Aylate, Alemu; Shah, Shahid Nazir; Aleme, Haileluel; Gizaw, Tarkegn Tintagu
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology, and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resources. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Woldiya municipal abattoir from April 1, 2009 to April 5, 2010 to estimate the prevalence of BTB in slaughtered cattle on the basis of detailed abattoir inspection and to compare efficacy of RA inspection with respect to detailed abattoir inspection and isolation and identification of Mycobacterium. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity). Agreement between RA and detailed abattoir inspections was measured using kappa statistics. Out of 1,029 slaughtered heads of cattle examined during the study period, 63 (6.12 %) and 15 (1.45 %) were diagnosed with gross tuberculous lesions by detailed abattoir meat inspections and RA meat inspections, respectively, making a prevalence of 6.12 % (95 % CI: 5.2-7.1) on the basis of detailed abattoir inspection. About 59.45 % of tuberculous lesions were observed in the lungs and associated lymph nodes, whereas 35.13 % lesions were from the lymph nodes of the head. From 63 cattle suspected with tuberculosis (TB) based on detailed abattoir meat inspection, nine (19.05 %) were identified as Mycobacterium bovis, while three (4.8 %) as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The sensitivity of RA meat inspection was 23.8 % in comparison to the detailed abattoir meat inspection and 25 % in comparison to culture, respectively. Poor agreement (k?=?0.37) was seen between RA meat examination and detailed abattoir meat examination methods. Similarly, poor agreement (k?=?0.013) was seen between RA meat examination and culture results. In conclusion, relatively higher prevalence (6.12 %) was recorded in Woldiya municipal abattoir on the basis of detailed Abattoir inspection and RA meat inspection protocols currently utilized in Ethiopia which are insufficient to detect the majority (76.19 %) of TB lesions at the gross level, which indicates the magnitude of meat borne zoonotic TB as an ongoing risk to public health. Detailed abattoir inspection protocols were demonstrated to improve the detection level by approximately fourfold. In conclusion, routine meat inspections have limitations in detecting BTB-suggestive lesions which indicate the magnitude of meat-borne zoonotic TB as an ongoing risk to public health. PMID:23080340
Abebe, Abebaw; Beyene, Desta; Kumsa, Bersissa
A cross sectional and retrospective studies were conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 to determine the prevalence and characteristics of hydatid cysts in cattle slaughtered at Gondar Elfora Abattoir in northern Ethiopia. Out of the 308 cattle examined for the presence of hydatid cysts, 63 (20.5 %) of them were found harboring hydatid cysts in one or more of their internal organs. Results of the study showed higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in adult (22.4 %; 49/219) than in young (15.7 %; 14/89) cattle. Lowest prevalence of hydatid cysts was observed in cattle from Debark (7.7 %; 2/26) whereas highest prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was recorded in cattle from Fogera (28.2 %; 11/39). The lungs (69.3 %; 61/88) were the most affected organs followed by the livers (28.4 %; 25/88). A total of 230 hydatid cysts from different internal organs of 63 infected cattle were differentiated into 60.4 % calcified, 30 % fertile and 9.6 % sterile cysts. Likewise, a total of 13 % (30/230) small, 15.6 % (36/230) medium, and 10.9 % (25/230) large hydatid cysts were recorded. Lung harbored the highest overall count (76.9 %; 177/230) and greatest proportion of large size cysts (13.5 %; 103/177) than all the other organs. Liver harbored the highest proportion of calcified cysts (68 %; 34/50). An overall proportion of 30 % (69/230) fertile cysts were recorded. The greatest proportion of fertile cysts (33.3 %; 59/177) was recorded in lungs followed by the livers (20 %; 10/50). A retrospective data of 5 years (2004/5-2009/10) revealed an overall prevalence of 30.4 % (9,106/29,951) and highest overall prevalence of 65.5 % hydatid cysts in the lungs followed by livers (33.5 %) and least in spleen (0.04 %). In conclusion the findings reported herein show that cystic echinococcosis is widespread in cattle slaughtered in Gondar export Abattoir and suggests that the lung is the most important source of hydatid cysts for definitive hosts in the area. PMID:25320493
Regassa, F; Terefe, F; Bekana, M
A study was conducted at Debre Zeit export abattoir on 404 bucks belonging to four breeds and 167 rams of two breeds. The animals were selected from the slaughter flock using stratified sampling based on breed. Ante-mortem and post-mortem examinations were carried out after each animal was carefully identified. Various genital abnormalities were observed, among which testicular atrophy and epididymitis were the predominant genital problems in both bucks and rams. The prevalence of cryptorchidism was higher (p<0.05) in bucks than in rams, while epididymitis (p<0.05), sperm granuloma (p<0.01) and epididymal cysts (p<0.05) were more frequent in rams. In bucks, none of these abnormalities was significantly associated with age (p>0.05). However, testicular atrophy (p<0.01), epididymitis (p<0.01) and haemorrhagic lesions (p<0.05) were associated with breed, the prevalence being higher in Woito-Guji and Boran bucks than in the Arsi-Bale and Afar breeds. In rams, age affected (p<0.05) the incidence of testicular atrophy, epididymitis and sperm granulomas. Epididymitis, sperm granuloma and epididymal cysts were more frequent (p<0.01) in Adal rams than in Black Head Somalis. PMID:14690091
Haileselassie, Mekonnen; Taddele, Habtamu; Adhana, Kelali; Kalayou, Shewit
Objective To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city. PMID:23646306
Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa at the southern end of the Red Sea. It has the distinction of being the oldest independent country in Africa. In 1936, fascist Italy invaded and occupied Ethiopia, but Ethiopia regained its independence 5 years later with the help of colonial British forces. In 1974, civil unrest led to a coup and the armed forces deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. Today, the socialist government has a national legislature and a new constitution, both of which were created 13 years after the revolution. This government is faced with armed separatist movements in the autonomous regions of Eritrea and Tigre and also with periodic border conflicts with Somali forces. These conflicts combined with a massive drought in 1983-1985 and another in 1987 led to widespread famine in which an estimated 7.9 million people faced starvation and up to 1 million people died. Ethiopia has the potential for self-sufficiency in grains, livestock, vegetables, and fruits. Yet it's agriculture has been plagued not only with drought; but also soil degradation caused by overgrazing, deforestation, and high population density; dislocation due to the economy's rapid centralization; and government policies that do not provide incentives to producers. Still agriculture provides the basis of the nation's economy. Ethiopia has good relations with the Soviet Union, and the foreign policy of Ethiopia generally supports and parallels that of the USSR. After the revolution, the United States' relationship with Ethiopia has cooled because of differences over human rights. The US does assist with drought relief, however. PMID:12177998
Philippon, Melody; Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Bonini, Marco; Balestrieri, Maria-Laura; Molin, Paola; Willingshofer, Ernst; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Cloetingh, Sierd
Southern Ethiopia is a key region to understand the evolution of the East African rift system, since it is the area of interaction between the main Ethiopian rift (MER) and the Kenyan rift. However, geological data constraining rift evolution in this remote area are still relatively sparse. In this study the timing, distribution, and style of rifting in southern Ethiopia are constrained by new structural, geochronological, and geomorphological data. The border faults in the area are roughly parallel to preexisting basement fabrics and are progressively more oblique with respect to the regional Nubia-Somalia motion proceeding southward. Kinematic indicators along these faults are mainly dip slip, pointing to a progressive rotation of the computed direction of extension toward the south. Radiocarbon data indicate post 30 ka faulting at both western and eastern margins of the MER with limited axial deformation. Similarly, geomorphological data suggest recent fault activity along the western margins of the basins composing the Gofa Province and in the Chew Bahir basin. This supports that interaction between the MER and the Kenyan rift in southern Ethiopia occurs in a 200 km wide zone of ongoing deformation. Fault-related exhumation at ~10-12 Ma in the Gofa Province, as constrained by new apatite fission track data, occurred later than the ~20 Ma basement exhumation of the Chew Bahir basin, thus pointing to a northward propagation of the Kenyan rift-related extension in the area.
This document is a text dealing mainly with Ethiopia's rich cultural heritage and current lifestyles. It gives students the opportunity to go beyond the media coverage that has led to the perception of the whole of Ethiopia as a famine stricken land, and to discover the realities of this new nation, that about 15 percent of the population, mainly…
Worku, F. F.; Werner, M.; Wright, N.; van der Zaag, P.; Demissie, S. S.
Endorheic basins, often found in semi-arid and arid climates, are particularly sensitive to variation in fluxes such as precipitation, evaporation and runoff, resulting in variability of river flows as well as of water levels in end-point lakes that are often present. In this paper we apply the indicators of hydrological alteration (IHA) to characterise change to the natural flow regime of the Omo-Ghibe Basin in southern Ethiopia. Little water resource infrastructure has been developed in the basin to date, and it is considered pristine. The basin is endorheic and is the main source of flow to Lake Turkana in the East African Rift Valley. The water level in Lake Turkana shows significant fluctuation, but increase of its level can be observed over the past 20 years. The reasons are currently not well understood. Of the five groups of hydrological characteristics in the IHA (magnitude, timing, duration, frequency and variability), only those related to magnitude were found to show significant trends, with the main trend being the increase of flow during the dry season. This trend was not reflected in climatological drivers such as rainfall, evaporation and temperature (which shows a positive trend), but rather is attributed to the substantial changes in land use and land cover in the basin. The change in the basin hydrology is apparent mainly in the more humid part of the basin. The significant shift from forest and woodland to grassland and cropland results in a decrease of actual evaporation and subsequent increase in (dry season) runoff. The long-term trend of the increasing levels in Lake Turkana are related to these trends in dry season flows, while shorter-term fluctuations of the lake levels are attributed primarily to anomalies in consecutive wet and dry season rainfall.
Mekibeb, Abraham; Fulasa, Tadele Tolosa; Firdessa, Rebuma; Hailu, Elena
A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 cattle slaughtered at Addis Ababa abattoir to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and characterize its causative agents. Postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culturing, region of difference-4 (RD4)-based PCR and spoligotyping were applied. The prevalence of BTB was 5 % on the basis of postmortem inspection alone but 1.2 % based on molecular confirmation. Factors including age, sex, and breed showed statistically significant association with BTB (p?0.05). Gross lesions were observed most frequently (68 %) in the lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes compared to other organs and lymph nodes. Of the 25 grossly suspicious TB lesions processed and cultured, only six (24 %) were culture-positive, yielding Mycobacterium bovis confirmed by RD4 deletion typing. Further characterization of the six M. bovis isolates at the strain level by using spoligotyping revealed that one did not belong to any previously known type, while the others belonged to types SB1176 (two), SB1477 (two), and SB0133 (one). The new strain was submitted to the international M. Bovis.org database for international code designation. The study confirms the considerable prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered at Addis Ababa abattoir and highlights the need for control of bovine tuberculosis in the country. PMID:23065393
Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael
Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…
Community participation is a term frequently used and often cited in international educational development. In this article, Jennifer Swift-Morgan investigates the definition and impact of community participation in schooling in rural Ethiopia. Although national governments, development agencies, and nongovernmental organizations across the…
Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael
Researchers tested male and female infants from rural Ethiopia to investigate relations among hemoglobin, anthropometry, and attention. They utilized a longitudinal design to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron status and growth delays. Stunting (length-for-age z-scores < ?2.0) and attention performance [t(30) = ?2.42, p = .022] worsened over time. Growth and hemoglobin predicted attention at 9 months [R2 = .15, p < .05], but not at 6. The use of the attention task at 9 months was supported. The study contributes to the knowledge base of hemoglobin, growth, and attention. PMID:21545582
Fleagle, John G; Assefa, Zelalem; Brown, Francis H; Shea, John J
Cranial and skeletal remains of modern humans, Homo sapiens, were discovered in the Kibish Formation in 1967 by a team from the Kenya National Museums directed by Richard Leakey. Omo I, from Kamoya's Hominid Site (KHS), consists of much of a skeleton, including most of the cranial vault, parts of the face and mandible, and many postcranial elements. Omo II, from Paul's Hominid Site (PHS), is a virtually complete calvaria. Only a limited fauna and a few stone artifacts attributed to the Middle Stone Age were recovered in conjunction with the fossil hominids. The available dating techniques suggested a very early age, over 100 ka, for Member I, from which the Omo I and Omo II fossils were recovered. However, in subsequent decades, the reliability of the dates and the provenance of the Kibish hominids were repeatedly questioned. The papers in this volume provide a detailed stratigraphic analysis of the Kibish Formation and a series of new radiometric dates that indicate an age of 196+/-2 ka for Member I and 104+/-1 for Member III, confirming the antiquity of the lower parts of the Kibish Formation and, in turn, the fossils from Member I. Studies of the postcranial remains of Omo I indicate an overall modern human morphology with a number of primitive features. Studies of an extensive lithic record from Members I and III indicate a Middle Stone Age technology comparable to assemblages of similar age elsewhere in Ethiopia. Studies of the mammalian, avian, and fish faunas indicate overall similarities to those found in the region today, with a few distinctive differences. PMID:18617219
Philip A Stephens; Candy A d'Sa; Claudio Sillero-Zubiri; Nigel Leader-Williams
Large mammals, both wild and domestic, were censused in four study areas in Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP), southern Ethiopia, from April until August 1997, using established road counts, horse-back counts and systematic transects, a new approach to censusing large mammals in BMNP. Data collected since 1983 were also examined to indicate trends in mammalian abundance. Civil unrest following the
T. B. Solomon; H. A. Snyman; G. N. Smit
A survey was conducted in the Borana pastoral areas of southern Ethiopia to assess current livestock production systems, rangeland management practices and the perceptions of the pastoralists towards rangeland degradation. This information is considered vital to future pastoral development planning and interventions. Data were collected from a total of 20 villages that were identified from 5 peasant associations, namely Did
Abdo, Mehadi; Semela, Tesfaye
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of working conditions at school on teachers' level of instructional media use in the primary school system of Gedeo Zone, southern Ethiopia. The survey was made on a sample of 139 (24.4% female and male 75.6%) teachers who were randomly drawn from 9 primary schools (four rural and five urban…
Contzen, Nadja; Meili, Iara Helena; Mosler, Hans-Joachim
Improved hand hygiene efficiently prevents the major killers of children under the age of five years in Ethiopia and globally, namely diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases. Effective handwashing interventions are thus in great demand. Evidence- and theory-based interventions, especially when matched to the target population's needs, are expected to perform better than common practice. To test this hypothesis, we selected two interventions drawing on a baseline questionnaire-study that applied the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) approach and focused on the primary caregivers of households in four rural, water-scarce kebeles (smallest administrative units of Ethiopia) in southern Ethiopia (N = 462). The two interventions were tested in combination with a standard education intervention in a quasi-experiment, as follows: kebele 1, education intervention, namely an f-diagram exercise, (n = 23); kebele 2, education intervention and public-commitment (n = 122); kebele 3, education intervention and tippy-tap-promotion (i.e. handwashing-station-promotion; n = 150); kebele 4, education intervention, public-commitment and tippy-tap-promotion (n = 113). In kebeles 3 and 4, nearly 100% of the households followed the promotion and invested material and time to construct for themselves a tippy-tap. Three months after intervention termination, the tippy-taps were in use with water and soap being present in up to 83% of the households (kebele 4). Pre-post data analysis on self-reported handwashing revealed that the population-tailored interventions, and especially the tippy-tap-promotion, performed better than the standard education intervention. Tendencies in observed behaviour and a recently developed implicit self-measure pointed to similar results. Changing people's hand hygiene is known to be a challenging task, especially in a water-scarce environment. The present project suggests not only to apply theory and evidence to improve handwashing interventions' effectiveness, but also emphasizes the relevance of tailoring interventions to the target population. PMID:25461867
Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie
Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR?=?4.28, CI: (1.24–14.71)), age of 30–34 years (AOR?=?0.15, CI: (0.04–0.55)), primary education (AOR?=?0.26, CI: (0.13–0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR?=?0.44, CI: (0.14–0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079
Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf
Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.
Cox, Jonathan; Balkan, Suna; Tamrat, Abiy; Priotto, Gerardo; Alberti, Kathryn P.; Zurovac, Dejan; Guthmann, Jean-Paul
Quantitative data on the onset and evolution of malaria epidemics are scarce. We review case studies from recent African Plasmodium falciparum epidemics (Kisii and Gucha Districts, Kenya, 1999; Kayanza Province, Burundi, 2000–2001; Aweil East, southern Sudan, 2003; Gutten and Damot Gale, Ethiopia, 2003–2004). We highlight possible epidemic risk factors and review delays in epidemic detection and response (up to 20 weeks), essentially due to poor case reporting and analysis or low use of public facilities. Epidemics lasted 15–36 weeks, and patients' age profiles suggested departures from classical notions of epidemic malaria everywhere but Burundi. Although emergency interventions were mounted to expand inpatient and outpatient treatment access, we believe their effects were lessened because of delays, insufficient evaluation of disease burden, lack of evidence on how to increase treatment coverage in emergencies, and use of ineffective drugs. PMID:17176560
Background Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, with the greatest burden found in low-income countries. Cataract surgery is a curative and cost-effective intervention. Despite major non-governmental organization (NGO) support, the cataract surgery performed in Southern Region, Ethiopia is currently insufficient to address the need. We analyzed the distribution, productivity, cost and determinants of cataract surgery services. Methods Confidential interviews were conducted with all eye surgeons (Ophthalmologists & Non-Physician Cataract Surgeons [NPCS]) in Southern Region using semi-structured questionnaires. Eye care project managers were interviewed using open-ended qualitative questionnaires. All eye units were visited. Information on resources, costs, and the rates and determinants of surgical output were collected. Results Cataract surgery provision is uneven across Southern Region: 66% of the units are within 200 km of the regional capital. Surgeon to population ratios varied widely from 1:70,000 in the capital to no service provision in areas containing 7 million people. The Cataract Surgical Rate (CSR) in 2010 was 406 operations/million/year with zonal CSRs ranging between 204 and 1349. Average number of surgeries performed was 374 operations/surgeon/year. Ophthalmologists and NPCS performed a mean of 682 and 280 cataract operations/surgeon/year, respectively (p?=?0.03). Resources are underutilized, at 56% of capacity. Community awareness programs were associated with increased activity (p?=?0.009). Several factors were associated with increased surgeon productivity (p?0.05): working for >2 years, working in a NGO/private clinic, working in an urban unit, having a unit manger, conducting outreach programs and a satisfactory work environment. The average cost of cataract surgery in 2010 was US$141.6 (Range: US$37.6–312.6). Units received >70% of their consumables from NGOs. Mangers identified poor staff motivation, community awareness and limited government support as major challenges. Conclusions The uneven distribution of infrastructure and personnel, underutilization by the community and inadequate attention and support from the government are limiting cataract surgery service delivery in Southern Ethiopia. Improved human resource management and implementing community-oriented strategies may help increase surgical output and achieve the “Vision 2020: The Right to Sight” targets for treating avoidable blindness. PMID:24245754
Abebe, Aster; Eik, Lars Olav; Holand, Øystein; Adnøy, Tormod; Tolera, Adugna
A survey was conducted between April and July 2007 to generate information on dry season feeding management and livestock poisoning in the southern rangelands of Ethiopia. A total of 119 pastoralists were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Moreover, additional information was obtained through informal discussions. The study revealed that pastoralists have rich knowledge of natural resource management and utilization and employ various strategies such as migration, collection of grasses and pods, and cutting branches to overcome feed scarcity during dry/drought periods. Migration of livestock and people to areas with better grazing is the widely used strategy. However, the implementation of this strategy is diminishing as a result of changes such as bush encroachment, expansion of settlements, and crop cultivation in dry-season grazing lands. The respondents also indicated the presence of poisonous plants in the rangeland, and about 20 such plants were identified by the respondents. Various species and classes of livestock are reported to be affected by toxic plants particularly in the dry and early rainy seasons when feed is in short supply. A more extensive survey is required to document all poisonous plants in the rangelands and to identify the major toxic principles in the different species. Future development interventions should consider the prevailing constraints and potentials of the rangelands with active participation of the pastoralists. PMID:21656132
Background Around 80% of the people of Ethiopia are estimated to be relying on medicinal plants for the treatment of different types of human health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the use and management of medicinal plants used for the treatment of human health problems by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including individual and focus group discussions (18), observations, individual interviews (n?=?74), preference ranking and paired comparison were used. Data were collected in three study sites and from two markets; the latter surveyed every 15 days from February 2011 to February 2012. Results A total of 128 medicinal plant species, belonging to 111 genera and 49 families, used as herbal medicine by Maale and Ari communities were documented. Predominantly harvested plant parts were leaves, which are known to have relatively low impact on medicinal plant resources. Species with high familiarity indices included Solanum dasyphyllum, Indigofera spicata, Ruta chalepensis, Plumbago zeylanica and Meyna tetraphylla. Low Jaccards similarity indices (? 0.33) indicated little correspondence in medicinal plant use among sites and between ethnic communities. The dominant ways of medicinal plant knowledge acquisition and transfer is vertical: from parents to children through oral means. Gender and site significantly influenced the number of human medicinal plants known currently in the study sites. Age was only a factor of significance in Maale. Marketing of medicinal plants harvested from wild and semi-wild stands is not common. Expansion of agricultural land and lack of cultivation efforts by local communities are mentioned by locals to affect the availability of medicinal plant resources. Conclusion S. dasyphyllum, I. spicata, P. zeylanica, M. tetraphylla, and Oxalis radicosa need to be considered for phytochemical and pharmacological testing to verify their efficacy and determine their dosages. Land use planning and development initiatives in the area and beyond need to sharply focus on strategies that could alleviate the major threats affecting medicinal plant resources in the landscape and encourage their cultivation to enhance their availability and complement ex-and in-situ conservation. PMID:24898079
Brown, Francis H; McDougall, Ian
Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Turkana Depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia rest on basement rocks that yield K/Ar cooling ages between 433 and 522 Ma. Proven Cretaceous strata are exposed in Lokitaung Gorge in northwest Kenya. Eocene basalts and rhyolites in Lokitaung Gorge, the Nabwal Hills, and at Kangamajoj, date between 34 and 36 Ma, recording the earliest volcanism in the region. Oligocene volcanic rocks, with associated fossiliferous sedimentary strata at Eragaleit, Nakwai, and Lokone, all west of Lake Turkana, are 23 to 28 Ma old, as is the Langaria Formation east of Lake Turkana. Lower and Middle Miocene volcanic and sedimentary sequences are present both east and west of Lake Turkana, where ages from 17.9 to 9.1 Ma have been measured at many levels. Upper Miocene strata are presently known only at Lothagam, with ages ranging from 7.4 to 6.5 Ma. Deposition of Pliocene strata of the Omo Group begins in the Omo-Turkana, Kerio, and South Turkana basins -4.3 Ma ago and continues in parts of those basins until nearly the present time, but with some gaps. These strata are linked through volcanic ash correlations at many levels, as are Pleistocene strata of the Omo Group (principally the Shungura, Koobi Fora, and Nachukui formations). (40) Ar/(39) Ar dates on many volcanic ash layers within the Omo Group, supplemented by K/Ar ages on intercalated basalts and paleomagnetic polarity stratigraphy, provide excellent age control from 4.2 to 0.75 Ma, although there is a gap in the record between -1 Ma and 0.8 Ma. Members I to III of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo Valley record deposition between 0.2 and 0.1 Ma ago; Member IV, correlative with the Galana Boi Formation, was deposited principally between 12 and 7 ka BP. PMID:22170691
Tiki, Waktole; Oba, Gufu; Tvedt, Terje
This article uses the concepts of "human stewardship" and "ruined landscape" as a theoretical framework for analysing the community's perception of landscape change in the ancient tula well system of Borana in southern Ethiopia. The ancient tula well system, the main permanent water source, has been in operation for more than five centuries and it closely links human activity and the environment. The welfare of the tula well system and the performance of the Borana pastoral system are directly related. Borana management of the tula wells uses concepts such as laaf aadaa seeraa and laaf bade to differentiate between ‘land managed by customary laws’ (hereafter human stewardship) and ‘lost’ or ‘ruined’ land (laaf bade). The cultural landscapes of the ancient wells have undergone changes from ecosystems featuring ‘human stewardship’ (before the 1960s), that is, laaf aadaa seeraa to ‘ruined landscapes’ (after the 1960s), that is, laaf bade. Our interest is in understanding how the Borana perceive the impact of land use changes from these two conceptual perspectives. In group discussions, key informant interviews and household surveys across five of the nine well clusters, we found that the society described the changed tula cultural landscape in terms of drivers of well dynamics (i.e. use and disuse), break up of land use zonations, patterns of human settlement (traditional versus peri-urban), expansion of crop cultivation, and changes in environmental quality. Using the two concepts, we analysed linkages between changing patterns of land use that transformed the system from laaf aadaa seeraa, which ensured human stewardship, to laaf bade, which resulted in ruined landscapes. From these we analysed environmental narratives that showed how the society differentiated the past human stewardship that ensured sustainable landscape management from the present ruining of tula well cultural landscapes. PMID:21560273
Assefa, Kebebew; Merker, Arnulf; Tefera, Hailu
Sixty tef germplasm populations consisting of 3,000 panicle-derived lines from six western and southern regions of Ethiopia were evaluated for 17 pheno-morphic and agronomic traits on pellic Vertisols at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center during the 1999 main season. The objectives were to study the extent and pattern of variation of the germplasm with respect to regions and altitude zones, to classify the populations into relatively homogenous groups and to identify the major traits contributing to the overall diversity of the populations. At 75 % similarity level, the 60 populations aggregated into nine complexes of two to 10, with 12 populations remaining un-grouped. Five principal components (PC) extracted about 81 % of the gross variance among the populations. About 40 % of the variance accounted for by the first PC alone resulted largely from variations in diameters of the two basal culm internodes, grain yield and number of spikelets/panicle, shoot phytomass and grain yield/plant, and number of culm internodes. The entire regional as well as the clinal (altitude zone) variation was explained by five and two PCs, respectively. The discriminant analyses depicted about 77 % correct grouping of the 47 populations into nine clusters and about 62 % and 68 % correct origin-based classification of the germplasm in terms of altitude zones and regions, respectively. In general, the study demonstrated the existence of regional and clinal (altitude zone) variation patterns in the tef germplasm populations. The broad trait variation in the germplasm implies ample opportunities for genetic improvement of tef through selection and hybridization. PMID:14641488
McKenzie, Jeffrey M.
