samples from 337 carcasses revealing gross pathologic lesions compatible with BTB were collected from five abattoirs. Fifty-eight isolates obtained from cultured samples were subjected to region of difference (RD) analysis and MLVA typing. RD confirmed all isolates as being M. bovis. MLVA revealed a high heterogeneity of M. bovis (19 genotypes) and the discriminatory power of MLVA was higher than for spoligotyping (Hunter-Gaston Diversity Index (HGDI) 0.92 vs. 0.82). Adoption of the nine VNTR loci with ?3 alleles provided good differentiation between the isolates. However, differentiation was optimized when MLVA was combined with spoligotyping (HGDI=0.99). MLVA confirmed infections with multiple genotypes in 38.5% (10/26) of individual animals. In conclusion, the usefulness of MLVA for genotyping M. bovis in high prevalence settings was demonstrated. BTB in Ethiopia is caused by heterogeneous populations of M. bovis and individual carcasses were often infected with different genotypes, indicating a high infection pressure perhaps related to the absence of protective immunity conferred by infection. PMID:24480051

Biffa, Demelash; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Godfroid, Jacques; Muwonge, Adrian; Skjerve, Eystein; Djønne, Berit

2014-04-01

169

Prevalence and economic implications of calf foetal wastage in an abattoir in Northcentral Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to evaluate the volume of pregnant cows slaughtered at Minna abattoir, Niger State, Nigeria between 2001 and 2009 based on abattoir meat inspection records. Of the 98,407 cows slaughtered, 4,368 were pregnant, translating to a ratio of one calf foetal wastage in every 23 cows slaughtered. The wastage was significantly (P<0.05) high during the early rainy season (April to June). There was no significant difference observed across the years. The economic impact of the wastage is estimated at N8, 353,800.00 ($56,828.57) which is a great loss to the livestock industry. With these findings, there is the need to advocate for adequate enforcement of legislations on routine veterinary examinations at the slaughter houses in Nigeria. Also, livestock owners should be educated on the seasonal breeding patterns of cattle in order to avoid selling cows during the calving season to salvage high level of calf foetal wastage. PMID:21080227

Alhaji, Nma Bida

2011-03-01

170

Diversity of culturable psychrophilic and psychrotrophic anaerobic bacteria isolated from beef abattoirs and their environments.  

PubMed

This study identified 431 psychrophilic or psychrotrophic isolates from commercial Irish beef abattoir environments and "blown packs" of vacuum-packed beef, using PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing, and estimated their intraspecies genetic diversity using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and spacer region PCR (SR-PCR). Twenty-five species were identified in the 431 isolates, with the most frequently recovered species being Clostridium gasigenes (n=315), Clostridium estertheticum (n=17), and a potentially novel species designated strain TC1 (n=52). These species were previously found to be associated with a particular type of spoilage known as blown-pack spoilage (BPS), which occurs in chilled-stored (i.e., -1.5°C to 4°C) vacuum-packaged meat within 2 to 4 weeks and involves the production of large volumes of gas. Overall, the study demonstrates the considerable and not previously reported diversity of the anaerobic microflora in abattoirs and the presence of a wide range of organisms capable of causing BPS at chilled temperatures. PMID:21498765

Moschonas, G; Bolton, D J; McDowell, D A; Sheridan, J J

2011-07-01

171

Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in farm and abattoir workers in Trinidad--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Hantaviruses are established causative agents of hemorrhagic fevers and renal diseases amongst other clinical manifestations in humans, with most diagnosis based on serological assays. The disease, which is rodent-borne, has been reported in numerous countries worldwide but information about the disease is scanty in the Caribbean. The objective of this investigation is to determine the frequency of exposure to hantaviruses in a selected apparently healthy human population associated with abattoirs and livestock farms in Trinidad using a hantavirus immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of a total of 236 individuals tested, 27 (11.4%) were seropositive for hantavirus infection. Amongst abattoir workers the frequency of infection was 9.4% (6 of 64) compared with seropositivity rate of 12.4% (18 of 145) and 11.1% (3 of 27) amongst livestock farm workers and office workers and other individuals with minimal animal contact respectively. The differences were, however, not statistically significant (p > .05; ?(2) test). Age, gender, and race did not significantly affect the infection rate by hantavirus in the workers studied. This is considered the first documented evidence of hantavirus infection in Trinidad and Tobago. It is imperative for local physicians to consider hantavirus as a differential diagnosis in patients with hemorrhagic fever and renal diseases, since there may be a number of undiagnosed cases of hantavirus disease in the human population in the country. PMID:21728870

Adesiyun, Abiodun; Dookeran, Shakti; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Rahaman, Saed; Bissessar, Sham; Thompson, Nadin

2011-01-01

172

A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.

Funk, Chris; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon

2012-01-01

173

Bovine and buffalo in vitro embryo production using oocytes derived from abattoir ovaries or collected by transvaginal follicle aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effect of oocyte source (live animals and abattoir ovaries) on subsequent embryo development in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Cow ovaries were also collected as oocyte donors for in vitro embryo production (IVEP).Three hundred thirty-eight oocytes were recovered by ovum pick up (OPU, Group A) from 8 pluriparous buffalo cows, while 1127 and

Gianluca Neglia; Bianca Gasparrini; Viviana Caracciolo di Brienza; Rossella Di Palo; Giuseppe Campanile; Giorgio Antonio Presicce; Luigi Zicarelli

2003-01-01

174

Abattoir-based study investigating the association between gross pathological lesions and serological tests for Salmonella infection in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abattoir data collected from three British pig health monitoring schemes were combined to investigate the associations between Salmonella infection and the presence of gross lesions detected in slaughtered pigs. Each set of results was linked back to the farm from which the pigs were submitted, and the Salmonella results and lesions reports were connected at farm level. Salmonella infection was

R. P. Smith; M. J. Sanchez-Vazquez; A. J. C. Cook; S. A. Edwards

2011-01-01

175

Number and distribution of bacteria on some beef carcasses at selected abattoirs in some member states of the European communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In seven member countries of the European Communities, three abattoirs were visited on three occasions in each of two surveys and at each visit ten beef carcasses were sampled, before chilling, at defined sites on the neck, brisket, forerib and medially on the round. In Survey I, samples were plated for total viable count (TVC) at 30° (ISO 2293) and

J. M. A. Snijders; B. Simonsen; K. Olgaard; H. Labots; J. van Hoof; J. Debevere; J. F. Dempster; J. Devereux; L. Leistner; H. Gehra; J. Gledel; J. Fournaud

1984-01-01

176

The deep seismic structure of the Ethiopia/Afar hotspot and the African superplume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ethiopia/Afar hotspot has been frequently explained as an upper mantle continuation of the African superplume, with anomalous material in the lower mantle under southern Africa, rising through the transition zone beneath eastern Africa. However, the significantly larger amplitude low velocity anomaly in the upper mantle beneath Ethiopia/Afar, compared to the anomalies beneath neighboring regions, has led to questions about whether or not along-strike differences in the seismic structure beneath eastern Africa and western Arabia are consistent with the superplume interpretation. Here we present a new P-wave model of the hotspot's deep structure and use it to evaluate the superplume model. At shallow (< ˜400 km) depths, the slowest velocities are centered beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift, and we attribute these low velocities to decompression melting beneath young, thin lithosphere. At deeper depths, the low velocity structure trends to the northeast, and the locus of the low velocity anomaly is found beneath Afar. The northeast-trending structure with depth is best modeled by northeastward flow of warm superplume material beneath eastern Africa. The combined effects of shallow decompression melting and northeastward flow of superplume material explain why upper mantle velocities beneath Ethiopia/Afar are significantly slower than those beneath neighboring East Africa and western Arabia. The superplume interpretation can thus explain the deep seismic structure of the hotspot if the effects of both decompression melting and mantle flow are considered.

Hansen, Samantha E.; Nyblade, Andrew A.

2013-07-01

177

Antibiotic Synergy Interaction against Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from an Abattoir Effluent Environment  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen in environmental waters with a high prevalence of multidrug resistance. In this study the synergistic efficacy of synergy antibiotic combinations in multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated from an abattoir effluent was investigated. Water samples were processed using membrane filtration; Pseudomonas was isolated with Pseudomonas Isolation Agar and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction with specie-specific primer. Susceptibility studies and in vitro synergy interaction testing were carried out, employing agar dilution and Etest procedure, respectively. Resistance was noted for clinically relevant antipseudomonal agents tested. Finding from antibiotic synergy interaction studies revealed that cefepime, imipenem, and meropenem combined with amikacin resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.0001) in vitro antibiotics synergy interaction, indicating the possible use of this regimen in treatment of pseudomonal infections.

Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Orhue, Phillips O.; Omoigberale, May N. O.; Amhanre, Napoleon I.

2012-01-01

178

Bovine cysticercosis and its food safety implications in Harari People's National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Taenia saginata cysticercosis is one of the zoonotic diseases that threaten food safety and food security, particularly in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and cyst distribution in infected cattle, and food safety implications of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Harari People's National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia. Post-mortem inspection of carcasses and organs of slaughtered cattle in Harar Municipal Abattoir, cyst viability tests and interviews with randomly selected meat consumers were undertaken. The post-mortem inspection showed that of the 898 local zebu cattle slaughtered for human consumption and examined for the presence of cysticerci of T. saginata, 19.7% (177/898; 95% CI = 17.2-22.5) harboured at least one cyst in the muscles or organs inspected. Of the edible anatomical sites with cysticerci, shoulder muscle, liver and heart together represented 65.4%, 66.0% and 65.4% respectively of relative prevalence, total cyst count and cyst viability. These edible sites are preferred above others by local people for preparation and consumption of raw or inadequately cooked meat dishes that are locally served as kurt, kitffo and dullet. The interviews revealed that among the 300 study participants, 182 (60.7%) had been infected by taeniosis at least once during the previous year and of these 99.0% had eaten raw or undercooked beef, the majority (88.3%) obtained from butchers assumed to provide officially inspected meat that was fit for consumption. This indicated that existing meat inspection processes were inadequate to prevent carcasses infected with T. saginata cysticerci from reaching consumers. The high prevalence of viable cysts in the edible parts of beef together with the widespread consumption of raw or undercooked beef indicated the importance of T. saginata cysticercosis as a food safety problem in eastern Ethiopia. The promotion of policies to upgrade existing meat inspection procedures and public education to ensure effective prevention of T. saginata taeniosis in humans were recommended. PMID:24833237

Terefe, Yitagele; Redwan, Feysel; Zewdu, Endrias

2014-01-01

179

Microbial quality of ostrich carcasses produced at an export-approved South African abattoir.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of ostrich carcasses produced in a South African export-approved ostrich abattoir. Ninety surface samples were collected from 30 ostrich carcasses at three processing points in the abattoir: after skinning, after evisceration, and after chilling. Samples were evaluated for aerobic plate counts, for levels of Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and Staphylococcus aureus, and for the presence of Escherichia coli. Surface counts (means +/- standard deviations) at postskinning, postevisceration, and postchilling processing points were, respectively, 4.32 +/- 0.62, 4.21 +/- 0.63, and 4.57 +/- 0.48 log CFU/cm2 for total aerobes; 2.82 +/- 1.65, 2.86 +/- 1.53, and 3.75 +/- 0.94 log CFU/ cm2 for Pseudomonas spp.; 2.89 +/- 0.78, 2.90 +/- 0.53, and 2.38 +/- 0.67 log CFU/cm2 for S. aureus; and 2.55 +/- 1.53, 2.78 +/- 1.31, and 2.73 +/- 1.46 log CFU/cm2 for Enterobacteriaceae. Statistically significant differences were detected between the counts for the postskinning and postchilling processing points and between the counts for the postevisceration and postchilling processing points for total aerobes, Pseudomonas spp., and S. aureus. Of practical significance was the increase in Pseudomonas spp. counts on samples collected after chilling. Seventeen of 90 samples (18.8%) tested positive for E. coli. Counts for E. coli-positive samples ranged from 1.0 to 3.79 log CFU/cm2, with a mean count of 2.15 +/- 0.94 log CFU/cm2. The majority of the samples testing positive for E. coli were collected after evisceration. PMID:12747700

Karama, M; de Jesus, A E; Veary, C M

2003-05-01

180

Phenotypic Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium Isolates from Food-animals and Abattoir Drains in Buea, Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Salmonella spp. have been extensively incriminated worldwide as common causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, with food-animals serving as important reservoirs. The study was aimed at investigating cattle and pigs slaughtered in Buea as reservoirs of Salmonella Typhimurium and the susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics. In total, 230 specimens (comprising 50 each from the rectum, ileum, and gall bladder of cattle; and 10 each from same anatomical sites of pigs and 50 from abattoir drains) were analyzed for Salmonella using the standard microbiological, biochemical and serological techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion test. The isolates were characterized into biotypes using the API 20E kit, and results were analyzed using the chi-square test. Seventy-five (32.6%) of the 230 specimens were positive for S. Typhimurium, with pigs and abattoir drains presenting the highest level of isolation (40%). Biochemical typing grouped the isolates into five biotypes. Biotype I was the most prevalent (30.6%) while biotype IV was the least prevalent (9.3%) and was absent in samples from pigs. Antibio-tic susceptibility studies revealed 14 antibiotypes based on antibiotics used in the study. The predominant antibiotype AMXR DOXRCEFR was recorded in 13 (17.3%) of the isolates. Multidrug resistance (to four or more antibiotics) was recorded in 50.7% (38/75) of the isolates. The most active drugs were ciprofloxacin (98.6%), ofloxacin (93.3%), amikacin (90.6%), and gentamicin (84%). All the isolates (100%) were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin. Cattle and pigs were found to be reservoirs of S. Typhimurium in the environment of Buea, Cameroon, implying that foods from these sources, if not properly handled, could serve as vehicles for its transmission to humans.

Akoachere, Jane-Francis T.K.; Tanih, Nicoline F.; Ndip, Lucy M.

2009-01-01

181

Ethiopia in 1990: The Revolution Unraveling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a visit by the author to Ethiopia from mid-November to mid-December 1990. The visit was made primarily to (1) assess the impact of the economic reform program introduced as a result of Presient Mengistu's speech of March 5, 1990 and (...

P. B. Henze

1991-01-01

182

Area Handbook Series: Ethiopia. A Country Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Few African countries have had such a long, varied, and trouble history as Ethiopia. The Ethiopian state originated in the Aksumite kingdom, a trading state that emerged about the first century A.D. The Aksumites perfected a written language; maintained r...

1991-01-01

183

Early Education in Ethiopia: Progress and Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored herein are historical roots of preschool through elementary grade education in the East Africa nation of Ethiopia. Also included are current difficult challenges to educational improvement as well as promising developments such as greater involvement of private institutions, organizations, and individuals in supporting Ministry of…

Hoot, James L.; Szente, Judit; Mebratu, Belete

2004-01-01

184

Household Welfare and Education in Urban Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the correlates of household welfare in urban Ethiopia with an emphasis on the impact of education. We use household panel data collected between 1994 and 1997. Welfare is approximated by household income. Although non-educated households are found in all income quintiles, education has a significant effect on household welfare. The effect of education is reduced when parental

Karin Kronlid

2001-01-01

185

Growth and shocks: evidence from rural Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using panel data from villages in rural Ethiopia, the paper studies the determinants of consumption growth (1989-97), based on a microgrowth model, controlling for heterogeneity. Consumption grew substantially, but with diverse experiences across villages and individuals. A key focus is on whether shocks affect growth. Rainfall shocks have a substantial impact on consumption growth, and its impact presists for many

Stefan Dercon

2004-01-01

186

A retrospective survey of hydatidosis in livestock in Shiraz, Iran, based on abattoir data during 1999–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat inspection records in an abattoir located in Shiraz, a city in southwest Iran and the capital of Fars province, during a 5-year period from 20 March 1999 to 19 March 2004 were used to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in sheep, cattle, and goats in the region. A total of 844,039 animals (cattle 131,716; sheep 577,090; goats 135,233) slaughtered

Maryam Ansari-Lari

2005-01-01

187

The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia.

2014-01-01

188

Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle identified by nested-PCR in abattoirs from two dairy areas of Ecuador.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic granulomatous disease that primarily affects lung tissue and lymph nodes (LN) in cattle, with economic impact on their productivity. Furthermore, it is potential zoonoses that may cause public health hazard. In this study, we evaluated the presence of bTB in two abattoirs: Cayambe and Pelileo countries located in the Ecuadorian provinces of Pichincha and Tungurahua, respectively. In total, 578 cattle were sampled (Cayambe 271 and Pelileo 307): 1,156 LN and 578 lung tissue samples were collected to apply in vitro culture and nested-PCR, respectively. The results determined a total apparent prevalence of 4.33 %, with 4.06 % at Cayambe's abattoir and 4.56 % at Pelileo's abattoir. Additionally, the Bayesian analysis showed a total true prevalence of 2.51 %, with 89.7 % of sensitivity and 97.6 % of specificity. The risk factors were evaluated by the use of simple logistic regressions with and without the random effect of places of origin. Associations of the origin of cattle in the selected slaughterhouses were found. The results showed an efficient method for the detection of bTB, which could identify a large number of infected animals, and the usefulness of lung tissue samples for early diagnosis of the disease was demonstrated in this study. PMID:24817423

Echeverría, Gustavo; Ron, Lenin; León, Ana María; Espinosa, Wilson; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington; Proaño-Pérez, Freddy

2014-08-01

189

Ethiopia: an emerging family planning success story.  

PubMed

From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success. PMID:24323662

Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew

2013-12-01

190

Electrolyzed oxidizing anode water as a sanitizer for use in abattoirs.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidizing anode (EOA) water (oxidation-reduction potential, 1,120 mV; pH 2.0) as a sanitizer for use in abattoirs was compared with the iodophor (IOD) Mikroklene (25 ppm), a sanitizer approved for use by regulatory authorities in Canada and the United States. A total of 240 swab (100 cm2) samples were obtained from 4 sites on the kill floor and 16 sites in the secondary processing areas, during two visits within a 4-week period to each of three meat packing plants, processing < or =50 animals per week. Swabs were obtained 12 h after the application of IOD and EOA and were analyzed for the presence of total aerobic bacteria, total coliforms, and total Escherichia coli. Total aerobic bacteria (log CFU/ 100 cm2) recovered from the 20 sample sites were lower (P < 0.0001) in EOA as compared with IOD (2.94 +/- 0.12 versus 3.75 +/- 0.12, respectively). Plant A was 1.5 times more likely (P < 0.0001) to have a sampling site positive for the presence of coliforms and E. coli than plants B and C. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between treatment IOD or EOA in the likelihood of obtaining a positive sample for the presence of total coliforms or E. coli among the three plants. When the kill floor and secondary processing areas are compared, the likelihood of obtaining a sample positive for coliforms or E. coli was similar (P > or = 0.05). Results indicate that EOA was more effective than IOD in reducing populations of total aerobic bacteria on equipment surfaces in the three meat packing plants studied. Because the likelihood of obtaining a positive sample for coliforms or E. coli in EOA as compared with IOD was similar, EOA may be a suitable alternative or complement to IOD as a sanitizer in small- to medium-sized abattoirs. Additional research is required to further evaluate the effectiveness of EOA to sanitize processing equipment on the basis of subsequent isolation of aerobes, coliforms, and E. coli from meat products. PMID:16865895

Bach, S J; Jones, S; Stanford, K; Ralston, B; Milligan, D; Wallins, G L; Zahiroddini, H; Stewart, T; Giffen, C; McAllister, T A

2006-07-01

191

Hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from abattoir-derived bovine fetuses  

PubMed Central

Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent progenitor cells characterized by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate into tissues of mesodermal origin. The plasticity or transdifferentiation potential of MSC is not limited to mesodermal derivatives, since under appropriate cell culture conditions and stimulation by bioactive factors, MSC have also been differentiated into endodermal (hepatocytes) and neuroectodermal (neurons) cells. The potential of MSC for hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation has been well documented in different animal models; however, few reports are currently available on large animal models. In the present study we sought to characterize the hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation and multipotent potential of bovine MSC (bMSC) isolated from bone marrow (BM) of abattoir-derived fetuses. Results Plastic-adherent bMSC isolated from fetal BM maintained a fibroblast-like morphology under monolayer culture conditions. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that bMSC populations were positive for MSC markers CD29 and CD73 and pluripotency markers OCT4 and NANOG; whereas, were negative for hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45. Levels of mRNA of hepatic genes ?-fetoprotein (AFP), albumin (ALB), alpha1 antitrypsin (?1AT), connexin 32 (CNX32), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) were up-regulated in bMSC during a 28-Day period of hepatogenic differentiation. Functional analyses in differentiated bMSC cultures evidenced an increase (P?abattoir-derived fetuses. The simplicity of isolation and the potential to differentiate into a wide variety of cell lineages lays the foundation for bMSC as an interesting alternative for investigation in MSC biology and eventual applications for regenerative therapy in veterinary medicine.

2014-01-01

192

Barriers to Antiretroviral Treatment in Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Ethiopia has made meaningful headway in improving access to HIV care and treatment but client attrition remains a daunting challenge. The objective of this study was to describe the major reasons of patient attrition from treatment at hospital and health center levels in Oromia region of Ethiopia. Methods: This qualitatively designed study was based on semistructured interview with antiretroviral

Taye T. Balcha; Anders Jeppsson; Abera Bekele

2011-01-01

193

Slaughterfloor decontamination of pork carcases with hot water or acidified sodium chlorite - a comparison in two Australian abattoirs.  

PubMed

A decontamination trial on the effectiveness of hot water or acidified sodium chlorite (SANOVA) treatment on Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Total Viable Count (TVC) was undertaken on pork carcases prior to primary chilling in two large pork abattoirs in Australia using belly-strip excision sampling. A total of 123 samples from Abattoir A and 400 samples from Abattoir B were cultured and analysed. Test pigs were selected from herds with a known high level of on-farm Salmonella infection. At Abattoir A, Salmonella spp. were not isolated from carcases. The prevalence of E. coli on control carcases was 92.9% compared with 9.8% for hot water and 12.5% for SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) E. coli concentration for control carcases was 0.89 cfu/gram, compared with -0.83 cfu/gram from hot water and -0.75 cfu/gram from SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) TVC for control carcases was 4.06 compared with 1.81 cfu/gram for hot water and 2.76 cfu/gram for SANOVA treated carcases. At Abattoir B, the prevalence of Salmonella on control carcases was 16% compared with 2.7% for hot water and 7.0% for SANOVA treated carcases. The prevalence of E. coli on control carcases was 69.3% compared with 22% for hot water and 30% for SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) E. coli concentration for control carcases was 0.45 cfu/gram, compared with -0.65 cfu/gram from hot water and -0.60 cfu/gram from SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) TVC for control carcases was 3.00 cfu/gram compared with 2.10 cfu/gram for hot water and 2.53 cfu/gram for SANOVA treated carcases. The reductions in prevalence and mean log(10) concentrations in the present trial were all found to be statistically significant and indicate that carcases decontamination with either hot water or SANOVA are effective risk management options immediately available to the pork industry. PMID:21083814

Hamilton, D; Holds, G; Lorimer, M; Kiermeier, A; Kidd, C; Slade, J; Pointon, A

2010-11-01

194

Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

In 1967 the Kibish Formation in southern Ethiopia yielded hominid cranial remains identified as early anatomically modern humans, assigned to Homo sapiens. However, the provenance and age of the fossils have been much debated. Here we confirm that the Omo I and Omo II hominid fossils are from similar stratigraphic levels in Member I of the Kibish Formation, despite the view that Omo I is more modern in appearance than Omo II. 40Ar/39Ar ages on feldspar crystals from pumice clasts within a tuff in Member I below the hominid levels place an older limit of 198 +/- 14 kyr (weighted mean age 196 +/- 2 kyr) on the hominids. A younger age limit of 104 +/- 7 kyr is provided by feldspars from pumice clasts in a Member III tuff. Geological evidence indicates rapid deposition of each member of the Kibish Formation. Isotopic ages on the Kibish Formation correspond to ages of Mediterranean sapropels, which reflect increased flow of the Nile River, and necessarily increased flow of the Omo River. Thus the 40Ar/39Ar age measurements, together with the sapropel correlations, indicate that the hominid fossils have an age close to the older limit. Our preferred estimate of the age of the Kibish hominids is 195 +/- 5 kyr, making them the earliest well-dated anatomically modern humans yet described. PMID:15716951

McDougall, Ian; Brown, Francis H; Fleagle, John G

2005-02-17

195

Proposed water-supply investigations in Sidamo Province, Ethiopia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southern Ethiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.

Phoenix, David A.

1966-01-01

196

Educating Handicapped Young People in Eastern and Southern Africa in 1981-83.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication compiles the findings and conclusions of the 3-year first phase (1980-83) of the Unesco Sub-regional Project for Special Education in Eastern and Southern Africa. It presents the state of the art of special education and prospects for future development in Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Seychelles, Somalia,…

Ross, D. H.

197

Estimating probabilistic rainfall and food security outcomes for eastern and southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards development. In September of 2008, Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti, and Somalia faced high or extreme conditions of food insecurity caused by repeated droughts and rapid

J. Verdin; C. Funk; M. Dettinger; M. Brown

2009-01-01

198

An abattoir-based study on the prevalence of hydatidosis in livestock in Mashhad, Iran.  