Ethiopian rift valley, southern Ethiopia: implications for well-head protection by McKenzie et al., Hydrogeology Journal (2001) 9:265Â272 Jeffrey M. McKenzie Â· Donald I. Siegel Â· D. Jonathan McKenzie We thank- tation, a method often used in remote places where data on the isotopic composition of multi
Assefa, Shiferaw Alemu
The primary objective of this dissertation is to reconstruct the history of the Omotic societies of southwestern Ethiopia. Although historical, anthropological, and linguistic studies exist for this region, the gaps in our knowledge are great. Information on the history of Omotic people, their economic and political systems, beliefs and values,…
Background Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman is a major food security crop in Southern Ethiopia, where it was originally domesticated and during millennia became pivotal crop around which an entire farming system has developed. Although its cultivation is highly localized, the enset-based farming system provides sustenance to more than 20 million people. Precise ethnobotanical information of intra-specific enset diversity and local knowledge on how communities maintain, manage and benefit from enset genetic resources is imperative for the promotion, conservation and improvement of this crop and its farming system. Methods This study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia among the Wolaita 'enset culture' community. The research sample consisted of 270 households from 12 Kebeles (villages) representing three agro-ecological ranges. By establishing Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) based interactions and applying ethnobotanical interviewing methods of free-listing and open-ended questionnaires, information on the use and management of enset diversity, and its associated folk-biosystematics, food traditions and material culture was collected and analyzed. Results While enset agriculture is seen as cultural heritage and identity for the Wolaita, enset intra-specific diversity holds scenic, prestige and symbolic values for the household. In the present study we recorded 67 enset landraces under cultivation, and through a comprehensive literature review we identified 28 landraces reported from other areas of Wolaita, but not encountered in our survey. Landraces, identified using 11 descriptors primarily related to agro-morphological traits, are named after perceived places of origin, agro-morphological characteristics and cooking quality attributes. Folk classification of enset is based on its domestication status, 'gender', agro-ecological adaptability and landrace suitability for different food and other uses (fiber, feed, medicinal). Enset as a food crop is used to prepare 10 different dishes in Wolaita, 8 of which are exclusively prepared using enset, and their consumption ranges from daily staple to specialty food in festive occasions and ceremonies. On-farm landrace diversity and richness is guided by household needs; its dynamics is managed through regular propagation, harvesting restrain, control of landrace composition and arrangement in the enset homegardens. Conclusions This study reported on the knowledge system, socio-cultural process and community practices that drive the maintenance of intra-specific on-farm enset diversity in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia. The information is crucial for developing community based complementary in situ and ex situ conservation strategies to foster conservation of enset genetic resources and associated indigenous knowledge system. PMID:24885715
Engdawork, Assefa; Bork, Hans-Rudolf
The purpose of this study is to examine the origin, development, and characteristics of terraces (kella), plus their potentials and determinants for sustainable use in the Chencha-Dorze Belle area of southern Ethiopia. Field surveys were conducted to determine the various parameters of the indigenous terraces and in order to collect samples for radiocarbon dating. To identify farmers' views of the terrace systems, semi-structured interviews and group discussions were also carried out. Terraces were built and used-as radiocarbon dating proves-at least over the last 800 years. The long-term continued usage of the indigenous terraces is the result of social commitments, the structural features of the terraces, and the farmers' responses to the dynamics of social and cultural circumstances. We dubbed that the terraces are a success story of fruitful environmental management over generations. Thus, a strong need is to preserve and develop this important cultural heritage and example of sustainable land use. PMID:24805921
Background Combining various aspects of child feeding into an age-specific summary index provides a first answer to the question of how best to deal with recommended feeding practices in the context of HIV pandemic. The objective of this study is to assess feeding practices of HIV exposed infants using summary index and its association with nutritional status in Southern Ethiopia. Methods Facility based cross-sectional study design with cluster random sampling technique was conducted in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between summary index (infant and child feeding index) (CS-ICFI) and nutritional status. Results The mean (±standard deviation (SD)) cross-sectional infant and child feeding index (CS-ICFI) score of infants was 9.09 (±2.59), [95% CI: 8.69-9.49]). Thirty seven percent (36.6%) of HIV exposed infants fell in the high CS-ICFI category while 31.4% of them were found in poor feeding index tertile. About forty two percent (41.6%) of urban infants were found in the high index tertile but only 24% of the rural infants were found in high index tertile. Forty six percent (46%) of the rural infants were found in low (poor) feeding index category. The CS-ICFI has a statistically significant association with weight for age z score (WAZ) (ß?=?0.168, p?=?0.027) and length for age z score (LAZ) (ß?=?0.183 p?=?0.036). However CS-ICFI was not significantly associated with weight for height z score (WLZ) (p?=?0.386). Conclusion Majority of HIV exposed infants had no optimum complementary feeding practices according to cross-sectional infant and child feeding index. CS-ICFI was statistically associated especially with chronic indicators of nutritional status (LAZ and WAZ). More rural infants were found in poor index tertile than urban infants. This may suggest that rural infants need more attention than urban infants while designing and implementing complementary feeding interventions. PMID:24548764
Background With 75% of the Ethiopian population at risk of malaria, accurate diagnosis is crucial for malaria treatment in endemic areas where Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax co-exist. The present study evaluated the performance of regular microscopy in accurate identification of Plasmodium spp. in febrile patients visiting health facilities in southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design was employed to recruit study subjects who were microscopically positive for malaria parasites and attending health facilities in southern Ethiopia between August and December 2011. Of the 1,416 febrile patients attending primary health facilities, 314 febrile patients, whose slides were positive for P. falciparum, P. vivax or mixed infections using microscopy, were re-evaluated for their infection status by PCR. Finger-prick blood samples were used for parasite genomic DNA extraction. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to reconstruct the distribution of different Plasmodium spp. across the three geographical areas. Results Of the 314 patients with a positive thick blood smear, seven patients (2%) were negative for any of the Plasmodium spp. by nested PCR. Among 180 microscopically diagnosed P. falciparum cases, 111 (61.7%) were confirmed by PCR, 44 (24.4%) were confirmed as P. vivax, 18 (10%) had mixed infections with P. falciparum and P. vivax and two (1.1%) were mixed infections with P. falciparum and P. malariae and five (2.8%) were negative for any of the Plasmodium spp. Of 131 microscopically diagnosed P. vivax cases, 110 (84%) were confirmed as P. vivax, 14 (10.7%) were confirmed as P. falciparum, two (1.5%) were P. malariae, three (2.3%) with mixed infections with P. falciparum and P. vivax and two (1.5%) were negative for any of the Plasmodium spp. Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax mixed infections were observed. Plasmodium malariae was detected as mono and mixed infections in four individuals. Conclusion False positivity, under-reporting of mixed infections and a significant number of species mismatch needs attention and should be improved for appropriate diagnosis. The detection of substantial number of false positive results by molecular methodologies may provide the accurate incidence of circulating Plasmodium species in the geographical region and has important repercussions in understanding malaria epidemiology and subsequent control. PMID:24502664
Moges, Awdenegest; Holden, Nicholas M.
A study was conducted in southern Ethiopia to evaluate the nutrient status on smallholder farms with respect to land use class (garden, grassland, and outfield) and slope position (upper, middle, and lower). Soil physical and chemical properties were quantified using soil samples collected at two depths (0 15 and 15 30 cm). Available phosphorous was significantly different among the three land use classes. However, organic carbon and total nitrogen were lower in the outfield compared to the garden and grass land but not significantly different. The lower than expected nutrient status of the garden and grassland, which receive almost all available organic supplements, was attributed to the overall low availability of these inputs. Similarly, pH and cation exchange capacity were not significantly different among the different land use classes. However, the sum of the exchangeable cations was significantly higher in the garden compared to the outfields. Comparison at landscape level revealed that the sand fraction was significantly greater, whereas the silt fractions were significantly smaller, on the lower slopes relative to the middle slopes. Moreover, the organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, Ca, and Mg values were significantly less on lower slopes than upper and middle slopes. Perhaps this is because of leaching and the effect of deposition of coarser sediments from the prevailing gully system. Overall, the fertility of the soil was adequate for supporting smallholder farming, but consideration must be given to reducing pressure on the land resources, addressing erosion problems, and providing a line of credit for purchasing inputs.
Assefa, Kebebew; Tefera, Hailu; Merker, Arnulf
Three thousand tef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) lines representing 60 germplasm populations from western and southern Ethiopia were sown on pellic Vertisols at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center during the 1999/2000 main season. The objectives were to assess the variation with respect to regions and altitude zones of origin and to study the inter-relationships of 17 pheno-morphic and agronomic traits. The populations showed significant (p < or = 0.05) regional variation in 10 (59%) of the quantitative traits, but clinal variation among altitude zones was significant (p < or = 0.05) only for six (35%) of the traits. On the other hand, the populations revealed consistent variation (p < or = 0.05) within both regions and altitude zones in all the traits evaluated. Likewise, the variation among lines within populations of both regions and altitude zones was significant (p < or = 0.05) in most of the traits. The number of characters showing substantial correlation depicted regional and clinal variation mainly depending on the number of populations. Based on the mean of the populations, grain yield panicle and shoot phytomass plant showed negative correlation with harvest index, and positive correlation with most of the remaining traits. Individual plant grain yield was positively correlated with all the other traits except harvest index, days to maturity, grain filling period and number of primary panicle branches. Overall, the tef germplasm populations showed substantial phenotypic variation which can be utilized in the genetic improvement of the crop. PMID:12369096
Rufael, T; Catley, A; Bogale, A; Sahle, M; Shiferaw, Y
Participatory epidemiology (PE) was used on the Borana plateau of southern Ethiopia to understand pastoralist's perceptions of the clinical and epidemiological features of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in cattle. Matrix scoring showed good agreement between informant groups on the clinical signs of acute and chronic FMD, and findings were cross-checked by clinical examination of cattle and assessment of previous clinical FMD at herd level by detection of antibody to non structural proteins of FMD virus. The positive predictive value of pastoralist's diagnosis of FMD at herd level was 93.1%. The annual age-specific incidence and mortality of acute FMD in 50 herds was estimated using proportional piling. The estimated mean incidence of acute FMD varied from in 18.5% in cattle less than two years of age to 14.0% in cattle three to four years of age. The estimated mean mortality due to acute FMD varied from 2.8% in cattle less than two years of age to 0.3% in cattle three of age or older. Pearson correlation coefficients for acute FMD by age group were -0.12 (p>0.05) for incidence and -0.59 (p<0.001) for mortality. Estimates of the annual incidence of chronic FMD varied from 0.2% in cattle less than two years of age to 1.8% in cattle three to four years of age. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the incidence of chronic FMD by age group was 0.47 (p<0.001). Outbreaks of FMD peaked in Borana cattle during the two dry seasons and were attributed to increased cattle movement to dry season grazing areas. The mean seroprevalence of FMD was estimated at 21% (n=920) and 55.2% of herds (n=116) tested seropositive. Serotyping of 120 seropositive samples indicated serotypes O (99.2%), A (95.8%), SAT 2 (80%) and C (67.5%). The endemic nature of FMD in Borana pastoral herds is discussed in terms of the direct household-level impact of the disease, and the increasing export of cattle and chilled beef from Ethiopia. PMID:18551776
Desta, Takele Taye; Wakeyo, Oli
Rearing of scavenging chickens is among the most commonly practiced farm activities in Ethiopia. This system is dominated by indigenous chickens. Output from indigenous chickens is low due to poor management and absence of intense selection that is intended to improve economically important traits. This showed that village chickens are rather evolved for adaptation traits. However, the level of risk is low, and this has made rearing of scavenging chickens a choice of farm activity for smallholder farmers. The objective of this study was to characterize the scavenging chickens' production system in Wolaita Zone. Single-visit survey involving individual interview of 119 farmers and 6 focus group discussions was used to collect the data. Our results showed that rearing of scavenging chickens was constrained especially by disease and predation problems. However, farmers proposed a set of solutions to minimize the effect of these problems. Rearing of scavenging chickens fulfils the multi-functional need of the society. This system has special features because it can sustain in its own without the need for modern commercial chicken farming facilities. However, farmers also reported the drawbacks of rearing of scavenging chickens and these mainly include uproot of garden crops and tiresomeness of the night watching. Selection of chickens was mainly depending on physically observed traits like body size and plumage colour. The initial foundation flock was mainly obtained from the local market. The ideal place for scavenging chickens production is the one that has intermediate weather condition and has some trees that can be used as shade; however, it was substantiated that it has to be free from bush and shrubs, weeds and wet lands. Therefore, these pieces of knowledge embedded among smallholder farmers need to be well documented and synthesized to design an appropriate type of technology packages that can be communicated back to farmers to improve productivity of the scavenging chickens. PMID:21800214
Tschopp, Rea; Aseffa, Abraham; Schelling, Esther; Berg, Stefan; Hailu, Elena; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Habtamu, Meseret; Argaw, Kifle; Zinsstag, Jakob
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in cattle in the Ethiopian Highlands but no studies have been done so far in pastoralists in South Omo. This study assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) at an intensive interface of livestock, wildlife and pastoralists in Hamer Woreda (South Omo), Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey including a comparative intradermal skin testing (CIDT) was conducted in 499 zebu cattle and 186 goats in 12 settlements. Sputum samples from 26 symptomatic livestock owners were cultured for TB. Fifty-one wildlife samples from 13 different species were also collected in the same area and tested with serological (lateral flow assay) and bacteriological (culture of lymph nodes) techniques. Individual BTB prevalence in cattle was 0.8% (CI: 0.3%–2%) with the >4 mm cut-off and 3.4% (CI: 2.1%–5.4%) with the >2 mm cut-off. Herd prevalence was 33.3% and 83% when using the >4 and the >2 mm cut-off respectively. There was no correlation between age, sex, body condition and positive reactors upon univariate analysis. None of the goats were reactors for BTB. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) were detected in 50% of the wildlife cultures, 79.2% of which were identified as Mycobacterium terrae complex. No M. bovis was detected. Twenty-seven percent of tested wildlife were sero-positive. Four sputum cultures (15.4%) yielded AFB positive colonies among which one was M. tuberculosis and 3 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The prevalence of M. avium-complex (MAC) was 4.2% in wildlife, 2.5% in cattle and 0.5% in goats. In conclusion, individual BTB prevalence was low, but herd prevalence high in cattle and BTB was not detected in goats, wildlife and humans despite an intensive contact interface. On the contrary, NTMs were highly prevalent and some Mycobacterium spp were more prevalent in specific species. The role of NTMs in livestock and co-infection with BTB need further research. PMID:20808913
Helelo, Tsegab Paulose; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Adane, Akilew Awoke
Background To date, non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, are becoming severe public health challenges particularly in developing countries. Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor that contributes the leading role for mortality. The problem is significant in low- and middle-income countries like sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are limited studies in developing countries, particularly in Ethiopia. Hence, determining the magnitude of hypertension and identifying risk groups are important. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted in April 2013 among adults (age>31 years) old. A systematic sampling technique was used to select a total of 518 study participants. Data were collected after full verbal informed consent was obtained from each participant. Multivariable logistic regressions were fitted to control the effect of confounding. Adjusted Odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to measure associations. Variables having P-value <0.05 were considered as significant. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension in Durame town was 22.4% (95% CI: 18.8–26.0). Nearly 40% of hypertensive patients were newly screened. Male sex [AOR ?=?2.03, 95% CI; 1.05–3.93], age [AOR ?=?29.49, 95% CI; 10.60–81.27], salt use [AOR ?=?6.55, 95% CI; 2.31–18.53], eating vegetable three or fewer days per week [AOR ?=?2.3,95% CI; 1.17–4.51], not continuously walking at least for 10 minutes per day [AOR ?=?7.82, 95% CI; 2.37–25.82], having family history of hypertension [AOR ?=?2.46, 95%CI; 1.31–4.61] and being overweight/obese [AOR ?=?15.7, 95% CI 7.89–31.21)] were found to be risk factors for hypertension. Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension is found to be high. Older age, male sex, having family history of hypertension, physical inactivity, poor vegetable diet, additional salt consumption and obesity were important risk factors associated with hypertension among adults. Community level intervention measures with a particular emphasis on prevention by introducing lifestyle modifications are recommended. PMID:25415321
Background A mosquito repellent has the potential to prevent malaria infection, but there has been few studies demonstrating the effectiveness of combining this strategy with the highly effective long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). This study aimed to determine the effect of combining community-based mosquito repellent with LLINs in the reduction of malaria. Methods A community-based clustered-randomised trial was conducted in 16 rural villages with 1,235 households in southern Ethiopia between September and December of 2008. The villages were randomly assigned to intervention (mosquito repellent and LLINs, eight villages) and control (LLINs alone, eight villages) groups. Households in the intervention villages received mosquito repellent (i.e., Buzz-Off® petroleum jelly, essential oil blend) applied every evening. The baseline survey was followed by two follow-up surveys, at one month interval. The primary outcome was detection of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, or both parasites, through microscopic examination of blood slides. Analysis was by intention to treat. Baseline imbalances and clustering at individual, household and village levels were adjusted using a generalized linear mixed model. Results 3,078 individuals in intervention and 3,004 in control group were enrolled into the study. Compared with the control arm, the combined use of mosquito repellent and LLINs significantly reduced malaria infection of all types over time [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR)?=?0.66; 95% CI?=?0.45-0.97]. Similarly, a substantial reduction in P. falciparum malaria infection during the follow-up surveys was observed in the intervention group (aOR?=?0.53, 95% CI?=?0.31-0.89). The protective efficacy of using mosquito repellent and LLINs against malaria infection of both P. falciparum/P. vivax and P. falciparum was 34% and 47%, respectively. Conclusions Daily application of mosquito repellent during the evening followed by the use of LLINs during bedtime at community level has significantly reduced malaria infection. The finding has strong implication particularly in areas where malaria vectors feed mainly in the evening before bedtime. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01160809. PMID:24678612
The school curricula are widely believed to be the best vehicle for generating public awareness of and action related to areas of energy concern. In an attempt to build the capacity of schools to address key environmental issues in Ethiopia, a pilot project had been designed in 2004. The principal aim of the project was to bring about positive…
Roba, Alemzewed C; Gabriel-Micheal, Kebebush; Zello, Gordon A; Jaffe, Joann; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J