PubMed

A 6-year (2004-2010) retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in livestock slaughtered in Mashhad abattoir, Mashhad, in north-eastern Iran and the capital of Khorasan province. Between 20 March 2004 and 19 March 2010, 5,131,485 animals (411,163 cattle; 4,547,618 sheep; 172,704 goats) were slaughtered in the study area and 388,399 (7.5%) livers and 1,139,529 (22.2%) lungs were discarded. Hydatidosis was responsible for 4% and 6.5% of total livers and lungs inspected, respectively. Of the cattle livers and lungs inspected over the survey period, 5.5% and 7.9% were condemned, respectively, because they held hydatid cysts. The corresponding values for livers and lungs of sheep (2%, 4%) and of goats (4.5%, 7.8%), respectively, were also condemned due to hydatidosis. Data showed a prominent seasonal pattern for hydatidosis. Liver condemnations due to hydatidosis were higher in winter and autumn for cattle and sheep, respectively, whereas lung condemnations were higher in summer for sheep and cattle. In goats, liver and lung condemnations were higher in winter. This could be attributed to various factors, such as sources of slaughtered animals, changes in management practice and ecological factors. The present survey provides baseline data for the future monitoring of this potentially important parasitic disease in the region. PMID:21729380

Borji, H; Azizzadeh, M; Afsai, A

2012-06-01

199

An abattoir-based study of hydatidosis in the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) in Mashhad, Iran.  

PubMed

A 6-year retrospective study based on abattoir records was carried out to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in dromedaries in Khorasan province in north-eastern Iran. Between 20 March 2004 and 19 March 2010, 25,255 dromedaries were slaughtered in the study area and the livers of 2791 (11.1%) and the lungs of 3289 dromedaries (13.2%) were discarded due to hydatidosis. The annual prevalence of liver condemnations due to hydatidosis decreased from 24.1% in 2004-2005 to 13.3% in 2009, and finally to 6.8% in 2010. The corresponding features for lung condemnation due to hydatidosis were relatively higher than liver, declining from 28.7% in 2004-2005 to 14.9% in 2009, and finally to 7.1% in 2010. Liver and lung condemnations due to hydatidosis were significantly higher in the spring. This could be attributed to various factors such as sources of slaughtered animals, changes in management practice and ecological factors. The present survey provides baseline data for the future monitoring of this potentially important parasitic disease in the region. PMID:21251343

Borji, H; Azizzadeh, M; Afsai, A

2011-12-01

200

Causes and implications of bovine organs/offal condemnations in some abattoirs in Western Nigeria.  

PubMed

Food animals though sources of protein and revenue to man, also serve as vehicles of disease transmission. This work reviews a three year record of slaughtered cattle in 12 abattoirs/slaughter slabs in western Nigeria to determine the economic and public health issues associated with their disease conditions. Out of 641,224 cattle slaughtered, 51,196 (7.98%) were attributable to 14 diseases/conditions including tuberculosis, pneumonia, fascioliasis, pimply gut, paramphistomosis, cysticercosis, dermatophilosis, tonsillitis, taeniasis, ascariosis, abscess, mange, mastitis and immature fetuses. Pneumonia (21.38%), fascioliasis (20.28%) and tuberculosis (7.95%) were major reasons for condemnations; least being ascariosis (0.01%). The lungs (45.66%) and liver (32.94%) accounted for most organ condemned while the heart (0.02%) was the least affected. The proportions of pneumonia, fascioliasis and immature fetuses observed were not statistically different (Mean = 3895.7; 3654.0; 3467.3); however, a significant difference existed with other conditions (Mean(A) = 3895.7; 3654.0; 3467.3; Mean(B) = 1359.7; 1057.7; 510.3). Organs/offal condemnations constituted loss of revenue and animal protein as 124,333 kilogrammes worth of meat valued in Naira at N41,613,043 ($332,904) was lost over the period giving an average of N13,871,014 ($110,968) annually. This, coupled with fetal wastage represented an economic loss; with associated public health implications. PMID:19333773

Cadmus, S I B; Adesokan, H K

2009-10-01

201

Prevalence of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in slaughtered sheep and goats in Amol Abattoir, Mazandaran, northern Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective The liver flukes, Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, infect ruminants and other mammalian extensively and cause major diseases of livestock that produce considerable economic losses. Methods A survey of 2391 sheep and goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Amol region, northern Iran was used to determine the prevalence of the liver flukes infection based on season, sex and specie of the animals. Results The results revealed that the prevalence rate of Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum was 6.6% and 4.3% respectively. Dicrocoeliosis was more dominant in female animals (7.1%) whereas there was no sex-related difference in the prevalence of Fasciola spp. in male and female animals. Furthermore, Fasciolosis was significantly more prevalent than dicrocoeliosis in both sheep and goats. The Seasonal prevalence of Fasciola spp. was highest (P<0.005) during spring (8.3%) followed in order by autumn (8.1%), winter (5.9%) and summer (4.0%) but Dicrocoeliosis did not follow any seasonal pattern. Conclusions According to this study, it can be concluded that Amol is regarded as an endemic region for Fasciola spp and D. dandriticum infection. Moreover, Fasciola spp. is the most widespread liver fluke found in sheep and goats which is more dominant in sheep than goats.

Khanjari, Ali; Bahonar, Alireza; Fallah, Sepideh; Bagheri, Mahboube; Alizadeh, Abbas; fallah, Marjan; Khanjari, Zahra

2014-01-01

202

Bacterial populations associated with the dirty area of a South African poultry abattoir.  

PubMed

Bacterial populations associated with three sample types from the neck region of poultry carcasses in the dirty area of an abattoir were characterized. Sample types before and after scalding were skin only, feathers only, and a skin and feather combination. The neck skin of carcasses after the defeathering processing stage was also sampled. Bacterial populations associated with water from the scald tank, rubber fingers at the exit of the defeathering machine, and air in the dirty area were also characterized. Bacterial colonies (751) were randomly isolated from yeast extract-supplemented tryptone soya agar plates exhibiting 30 to 300 colonies. Micrococcus spp. were isolated in the highest proportion from pre-and postscalded carcass samples (63.5 to 86.1% of isolates), regardless of the sample type. Conversely, Enterobacteriaceae (40.3%), Acinetobacter (19.4%), and Aeromonas/Vibrio (12.5%) species predominated on neck skin samples taken from mechanically defeathered carcasses. Isolates from the rubber fingers were, however, predominantly Micrococcus spp. (94.4%). Bacterial groups isolated in the highest proportion from scald tank water samples were Micrococcus spp. (38.3%), species of Enterobacteriaceae (29.1%), and lactic acid bacteria (17.0%). Corynebacterium spp., species of Enterobacteriaceae, and Micrococcus spp. were dominant on air settle plates. PMID:9709252

Geornaras, I; de Jesus, A E; von Holy, A

1998-06-01

203

Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella in veal calves at Danish cattle abattoirs.  

PubMed

The study's objectives were to determine herd- and animal-level prevalence and herd-level risk factors for Salmonella in dairy-bred veal calves at slaughter in Denmark. In total, 1296 faecal samples were collected at five cattle abattoirs in Denmark during 2007-2008. The animals came from 71 randomly selected specialized veal-calf producers that delivered more than 100 animals to slaughter per year. Salmonella Dublin bacteria were isolated from 19 samples from 12 herds and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from one sample. The apparent prevalence of herds delivering Salmonella-shedding animals to slaughter was 18% (95% CI 9-27). The overall estimated true prevalence of shedding calves at slaughter was 1.3%. Veal-calf herds that purchased animals from herds not classified as low risk in the Danish Salmonella surveillance programme had significantly (P=0.03) higher risk of delivering Salmonella-shedding calves to slaughter. The results emphasize the importance of efforts in the dairy industry to ensure food safety for consumers. PMID:21062531

Nielsen, L R; Baggesen, D L; Aabo, S; Moos, M K; Rattenborg, E

2011-07-01

204

Molecular tracking of Listeria monocytogenes in an Iberian pig abattoir and processing plant.  

PubMed

The environment and products from an Iberian pig abattoir and processing plant were sampled to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Listeria monocytogenes. The organism was not detected in the pig carcasses prior to processing. Fresh and dry-cured pork did show detectable levels, always ranging below 100CFU per gram. A total of 163 L. monocytogenes isolates collected during one year were characterized by PCR-based serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) restriction analysis. Three predominant PFGE types or pulsotypes seemed to persist in the plant. The pulsotype S1 (serotype group 1/2a, 53% of the isolates) was mostly recovered from whole pieces of meat and environmental sites, while pulsotypes S2 (1/2a, 17%) and S4 (1/2b, 21%) were more frequently associated with ground pork products. The pulsotype S4 was also found in a grinding machine, suggesting a possible association of this machine with the contamination of the ground meat products. PMID:22062102

López, Victoria; Villatoro, David; Ortiz, Sagrario; López, Pilar; Navas, Jaime; Dávila, J Carlos; Martínez-Suárez, Joaquín V

2008-01-01

205

Maternal slaughter at abattoirs: history, causes, cases and the meat industry.  

PubMed

Animals of both sexes are slaughtered for meat and meat products at the abattoirs. It has been found in few countries that one-out-of-every-three ewe and one-out-of-every-four doe with single, twin or multiple foetuses are slaughtered in registered slaughterhouses. In quest for meat, numerous viable embryos and foetuses are wasted unnoticed since the productive pregnant animals are not spared in the process. The trend in the slaughter of pregnant animals for meat (ranging from 54.5% to 70.1%) therefore calls for a review to reminisce issues on slaughter reforms, emphasize its implication on losses of genetic materials and sustainability of meat production. As a way of ensuring that welfare quality® assessment is not compromised and cruelty is prevented during animal slaughter, the quantitation of housekeeping genes and naturally occurring microRNAs (miRNAs) are recommended for identifying candidate pain biomarkers. In order to respect consumers' right however, the manuscript suggests meat branding where the consumption of meat from pregnant animals is ethical. PMID:23577300

Fayemi, Peter Olutope; Muchenje, Voster

2013-12-01

206

Spread of marker bacteria from the hides of cattle in a simulated livestock market and at an abattoir.  

PubMed

The spread of microbial contamination on the hides of beef was investigated at two stages in the meat chain: (i) in a simulated livestock market ("the market") using 33 animals, and (ii) in the unloading-to-skinning area of a commercial abattoir using 18 animals. At both stages, harmless bacterial markers (nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli K-12; rifampicin- and nalidixic acid-resistant Pseudomonas fluorescens; and a tetracycline-resistant E. coli) were inoculated on the hides of a small number of selected animals, and their transfer to other animals and the environment was examined. At the market, the initial prevalence of animals positive for the hide markers (9.1% in each phase) introduced in the presale pen, sale ring, and postsale pen changed to 39.4, 15.1, and 54.5%, respectively, by the end of the market process. In addition, widespread contamination of the market environment with the hide markers was observed. At the abattoir, the initial prevalence of animals positive for the hide marker (11.1%) inoculated at unloading increased to 100% (hide before skinning) and 88.8% (skinned carcass). In addition, another marker inoculated on environmental surfaces in lairage pens, races, and stunning box was detected on 83.3% (hide before skinning) and 88.8% (skinned carcass). These results, although obtained with a relatively small number of animals, demonstrate that both the livestock market process and the unloading-to-skinning process at abattoirs can facilitate the extensive spread of microbial contamination on hides not just within, but also between, batches of animals. PMID:15553619

Collis, V J; Reid, C-A; Hutchison, M L; Davies, M H; Wheeler, K P A; Small, A; Buncic, S

2004-11-01

207

Potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli in healthy, pasture-raised sheep on farms and at the abattoir in Brazil.  

PubMed

Sheep harbor pathogenic Escherichia coli, which may cause severe disease in humans. In this study, the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) was examined in sheep feces and carcasses on three farms and at an abattoir in Brazil. The isolates were further characterized for the presence of markers recently associated with disease in humans, to investigate their possible origin and role as food-borne pathogens. At the abattoir, 99 carcass samples yielded two STEC and 10 EPEC isolates while 101 fecal samples yielded five EPEC and eight STEC isolates. On the other hand, on the farms, 202 samples yielded 44 STEC and eight EPEC isolates. The 77 isolates were typed by PFGE. Isolates with the same PFGE pattern and also those that were not restricted with XbaI were termed as "clones" (n=49). The isolates of any one clone mostly originated from the same sampling site. In addition, seven isolates encoded for novel Stx2 variants and five for Stx2e, the subtype related to porcine edema disease, which was for the first time isolated from sheep feces and carcasses. Also, three stx2-only isolates harbored genes of predicted Stx2 variants that were formed by A and B subunits of different types including Stx2a and Stx2d. The EPEC isolates were heterogeneous, 21 (91.3%) of them possessing efa1, ehxA, lpfAO113 or paa genes associated with diarrhea in humans. Thus, using markers recently associated with disease, we have demonstrated that E. coli similar to those pathogenic for humans are present in the sheep intestinal microflora, particularly at the abattoir, underlining the potential for food-borne transmission. PMID:24438985

Maluta, Renato Pariz; Fairbrother, John Morris; Stella, Ariel Eurides; Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; Martinez, Roberto; de Ávila, Fernando Antonio

2014-02-21

208

Assessing Characteristics of Drought and Its physical mechanism over Ethiopia using Observational and RegCM4 Driven Indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the analysis of dryness/wetness over Ethiopia from 1982 to 2009 using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which are derived from observational and RegCM4 dataset over Ethiopia. Trend empirical orthogonal function (TEOF), regression and wavelet analysis are used to investigate the long term change, frequency and intra-annual variability of drought over Ethiopia. All method analysis of PDSI and SPI are consistent and showed, the southern regions to be more drought-prone than other regions of Ethiopia and statistically significant dry trend are dominated in particular during the recent decade. By contrast, the likelihood of drought occurrence of northern regions is considerably less and dominated by low frequency signals. Both indices indicated that the North and Northwest regions experienced frequent and worst drought conditions centered at the year 1983/1984 and similar conditions centered at the year 2007-2009 over the southern and southwestern regions have been identified. The first two most dominant trend principal components (TPCs) of observational driven PDSI and SPI-12 with corresponding RegCM4 driven TPCs of PDSI and SPI-12 indicates significant correlations (correlation exceeding ~0.8). In addition, the corresponding patterns (TEOFs) of RegCM4 and observational driven drought indices are so similar. Generally, the RegCM4 shows a good performance in simulating the multi-scale spatial and temporal variability of drought occurrence over Ethiopia. The correlation pattern of trend principal components (TPCs) of PDSI and SPI-12 with raw sea surface temperature (SST) indicates that the possible association of the observed variability of drought. The equatorial pacific, the northern and equatorial Atlantic are correlated significantly with first dominant TPC of drought indices, whereas ENSO, Indian and Atlantic Ocean significantly correlated with the second dominant TPC of drought indices. In addition we observe the association between ocean basin and drought indices is highly seasonal dependant with the strongest association in the spring. The physical mechanisms responsible for such linkage in the atmosphere are examined using both ERA-Interim (ERIM) and RegCM4 dataset. Moreover, it was found that droughts occurred in events of strong El Niño years mainly severe and wider areal coverage. During events of negative values of Indian Ocean dipole (-IOD) the southern and west border regions of the country hit by severe drought. The northern and some part of Ethiopia during events of negative anomaly SST of North Atlantic suffered at a significant level by drought conditions. Overall, the common power variance, phase, frequency and confidence of the time-lagged relationships between oceanic basin TPC and drought indices TPCs indicate that oceanic parameters can be used as indicators of drought occurrence in Ethiopia.

Zeleke, T. T.; Tsidu, G. M.; Giorgi, F.; Diro, G. T.

2012-12-01

209

Trends and spatial distribution of annual and seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a country whose economy is heavily dependent on low-productivity rainfed agriculture, rainfall trends are often cited as one of the more important factors in explaining various socio-economic problems such as food insecurity. Therefore, in order to help policymakers and developers make more informed decisions, this study investigated the temporal dynamics of rainfall and its spatial distribution within Ethiopia. Changes in rainfall were examined using data from 134 stations in 13 watersheds between 1960 and 2002. The variability and trends in seasonal and annual rainfall were analysed at the watershed scale with data (1) from all available years, and (2) excluding years that lacked observations from at least 25% of the gauges. Similar anlyses were also performed at the gauge, regional, and national levels. By regressing annual watershed rainfall on time, results from the one-sample t-test show no significant changes in rainfall for any of the watersheds examined. However, in our regressions of seasonal rainfall averages against time, we found a significant decline in June to September rainfall (i.e. Kiremt) for the Baro-Akobo, Omo-Ghibe, Rift Valley, and Southern Blue Nile watersheds located in the southwestern and central parts of Ethiopia. While the gauge level analysis showed that certain gauge stations experienced recent changes in rainfall, these trends are not necessarily reflected at the watershed or regional levels. Copyright ?? 2008 Royal Meteorological Society.

Cheung, W. H.; Senay, G. B.; Singh, A.

2008-01-01

210

Studies on dentition and oral disorders of Camels in Maiduguri Abattoir, Borno State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Camelus dromedarius dental disorders were surveyed using abattoir samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria. A total of 313 heads, were randomly examined. The age and sex of the heads were estimated using standard methods and disorders were observed following the split of the oral commissure. Heads with multiple disorders were counted once and of 313 heads, 114 (41.67 %) and 199 (58.33 %) were males and females, respectively. Heads aged <5 years was 18.21 %; 5-10 years, 44.41 %; and >15 years was 37.38 %. Whereas 22.61 % of the total heads had one disorder or another, 7.98 and 14.06 % of the disorders belonged to male and female heads, respectively. The prevalence rate of the disorders observed include dental tartar and calculus (5.42 %), inward rotation of incisors (2.87 %), fractured teeth (7.66 %), maleruption (0.31 %), oligodontia (0.31 %), gingivitis (4.15 %), ulcerated cheek(0.63 %), and presence of foreign body(0.31 %) in the mouth. Prevalence rate of oral-cavity abnormalities in relation to age of the total heads is 5.75, 5.11, and 10.54 % for animals <5, between 5 and 10 years, and 10-15 years, respectively. Furthermore, heads that were affected with various types of disorders are 31.58 % (<5 years of age), 11.51 % (aged 5-10 years), and 28.21 % (>15 years). The study serves as a call for increased oral-cavity health care of camels. PMID:22573007

Eze, Chinedu Athanasius; Adamu, Simon S; Bukar, Mohammed M

2012-12-01

211

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2008: Ethiopia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ethiopia is a federal republic led by Prime Minister Meles Zenawi and the ruling Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) coalition. The population was approximately 77 million. In the 2005 parliamentary elections, the EPRDF won a third c...

2008-01-01

212

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2007: Ethiopia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ethiopia is a federal republic under the leadership of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi and the ruling Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) coalition. The population was approximately 77 million. In the May 2005 parliamentary elections, th...

2008-01-01

213

Network Science Center Research Team's Visit to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Network Science Center research team demonstrated a network analysis tool kit to the Political and Economic Sections at the US Embassy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. This rigorous quantitative analysis package provides the capability to assist decision maker...

D. Evans E. Szablowski Z. Langhans

2012-01-01

214

False Promise or False Premise? The Experience of Food and Input Market Reform in Eastern and Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on the effects of agricultural market reform in Africa is sharply divided and inconsistent. This article attempts to reconcile opposing viewpoints on the effects of food and input market policy reform in eastern and southern Africa. Drawing from studies of Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, we argue that a major source of the controversy stems from assumptions

A Chapoto; J. Govereh; A. Mwanaumo; J. K. Nyoro

2002-01-01

215

Early Pliocene hominids from Gona, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Comparative biomolecular studies suggest that the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, lived during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Fossil evidence of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene hominid evolution is rare and limited to a few sites in Ethiopia, Kenya and Chad. Here we report new Early Pliocene hominid discoveries and their palaeoenvironmental context from the fossiliferous deposits of As Duma, Gona Western Margin (GWM), Afar, Ethiopia. The hominid dental anatomy (occlusal enamel thickness, absolute and relative size of the first and second lower molar crowns, and premolar crown and radicular anatomy) indicates attribution to Ardipithecus ramidus. The combined radioisotopic and palaeomagnetic data suggest an age of between 4.51 and 4.32 million years for the hominid finds at As Duma. Diverse sources of data (sedimentology, faunal composition, ecomorphological variables and stable carbon isotopic evidence from the palaeosols and fossil tooth enamel) indicate that the Early Pliocene As Duma sediments sample a moderate rainfall woodland and woodland/grassland. PMID:15662421

Semaw, Sileshi; Simpson, Scott W; Quade, Jay; Renne, Paul R; Butler, Robert F; McIntosh, William C; Levin, Naomi; Dominguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Rogers, Michael J

2005-01-20

216

Land degradation: a challenge to Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Land degradation is a great threat for the future and it requires great effort and resources to ameliorate. The major causes of land degradation in Ethiopia are the rapid population increase, severe soil loss, deforestation, low vegetative cover and unbalanced crop and livestock production. Inappropriate land-use systems and land-tenure policies enhance desertification and loss of agrobiodiversity. Utilization of dung and crop residues for fuel and other uses disturbs the sustainability of land resources. The supply of inputs such as fertilizer, farm machinery and credits are very low. The balance between crop, livestock, and forest production is disturbed, and the farmer is forced to put more land into crop production. For environmentally and socially sustainable development, there is an urgent need to promote awareness and understanding of the interdependence of natural, socioeconomic, and political systems at local and national levels. Understanding the current status and causes of land degradation is very important. This paper reveals the important elements of land degradation in Ethiopia and suggests possible solutions that may help to ameliorate the situation. PMID:11393316

Taddese, G

2001-06-01

217

Podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones, Northern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPodoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) that is prevalent in red clay soil-covered highlands of tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northern India. It is estimated that up to one million cases exist in Ethiopia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones of Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA cross-sectional

Yordanos B. Molla; Sara Tomczyk; Tsige Amberbir; Abreham Tamiru; Gail Davey

2012-01-01

218

A retrospective survey of hydatidosis in livestock in Arusha, Tanzania, based on abattoir data during 2005-2007.  

PubMed

A 3-year (2005-2007) retrospective study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in cattle and shoats (sheep and goats) slaughtered at Arusha municipal abattoir, Tanzania. A total of 115,186 cattle and 99,401 shoats were slaughtered. Cattle liver, lungs, spleen and heart condemnation rate was 16.35%, 13.04%, 2.09% and 3.06% respectively while 17.63%, 7.63%, 0.38% and 0.04% of shoats' liver, lungs, spleen and heart respectively were condemned. A highly significant (p < 0.001) cystic echinococcosis (CE) infection rate was recorded in shoats (6.02%) than in cattle (4.2%) probably because of differences in grazing patterns. Cattle lungs were more affected by CE (22.5%) than liver (19.7%) while shoats liver were found to be more affected (21%) than the lungs (19.3). A significant (p < 0.001) higher CE infection rate was observed in cattle spleen (15.5%) than shoats (9.7%). There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference between condemnation rates due to hydatidosis during rain and dry seasons probably because of chronicity of the disease. The study have established that CE is prevalent in animals slaughtered at Arusha abattoir and causes higher condemnation rates of edible offals. This merit for more extensive epidemiological investigations to better determine the prevalence, economic impact and public health importance of the disease in the region. PMID:19184507

Nonga, H E; Karimuribo, E D

2009-10-01

219

Upper mantle P-wave speed variations beneath Ethiopia and the origin of the Afar hotspot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Afar hotspot has long been attributed to one or more thermal upwellings in the mantle, in particular starting thermal plumes characterized by a head that spreads laterally beneath the lithosphere, and a tail. New P-wave tomography images of the upper mantle beneath Ethiopia reveal an elongated low wave speed region that is deep (>400 km) and wide (>500 km). The location of the low wave speed anomaly aligns with the Afar Depression and Main Ethiopian Rift in the uppermost mantle, but the center of the anomaly shifts to the west with depth. The shape, depth extent, and location of the low wave speed anomaly is not consistent with a starting thermal plume presently beneath the hotspot. Instead, the anomaly suggests that the hotspot may be the surface manifestation of a broad mantle upwelling connected to the African Superplume in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa.

Benoit, Margaret H.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Vandecar, John C.