Poor nutrition in adolescent girls poses critical health risks on future pregnancy and birth outcomes especially in developing countries. Our purpose was to assess nutritional status and dietary intake of rural adolescent girls and determine pulse and food intake patterns associated with poor nutritional status. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a traditional pulse growing region of southern Ethiopia on 188 girls between 15 to 19 years of age, with 70% being from food insecure families. Prevalence of stunting (30.9%) and underweight (13.3%) were associated with low food and nutrient intake. Diets were cereal-based, with both animal source foods and pulses rarely consumed. Improving dietary intakes of female adolescents with nutrient dense foods would ensure better health for themselves and for the next generation. PMID:25602600
Woldesemayat, Endrias M.; Datiko, Daniel G.; Lindtjørn, Bernt
Background Untreated smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients are the primary source of infection; however, a large number of TB cases have not been identified and are untreated in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia. This study determined whether or not a community-based follow-up of chronic coughers improves detection of TB cases and the risk factors for death among such cases. Methods We conducted a census in six rural communities in Sidama, southern Ethiopia. Based on interview and sputum investigation, we identified 724 TB smear-negative chronic coughers, and did a cohort study of these chronic coughers and 1448 neighbourhood controls. For both chronic coughers and neighbourhood controls, we conducted a TB screening interview and performed sputum microscopy, as required, at 4, 7 and 10 months. Between September 2011 and June 2012, we followed chronic coughers and neighbourhood controls for 588 and 1,204 person-years of observation, respectively. Results Of the chronic coughers, 23 developed smear-positive TB (incidence rate = 3912/105 person-years) compared to three neighbourhood controls who developed smear-positive TB (incidence rate = 249/105 person-years). The male-to-female ratio of smear-positive TB was 1:1. We demonstrated that chronic coughers (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR], 13.5; 95% CI, 4.0–45.7) and the poor (aHR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1–5.8) were at high-risk for smear-positive TB. Among the study cohort, 15 chronic coughers and two neighbourhood controls died (aHR, 14.0; 95% CI, 3.2–62.4). Conclusion A community-based follow-up of chronic coughers is helpful in improving smear-positive TB case detection, it benefits socioeconomically disadvantaged people in particular; in rural settings, chronic coughers had a higher risk of death. PMID:25719541
Background The use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) has not kept step with that of short-acting methods such as oral pills and injectable in Africa. This study explores the association between women’s awareness, attitude and barriers with their intention to use LAPMs among users of short term methods, in Southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design of mixed methods was conducted in the public health facilities of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia, in January 2013. Women who were using short term contraceptive methods were the study population (n?=?416). Moreover, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted among family planning providers and women who have been using short term methods. Data were entered into EPI Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. The odds ratios in the binary logistic regression model along with 95% confidence interval were used. Results One hundred fifty six (38%) of women had the intention to use LAPMs while nearly half of them (n?=?216) had a negative attitude to use such methods. Moreover, two-third of study participants (n?=?276) held myths and misconceptions about such methods. The women who had a positive attitude were found to be 2.5 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had a negative attitude (AOR =2. 47; 95% CI: 1.48- 4.11). Women who had no myths and misconceptions on LAPMs were found to be 1.7 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had myths and misconceptions (AOR?=?1.71; 95% CI: 1.08- 2.72). Likewise, women who attained secondary and higher level of education were found to be 2 and 2.8 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women with no education, respectively (AOR?=?2. 10; 95% CI: 1.11- 3.98) and AOR?=?2. 80; 95% CI: 1.15- 6.77). Conclusions Intention to use LAPMs was low and nearly half of women had a negative attitude to use such methods. Positive attitude, absence of myths and misconceptions on LAPMs and secondary and plus level of education predicts intention to use LAPMs. Educating communities to change the attitude, myths and misconceptions on LAPMs should be aggressively done. PMID:25216640
Background Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV infection remains a major public health problem and constitutes the most important cause of HIV infection in children under the age of 15 years old. Awareness on MTCT of HIV and knowledge of its timing usually pose a direct effect on utilization of PMTCT services (mainly HIV testing, infant feeding options and antiretroviral use). The objective of this study is to assess pregnant women’s knowledge on timing of MTCT of HIV in Southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 62 health centers in Southern Ethiopia from February 25 to March 24, 2012. A total of 1325 antenatal care attending women were included in the survey by using a multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to identify variables associated with women’s knowledge on timing of MTCT of HIV. Results All interviewed pregnant women were aware of HIV/AIDS transmission, but only 60.7% were aware of the risk of MTCT. The possibility of MTCT during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding was known by 48.4%, 58.6% and 40.7% of the respondents, respectively. The proportion of women who were fully knowledgeable on timing of MTCT was 11.5%. Women’s full knowledge on timing of MTCT was associated with maternal education [AOR?=?3.68, 95% CI: 1.49-9.08], and being government employee [AOR?=?2.50, 95% CI: 1.23- 5.07]. Whereas, there was a negative association between full knowledge of women on timing of MTCT and no offer of information on MTCT/PMTCT by antenatal care (ANC) service provider [AOR?=?0.44, 95% CI: 0.30-0.64], lack of discussion on ANC with male partner [AOR?=?0.30, 95% CI: 0.12-0.72], and lack of discussion on HIV/AIDS with male partner [AOR?=?0.17, 95% CI: 0.07-0.43]. Conclusion There was low awareness and knowledge on timing of MTCT of HIV in this study. Hence, strengthening the level of PMTCT services in ANC settings and devising mechanisms to promote involvement of men in PMTCT services is needed. PMID:24330487
Christenson, B; Ringner, A; Blücher, C; Billaudelle, H; Gundtoft, K N; Eriksson, G; Böttiger, M
In the middle of June 1980 an explosive outbreak of campylobacter enteritis occurred among the staff of a poultry abattoir in southern Sweden. In all 37 cases of acute gastroenteritis originating from the abattoir were reported and Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from the stools in 24 of them. When the outbreak occurred, a large proportion of the ordinary staff had been replaced by inexperienced teenagers working during their holidays. A specially big slaughter had also taken place the same week as these inexperienced workers had started. The holiday workers contracted the disease to a greater extent (71%) than the ordinary staff (29%). An overall screening revealed 5 asymptomatic carriers among the ordinary staff. In 3 cases secondary spread was found. PMID:6879114
Background Though birth interval has beneficial effects on health status of the mother and their children, it is affected by range of factors some of which are rooted in social and cultural norms and the reproductive behaviors of individual women. However, there was limited data showed the determinants of birth intervals in rural pastoral communities of South Ethiopia. Therefore, the study was aimed to assess the determinants of inter birth interval among women’s of child bearing age in Yaballo Woreda, Borena zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods A community based unmatched case–control study with multi stage sampling technique was conducted from January to March 2012. Cases were women with two subsequent birth intervals of less than three years and controls were women with two subsequent birth intervals between three and above years. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select six hundred fifty two (326 cases and 326 controls) study subjects. All explanatory variables that were associated with the outcome variable (birth interval) during bivariate analysis were included in the final logistic model. Multivariable backward logistic regression when P values less than or equal to 0.05 and 95% CI were used to determine independent determinants for the outcome of interest. Results The median duration of birth interval was 31 & 40 months among cases and controls respectively. Variables such as number of children (AOR 3.73 95% CI: (1.50, 9.25), use of modern contraceptives (AOR 5.91 95% CI: (4.02, 8.69), mothers’ educational status (AOR 1.89 95% CI: (1.15, 3.37), and sex of the child (AOR 1.72 95% CI: (1.17, 2.52) were significantly associated with birth intervals. Conclusions Concerted efforts to encourage modern contraceptive use, women education, and breastfeeding should be made. PMID:23688144
Background Breastfeeding is one of the components of Primary Health Care in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia a wide range of harmful infant feeding practices has been documented despite the implementation of infant and young child feeding guidelines. However, there is no well documented study of women’s perception of breastfeeding patterns and factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding (with timely initiation of breastfeeding being within the first hour) in rural communities of Arba Minch Zuria. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Arba Minch Zuria from January to February, 2012. Quantitative data were collected from a sample of 383 respondents supplemented by qualitative data generated using in-depth interviews of 10 key informants. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of delayed initiation of breastfeeding practices. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic frameworks. Results In the rural communities of Arba Minch Zuria almost all mothers (98.2%) have ever breastfed their children. More than three-fourth (89%) of mothers provided colostrum to their infants while others discarded the first milk until the white milk was produced. A large number of mothers (42.8%) started breastfeeding one hour after childbirth. Delayed initiation of breastfeeding was positively associated with lack of maternal education (AOR 1.91; 95% CI 1.02, 3.44). Maternal knowledge about the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95% CI 0.15, 0.93), attending a primary health education (AOR 0.74; 95% 0.15, 0.98) and health personnel support for women at delivery time (AOR 0.52; 95% CI 0.21, 0.58) were inversely associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding practices. Conclusions A large number of mothers (42.8%) were short of the national and global recommendations about breastfeeding initiation. Therefore, sustained health and community based nutritional education is recommended for pregnant and lactating mothers to promote optimal breastfeeding for the initiation of breastfeeding practices using health extension workers and local community resource people as key actors. PMID:24971154
Dangisso, Mesay Hailu; Datiko, Daniel Gemechu; Lindtjørn, Bernt
Background Ethiopia is one of the high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. An analysis of trends and differentials in case notifications and treatment outcomes of TB may help improve our understanding of the performance of TB control services. Methods A retrospective trend analysis of TB cases was conducted in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia. We registered all TB cases diagnosed and treated during 2003–2012 from all health facilities in the Sidama Zone, and analysed trends of TB case notification rates and treatment outcomes. Results The smear positive (PTB+) case notification rate (CNR) increased from 55 (95% CI 52.5–58.4) to 111 (95% CI 107.4–114.4) per 105 people. The CNRs of PTB+ in people older than 45 years increased by fourfold, while the mortality of cases during treatment declined from 11% to 3% for smear negative (PTB-) (X2trend, P<0.001) and from 5% to 2% for PTB+ (X2trend, P<0.001). The treatment success was higher in rural areas (AOR 1.11; CI 95%: 1.03–1.2), less for PTB- (AOR 0.86; CI 95%: 0.80–0.92) and higher for extra-pulmonary TB (AOR 1.10; CI 95%: 1.02–1.19) compared to PTB+. A higher lost-to-follow up was observed in men (AOR 1.15; CI 95%: 1.06–1.24) and among PTB- cases (AOR 1.14; CI 95%: 1.03–1.25). More deaths occurred in PTB-cases (AOR 1.65; 95% CI: 1.44–1.90) and among cases older than 65 years (AOR 3.86; CI 95%: 2.94–5.10). Lastly, retreatment cases had a higher mortality than new cases (6% vs 3%). Conclusion Over the past decade TB CNRs and treatment outcomes improved, whereas the disparities of disease burden by gender and place of residence reduced and mortality declined. Strategies should be devised to address higher risk groups for poor treatment outcomes. PMID:25460363
Background Plants have traditionally been used for treatment of human and livestock ailments in Ethiopia by different ethnic and social groups. However, this valuable source of knowledge is not adequately documented, which impedes their widespread use, evaluation and validation. Here, we recorded indigenous knowledge and standard practices for human and livestock disease control, of three ethnic groups (Aari, Maale and Bena-Tsemay) in South Omo Zone of Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out using a semi-structured questionnaire to document knowledge of 50 traditional healers (40 male and 10 female) in medicinal plant use for treatment of human and livestock ailments. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and summarize the ethno-botanical data. Results Ninety-one plants, with claimed medicinal properties against a total of 34 human and livestock ailments, were reported and botanically identified as belonging to 57 genera and 33 plant families. Most of the plant species reported belonged to one of seven major families: Lamiaceae, Solanaceae, Menispermiaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Plumbaginaceae and Geraniaceae. Woody plants (shrubs 21% and trees 29%) were the major growth form used, whilst roots (40%) and leaves (35%) were the major plant parts used in the study areas. Healers mostly practice oral administration of plant preparations (65%). Multiple medicinal plants were cited against particular ailments, and mixing of two or more different medicinal plants (14.3%) against a single ailment was also commonly reported. Conclusion This study showed that traditional medicine, mainly involving the use of medicinal plants, is playing a significant role in meeting the primary healthcare needs of the three ethnic groups. Acceptance of traditional medicine and limited access to modern healthcare facilities could be considered as the main factors for the continuation of the practice. Documented knowledge of the traditional healers can be used to support the country’s human and livestock health care system and improve lives and livelihoods. Information generated will be used in future studies to validate bioactivity of selected medicinal plants used by traditional healers, so to increase their acceptability in health care systems both nationally and internationally. PMID:23680260
Background The use of khat among youths can be harmful leading to decreased academic performance, increased risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases or other psychiatric symptoms. It is believed to be one of the factors associated with unprotected risky sexual behavior predisposing the youth for HIV infection and transmission. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in South West Ethiopia. A total of 410 participants were recruited in the study using stratified sampling technique. Data were collected by using interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression and Cox regression were used to assess the association of independent variables with the outcome variable. Result Khat use was positively associated with male gender (OR 2.9; C.I. 1.4 to 6.0), alcohol use (OR 4.8; C.I. 2.1 to 10.6), no education level (OR 2.6; C.I. 1.1 to 6.2) and not having communication with parents about khat chewing (OR 2.6; C.I. 1.1 to 6.2). Conclusion Strategies should be designed to increase awareness of factors associated with khat use among youths and their parents in order to reduce the prevalence of khat use and its adverse social and health consequences. PMID:24350990
Samuel, Fikreslasie; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu
Monitoring the efficacy of anthelminthic drugs is essential. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a single oral dose of 400mg albendazole (ABZ) against the major soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection in school children, Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia. A single fresh stool sample was collected from 298 school children and examined using a duplicate smear of the Kato-Katz method. Children positive for STH infections were treated with single oral dose of 400mg ABZ and re-examined for intestinal helminth infections 21days post-treatment. The participants were interviewed for symptoms related with the drug uptake 24h after ABZ treatment. Children positive for Schistosoma mansoni infections were treated with Praziquantel (40mg/kg of body weight) after an ABZ treatment follow up survey. 51.3%, 49.7%, 44.6% and 88.3% had hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and any intestinal helminth infection, respectively. Cure rates were 97.4% for hookworm, 96.6% for A. lumbricoides and 30.8% for T. trichiura infections. Egg reduction rates (ERRs) were 99.8% for hookworm, 99.9% for A. lumbricoides and 83.1% for T. trichiura infections. Mild and transient symptoms were observed among the participants which were quite frequent. In conclusion, a 400mg single oral dose of ABZ was effective against hookworm and A. lumbricoides but less efficacious against T. trichiura infection. The drug resulted in high ERRs for hookworm, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Administration of the drug in repeated doses or in combination with other drugs might be necessary. PMID:24211489
Tefera, Solomon; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N
The structure and advancement of woody vegetation was studied in a semi-arid rangeland of southern Ethiopia under three land-use systems (communal land, a government ranch and a traditional grazing reserve enclosure) and along a distance gradient (near, middle and far) from water sources. A total of 54 woody plant species were identified. Based on the subjective opinions of the pastoralists, 85% of the identified woody plants have forage values to livestock. Cadaba farinsoa, Ormocarpum trichocarpum, Rhus natalensis, Acacia brevispica, Cordia gharaf and Hibiscus sparseaculeatus were reported to have fair to good palatability. Tree equivalent (TE) density of all woody plants combined was greater (P <0.01) in the government ranch (1) 188 TE ha(-1)) and the communal land (1083 TE ha(-1)) than in the traditional grazing reserve (419 TE ha(-1)), whereas this did not vary significantly (P >0.05) along the distance gradient from water. The most important encroaching woody plant species in the study areas were in descending order: Commiphora africana, Acacia drepanolobium, A. brevispica, Acacia. tortilis, Grewia tembensis and Lannea floccosa. The density of individual encroaching woody plant species along the distance gradient from water was not consistent. All encroaching woody species had the highest TE density in the communal land. The prevalence of these species followed the pattern of intensity of use within the communal grazing area. Most of the woody species had the highest abundance in the height class >0-2m regardless of land use and distance gradient from water. This study investigated the advance of severe woody encroachment in the communal and government sites as well as along the distance gradient from water. Some of the important contributing factors that can be suggested are heavy grazing pressure (in both the communal and government sites), expansion of cultivation and reduced mobility of livestock due to settlement of the pastoralists in the communal land. PMID:17141403
Background In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission. Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira. Methods For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted from October to December 2006. The entomological surveys were done from October to December 2006 and continued from April to May 2007. Both parasitological and entomological surveys were done using standard procedures. Results The parasitological result in all the survey months (October-December) showed an overall detection rate of 4.4% (48/1082) (CI 95%; 3.2-5.7%) malaria parasite. Among infected individuals, 32 (3.0%) of the infection was due to Plasmodium vivax and the rest 16 (1.5%) were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The highest prevalence 39(3.6%) of the parasite was observed in age groups of above 15 years old. Among the total tested, 25(2.3%) of males and 23(2.1%) of females had malaria infection. Among tested individuals, 38(5.3%) and 10 (2.7%) of infection was occurred in Misrak-Meskan (2100 m a.s.l) and Mirab-Meskan (2280 m a.s.l), respectively which was statistically significant (X2 = 3.72, P < 0.05). Although the prevalence pattern of Plasmodium species declined from October to December, the trend was non-significant (X2 for trend = 0.49, P > 0.05). The entomological survey showed a collection of 602 larvae and 80 adult Anopheles. Anopheles christyi was the dominant species both in the first (45.3%) and in the second (35.4%) surveys; where as, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised 4.7% and 14.6%, in the first and second surveys, respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l comprises 55% of the adult collection, and both species were collected more from outdoors (57.5%). The number of An. christyi was higher in Mirab-Meskan (58. 3%) than Misrak-Meskan (41.7%) (P < 0.05). Conclusion Malaria parasite and its vectors were found to be common during transmission periods in the highland fringes of Butajira. Thus, health education about the risk of malaria and its control programme in the area must be given adequate attention to minimize potential epidemics. In addition, the current study should be complemented from sero-epidemiological, prospective longitudinal and retrospective studies along with metrological and ecological factors, and socio-demographic data before concluding in favour of highland malaria transmission in the area. In light of its abundance, which coincided with the malaria transmission seasons, the possible role of An. christyi as a secondary vector in the highlands must be further investigated by including blood meal sources detection. PMID:21649923
Marmion, B. P.; Ormsbee, R. A.; Kyrkou, M.; Wright, J.; Worswick, D. A.; Izzo, A. A.; Esterman, A.; Feery, B.; Shapiro, R. A.
During the period 1981-8 a clinical trial of a Q fever vaccine (Q-vax; Commonwealth Serum Laboratories, Melbourne) has been conducted in abattoir workers and other at-risk groups in South Australia. Volunteers in four abattoirs and visitors to the abattoirs were given one subcutaneous dose of 30 micrograms of a formalin-inactivated, highly-purified Coxiella burnetii cells, Henzerling strain, Phase 1 antigenic state, in a volume of 0.5 ml. During the period, over 4000 subjects have been vaccinated and the programme continues in the abattoirs and related groups. 'Common' reactions to the vaccine comprised tenderness and erythema, rarely oedema at the inoculation site and sometimes transient headache. Two more serious 'uncommon' reactions, immune abscess at the inoculation site, were observed in two subjects, and two others developed small subcutaneous lumps which gradually dispersed without intervention. Protective efficacy of the vaccine appeared to be absolute and to last for 5 years at least. Eight Q fever cases were observed in vaccinees, but all were in persons vaccinated during the incubation period of a natural attack of Q fever before vaccine-induced immunity had had time (greater than or equal to 13 days after vaccination) to develop. On the other hand, 97 Q fever cases were detected in persons working in, or visiting the same abattoir environments. Assays for antibody and cellular immunity showed an 80-82% seroconversion after vaccination, mostly IgM antibody to Phase 2 antigen, in the 3 months after vaccination. This fell to about 60%, mostly IgG antibody to Phase 1 antigen, after 20 months. On the other hand, 85-95% of vaccinees developed markers of cell mediated immunity as judged by lymphoproliferative responses with C. burnetii antigens; these rates remained elevated for at least 5 years. The Q fever vaccine, unlike other killed rickettsial vaccines, has the property of stimulating long-lasting T lymphocyte memory and this may account for its unusual protective efficacy as a killed vaccine. PMID:2323360
Gebremedhin, Samson; Enquselassie, Fikre; Umeta, Melaku
Background The effects of prenatal Zinc Deficiency (ZD) and Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD) on birthweight are controversial and their interaction has not been investigated. Objective To assess the independent and interaction effects of prenatal zinc and vitamin A deficiencies on birthweight in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia. Methodology A community-based prospective cohort study design was employed. Six hundred fifty pregnant women in their second or third trimester were randomly selected and their serum zinc and retinol concentrations were determined. About 575 subjects were successfully followed until delivery and birthweight was measured within 72 hours after delivery. The association between the exposures and birthweight was examined using log-binomial and liner regression analyses. Potential interaction between ZD and VAD was examined using Synergy Index (SI). Results The mean birthweight (± standard deviation) was 2896 g (±423). About 16.5% (95% CI: 13.5–19.6%) of the babies had Low Birthweight (LBW). Prenatal ZD and VAD were not significantly associated to LBW with Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR) of 1.25 (95 CI: 0.86–1.82) and 1.27 (95% CI: 0.86–1.87), respectively. Stratified analysis on the basis of gestational trimester showed that the occurrence of the deficiencies neither in the second nor third trimester were associated to LBW. The deficiencies did not show synergetic interaction in causing LBW [SI?=?1.04 (95% CI: 0.17–6.28)]. Important risk factors of LBW were maternal illiteracy [RR?=?1.80 (95% CI: 1.11–2.93)], female sex of the newborn [RR?=?1.79 (95% CI: 1.19–2.67)], primiparity [RR?=?1.16 (95% CI: 1.02–1.35)], short maternal stature [RR?=?1.63 (95% CI: 1.06–2.51)] and maternal thinness [RR?=?1.52 (95% CI: 1.03–2.25)]. In the linear regression model, elevated CRP was also negatively associated to birthweight. Conclusion LBW is of public health significance in the locality. The study did not witness any independent or interaction effect of prenatal ZD and VAD on birthweight. PMID:23272058
Alonge, D O; Fasanmi, E F
A survey of the abattoirs in 10 selected towne in Nigeria showed that about 41.9 per cent of whole carcasses condemned between 1975 and 1977 were due to tuberculosis and 22.2 per cent to beef cysticercosis. Seventy per cent of organ condemnations, mainly of livers, were due to fascioliasis. Other major causes of organ condemnations were hydatid cysts, tuberculosis and pneumonia of various causes. An estimated 500 tonnes of meat valued at about 1.25 million Naira (US $1.8 million) are condemned each year throughout Nigeria. The use of abattoirs as monitoring stations in national animal disease eradication programmes is highlighted. PMID:442214
Rhiannon George; Nick Rogers; Simon Kelley
Tertiary magmatism in Ethiopia has been linked to the thermal influence of the Afar mantle plume. However, new laser 40Ar\\/39Ar ages for the volcanic succession in southern Ethiopia confirm the presence of two distinct magmatic phases at 45 35 Ma and 19 12 Ma. The earliest phase predates both extension and magmatism in northern Ethiopia by 15 m.y. and cannot
Barros, L S S; Amaral, L A; Lorenzon, C S; Junior, J L; Neto, J G Machado
Health risks in the effluents of seven swine abattoirs and of seven poultry abattoirs were evaluated with regard to environment degradation and to dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms during the rainy and dry seasons. Supply-water samples from affluents and effluents of the treatment systems at different sites within the abattoir processing system were analysed. Similarly, water samples from the three recipient sites (emission point, 100 m upstream, 100 m downstream) were also analysed. Temperature, free residual chlorine (FRC), total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, enterococci, identification and serotyping of salmonellae were assessed. Scalding is the most significant stage in the slaughtering chain (P<0.05) when temperature is taken into account. Temperatures at effluents and at the sampled sites in the water bodies accorded to state and federal legislation standards. Supply waters did not meet the standards for FRC and microbial count standards according to the Ministry of Health and within limits imposed by the Industrial and Sanitary Inspection Regulations for Animal Products. Feather plucking and evisceration in poultry slaughter and the cleansing of carcasses and facilities in poultry and swine slaughtering had the highest contamination impact. The three loci at the water bodies were above the microbiological standards for classes II and III sites, in conformity with Law 8468 of the state of São Paulo, Brazil and Conama. Salmonella was found at several sites during slaughter, at both types of abattoirs, including in the effluent treatment system. This showed that these sites were the dissemination sources of the microorganism. PMID:16893484
Ramos, José M; Melendez, Napoleón; Reyes, Francisco; Gudiso, Ganamo; Biru, Dejene; Fano, Gamadi; Aberra, Gulelat; Tessema, Dalu; Tesfamariam, Abraham; Balcha, Seble; Gutiérrez, Félix
The presented report describes the epidemiology of potential rabies exposures and examines the utilization of anti-rabies vaccine in a rural area of Ethiopia during a period of 43 months. A total of 683 persons (51.1% females, 73% children) with animal- related bites were included in the retrospective, registry-based study. The most common site of exposure was the leg (66.8%). In children under 8 years of age the face was more often involved than in adults (9.5% vs. 4.8%; p=0.03). The main type of exposure was a bite with bleeding (66.3%) followed by contamination of mucous membranes with saliva (19.7%). The primary sources were dogs (93.4%) followed by cats (2.6%). Children under 15 years were more likely to be exposed to dogs (94.9%) than adults (88.7%) (p=0.01). The most common way of coming in contact with animals was 'walking by' (83.9%). Children came in contact with animals while 'playing with' (10.7%) more often than adults (1.1%) (p<0.001). All the patients received an anti-rabies nervous-tissue vaccine, 99% of whom completed the vaccination course. Animal bites continue to be a problem in rural Ethiopia, mainly among children. Efforts to protect children against animal bites must be of paramount importance in preventing rabies in this population. PMID:25780832
Asmare, K; Regassa, F; Robertson, L J; Martin, A D; Skjerve, E
Abortion and stillbirth are important reproductive disorders in the dairy industry and are often caused by infectious agents. This study investigated whether bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), Brucella spp., and Neospora caninum are associated with abortion and/or stillbirth in dairy cattle in Ethiopia. Dairy cattle from 99 farms were categorized as cases (n=134) or controls (n=268) according to reproductive data. Blood samples were screened for antibodies for these infectious agents. The overall proportion of cattle that were seropositive for BVDV, Brucella spp., and N. caninum was 11?7%, 3?2%, and 17?2%, respectively. Seropositivity for BVDV and Brucella spp. was similar for cases and controls, but significantly more cases were seropositive for N. caninum (29?8%) than controls (10?8%). This is the first report demonstrating N. caninum is common in dairy cattle in Ethiopia, and is probably a greater impediment to reproductive success in Ethiopian dairy farms than either BVDV or Brucella spp. PMID:23034138
Haile, Aynalem; Gashaw, Abebaw; Tolemariam, Taye; Tibbo, Markos
An investigation was made into the epidemiology of nematode infections of sheep in two districts of Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia. We used two approaches--long-term monitoring of identified sheep for nematode infection and abattoir or market survey for analysis. In the first monitoring regime, we used 80 lambs [40 sheep (20 per sex) from each district (Dedo and Yebu)] averaging 4-5 months of age. Faecal egg counts (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV) and body weight changes were monitored over a period of 1 year. Additionally, faecal samples were collected (on a weekly basis) from sheep brought to abattoir/market for 1 year to monitor faecal egg counts. The nematode parasite burden, as judged by FEC and PCV, was generally low indicating that the climatic conditions are not conducive to the development and survival of nematode eggs and the free-living stages; hence, little transmission occurred. In the experimental flocks, the highest FEC and lower PCV were recorded during the long rainy season (June to September) with peak in August and September. Faecal samples collected from abattoir/market also followed the same trend. Results from experimental sheep indicated that location had a significant (P < 0.01) effect on FEC, PCV and average daily body weight gain. The FEC and PCV for sheep in Yebu (mid-altitude) district were 126 +/- 3.33 and 30.6 +/- 0.26, whereas the values for Dedo (highland) were 93 +/- 4.35 and 32.0 +/- 0.21, respectively. The results indicate that the highland areas are comparatively less favourable to the survival and development of nematodes. Female lambs had lower FEC and higher PCV compared to male lambs (P < 0.05). The overall nematode parasite challenge in the area, however, is low. We, therefore, recommend rotational grazing management combined with monitoring parasite load and selective treatment to reduce productivity loses and pasture contamination. PMID:19882224
Gauri S. Mittal
Meat plant wastewater quality depends on water usage, the type of animal slaughtered, and the amount of rendering or processing that is done on site. In Ontario and Quebec, abattoir wastewater total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) ranged from 2333 to 8627?mg\\/L, and suspended solids (SS) from 736 to 2099?mg\\/L, volatile suspended solids (VSS) represented 80% of SS, and protein content
Dreyfus, Anou; Benschop, Jackie; Collins-Emerson, Julie; Wilson, Peter; Baker, Michael G.; Heuer, Cord
Leptospirosis is an important occupational disease in New Zealand. The objectives of this study were to determine risk factors for sero-prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in abattoir workers. Sera were collected from 567 abattoir workers and tested by microscopic agglutination for Leptospira interrogans sv. Pomona and Leptospira borgpetersenii sv. Hardjobovis. Association between prevalence and risk factors were determined by species specific multivariable analysis. Eleven percent of workers had antibodies against Hardjobovis or/and Pomona. Workers from the four sheep abattoirs had an average sero-prevalence of 10%–31%, from the two deer abattoirs 17%–19% and the two beef abattoirs 5%. The strongest risk factor for sero-positivity in sheep and deer abattoirs was work position. In sheep abattoirs, prevalence was highest at stunning and hide removal, followed by removal of the bladder and kidneys. Wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves and facemasks did not appear to protect against infection. Home slaughtering, farming or hunting were not significantly associated with sero-prevalence. There is substantial risk of exposure to leptospires in sheep and deer abattoirs in New Zealand and a persisting, but lower risk, in beef abattoirs. Interventions, such as animal vaccination, appear necessary to control leptospirosis as an occupational disease in New Zealand. PMID:24503973
Zweifel, Claudio; Capek, Michel; Stephan, Roger
Cattle carcasses from two abattoirs were examined at selected stages of slaughter (skinning, evisceration, trimming, washing, blast chilling) for aerobic colony counts (ACC) and Enterobacteriaceae. At each stage and abattoir, 50 carcasses were sampled by swabbing at the neck, brisket, flank and rump. After skinning, average ACC on carcasses was 1.5logCFUcm(-2) and Enterobacteriaceae frequencies at sites were ?6%. From skinned to washed carcasses, certain abattoir- and site-specific changes occurred. Blasting clearly reduced ACC and Enterobacteriaceae results on carcasses from abattoir B, but reductions were limited or lacking in abattoir A. In addition, 100 hides and corresponding chilled carcasses were examined. On hides, average ACC was 5.6logCFUcm(-2) and Enterobacteriaceae frequencies at sites ranged from 74 to 96%. Average carcass-hide ratios of the two abattoirs were comparable for ACC (0.0182-0.0202%) but differed for Enterobacteriaceae counts (abattoir A: 0.4627%; abattoir B: 0.0941%). Such ratios allow comparing process performance between abattoirs in the daily practice. PMID:24967539
Background Female Genital Cutting is a cultural practice among many ethnic groups in Ethiopia that has affected many girls over the past centuries. Although the trend is slowly decreasing in Ethiopia, the magnitude is still very high as the procedure has no known benefit but has many consequences. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and belief in the continuation of FGC among High School Girls in Hadiya Zone. Methods A cross-sectional quantitative survey was carried out among high school girls in Hadiya Zone from January to February 2011. A multi-staged cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. In total, 780 girls completed a self-administered questionnaire for this study. Statistical analysis was done using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Of 780 high school girls, 82.2% were circumcised at a mean age of 11(±2.3) years. Half of the total participants responded that FGC was being practiced in their village. About 60% of the circumcisions were performed by traditional circumcisers while health professionals had performed 30% of them. A few of the circumcised girls (9.4%) supported their status as a circumcised girl, but only 5% believe in the continuation of FGC. The odds of being cut was higher among girls whose fathers and mothers had educational status under high school level (AOR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.25, 3.09) and (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.38) respectively when compared to those whose parents had attended high school and above. The odds of believing in the continuation of FGC was 2.33(95% CI: 1.01, 5.33) times higher among those who responded that FGC was practiced in their areas. Conclusion While there is an urgent need to stop the practice of FGC in Hadiya Zone, cultural beliefs related to the hygiene of female genitalia and other social factors contribute to sustaining the practice. Local organizations in collaboration with religious institutions and community leaders should work together to engage in a process of change within the entire community by arranging awareness creation programmes on the harmfulness of the practice especially in the rural areas of the zone. PMID:24304497
Nafarnda, W. D.; Ajayi, I. E.; Shawulu, J. C.; Kawe, M. S.; Omeiza, G. K.; Sani, N. A.; Tenuche, O. Z.; Dantong, D. D.; Tags, S. Z.
Bacteriological characteristics of abattoir effluents (wastewater), abattoir water source, and water bodies receiving abattoir wastewater were investigated in Abuja, Nigeria using the multiple-tube fermentation technique. Source of water to the abattoirs and the usage of water bodies receiving abattoir effluents were determined using questionnaires. Bacterial counts ranged from 4.8 × 106 to 5.8 × 105 /100?mL of total coliform (TC), 8.2 × 104 to 3.2 × 104/100?mL of Fecal coliform (FC), 5.2 × 104 to 2.0 × 104/100?mL of Fecal streptococcus and 1.2 × 104 to 2.0 × 103/100?mL of Escherichia coli for abattoir effluents 6.6 × 105 to 6.0 × 105/100?mL of TC, 6.2 × 104 to 1.8 × 104/100?mL of FC, 1.8 × 104 to 6.0 × 103/100?mL of F. streptococcus, and 4.8 × 103 to 6.6 × 102/100?mL of E. coli for water bodies receiving abattoir effluents 100?m downstream. TC bacteria counts for abattoir effluents exceeded recommended limit for discharge into surface water in Nigeria. No significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between bacterial counts of abattoir effluents and receiving water bodies 100?m downstream: an indication of contamination of receiving water bodies by abattoir effluents and possible public and environmental health hazards. PMID:23738127
Ahland, Colleen Anne
Gumuz is a Nilo-Saharan dialect cluster spoken in the river valleys of northwestern Ethiopia and the southeastern part of the Republic of the Sudan. There are approximately 200,000 speakers, the majority of which reside in Ethiopia. This study is a phonological and grammatical analysis of two main dialects/languages: Northern Gumuz and Southern…
Chernet, Tadiwos; Hart, William K.; Aronson, James L.; Walter, Robert C.
Forty new K-Ar and 40Ar/ 39Ar isotopic ages from the northern Main Ethiopian Rift (MER)-southern Afar transition zone provide insights into the volcano-tectonic evolution of this portion of the East African Rift system. The earliest evidence of volcanic activity in this region is manifest as 24-23 Ma pre-rift flood basalts. Transition zone flood basalt activity renewed at approximately 10 Ma, and preceded the initiation of modern rift margin development. Bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanism in the southern Afar rift floor began at approximately 7 Ma and continued into Recent times. In contrast, post-subsidence volcanic activity in the northern MER is dominated by Mio-Pliocene silicic products from centers now covered by Quaternary volcanic and sedimentary lithologies. Unlike other parts of the MER, Mio-Pliocene silicic volcanism in the MER-Afar transition zone is closely associated with fissural basaltic products. The presence of Pliocene age ignimbrites on the plateaus bounding the northern MER, whose sources are found in the present rift, indicates that subsidence of this region was gradual, and that it attained its present physiography with steep escarpments only in the Plio-Pleistocene. Large 7-5 Ma silicic centers along the southern Afar and northeastern MER margins apparently formed along an E-W-oriented regional structural feature parallel to the already established southern escarpment of the Afar. The Addis Ababa rift embayment and the growth of 4.5-3 Ma silicic centers in the Addis Ababa area are attributed to the formation of a major cross-rift structure and its intersection with the same regional E-W structural trend. This study illustrates the episodic nature of rift development and volcanic activity in the MER-Afar transition zone, and the link between this activity and regional structural and tectonic features.
Hoffman, L C; Britz, T J; Schnetler, D C
The prevalent microbial growth on carcasses before and after overnight cooling in an ostrich abattoir and de-boning plant was investigated. The effect of warm or cold trimming of the carcasses was examined together with possible causes of contamination along the processing line. An attempt was made to link the prevalent microorganisms that were identified from carcasses to those from specific external contamination sources. Samples of carcasses and possible contaminants were collected in the plant, plated out and selected organisms were typed using a commercial rapid identification system. It was indicated that the cold trim (mainly of bruises) of carcasses was advantageous in terms of microbiological meat quality. Results indicated pooled water in the abattoir as the most hazardous vector for carcass contamination and that contaminants from this source are mostly Gram-negative pathogens. Pseudomonas and Shigella were frequently isolated from surface and air samples and indicated that the control of total plant hygiene is a requirement for producing ostrich meat that is safe to consume and has an acceptable shelf-life. PMID:21247040
George, Rhiannon; Rogers, Nick; Kelley, Simon
Tertiary magmatism in Ethiopia has been linked to the thermal influence of the Afar mantle plume. However, new laser 40Ar/39Ar ages for the volcanic succession in southern Ethiopia confirm the presence of two distinct magmatic phases at 45 35 Ma and 19 12 Ma. The earliest phase predates both extension and magmatism in northern Ethiopia by 15 m.y. and cannot be related to any simple model of melting in response to extension over a single mantle plume. We propose a model in which the Ethiopian province was initially related to the thermal influence of the Kenyan, and subsequently, the Afar mantle plume during northward movement of the African plate in the Tertiary. Support for this model comes from paleogeographic evidence that places southern Ethiopia ˜1000 km farther south than its current position during the early melting event at 45 Ma. Moreover, the rate of migration of the onset of magmatism from southern Ethiopia to Tanzania is similar to the rate of migration of the African plate over the same period. Comparable eruption rates in southern Ethiopia and Kenya further strengthen this link. In the light of this evidence, eruption rates ascribed to melting of the Afar mantle plume may be overestimated, which calls into question the potential for the Afar mantle plume to have had a significant effect on the biosphere.
Ewuim Sylvanus Chima
The pitfall trap was used in the study of the dipteran populations of an abattoir and a contiguous fallow plot, in relation to their relative abundance and distribution. A total number of 140 adult species of Synydas and Stomorhina cribrata, and 400 dipteran larvae were captured at the abattoir using pitfall techniques, with correspondingly fewer species of similar dipterans trapped at the contiguous fallow plot. Significant difference existed in the trapping of the Diptera larvae with more trapped at the abattoir than the fallow plot using Student t-test. There was also a preponderance of calliphorid species at the abattoir when the sweep net was used, with these species implicated as being potential pests of medical and forensic importance. The presence of Sarcophaga sp. and Fannia canicularis in the sweep net collection at the abattoir was also traced to the presence of decaying fall-offs from carcass. Other possible implications of the collected dipteran species at the abattoir and its vicinity were also discussed.
The Afar Triangle of Ethiopia (11.5N, 42.5E) is a very active plate tectonic region. The region is stressed by Saudi Arabia moving away from Africa and East Africa tearing itself away from the rest of Africa. Because of the plate movements in three different directions, The Afar Triangle is stretched thin and torn resulting in a series of faults seen as long parallel valleys. There is frequent volcanic activity and lava flows occur along the faults.