2006-05-01

220

The characteristics and chronology of the earliest Acheulean at Konso, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The Acheulean technological tradition, characterized by a large (>10 cm) flake-based component, represents a significant technological advance over the Oldowan. Although stone tool assemblages attributed to the Acheulean have been reported from as early as circa 1.6-1.75 Ma, the characteristics of these earliest occurrences and comparisons with later assemblages have not been reported in detail. Here, we provide a newly established chronometric calibration for the Acheulean assemblages of the Konso Formation, southern Ethiopia, which span the time period ?1.75 to <1.0 Ma. The earliest Konso Acheulean is chronologically indistinguishable from the assemblage recently published as the world's earliest with an age of ?1.75 Ma at Kokiselei, west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. This Konso assemblage is characterized by a combination of large picks and crude bifaces/unifaces made predominantly on large flake blanks. An increase in the number of flake scars was observed within the Konso Formation handaxe assemblages through time, but this was less so with picks. The Konso evidence suggests that both picks and handaxes were essential components of the Acheulean from its initial stages and that the two probably differed in function. The temporal refinement seen, especially in the handaxe forms at Konso, implies enhanced function through time, perhaps in processing carcasses with long and stable cutting edges. The documentation of the earliest Acheulean at ?1.75 Ma in both northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia suggests that behavioral novelties were being established in a regional scale at that time, paralleling the emergence of Homo erectus-like hominid morphology. PMID:23359714

Beyene, Yonas; Katoh, Shigehiro; Woldegabriel, Giday; Hart, William K; Uto, Kozo; Sudo, Masafumi; Kondo, Megumi; Hyodo, Masayuki; Renne, Paul R; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane

2013-01-29

221

DOTS improves treatment outcomes and service coverage for tuberculosis in South Ethiopia: a retrospective trend analysis  

PubMed Central

Background DOTS as a strategy was introduced to the tuberculosis control programme in Southern region of Ethiopia in 1996. The impact of the programme on treatment outcomes and the trend in the service coverage for tuberculosis has not been assessed ever since. The aim of the study was to assess trends in the expansion of DOTS and treatment outcomes for tuberculosis in Hadiya zone in Southern Ethiopia. Methods 19,971 tuberculosis patients registered for treatment in 41 treatment centres in Hadiya zone between 1994 and 2001 were included in the study. The data were collected from the unit tuberculosis registers. For each patient, we recorded information on demographic characteristics, treatment centre, year of treatment, disease category, treatment given, follow-up and treatment outcomes. We also checked the year when DOTS was introduced to the treatment centre. Results Population coverage by DOTS reached 75% in 2001, and the proportion of patients treated with short course chemotherapy increased from 7% in 1994 to 97% in 2001. Treatment success for smear-positive tuberculosis rose from 38% to 73% in 2000, default rate declined from 38% to 18%, and treatment failure declined from 5% to 1%. Being female patient, age 15–24 years, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis, treatment with short course chemotherapy, and treatment at peripheral centres were associated with higher treatment success and lower defaulter rates. Conclusion The introduction and expansion of DOTS in Hadiya has led to a significant increase in treatment success and decrease in default and failure rates. The smaller institutions exhibited better treatment outcomes compared to the larger ones including the zonal hospital. We identified many patients with missing information in the unit registers and this issue needs to be addressed. Further studies are recommended to see the impact of the programme on the prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis.

Shargie, Estifanos B; Lindtj?rn, Bernt

2005-01-01

222

The characteristics and chronology of the earliest Acheulean at Konso, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

The Acheulean technological tradition, characterized by a large (>10 cm) flake-based component, represents a significant technological advance over the Oldowan. Although stone tool assemblages attributed to the Acheulean have been reported from as early as circa 1.6–1.75 Ma, the characteristics of these earliest occurrences and comparisons with later assemblages have not been reported in detail. Here, we provide a newly established chronometric calibration for the Acheulean assemblages of the Konso Formation, southern Ethiopia, which span the time period ?1.75 to <1.0 Ma. The earliest Konso Acheulean is chronologically indistinguishable from the assemblage recently published as the world’s earliest with an age of ?1.75 Ma at Kokiselei, west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. This Konso assemblage is characterized by a combination of large picks and crude bifaces/unifaces made predominantly on large flake blanks. An increase in the number of flake scars was observed within the Konso Formation handaxe assemblages through time, but this was less so with picks. The Konso evidence suggests that both picks and handaxes were essential components of the Acheulean from its initial stages and that the two probably differed in function. The temporal refinement seen, especially in the handaxe forms at Konso, implies enhanced function through time, perhaps in processing carcasses with long and stable cutting edges. The documentation of the earliest Acheulean at ?1.75 Ma in both northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia suggests that behavioral novelties were being established in a regional scale at that time, paralleling the emergence of Homo erectus-like hominid morphology.

Beyene, Yonas; Katoh, Shigehiro; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Uto, Kozo; Sudo, Masafumi; Kondo, Megumi; Hyodo, Masayuki; Renne, Paul R.; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane

2013-01-01

223

Some Causes of Organ and Carcass Condemnations in Ostriches Slaughtered at the Only Ostrich Abattoir in Zimbabwe from 1999-2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was conducted to determine the causes of ostrich carcass and organ condemnations in Zimbabwe for the period 1999-2005. Records of meat inspection available at the single ostrich abattoir in Zimbabwe were used in this study. The number of ostriches slaughtered for the whole study period was 55 957. The total number of ostriches slaughtered decreased by 84.8%

S. Mukaratirwa; B. M. Dzoma; C. Matongo; M. Nyahuma

2009-01-01

224

A retrospective study of abattoir condemnation due to parasitic infections: economic importance in Ahwaz, southwestern Iran.  

PubMed

A 5-yr retrospective study in livestock slaughtered in abattoirs was carried out in Khuzestan Province (southwestern Iran) to determine the prevalence of parasitic infections responsible for condemnation of slaughtered animals' carcasses and viscera. The economic importance of such infections in terms of lost meat and offal were also estimated. Between 20 March 2006 and 19 March 2011, 125,593 cattle, 1,191,871 sheep, 240,221 goats, and 25,010 buffalos were slaughtered in the study area; the livers of 58,753 (3.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-3.8%), the lungs of 34,522 (2.2%; 95% CI: 2.1-2.2%), and the carcasses of 78 (0.0049% 95% CI: 0.0048-0.0049%) of these animals were condemned. Proportions of liver, lung, and carcass condemnations during the 5-yr study period in buffalos were significantly greater than the other species (P < 0.001). Frequency of liver condemnation during the 5-yr period for cattle was greater than sheep and goats (P < 0.001), but condemnation of lungs in goat was significantly greater than sheep and cattle (P < 0.001). The parasitic lesions observed in the condemned livers were attributed to Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica, or Dicrocoelium dendriticum, or some combination of these species. All the parasitic lesions observed in the condemned lungs from cattle, sheep, goats, and buffalos are ascribed to E. granulosus. Sarcocystis spp. cysts were found in ovine and buffalo muscles, whereas Taenia sp. cysticerci were detected in bovine muscle. Muscles of goats were devoid of any parasitic lesions. Parasites were responsible for 54.1% of the condemned organs or carcasses, with a retail value (based on market prices in 2011) of $1,148,181 (U.S.) ($137,880 for cattle, $602,699 for sheep, $280,955 for goats, and $126,647 for buffalos). The parasites contributing most to the condemnation of otherwise marketable organs and flesh were E. granulosus (29.2%) and F. hepatica (18.6%). These parasites clearly remain the most common, causing considerable economic loss in Khuzestan Province and, presumably, other areas of Iran. PMID:22568697

Borji, Hassan; Azizzadeh, Mohammad; Kamelli, Mehrab

2012-10-01

225

Prevalence, intensity and seasonality of gastrointestinal parasites in abattoir horses in Germany.  

PubMed

Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites were studied through a longitudinal survey in 400 horses over a 17-month period in an abattoir in Germany. Three hundred and ten horses (77.5 %) were demonstrated harbouring endoparasites either by direct recovery of parasites from the digestive tract and/or in terms of faecal egg counts (strongyles). The following parasites were found (percentage prevalence, range of counts): Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae (2.25 %, 1-154), Gasterophilus nasalis larvae (0.25 %, 44), Trichostrongylus axei (11.0 %, 1-3,620), Habronema majus (8.0 %; 1-422), Habronema muscae (26.5 %, 1-3,563), Habronema spp. fourth-stage larvae (5.5 %; 1-1,365), Parascaris equorum (total prevalence 11.3 %; adults 8.8 %, 1-178; fourth-stage larvae 2.5 %, 5-2,320), Anoplocephala perfoliata (28.5 %, 1-2,013) and Paranoplocephala mamillana (1.0 %, 1-11). Strongyle eggs (?10 eggs per gram of faeces) were recorded in 60.8 % of the horses (10-6,450 eggs per gram of faeces).Prevalences of infection with T. axei, P. equorum and strongyles did not show a correlation to specific seasons. In contrast, a significant variation among seasons of collection was shown for the infection rates of Habronema spp. (p?

Rehbein, Steffen; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate

2013-01-01

226

Exploring relationships between whole carcass condemnation abattoir data, non-disease factors and disease outbreaks in swine herds in Ontario (2001-2007)  

PubMed Central

Background Improving upon traditional animal disease surveillance systems may allow more rapid detection of disease outbreaks in animal populations. In Ontario, between the years 2001 – 2007, widespread outbreaks of several diseases caused major impacts to the swine industry. This study was undertaken to investigate whether whole carcass condemnation data of market pigs from provincial abattoirs from 2001 – 2007 could have provided useful information for disease surveillance of Ontario swine. The objective was to examine the suitability of these data for detection of disease outbreaks using multi-level models and spatial scan statistics. We investigated the ability of these data to provide spatially-relevant surveillance information by determining the approximate distance pigs are shipped from farm to provincial abattoirs in the province, and explored potentially biasing non-disease factors within these data. Results Provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario were found to be located in close proximity to the hog farms of origin. The fall season and increasing abattoir capacity were associated with a decrease in condemnation rates. Condemnation rates varied across agricultural regions by year, and some regions showed yearly trends consistent with the timing of emergence of new disease strains that affected the Ontario swine population. Scan statistics identified stable clusters of condemnations in space that may have represented stable underlying factors influencing condemnations. The temporal scans detected the most likely cluster of high condemnations during the timeframe in which widespread disease events were documented. One space-time cluster took place during the beginning of the historical disease outbreaks and may have provided an early warning signal within a syndromic surveillance system. Conclusions Spatial disease surveillance methods may be applicable to whole carcass condemnation data collected at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario for disease detection on a local scale. These data could provide useful information within a syndromic disease surveillance system for protecting swine herd health within the province. However, non-disease factors including region, season and abattoir size need to be considered when applying quantitative methods to abattoir data for disease surveillance.

2014-01-01

227

Frequency of detection of immunoglobulins of Toxoplasma gondii, Leptospira spp., and Brucella abortus in livestock/farm and abattoir workers in Trinidad.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondi, Leptospira spp., and Brucella abortus are all established parasitic and bacterial zoonoses that manifest themselves in several forms of human diseases. They have been associated with occupational exposures, particularly amongst workers associated with livestock farms. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii immunoglobulin M (IgM) immunoglobulins (serum antibodies), Leptospira IgM immunoglobulins, and B. abortus IgG immunoglobulins, suggestive of acute or chronic infections, in livestock/farm and abattoir workers in Trinidad, and to relate to risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 394 consenting livestock/farm workers and 99 abattoir workers across the island of Trinidad. Serological status was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for T. gondii IgM, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Leptospira IgM immunoglobulins, and buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and competitive ELISA for B. abortus IgG immunoglobulins. Of 394 apparently healthy livestock/farm workers sampled, 150 (38.1%) were seropositive for T. gondii IgM immunoglobulins, compared with 44 (44.4%) of 99 abattoir workers (p > .05; ?(2) test). Five (1.3%) of 371 and 1 (1.0%) of 99 livestock/farm and abattoir workers respectively were positive for Leptospira IgM immunoglobulins. All samples from livestock/farm workers and abattoir workers were negative for B. abortus immunoglobulins. None of the risk factors investigated was statistically significantly (p > .05; ?(2) test) associated with T. gondii and Leptospira spp. infections. PMID:21728871

Adesiyun, Abiodun; Campbell, Mervyn; Rahaman, Saed; Bissessar, Sham; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Dookeran, Shakti; Gittens-St Hilaire, Marquita

2011-01-01

228

Ecology and abundance of oligochaetes as indicators of organic pollution in an urban stream in southern Nigeria.  

PubMed

A study of the aquatic oligochaetes of an organically polluted segment of an urban stream in Southern Nigeria was carried out to assess the ecological impact of abattoir effluent. Three stations 1, 2 and 3 were selected from upstream of the site receiving abattoir effluent, the impacted site and its down stream, respectively. Among the water quality variables, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, BODs, Nitrate-nitrogen, Phosphate-phosphorus and water hardness were significantly different (p < 0.05) among the stations. Orthogonal comparison using Duncan's multiple range test showed that station 2 (the impacted site) was the cause of the difference. A total of 14 species of oligochaetes were identified with 13 (92.8%) occurring in the impacted station. Tubifex, Dero limnosa and Nais communis were the dominant taxa, less frequent were Stylaria, Aelosoma and Lumbriculus variegatus (Muller). Pistina and Chaetogaster species were sporadically present. The density of the different taxonomic groups differed among the stations with the impacted station accounting for the greatest abundance and diversity of the organisms. The organic wastes from the abattoir not only altered the water chemistry but also stimulated the abundance of oligochaete worms. PMID:19069516

Arimoro, Francis O; Ikomi, Robert B; Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

2007-02-01

229

Rainfall and runoff variability in Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall and river flow variability have been deeply investigated and and the impact of climate change on both is rather well known in Europe (EEA, 2012) or in other industrialized countries. Reports of international organizations (IPCC, 2012) and the scientific literature provide results and outlooks that were found contrasting and spatially incoherent (Manton et al., 2001; Peterson et al., 2002; Griffiths et al., 2003; Herath and Ratnayake, 2004) or weakened by limitation of data quality and quantity. According to IPCC (2012), in East Africa precipitation there are contrasting regional and seasonal variations and trends, though Easterling et al. (2000) and Seleshi and Camberlin (2006) report decreasing trends in heavy precipitation over parts of Ethiopia during the period 1965-2002. Literature on the impact of climate change on river flow is scarce in Africa and IPCC Technical Paper VI (IPCC, 2008) concluded that no evidence, based on instrumental records, has been found for a climate-driven globally widespread change in the magnitude/frequency of floods during the last decades (Rosenzweig et al., 2007), though increases in runoff and increased risk of flood events in East Africa are expected. Some papers have faced issues regarding rainfall and river flow variability in Ethiopia (e.g. Seleshi and Demaree, 1995; Osman and Sauerborn, 2002; Seleshi and Zanke, 2004; Meze-Hausken, 2004; Korecha and Barnston, 2006; Cheung et al., 2008) but their investigations are commonly geographically limited or used a small number of rain and flow gauges with the most recent data bound to the beginning of the last decade. In this study an attempt to depict rainfall and river flow variability, considering the longer as possible time series for the largest as possible number of meteo-stations and flow gauge evenly distributed across Ethiopia, is presented. 25 meteo-stations and 21 flow gauges with as much as possible continuous data records were selected. The length of the time series ranges between 35 to 50 and 9 to 49 years for rainfall and river flow, respectively. In order to improve the poor linear correlation model to describe rainfall gradient with altitude a simple topographic parameter is introduced capable to better depict the spatial variability of annual rainfall and its coefficient of variation. The small rains (Belg) were found to be much more unpredictable than the long, monsoon-type rains (Kiremt) and hence much more out of phase with the variation of annual precipitation amount that is significantly influenced by the Kiremt rains. In order to investigate the long term trends, rainfall anomalies were calculated as Z score for annual, Belg and Kiremt precipitation for all the stations and average values are calculated and plotted against time. The three Z trend lines obtained show no marked deviation from the mean as only an almost negligible decreasing trend is observed. Rainfall intensity in 24 hours is analyzed and the trend line of the maximum intensity averaged over the maximum value of each year recorded at each meteo-station is constructed. These data indicate a general decrease in daily rainfall intensity across Ethiopia with clear exceptions in a few selected areas. The same procedure, based on the Z scores, used to analyze rainfall variability is applied also to the river flow data and a similar result is obtained. If compared with rainfall, annual runoff shows a much wider range of variation among the study rivers. This issue is discussed and possible explanations are presented.

Billi, Paolo; Fazzini, Massimiliano; Tadesse Alemu, Yonas; Ciampalini, Rossano

2014-05-01

230

Factors associated with fatigued, injured, and dead pig frequency during transport and lairage at a commercial abattoir.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify environmental and management factors that are associated with the frequency of fatigued, injured, and dead pigs on arrival and in resting pens during lairage at a commercial Midwest abattoir. The terms transport losses or total losses refer to pigs that die or become nonambulatory at any stage of the marketing process. In this study, fatigued, injured, and dead pigs were summed into a variable termed total losses. Relative humidity (%), temperature ( degrees C), wind speed (m/s), and dew point ( degrees C) data were collected on 12,333 trailer loads of pigs. Week, sort from barn (first or third pig removal from barn), farm, normal vs. split load type (from 1 or multiple barns), load crew, driver, trailer, and wind direction were used as fixed effects in the model for the analysis of losses per load using generalized mixed models for Poisson distributions. Seven temperature-humidity indices (THI) were calculated and compared as model covariates. Load time per pig, trailer density (pigs per trailer x average BW/trailer space; kg/m(2)), wait time before unloading at the abattoir, and wind speed were used as model covariates. The log of the number of hogs per trailer was used to standardize the response variable. The linear covariate density accounted for the greatest portion of variance (based on F-value) followed by the fixed effect sort from barn, the fixed effect load type (pigs from 1 or multiple barns within a farm), load time per pig linear covariate, and THI. Pigs transported to the abattoir from June through July experienced fewer losses (P < 0.001) when compared with pigs that were transported from November through December. Keeping other factors constant, the log of total losses (%) per load increased by 0.0102x + 0.000541x(2) per unit of THI and 0.0191 kg/m(2) of density. Similarly, of 9 farms, the poorest-performing farm in regards to total loss percentage experienced 0.93% more losses per load when compared with the farm with the least loss percentage. This study demonstrates that multiple environment and management factors influence the incidence of market hog transport losses. PMID:19028860

Fitzgerald, R F; Stalder, K J; Matthews, J O; Schultz Kaster, C M; Johnson, A K

2009-03-01

231

Comparative Hydrology in Ethiopia: a learning experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethiopia is climatically and environmentally extremely heterogeneous. The highlands receive a lot of rainfall (more than 2000 mm/year) concentrated in only three months. Most of Ethiopian runoff is produced in these highlands (part of this water reaches the Mediterranean sea through the Nile river). Lowlands vary from forests to deserts. The hottest place on earth is there (the Danakil depression, more than 150 meters below see level). This makes the spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic signatures very strong in the country. We present the results of a comparative hydrology exercise performed during a three-week Winter Research Workshop held in Addis Ababa during Christmas time this year. There, a new institution, the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR), and a new education program (18 PhD + 24 MSc) has been started less than one year ago. Instead of the traditional approach of education, based on lectures, reading and exercises, a learner-centered approach has been used: the students have been asked to collect available rainfall and runoff data, to interpret them by comparing and contrasting different catchments in the country, to develop conceptual models and use them to critically test ideas. The R software has been used in the workshop for two reason: (1) its flexibility makes it an ideal language for learner-centered education, since students can easily define new functions and extensions and can autonomously develop and test their hypothesis; (2) it is open source, light and free of charge, which makes it particularly appealing in developing countries like Ethiopia.

Berhanu, B.; Terefe, M.; Viglione, A.; Fant, C.; Gebretsadik, Y.; Cullis, J.; Mekonnen, G.; Alamirew, T.; Sivapalan, M.

2012-04-01

232

In search of quality in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The International Planned Parenthood Federation in 1992 organized the first African Regional Workshop on quality of care with the goal of increasing the awareness of and commitment to the quality of care, and discussing practical activities for family planning associations to undertake with their governments to improve quality of care. The workshop was attended by 46 senior officials, policymakers, planners, managers, and service providers involved in family planning and was officially opened by the Vice Minister of Health. Regional workshops were subsequently held in Jimma, South Western Ethiopia, and Dessie in the Northeast. Participants in the central workshop conducted the regional workshops, while the three main facilitators from Addis Ababa served as resource personnel. These workshops have helped boost regional know-how in providing quality family planning services and in mapping out priority areas for intervention. Similar step-down workshops at the district level are planned. The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia (FGAE) has observed the contraceptive method mix change over the two years following the 1992 workshop from one comprised of 70% oral pill use to only 35% pill use with an increase in the use of other methods. Studies indicate client satisfaction, more clients are being served at FGAE than at other government health institutions, and attendance has increased by 15-20% over the period. Moreover, the promotion of family planning through mass media has been further developed and more people are aware of family planning than before. Other collaborative efforts are ongoing. The workshops have also led to better working relationships between the FGAE, the Ministry of Health, and other institutions and NGOs, while helping to prioritize the allocation of resources. PMID:12318918

Tokon, T

1994-01-01

233

First-time detection of mycobacterium species from goats in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis (TB) is an important zoonosis affecting a wide range of hosts. An abattoir study was conducted on 1,536 randomly\\u000a selected male goats slaughtered at Modjo Modern Export Abattoir to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in slaughtered\\u000a goats. Carcasses and organs of all the study animals were first examined by routine meat inspection followed by detailed meat\\u000a inspection. Samples from

Adem Hiko; Getahun Ejeta Agga

2011-01-01

234

Characterisation of oxygen dynamics within a high-rate algal pond system used to treat abattoir wastewater.  

PubMed

As part of a study examining the efficacy of high-rate algal pond treatment of high-strength abattoir wastewater, the oxygen dynamics of a pilot scale system were characterised. The relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance was investigated using online data collected throughout a year of operation under varying conditions of climate and wastewater quality. Changes in climate were reflected in changes in the net rate of photosynthesis in deep ponds, consistent with adaptation of algal populations to changing light intensity, whilst the response of shallow ponds was more varied. The use of online monitoring and the calculation in real time of photosynthetic rates should allow for improved design and management of full scale treatment systems and further the understanding of factors driving biological reactions within these systems. PMID:14510194

Evans, R A; Fallowfield, H J; Cromar, N J

2003-01-01

235

A survey of zoonotic diseases in trade cattle slaughtered at Tanga city abattoir: a cause of public health concern  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis and toxoplasmosis in slaughtered bovine stock (aged ±3 years) at Tanga city abattoir, Tanzania. Methods Prevalence estimation of the five zoonotic diseases was undertaken through an active abattoir and sero-survey was carried out in Tanga city, during the period of January 2002 and March 2004. Serum samples collected from a sub-sample (n=51) of the slaughter stock were serologically screened for antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis using Rose Bengal plate test, microscopic agglutination test (for 5 serovars of Leptospira interrogans) and Eiken latex agglutination test, respectively. The same animals were tested for tuberculosis using the single intradermal tuberculin test. Results Post mortem examination of 12 444 slaughter cattle (10 790 short horn zebu and 1 654 graded) over a period of twenty two months, showed a prevalence of 1.56% (194) for hydatidosis, 1.49% (185) for cysticercosis and 0.32% (40) for tuberculosis. In all three zoonoses, a statistically significant difference in infection rates was noted between the short horn zebu and graded breeds (P<0.05). The overall seroprevalences of animals with brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis antibodies were found to be 12%, 12% and 51%, respectively. The most common leptospiral antibodies detected were those against antigens of serovars Leptospira hardjo (29%), Leptospira tarassovi (18%), Leptospira bataviae (4%) and Leptospira pomona (0%). With regard to tuberculosis, 10% (n=5) of the animals tested were classified as non-specific reactors or inconclusive. Conclusions The study findings suggest that brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis are prevalent in Tanga and provide definitive evidence of slaughtered stock exposure to these zoonotic agents with concurrent public health consequences.

Swai, ES; Schoonman, L

2012-01-01

236

Bovine tuberculosis in South Darfur State, Sudan: an abattoir study based on microscopy and molecular detection methods.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread zoonosis in developing countries but has received little attention in many sub-Saharan African countries including Sudan and particularly in some parts such as Darfur states. This study aimed to detect bovine tuberculosis among caseous materials of cattle slaughtered in abattoirs in South Darfur State, Sudan by using microscopic and PCR-based methods. The study was a cross-sectional abattoir-based study which examined a total of 6,680 bovine carcasses for caseous lesions in South Darfur State between 2007 and 2009. Collected specimens were examined for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by using microscopic and culture techniques. Isolated mycobacteria were identified by selected conventional cultural and biochemical tests in comparison to a single tube multiplex PCR (m-PCR) assay which detect Mycobacterium bovis-specific 168-bp amplicons. Of the total 6,680 slaughtered cattle examined in South Darfur, 400 (6 %) showed caseations restricted to lymph nodes (86.8 %) or generalized (13.2 %). Bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in 12 (0.18 %), bovine farcy in 59 (0.88 %), unidentified mycobacteria in 6 (0.09 %), and missed or contaminated cultures in 7 (0.1 %). Out of 18 cultures with nonbranching acid-fast rods, 12 amplified unique 168-bp sequence specific for M. bovis and subsequently confirmed as M. bovis. With the exception of the reference M. tuberculosis strains, none of the remaining AFB amplified the 337-bp amplicon specific for M. tuberculosis. It could be concluded that bovine tuberculosis is prevalent among cattle in South Darfur representing 4.5 % from all slaughtered cattle with caseous lesions. The study sustains microscopy as a useful and accessible technique for detecting AFB. m-PCR assay proved to be valuable for confirmation of BTB and its differentiation from other related mycobacteriosis, notably bovine farcy. PMID:22843216

Asil, El Tigani A; El Sanousi, Sulieman M; Gameel, Ahmed; El Beir, Haytham; Fathelrahman, Maha; Terab, Nasir M; Muaz, Magzoub A; Hamid, Mohamed E

2013-02-01

237

A 6-year survey of pathological conditions of slaughtered animals at Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A 6-year retrospective study (2000-2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed. A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered for the period, 22,459 (32.41%) were males and 46,848 (67.59%) were females, while 1,763 sheep were slaughtered comprising of 506 (28.70%) males and 1,257 (71.30%) females, and 3,820 goats made up of 1,212 (31.73%) males and 2,608 (68.27%) were females. The major disease and/or pathological conditions were helminthosis (fascioliasis, haemonchosis and paramphistomosis) 16.20%, Streptothricosis 4.15%, Pericarditis 2.20%, liver cirrhosis 2.08%, abscesses 1.04%, pneumonia 0.14%, nephritis 0.05% and Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, Tuberculosis and Nocardiosis 0.01% each. Out of the 15,075 infected organs, 13,314 (88.38%) were partially salvaged while 1,751 (11.6%) whole organs were condemned. A total of 1,239 pregnant cows, 221 pregnant ewes and 637 pregnant does were slaughtered, representing a foetal wastage of 2.65% for cattle, 17.58% for sheep and 24.43% for goats. The result of this study apart from serving as an indicator of field disease condition also demonstrates cases of serious losses in production due to slaughter of pregnant animals especially for sheep and goats. PMID:20734135

Alawa, Clement B I; Etukudo-Joseph, I; Alawa, Judith N

2011-01-01

238

Genotypic characterization of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef abattoirs of Argentina.  

PubMed

The non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) contamination in carcasses and feces of 811 bovines in nine beef abattoirs from Argentina was analyzed during a period of 17 months. The feces of 181 (22.3%) bovines were positive for non-O157 STEC, while 73 (9.0%) of the carcasses showed non-O157 STEC contamination. Non-O157 STEC strains isolated from feces (227) and carcasses (80) were characterized. The main serotypes identified were O178:H19, O8:H19, O130:H11, and O113:H21, all of which have produced sporadic cases of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Argentina and worldwide. Twenty-two (7.2%) strains carried a fully virulent stx/eae/ehxA genotype. Among them, strains of serotypes O103:[H2], O145:NM, and O111:NM represented 4.8% of the isolates. Xba I pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern analysis showed 234 different patterns, with 76 strains grouped in 30 clusters. Nine of the clusters grouped strains isolated from feces and from carcasses of the same or different bovines in a lot, while three clusters were comprised of strains distributed in more than one abattoir. Patterns AREXSX01.0157, AREXBX01.0015, and AREXPX01.0013 were identified as 100% compatible with the patterns of one strain isolated from a hemolytic-uremic syndrome case and two strains previously isolated from beef medallions, included in the Argentine PulseNet Database. In this survey, 4.8% (39 of 811) of the bovine carcasses appeared to be contaminated with nonO157 STEC strains potentially capable of producing sporadic human disease, and a lower proportion (0.25%) with strains able to produce outbreaks of severe disease. PMID:22186039

Masana, M O; D'Astek, B A; Palladino, P M; Galli, L; Del Castillo, L L; Carbonari, C; Leotta, G A; Vilacoba, E; Irino, K; Rivas, M

2011-12-01

239

Mantle transition zone structure and upper mantle S velocity variations beneath Ethiopia: Evidence for a broad, deep-seated thermal anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethiopia has been subjected to widespread Cenozoic volcanism, rifting, and uplift associated with the Afar hot spot. The hot spot tectonism has been attributed to one or more thermal upwellings in the mantle, for example, starting thermal plumes and superplumes. We investigate the origin of the hot spot by imaging the S wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath Ethiopia using travel time tomography and by examining relief on transition zone discontinuities using receiver function stacks. The tomographic images reveal an elongated low-velocity region that is wide (>500 km) and extends deep into the upper mantle (>400 km). The anomaly is aligned with the Afar Depression and Main Ethiopian Rift in the uppermost mantle, but its center shifts westward with depth. The 410 km discontinuity is not well imaged, but the 660 km discontinuity is shallower than normal by ˜20-30 km beneath most of Ethiopia, but it is at a normal depth beneath Djibouti and the northwestern edge of the Ethiopian Plateau. The tomographic results combined with a shallow 660 km discontinuity indicate that upper mantle temperatures are elevated by ˜300 K and that the thermal anomaly is broad (>500 km wide) and extends to depths ?660 km. The dimensions of the thermal anomaly are not consistent with a starting thermal plume but are consistent with a flux of excess heat coming from the lower mantle. Such a broad thermal upwelling could be part of the African Superplume found in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa.

Benoit, Margaret H.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Owens, Thomas J.; Stuart, Graham

2006-11-01

240

Risk map for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia based on environmental factors as revealed by geographical information systems and statistics.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS), statistical analysis and modelling. Odds ratio (OR) of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relative importance of environmental factors, accepting P ?0.056 as the inclusion level for the model's environmental variables. When estimating risk from the viewpoint of geographical surface, slope, elevation and annual rainfall were found to be good predictors of CL presence based on both probabilistic and weighted overlay approaches. However, when considering Ethiopia as whole, a minor difference was observed between the two methods with the probabilistic technique giving a 22.5% estimate, while that of weighted overlay approach was 19.5%. Calculating the population according to the land surface estimated by the latter method, the total Ethiopian population at risk for CL was estimated at 28,955,035, mainly including people in the highlands of the regional states of Amhara, Oromia, Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region, one of the nine ethnic divisions in Ethiopia. Our environmental risk model provided an overall prediction accuracy of 90.4%. The approach proposed here can be replicated for other diseases to facilitate implementation of evidence-based, integrated disease control activities. PMID:24893015

Seid, Ahmed; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Tsegaw, Teshome; Abera, Adugna; Teshome, Aklilu; Mulugeta, Abate; Herrero, Merce; Argaw, Daniel; Jorge, Alvar; Kebede, Asnakew; Aseffa, Abraham

2014-05-01

241

Plasmodium vivax associated severe malaria complications among children in some malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Although, Plasmodium vivax is a rare parasite in most parts of Africa, it has significant public health importance in Ethiopia. In some parts of the country, it is responsible for majority of malaria associated morbidity. Recently severe life threatening malaria syndromes, frequently associated to P. falciparum, has been reported from P. vivax mono-infections. This prompted designing of the current study to assess prevalence of severe malaria complications related to P. vivax malaria in Ethiopia. Methods The study was conducted in two study sites, namely Kersa and Halaba Kulito districts, located in southwest and southern parts of Ethiopia, respectively. Children, aged ? 10 years, who visited the two health centers during the study period, were recruited to the study. Clinical and demographic characteristics such as age, sex, temperature, diarrhea, persistent vomiting, confusion, respiratory distress, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, hemoglobinuria, and epitaxis were assessed for a total of 139 children diagnosed to have P. vivax mono-infection. Parasitological data were collected following standard procedures. Hemoglobin and glucose level were measured using portable hemocue instrument. Results Median age of children was 4.25 ± 2.95 years. Geometric mean parasite count and mean hemoglobin level were 4254.89 parasite/?l and 11.55 g/dl, respectively. Higher prevalence rate of malaria and severe malaria complications were observed among children enrolled in Halaba district (P < 0.001). However, severe parasitemia was higher (72.4%) among children who visited Serbo health center (Kersa district). Male children had significantly higher risk of malaria infection (OR = 1.9, 95% CI, 1.08 to 3.34), while female had higher risk to anemia (OR = 1.91, 95% CI, 1.08 - 3.34). The observed number of anemic children was 43%, of which most of them were found in age range from 0–3 years. Furthermore, P. vivax malaria was a risk factor for incidence of anemia (P < 0.05) in the two sites. Conclusion P. vivax associated severe malaria complications observed in this study was lower than those reported from other countries. However, incidence of severe malaria complications in one of the sites, Halaba district, where there is highest treatment failure to first line drug, could have significant impact on national malaria prevention and control activities.

2013-01-01

242

Neonatal mortality in Ethiopia: trends and determinants.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The Ethiopian neonatal mortality rate constitutes 42% of under-5 deaths. We aimed to examine the trends and determinants of Ethiopian neonatal mortality. METHODS: We analyzed the birth history information of live births from the 2000, 2005 and 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). We used simple linear regression analyses to examine trends in neonatal mortality rates and a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model using a hierarchical approach to examine the associated factors. RESULTS: The neonatal mortality rate declined by 1.9% per annum from 1995 to 2010, logarithmically. The early neonatal mortality rate declined by 0.9% per annum and was where 74% of the neonatal deaths occurred. Using multivariate analyses, increased neonatal mortality risk was associated with male sex (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23 - 1.55); neonates born to mothers aged < 18 years (HR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.15 - 1.72); and those born within 2 years of the preceding birth (HR = 2.19; 95% CI, 1.89 - 2.51). Winter birth increased the risk of dying compared with spring births (HR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08 - 1.51). Giving two Tetanus Toxoid Injections (TTI) to the mothers before childbirth decreased neonatal mortality risk (HR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.36 - 0.54). Neonates born to women with secondary or higher schooling vs. no education had a lower risk of dying (HR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49 - 0.95). Compared with neonates in Addis Ababa, neonates in Amhara (HR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.26 - 2.83), Benishangul Gumuz (HR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.15 - 2.67) and Tigray (HR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.01 - 2.34) regions carried a significantly higher risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal mortality must decline more rapidly to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 target for under-5 mortality in Ethiopia. Strategies to address neonatal survival require a multifaceted approach that encompasses health-related and other measures. Addressing short birth interval and preventing early pregnancy must be considered as interventions. Programs must improve the coverage of TTI and prevention of hypothermia for winter births should be given greater emphasis. Strategies to improve neonatal survival must address inequalities in neonatal mortality by women's education and region. PMID:23683315

Mekonnen, Yared; Tensou, Biruk; Telake, Daniel S; Degefie, Tedbabe; Bekele, Abeba

2013-05-17

243

Cairo to Cape: The Spread of Metallurgy Through Eastern and Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article traces the beginnings of metallurgy in the eastern half of the African continent, focusing on three regions:\\u000a (1) Egypt and Nubia; (2) the Great Lakes region of Central and East Africa; and (3) southern Africa. Metallurgy was not practiced\\u000a much beyond the Nile valley until the first millennium BC, when copper, bronze and iron metallurgy began in Ethiopia

David Killick

2009-01-01

244

Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide. PMID:19548106

Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J

2010-01-01

245

Researching Diverse Learners from Haiti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents information to help teachers work with diverse students. The report includes: information regarding the countries and cultures of Haiti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia (for helping to establish rapport with diverse learners); characteristics of Haitians, Eritreans, and Ethiopians as contrasted with American students' characteristics…

Sadler, Charlotte; Hytowitz, Sarah Gail; Frutiger, Eliso

246

Breaking the Cycle of Food Crisis: Famine Prevention in Ethiopia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report to the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is the outcome of a USAID assessment of food insecurity and options to address the fundamental causes of food crises in Ethiopia, completed in June and July...

2004-01-01

247

Small ruminants trypanosomosis in the southwest of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted in two valleys of the southwest Ethiopia (Didessa and Ghibe valleys) from November 2002 to April 2003 to collect baseline data on the prevalence of trypanosomosis in local breeds of sheep and goats. Blood samples from 533 randomly selected small ruminants of different species, sex and age groups were collected and examined with conventional haematological and

Hunduma Dinka; Getachew Abebe

2005-01-01

248

Teacher Preparation in Ethiopia: A Critical Analysis of Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to provide a more comprehensive picture of teacher preparation in Ethiopia on top of a closer scrutiny of current teacher education reforms. In particular, it presents teacher education within the context of policy implementation over the last six decades by highlighting key reforms and how these reforms impacted the…

Semela, Tesfaye

2014-01-01

249

Early marriage in Ethiopia : causes and health consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early marriage is a violation of the fundamental rights of the child. In 2006, Pathfinder International\\/Ethiopia conducted a study on the incidence, reasons for, and the personal and social consequences of early marriage in both urban and rural areas of the Amhara region. Understanding the forces at work at the community and family levels that drive parents to marry their

B. Alemu

2008-01-01

250

The press and the political restructuring of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Divisive debates on what constitutes the Ethiopian nation, how the state should be structured and how power should be devolved, have dominated Ethiopia's private press since the ruling party, the Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), came to power. The press has served as both a mirror reflecting these issues and a space for literate elites to engage in political

Nicole Stremlau

2011-01-01

251

Yield Limiting Factors to Food Barley Production in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous studies conducted to examine food barley production constraints in Ethiopia were single factor experiments and unsuitable to determine the relative importance of various factors and interactions among these factors. To develop sustainable food systems in regions with limited resources, it is essential to understand the relative importance of alternative production inputs and their interactions. A replicated 2 factorial

Amsal Tarekegne; Hailu Gebre; Charles A. Francis

1997-01-01

252

Quaternary fossil fish from the Kibish Formation, Omo Valley, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The late Quaternary Kibish Formation of the Omo Valley, southwestern Ethiopia, preserves environments reflecting a history of fluctuations in the level of nearby Lake Turkana over the past 200,000 years. The Kibish Formation has yielded a diverse mammalian fauna (as well as birds and crocodiles), stone tools, and the oldest anatomically modern Homo sapiens. Fish, the most common vertebrate fossils

Josh Trapani

2008-01-01

253

Soil Nutrient Composition in Afromontane Forests of Northern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation in the northern highlands of Ethiopia has left 35,000 forest fragments ranging in size from 3 to 300 ha (Bongers et al 2006). Deforestation produces edges which increase disturbance within the forest such as decreased water availability and increased light. To determine the degree of these edge effects and the nutrient status of these forests, I analyzed the nutrient

Maria Baimas-George

2012-01-01

254

Mycobacterial Lineages Causing Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Molecular typing of 964 specimens from patients in Ethiopia with lymph node or pulmonary tuberculosis showed a similar distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains between the 2 disease manifestations and a minimal role for M. bovis. We report a novel phylogenetic lineage of M. tuberculosis strongly associated with the Horn of Africa.

Firdessa, Rebuma; Berg, Stefan; Hailu, Elena; Schelling, Esther; Gumi, Balako; Erenso, Girume; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Kiros, Teklu; Habtamu, Meseret; Hussein, Jemal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Robertson, Brian D.; Ameni, Gobena; Lohan, Amanda J.; Loftus, Brendan; Comas, Inaki; Gagneux, Sebastien; Tschopp, Rea; Yamuah, Lawrence; Hewinson, Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V.; Young, Douglas B.

2013-01-01

255

The dynamics of livelihood diversification in post-famine Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on data for almost 300 households this paper explores associations among income diversification, household perceptions of livelihood risks, and changes in consumption outcomes across two points in time in post-famine Ethiopia. Four key questions are addressed: i) To what extent did households emerging from the famine period with relatively higher income and calorie consumption levels also have a more

S. Block; P. Webb

2001-01-01

256

Income portfolios in rural Ethiopia and Tanzania: Choices and constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article analyses the different income portfolios of households using survey data from rural Ethiopia and rural Tanzania. It suggests that the different portfolios held by households cannot be explained by their behaviour towards risk as is usually suggested. It is better explained by differences in ability, location, and in access to credit. A logit analysis of households with different

Stefan Dercon; Pramila Krishnan

1996-01-01

257

Child Growth, Shocks, and Food Aid in Rural Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child stunting in Ethiopia has persisted at alarming rates, despite enormous amounts of food aid, often procured in response to shocks. Using nationally representative data, the study finds that while harvest failure leads to child growth faltering, food aid affected child growth positively and offset the negative effects of shocks in communities that received food aid. However, many communities that

Takashi Yamano; Harold Alderman; Luc Christiaensen

2005-01-01

258

Ecology and Population Dynamics of Colobus guereza in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecology of Colobus guereza in Ethiopia is described. Data on group size from a number of localities are given, and groups are typically found to be one-male groups of 5-8 animals. The dynamics of one population are discussed with particular reference to birth and death rates and immigration and emigration. Daily activity patterns and use of home ranges are

R. I. M. Dunbar; E. P. Dunbar

1974-01-01

259

Tenure security and land-related investment: Evidence from Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a large data set from Ethiopia that differentiates tenure security and transferability to explore determinants of different types of land-related investment and its possible impact on productivity. While we find some support for endogeneity of investment in trees, this is not the case for terraces. Transfer rights are unambiguously investment-enhancing. The large productivity effect of terracing implies that,

Klaus Deininger; Songqing Jin

2006-01-01

260

Human Trypanosomiasis in Ethiopia: The Gilo River Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current outbreak of Rhodesian sleeping sickness in Ethiopia is centred on the Gilo River region of Illubabor Province. Up to the end of March 1970 there have been 232 confirmed cases-4 in 1967, 28 in 1968, and 27 in the first three months of 1970. Of ...

E. McConnell M. P. Hutchinson J. R. Baker

1970-01-01

261

Situation Report--Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

262

Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

Wolela, Ahmed

2006-10-01

263

Geology and mineral potential of Ethiopia: a note on geology and mineral map of Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a geoscientific map and database for geology, mineral and energy resources of Ethiopia in a digital form at a scale of 1:2,000,000, compiled from several sources. The final result of the work has been recorded on CD-ROM in GIS format so that the map and the database could be available to users on a personal computer. Metallic resources (precious, rare, base and ferrous-ferroalloy metals) are widely related to the metamorphic meta-volcano-sedimentary belts and associated intrusives belonging to various terranes of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, accreted during the East and West Gondwana collision (Neoproterozoic, 900-500 Ma). Industrial minerals and rock resources occur in more diversified geological environments, including the Proterozoic basement rocks, the Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediments and recent (Cenozoic) volcanics and associated sediments. Energy resources (oil, coal, geothermal resources) are restricted to Phanerozoic basin sediments and Cenozoic volcanism and rifting areas.

Tadesse, Solomon; Milesi, Jean-Pierre; Deschamps, Yves

2003-05-01

264

Self-Medication Practices in Mekelle, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Self-medication makes consumers more health conscious, reduces treatment burden on healthcare facilities and curtails the cost and time of obtaining access to treatment. However, it increases risks such as drug resistance, adverse drug reactions, incorrect diagnosis, drug interactions and polypharmacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices and factors associated with self-medication in Mekelle, Tigray region, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Mekelle from February to March 2013. A structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection to assess self-medication practices. Data were analyzed using of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Results Among self-medicated study participants, 199(73.7%) were males and 71(26.3%) were females with mean age of 28.65 years. The most frequently reported illnesses or symptoms of illnesses that prompted self-medication of study participants were headache/fever (20.7%), gastrointestinal diseases (17.3%) and respiratory tract infections (15.9%) with the main reasons being mildness of the disease, prior experience and less expensive. The majority of drug consumers made their requests by telling their symptoms, by mentioning specific names of the drugs and by showing old samples. Analgesics/antipyretics, gastrointestinal drugs, respiratory drugs and oral rehydration salt were the most frequently requested categories of drugs. Pharmacists followed by other healthcare providers were the most frequently reported source of drug information for self-medication. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that self-medication practices were common for a wide range of illnesses. Health professionals, especially community pharmacists need to educate people on the benefits and risks of self-medication to encourage responsible self-medication.

Eticha, Tadele; Mesfin, Kalkidan

2014-01-01

265

Assessment of the Street Children and Orphans Component of the Pact NGO Sector Enhancement Initiative in Ethiopia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The situation of children in Ethiopia deserves particular attention from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Of its 70 million people, approximately half are children and adolescents. Poverty puts many of Ethiopia's children at high ris...

J. Williamson

2000-01-01

266

A note on the frequency of gastric ulcers detected during post-mortem examination at a pig abattoir.  

PubMed

There is growing interest in using findings from post-mortem meat inspection as indicators of on-farm and preslaughter animal welfare. This study considered whether oesophago-gastric ulcers might be a useful feature in pigs. The stomachs of 9827 finishing pigs from 60 farms were examined to provide an estimate of the frequency of oesophago-gastric ulcers in England. Stomachs were graded using a four-point scale ranging from normal, hyperkeratotic, eroded or ulcerated with or without stenosis. Over 79% of stomachs had either an oesophago-gastric ulcer or visible pre-ulcerative changes, including hyperkeratosis of the epithelium lining the pars oesophagea. The frequency of severe ulceration (Grade 3) was 6%, and mild ulcers (Grades 1 and 2) 73%. There was a significantly higher frequency of oesophago-gastric lesions in the groups of pigs that were held at the abattoir overnight, compared with those slaughtered on the day of arrival. This could have been due to the combined effect of overnight fasting plus stress in an unfamiliar environment. However, the exact fasting times of the animals were unknown and so it was not possible to provide a precise assessment of the effect of feed withdrawal. PMID:21733635

Swaby, H; Gregory, N G

2012-01-01

267

Abattoir-based study investigating the association between gross pathological lesions and serological tests for Salmonella infection in pigs.  

PubMed

Abattoir data collected from three British pig health monitoring schemes were combined to investigate the associations between Salmonella infection and the presence of gross lesions detected in slaughtered pigs. Each set of results was linked back to the farm from which the pigs were submitted, and the Salmonella results and lesions reports were connected at farm level. Salmonella infection was determined through meat juice ELISA (MJE), and the health conditions were assessed by postmortem inspection. The final dataset contained 873 slapmarks, with an average of 215 samples tested by MJE, and 355 pigs that were assessed for health conditions, per slapmark. Each of the health assessment conditions was individually analysed by regression models to investigate associations with the MJE results, accounting for clustering at the slapmark level and also for seasonality. A multivariable model was also used to estimate the strength of association with MJE results when all the health conditions were entered into the model. The results showed positive associations between Salmonella and enzootic pneumonia-like lesions, milk spots, peritonitis and pericarditis. PMID:21493572

Smith, R P; Sanchez-Vazquez, M J; Cook, A J C; Edwards, S A

2011-03-01

268

Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and hepatitis E virus in swine livers collected at an abattoir.  

PubMed

We investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and hepatitis E virus (HEV) in swine liver. We collected swine livers from 110 pigs at an abattoir from September 2011 to March 2012 [corrected] . Pathogens were detected in the liver samples of 19 (17.3%) pigs. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from the liver samples of 14 (12.7%) pigs. In 10 of the 14 Campylobacter-positive pigs, bacteria were present in the internal regions of the liver. Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were detected in the liver samples of 5 (4.5%) pigs and 1 (1%) pig, respectively. No HEV was detected in the swine liver samples tested. Regarding antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter and Salmonella isolates, all isolates, except 1 Campylobacter jejuni isolate, were resistant to 1 or more antimicrobial agent. Campylobacter spp. resistant to erythromycin and/or enrofloxacin were isolated from the liver samples of 9 (8%) pigs. These results suggest that the consuming swine liver without proper heat treatment may increase the risk of foodborne illnesses. PMID:23514917

Sasaki, Yoshimasa; Haruna, Mika; Murakami, Mariko; Hayashida, Mizuho; Ito, Kazuo; Noda, Mamoru; Yamada, Yukiko

2013-01-01

269

Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

2013-12-01

270

Genetic characterisation of infectious bursal disease virus isolates in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

The objective of the investigation was to characterise infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDV) circulating in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia between 2009 and 2011. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence for VP2 hypervariable region of ten IBDVs were determined by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to well characterised IBDV isolates worldwide. IBDV genetic material was amplified directly from bursa or cell passaged material. Phylogenetically, Ethiopian IBDVs represented two genetic lineages: very virulent (vv) IBDVs or variants of the classical attenuated vaccine strain (D78). The nucleotide identity between Ethiopian vvIBDVs ranged between 0% and 2.6%. Ethiopian vvIBDVs are clustered phylogenetically with the African IBDV genetic lineage, independent of the Asian/European lineage. This report demonstrates the circulation of vvIBDV in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia.