2 rounds of the national sample surveys, conducted by the central statistical office of Ethiopia during 1964-1967 and 1969-1971, provide the only comprehensive demographic data for the country and are the basis for this discussion of rural Ethiopia's population dynamics. The population of Ethiopia is predominantly rural. Agglomerations of 2000 and over inhabitants constitute about 14% of the population, and this indicates that Ethiopia has a low level of urbanization. In rural Ethiopia, international migration was negligent in the 1970's and the age structure can be assumed to be the results of past trends of fertility and mortality conditions. The reported crude birthrate (38.2), crude death rate (12.3) and infant mortality rate (90) of rural Ethiopia fall short of the averages for African countries. Prospects of population growth of rural Ethiopia would be immense. At the rate of natural increase of between 2.4 and 3.0% per annum, the population would double in 24-29 years. Regarding population issues, the programs of the National Democratic Revolution of Ethiopia faces the following main challenging problems: 1) carrying out national population censuses in order to obtain basic information for socialist planning; 2) minimizing or curtailing the existing high urban growth rates; 3) reducing rapidly growing population; and 5) mobilizing Ethiopian women to participate in the social, economic and political life of the country in order to create favorable conditions for future fertility reduction. PMID:12309869
Susuman, A Sathiya
Ethiopia’s childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussell’s methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia’s childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000). The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation. PMID:23113145
Uma, Sambath; Nair, Madhavan Gopalakrishnan; Varshney, Khub Chandra
The present study was carried out to record the occurrence of naturally occurring granulomas in cattle and buffaloes. Tissues grossly suspected for granulomas were collected from 336 out of 1600 (21%) abattoir cases. The gross features ranged from focal necrosis to large caseated masses, hard nodules, growths and abscesses. Histopathologically, 102 tissue samples (6.38%) were ascertained as granulomas. Majority of the granulomas were found in the liver 42 (41.18%), followed by lungs 22 (20.59%), lymph nodes 11 (10.78%), kidneys 6 (5.88%) and 14 (13.73%) as subcutaneous nodules/growths. Solitary cases were found in tongue, muscle, and urinary bladder, whereas 4 granulomas (3.92%) were found in body cavities. Based on the cellular component, the granulomas were categorized as epithelioid (53%), eosinophilic (37%) and suppurative (10%). Employing special staining techniques, the possible etiology of 75 granulomas could be identified. Among these, 70 granulomas (68.63%) were of infectious nature (parasitic 37 (36.28%), bacterial 32 (31.37%), and fungal 1(0.98%)). Non-infectious granulomas 5 cases (4.90%) included two lipid granulomas (1.96%), two granulomas (1.96%) associated with neoplasms and one (0.31%) associated with renal calculi. In 27 (26.47%) cases, the etiology of the granuloma could not be established and were categorized as granulomas of unknown etiology. PMID:23738114
Background Brucellosis is among the most widespread zoonotic infections estimated at 14% in Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the sero-prevalence, risk factors of Brucella infection and malaria among abattoir workers. Methods A survey was conducted among 232 abattoir workers in main abattoirs of Kampala and Mbarara districts in February 2007. A pre-tested questionnaire captured socio-demographic and occupational data. Brachial vein blood was tested for Brucella using Microplate Agglutination Test (MAT) and Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT) with a cut off titre of 1:160, and giemsa stained blood slides for malaria. Data was analyzed in SPSS 17.0. Results Seven males (3%, n?=?232) had malaria and dual brucella and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was found in one person. Brucella sero-positivity was 10% (95% CI 6 – 16; n?=?232) with 12% (n?=?161) in Kampala and 7% (n?=?71) in Mbarara district. Non-use of protective gear Odds ratio (OR 3.3, 95% CI (1.25 – 50) and working in the abattoir beyond 5 years OR 2.4 95% CI (1.4 – 5.6) were associated with increased risk of Brucella infection. Age, sex, religion, keeping animals and consumption of raw milk or products were not significant. Conclusions Brucella infection is a real risk among abattoir workers and use of full protective gear reduced risk significantly. Sensitization and public health care programs are needed to control this emerging problem. PMID:24079448
Background The transmission of malaria is the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. From the total area of Ethiopia, more than 75% is malarious. The aim of this study was to identify socio-economic, geographic and demographic risk factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT) survey results and produce the prevalence map of the area illustrating variation in malaria risk. Methods This study accounts for spatial correlation in assessing the effects of socio- economic, demographic and geographic factors on the prevalence of malaria in Ethiopia. A total of 224 clusters of about 25 households each were selected from the Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People’s (SNNP) regions of Ethiopia. A generalized linear mixed model with spatial covariance structure was used to analyse the data where the response variable was the presence or absence of malaria using the RDT. Results The results showed that households in the SNNP region were found to be at more risk than Amhara and Oromiya regions. Moreover, households which have toilet facilities clean drinking water, and a greater number of rooms and mosquito nets in the rooms, have less chance of having household members testing positive for RDT. Moreover, from this study, it can be suggested that incorporating spatial variability is necessary for understanding and devising the most appropriate strategies to reduce the risk of malaria. PMID:23773317
G. Abraham; Z. Roman; A. Berhan; A. Huluagerish
Rinderpest, a viral disease of mainly cattle and bu¡aloes, has been associated with signi¢cant numbers of deaths of cattle which have a¡ected the rural economy and contributed to the general poverty, mass starvation and subsequent famine in Ethiopia. The ¢rst epidemics of the disease entered the coastal region of Ethiopia, now Eritrea, in 1887 during the major outbreaks that a¡ected
Background Abattoir condemnations may play an important role in a food animal syndromic surveillance system. Portion condemnation data may be particularly useful, as these data can provide more specific information on health outcomes than whole carcass condemnation data. Various seasonal, secular, disease, and non-disease factors have been previously identified to be associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in Ontario provincial abattoirs; and if ignored, may bias the results of quantitative disease surveillance methods. The objective of this study was to identify various seasonal, secular, and abattoir characteristic factors that may be associated with bovine portion condemnation rates and compare how these variables may differ from previously identified factors associated with bovine whole carcass condemnation rates. Results Data were collected from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) and the Ontario Cattlemen’s Association regarding “parasitic liver” and pneumonic lung condemnation rates for different cattle classes, abattoir compliance ratings, and the monthly sales-yard price for commodity classes from 2001-2007. To control for clustering by abattoirs, multi-level Poisson modeling was used to investigate the association between the following variables and “parasitic liver” as well as pneumonic lung condemnation rates: year, season, annual abattoir audit rating, geographic region, annual abattoir operating time, annual total number of animals processed, animal class, and commodity sales price. Conclusions In this study, “parasitic liver” condemnation rates were associated with year, season, animal class, audit rating, and region. Pneumonic lung condemnation rates were associated with year, season, animal class, region, audit rating, number of cattle processed per year, and number of weeks abattoirs processed cattle. Unlike previous models based on whole carcass condemnations, commodity price was not associated with partial condemnations in this study. The results identified material-specific predictor variables for condemnation rates. This is important for syndromic surveillance based on abattoir data and should be modeled and controlled for during quantitative surveillance analysis on a portion specific basis. PMID:22726722
Almost all major development problems in Ethiopia are water-related: food insecurity, low economic development, recurrent droughts, disastrous floods, poor health conditions, and low energy condition. In order to develop and manage existing water resources in a sustainable manner, knowledge is required about water availability, water quality, water demand in various sectors, and the impacts of water resource projects on health and the environment. The lack of ground-based data has been a major challenge for generating this knowledge. Current advances in remote sensing and computer simulation technology could provide alternative source of datasets. In this talk, I will present the challenges and opportunities in using remote sensing datasets and hydrological models in regions such as Africa where ground-based datasets are scarce.
Kebede, Legesse W.
There is a recent history of astronomical observations and space-related activities in Ethiopia, even though much of it is now abandoned. However, the proximity of the country to the equator, its extensive high plateaux which rise over 4,600 meters above sea level, as well as the dry weather conditions persistent in most of the regions in the country, make it one of the very few places in the world which can provide optimum sites for high-quality astronomical observations. Currently, an effort is being made to initiate basic space science education and research in the country. This is an effort of the Working Group in Space Sciences in Africa supported by the UNESCO Pilot African Academic Exchange (UPAAE) program, which pays the expenses for the training of academics at the facilities of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) in Cape Town, South Africa.
Bussert, Robert; Schrank, Eckart
Palynomorphs extracted from glacigenic sediments in Northern Ethiopia are latest Carboniferous-Early Permian in age. These sediments were hitherto thought to be either of Upper Ordovician or of Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age. The predominantly glaciolacustrine and glaciofluviatile sediments were deposited in glacial troughs and valleys that were eroded into Precambrian basement rocks and into Early Palaeozoic deposits, possibly equivalents of Upper Ordovician sediments in Eritrea. In the latest Carboniferous-Early Permian, glaciated uplands to the north of Ethiopia must have existed in Eritrea and/or in southern or central Saudi Arabia.
Jury, Mark R.; Funk, Chris
This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year?1 and downward trends in rainfall of ? 0.4 mm month?1 year?1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts.
Departing from the usual family planning education format in teenage counseling, the IPPF is funding youth centers providing contraception as well as education in Ethiopia, Kenya, Togo, Tunisia, and Turkey. The development concern is for a cost efficient and effective center with minimal criticism. 2 experimental Mexican models were used in the Ethiopian youth centers. Both models utilize young adult coordinators who supervise young promoters, however each operates differently. Mexican staff trained their African counterparts and a detailed project manual will be available soon. The Ethiopian youth centers utilizing NGO's and the private sector have been permitted freedom from central control. Alarming statistics include: 20.8% of pregnancies are teenaged; 20.8% of hospital reported abortions are teenaged; the contraceptive prevalence rate is 2%; population increased by 3% per year with the average children per woman of 7.5. Addis Ababa's youth project provides services to mostly zone 5 school aged adolescents who are informed and eager to purchase condoms, although they are not able to purchase them commercially. Revolutionary Ethiopian Youth Association (REYA) with its 200,000 membership, is increasing its contribution to expanding the network of promoters. Promoters are used to register those receiving free condoms, but the recommendation to cease this practice of registration is in, and replace it with the sale of 50 US cents per condom. PMID:12283767
Eden, J. M.; Widmann, M.; Wild, S.; Evans, G. R.; Hughes, J. G.
In Ethiopia and other parts of East Africa, interannual variability of seasonal precipitation is dependent on variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation on both regional and global scales. The majority of research into large-scale atmospheric controls and predictability has focused on the heavier summer rains and the establishment of links to large-scale modes of climate variability such as ENSO. By contrast, relatively little work has focused on the potential for predictability of rainfall during the spring months, which is of great importance to much of southern Ethiopia. Additionally, failure of the spring rains may have important agricultural implications, particularly for crops requiring the full extent of the spring-summer growing season. Here, we analyse the links between Pacific SST and precipitation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for a century-long period (1900-2004). A tripole correlation pattern between spring precipitation and SST is found in the Pacific basin. We develop regression-based models to estimate spring precipitation from Pacific SST with a lead time of 2-3 months. When subject to a rigorous cross-validation, models based on principal component multiple linear regression (PC-MLR) calibrated on Pacific SST during December show good skill in reproducing observed temporal variability in Addis Ababa precipitation during February (r = 0.48) and March (r = 0.40), and the period spanning February to April (r = 0.44). Reconstructed precipitation is correlated with temperature and specific humidity in the surrounding region; estimates of heavy spring precipitation are associated with anomalously warm, moist conditions across the western Indian Ocean. Our findings suggest that inclusion of Pacific SST in predictive models may benefit drought forecasting across Ethiopia. The relationships identified provide a potential basis for forecasting models for spring rainfall and further analysis may focus on drought forecasting using ROC and RPSS validation scores.
Ahsan, Murshidul; Hasan, Badrul; Algotsson, Magnus; Sarenbo, Sirkku
The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) allows rope casting and the tying of legs for nonhuman animal slaughter without stunning. The handling and welfare of bovine livestock (Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis) were studied in 8 local abattoirs in 5 districts of Bangladesh. A total of 302 animals were evaluated. At the local abattoirs, approximately 1/3 of the cattle and water buffalo were either emaciated or injured/sick. The size and vigor of the animals determined the casting method. Small and weak animals were cast on concrete floors by lifting a foreleg followed by pushing, or simply by twisting the head of the animal and then binding the legs with rope. Vigorous animals such as buffalo were cast using ropes and human force. Bleeding was slow and flaying was sometimes initiated before the animals were unconscious. Pulling and tearing of the trachea and pouring of water into the exposed trachea shortly after cutting were also observed in some cases. The overall animal handling was unnecessarily rough and the OIE standards were not implemented. Animals are subjected to considerable mistreatment, and there is an urgent need for the training and education of the staff in abattoirs concerning humane slaughtering practices as well as a need to build modern slaughtering plants in Bangladesh. PMID:24766081
Reyes, Maria M.; Taramona, Claudia P.; Saire-Mendoza, Mardeli; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Barron, Eduardo; Boufana, Belgees; Craig, Philip S.; Tello, Luis; Garcia, Hector H.; Santivañez, Saul J.
Echinococcus granulosus infections are a major public health problem in livestock-raising regions around the world. The life cycle of this tapeworm is sustained between dogs (definitive host, canine echinococcosis), and herbivores (intermediary host, cystic hydatid disease). Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru; nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically unknown. Migration into Lima, an 8-million habitant's metropolis, creates peripheral areas where animals brought from endemic areas are slaughtered without veterinary supervision. We identified eight informal, unlicensed abattoirs in a peripheral district of Lima and performed a cross-sectional study in to assess the prevalence of canine echinococcosis, evaluated by coproELISA followed by PCR evaluation and arecoline purge. Eight of 22 dogs (36%) were positive to coproELISA, and four (18%) were confirmed to be infected with E. granulosus tapeworms either by PCR or direct observation (purge). Later evaluation of the human population living in these abattoirs using abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays and serology, found 3 out of 32 (9.3%) subjects with echinococcal cysts in the liver (two viable, one calcified), one of whom had also lung involvement and a strongly positive antibody response. Autochthonous transmission of E. granulosus is present in Lima. Informal, unlicensed abattoirs may be sources of infection to neighbouring people in this urban environment. PMID:22509413
World Education Reports, 1976
An innovative pilot program, the Integrated Family Life Education project in Ethiopia is a comprehensive educational effort involving underlying principles of: integration, involvement, cooperation, documentation, acceptability, and manageability. The program is helping to bring about significant changes in the health, nutrition, and economic…
Casale, Carolyn Frances
Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…
Scherrer, D. K.; Moldwin, M.; Rabella-Soares, M.; Reiff, P.; Sumners, C.; Yizengaw, E.
Africa needs to develop a space physics research structure, and a key goal of the United Nations-sponsored International Heliophysical Year (IHY) is to provide support to those efforts. One key focus of IHY is the deployment of networks of small instruments to encourage development of space science research and educational infrastructures in developing nations. In addition to new scientific discoveries and advancing space science research in Africa by establishing scientific collaborations between scientists in developed and developing nations, an IHY objective is to increase the number of space scientists and increase the scientific awareness about the importance of the space science In order to develop space science research infrastructure, space science educational infrastructure also needs to be developed to support the long-term operation and use of the science instrumentation. Developing nations need to develop the necessary training and encouragement of students to enter and excel in scientific fields. In response to these needs, the authors, working under the auspices of the AGU Space Physics and Aeronomy Education and Public Outreach (SPA EPO) Committee, organized a Geophysics Information for Teachers (GIFT) workshop for Ethiopian high school physics educators on 10 November 2007 in Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia. The workshop, held in conjunction with the IHY-Africa Space Weather Science and Education Workshop, gathered together 62 high school physics teachers from around the country for a one-day professional development program that focused on fundamental physics concepts relevant to space weather. Our presentation will describe the workshop, the challenges of launching such a program, and present results from the assessment surveys taken by teachers at the end of the workshop.
Chowdhury, G. G.; Tadesse, Taye T.
Analyzes student dissertations at the School of Information Studies for Africa (SISA) at Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia) in order to present an overview of the library and information systems and services available in seven eastern and southern African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. (Author/LRW)
Background Ontario provincial abattoirs have the potential to be important sources of syndromic surveillance data for emerging diseases of concern to animal health, public health and food safety. The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe provincially inspected abattoirs processing cattle in Ontario in terms of the number of abattoirs, the number of weeks abattoirs process cattle, geographical distribution, types of whole carcass condemnations reported, and the distance animals are shipped for slaughter; and (2) identify various seasonal, secular, disease and non-disease factors that might bias the results of quantitative methods, such as cluster detection methods, used for food animal syndromic surveillance. Results Data were collected from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs and the Ontario Cattlemen's Association regarding whole carcass condemnation rates for cattle animal classes, abattoir compliance ratings, and the monthly sales-yard price for various cattle classes from 2001-2007. To analyze the association between condemnation rates and potential explanatory variables including abattoir characteristics, season, year and commodity price, as well as animal class, negative binomial regression models were fit using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to account for autocorrelation among observations from the same abattoir. Results of the fitted model found animal class, year, season, price, and audit rating are associated with condemnation rates in Ontario abattoirs. In addition, a subset of data was used to estimate the average distance cattle are shipped to Ontario provincial abattoirs. The median distance from the farm to the abattoir was approximately 82 km, and 75% of cattle were shipped less than 100 km. Conclusions The results suggest that secular and seasonal trends, as well as some non-disease factors will need to be corrected for when applying quantitative methods for syndromic surveillance involving these data. This study also demonstrated that animals shipped to Ontario provincial abattoirs come from relatively local farms, which is important when considering the use of spatial surveillance methods for these data. PMID:20704738
The severity and temporal dynamics of anthracnose on susceptible (BTx623 and AL70) and resistant lines (2001PWColl#022 and 2001HararghieColl#12) were studied in field plots during the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in southern Ethiopia. The initial, final, and mean anthracnose severities and area un...
This week's In the News takes a look at the renewed fighting in the border war between Ethiopia and Eritrea. The eleven resources discussed provide news, analysis, and commentary. Horn of Africa neighbors Ethiopia and Eritrea were a single nation until May 1993, when Eritrea achieved sovereignty and seceded from Ethiopia after a protracted war of independence that lasted nearly thirty years. Eritrea, a nation of 3.6 million located on the Red Sea, was a former Italian colony (1890-1941) that was put under British administration during World War II, federated as an autonomous unit by Ethiopia in 1952, and then finally absorbed by the Ethiopian empire in 1962. Since Eritrea's independence from Ethiopia in 1993, the two nations have disputed the demarcation of their 620-mile shared boundary, which was ostensibly delimited earlier this century in a series of treaties between the Imperial Government of Ethiopia and the Italian colonial government in Eritrea. Despite recent bilateral attempts to delineate the former colonial divide, a joint border commission has failed to settle the dispute. This on-going border conflict, compounded by severe economic tensions between the two states, erupted into war when Ethiopian and Eritrean forces clashed on May 6, 1998, in the Ethiopian-administered region of Badme. The skirmish resulted in about five weeks of fierce battle that ended last June with an unofficial peace plan brokered by the US and Rwanda. However, on February 6, the tenuous seven month stalemate snapped as heavy fighting re-ignited at several flashpoints along the contested border where both countries had amassed troops. Last weekend amid continued fighting, a delegation from the European Union failed to reach a cease-fire agreement between Eritrean President Isayas Afewerki and Ethiopian Foreign Minister Seyoum Mesfin. The unsuccessful proposal, based on a framework drafted by the Organization of African Unity, called for Eritrea to concede its current positions and return to the territory it held before the border conflict last May. As military involvement between the two countries escalates, the EU, the OAU, and the United Nations Security Council promise to re-initiate the mediation process as soon as possible before the Horn War further destabilizes east Africa.
Schonveld, Ben; Mejia, Fernando
This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the nation of Ethiopia. The report's introduction asserts that despite the considerable lip service being paid by Ethiopia's…
Gumi, Balako; Schelling, Esther; Berg, Stefan; Firdessa, Rebuma; Erenso, Girume; Mekonnen, Wondale; Hailu, Elena; Melese, Ermias; Hussein, Jemal; Aseffa, Abraham; Zinsstag, Jakob
Despite huge global efforts in tuberculosis (TB) control, pastoral areas remain under-investigated. During two years sputum and fine needle aspirate (FNA) specimens were collected from 260 Ethiopian pastoralists of Oromia and Somali Regional States with suspected pulmonary TB and from 32 cases with suspected TB lymphadenitis. In parallel, 207 suspected tuberculous lesions were collected from cattle, camels and goats at abattoirs. All specimens were processed and cultured for mycobacteria; samples with acid-fast stained bacilli (AFB) were further characterized by molecular methods including genus and deletion typing as well as spoligotyping. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were sequenced at the 16S rDNA locus. Culturing of AFB from human sputum and FNA samples gave a yield of 174 (67%) and 9 (28%) isolates, respectively. Molecular typing was performed on 173 of these isolates and 160 were confirmed as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, three as M. bovis, and the remaining 10 were typed as NTMs. Similarly, 48 AFB isolates (23%) yielded from tuberculous lesions of livestock, of which 39 were molecular typed, including 24 M. bovis and 4 NTMs from cattle, 1 M. tuberculosis and 1 NTM from camels and 9 NTMs from goats. Isolation of M. bovis from humans and M. tuberculosis from livestock suggests transmission between livestock and humans in the pastoral areas of South-East Ethiopia. PMID:22526748
Moschonas, G; Bolton, D J; McDowell, D A; Sheridan, J J
This study identified 431 psychrophilic or psychrotrophic isolates from commercial Irish beef abattoir environments and "blown packs" of vacuum-packed beef, using PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing, and estimated their intraspecies genetic diversity using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and spacer region PCR (SR-PCR). Twenty-five species were identified in the 431 isolates, with the most frequently recovered species being Clostridium gasigenes (n=315), Clostridium estertheticum (n=17), and a potentially novel species designated strain TC1 (n=52). These species were previously found to be associated with a particular type of spoilage known as blown-pack spoilage (BPS), which occurs in chilled-stored (i.e., -1.5°C to 4°C) vacuum-packaged meat within 2 to 4 weeks and involves the production of large volumes of gas. Overall, the study demonstrates the considerable and not previously reported diversity of the anaerobic microflora in abattoirs and the presence of a wide range of organisms capable of causing BPS at chilled temperatures. PMID:21498765
Moschonas, G.; Bolton, D. J.; McDowell, D. A.; Sheridan, J. J.