Jenberie, Shiferaw; Lynch, Stacey E.; Kebede, Fekadu; Christley, Robert M.; Gelaye, Esayas; Negussie, Haileleul; Asmare, Kassahun; Ayelet, Gelagay

2014-01-01

271

Determinants of conventional health service utilization among pastoralists in northeast Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Health service utilization pattern among pastoralists in Ethiopia is not well documented. Available data are very few and mostly institution based. Objective: To assess the determinants of conventional health care utilization among pastoralist communities in northeast Ethiopia. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional household survey conducted using structured questionnaires administered among 276 mobile and 262 settled subjects within the

Tewodros Dubale; Damen Haile Mariam

272

Malaria prevalence and mosquito net coverage in Oromia and SNNPR regions of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission in Ethiopia is unstable and seasonal, with the majority of the country's population living in malaria-prone areas. Results from DHS 2005 indicate that the coverage of key malaria interventions was low. The government of Ethiopia has set the national goal of full population coverage with a mean of 2 long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) per household through distribution

Estifanos B Shargie; Teshome Gebre; Jeremiah Ngondi; Patricia M Graves; Aryc W Mosher; Paul M Emerson; Yeshewamebrat Ejigsemahu; Tekola Endeshaw; Dereje Olana; Asrat WeldeMeskel; Admas Teferra; Zerihun Tadesse; Abate Tilahun; Gedeon Yohannes; Frank O Richards

2008-01-01

273

Two Plumes Beneath the East African Rift System: a Geochemical Investigation into Possible Interactions in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

East African Rift System magmatism began over 40 my ago and has continued through the present. Numerical models have determined two plumes are necessary to create the spatial and temporal distribution of volcanism. Geochemical data support the presence of two chemically distinct plumes initially located beneath the Afar Depression (NE Ethiopia) and the Turkana Depression (SW Ethiopia\\/N Kenya). The timing

W. R. Nelson; T. Furman; P. E. van Keken; S. Lin

2007-01-01

274

The potential of biotechnology in Ethiopia: Present situation and expected development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional research approaches have tried to address the major research and development problems in Ethiopia. However, these approaches could not achieve the desired level of improvement unless they are supported by modern biotechnological tools. Biotechnological facilities exist scattered in different institutions in Ethiopia, a country with immense genetic biodiversity, but no precise information is available as to their capacities, capabilities

Getu Dereje Kassa

2011-01-01

275

Separation of powers and its implications for the judiciary in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of the judiciary in Ethiopia. Implicit in the notion of separation of powers is the fact that the judiciary has a crucial role in resolving disputes impartially, ensuring the rule of law and in setting limits to power. Yet in Ethiopia the legislature has sought to take away power from the courts, placing them in

Assefa Fiseha

2011-01-01

276

Peer counselors' role in supporting patients' adherence to ART in Ethiopia and Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to explore peer counselors' work and their role in supporting patients' adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited settings in Ethiopia and Uganda. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 79 patients, 17 peer counselors, and 22 providers in ART facilities in urban and rural areas of Ethiopia and Uganda. Two main categories with related subcategories emerged from

Annelie K. Gusdal; Celestino Obua; Tenaw Andualem; Rolf Wahlström; John Chalker; Grethe Fochsen

2011-01-01

277

Adaptation to climate change in Africa: Challenges and opportunities identified from Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Africa is widely held to be highly vulnerable to future climate change and Ethiopia is often cited as one of the most extreme examples. With this in mind we seek to identify entry points to integrate short- to medium-term climate risk reduction within development activities in Africa, drawing from experiences in Ethiopia. To achieve this we employ a range of

Declan Conway; E. Lisa F. Schipper

2011-01-01

278

Ethiopia Is Now: J. A. Rogers and the Rhetoric of Black Anticolonialism during the Great Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935 inspired grass roots political activism in black America. To understand how this foreign policy issue became such a pressing domestic concern for black Americans, this essay analyzes an influential interpretation of the crisis, a pamphlet by J. A. Rogers entitled The Real Facts About Ethiopia. I argue that Rogers's text critiques the nature

Aric Putnam

2007-01-01

279

Human Trypanosomiasis in Ethiopia - Ecology of Illubabor Province and Epidemiology in the Baro Region Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

African human trypanosomiasis was first seen in Ethiopia in March 1967. Between March 1967 and March 1968, 4 cases were recorded; in the following 12 months the total had risen to 95. The disease occurs mainly in an area of southwestern Ethiopia bounded t...

J. R. Baker E. McConnell D. C. Kent J. Hady

1970-01-01

280

Population growth, fertility, mortality and migration in drought prone areas in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

To assess the population dynamics of drought-prone communities, we investigated 605 households in the pastoralist Boran community of Dubluk and in the agricultural community of Elka, both located in southern Ethiopia. The age and sex composition of the population as well as records of births, deaths and patterns of migration were observed for 2 consecutive years. Repeated surveys of the same households revealed much higher rates for deaths and births than did cross-sectional surveys with a one-year recall period. Indirect mortality estimates showed that the under 5 years mortality rates (per 1000 births) were 135 in Dubluk and 219 in Elka. Highest crude death rates were observed in Elka during periods of meningitis and malaria epidemics. During the period of observation, death rates fluctuated to a greater extent than birth rates. Both communities had very high rates of natural increase: in Dubluk 39.0/1000 and in Elka 37.1/1000. In Dubluk, this rate was far higher than any previously recorded and may have indicated that fertility regulating mechanisms, traditionally inherent in the pastoralist social organization, had become weaker as part of cultural changes. Dubluk represented a semi-nomadic society with a moderately high mobility pattern. Peak periods of migration coincided with times of food scarcity in Elka. PMID:8465386

Lindtjørn, B; Alemu, T; Bjorvatn, B

1993-01-01

281

Outcomes of Orphanhood in Ethiopia: A Mixed Methods Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children’s outcomes using\\u000a quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates\\u000a the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using data from the whole sample\\u000a (n = 973) and explores these processes

Laura Camfield

2011-01-01

282

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in grazing cattle in central Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A preliminary study to characterise mycobacteria infecting tuberculous cattle from two different management systems in central Ethiopia was carried out. Approximately 27% of isolates from grazing cattle were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while cattle in a more intensive-production system were exclusively infected with M. bovis. The practice of local farmers discharging chewed tobacco directly into the mouths of pastured cattle was identified as a potential route of human-to-cattle transmission of M. tuberculosis. PMID:20965132

Ameni, Gobena; Vordermeier, Martin; Firdessa, Rebuma; Aseffa, Abraham; Hewinson, Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V; Berg, Stefan

2011-06-01

283

Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 ?g m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 ?g m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 ?g m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 ?g m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P < 0.05), post hoc pairwise comparison indicated no significant difference in mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

2014-06-01

284

Food Aid and Child Nutrition in Rural Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a unique panel data set from Ethiopia to examine the determinants of participation in and receipts of food aid through free distribution (FD) and food-for-work (FFW). Results show that aggregate rainfall and livestock shocks increase household participation in both FD and FFW. FFW also seems well targeted to asset-poor households. The probability of receiving FD does not

Agnes R. Quisumbing

2003-01-01

285

Age of volcanism and rifting in southwestern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that volcanism in the Ethiopian region of the Afro-Arabian Rift System has migrated with time, both laterally towards the present axial zone1-3 and longitudinally southwards from the Red Sea4,5. Field data and K-Ar isotopic ages from southwestern Ethiopia, summarised below, indicate that volcanism in this area began earlier than previously suspected, and that Quaternary volcanism was

A. Davidson; D. C. Rex

1980-01-01

286

Infecundity and subfertility among the rural population of Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A 1980-81 survey of the rural population of Ethiopia found high levels of infecundity and subfertility, although there was considerable variation by region, ethnicity and age of women. Higher levels of infecundity were geographically concentrated in a broad belt that ran from the south and south-west of the country, across to the north-east. The analyses suggest that infecundity is influenced by ecological factors, more than by ethnicity. PMID:1939294

Tesfaghiorghis, H

1991-10-01

287

Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular studies suggest that the lineages leading to humans and chimpanzees diverged approximately 6.5-5.5 million years (Myr) ago, in the Late Miocene. Hominid fossils from this interval, however, are fragmentary and of uncertain phylogenetic status, age, or both. Here I report new hominid specimens from the Middle Awash area of Ethiopia that date to 5.2-5.8 Myr and are associated with

Yohannes Haile-Selassie

2001-01-01

288

Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool.  

PubMed

During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate 'trimming' of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry.Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic.This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example. PMID:22738170

Harley, Sarah; More, Simon; Boyle, Laura; Connell, Niamh O'; Hanlon, Alison

2012-01-01

289

Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool  

PubMed Central

During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate ‘trimming’ of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry. Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic. This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example.

2012-01-01

290

Prevalence, characterization, and genotypic analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM from selected beef exporting abattoirs of Argentina.  

PubMed

In Argentina, Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM (STEC O157) is the prevalent serotype associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is endemic in the country with more than 400 cases per year. In order to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 in beef cattle at slaughter, a survey of 1,622 fecal and carcass samples was conducted in nine beef exporting abattoirs from November 2006 to April 2008. A total of 54 samples were found positive for STEC O157, with an average prevalence of 4.1% in fecal content and 2.6% in carcasses. Calves and heifers presented higher percentages of prevalence in feces, 10.5 and 8.5%, respectively. All STEC O157 isolates harbored stx(2) (Shiga toxin 2), eae (intimin), ehxA (enterohemolysin), and fliC(H7) (H7 flagellin) genes, while stx(1) (Shiga toxin 1) was present in 16.7% of the strains. The prevalent (56%) stx genotype identified was stx(2) combined with variant stx(2c (vh-a)), the combination of which is also prevalent (>90%) in STEC O157 post-enteric HUS cases in Argentina. The clonal relatedness of STEC O157 strains was established by phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The 54 STEC isolates were categorized into 12 different phage types and in 29 XbaI-PFGE patterns distributed in 27 different lots. STEC O157 strains isolated from 5 of 21 carcasses were identical by PFGE (100% similarity) to strains of the fecal content of the same or a contiguous bovine in the lot. Five phage type-PFGE-stx profiles of 10 strains isolated in this study matched with the profiles of the strains recovered from 18 of 122 HUS cases that occurred in the same period. PMID:20377952

Masana, M O; Leotta, G A; Del Castillo, L L; D'Astek, B A; Palladino, P M; Galli, L; Vilacoba, E; Carbonari, C; Rodríguez, H R; Rivas, M

2010-04-01

291

Barriers to Cataract Surgical Uptake in Central Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the factors that delay surgical intervention in patients suffering from age related mature cataract in Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A short term descriptive study was performed that evaluated patients with mature cataract presenting to outreach eye care clinics in rural central Ethiopia. Patients were interviewed to determine the reasons for delay in their cataract surgeries. Result: A total of 146 subjects (57 male and 89 females) with operable age related cataract were evaluated at 31 outreach clinics. Over 86% of the respondents were above 55 years of age, (range, 45–78 years). The male to female ratio was 1:1.5 and 30.2% of the subjects were blind bilaterally (best corrected visual acuity <3/60). The majority of the respondents were farmers (53.4%) and 86.3% were illiterate. The major factors that delayed cataract surgery included: Cost of surgery (91.8%), insufficient family income (78.1%), good vision in the fellow (unaffected) eye (39.7%), and the distance to hospital from their village (47.9%). Conclusion: Surgical cost, insufficient family income, and the distance to an eye care centre were the major factors delaying cataract surgery in rural Ethiopia.

Mehari, Zelalem Addisu; Zewedu, Redda Tekle Haimanot; Gulilat, Fitsum Bekele

2013-01-01

292

Southern Italy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This rare cloud free view of southern Italy (41.0N, 16.0E) shows almost all of the famous `boot' configuration of the peninsula up to just north of Naples and Mount Vesuvius. The land mass of this historic peninsula contrasts sharply with the sparkling blue waters of the Mediterranean Sea.

1973-01-01

293

A geographic information system forecast model for strategic control of fasciolosis in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A geographic information system (GIS) forecast model based on moisture and thermal regime was developed to assess the risk of Fasciola hepatica, a temperate species, and its tropical counterpart, Fasciola gigantica, in Ethiopia. Agroecological map zones and corresponding environmental features that control the distribution and abundance of the disease and its snail intermediate hosts were imported from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Crop Production System Zones (CPSZ) database on east Africa and used to construct a GIS using ATLAS GIS 3.0 software. Base temperatures of 10 degrees C and 16 degrees C were used for F. hepatica and F. gigantica, respectively, to calculate growing degree days in a previously developed climate forecast system that was modified to allow use of monthly climate data values. The model was validated by comparison of risk indices and environmental features to available survey data on fasciolosis. Monthly Fasciola risk indices of four climatic regions in Ethiopia were used to project infection transmission patterns under varying climatic conditions and strategic chemotherapeutic fasciolosis control schemes. Varying degrees of F. hepatica risk occurred in most parts of the country and distinct regional F. hepatica transmission patterns could be identified. In the humid west, cercariae-shedding was predicted to occur from May to October. In the south it occurred from April to May and September to October, depending on the annual abundance of rain. In the north-central and central regions, risk was highest during heavy summer rains and pasture contamination with metacercariae was predicted to occur during August-September, except in wet years, when it may start as early as July and extend up to October. At cooler sites above altitude of 2800 m, completion of an infection cycle may require more than a year. Fasciola gigantica risk was present in the western, southern and north-central regions of the country at altitudes of 1440-2560 m. However, a transmission cycle could be completed in a single year only at elevations below 1700 m. The greatest risk of F. gigantica infection was in the humid western region. Regional strategic chemotherapy schemes of two or three treatments per year were developed. Results suggest that the model can be extrapolated to all CPSZ in the country and adapted for use in control of other vector-borne diseases of economic and public health importance. PMID:9735916

Yilma, J M; Malone, J B

1998-07-31

294

Influenza A virus infection of healthy piglets in an abattoir in Brazil: animal-human interface and risk for interspecies transmission  

PubMed Central

Asymptomatic influenza virus infections in pigs are frequent and the lack of measures for controlling viral spread facilitates the circulation of different virus strains between pigs. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the circulation of influenza A virus strains among asymptomatic piglets in an abattoir in Brazil and discuss the potential public health impacts. Tracheal samples (n = 330) were collected from asymptomatic animals by a veterinarian that also performed visual lung tissue examinations. No slaughtered animals presented with any noticeable macroscopic signs of influenza infection following examination of lung tissues. Samples were then analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that resulted in the identification of 30 (9%) influenza A positive samples. The presence of asymptomatic pig infections suggested that these animals could facilitate virus dissemination and act as a source of infection for the herd, thereby enabling the emergence of influenza outbreaks associated with significant economic losses. Furthermore, the continuous exposure of the farm and abattoir workers to the virus increases the risk for interspecies transmission. Monitoring measures of swine influenza virus infections and vaccination and monitoring of employees for influenza infection should also be considered. In addition regulatory agencies should consider the public health ramifications regarding the potential zoonotic viral transmission between humans and pigs.

Amorim, Ariane Ribeiro; Fornells, Luz Alba Maria Garcete; Reis, Felicidade da Costa; Rezende, Daiana Jacinto; Mendes, Gabriella da Silva; Couceiro, Jose Nelson dos Santos Silva; Santos, Norma Suely de Oliveira

2013-01-01

295

Evaluating the prevalence of tail biting and carcase condemnations in slaughter pigs in the Republic and Northern Ireland, and the potential of abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool.  

PubMed

Despite extensive utilisation in epidemiological investigations of animal health, to date there has been little consideration of the value of abattoir meat inspection as a pig welfare surveillance tool. This study measured the prevalence of tail-docking, tail biting, carcase condemnations and associated financial losses of the latter (Northern Ireland only) in 36,963 pigs slaughtered in six abattoirs from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland in July and August 2010. Over 99 per cent of inspected pigs had been tail-docked, while 58.1 per cent and 1.03 per cent had detectable and severe tail lesions, respectively. Producer losses resulting from carcase condemnation were estimated to be €0.37 per pig slaughtered. Enhanced capture and utilisation of meat inspection data for use in animal welfare surveillance schemes has the potential to drive improvements in production efficiency and animal welfare. However, significant differences were detected in the prevalence of carcase condemnation conditions between abattoirs and judiciaries (Republic and Northern Ireland). This reflects variation in the criteria and methods of data capture used in meat inspection in different abattoirs. Thus, the meat inspection process needs to be standardised and reformed before it can be reliably utilised in large-scale pig welfare surveillance schemes. PMID:23248113

Harley, S; More, S J; O'Connell, N E; Hanlon, A; Teixeira, D; Boyle, L

2012-12-15

296

Frequency of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep slaughtered in an abattoir in Tabriz: comparison of bacterial culture and pathological study.  

PubMed

From January to February 2008, 468 sheep carcasses (335 male and 133 female) in a Khosroshahr (suburb of Tabriz, East Azerbaijan province, Iran) abattoir were randomly selected for inspection. The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep and to compare the results of bacterial cultures and histopathology of suspected cases. The mean age of the population was 2.5 years. One hundred ninety-seven cases containing 153 (77.7%) males and 44 (22.3%) females had prominent enlargement of one of the lymph nodes (i.e., prescapular, prefemoral, inguinal, supramammary, or midiastinal); these were removed with the surrounding tissue for further evaluation. For confirmed diagnosis of CLA, samples were sent for microbiology and pathology analysis. Standard bacteriological culture methods for isolation of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and tissue preparations for histopathological sections were performed. To evaluate the effect of age on the frequency of CLA, animals were categorized in four groups: under 1, 1-2, 2-3, and over 3 years of age. Based on the results, in 59 (12.60%) carcasses C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated, and in 94 (20.08%) of the cases histopathological studies revealed pathognomonic signs (lamellated exudates or onion ring) of CLA. The frequency of CLA based on bacteriological culture was 12.60% and on histopathological study 20.08%. In 37 (18.8%) of the carcasses, both bacteriological and histopathological studies confirmed CLA. The frequency of CLA following microscopic examination (20.08%) presented a more precise diagnosis compared to bacteriological culture (12.60%) and macroscopic evaluation of the lymph nodes (P?

Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Khoojine, Amir Babak Sioofy; Helan, Javad Ashrafi; Hassanzadeh, Belal; Heydari, Ali Akbar

2012-10-01

297

Differentiating flow, melt, or fossil seismic anisotropy beneath Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow, or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study, we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and we directly invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due to shear segregated melt along sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominates the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from regions with significant lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal and uppermost mantle magma storage dominate the signal in localized regions. In general, little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle beneath Afar suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is lacking beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates flow in the upper mantle.

Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Wookey, J.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.

2014-05-01

298

Teaching the right hydrology with minimum resources in Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will highlight our experience in teaching 19 Master's students from diverse backgrounds hydrology and watershed management in Ethiopia. Although the program was based at Bahir Dar University on the shores of Lake Tana in Ethiopia, the students received an US degree. The goal was to train professionals who can help to institute more effective and sustainable watershed management practices in Ethiopia. Teaching hydrology was a challenge. From the literature and personal observation, it was obvious that the traditional techniques of predicting runoff based on infiltration excess runoff and SCS curve number method were not satisfactory. Saturation excess runoff was more likely. However there was no research to prove that it actually was the case. In class we taught both runoff principles but stressed the saturation excess runoff. It was impossible to convince the students that the techniques that came from the western world be incorrect. For their Masters thesis, eight students did field research on runoff and erosion processes in watershed (some of which has a long record of discharge and sediment data). The students recorded water table heights, measured infiltration rates and determined where most erosion took place in the landscape. Based on this data they modeled the previously observed discharge successful using a saturation excess type model. From these studies we could establish that saturation in the landscape had a great effect on both runoff and sediment losses. As result of the field work, students had changed their mind about the appropriateness of using for example the SCS curve number method in Ethiopian highlands Perhaps the lesson to be learned is that we do not need a lot of funds to teach students the right hydrology. However, there is no substitute for going out in the field and experiencing what the right hydrology is by studying the processes in the landscape itself. By simply teaching in class, students will and cannot accept that the hydrologic processes that were taught for a century might be incorrect.

Steenhuis, Tammo; Collick, Amy; Wondie, Ayalew; Jemberu, Tsehai

2010-05-01

299

Characterization of the regional variability of flood regimes within the Omo-Gibe River Basin, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological variability and seasonality is one of the Ethiopia's primary water resource management challenges. Variability is most obviously manifest in endemic, devastating droughts and floods. While the level of flooding is quite often extremely high and destroys human beings and property, in many cases flooding is of vital importance because the community benefits from flood recession agriculture. This is the case of the lower Omo plain whose agriculture is based on the regularity of the inundations due to flooding of the Omo Gibe River. The big flood in 2006, which caused death for more than 300 people and 2000 cattle, poses a dilemma. Flooding must be controlled and regulated in a way that the damages are reduced as much as possible but the flooding-related benefits are not lost. To this aim, characterization and understanding of hydrological variability of the Omo Gibe River basin is fundamental. The goal of this work is to extract the maximal amount of information on the hydrological variability and specially on the flooding regime from the few data available in the region. Because most of the basin is ungauged, hydrological information is reconstructed using the data from 9 gauged catchments. A daily water balance model has been developed, calibrated and validated for 9 gauged catchments and, subsequently, the parameters have been correlated to catchment characteristics in order to establish a functional relationship that allows to apply the model to ungauged catchments. Daily streamflow has been predicted for 15 ungauged catchments, which are assumed to comprehensively represent the hydrological variability of the Omo-Gibe River Basin. Even though both northern and southern catchments are affected by a strong seasonality of precipitation, with most of the rain falling in less than 3 months, most of the northern catchments are humid, while in the southern part of the Omo-Gibe River basin, the catchments are either humid, dry sub humid, semiarid or arid. As for climate, also landscape and vegetation cover is more homogeneous in the northern part of the Omo Gibe River basin than in the southern part. Consequently, the runoff variability reflects the interesting diversity of climate and landscape of the basin. The gradient of flooding regimes from the north to the south of the Omo Gibe River basin will be analysed and the impacts of possible regime changes will be discussed.

Yared, Adanech; Demissie, Solomon S.; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Viglione, Alberto; MacAlister, Charlotte

2014-05-01

300

Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: Wheat,Triticum<\\/span>spp<\\/span>., Barley,Hordeum<\\/span>vulgare<\\/span> L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, Syria<\\/o:p><\\/ins><\\/span><\\/span>

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301

Periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae in south western Ethiopia.  

PubMed

As part of a clinical and epidemiological study of lymphatic filariasis in southwestern Ethiopia the microfilarial density in the blood of two male and two female volunteers from the village of Ketch (near the town of Gambella) was determined every four hours for a 24-hour period using the counting chamber technique. In the blood of the volunteers the majority of the microfilariae appeared between 20 and 04 hours with peak at 24 hours (range at peak time + 3060-3560 mf/ml blood) depicting a nocturnal periodicity of circulating Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae. This has important implications for the diagnosis, monitoring and transmission of lymphatic filariasis in the area. PMID:7601081

Jemaneh, L; Kebede, D

1995-04-01

302

Famine Early Warning System Vulnerability Assessment. Contains Reports on Mauritania, Mali, Burkina, Niger, Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report assesses food security in seven countries in the Sahel region of Africa - Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Chad, Sudan, and Ethiopia - focusing on the socioeconomic factors that affect access to food. While the report's analysis is countr...

1990-01-01

303

New Fossils From Ethiopia Open a Window on Africa's "Missing Years"  

NSF Publications Database

... New Fossils From Ethiopia Open a Window on Africa's "Missing Years" Image: An example of the ... extremely rich fossil record encased in East Africa's rocks," says Rich Lane, program director in ...

304

Predictors of HIV Testing among Patients with Tuberculosis in North West Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe acceptance of HIV testing among patients with tuberculosis (TB) is low in Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of acceptance of HIV testing among patients with TB in North Ethiopia.MethodsA case control study was conducted in eight randomly selected health facilities in North Ethiopia from February 5 to March 11, 2009. A total of 282

Animut Ayenew; Abenet Leykun; Robert Colebunders; Amare Deribew

2010-01-01

305

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Working Adults in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria among working East African adults. Design. This cross-sectional study of 1,935 individuals (1,171 men and 764 women) was conducted among working adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in accordance with the STEPwise approach of the World Health Organization. Results. According to ATP III and IDF definitions, the overall prevalence of MetS was 12.5% and 17.9%, respectively. Using ATP III criteria, the prevalence of MetS was 10.0% in men and 16.2% in women. Application of the IDF criteria resulted in a MetS prevalence of 14.0% in men and 24.0% in women. The most common MetS components among women were reduced high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (23.2%) and abdominal obesity (19.6%); whilst reduced HDL-C concentrations (23.4%) and high blood pressure (21.8%) were most common among men. Conclusion. MetS and its individual components are prevalent among an apparently healthy working population in Ethiopia. These findings indicate the need for evidence-based health promotion and disease prevention programs; and more robust efforts directed towards the screening, diagnosis and management of MetS and its components among Ethiopian adults.

Tran, A.; Gelaye, B.; Girma, B.; Lemma, S.; Berhane, Y.; Bekele, T.; Khali, A.; Williams, M. A.

2011-01-01

306

Epidemiology in Ethiopia 200 years after John Snow's birth.  

PubMed

The year 2013 marks exactly 200 years since John Snow, known as the father of modern epidemiology, was born. In 19th century, epidemiologists like John Snow, concentrated almost entirely upon infectious diseases of humans measuring the burden of disease, describing pattern and attempting to understand the transmission dynamics. During the second half of the 20th century; big changes occurred so that epidemiologists in the developed world started to use systematized approaches to investigate the etiologies, conditions and to evaluate interventions through different study designs. However, the situation in the developing world is not the same as the rest of the world. Even 200 years after Snow's birth, epidemiological capacity is lowest in Africa. This article attempts to describe that Ethiopia is not exceptional. In the past few decades, there have been some attempts to build capacity in the country by launching training programs in clinical epidemiology, general epidemiology and field epidemiology. However, not only few epidemiologists are trained, but, limited funding, high-teaching burdens, poor working conditions and low salaries are among important contributors for epidemiological brain drain in Ethiopia. Thus, strengthening learning opportunities and rewarding career paths are required to increase human resource capacity and retain skilled personnel in the field of epidemiology. PMID:24696979

Enquselassie, Fikre

2013-10-01

307

A zoonotic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in the highlands of Ethiopia, and almost always caused by Leishmania aethiopica. Hitherto, Addis Ababa (the capital city of Ethiopia) was not considered endemic for CL, mainly due to absence of epidemiological and field ecological studies. This report summarizes the preliminary epidemiological investigation that proved the existence of active transmission in southeastern Addis Ababa. Results Active case finding surveys were conducted in 3 localities, Saris, Kality, and Akaki, which are found in and around Bulbula-Akaki river gorges. During the surveys conducted in January 2005 - May 2006, a total of 35 cases with 9 active and 26 healed skin lesions were identified. Eighteen of the cases (51.4%) were found in Saris; while 10 (28.6%) and 7 (20%) cases were from Kality and Akaki respectively. Ten colonies of rock hyraxes (Heterohyrax brucei) were identified in the vicinities of the 3 localities. Three of the 48 hyraxes (6.3%) trapped from the surroundings harbored natural infections of Leishmania aethiopica. Confirmation of the Leishmania species of the 3 isolates was achieved by PCR amplification and RFLP analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Based on sandfly species composition and proximity of resting sites to human settlements, Phlebotomus longipes is circumstantially proven to be the vector of CL in south east Addis Ababa. Conclusion The study proves the existence of isolated zoonotic foci of CL in south eastern Addis Ababa, with P. longipes as the likely vector and H. brucei as the natural reservoir host.

2009-01-01

308

Participatory Forest Management in Ethiopia: Learning from Pilot Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.

Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H. O.; Lemenih, Mulugeta

2014-04-01

309

Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from humans in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

In this study, 1034 faecal samples from patients with diarrhoea were screened for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Samples were collected from nine different regions in Ethiopia. Of these, 79 samples (7.6%) were positive for Cryptosporidium by modified Ziehl-Neelson staining. From all positive samples DNA was extracted and PCR amplification of the COWP, SSU-rRNA and GP60 gene fragments was performed. A total of 41 samples (52%) were positive in any of the three typing methods. The majority of isolates (39 of 41) was identified as Cryptosporidium parvum, with one Cryptosporidium hominis and one mixed infection. Sequencing of the GP60 gene fragments of 13 isolates resulted in three different subgenotypes of C. parvum, all belonging to the zoonotic subtype family IIa and one subtype of C. hominis (Ib). These data identify C. parvum as the major cause of human cryptosporidiosis in Ethiopia and suggest a zoonotic transmission of the disease in contrast to reports from other developing countries. PMID:20206592

Adamu, Haileeyesus; Petros, Beyene; Hailu, Asrat; Petry, Franz

2010-01-01

310

Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of prevalent bacterial pathogens in Gondar, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The prevalence and sensitivity pattern of common bacterial isolates from clinical specimens processed over one year in the bacteriology laboratory of a teaching hospital in north-west Ethiopia was investigated. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and other enteric Gram-negative rods were the predominant pathogens cultured. Klebsiella species were responsible for a nosocomial outbreak among children in the year. The majority of the strains, irrespective of genera, were resistant to tetracycline (> 60%), co-trimoxazole (> 55%) and chloramphenicol (> 45%). Resistance to ampicillin was seen in > 60% of isolates other than S. aureus. Sensitivity to gentamicin was high (> 89%) among S. aureus, E. coli and Pseudomonas strains. Isolates of Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Proteus were the least sensitive to the aminoglycoside. A multiplicity of antibiograms and predominance of certain multiresistant strains was observed for the prevalent species. Comparison made with reports from elsewhere in Ethiopia indicates that resistance to the commonly available (and cheaper) broad-spectrum antibiotics is a nationwide problem. A suggestion is made to enforce rational drug use before potent antibiotics are introduced under prescriber pressure. PMID:8625868

Aseffa, A; Yohannes, G

1996-01-01

311

The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination  

PubMed Central

Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of NTDs, integrated mapping, rapid scale up of interventions and operational research into co implementation of intervention packages will be crucial.

2012-01-01

312

Wheat Seed System in Ethiopia: Farmers' Varietal Perception, Seed Sources, and Seed Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge and information on farmers' perception and its influence on adoption of modern wheat varieties, awareness and source of new wheat production technology, wheat seed sources, and on-farm seed-management practices remain sporadic in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to understand the functioning of the wheat seed system in four major wheat-growing areas of Ethiopia. A total of 304 wheat growers

Zewdie Bishaw; P. C. Struik; A. J. G Van Gastel

2010-01-01

313

2.5-million-year-old stone tools from Gona, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oldowan Stone tool industry was named for 1.8-million-year-old (Myr) artefacts found near the bottom of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Subsequent archaeological research in the Omo (Ethiopia) and Turkana (Kenya) also yielded stone tools dated to 2.3 Myr. Palaeoanthropological investigations in the Hadar region of the Awash Valley of Ethiopia1, revealed Oldowan assemblages in the adjacent Gona River drainage2. We conducted

S. Semaw; P. Renne; J. W. K. Harris; C. S. Feibel; R. L. Bernor; N. Fesseha; K. Mowbray

1997-01-01

314

Performance of a pilot-scale high rate algal pond system treating abattoir wastewater in rural South Australia: nitrification and denitrification.  

PubMed

As part of a study examining the efficacy of high-rate algal pond treatment of high-strength abattoir wastewater, the impact of pond configuration and loading rate on nitrification was determined. The extent of nitrification in all ponds was consistent with mass balance estimates of oxygen demand and availability. Deeper ponds were more stable nitrifying systems, with shallow ponds displaying greater variation in response to changes in nitrogen loading. In a separate experiment the pond system was modified by covering a part of an in-series HRAP to exclude light, providing conditions suitable for denitrification. Specific denitrification rates were often within the range typical for endogenous carbon sources, with mass balance calculations indicating removals of up to 95%. PMID:16114673

Evans, R A; Cromar, N J; Fallowfield, H J

2005-01-01

315

Umbilical cord care in Ethiopia and implications for behavioral change: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Infections account for up to a half of neonatal deaths in low income countries. The umbilicus is a common source of infection in such settings. This qualitative study investigates practices and perspectives related to umbilical cord care in Ethiopia. Methods In-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted in a district in each of the four most populous regions in the country: Oromia, Amhara, Tigray and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR). In each district, one community was purposively selected; and in each study community, IDIs were conducted with 6 mothers, 4 grandmothers, 2 Traditional Birth Attendants and 2 Health Extension Workers (HEWs). The two main questions in the interview guide related to cord care were: How was the umbilical cord cut and tied? Was anything applied to the cord stump immediately after cutting/in the first 7 days? Why was it applied/not applied? Results The study elucidates local cord care practices and the rational for these practices. Concepts underlying cord tying practices were how to stem blood flow and facilitate delivery of the placenta. Substances were applied on the cord to moisturize it, facilitate its separation and promote healing. Locally recognized cord problems were delayed healing, bleeding or swelling. Few respondents reported familiarity with redness of the cord - a sign of infection. Grandmothers, TBAs and HEWs were influential regarding cord care. Conclusions This study highlights local rationale for cord practices, concerns about cord related problems and recognition of signs of infection. Behavioral change messages aimed at improving cord care including cleansing with CHX should address these local perspectives. It is suggested that HEWs and health facility staff target mothers, grandmothers, TBAs and other community women with messages and counseling.

2014-01-01

316

Mapping return levels of absolute NDVI variations for the assessment of drought risk in Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis and forecasting of extreme climatic events has become increasingly relevant to planning effective financial and food-related interventions in third-world countries. Natural disasters and climate change, both large and small scale, have a great impact on non-industrialized populations who rely exclusively on activities such as crop production, fishing, and similar livelihood activities. It is important to identify the extent of the areas prone to severe drought conditions in order to study the possible consequences of the drought on annual crop production. In this paper, we aim to identify such areas within the South Tigray zone, Ethiopia, using a transformation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) called Absolute Difference NDVI (ADVI). Negative NDVI shifts from the historical average can generally be linked to a reduction in the vigor of local vegetation. Drought is more likely to increase in areas where negative shifts occur more frequently and with high magnitude, making it possible to spot critical situations. We propose a new methodology for the assessment of drought risk in areas where crop production represents a primary source of livelihood for its inhabitants. We estimate ADVI return levels pixel per pixel by fitting extreme value models to independent monthly minima. The study is conducted using SPOT-Vegetation (VGT) ten-day composite (S10) images from April 1998 to March 2009. In all short-term and long-term predictions, we found that central and southern areas of the South Tigray zone are prone to a higher drought risk compared to other areas.; Temporal autocorrelation among monthly minima within the Alamata woreda. (a) ACF-Boxplot and (b) PACF-Boxplot. ; ADVI return level estimates. (a) 10-Month return levels. (b) 100-Month return levels. (c) 1000-Month return levels.

Tonini, F.; Hochmair, H. H.; Jona Lasinio, G.

2012-12-01

317

Mapping return levels of absolute NDVI variations for the assessment of drought risk in Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis and forecasting of extreme climatic events has become increasingly relevant to plan effective financial and food-related interventions in third-world countries. Natural disasters and climate change, both large and small scale, have a great impact on non-industrialized populations who rely exclusively on activities such as crop production, fishing, and similar livelihood activities. It is important to identify the extent of the areas prone to severe drought conditions in order to study the possible consequences of the drought on annual crop production. In this paper, we aim to identify such areas within the South Tigray zone, Ethiopia, using a transformation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) called Absolute Difference NDVI (ADVI). Negative NDVI shifts from the historical average can generally be linked to a reduction in the vigor of local vegetation. Drought is more likely to increase in areas where negative shifts occur more frequently and with high magnitude, making it possible to spot critical situations. We propose a new methodology for the assessment of drought risk in areas where crop production represents a primary source of livelihood for its inhabitants. We estimate ADVI return levels pixel per pixel by fitting extreme value models to independent monthly minima. The study is conducted using SPOT-Vegetation (VGT) ten-day composite (S10) images from April 1998 to March 2009. In all short-term and long-term predictions, we found that central and southern areas of the South Tigray zone are prone to a higher drought risk compared to other areas.

Tonini, Francesco; Jona Lasinio, Giovanna; Hochmair, Hartwig H.

2012-08-01

318

Detection of rabies antibody by ELISA and RFFIT in unvaccinated dogs and in the endangered Simien jackal (Canis simensis) of Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Varying levels of rabies antibody have been detected both by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT) in the sera collected from wild and domestic canids in the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) of Southern Ethiopia. Rabies antibody was detected in 80% (8 out of 10) of domestic dog samples, 13.3% (2 out of 15) of Simien jackal samples and in one common jackal. Rabies virus was isolated from one dog in an area where contact with the Simien jackal could possibly occur. All samples examined from wild rodents as possible reservoir hosts for rabies were found negative. The presence of large proportion of susceptible Simien jackals in the population should be a cause of great concern in saving this endangered species from the ravages of rabies. PMID:1642078

Mebatsion, T; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Gottelli, D; Cox, J H

1992-05-01

319

Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality.

Njisane, Yonela Z.; Muchenje, Voster

2013-01-01

320

Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality. PMID:25049733

Njisane, Yonela Z; Muchenje, Voster

2013-10-01

321

Podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones, Northern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) that is prevalent in red clay soil-covered highlands of tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northern India. It is estimated that up to one million cases exist in Ethiopia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones of Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha woredas (districts) in East and West Gojam Zones, respectively. The survey covered all 17,553 households in 20 kebeles (administrative subunits) randomly selected from the two woredas. A detailed structured interview was conducted on 1,704 cases of podoconiosis identified in the survey. Results The prevalence of podoconiosis in the population aged 15 years and above was found to be 3.3% (95% CI, 3.2% to 3.6%). 87% of cases were in the economically active age group (15–64 years). On average, patients sought treatment five years after the start of the leg swelling. Most subjects had second (42.7%) or third (36.1%) clinical stage disease, 97.9% had mossy lesions, and 53% had open wounds. On average, patients had five episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ALA) per year and spent a total of 90 days per year with ALA. The median age of first use of shoes and socks were 22 and 23 years, respectively. More men than women owned more than one pair of shoes (61.1% vs. 50.5%; ?2?=?11.6 p?=?0.001). At the time of interview, 23.6% of the respondents were barefoot, of whom about two-thirds were women. Conclusions This study showed high prevalence of podoconiosis and associated morbidities such as ALA, mossy lesions and open wounds in northern Ethiopia. Predominance of cases at early clinical stage of podoconiosis indicates the potential for reversing the swelling and calls for disease prevention interventions.

Molla, Yordanos B.; Tomczyk, Sara; Amberbir, Tsige; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail

2012-01-01

322

Pastoralism and delay in diagnosis of TB in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in the Horn of Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected where TB cases increase at the rate of 2.6% each year. One of the main contributing factors for this rise is increasing transmission due to large number of untreated patients, serving as reservoirs of the infection within the communities. Reduction of the time between onset of TB symptoms to diagnosis is therefore a prerequisite to bring the TB epidemic under control. The aim of this study was to measure duration of delay among pastoralist TB patients at TB management units in Somali Regional State (SRS) of Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study of 226 TB patients with pastoralist identity was conducted in SRS of Ethiopia from June to September 2007. Patients were interviewed using questionnaire based interview. Time between onset of TB symptoms and first visit to a professional health care provider (patient delay), and the time between first visits to the professional health care provider to the date of diagnosis (medical provider's delay) were analyzed. Both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB patients were included in the study. Result A total of 226 pastoralist TB patients were included in this study; 93 (41.2%) were nomadic pastoralists and 133 (58.8%) were agro-pastoralists. Median patient delay was found to be 60 days with range of 10–1800 days (83 days for nomadic pastoralists and 57 days for agro-pastoralists). Median health care provider's delay was 6 days and median total delay was 70 days in this study. Patient delay constituted 86% of the total delay. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, nomadic pastoralism (aOR. 2.69, CI 1.47–4.91) and having low biomedical knowledge on TB (aOR. 2.02, CI 1.02–3.98) were significantly associated with prolonged patient delay. However, the only observed risk factor for very long patient delay >120 days was distance to health facility (aOR.4.23, CI 1.32–13.54). Extra-pulmonary TB was the only observed predictor for health care providers' delay (aOR. 3.39, CI 1.68–6.83). Conclusion Patient delay observed among pastoralist TB patients in SRS is one of the highest reported so far from developing countries, exceeding two years in some patients. This long patient delay appears to be associated with patient's inadequate knowledge of the disease and distance to health care facility with nomadic pastoralists being the most affected. Regional TB control programmes need to consider the exceptional circumstances of pastoralists, to maximise their access to TB services.

Gele, Abdi A; Bjune, Gunnar; Abebe, Fekadu

2009-01-01

323

The tale of the hearts: deciding on abortion in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

In contemporary Ethiopia, abortion decision-making is a challenging process involving moral and/or religious dilemmas, as well as considerations of health and safety. Amidst widespread condemnation of female premarital sex and clear moral sanction against induced abortion, young Ethiopian women are nevertheless sexually active and induced abortions are still sought and performed, with the potential for grave physical harm and social stigmatization. This paper examines young unmarried Ethiopian women's narratives of abortion decision-making. In particular, it identifies and explores the operations of a particular discursive shape from within in such narratives, here described as The tale of the hearts. Analysing The tale of the hearts as a decision-making resource, it is argued, allows us to explore the particular, local, historical and cultural character of Ethiopian women's abortion decision-making dilemmas and the culturally available resources contributing to their resolution. PMID:22250576

Kebede, Meselu Taye; Hilden, Per Kristian; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

2012-01-01

324

Schistosomiasis in the Gumara and Ribb irrigation project area, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A survey of intestinal schistosomiasis and vector snails was conducted in the Gumara and Ribb Irrigation project located on the eastern side of Lake Tana, northwest Ethiopia. Within the project area, stool specimens from 1273 people were examined by the thick smear method. The average infection rate for Schistosoma mansoni was 1.6%. Two localities, Addis Zemen and Yifag, located just outside the project area, were also examined, the former showing an S. mansoni prevalence of 34% (75/223) and the latter 18% (18/101) among school children. In Debre Tabor, the provincial capital 50 km away from the project site at an altitude of 2800 m., five S. mansoni cases were found among 111 school children, but they were considered to be imported cases. The possible establishment of intestinal schistosomiasis in the project area is discussed. PMID:2496974

Lo, C T; Birrie, H; Ayele, T; Desta, B

1989-04-01

325

Physical volcanology of the Gubisa Formation, Kone Volcanic Complex, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite their significance for understanding the potential environmental factors involved in hominin evolution in Ethiopia, very few modern volcanologic studies have been carried out on the Quaternary calderas and associated silicic tephra deposits of the Ethiopian Rift. We present here the second of a set of papers reporting the findings of fieldwork and laboratory analyses of one of the largest of these structures, Kone Caldera, located within the Kone Volcanic Complex in the northern Main Ethiopian Rift. The most recent major episode of explosive eruptive activity at Kone Caldera was apparently associated with formation of part of the overall 8-km-diameter collapse area, and deposited a widely-dispersed alkali rhyolite tephra that reaches a thickness of up to 60 m in vent-proximal deposits. We report here the physical characteristics of this unit in order to constrain eruptive conditions. The pumice fall deposit suggests that an abrupt decrease in magma discharge rate occurred part way through the eruption.

Rampey, Michael L.; Oppenheimer, Clive; Pyle, David M.; Yirgu, Gezahegn

2014-08-01

326

A longitudinal survey of market donkeys in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

This survey was conducted at three sites in Ethiopia. The purpose of the survey was to provide detailed information on donkey use in rural and peri-urban areas. The study revealed that donkeys are indeed of immense value to farmers and merchants, being used almost daily for income-generating activities. Unfortunately, they are rarely given any veterinary attention, they receive no feed supplements and their owners are often unaware of improved saddling techniques that would reduce the back sores their animals suffer from. An extension programme providing donkey owners with information on saddling, feeding and basic health care would improve the animals' productivity and improve the livelihoods of the owners. PMID:16335073

Tesfaye, A; Martin Curran, M

2005-11-01

327

Photogrammetric evaluation of MOMS-02 Mode 3 data (Mexico, Ethiopia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner (MOMS-02) has been flown successfully on the German space shuttle mission D2 in April/May 1993. Its outstanding feature is along- track stereoscopic imaging. The imaging mode 3 of MOMS is combining the two off-nadir panchromatic channels with two nadir-looking color channels (red and near infrared). The ground pixel size is 13.5 X 13.5 m2, and the base to height ratio is about 0.8. The paper reports on results of the photogrammetric evaluation of MOMS mode 3 data on Mexico (D2 orbit 82) and on Ethiopia (D2 orbit 61). The evaluation is subdivided into three major steps: (1) Automatic Imaging Matching to derive large numbers of conjugate points, performed with software which has been developed at DLR for the common Indian-German stereo scanner project MEOSS. The software has been successfully applied to MEOSS airborne imagery. (2) Combined Point Determination for the reconstruction of the exterior orientation and the calculation of the ground coordinates of a subset of conjugate points using the photogrammetric bundle adjustment software CLIC developed at Technical University Munich. For Ethiopia empirical accuracies of 23 m in X, 19 m in Y and 13 m in Z were obtained using 34 independent check points. Generation of a Digital Terrain Model from a dense network of conjugate points, which previously are transformed into object space by multiple forward intersection. For the Ethiopian example the conjugate point network was densified by additional image matching. The algorithm is based on the region growing approach, proposed by Otto and Chau. A report on the results achieved is given.

Lehner, Manfred; Kornus, Wolfgang

1995-08-01

328

Desertification? Northern Ethiopia re-photographed after 140 years.  

PubMed

A collection of sepia photographs, taken during Great Britain's military expedition to Abyssinia in 1868, are the oldest landscape photographs from northern Ethiopia, and have been used to compare the status of vegetation and land management 140 years ago with that of contemporary times. Thirteen repeat landscape photographs, taken during the dry seasons of 1868 and 2008, were analyzed for various environmental indicators and show a significant improvement of vegetation cover. New eucalypt woodlands, introduced since the 1950s are visible and have provided a valuable alternative for house construction and fuel-wood, but more importantly there has also been locally important natural regeneration of indigenous trees and shrubs. The situation in respect to soil and water conservation measures in farmlands has also improved. According to both historical information and measured climatic data, rainfall conditions around 1868 and in the late 19th century were similar to those of the late 20th/early 21st century. Furthermore, despite a ten-fold increase in population density, land rehabilitation has been accomplished over extensive areas by large-scale implementation of reforestation and terracing activities, especially in the last two decades. In some cases repeat photography shows however that riparian vegetation has been washed away. This is related to river widening in recent degradation periods, particularly in the 1970s-1980s. More recently, riverbeds have become stabilized, and indicate a decreased runoff response. Environmental recovery programmes could not heal all scars, but this study shows that overall there has been a remarkable recovery of vegetation and also improved soil protection over the last 140 years, thereby invalidating hypotheses of the irreversibility of land degradation in semi-arid areas. In a highly degraded environment with high pressure on the land, rural communities were left with no alternative but to improve land husbandry: in northern Ethiopia such interventions have been demonstrably successful. PMID:19155052

Nyssen, Jan; Haile, Mitiku; Naudts, Jozef; Munro, Neil; Poesen, Jean; Moeyersons, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Deckers, Jozef; Pankhurst, Richard

2009-04-01

329

The mineral industry of Ethiopia: present conditions and future prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.

Assefa, Getaneh

330

A Systems Approach to Improving Rural Care in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple interventions have been launched to improve the quality, access, and utilization of primary health care in rural, low-income settings; however, the success of these interventions varies substantially, even within single studies where the measured impact of interventions differs across sites, centers, and regions. Accordingly, we sought to examine the variation in impact of a health systems strengthening intervention and understand factors that might explain the variation in impact across primary health care units. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a mixed methods positive deviance study of 20 Primary Health Care Units (PHCUs) in rural Ethiopia. Using longitudinal data from the Ethiopia Millennium Rural Initiative (EMRI), we identified PHCUs with consistently higher performance (n?=?2), most improved performance (n?=?3), or consistently lower performance (n?=?2) in the provision of antenatal care, HIV testing in antenatal care, and skilled birth attendance rates. Using data from site visits and in-depth interviews (n?=?51), we applied the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis to identify key themes that distinguished PHCUs with different performance trajectories. Key themes that distinguished PHCUs were 1) managerial problem solving capacity, 2) relationship with the woreda (district) health office, and 3) community engagement. In higher performing PHCUs and those with the greatest improvement after the EMRI intervention, health center and health post staff were more able to solve day-to-day problems, staff had better relationships with the woreda health official, and PHCU communities' leadership, particularly religious leadership, were strongly engaged with the health improvement effort. Distance from the nearest city, quality of roads and transportation, and cultural norms did not differ substantially among PHCUs. Conclusions/Significance Effective health strengthening efforts may require intensive development of managerial problem solving skills, strong relationships with government offices that oversee front-line providers, and committed community leadership to succeed.

Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Byam, Patrick; Alpern, Rachelle; Thompson, Jennifer W.; Zerihun, Abraham; Abeb, Yigeremu; Curry, Leslie A.

2012-01-01

331

Prevalence and associated factors of female genital mutilation among Somali refugees in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Eastern Ethiopia hosts a substantial number of refugees originated from Somalia. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common practice in the area, despite the campaigns to eliminate it. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 492 respondents sampled from three refugee camps in Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence and associated factors of FGM. Data were

Getnet Mitike; Wakgari Deressa

2009-01-01

332

Operationalization of National Objectives of Ethiopia into Educational Objectives. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation. No. 60.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on past educational objectives of the old political regime in Ethiopia and new educational objectives of revolutionary Ethiopia. It is reported that these new objectives focus on education for production, scientific research, and socialist consciousness, and that all subjects are based on Marxism-Leninism. Curricular objectives…

Adaye, Abebe Alaro

333

Voices on adherence to ART in Ethiopia and Uganda: a matter of choice or simply not an option?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores HIV patients’ adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited contexts in Uganda and Ethiopia, where ART is provided free of charge. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 79 patients, 17 peer counselors, and 22 providers in ART facilities in urban and rural areas of Ethiopia and Uganda. Interviewees voiced their experiences of, and views on ART adherence

Annelie K. Gusdal; Celestino Obua; Tenaw Andualem; Rolf Wahlström; Göran Tomson; Stefan Peterson; Anna Mia Ekström; Anna Thorson; John Chalker; Grethe Fochsen

2009-01-01

334

Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction and Anticipated Turnover among Nurses in Sidama Zone Public Health Facilities, South Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Background. Workplace turnover is destructive to nursing and patient outcomes as it leads to losing competent and qualified nurses. However, developments of coping strategies demand a clear understanding of workplace variables that either motivate nurses to remain employed or lead them to leave their current jobs. Objective. This study was designed toassess factors influencing job satisfaction and intention to turnover among nurses in Sidama zone public health facilities, in Southern Ethiopia. Method. Cross-sectional study design was carried out on 278 nurses using both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods from May 12 to June 05, 2010. Result. A total of 242 nurses were interviewed giving a response rate of 87%. Nearly two-third (68.6%) of the participants were female, and the mean age was 28 (±6.27) years for both sexes. All job satisfaction subscale except benefit and salary subscale were significant predictors of overall job satisfaction. Satisfactions with work environment and group cohesion (AOR: 0.25 [95% CI: 0.12, 0.51]), single cohesion (AOR: 2.56 [95% CI: 1.27, 5.13]), and working in hospital (AOR: 2.19 [95% CI: 1.12, 4.30]) were the final significant predictors of anticipated turnover of Sidama zone nurses. Conclusions. More than any factors managers should consider the modification of working environment and group cohesions rather than trying to modify nurses to retain and maintain more experienced nurses for the organizations. PMID:24707397

Asegid, Agezegn; Belachew, Tefera; Yimam, Ebrahim

2014-01-01

335

Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the Beechmont Historic District, showing changes in landscaping, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

336

Plight of a displaced woman in southern Sudan.  