This study identified 431 psychrophilic or psychrotrophic isolates from commercial Irish beef abattoir environments and “blown packs” of vacuum-packed beef, using PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing, and estimated their intraspecies genetic diversity using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and spacer region PCR (SR-PCR). Twenty-five species were identified in the 431 isolates, with the most frequently recovered species being Clostridium gasigenes (n = 315), Clostridium estertheticum (n = 17), and a potentially novel species designated strain TC1 (n = 52). These species were previously found to be associated with a particular type of spoilage known as blown-pack spoilage (BPS), which occurs in chilled-stored (i.e., ?1.5°C to 4°C) vacuum-packaged meat within 2 to 4 weeks and involves the production of large volumes of gas. Overall, the study demonstrates the considerable and not previously reported diversity of the anaerobic microflora in abattoirs and the presence of a wide range of organisms capable of causing BPS at chilled temperatures. PMID:21498765
Koenraad, P M; Jacobs-Reitsma, W F; Van der Laan, T; Beumer, R R; Rombouts, F M
In this study, the in vitro susceptibility of 209 campylobacter strains to the quinolones nalidixic acid, flumequine, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and to ampicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin was tested by the disk diffusion method. The strains were isolated from poultry abattoir effluent (DWA) and two sewage purification plants (SPA and SPB). Sewage purification plant SPA received mixed sewage, including that from a poultry abattoir, whereas SPB did not receive sewage from any meat-processing industry. The quinolone resistance of the DWA isolates ranged from 28% for enrofloxacin to 50% for nalidixic acid. The strains isolated from the sewage purification plants were more susceptible to the quinolones with a range of 11-18% quinolone resistance for SPB isolates to 17-33% quinolone resistance for SPA isolates. The susceptibility criteria as recommended by National Committee Clinical Laboratory Standards (USA) cannot readily be employed for campylobacter isolates. This investigation shows that the resistance of campylobacter bacteria is highest in the plant receiving sewage from a poultry slaughterhouse. Monitoring of antibiotic resistance of aquatic Campylobacter spp. is important, as surface waters are recognized as possible sources of infection. PMID:8557079
Sahraoui, Naima; Müller, Borna; Guetarni, Djamel; Boulahbal, Fadéla; Yala, Djamel; Ouzrout, Rachid; Berg, Stefan; Smith, Noel H; Zinsstag, Jakob
Background Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods. Results Altogether, 101 bacterial strains from 100 animals were subjected to molecular characterization. M. bovis was isolated from 88 animals. Other bacteria isolated included one strain of M. caprae, four Rhodococcus equi strains, three Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) and five strains of other bacterial species. The M. bovis strains isolated showed 22 different spoligotype patterns; four of them had not been previously reported. The majority of M. bovis strains (89%) showed spoligotype patterns that were previously observed in strains from European cattle. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing supported a link between M. bovis strains from Algeria and France. One spoligotype pattern has also been shown to be frequent in M. bovis strains from Mali although the VNTR pattern of the Algerian strains differed from the Malian strains. Conclusion M. bovis infections account for a high amount of granulomatous lesions detected in Algerian slaughter cattle during standard meat inspection at Algiers and Blida abattoir. Molecular typing results suggested a link between Algerian and European strains of M. bovis. PMID:19173726
Recent research has indicated that the holding pens of swine abattoirs may be an important source of Salmonella infection in swine entering the food chain. The risk posed by this Salmonella source is difficult to gauge because little work has been done on how to properly measure the amounts of Salm...
Sissay, Menkir M; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J
A study on the prevalence and seasonal incidence of cestode parasite infections of sheep and goats was carried out in eastern Ethiopia for 2 years (May 2003-April 2005). During this period, viscera including liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and the gastro-intestinal tract were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at four abattoirs located in the towns of Haramaya, Harar, Dire Dawa and Jijiga. At the abattoirs the abdominal, thoracic and pelvic cavities as well as the muscle surfaces of all animals were visually examined for the presence of larval (cystic) stages of cestode parasites. The viscera were transported within 24 h to the parasitology laboratory of Haramaya University and were examined for larval and adult cestodes following standard procedures. The most prevalent metacestodes (larval cestodes) were Cysticercus ovis (Taenia ovis), Cysticercus tenuicollis (T. hydatigena) and hydatid cysts (Echinococcus granulosus). In sheep, the overall prevalence was 26% for C. ovis, 79% for C. tenuicollis, and 68% for hydatid cysts. Similarly, for goats, the corresponding prevalence was 22%, 53% and 65%, respectively. The difference between sheep and goats in prevalence of C. tenuicollis was significant. The high prevalence of hydatid cysts in both sheep and goats indicates that cystic echinococcosis/hydatidosis is a public health problem in these regions which requires implementation of control measures, including public health education, strict meat inspection and control of stray dogs. The results of the survey also implies that infections of small ruminants with these metacestodes are responsible for condemnation of substantial quantities of affected organs and muscles and therefore of direct economic importance. Intestinal infections with adult tapeworms of Moniezia expansa, Avitellina centripunctata and Stilesia globipunctata, and bile duct infections with Stilesia hepatica were also common in both sheep and goats. In sheep, the overall prevalence of these tapeworms were 61%, 20%, 24% and 39%, respectively. Similarly, the overall prevalence of these parasites in goats was 53%, 21%, 27% and 36%, respectively. PMID:18575964
Fang, F; Collins-Emerson, J M; Cullum, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J
A cross-sectional study was carried out on sheep and cattle slaughtered at a New Zealand abattoir from September to November 2010 to investigate the supplier-specific shedding rate, renal carriage rate and seroprevalence of leptospires. In the 2008/2009 season, this abattoir experienced three human leptospirosis cases from 20 staff, of which two were hospitalized. Urine, kidney and blood samples were collected from carcasses of 399 sheep (six suppliers, 17 slaughter lines) and 146 cattle (three suppliers, 22 slaughter lines). The urine and kidney samples were tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), while serum samples (from coagulated blood samples) were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In total, 27% (73/274; 95% CI: 18-37) of urine samples tested positive by qPCR. Species-specific shedding rates (prevalence of positive urine qPCR) were 31% (95% CI: 17-48) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 14-30) for cattle. For 545 kidney samples tested, 145 were qPCR positive (27%; 95% CI: 17-39). The average prevalence of kidney qPCR positivity was 29% (95% CI: 17-45) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 15-28) for cattle. Three hundred and thirty of 542 sampled sheep and cattle had antibodies against Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjobovis (Hardjobovis) and/or Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona), based on reciprocal MAT titre ?1 : 48 (overall seroprevalence of 61%; 95% CI: 48-73). Seroprevalence was 57% (95% CI: 40-72) for sheep and 73% (95% CI: 59-83) for cattle. Among the seropositive animals, 41% (70/170; 95% CI: 30-54) were shedding (tested positive by urine qPCR) and 42% (137/330; 95% CI: 30-54) had renal carriage (tested positive by kidney qPCR). Some risk management options for abattoirs or farms to prevent human leptospirosis infections include vaccination of maintenance hosts, the use of personal protective equipment, and the application of urine qPCR to detect shedding status of stock as surveillance and as an alert. PMID:25043226
P. Courtright; D. Haile; E. Kohls
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were (1) to review inpatient burn records of Attat Hospital (Ethiopia) for the years 1983-1989, and (2) to determine the prevalence of burns and knowledge of first aid for burns in 16 communities served by Attat Hospital in rural Ethiopia. DESIGN--A retrospective review of all records was used to describe characteristics of the inpatient with burns and
Laurie C. Miller; Beverly Tseng; Linda G. Tirella; Wilma Chan; Emily Feig
Objectives Since 2000, American families have adopted 1,700 children from Ethiopia. Little is known about the health and development\\u000a of these children. Patients and Methods Retrospective chart review of the arrival health status of all 50 (26F:24M) children from Ethiopia\\/Eritrea seen in the International\\u000a Adoption Clinic. Results Prior to adoption, most children resided with relatives; 36% were >18 months old prior
Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn
Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253
Keskes, Sajiâa; Hmaied, Fatma; Gannoun, Hana; Bouallagui, Hassib; Godon, Jean Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar
The performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) has been investigated for abattoir wastewater (AW) treatment. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of permeate has not exceeded 25 mg L(-1) providing an average COD removal of 98%. Microbiological analysis showed that the SMBR has allowed a complete removal of fecal coliforms, Listeria and Salmonella. A significant reduction in the excess biomass production was also observed. In fact, the yield of biomass production (Yobs) ranged between 0 and 0.106 g suspended solids/g COD removed. The study of the dynamic of bacterial communities using the single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method showed a significant change in the population structure and revealed a correlation between the sludge production yield and the bacterial communities. PMID:22055096
Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi; Naidu, Ravi
This study evaluated the effect of alkaline industrial by-products such as flyash (FA) and redmud (RM) on phosphorus (P) mobilisation in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils, using incubation, leaching and plant growth (Napier grass [Pennisetum purpureum]) experiments. The soil outside the wastewater irrigated area was also collected and treated with inorganic (KH2PO4 [PP]) and organic (poultry manure [PM]) P treatments, to study the effect of FA and RM on P mobilisation using plant growth experiment. Among the amendments, FA showed the highest increase in Olsen P, oxalic acid content and phosphatase activity. The highest increase in Olsen P for PM treated non-irrigated soils showed the ability of FA and RM in mobilising organic P better than inorganic P (PP). There was over 85 % increase in oxalic acid content in the plant growth soils compared to the incubated soil, showing the effect of Napier grass in the exudation of oxalic acid. Both amendments (FA and RM) showed an increase in phosphatase activity at over 90 % at the end of the 5-week incubation period. The leaching experiment indicated a decrease in water soluble P thereby ensuring the role of FA and RM in minimising P loss to water bodies. FA and RM showed an increase in plant biomass for all treatments, where FA amended soil showed the highest increase as evident from FA's effect on Olsen P. Therefore, the use of FA and RM mobilised P in abattoir wastewater irrigated soils and increased biomass production of Napier grass plants through root exudation of oxalic acid. PMID:24862480
Biffa, Demelash; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Godfroid, Jacques; Muwonge, Adrian; Skjerve, Eystein; Djønne, Berit
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) remains a major threat to animal and human health, and obstructs international and inter-regional livestock trade in Ethiopia. Many aspects of epidemiology of BTB and its causative agent, Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) are not well known. Aims of the study were to elucidate molecular characteristics of M. bovis strains using MLVA typing method. Further aim was to determine infection pressure associated with occurrence of multiple genotypes in individual infected cattle. Data and samples were collected in the period July 2006-January 2007 in cattle slaughtered at five representative abattoirs across the country. Molecular investigation of the isolates was carried out using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) of 28 variable numbers of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci, and the results were compared to spoligotyping. This study is believed to contribute to the knowledge of molecular genetics and epidemiology of M. bovis in Ethiopia and elsewhere with similar BTB epidemic situation and livestock production settings. Four-hundred and six tissue samples from 337 carcasses revealing gross pathologic lesions compatible with BTB were collected from five abattoirs. Fifty-eight isolates obtained from cultured samples were subjected to region of difference (RD) analysis and MLVA typing. RD confirmed all isolates as being M. bovis. MLVA revealed a high heterogeneity of M. bovis (19 genotypes) and the discriminatory power of MLVA was higher than for spoligotyping (Hunter-Gaston Diversity Index (HGDI) 0.92 vs. 0.82). Adoption of the nine VNTR loci with ?3 alleles provided good differentiation between the isolates. However, differentiation was optimized when MLVA was combined with spoligotyping (HGDI=0.99). MLVA confirmed infections with multiple genotypes in 38.5% (10/26) of individual animals. In conclusion, the usefulness of MLVA for genotyping M. bovis in high prevalence settings was demonstrated. BTB in Ethiopia is caused by heterogeneous populations of M. bovis and individual carcasses were often infected with different genotypes, indicating a high infection pressure perhaps related to the absence of protective immunity conferred by infection. PMID:24480051
Spescha, C; Stephan, R; Zweifel, C
At sequential steps of slaughter (scalding, dehairing, singeing, polishing, trimming, washing, and chilling), 200 pig carcasses from two abattoirs were examined for total viable bacteria count (TVC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CPS) by the wet-dry double-swab technique at the neck, belly, back, and ham. Before scalding, mean TVCs ranged from 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU cm(-2), and Enterobacteriaceae and CPS were detected on all carcasses. At abattoir A, mean TVCs and the percentage of Enterobacteriaceae-positive carcasses were reduced (P < 0.05) after scalding (1.9 log CFU cm(-2) and 12%, respectively), singeing (1.9 log CFU cm(-2) and 66%, respectively), and blast chilling (2.3 log CFU cm(-2) and 17%, respectively) and increased (P < 0.05) after dehairing (3.4 log CFU cm(-2) and 100%, respectively) and polishing (2.9 log CFU cm(-2)). The proportion of CPS-positive samples decreased to < or = 10% after scalding and remained at this level. At abattoir B, mean TVCs and the percentages of Enterobacteriaceae- and CPS-positive carcasses were reduced (P < 0.05) after scalding (2.4 log CFU cm(-2) and 29 and 20%, respectively), polishing (3.7 log CFU cm(-2)), and chilling (2.6 log CFU cm(-2) and 55 and 77%, respectively) and increased (P < 0.05) after the combined dehairing-singeing (4.7 log CFU cm(-2) and 97 and 100%, respectively). Among sites, the neck tended to yield higher levels of contamination from trimming to chilling at both abattoirs (P < 0.05). Consequently, scalding, singeing, and chilling may be integrated in a hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system for pig slaughter. As indicated by the higher levels of contamination on carcasses after dehairing-singeing and the following stages at abattoir B, each abattoir should develop its own baseline data and should customize HACCP systems to match process- and site-specific circumstances. PMID:17133797
Funk, Chris; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon
This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.
Lee, Michael R F; Scott, Mark B; Veberg-Dahl, Annette; Evans, Phil R; Theobald, Vince J; Lundby, Frank; Scollan, Nigel D; Wold, Jens-Petter
The use of fecal fluorescence to improve detection of contamination of carcasses in the abattoir was previously reported. However, incidents of false negatives can result when animals are offered diets that contain little chlorophyll (e.g., concentrate). Here, we investigated the potential of incorporating a high-chlorophyll-containing feed ingredient (concentrated alfalfa extract; CAE) into the diets of sheep and cattle to improve fecal fluorescence intensity. The sheep experiment evaluated the fecal fluorescence of animals from pasture, when fed a concentrate-barley straw diet and when the concentrate diet incorporated CAE (100 g of dry matter a day). Fecal chlorophyll and metabolite content was highest on the pasture-fed animals and increased significantly over the concentrate diet when CAE was included. Subsequently fluorescent intensity was increased from 15,000 to 36,000 arbitrary units for concentrate and CAE-concentrate diets, respectively, compared with 59,000 for the pasture-fed animals. The cattle experiment investigated the potential of CAE to improve fluorescence of feces from a concentrate diet as well as a silage diet at two levels of incorporation (75 and 150 g CAE/kg of dry matter intake). This study also determined the fluorescence of digesta and carcass contamination in the abattoir on a subset of carcasses. In agreement with the sheep study, CAE significantly improved fluorescence of feces and digesta when added to a concentrate diet, but had little effect on improving fecal fluorescence from the silage-fed animals. This was thought to be related to greater chlorophyll degradation in the rumen or/and the dark nature of the silage feces acting as a quencher of emitted fluoresced light. Incorporating high-chlorophyll-containing plant ingredients into ruminant concentrate diets will improve detection of fecal contamination by reducing false-negative readings. However, they will have little effect on false-positive readings due to the range of wavelengths emitted by natural chlorophyll and its metabolites. Implications and potential solutions for this are discussed. PMID:23462091
Asmare, Kassahun; Krontveit, Randi I; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein
This meta-analysis estimates a single-group summary (effect size) for seroprevalence of Brucella spp. exposure in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. It also attempts to identify study-level variables that could explain the variation in apparent seroprevalence. The literature search was restricted to studies published in English language from January 2000 to December 2013. A template was designed to retrieve the most biologically plausible and consistent variables from the articles. A total of 29 published papers containing 40 animal-level studies were used in the analyses. The single-group summary of Brucella seroprevalence in cattle was estimated to reach 3.3 % with 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.6-4.2 %). Of all the variables considered, region was the only specific factor identified to explain about 20 % of between-study variation. Accordingly, the region-based meta-analysis forest plot revealed the highest prevalence in central Ethiopia followed by southern part. The lowest prevalence estimate was observed in the western part of the country. The visual inspection of the funnel plot demonstrated the presence of possible publication bias which might dictate shortage of studies with higher prevalences or variance inflation due to infectiousness of Brucella. In conclusion, the quantitative review showed the seroprevalence to be low but widely distributed. More importantly, the review underscores the need for isolation and characterization of the circulating Brucella spp. to capture the type of Brucella spp. involved and its distribution in cattle in Ethiopia. PMID:25236935
The aim of this paper is to study the merits and the demerits of colonial boundaries in Africa by using the Ethiopia-Sudan boundary as a case study. The paper tries to examine how the existing boundary between the two countries came into being in the early 20th century. The present-day boundary between Ethiopia and Sudan is principally the result of
Coltorti, M.; Dramis, F.; Ollier, C. D.
Planation surfaces are an old-fashioned topic in geomorphology, but they are nevertheless important where they make up much of the landscape. Northern Ethiopia is largely a stepped topography, caused by differential erosion. Exhumation of old planation surfaces that were preserved under sedimentary or volcanic cover is an important process in landscape evolution. The oldest planation surface is of early Palaeozoic age (PS1); the second is Late Triassic (PS2); and the third is of Early Cretaceous age (PS3). The Oligocene Trap Volcanics buried a surface (PS4) of early Tertiary age, which is now widely exposed by erosion as a surface that, where flat enough, is an exhumed planation surface. The surfaces do not relate to the supposed Africa-wide pediplain sequence of King [King, L.C., 1975. Planation surfaces upon highlands. Z. Geomorph. NF 20 (2), 133-148.], either in mode of formation and age. Although the region is tropical, there is scarce evidence of deep weathering and few indications that the surfaces could be regarded as etchplains. These surfaces indicate that eastern Africa underwent long episodes of tectonic quiescence during which erosion processes were able to planate the surface at altitudes not too far from sea level. Only after the onset of rifting processes, uplift became active and transformed a vast lowland plain into the present Ethiopian highlands, largely exceeding 2500 m a.s.l. Some hypotheses and speculations on the genesis of these surfaces are considered here.
Cadmus, S I B; Adesokan, H K
Food animals though sources of protein and revenue to man, also serve as vehicles of disease transmission. This work reviews a three year record of slaughtered cattle in 12 abattoirs/slaughter slabs in western Nigeria to determine the economic and public health issues associated with their disease conditions. Out of 641,224 cattle slaughtered, 51,196 (7.98%) were attributable to 14 diseases/conditions including tuberculosis, pneumonia, fascioliasis, pimply gut, paramphistomosis, cysticercosis, dermatophilosis, tonsillitis, taeniasis, ascariosis, abscess, mange, mastitis and immature fetuses. Pneumonia (21.38%), fascioliasis (20.28%) and tuberculosis (7.95%) were major reasons for condemnations; least being ascariosis (0.01%). The lungs (45.66%) and liver (32.94%) accounted for most organ condemned while the heart (0.02%) was the least affected. The proportions of pneumonia, fascioliasis and immature fetuses observed were not statistically different (Mean = 3895.7; 3654.0; 3467.3); however, a significant difference existed with other conditions (Mean(A) = 3895.7; 3654.0; 3467.3; Mean(B) = 1359.7; 1057.7; 510.3). Organs/offal condemnations constituted loss of revenue and animal protein as 124,333 kilogrammes worth of meat valued in Naira at N41,613,043 ($332,904) was lost over the period giving an average of N13,871,014 ($110,968) annually. This, coupled with fetal wastage represented an economic loss; with associated public health implications. PMID:19333773
Sanchez-Vazquez, M J; Strachan, W D; Armstrong, D; Nielen, M; Gunn, G J
Pig health schemes based on abattoir inspections provide an integrated system to optimise the postmortem detection and the reporting of pathological lesions. In Great Britain, two initiatives have been implemented by the pig industry: Wholesome Pigs Scotland (WPS) and the BPEX Pig Health Scheme (BPHS). These schemes record the presence of a range of pathological lesions detected by means of detailed inspection of the pluck and the skin of the slaughtered pigs. The lesions are those associated with a reduction in performance traits or are indicators of animal welfare problems. This paper aims to provide an overview of the objectives behind the BPHS and their activities, outlining similarities and differences between WPS and BPHS on five main operational topics: the lesions monitored, the administration of the schemes, flow of the information, inspection strategies and the major idiosyncratic characteristics of the schemes. These initiatives inform individual producers and their veterinarians of the occurrence of pathological conditions affecting their pig herds. Additionally, they offer the added value of providing nationwide disease monitoring information and have the potential to be a useful surveillance tool for emerging and enzootic conditions. PMID:21881022
Khanjari, Ali; Bahonar, Alireza; Fallah, Sepideh; Bagheri, Mahboube; Alizadeh, Abbas; fallah, Marjan; Khanjari, Zahra
Objective The liver flukes, Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, infect ruminants and other mammalian extensively and cause major diseases of livestock that produce considerable economic losses. Methods A survey of 2391 sheep and goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Amol region, northern Iran was used to determine the prevalence of the liver flukes infection based on season, sex and specie of the animals. Results The results revealed that the prevalence rate of Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum was 6.6% and 4.3% respectively. Dicrocoeliosis was more dominant in female animals (7.1%) whereas there was no sex-related difference in the prevalence of Fasciola spp. in male and female animals. Furthermore, Fasciolosis was significantly more prevalent than dicrocoeliosis in both sheep and goats. The Seasonal prevalence of Fasciola spp. was highest (P<0.005) during spring (8.3%) followed in order by autumn (8.1%), winter (5.9%) and summer (4.0%) but Dicrocoeliosis did not follow any seasonal pattern. Conclusions According to this study, it can be concluded that Amol is regarded as an endemic region for Fasciola spp and D. dandriticum infection. Moreover, Fasciola spp. is the most widespread liver fluke found in sheep and goats which is more dominant in sheep than goats.
Sileshi Semaw; Scott W. Simpson; Jay Quade; Paul R. Renne; Robert F. Butler; William C. McIntosh; Naomi Levin; Manuel Dominguez-Rodrigo; Michael J. Rogers
Comparative biomolecular studies suggest that the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, lived during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Fossil evidence of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene hominid evolution is rare and limited to a few sites in Ethiopia, Kenya and Chad. Here we report new Early Pliocene hominid discoveries and their palaeoenvironmental context from the fossiliferous deposits
Szente, Judit; Hoot, James; Tadesse, Selamawit
This article informs readers about early childhood in one of the poorest nations in the world--Ethiopia. Within the context of ecological systems theory, it emphasizes the characteristics of early education programs such as pre-school and basic (primary) education, and creates connections with families' views about education. The article concludes…
An author relates memorable experiences of living in Ethiopia and describes how her brother's friendship with a poor boy in the city of Addis Ababa who cared for pigeons led to a children's book. Includes a descriptive list of books on pigeons, Africa, pets and wild animals, and cities, and a list of books by the author. (AEF)
Utah Univ., Salt Lake City.