PubMed

Southern Sudanese have been displaced due to tribal conflicts and civil war between the Islamic Khartoum government in the North and the predominantly Christian South. This article narrates the plight of displaced Southern Sudanese women, particularly that of a woman named Rebecca Akwach during her journey towards Nzara to escape air raids by the Khartoum government. The war that plagued Southern Sudan for the past 11 years has burdened numerous women with the responsibility of bringing up their children single-handedly. Most of the husbands have been killed in battle, separated through displacement, or have fled to other countries. Approximately 500 displaced people, including pregnant women, have walked some 300 km westward to a small town in western Ethiopia. During their ordeal, meals was reduced to once daily or none at all, while others barter whatever valuables they have for food. Malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea, respiratory tract infection and measles were prevalent. Pregnant women have an added burden of carrying valuables and small children who cannot walk 10 km a day. Akwach and other sojourners are now in Nzara and are waiting for the allocation of land where they can temporarily settle. PMID:12349363

Ogana, W

1993-01-01

337

Chronology and evolution of the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Objective To reconstruct the onset date and evolutionary history of the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in Ethiopia - one of the earliest recorded subtype C epidemics in the world. Design HIV-1 C env sequences with a known sampling year isolated from HIV-1 positive patients from Ethiopia between 1984 and 2003. Methods Evolutionary parameters including origin and demographic growth patterns were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent-based approach under either strict or relaxed molecular clock models. Results Bayesian evolutionary analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor date of 1965 with three distinct epidemic growth phases. Regression analysis of root-to-tip distances revealed a highly similar estimate for the origin of the clade. In addition we reveal that the HIV-1C epidemic in Ethiopia has grown at a faster rate than the epidemic of subtype C in sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion Reconstruction of the epidemic history in Ethiopia revealed that subtype C likely originated from either a single lineage or multiple descendents in the late 1960s or early 1970s where it grew exponentially throughout the mid-1970s and early 1980s, corresponding to a wave of urbanization and migration. In light of these findings we suggest that subtype C strains were circulating at least a decade before previous estimates and the first recognition of symptomatic patients in Ethiopia. The timing of the Ethiopian epidemic is also in agreement with similar HIV-1 epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa.

Tully, Damien C.; Wood, Charles

2010-01-01

338

Ovine progressive pneumonia (Maedi-Visna): an emerging respiratory disease of sheep in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A serological study was done to assess the role of Maedi-Visna (MV) infection in sheep from flocks with high respiratory tract disease morbidity in Ethiopia. Of 105 sheep examined from central Ethiopia 78 (74%) were positive for MV-infection. However, antibodies to the virus were not detected in 48 sheep and 70 goats from elsewhere in Ethiopia. The infection was detected in all breeds of sheep examined (Awassi, Hampshire, Corriedale, indigenous Menz breeds and their crosses) but with a significant breed difference (chi 2 = 20, p < 0.001) varying from 48% in imported Awassi sheep to 92% in the indigenous Menz sheep. This suggests that Menz sheep are more susceptible to infection, which may support the observation of a higher incidence of clinical disease in these sheep compared to exotic breeds and their crosses. It also supports recent studies indicating that MV is becoming one of the most important respiratory tract diseases in sheep in central Ethiopia. Our findings indicate that MV was introduced into Ethiopia via sheep imported into the central highlands and that it now constitutes an important emerging disease is discussed. Measures to control the disease are suggested. PMID:12494555

Woldemeskel, M; Tibbo, M; Potgieter, L N D

2002-11-01

339

An abattoir-based study on the prevalence and economic losses due to cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered herbivores in Ahwaz, south-western Iran.  

PubMed

A 10-year (1998-2008) retrospective study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and long-term trend of hydatid disease in slaughtered herbivores in the large complex abattoir of Ahwaz (the capital of Khuzestan province, south-western Iran). A total of 3,583,417 animals including 2,815,982 sheep, 427,790 goats and 339,645 cattle were inspected macroscopically for hydatid cysts in the 10-year period, and overall 155,555 (4.24%) livers and 228,172 (6.37%) lungs were condemned. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) was responsible for 36.08% and 48.04% of total liver and lung condemnations, respectively. The prevalence of pulmonary hydatid disease in sheep, goats and cattle was 2.22, 5.43 and 6.99%, respectively; on the other hand, the prevalence of hepatic hydatid disease for those animals was 1.26, 2.57 and 2.80%, respectively. Data showed an overall downward long-term trend for CE in all livestock slaughtered during the study period (P < 0.01). Lung condemnation due to CE was significantly more common than liver condemnation for each animal separately (P < 0.001). The prevalence of liver and lung hydatidosis in sheep was significantly lower than that in other livestock (P < 0.001). The prevalence of hydatid disease recovered from the sheep, cattle and goats varied in different seasons, but there was no statistical difference between various seasons. The odds ratio of lung and liver condemnations due to hydatidosis showed a slightly different pattern in some years; however, the overall declining trend was still observed. The total annual economic loss incurred due to hydatidosis in all ruminants slaughtered at Ahwaz municipal abattoir was estimated to be US$459,659.6, based on the market prices in the year 2008. This number corresponds to a loss of US$300,620.4 for cattle, US$123,490.0 for sheep and US$35,549.2 for goats. The current results provide baseline data for the future monitoring of this potentially important disease in the region, and also suggest that a thorough investigation leading to a disease control strategy is required to reduce the economic and public health consequences of CE. PMID:20398435

Ahmadi, N A; Meshkehkar, M

2011-03-01

340

Birth preparedness and complication readiness in Robe Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Central Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, an estimated 287 000 maternal deaths occurred in 2010 annually as a result of complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia were accounted for 85% of the global burden (245 000 maternal deaths) including Ethiopia. Obstetric related complications cannot be reliably predicted. Hence, insignificant decline of maternal mortality ratio might be due to the non use of birth preparedness and complication readiness strategies. Therefore, this paper aimed to assess knowledge and practices towards birth preparedness and complication readiness and associated factors among women of reproductive age group (15–49) in Robe Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Method Community-based cross-sectional study supplemented by qualitative design was conducted in January, 2012. A total of 575 women from 5 kebeles were selected after proportionally allocated to population size and interviewed using structured and semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaires. Univariate and bivariate analysis was performed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also done to control for possible confounding variables. Results Taking into account place of delivery identification, means of transportation, skilled attendant identification and saving money, about 16.5% of the respondents were prepared for birth and its complications. Preparation for birth and its complication was higher among educated mothers (AOR?=?6.23, 95% CI?=?1.5, 25.87). Monthly income of >716 Ethiopian birr (AOR?=?1.94, 95% CI?=?1.01, 3.87), ANC visit (AOR?=?5.68, 95% CI?=?1.27, 25.4), knowledge of obstetric complications (AOR?=?2.94, 95% CI?=?1.61, 5.37) and those who had given birth at health facility before their last delivery (AOR?=?3.9, 95% CI?=?2.04, 7.46) were also significantly associated with birth preparedness and complication readiness. Conclusion The study identified very low magnitude of birth preparedness and complication readiness in the study area and poor knowledge and practices of preparation for birth and its complication. Community education about preparation for birth and its complication and empowerment of women through expansion of educational opportunities are important steps in improving birth preparedness. In all health facilities during antenatal care emphasis should given to preparation for birth and its complication and provide information and education to all pregnant women.

2014-01-01

341

The Clustering of Smear-Positive Tuberculosis in Dabat, Ethiopia: A Population Based Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background In Ethiopia where tuberculosis epidemic remains high, studies that describe hotspots of the disease are unavailable. This study tried to detect the spatial distribution and clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis cases in Dabat, Ethiopia. Methods and Findings A population-based cross sectional study conducted in the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site from October 2010 to September 2011 identified smear-positive tuberculosis cases. Trained field workers collected demographic and location data from each study participant through house-to-house visits. A spatial scan statistic was used to identify purely spatial and space–time clusters of tuberculosis among permanent residents. Two significant (p<0.001) spatial and space-time clusters were identified in the study district. Conclusion Tuberculosis is concentrated in certain geographic locations in Dabat, Ethiopia. This kind of clustering can be common in the country, so the National Tuberculosis Control Program can be more effective by identifying such clusters and targeting interventions.

Tadesse, Takele; Demissie, Meaza; Berhane, Yemane; Kebede, Yigzaw; Abebe, Markos

2013-01-01

342

Characteristics of the Bab al Mandab-Northern Afar area of the southern Red Sea  

SciTech Connect

The southern Red Sea and adjacent Afar area represent an enigmatic portion of the Red Sea/Gulf of Aden basin system. Although the topographic rift shoulders of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden can be traced through this elbow, and appear to suggest that a similar width for the zone of extension is maintained across the region, the character of the floor of the rift zone changes. The distinctive character of the southern Red Sea-Afar area results in part from a topographically elevated region, possibly associated with the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden-East African rift triple junction. In addition, however, seismic data from offshore Ethiopia suggests that the distinctive character is due a complex pattern of rifting. The central axial trough of the Red Sea decreases in depth to the south toward the strait of Bab al Mandab, suggesting that rifting is dying out southward. Farther to the west at the same latitude, a major but narrow half-graben can be seen on seismic in the Gulf of Zula, bounded to the east by a large west-dipping normal fault. This structure continues south into the Danakil Depression of the Afar area. Between these two en echelon rift trends, the Danakil Alps form a long-lived high. Seismic data from the southern Red Sea of Ethiopia show southward thinning and pinch-out of the Miocene syn-rift evaporite sequence onto the northern Danakil block. Thus, it appears that the Danakil block has largely escaped Red Sea extension and subsidence. Instead, it forms a large unextended terrain located between overlapping en echelon rift trends, and may represent an accommodation zone structure associated with offset in the rift axis of the southern Red Sea.

Allen, R.B. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (United States)); Sikander, A.H. (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)); Abouzakhm, A.G.

1991-08-01

343

Local understandings of care during delivery and postnatal period to inform home based package of newborn care interventions in rural Ethiopia: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite a substantial decrease in child mortality in Ethiopia over the past decade, neonatal mortality remains unchanged (37/1000 live-births). This paper describes a qualitative study on beliefs and practices on immediate newborn and postnatal care in four rural communities of Ethiopia conducted to inform development of a package of community-based interventions targeting newborns. Methods The study team conducted eight key informant interviews (KII) with grandmothers, 27 in-depth interviews (IDI) with mothers; seven IDI with traditional birth attendants (TBA) and 15IDI with fathers, from four purposively selected communities located in Sidama Zone of Southern Nationalities, Nations, and Peoples (SNNP) Region and in East Shewa and West Arsi Zones of Oromia Region. Results In the study communities deliveries occurred at home. After cutting the umbilical cord, the baby is put to the side of the mother, not uncommonly with no cloth covering. This is largely due to attendants focusing on delivery of the placenta which is reinforced by the belief that the placenta is the ‘house’ or ‘blanket’ of the baby and that any “harm” caused to the placenta will transfer to the newborn. Applying butter or ointment to the cord “to speed drying” is common practice. Initiation of breastfeeding is often delayed and women commonly report discarding colostrum before initiating breastfeeding. Sub-optimal breastfeeding practices continue, due to perceived inadequate maternal nutrition and breast milk often leading to the provision of herbal drinks. Poor thermal care is also demonstrated through lack of continued skin-to-skin contact, exposure of newborns to smoke, frequent bathing—often with cold water baths for low-birth weight or small babies; and, poor hygienic practices are reported, particularly hand washing prior to contact with the newborn. Conclusion Cultural beliefs and newborn care practices do not conform to recommended standards. Local perspectives related to newborn care practices should inform behaviour change messages. Such messages should target mothers, grandmothers, TBAs, other female family members and fathers.

2014-01-01

344

Expansion vs. Quality: Emerging Issues of For-Profit Private Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led to mixed feelings among the Ethiopian public. While some laud the opportunities and advantages these new institutions bring, others are apprehensive that the quality of education might be compromised by an expansion motivated by monetary gain. This article sheds light on these paradoxes and provides suggestions for policy and practices.

Alemu, Daniel S.

2010-02-01

345

The Kenticha rare-element pegmatite, Ethiopia: internal differentiation, U-Pb age and Ta mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kenticha rare-element pegmatite, a globally important tantalite source in the Neoproterozoic Adola Belt of southern Ethiopia, is a highly fractionated, huge (2,000 m long and up to 100 m thick), subhorizontal, sheet-like body, discordantly emplaced in ultramafic host rock. It corresponds to the spodumene subtype of the rare-element pegmatite class and belongs to the lithium-cesium-tantalum petrogenetic family. The Kenticha pegmatite is asymmetrically zoned from bottom to top into granitic lower zone, spodumene-free intermediate zone, and spodumene-bearing upper zone. A monomineralic quartz unit is discontinuously developed within the upper zone. Whole-rock data indicate an internal geochemical differentiation of the pegmatite sheet proceeding from the lower zone (K/Rb ~36, K/Cs ~440, Al/Ga ~2,060, Nb/Ta ~2.6) to the upper zone (K/Rb ~19, K/Cs ~96, Al/Ga ~1,600, Nb/Ta ~0.7). The latter one is strongly enriched in Li2O (up to 3.21%), Rb (up to 4,570 ppm), Cs (up to 730 ppm), Ga (up to 71 ppm), and Ta (up to 554 ppm). Similar trends of increasing fractionation from lower zone to upper zone were obtained in muscovite (K/Rb 23-14, K/Cs 580-290, K/Tl 6,790-3,730, Fe/Mn 19-10, Nb/Ta 6.5-3.8) and columbite-tantalite (Mn/Mn + Fe 0.4-1, Ta/Ta + Nb 0.1-0.9). The bottom-to-top differentiation of the Kenticha pegmatite and the Ta mineralization in its upper part are principally attributed to upward in situ fractionation of a residual leucogranitic to pegmatitic melt, largely under closed system conditions. High MgO contents (up to 5.05%) in parts of the upper zone are the result of postmagmatic hydrothermal alteration and contamination by hanging wall serpentinite. U-Pb dating of Mn-tantalite from two zones of the Kenticha pegmatite gave ages of 530.2 ± 1.3 and 530.0 ± 2.3 Ma. Mn-tantalite from the Bupo pegmatite, situated 9 km north of Kenticha, gave an age of 529.2 ± 4.1 Ma, indicating coeval emplacement of the two pegmatites. The emplacement of the pegmatites is temporally related to postorogenic granite magmatism, producing slightly peraluminous, I-type plutons in the area surrounding the Kenticha pegmatite field. Fractionated members of this suite might be envisaged as potential parental magmas.

Küster, Dirk; Romer, Rolf L.; Tolessa, Dandena; Zerihun, Desta; Bheemalingeswara, K.; Melcher, Frank; Oberthür, Thomas

2009-10-01

346

Entomologic inoculation rates of Anopheles arabiensis in southwestern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

We collected anophelines every second week for one year from randomly selected houses in southwestern Ethiopia by using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, pyrethrum spray catches, and artificial pit shelter constructions to detect circumsporozoite proteins and estimate entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs). Of 3,678 Anopheles arabiensis tested for circumsporozoite proteins, 11 were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and three for P. vivax. The estimated annual P. falciparum EIR of An. arabiensis was 17.1 infectious bites per person per year (95% confidence interval = 7.03-34.6) based on CDC light traps and 0.1 infectious bites per person per year based on pyrethrum spray catches. The P. falciparum EIRs from CDC light traps varied from 0 infectious bites per person per year (in 60% of houses) to 73.2 infectious bites per person per year in the house nearest the breeding sites. Risk of exposure to infectious bites was higher in wet months than dry months, with a peak in April (9.6 infectious bites per person per month), the period of highest mosquito density. PMID:23878184

Massebo, Fekadu; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Lindtjørn, Bernt

2013-09-01

347

Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4-2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa. PMID:23733965

Wynn, Jonathan G; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K; Wilson, Jessica N

2013-06-25

348

Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia  

SciTech Connect

In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal.

Tadesse, Tewodros [Agricultural Economics and Rural Policy Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: tewodroslog@yahoo.com; Ruijs, Arjan [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen (Netherlands); Hagos, Fitsum [International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Subregional Office for the Nile Basin and East Africa, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

2008-07-01

349

Bartonella prevalence and genetic diversity in small mammals from Ethiopia.  

PubMed

More than 500 small mammals were trapped at 3 localities in northern Ethiopia to investigate Bartonella infection prevalence and the genetic diversity of the Bartonella spp. We extracted total DNA from liver samples and performed PCR using the primers 1400F and 2300R targeting 852?bp of the Bartonella RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) gene. We used a generalized linear mixed model to relate the probability of Bartonella infection to species, season, locality, habitat, sex, sexual condition, weight, and ectoparasite infestation. Overall, Bartonella infection prevalence among the small mammals was 34.0%. The probability of Bartonella infection varied significantly with species, sex, sexual condition, and some locality, but not with season, elevation, habitat type, animal weight, and ectoparasite infestation. In total, we found 18 unique Bartonella genotypes clustered into 5 clades, 1 clade exclusively Ethiopian, 2 clades clustered with genotypes from central and eastern Africa, and the remaining 2 clades clustered with genotypes and species from Africa and Asia. The close relatedness of several of our Bartonella genotypes obtained from the 3 dominant rodent species in Tigray with the pathogenic Bartonella elizabethae from Rattus spp. in Asia indicates a potential public health threat. PMID:23421888

Meheretu, Yonas; Leirs, Herwig; Welegerima, Kiros; Breno, Matteo; Tomas, Zewdneh; Kidane, Dawit; Girmay, Kokob; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy

2013-03-01

350

Infant responsiveness, alertness, haemoglobin and growth in rural Sidama, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Several recent studies have supported relations between infant behaviour (alertness and responsiveness) and nutrition in addition to investigating infant behaviour within the context of changes in iron status over time. Existing research is typically limited to the investigation of the effects of a single vitamin or mineral, and no studies have been found that examined the influence that early alertness and responsiveness have on growth in early infancy, despite the fact that relations between behaviour and nutritional status may be bidirectional. The current study used a sample of Ethiopian infants and investigated anthropometrics, haemoglobin, the frequency of alertness and the frequency of responsiveness at 6 and 9 months of age. Six-month weight-for-age predicted 9-month frequency of alertness, while 6-month haemoglobin predicted 9-month frequency of responsiveness. Compared with responsive infants, non-responsive infants at 6 months remained more non-responsive at 9 months, although weight-for-age for both groups converged at 9 months. Results support relations between nutrition and behaviour (alertness and responsiveness) and provide evidence of a potentially useful tool (the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery) that was adapted to evaluate these relations in Ethiopia. PMID:22233352

Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Grant, Stephanie L; Thomas, David G; Kennedy, Tay S; Berhanu, Getenesh; Stoecker, Barbara J; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Hambidge, K Michael

2013-10-01

351

Transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis in Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Parasitological, malacological and transmission studies were made for a period of one year in the town of Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis mansoni in residents of Kebeles 8, 9 and 10 was 12%. The prevalence in Sertse Dengel school children was 45% and that in Dil Chibo school children was 32%. The peak prevalence in both sexes in school and non-school populations occurred in the age group 10-14 years. Intensity of infection showed a similar pattern of age variation as prevalence. Biomphalaria pfeifferi snail density peaked towards the end of the rainy season (September) in Lake Tana and around the middle of the dry season (January) on the shore of the River Abay. In September, infected snails were recovered from all collection sites. Of mice immersed in four water contact sites in September, schistosome infections developed in those immersed in three sites. Parasitological findings suggested that schistosomiasis infection rates depended on age and sex of individuals and geographical location of the place from the potentially infective water bodies. Snail population density and associated schistosomal infection in a human population depended on rainfall and associated ecological changes such as fluctuation in water level and vegetation density. As malacological findings and sentinel mouse immersion results indicated, it appeared that the main transmission season in Lake Tana region is towards the end of the rainy season although low level intermittent transmission may take place throughout the year. PMID:1954954

Erko, B; Tedla, S; Petros, B

1991-10-01

352

Bacterial Sepsis in Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northwest Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the neglected diseases affecting the poorest segment of world populations. Sepsis is one of the predictors for death of patients with VL. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with bacterial sepsis, causative agents, and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among patients with VL. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among parasitologically confirmed VL patients suspected of sepsis admitted to the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, from February 2012 to May 2012. Blood cultures and other clinical samples were collected and cultured following the standard procedures. Results. Among 83 sepsis suspected VL patients 16 (19.3%) had culture confirmed bacterial sepsis. The most frequently isolated organism was Staphylococcus aureus (68.8%; 11/16), including two methicillin-resistant isolates (MRSA). Patients with focal bacterial infection were more likely to have bacterial sepsis (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The prevalence of culture confirmed bacterial sepsis was high, predominantly due to S. aureus. Concurrent focal bacterial infection was associated with bacterial sepsis, suggesting that focal infections could serve as sources for bacterial sepsis among VL patients. Careful clinical evaluation for focal infections and prompt initiation of empiric antibiotic treatment appears warranted in VL patients.

Takele, Yegnasew; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Tiruneh, Moges; Mohammed, Rezika; Lynen, Lutgarde; van Griensven, Johan

2014-01-01

353

Epidemiological features of severe paediatric malaria in north western Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Malaria remains a major public health challenge in sub-Saharan Africa, yet our knowledge of the epidemiology of malaria in terms of patterns of mortality and morbidity is limited. To examine the clinical and epidemiological presentation of severe life-threatening malaria in Humera, north western Ethiopia studies were conducted among the childhood population in the community, those presenting to out-patient facilities and those admitted to the district hospital. The overall P. falciparum parasite rate among children aged 0-9 years resident within the area was only 12% confirming the low level of endemicity in this area. P. vivax infections were present in 5% of children. Between July 1993 and June 1994 peak out-patient presentation with Plasmodium falciparum coincided with the rains with over 50% of cases occurring between August and October whilst P. vivax infections were predominant during the hot, dry months. Malaria was an important cause of paediatric admission to the local district hospital with an estimated 4.7% of the at-risk childhood community warranting intensive clinical management each year. Case fatality rates were high and the clinical spectrum of severe disease indicated a preponderance of cerebral malaria cases. In addition, respiratory distress was a feature in 12% of the malaria admissions. The suggestion that the coexistence of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax may serve to reduce the severe clinical consequences of P. falciparum malaria is not supported by these observations. PMID:9557422

Seboxa, T; Snow, R W

1997-12-01

354

Respiratory problems among cotton textile mill workers in Ethiopia.  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of respiratory problems, in particular byssinosis, and to explore factors associated with their occurrence among a group of 595 randomly selected workers representing 40.5% of those exposed to dusty operations in a typical Ethiopian cotton textile mill. A standard questionnaire on respiration was administered and pre and postshift forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker; workers found to have byssinosis and other respiratory diseases were compared with workers having no respiratory diseases in terms of the level and duration of exposure to cotton dust and other variables. Multiple area air samples from different sections were analysed for elutriated cotton dust concentrations (0.86-3.52 mg/m3). The prevalence of byssinosis was 43.2% among blowers and 37.5% in carders in comparison with four to 24% among workers in other sections. Prevalence of chronic bronchitis ranged from 17.6 to 47.7% and bronchial asthma from 8.5 to 20.5% across all sections. Significant across shift decrements in FEV1 and FVC were seen in those workers with respiratory tract diseases compared with those workers without such diseases. A significant dose response relation for pulmonary function and respiratory illnesses was also found by regression analysis. Preventive measures are proposed. Further research including a nationwide survey of textile mills is suggested. This is the first epidemiological study of the textile industry in Ethiopia.

Woldeyohannes, M; Bergevin, Y; Mgeni, A Y; Theriault, G

1991-01-01

355

Respiratory problems among cotton textile mill workers in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of respiratory problems, in particular byssinosis, and to explore factors associated with their occurrence among a group of 595 randomly selected workers representing 40.5% of those exposed to dusty operations in a typical Ethiopian cotton textile mill. A standard questionnaire on respiration was administered and pre and postshift forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker; workers found to have byssinosis and other respiratory diseases were compared with workers having no respiratory diseases in terms of the level and duration of exposure to cotton dust and other variables. Multiple area air samples from different sections were analysed for elutriated cotton dust concentrations (0.86-3.52 mg/m3). The prevalence of byssinosis was 43.2% among blowers and 37.5% in carders in comparison with four to 24% among workers in other sections. Prevalence of chronic bronchitis ranged from 17.6 to 47.7% and bronchial asthma from 8.5 to 20.5% across all sections. Significant across shift decrements in FEV1 and FVC were seen in those workers with respiratory tract diseases compared with those workers without such diseases. A significant dose response relation for pulmonary function and respiratory illnesses was also found by regression analysis. Preventive measures are proposed. Further research including a nationwide survey of textile mills is suggested. This is the first epidemiological study of the textile industry in Ethiopia. PMID:1998605

Woldeyohannes, M; Bergevin, Y; Mgeni, A Y; Theriault, G

1991-02-01

356

Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4–2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa.

Wynn, Jonathan G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K.; Wilson, Jessica N.

2013-01-01

357

Non-Formal Education in Ethiopia. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education. Team Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the context of the total educational system of Ethiopia nonformal educational activities are described. These activities, undertaken by several government ministries and quasi-governmental and private organizations, are being conducted for the purpose of maintaining governmental services, improving living standards, and providing the…

Niehoff, Richard O.; Wilder, Bernard D.

358

Study on genetic variation of landraces of teff ( Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teff is domesticated in Ethiopia and is locally important. Seventy accessions of teff collected from seven regions have been sown in a balanced block design. Significant and highly significant variation was observed between regions, within region and between individual plants within accession for most of the characters considered. Regions showed variations for different characteristics indicating that every region may contribute

Dawit Tadesse

1993-01-01

359

Global ENT Outreach: Taking Ear, Nose, and Throat Treatment and Surgery Techniques to Ethiopia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, as an otolaryngologist and the Director of Global ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) Outreach, traveled to Ethiopia to help 11 children who could not breathe because of respiratory papillomas blocking their airways and who had been hospitalized for years. The disease, called juvenile respiratory papillomatosis, is what affected these 11…

Wagner, Richard

2007-01-01

360

Geological and geotechnical properties of the medieval rock hewn churches of Lalibela, Northern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lalibela is a medieval settlement in Northern Ethiopia famous for its 11 beautifully carved rock hewn churches, registered as World Heritage Site in 1978. The rock hewn churches are grouped into three based on their proximity: the Bete Medhane Alem (Church of the Holy Saviour), Bete Gabriel–Rufael (Church of St. Gabriel–Rafael) and Bete Giorgis (Church of St. George) groups. The

Asfawossen Asrat; Yodit Ayallew

2011-01-01

361

Educational Reform and Teacher Education in Ethiopia: Does the Tail Wag the Dog?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethiopia, a country with 82 distinctly different languages and ethnic groups, has recently emerged from decades of civil war. In the process of restoring civilian rule, alliances have formed between a wide spectrum of local interest groups. Education generally, and language policy more specifically, continues to be one of the most contentious…

Honig, Benson

362

The Emergence of the National Language in Ethiopia: An Historical Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modern Ethiopia has made progress that has altered the status and functions of its various languages. With modernization, the reasons for and means of interethnic contact have multiplied, creating the need for a common language. Amharic, once confined to a rather small area, has spread geographically and grown in status in the last thousand years,…

Seyoum, Mulugeta

363

Numerical Modelling of the Heat Flow from Multiple Dyke Injection Events in Afar, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of magma transport through cold lithosphere and crust, and the distance over which it travels, controls the presence and type of resultant surface volcanism as well as the rate of spreading of the crust. As a result, in the Afar province in the north east of Ethiopia the East African rift is slowly spreading via the process of

K. A. Daniels; T. Menand; S. Sparks

2009-01-01

364

The Unfolding Trends and Consequences of Expanding Higher Education in Ethiopia: Massive Universities, Massive Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been significant increases in the number of universities and student enrollments in the last fifteen years in Ethiopia. The numerical gains have brought about improved access to higher education for students. The expansion has also diversified fields of study and opened opportunities to pursue higher degrees to a significant number of…

Tessema, Kedir Assefa

2009-01-01

365

Patterns of agrarian transformation in Ethiopia: State-mediated commercialisation and the ‘land grab’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the literature on the ‘land grab’ has thus far focused on the international drivers of foreign agricultural investment, with far less attention paid to the roles of developing country states and domestic political economy in changing forms of agrarian production. This paper analyses how global and domestic processes combine to produce patterns of agrarian transformation in Ethiopia, one

Tom Lavers

2012-01-01

366

Famine in Ethiopia: Policy Implications of Coping Failure at National and Household Levels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an attempt to identify needed government policies for short-term famine relief interventions and long-term famine eradication, the study focuses on household experiences of famine at seven rural sites in Ethiopia during the 1980's. War and drought are ...

P. Webb J. von Braun Y. Yohannes

1992-01-01

367

Famine Mitigation Bibliography: With Special Emphasis on Ethiopia, Sudan and Angola. First Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography documents a specialized data base on famine mitigation. The database's strength lies in its coverage of Sudan, Angola, Ethiopia and its focus on nine short-term interventions with potential long-term benefits: (1) early warning; (2) rapid...

B. Hutchinson K. Johnsen M. Haseltine C. Casler

1992-01-01

368

Glasnost about Building Socialism in Ethiopia: Analysis of a Critical Soviet Article.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An article in the Soviet journal (Narody Azii i Afriki) (Peoples of Asia and Africa), No. 1, 1989, contains the strongest criticism seen to date of Ethiopia's Marxist-Leninist regime. Ostensibly the work of a graduate student, Galina Krylova, the article ...

P. B. Henze

1990-01-01

369

Species composition and phytoplankton biomass in a tropical African lake (Lake Awassa, Ethiopia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species composition and phytoplankton biomass of Lake Awassa, Ethiopia were studied from September 1985 to July 1986 in relation to some limnological features of the lake. During the study period, three phases of thermal stratification were recognized: a period of unstable stratification and near-complete mixing was followed by a stable stratification period and another period of complete mixing. Complete

Elizabeth Kebede; Amha Belay

1994-01-01

370

Safe Schools Program: Ethiopia Assessment Report, April 26th - May 7th, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From April 26th to May 7th, a four-person team from the Washington, D.C.-based Safe Schools Program (SSP) traveled to Ethiopia to conduct a school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV) assessment. The overall objectives of this first exploratory trip were...

2004-01-01

371

Ethiopia: The Role of Literacy Instructors in Changing Attitudes. Literacy Lessons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the reasons for the rapid advancement of literacy activities in Ethiopia is that different nationalities learn in their own mother tongues in their own cultures. The literacy rate before the 1974 revolution was 7 percent. The 1990 literacy rate is 75 percent. Literacy instructors in the current literacy campaign do more than instruct…

Mammo, Gudeta

372

Literacy and Development: A Study of Yemissrach Dimts Literacy Campaign in Ethiopia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Yemissrach Dimts Literacy Campaign in Ethiopia, begun in 1962 and concentrated in rural areas for the benefit of adults, was evaluated in a study of 466 program participants and 66 additional adult villagers. The study focused on student achievement, teaching methods, benefits experienced by participants, and the literacy campaign's role…

Sjostrom, Margareta; Sjostrom, Rolf

373

Contour furrows for in situ soil and water conservation, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Tigray (Northern Ethiopia), soil moisture has been identified as the most limiting factor in agricultural production; on the other hand, loss of rain water through runoff as well as the induced soil loss has been determined as a critical problem in the region in the last two to three decades. To alleviate the above paradox, the government has mobilized

Tewodros Gebreegziabher; Jan Nyssen; Bram Govaerts; Fekadu Getnet; Mintesinot Behailu; Mitiku Haile; Jozef Deckers

2009-01-01

374

Using Eucalyptus for Soil & Water Conservation on the highland Vertisols of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource degradation is a critical problem in the highlands of Ethiopia. With agricultural productivity lingering behind population growth the gap between the availability and the demand for agricultural land continues to grow. This results in severe land-use conflicts. Thus, high potential and more resilient soils need intensification to sustain human needs. This thesis discusses the opportunities of a short rotation

S. Kidanu

2004-01-01

375

A participatory Agroforestry approach for soil and water conservation in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of soil erosion and land degradation in Ethiopia are frighteningly high. Crop production, livestock keeping and energy supply situations are at risk. The highlands are the most affected. Past rehabilitation efforts have been immense. Much labour, capital and trained staff have been mobilized to correct the situation, but the outcome has not been encouraging. There are a number

A. Bekele-Tesemma

1997-01-01

376

Variation in seed and germination characteristics among Juniperus procera populations in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in seed and germination characteristics among nine Juniperus procera populations in Ethiopia were evaluated. Bulk seed samples were collected and examined for variations in number of seeds per cone, seed length, width, 1000-seed weight and germination in the laboratory and nursery. In the laboratory, the effect of light conditions on seed germination was tested by incubating the seeds under

Negash Mamo; Mebrate Mihretu; Miftah Fekadu; Mulualem Tigabu; Demel Teketay

2006-01-01

377

Catchment modeling and model transferability in upper Blue Nile Basin, Lake Tana, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding spatial and temporal distribution of water resources has an important role for water resource management. To understand water balance dynamics and runoff generation mechanisms at the Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into lake Tana, source of Blue Nile, Ethiopia) and to evaluate model transferability, catchment modeling was conducted using the conceptual hydrological model HBV. The catchment of the

A. S. Gragne; S. Uhlenbrook; Y. Mohammed; S. Kebede

2008-01-01

378

Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: status and threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during the rainy season (July to October), whereas eight other species are absent from

W. Anteneh; A. Getahun; E. Dejen; F. A. Sibbing; L. A. J. Nagelkerke; Graaf de M; T. Wudneh; J. Vijverberg; A. P. Palstra

2012-01-01

379

Analyzing catchment behavior through catchment modeling in the Gilgel Abay, Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding catchment hydrological processes is essential for water resources management, in particular in data scarce regions. The Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into Lake Tana, source of the Blue Nile) is undergoing intensive plans for water management, which is part of larger development plans in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. To obtain a better understanding of the water

S. Uhlenbrook; Y. Mohamed; A. S. Gragne

2010-01-01

380

Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia, status and threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during the rainy season (July to October), whereas eight other species are absent from

W. Anteneh; A. Getahun; E. Dejen; F. A. Sibbing; L. A. J. Nagelkerke; M. de Graaf; T. Wudneh; J. Vijverberg; A. P. Palstra

2012-01-01

381

Nematode communities of Lake Tana and other inland water bodies of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-living nematodes from littoral benthic sediments of four lakes, two rivers and a hot spring in Ethiopia are studied. Populations of nematodes encountered are identified to the species level. The general nematode (generic and species) composition of the lakes, rivers and hot spring are appraised by giving special emphasis to the nematodes from L. Tana, i.e. three sites where different

Eyualem Abebe; Jan Mees; August Coomans

2001-01-01

382

African Homo erectus: Old Radiometric Ages and Young Oldowan Assemblages in the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossils and artifacts recovered from the middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar depression sample the Middle Pleistocene transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Ar\\/Ar ages, biostratigraphy, and tephrachronology from this area indicate that the Pleistocene Bodo hominid cranium and newer specimens are approximately 0.6 million years old. Only Oldowan chopper and flake assemblages are present in the lower stratigraphic

J. D. Clark; J. de Heinzelin; K. D. Schick; W. K. Hart; T. D. White; G. Woldegabriel; R. C. Walter; G. Suwa; B. Asfaw; E. Vrba; Y. H.-Selassie

1994-01-01

383

Stratigraphic, chronological and behavioural contexts of Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clarifying the geographic, environmental and behavioural contexts in which the emergence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens occurred has proved difficult, particularly because Africa lacked adequate geochronological, palaeontological and archaeological evidence. The discovery of anatomically modern Homo sapiens fossils at Herto, Ethiopia, changes this. Here we report on stratigraphically associated Late Middle Pleistocene artefacts and fossils from fluvial and lake margin

J. Desmond Clark; Yonas Beyene; Giday WoldeGabriel; William K. Hart; Paul R. Renne; Henry Gilbert; Alban Defleur; Gen Suwa; Shigehiro Katoh; Kenneth R. Ludwig; Jean-Renaud Boisserie; Berhane Asfaw; Tim D. White

2003-01-01

384

Informal institutions as mechanisms to address challenges in communal grazing land management in Tigray, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of institutions providing rules, norms and regulations, in addressing challenges in communal resources management has been debated for several decades. This article analyses the role of informal institutions for addressing shortage of grazing land, conflicts among users of communal grazing land and resistance among users to shift from free grazing to zero grazing in Tigray, Ethiopia. We used

Mastewal Yami; Christian Vogl; Michael Hauser

2011-01-01

385

EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF WATER AND LIVESTOCK RESOURCES FOR COMMUNITY BASED IRRIGATION IN ETHIOPIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ethiopia once called the tower of water is facing natural resources and environmental degradation. The forest cover is diminishing at faster rate and the soil fertility of the arable land is also declined due to extensive crop cultivation and overgrazing. Desertification at eastern part of the Greater Horn is expanding rampantly. The wet lands with distinct biodiversity are diminishing

Girma Taddese; Don Peden

386

Isotopic composition of waters from Ethiopia and Kenya: Insights into moisture sources for eastern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen and deuterium isotopic values of meteoric waters from Ethiopia are unusually high when compared to waters from other high-elevation settings in Africa and worldwide. These high values are well documented; however, the climatic processes responsible for the isotopic anomalies in Ethiopian waters have not been thoroughly investigated. We use isotopic data from waters and remote data products to demonstrate

Naomi E. Levin; Edward J. Zipser; Thure E. Cerling

2009-01-01

387

Screening of some medicinal plants of Ethiopia for their anti-microbial properties and chemical profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the indigenous health care delivery system of Ethiopia, numerous plant species are used to treat diseases of infectious origin. Regardless of the number of species, if any of such claims could be verified scientifically, the potential significance for the improvement of the health care services would be substantial. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the presence

Aberra Geyid; Dawit Abebe; Asfaw Debella; Zewdneh Makonnen; Frehiwot Aberra; Frehiwot Teka; Tesfaye Kebede; Kelbessa Urga; Kidist Yersaw; Teklele Biza; Bisrat Haile Mariam; Mulugeta Guta

2005-01-01

388

E-Governance, corruption and public service delivery: A comparative study of Fiji and Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many developing countries are now realizing the need for e-Governance in order to provide customer-focused, cost effective, and easy to use services for citizens and businesses and to improve the internal workings of government. Fiji and Ethiopia are two such countries where, in spite of political instability and other governance related problems, e- Governance initiatives are in progress. This study,

R D Pathak; Gurmeet Singh; Rakesh Belwal

389

Woody species diversity in a changing landscape in the south-central highlands of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethiopia hosts one of the richest flora and fauna resources in tropical Africa. However, this rich bioresource is decreasing due to extensive deforestation. The objectives of this study were to (i) investigate woody species diversity on smallholder cultivated land (crop fields and homegardens) and its implication for biodiversity changes over time; (ii) assess the dynamics of woody species diversity, density

Motuma Tolera; Zebene Asfaw; Mulugeta Lemenih; Erik Karltun

2008-01-01

390

Groundwater recharge, circulation and geochemical evolution in the source region of the Blue Nile River, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical and environmental isotope data were used to gain the first regional picture of groundwater recharge, circulation and its hydrochemical evolution in the upper Blue Nile River basin of Ethiopia. Q-mode statistical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify water into objective groups and to conduct inverse geochemical modeling among the groups. Two major structurally deformed regions with distinct groundwater

Seifu Kebede; Yves Travi; Tamiru Alemayehu; Tenalem Ayenew

2005-01-01

391

Farmers’ perceptions and management practices of insect pests on stored sorghum in southwestern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys were undertaken in six districts of southwestern Ethiopia from July to October 2003 to investigate farmers’ perceptions and management practices of insect pests on traditionally stored sorghum. The survey involved 138 randomly selected farmers who were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Storage insect pests were perceived as the major insect pests of sorghum. The majority of the farmers estimated

Esayas Mendesil; Chemeda Abdeta; Abush Tesfaye; Zekarias Shumeta; Habte Jifar

2007-01-01

392

Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Ethiopia: Analysis of a national serological survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants in Africa and Asia. In 1999, probably the largest survey on PPR ever conducted in Africa was initiated in Ethiopia where 13 651 serum samples from 7 out of the 11 regions were collected and analyzed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). The objective of this

Agnès Waret-Szkuta; François Roger; David Chavernac; Laikemariam Yigezu; Geneviève Libeau; Dirk U Pfeiffer; Javier Guitián

2008-01-01

393

Melt-induced seismic anisotropy and magma assisted rifting in Ethiopia: Evidence from surface waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The East African rift in Ethiopia is unique worldwide because it captures the final stages of transition from continental rifting to seafloor spreading. A recent study there has shown that magma intrusion plays an important role during the final stages of continental breakup, but the mechanism by which it is incorporated into the extending plate remains ambiguous: wide-angle seismic data

I. D. Bastow; S. Pilidou; J.-M. Kendall; G. W. Stuart

2010-01-01

394

Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in retail meat and milk products in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Listeriosis is one of the important emerging bacterial zoonotic infections worldwide. Among the different species of the genus Listeria, Listeria monocytogens is known to cause listeriosis in humans and animals. Information on the occurrence and distribution of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species is very limited both in the veterinary and public health sectors in Ethiopia. Objectives: The present

Bayleyegn Molla; Roman Yilma; Daniel Alemayehu

395

Interim report: review of evidence of the health impact of famine in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Historical accounts of famines in Ethiopia go as far back as the 9th century, however, evidence on its impact on health only started to emerge from the 15th century onwards. Unfortunately, famine has been endemic in Ethiopia in the last few decades. The 1973 famine is reported to have claimed over 300,000 lives. In 1985 approximately 10 million people were reported to be starving, with approximately 300,000 already dead and about 1000 dying daily. In the following years, droughts leading to food shortage have had local and national adverse health effects, in particular in 1999/2000. This paper describes the initial findings of a literature review of evidence on the health impact of droughts leading to famine in Ethiopia and highlights gaps in knowledge. The key finding, thus far, is the marked paucity of health impact data. This review also highlights the fact that adverse health impacts of famines are probably complex and long lasting. Interpretation of any health impact data is difficult as there are few baseline data to compare. Health effects also impact livelihoods. Livelihood disruption following famine does not just affect one generation but also subsequent generations. Surveillance systems are needed so that records of the health impacts of a drought that leads to famine can inform action. With climate change bringing increased likelihood of drought and famine in some parts of the world, the findings of this review could be beneficial not just for Ethiopia but also elsewhere. PMID:21086818

Taye, A; Mariam, D Haile; Murray, V

2010-09-01

396

Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Asbole fauna (Busidima Formation, Afar, Ethiopia) using stable isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Middle Pleistocene environmental and climatic conditions at Asbole, lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia were reconstructed using stable carbon and oxygen isotopic composition (13C, 18O) of fossil tooth enamel coupled with faunal abundance data. We analyzed the isotopic composition of a total of 80 herbivorous tooth enamel samples from 15 mammalian taxa, which archive the dietary preferences and drinking behavior from

Zelalem Bedaso; Jonathan G. Wynn; Zeresenay Alemseged; Denis Geraads

2010-01-01

397

Stigma in Ethiopia: association with depressive symptoms in people with HIV.  

PubMed

Rates of depression among people living with HIV can be as high as 50%. In many settings, HIV-related stigma has been associated with depressive symptoms which may lead to poor engagement in care and ultimately, poorer health outcomes. Stigma is a major issue in Ethiopia but data examining the relationship between stigma and depression in Ethiopia are lacking. We performed a mixed-methods cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between stigma of HIV/AIDS and depressive symptoms in Gondar, Ethiopia. We interviewed patients who presented for routine HIV care at Gondar University Hospital during the study period, examining depressive symptoms and HIV/AIDS-related stigma using standardized measures. Multiple-regression was used to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms, stigma, and gender. Of 55 patients included in this analysis, 63.6% were female and most participants had limited formal education (69%, less than 12th grade education). The majority reported experiencing both stigma (78%) and depressive symptoms (60%) ranging in severity from mild to moderately severe. Higher levels of HIV-related stigma were significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms (? = 0.464, p ? 0.001). Although gender was associated with stigma, it was not associated with depressive symptoms (? = -0.027, p > 0.05). Results suggest the importance of psychosocial issues in the lives of people with HIV in Ethiopia. PMID:24382290

Endeshaw, Meheret; Walson, Judd; Rawlins, Sarah; Dessie, Abere; Alemu, Shitaye; Andrews, Nancy; Rao, Deepa

2014-08-01

398

Malaria and water resource development: the case of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia plans to increase its electricity power supply by five-fold over the next five years to fulfill the needs of its people and support the economic growth based on large hydropower dams. Building large dams for hydropower generation may increase the transmission of malaria since they transform ecosystems and create new vector breeding habitats. The aim of this study

Delenasaw Yewhalaw; Worku Legesse; Wim Van Bortel; Solomon Gebre-Selassie; Helmut Kloos; Luc Duchateau; Niko Speybroeck

2009-01-01

399

Impediments to Educative Practicum: The Case of Teacher Preparation in Ethiopia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study is a phenomenological case study into the lived experience of teacher candidates and associate teachers in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to gain a phenomenological sensitivity to the "lived" experience of the participants and through that to identify key structural and conceptual impediments to meaningful professional learning. The…

Hussein, Jeylan Wolyie

2011-01-01

400

Land Tenure and Land Management Technology: A Case Study from the Central Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land in Ethiopia is a public property. Farmers have use right to transfer or lease use rights of agricultural land. Thus, land tenure systems under the existing public ownership of land derive from official allocation by local government authorities and\\/or through transfer of land use rights. Farmers' practice of leasing agricultural land in the country is mostly limited to a

Workneh Negatu

401

An evaluation of the Acacia albida -based agroforestry practices in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing Acacia albida as a permanent tree crop, on farmlands with cereals, vegetables and coffee underneath or in between, is an indigenous agroforestry system in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia. However, there is practically no systematic record or data on the merits and benefits of this practice.

Peter Poschen

1986-01-01

402

Mycorrhizal status of indigenous trees in dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dry Afromontane forests in Ethiopia are composed of a number of indigenous tree species. Currently, indigenous trees are declining at an alarming rate in this ecosystem. The few reforestation programs, which have so far been undertaken, employ exotic tree species. This is mainly due to lack of knowledge on the environmental requirements of indigenous trees. Though there have been

Tesfaye Wubet; Ingrid Kottke; Demel Teketay; Franz Oberwinkler

2003-01-01

403

Effects of wild coffee management on species diversity in the Afromontane rainforests of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffea arabica L. is native to the Afromontane forests of Ethiopia. The local communities living in and around the forests manage the forest in traditional ways for coffee production. The level of management practices ranges from the relatively undisturbed forest coffee (FC), where little or no human inference is observed to the disturbed semi-forest coffee (SFC) system. This study analyzes

Feyera Senbeta; Manfred Denich

2006-01-01

404

Species composition and diversity of small Afromontane forest fragments in northern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the highlands of northern Ethiopia, remnants of the original Afromontane forest vegetation are largely restricted to church yards and other sacred groves in a matrix of cropland and semiarid degraded savanna. To assess the potential for natural forest regeneration, species composition and diversity of all forest fragments (10) in a study area of 13,000 ha were analyzed in relation to

Raf Aerts; Koen Van Overtveld; Mitiku Haile; Martin Hermy; Jozef Deckers; Bart Muys

2006-01-01

405

Seed and regeneration ecology in dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia: II. Forest disturbances and succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of events occur starting from the process of flowering up to the development of mature forest vegetation in the dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia. Given time, the mature forest vegetation undergoes a series of changes, which are prompted by different types of disturbances. In response to these disturbances, succession is triggered in which different plants use varying strategies

DEMEL TEKETAY

406

Seedling populations and regeneration of woody species in dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and density of seedlings, as well as height class distribution of woody species, were studied at two dry Afromontane forests in Ethiopia. A total of 40 species were recorded at Gara Ades and 41 at Menagesha forests. The density was 16 290 and 32 650 seedlings\\/ha at Gara Ades and Menagesha, respectively. A few species were not represented

Demel Teketay

1997-01-01

407

Density versus Quality in Health Care Provision: Using Household Data to Make Budgetary Choices in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usage of health facilities in Ethiopia is among the lowest in the world; raising usage rates is probably critical for improving health outcomes. The government has diagnosed the principal problem as the lack of primary health facilities and is devoting a large share of the health budget to building more facilities. But household data suggest that usage of health facilities

Paul Collier; Stefan Dercon; John Mackinnon

2004-01-01

408

Density versus quality in health care provision: Using household data to make budgetary choices in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usage of health facilities in Ethiopia is among the lowest in the world; raising usage rates is probably critical for improving health outcomes. The government has diagnosed the principal problem as the lack of primary health facilities and is devoting a large share of the health budget to building more facilities. But household data suggest that usage of health facilities

Paul Collier; Stefan Dercon; John Mackinnon

2002-01-01

409

Immigration and resiliency: unpacking the experiences of high school students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the complex factors, both individual and social, that contribute to the resiliency and academic achievement of six adolescent African immigrant students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia who were enrolled in a small high school in the United States. The school was designed specifically for recent adolescent immigrant students. Using an in-depth qualitative case study research design, this

Afra Ahmed Hersi

2011-01-01

410

Mobile Services and ICT4D To the Network Economy - Bridging the Digital Divide, Ethiopia's Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a development paradigm for Ethiopia, based on appropriate services and innovative use of mobile communications technologies via applications tailored for sectors like business, finance, healthcare, governance, education and infotainment. The experience of other developing countries like India and Kenya is cited so as to adapt those to the Ethiopian context. Notable application areas in the aforementioned sectors

Naod Duga; Henok Getachew

411

In Sickness and in Health: Risk Sharing within Households in Rural Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate risk-sh aring within the household, we model nutritional status as a durable good and we look at the consequences of individual health shocks. For household allocation to be pareto-efficient, households should pool shocks to income. We also investigate whether households can smooth nu tritional levels over time. Using data from rural Ethiopia on adult nutritional status, we find

Stefan Dercon; Pramila Krishnan

2001-01-01

412

In Sickness and in Health: Risk Sharing within Households in Rural Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the literature on consumption smoothing and on risk sharing has focused on the ability of the household as a unit to protect its consumption. Little is known about the ability of individual members of the household to keep consumption smooth over time or relative to other members of the household. We use data on adult nutrition in Ethiopia

Stefan Dercon; Pramila Krishnan

2000-01-01

413

The Psychosocial Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse in Ethiopia: A Case-Control Comparative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a pressing public health concern around the globe. Few existing reports, however, indicate the alarming rate at which the problem is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study is designed to investigate the psychosocial consequences of sexual abuse among child survivors in Ethiopia who were abused mainly through early marriage, rape, and child

Yemataw Wondie; Workie Zemene; Biruk Tafesse; Konrad Reschke; Harry Schröder

2011-01-01