Since June of 1962, the University of Utah, in cooperation with the United States Agency for International Development and the Ethiopian Government, has helped to build a faculty of education at the Haile Sellassie I University in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The assignment has included two projects. The first was for preparation of junior-secondary and…
Tadesse, Luche; Tafesse, Fikru; Hamamy, Hanan
The rates of congenital and genetic disorders in low and middle income countries are similar or might be higher than in high income countries due to a multitude of risk factors and the dearth of community genetic services. To direct effective preventive, diagnostic and counseling services, collecting data on the incidence and prevalence of various congenital and genetic disorders and their risk factors is a pre-requisite for establishing genetic services at the community level and mainly at the primary health care setting. This brief review is meant to assess the available epidemiological data in Ethiopia pertaining to congenital and genetic disorders on which the future community genetic services could be built. Existing epidemiological data on congenital and genetic disorders in Ethiopia is limited, and the few studies conducted revealed that folate and iodine deficiencies are prevalent among women in the reproductive age. Pregnant women's infection with syphilis and rubella is prevailing. Based on available data, cleft lip and palate, congenital heart diseases, club-foot, and gastro-intestinalmalformations are the most common birth defects in Ethiopia. Community based studies to accurately demonstrate the incidence and prevalence levels of these disorders are almost unavailable. To plan for organization and implementation of community genetic services at the primary health care level in Ethiopia, conducting standardized epidemiological studies is currently highly recommended. PMID:25404975
Hoot, James L.; Szente, Judit; Mebratu, Belete
Explored herein are historical roots of preschool through elementary grade education in the East Africa nation of Ethiopia. Also included are current difficult challenges to educational improvement as well as promising developments such as greater involvement of private institutions, organizations, and individuals in supporting Ministry of…
Summary This paper examines the health and nutritional status of Ethiopian families with a particular aim of investigating the differences between males and females and identifying the sources of these differences. In our sample of Enset-growing communities, gender roles seem to be quite separate. While both males and females engage in the cultivation and processing of Enset, males do most
Maluta, Renato Pariz; Fairbrother, John Morris; Stella, Ariel Eurides; Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; Martinez, Roberto; de Ávila, Fernando Antonio
Sheep harbor pathogenic Escherichia coli, which may cause severe disease in humans. In this study, the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) was examined in sheep feces and carcasses on three farms and at an abattoir in Brazil. The isolates were further characterized for the presence of markers recently associated with disease in humans, to investigate their possible origin and role as food-borne pathogens. At the abattoir, 99 carcass samples yielded two STEC and 10 EPEC isolates while 101 fecal samples yielded five EPEC and eight STEC isolates. On the other hand, on the farms, 202 samples yielded 44 STEC and eight EPEC isolates. The 77 isolates were typed by PFGE. Isolates with the same PFGE pattern and also those that were not restricted with XbaI were termed as "clones" (n=49). The isolates of any one clone mostly originated from the same sampling site. In addition, seven isolates encoded for novel Stx2 variants and five for Stx2e, the subtype related to porcine edema disease, which was for the first time isolated from sheep feces and carcasses. Also, three stx2-only isolates harbored genes of predicted Stx2 variants that were formed by A and B subunits of different types including Stx2a and Stx2d. The EPEC isolates were heterogeneous, 21 (91.3%) of them possessing efa1, ehxA, lpfAO113 or paa genes associated with diarrhea in humans. Thus, using markers recently associated with disease, we have demonstrated that E. coli similar to those pathogenic for humans are present in the sheep intestinal microflora, particularly at the abattoir, underlining the potential for food-borne transmission. PMID:24438985
Yibar, Artun; Selcuk, Ozgur; Senlik, Bayram
An abattoir survey was conducted from July 2012 to December 2012 to determine the major causes of organ and carcass condemnation and to estimate the associated direct financial loss at two abattoirs in Bursa Province in Turkey. A total of 22,872 sheeps and 5363 cattle were examined by postmortem inspection using standard inspection procedures. The total economic loss in two abattoirs was estimated from the summation of organ and carcass condemnation in six-month period. The retail prices of offal (lung, liver, kidney, heart, and spleen) and kg price of cattle and sheep carcasses were obtained from local markets. The results of postmortem examination indicated that a total of 658 (2.33%) offals and 93 (0.32%) carcasses were condemned. While the main causes of organ condemnation were hydatidosis and fasciolosis, carcasses were condemned mainly due to tuberculosis and jaundice. The total revenue in 2012 for all animals (164,080 sheeps and 56,035 cattle) slaughtered in 15 abattoirs in Bursa Province was 144,401,765 USD. This study showed that financial loss due to organ and carcass condemnations at two abattoirs in six-month period was 245,483 USD (0.17% of the total annual revenue of all slaughtered animals at 15 abattoirs). In sheep, six-month financial loss was estimated at 3281 USD and 4015 USD from organ condemnation due to fasciolosis and hydatidosis, respectively. In cattle, total loss was calculated as 4042 USD and 12,321 USD due to fasciolosis and hydatidosis, respectively. A common cause of carcass condemnation in cattle was tuberculosis, totalling 214,995 USD in losses, whereas condemnation due to tuberculosis was not determined in sheep. The current study also showed that six-month monetary losses from carcass condemnation of sheep and cattle due to jaundice were 8099 USD and 6026 USD, respectively. From the data obtained in this study, it can be concluded that bacterial and parasitic diseases remain common and cause considerable economic loss in Bursa Province, Turkey. The result of this abattoir study provided regional information on major causes of organ and carcass condemnation in sheep and cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs as well as giving an estimation of the direct financial losses. PMID:25481623
Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia. PMID:24885355
Phoenix, David A.
The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southern Ethiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.
Mège, Daniel; Purcell, Peter; Jourdan, Fred; Pochat, Stéphane
A new map of Tertiary volcanics occurrences in the Ogaden region of southeast Ethiopia and adjacent areas of Somalia has been prepared. Outcrop areas, mapped using satellite images and helicopter--supported field work in 2008, are more widespread than previously recognized, while magnetic and drill data reveal the vast subsurface extent of the magmatism. Several spectacular 'meandering' outcrops, over 100 km long, are undoubtedly exhumed canyon--filling flows and magnetic data show that many other apparently isolated outcrops are actually part of similar flows, the bulk of which are now subsurface. Age dating and well intersections show several volcanic episodes, with the major outpouring occurring across a broad peneplain in the Oligocene. Geological and aeromagnetic mapping, and 40Ar/39Ar age dating, reveal a dyke swarm extending SSE from the southern Afar margin more than 600 km across the Somali Plate, and coeval with dyke injection in the Red Sea rift at ~25 Ma. The Ogaden Dyke Swarm, which occurs in an area historically considered remote from the impact of the Afro--Arabian rifting and volcanism, appears associated with the Marda Fault and marks a zone of crustal dilation along the Red Sea trend across the Horn of Africa. Contemporaneous rifts, also trending WNW/ESE and over 120 km long, occur in NE Somalia, confirming the predominantly NE/SW--directed crustal stress regime in the Ogaden and adjacent region at this time.
Erta Ale volcano lies along the on-shore Red Sea Rift (northern Afar, Ethiopia), separating the Nubia and Danakil plates. Erta Ale has a NNW-SSE elongated caldera, with a subvertical rim scarp, hosting a lava lake. Structural field work was aimed at defining the deformation pattern around the caldera. The caldera consists of along-rim and across-rim structures, resulting from local and regional (maximum extension ˜NE-SW) stress fields, respectively. These structures cross-cut each other at high angles, suggesting that the two stress fields remain distinct, each prevailing during rifting or caldera collapse. The local along-rim extensional fractures are gravity-driven structures that formed due to the retreat of the caldera wall after collapse, and are confined to the region of caldera subsidence. The across-rim structures are mainly located to the N and S of the caldera, where they form rift zones each accommodating a similar amount of extension (˜6.3 m), but displaying different trends and extension directions. Analogue models of interacting fractures are consistent with the Southern Rift being representative of the regional fault kinematics, while the Northern Rift is a local perturbation, resulting from the interaction between two right-stepping rift segments along the Erta Ale Range.
Tanih, Nicoline F.; Sekwadi, Eunice; Ndip, Roland N.; Bessong, Pascal O.
Pathogenic food-borne bacteria have been associated with severe morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli present in cattle and pigs slaughtered in selected abattoirs in Vhembe District and at determining the susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics. A total of 176 swab samples (28 cattle and 16 pigs) of the rump, flank, brisket, and neck of the animals were analyzed using standard microbiological methods. E. coli isolates were genotyped to detect pathogenic strains. Of the 176 samples, 104 (67.5%) were positive for E. coli and 50 (32.5%) for S. aureus. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in the isolation rate from the different animal parts or abattoirs. Overall, 14/104 (13.46%) of the E. coli isolates were pathogenic strains which included enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (bfpA) 1.9%, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (LT) 3.8%, and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (aaiC) 7.6%. E. coli isolates were resistant (100%) to vancomycin and bacitracin. S. aureus (100%) were resistant to oxacillin and nalidixic acid. The presence of resistant strains of these bacteria in food of animal origin could serve as important vehicles transmitting these bacteria to humans. This finding is of epidemiological significance.
G. M. Sawyer; C. Oppenheimer; V. I. Tsanev; G. Yirgu
Here we report measurements of the chemical composition and flux of gas emitted from the central lava lake at Erta 'Ale volcano (Ethiopia) made on 15 October 2005. We determined an average SO2 flux of ?0.69±0.17 kg s?1 using zenith sky ultraviolet spectroscopy of the plume, and molar proportions of magmatic H2O, CO2, SO2, CO, HCl and HF gases to be
soils and plant tissues in Ethiopia. To determine the diversity of F. solani in Ethiopia, we studied 43 isolates using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) and nucleotide sequences of the Translation aggregated into one group corresponding to Clade 3. TEF-1, -tubulin and AFLPs further separated the Ethiopian
Kabiru, Lawan Mohammed; Bello, Mohammed; Kabir, Junaid; Grande, Laura; Morabito, Stefano
Pathogenic Escherichia coli can be released with the wastes coming from slaughterhouses into the environment, where they can persist. We investigated the presence of diarrheagenic E. coli in specimens taken at an abattoir located in the Zaria region, Nigeria, in samples of water from the river Koreye, where the effluent from the abattoir spills in, and vegetable specimens taken at a nearby farm. All the isolated E. coli were assayed for the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) by using the Ridascreen verotoxin Immunoassay and by PCR amplification of genes associated with the diarrheagenic E. coli. Three strains from the rectal content of two slaughtered animals and a cabbage were positive for the presence of the Stx-coding genes. Additionally we have isolated one Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC) from the abattoir effluent and two Subtilase-producing E. coli from the slaughterhouse’s effluent and a sample of carrots. Our results provide evidence that pathogenic E. coli can contaminate the environment as a result of the discharge into the environment of untreated abattoir effluent, representing a reservoir for STEC and other diarrheagenic E. coli favouring their spread to crops. PMID:25590145
Adelowo, Olawale Olufemi; Akinlabi, Ismail A; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel
The impact of Attenda abattoir, Ogbomoso southwestern Nigeria on four water sources was investigated using geoelectrical imaging and microbiological analysis. 2D electrical resistivity imaging indicated groundwater contamination by leachate from the abattoir. Electrical resistivity values measured by the traverse run directly on the waste dump and other areas impacted by the waste from the abattoir are generally very low (6.68-16.7 ?m) in comparison to other positions (135-288 ?m). The total viable bacteria count of the water samples ranged from 0.49 × 10(6) to 2.85 × 10(8) cfu/ml and all samples are contaminated with coliforms with the most probable number (MPN)/100 ml ranging from 110 to ? 1,600 MPN/100 ml. Among bacteria isolated from the study site (n = 95), resistance to eight antibiotics ranged from 35.8% to 94%. In addition, 85% of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 31) and Staphylococci (n = 9) showed haemolytic activity while 92% of all isolates showed ?-lactamase activity. These results suggest that operations of the abattoir may impact negatively on surrounding aquatic ecosystem and endanger the health of surrounding residents who use water from the wells for domestic purposes. Furthermore, such aquatic ecosystems may serve as reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. PMID:22105848
Zeleke, T. T.; Tsidu, G. M.; Giorgi, F.; Diro, G. T.
This study focuses on the analysis of dryness/wetness over Ethiopia from 1982 to 2009 using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which are derived from observational and RegCM4 dataset over Ethiopia. Trend empirical orthogonal function (TEOF), regression and wavelet analysis are used to investigate the long term change, frequency and intra-annual variability of drought over Ethiopia. All method analysis of PDSI and SPI are consistent and showed, the southern regions to be more drought-prone than other regions of Ethiopia and statistically significant dry trend are dominated in particular during the recent decade. By contrast, the likelihood of drought occurrence of northern regions is considerably less and dominated by low frequency signals. Both indices indicated that the North and Northwest regions experienced frequent and worst drought conditions centered at the year 1983/1984 and similar conditions centered at the year 2007-2009 over the southern and southwestern regions have been identified. The first two most dominant trend principal components (TPCs) of observational driven PDSI and SPI-12 with corresponding RegCM4 driven TPCs of PDSI and SPI-12 indicates significant correlations (correlation exceeding ~0.8). In addition, the corresponding patterns (TEOFs) of RegCM4 and observational driven drought indices are so similar. Generally, the RegCM4 shows a good performance in simulating the multi-scale spatial and temporal variability of drought occurrence over Ethiopia. The correlation pattern of trend principal components (TPCs) of PDSI and SPI-12 with raw sea surface temperature (SST) indicates that the possible association of the observed variability of drought. The equatorial pacific, the northern and equatorial Atlantic are correlated significantly with first dominant TPC of drought indices, whereas ENSO, Indian and Atlantic Ocean significantly correlated with the second dominant TPC of drought indices. In addition we observe the association between ocean basin and drought indices is highly seasonal dependant with the strongest association in the spring. The physical mechanisms responsible for such linkage in the atmosphere are examined using both ERA-Interim (ERIM) and RegCM4 dataset. Moreover, it was found that droughts occurred in events of strong El Niño years mainly severe and wider areal coverage. During events of negative values of Indian Ocean dipole (-IOD) the southern and west border regions of the country hit by severe drought. The northern and some part of Ethiopia during events of negative anomaly SST of North Atlantic suffered at a significant level by drought conditions. Overall, the common power variance, phase, frequency and confidence of the time-lagged relationships between oceanic basin TPC and drought indices TPCs indicate that oceanic parameters can be used as indicators of drought occurrence in Ethiopia.
Asil, El Tigani A; El Sanousi, Sulieman M; Gameel, Ahmed; El Beir, Haytham; Fathelrahman, Maha; Terab, Nasir M; Muaz, Magzoub A; Hamid, Mohamed E
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread zoonosis in developing countries but has received little attention in many sub-Saharan African countries including Sudan and particularly in some parts such as Darfur states. This study aimed to detect bovine tuberculosis among caseous materials of cattle slaughtered in abattoirs in South Darfur State, Sudan by using microscopic and PCR-based methods. The study was a cross-sectional abattoir-based study which examined a total of 6,680 bovine carcasses for caseous lesions in South Darfur State between 2007 and 2009. Collected specimens were examined for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by using microscopic and culture techniques. Isolated mycobacteria were identified by selected conventional cultural and biochemical tests in comparison to a single tube multiplex PCR (m-PCR) assay which detect Mycobacterium bovis-specific 168-bp amplicons. Of the total 6,680 slaughtered cattle examined in South Darfur, 400 (6 %) showed caseations restricted to lymph nodes (86.8 %) or generalized (13.2 %). Bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in 12 (0.18 %), bovine farcy in 59 (0.88 %), unidentified mycobacteria in 6 (0.09 %), and missed or contaminated cultures in 7 (0.1 %). Out of 18 cultures with nonbranching acid-fast rods, 12 amplified unique 168-bp sequence specific for M. bovis and subsequently confirmed as M. bovis. With the exception of the reference M. tuberculosis strains, none of the remaining AFB amplified the 337-bp amplicon specific for M. tuberculosis. It could be concluded that bovine tuberculosis is prevalent among cattle in South Darfur representing 4.5 % from all slaughtered cattle with caseous lesions. The study sustains microscopy as a useful and accessible technique for detecting AFB. m-PCR assay proved to be valuable for confirmation of BTB and its differentiation from other related mycobacteriosis, notably bovine farcy. PMID:22843216
Cheung, W.H.; Senay, G.B.; Singh, A.
As a country whose economy is heavily dependent on low-productivity rainfed agriculture, rainfall trends are often cited as one of the more important factors in explaining various socio-economic problems such as food insecurity. Therefore, in order to help policymakers and developers make more informed decisions, this study investigated the temporal dynamics of rainfall and its spatial distribution within Ethiopia. Changes in rainfall were examined using data from 134 stations in 13 watersheds between 1960 and 2002. The variability and trends in seasonal and annual rainfall were analysed at the watershed scale with data (1) from all available years, and (2) excluding years that lacked observations from at least 25% of the gauges. Similar anlyses were also performed at the gauge, regional, and national levels. By regressing annual watershed rainfall on time, results from the one-sample t-test show no significant changes in rainfall for any of the watersheds examined. However, in our regressions of seasonal rainfall averages against time, we found a significant decline in June to September rainfall (i.e. Kiremt) for the Baro-Akobo, Omo-Ghibe, Rift Valley, and Southern Blue Nile watersheds located in the southwestern and central parts of Ethiopia. While the gauge level analysis showed that certain gauge stations experienced recent changes in rainfall, these trends are not necessarily reflected at the watershed or regional levels. Copyright ?? 2008 Royal Meteorological Society.
Conway, Declan; Mould, Colin; Bewket, Woldeamlak
A detailed historical reconstruction and analysis is presented of the longest record of climate observations for Ethiopia, from 1898 to 2002 in Addis Ababa. Prior to 1951 the record comprises rainfall and minimum and maximum temperatures recorded in different locations by different observers. The rainfall series is complete except for 1899 and 1900, but the temperature series are very incomplete. Using documentary evidence, we attempt as far as is possible to establish the origins of all the pre-1951 observations. Rainfall observations originate from at least six different sites. After establishment of an Ethiopian meteorological department in 1951 the records are complete and, to our understanding, originate from the same location, the Addis Ababa Observatory (AAO). A revised rainfall series for 1898-1950 is derived using observations from sites with the longest records.The minimum and maximum temperature records show evidence of statistically significant inhomogeneities. Homogeneity tests on the full rainfall record (the revised series plus AAO) show it is reliable, with evidence of minor but not statistically significant breaks in the record before establishment of the AAO. Some, but not all, breaks can be accounted for using the historical information. Analysis of the records shows increasing trends in annual minimum and maximum temperatures from 1951 to 2002 (0.4 °C/decade and 0.2 °C/decade, respectively). There is little trend in rainfall from 1901-50, 1951-2002 and 1901-2002, dry years do not correspond with known drought years elsewhere in Ethiopia, and interannual variability is poorly correlated with another long rainfall series in Ethiopia (Gore), Blue Nile river flows and the southern oscillation index. This suggests strongly that the record for Addis Ababa should not be used as a proxy for conditions in Ethiopia, particularly the more drought-prone areas to the north and east. We conclude that the temperature series are suspect but that the full rainfall record is useful for analysis of long-term rainfall conditions in Addis Ababa.
Fekadu, Abebaw; Thornicroft, Graham
Background Global mental health (GMH) advocates for access to and the equitable provision of mental health care. Although the treatment gap is a useful construct to measure access and equitability of care, it fails to communicate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the urgent need to address care disparities. Objective The aim of this article is to present a perspective on the practical application of the principles of GMH to understand the real-life impact of the treatment gap and the approaches taken to improve treatment coverage in Ethiopia. Design A case study method is used. Results Multiple international collaborations undertaken in Ethiopia and facilitated by GMH to improve care, capacity, and the evidence base for increased treatment coverage are described briefly. A series of steps taken at the local and national levels to address the treatment gap are highlighted. The stories of two patients are also presented to illustrate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the potential transformational impact of addressing the treatment gap on patients, families, and communities. Conclusions GMH has a key role to play in addressing the treatment gap, which improves the life of people with mental disorders, their families, and their communities. However, national-level policy support and coordination are essential for any realistic improvement in treatment coverage. The reflections offered through the case examples may have utility in similar low-income settings. PMID:25280740
Tefera, Girma; Yimer, Eshetu; Geyid, Aberra
The study on the prevalence of rabies was conducted on a retrospective data gathered from EHNRI rabies diagnostic laboratory Addis Ababa, in the years 1979-1987. During this period a total of 8036 animals were brought to the rabies diagnostic laboratory. Ninety one percent (7329) of these animals were dogs. The remaining 8.8% (707) comprised of cats, domestic animals (donkeys, cows, sheep) and wild animals (monkeys, jackals and hyenas). Out of 7329 dogs examined 832 were positive for rabies. Dogs accounted for the majority of animal rabies (94.01% of the total positive animals). The remaining 5.99% (53) of the animals diagnosed with rabies-comprised of cats, domestic animals and some wild animals. A total of 15,940 people were given post exposure anti-rabies prophylaxis treatment that came from different parts of the country in the years 1979-1987. The prevalence rates of rabies were found to be higher soon after dogs' breeding seasons. Such an observation indicates that among dogs infection, transmission through biting is significant during the breeding season. However, despite the high incidence of rabies in Ethiopia, only 320 people were reported to have died of rabies in the years 1979-1984. This supports, the hypothesis that there is a lack of appropriate reporting system on prevalence of rabies and its impact on humans in Ethiopia. PMID:12240578
The African Studies Center site at the University of Pennsylvania has posted this 1998 report on the political and social condition of Ethiopia. It is a consolidated UN report prepared by the Information Section of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Emergencies Unit for Ethiopia from information and reports provided by specialized UN agencies, media sources, the Government and NGOs. It focuses primarily on food supplies, weather, health and nutrition, and refugees and returnees.
Background Although Ethiopia ranks seventh among the world’s 22 high-burden tuberculosis (TB) countries, little is known about strain diversity and transmission. In this study, we present the first in-depth analysis of the population structure and transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from Northwest Ethiopia. Methods In the present study, 244 M. tuberculosis isolates where analysed by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit - variable number tandem repeat 24-loci typing and spoligotyping methods to determine phylogenetic lineages and perform cluster analysis. Clusters of strains with identical genotyping patterns were considered as an indicator for the recent transmission. Results Of 244 isolates, 59.0% were classified into nine previously described lineages: Dehli/CAS (38.9%), Haarlem (8.6%), Ural (3.3%), LAM (3.3%), TUR (2.0%), X-type (1.2%), S-type (0.8%), Beijing (0.4%) and Uganda II (0.4%). Interestingly, 31.6% of the strains were grouped into four new lineages and were named as Ethiopia_3 (13.1%), Ethiopia_1 (7.8%), Ethiopia_H37Rv like (7.0%) and Ethiopia_2 (3.7%) lineages. The remaining 9.4% of the isolates could not be assigned to the known or new lineages. Overall, 45.1% of the isolates were grouped in clusters, indicating a high rate of recent transmission. Conclusions This study confirms a highly diverse M. tuberculosis population structure, the presence of new phylogenetic lineages and a predominance of the Dehli/CAS lineage in Northwest Ethiopia. The high rate of recent transmission indicates defects of the TB control program in Northwest Ethiopia. This emphasizes the importance of strengthening laboratory diagnosis of TB, intensified case finding and treatment of TB patients to interrupt the chain of transmission. PMID:23496968
M. Gispert; L. Faucitano; M. A. Oliver; M. D. Guàrdia; C. Coll; K. Siggens; K. Harvey; A. Diestre
A total of 116 deliveries, comprising 15,695 commercial pigs delivered to five abattoirs, were surveyed during winter and summer. Information about on-farm fasting, transport duration and stocking density, and lairage time was collected. Cortisol, creatine phospho-kinase (CPK), and lactate, and DNA for halothane genotype were analysed in a subsample of pigs at exsanguination in every journey. Electrical conductivity (PQM) in
Endalkachew Wolde-meskel; Zewdu Terefework; Kristina Lindström; Åsa Frostegård
The diversity of 110 rhizobial strains isolated from Acacia abyssinica, A. seyal, A. tortilis, Faidherbia albida, Sesbania sesban, Phaseolus vulgaris, and Vigna unguiculata grown in soils across diverse agro-ecological zones in southern Ethiopia was assessed using the Biolog™ system and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting technique. By cluster analysis of the metabolic and genomic fingerprints, the test strains were
Educational Access i Educational Access for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Woliso, Ethiopia ABSTRACT The appalling rise in the number of orphans in Ethiopia has reached epidemic proportions. The United Nations Fund-Ethiopia (2007) estimates there are 4.6 million orphaned children, 85 % of which do
Billi, Paolo; Fazzini, Massimiliano; Tadesse Alemu, Yonas; Ciampalini, Rossano
Rainfall and river flow variability have been deeply investigated and and the impact of climate change on both is rather well known in Europe (EEA, 2012) or in other industrialized countries. Reports of international organizations (IPCC, 2012) and the scientific literature provide results and outlooks that were found contrasting and spatially incoherent (Manton et al., 2001; Peterson et al., 2002; Griffiths et al., 2003; Herath and Ratnayake, 2004) or weakened by limitation of data quality and quantity. According to IPCC (2012), in East Africa precipitation there are contrasting regional and seasonal variations and trends, though Easterling et al. (2000) and Seleshi and Camberlin (2006) report decreasing trends in heavy precipitation over parts of Ethiopia during the period 1965-2002. Literature on the impact of climate change on river flow is scarce in Africa and IPCC Technical Paper VI (IPCC, 2008) concluded that no evidence, based on instrumental records, has been found for a climate-driven globally widespread change in the magnitude/frequency of floods during the last decades (Rosenzweig et al., 2007), though increases in runoff and increased risk of flood events in East Africa are expected. Some papers have faced issues regarding rainfall and river flow variability in Ethiopia (e.g. Seleshi and Demaree, 1995; Osman and Sauerborn, 2002; Seleshi and Zanke, 2004; Meze-Hausken, 2004; Korecha and Barnston, 2006; Cheung et al., 2008) but their investigations are commonly geographically limited or used a small number of rain and flow gauges with the most recent data bound to the beginning of the last decade. In this study an attempt to depict rainfall and river flow variability, considering the longer as possible time series for the largest as possible number of meteo-stations and flow gauge evenly distributed across Ethiopia, is presented. 25 meteo-stations and 21 flow gauges with as much as possible continuous data records were selected. The length of the time series ranges between 35 to 50 and 9 to 49 years for rainfall and river flow, respectively. In order to improve the poor linear correlation model to describe rainfall gradient with altitude a simple topographic parameter is introduced capable to better depict the spatial variability of annual rainfall and its coefficient of variation. The small rains (Belg) were found to be much more unpredictable than the long, monsoon-type rains (Kiremt) and hence much more out of phase with the variation of annual precipitation amount that is significantly influenced by the Kiremt rains. In order to investigate the long term trends, rainfall anomalies were calculated as Z score for annual, Belg and Kiremt precipitation for all the stations and average values are calculated and plotted against time. The three Z trend lines obtained show no marked deviation from the mean as only an almost negligible decreasing trend is observed. Rainfall intensity in 24 hours is analyzed and the trend line of the maximum intensity averaged over the maximum value of each year recorded at each meteo-station is constructed. These data indicate a general decrease in daily rainfall intensity across Ethiopia with clear exceptions in a few selected areas. The same procedure, based on the Z scores, used to analyze rainfall variability is applied also to the river flow data and a similar result is obtained. If compared with rainfall, annual runoff shows a much wider range of variation among the study rivers. This issue is discussed and possible explanations are presented.
White, Tim D; Asfaw, Berhane; DeGusta, David; Gilbert, Henry; Richards, Gary D; Suwa, Gen; Howell, F Clark
The origin of anatomically modern Homo sapiens and the fate of Neanderthals have been fundamental questions in human evolutionary studies for over a century. A key barrier to the resolution of these questions has been the lack of substantial and accurately dated African hominid fossils from between 100,000 and 300,000 years ago. Here we describe fossilized hominid crania from Herto, Middle Awash, Ethiopia, that fill this gap and provide crucial evidence on the location, timing and contextual circumstances of the emergence of Homo sapiens. Radioisotopically dated to between 160,000 and 154,000 years ago, these new fossils predate classic Neanderthals and lack their derived features. The Herto hominids are morphologically and chronologically intermediate between archaic African fossils and later anatomically modern Late Pleistocene humans. They therefore represent the probable immediate ancestors of anatomically modern humans. Their anatomy and antiquity constitute strong evidence of modern-human emergence in Africa. PMID:12802332
Berhanu, B.; Terefe, M.; Viglione, A.; Fant, C.; Gebretsadik, Y.; Cullis, J.; Mekonnen, G.; Alamirew, T.; Sivapalan, M.
Ethiopia is climatically and environmentally extremely heterogeneous. The highlands receive a lot of rainfall (more than 2000 mm/year) concentrated in only three months. Most of Ethiopian runoff is produced in these highlands (part of this water reaches the Mediterranean sea through the Nile river). Lowlands vary from forests to deserts. The hottest place on earth is there (the Danakil depression, more than 150 meters below see level). This makes the spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic signatures very strong in the country. We present the results of a comparative hydrology exercise performed during a three-week Winter Research Workshop held in Addis Ababa during Christmas time this year. There, a new institution, the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR), and a new education program (18 PhD + 24 MSc) has been started less than one year ago. Instead of the traditional approach of education, based on lectures, reading and exercises, a learner-centered approach has been used: the students have been asked to collect available rainfall and runoff data, to interpret them by comparing and contrasting different catchments in the country, to develop conceptual models and use them to critically test ideas. The R software has been used in the workshop for two reason: (1) its flexibility makes it an ideal language for learner-centered education, since students can easily define new functions and extensions and can autonomously develop and test their hypothesis; (2) it is open source, light and free of charge, which makes it particularly appealing in developing countries like Ethiopia.
Sawyer, G. M.; Oppenheimer, C.; Tsanev, V. I.; Yirgu, G.
Here we report measurements of the chemical composition and flux of gas emitted from the central lava lake at Erta 'Ale volcano (Ethiopia) made on 15 October 2005. We determined an average SO 2 flux of ˜ 0.69 ± 0.17 kg s - 1 using zenith sky ultraviolet spectroscopy of the plume, and molar proportions of magmatic H 2O, CO 2, SO 2, CO, HCl and HF gases to be 93.58, 3.66, 2.47, 0.06, 0.19 and 0.04%, respectively, by open-path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. Together, these data imply fluxes of 7.3, 0.7, 0.008, 0.03 and 0.004 kg s - 1 for H 2O, CO 2, CO, HCl and HF, respectively. These are the first FTIR spectroscopic observations at Erta 'Ale, and are also some of the very few gas measurements made at the volcano since the early 1970s (Gerlach, T.M., 1980b. Investigation of volcanic gas analyses and magma outgassing from Erta 'Ale lava lake, Afar, Ethiopia. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 7(3-4): 415-441). We identify significant increases in the proportion of H 2O in the plume with respect to both CO 2 and SO 2 across this 30-year interval, which we attribute to the depletion of volatiles in magma that sourced effusive eruptions during the early 1970s and/or to fractional magma degassing between the two active pit craters located in the summit caldera.
Osaili, Tareq M; Alaboudi, Akram R; Rahahlah, Majdi
Cattle are the main asymptomatic reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7 which can cause illness to human. The objectives of the study were to measure the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 on cattle slaughtered in Amman abattoir, detect virulence factors in the isolates, determine antibacterial resistance of the isolates, and know how the isolates are different or similar when compared to characterized isolates from developed countries. A total of 540 samples (feces, hide, and carcass) were tested for E. coli O157:H7 using the method of ISO 16654:(E). Conventional and multiplex PCR assays were used for serotype confirmation and virulence factor detection, respectively. Fifty E. coli O157:H7 isolates were identified and virulence factors eaeA and hlyA were present in all of the isolates. 60%, 12%, and 22% of the isolates harbored stx(1), stx(2), and stx(1) and stx(2), respectively. The prevalence rates of enterotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 (n=47) were 8.3%, 10%, and 7.8% in feces, hides and carcasses, respectively. The antimicrobial profiles of the isolates showed an extensive resistance to erythromycin, neomycin and vancomycin and high sensitivity to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin and tetracycline. PMID:23273451
Sanchez-Vazquez, Manuel J; Nielen, Mirjam; Gunn, George J; Lewis, Fraser I
Ascaris suum is the most important internal parasite in farmed pigs world-wide. In England, the BPEX Pig Health Scheme (BPHS) monitors the prevalence of ascariosis in slaughtered finished pigs by identifying milk spots - the healing lesions caused by A. suum larvae migration through the liver. This study investigates the trend of milk spot lesions from July 2005 to December 2010 to identify the progress made by the industry in controlling this parasitic disease. For visual explorations, the monthly prevalence for milk spots was modelled using "STL", a seasonal-trend decomposition method based on locally weighted regression. Random effects binomial modelling accounting for clustering at batch level was used to test the significance of the trend and seasonality. Additionally, the differences in the milk spot prevalence trends for BPHS members (those that joined the scheme) and non-members were investigated and tested. A mean of 12,442 pigs was assessed per month (in 290 batches) across 12 pig abattoirs over the study period, from which a monthly mean of 7102 pigs (159 batches) came from BPHS members. A mild overall decrease in prevalence of milk spots over the monitored period was identified as well as a seasonal variation which showed peaks in summer and at the beginning of autumn. BPHS members maintained a lower prevalence than non-members. The results from this work illustrate ascariosis as a persistent problem in current farm production. PMID:21889266
Bosinger, T.; Damtie, B.; Usoskin, I. G.
It is often considered by various sources and institutions around the world that promotion of space physics activities in a developing country like Ethiopia is a waste of time and resources. It has, of course, some sense: developing countries should put all their efforts in improving the standard of life, infrastructure and basic education. However, it is straightforward to realize that nowadays improvement in any of the basic needs of developing countries is related to high technology (e.g. mobile phones, GPS, remote sensing). This means that a developing country has to take care of recruiting specialists among their own people who can take part in the decision making processes which are increasingly of global nature. Moreover, many citizens of developing countries are studying and working abroad attaining high expertise. As a matter of fact, there are more Ethiopians with PhD in physics working abroad than in the country. These people are lost for the benefit of their own country if there is no need for their profession in their home country. There is no doubt that the main task of improving the standard of living cannot be achieved without development and social transformation of the society, which can take place efficiently in a self-adopting and dynamic process. In line with the above argument, we have initiated the establishment of the Washera Space Physics Laboratory (WASPL) at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. It is a collaboration project between Oulu University and Addis Ababa University. The laboratory is expected to start operation of a pulsation magnetometer and photometer in September 2004. Other types of standard geophysical instruments are to be installed in subsequent missions. The project is of mutual interest of both parties. The equatorial ionosphere is still a poorly investigated region of our near Earth's space. In a first pilot investigation the existence and properties of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) in the equatorial ionosphere is addressed. WASPL is expected to join worldwide activities in monitoring local and global atmosphereic and ionospheric parameters. There is also a plan to install a neutron monitor to measure galactic and solar cosmic rays. WASPL will be situated at the magnetic equator and at 2500m above seal level, which make it a unique place to carry out space physics experiments. In this paper, we describe WASPL in some more details. Interested scientists may participate with us and/or start similar initiatives.
Dawit, Enkurie L.
Palynological investigation was carried out on surface samples from up to 400 m thick continental siliciclastic sediments, here referred to as “Fincha Sandstone”, in the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia. One hundred sixty species were identified from 15 productive samples collected along a continuous road-cut exposure. Six informal palynological assemblage zones have been identified. These assemblage zones, in ascending order, are: “Central Ethiopian Permian Assemblage Zone - CEPAZ I”, earliest Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian); “CEPAZ II”, late Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian); CEPAZ III - Late Permian (Kazanian-Tatarian); “CETAZ IV”, Lower Triassic (Olenekian Induan); “CETAZ V”, Middle Triassic (Anisian Ladinian); “CETAZ VI”, Late Triassic (Carnian Norian). Tentative age ranges proposed herein are compared with faunally calibrated palynological zones in Gondwana. The overall composition and vertical distribution of miospores throughout the studied section reveals a wide variation both qualitatively and quantitatively. The high frequency of monosaccate pollen in CEPAZ I may reflect a Glossopterid-dominated upland flora in the earliest Permian. The succeeding zone is dominated by straite/taeniate disaccate pollen and polyplicates, suggesting a notable increase in diversity of glossopterids. The decline in the diversity of taeniate disaccate pollen and the concomitant rise in abundance of non-taeniate disaccates in CEPAZ III may suggest the decline in Glossopteris diversity, though no additional evidence is available to equate this change with End-Permian extinction. More diverse and dominant non-taeniate, disaccate, seed fern pollen assignable to FalcisporitesAlisporites in CETAZ IV may represent an earliest Triassic recovery flora. The introduction of new disaccate forms with thick, rigid sacci, such as Staurosaccites and Cuneatisporites, in CETAZ V and VI may indicate the emergence of new gymnospermous plants that might have favourably adapted to coastal plain wetland environments with the return of humid conditions in the Middle to early Late Triassic. The present data constitute the first paleontologically substantiated record for the existence of Permian strata in the Blue Nile Basin. The new results allow for the first time a reliable biostratigraphic subdivision of the central Ethiopia Karoo and its correlation with coeval strata of adjacent regions in Gondwana. From a phytogeographic point of view, the overall microfloral evidence is in support of the position of central Ethiopia occupying the northern part of the southern Gondwana palynofloral province. In view of palaeoecological and paleoclimatic conditions, the microfloral change from the base to the top of the studied section may indicate a response to shifting climatic belts from warm- and cool-temparate climate in the earliest Permian to progressively drier seasonal conditions at successively higher palaeolatitudes during the Late Permian to Middle Triassic.
Seid, Ahmed; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Tsegaw, Teshome; Abera, Adugna; Teshome, Aklilu; Mulugeta, Abate; Herrero, Merce; Argaw, Daniel; Jorge, Alvar; Kebede, Asnakew; Aseffa, Abraham
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS), statistical analysis and modelling. Odds ratio (OR) of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relative importance of environmental factors, accepting P ? 0.056 as the inclusion level for the model's environmental variables. When estimating risk from the viewpoint of geographical surface, slope, elevation and annual rainfall were found to be good predictors of CL presence based on both probabilistic and weighted overlay approaches. However, when considering Ethiopia as whole, a minor difference was observed between the two methods with the probabilistic technique giving a 22.5% estimate, while that of weighted overlay approach was 19.5%. Calculating the population according to the land surface estimated by the latter method, the total Ethiopian population at risk for CL was estimated at 28,955,035, mainly including people in the highlands of the regional states of Amhara, Oromia, Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region, one of the nine ethnic divisions in Ethiopia. Our environmental risk model provided an overall prediction accuracy of 90.4%. The approach proposed here can be replicated for other diseases to facilitate implementation of evidence-based, integrated disease control activities. PMID:24893015
Benoit, Margaret H.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Owens, Thomas J.; Stuart, Graham
Ethiopia has been subjected to widespread Cenozoic volcanism, rifting, and uplift associated with the Afar hot spot. The hot spot tectonism has been attributed to one or more thermal upwellings in the mantle, for example, starting thermal plumes and superplumes. We investigate the origin of the hot spot by imaging the S wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath Ethiopia using travel time tomography and by examining relief on transition zone discontinuities using receiver function stacks. The tomographic images reveal an elongated low-velocity region that is wide (>500 km) and extends deep into the upper mantle (>400 km). The anomaly is aligned with the Afar Depression and Main Ethiopian Rift in the uppermost mantle, but its center shifts westward with depth. The 410 km discontinuity is not well imaged, but the 660 km discontinuity is shallower than normal by ˜20-30 km beneath most of Ethiopia, but it is at a normal depth beneath Djibouti and the northwestern edge of the Ethiopian Plateau. The tomographic results combined with a shallow 660 km discontinuity indicate that upper mantle temperatures are elevated by ˜300 K and that the thermal anomaly is broad (>500 km wide) and extends to depths ?660 km. The dimensions of the thermal anomaly are not consistent with a starting thermal plume but are consistent with a flux of excess heat coming from the lower mantle. Such a broad thermal upwelling could be part of the African Superplume found in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa.
Astatkie, Ayalew; Demissie, Meaza; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu
Purpose Khat (Catha edulis) is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Students use it to help them study for long hours especially during the period of examination. However, how regularly khat is chewed among university students and its associated factors are not well documented. In this article we report on the prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia. Methods We did a cross-sectional study from May 20, 2014 to June 23, 2014 on a sample of 1,255 regular students recruited from all campuses of Hawassa University, southern Ethiopia. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. We analyzed the data to identify factors associated with current regular khat chewing using complex sample adjusted logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of current regular khat chewing was 10.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1%–14.9%). After controlling for sex, religion, year of study, having a father who chews khat, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in the adjusted logistic regression model, living off-campus in rented houses as compared to living in the university dormitory (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =8.09 [1.56–42.01]), and having friends who chew khat (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =4.62 [1.98–10.74]) were found to significantly increase the odds of current regular khat use. Conclusion Students living outside the university campus in rented houses compared to those living in dormitory and those with khat chewing peers are more likely to use khat. A multipronged prevention approach involving students, the university officials, the surrounding community, and regulatory bodies is required.
Harley, Sarah; More, Simon; Boyle, Laura; Connell, Niamh O'; Hanlon, Alison
During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate 'trimming' of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry.Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic.This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example. PMID:22738170
Perry, G H
Bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of the bovine reproductive system causing reduced conception rates, abortions and persistently infected calves. Most if not all strains of BVDV are transmissible by natural mating and AI. For international trade, it is recommended that in vitro fertilized embryos be washed according to the IETS Manual. However, BVDV may not be entirely washed out, resulting in possible transmission risks to recipients. Donor cows, donor bulls and biological agents are all possible sources of contamination. The process for producing in vitro produced (IVP) embryos is complex and non-standard, and some procedures can contribute to spread of BVDV to uninfected embryos. The structure of the zone pellucida (ZP) of IVP embryos permits adherence of BVDV to the ZP. To estimate the risk of producing infected recipients and persistently infected calves from abattoir-derived IVP embryos, a quantitative risk assessment model using Microsoft Excel and Palisade @Risk was developed. Assumptions simplified some of the complexities of the IVP process. Uncertainties due to incomplete or variable data were addressed by incorporating probability distributions in the model. Model variables included: disease prevalence; the number of donor cows slaughtered for ovaries; the number of oocytes collected, selected and cultured; the BVDV status of ovaries, semen, biological compounds and its behavior in the IVP embryo process. The model used the Monte Carlo method to simulate the IVP process. When co-culture cells derived from donor cows of unknown health status were used for in vitro culture (IVC), the probability of a recipient cow at risk of infection to BVDV per oocyte selected for IVP processing averaged 0.0006. However, when co-culture free from BVDV was used, the probability was 1.2 x 10(-5). Thus, for safe international trade in bovine IVP embryos (i.e. negligible risks of transmission of BVDV), co-culture cells, if used during IVC for producing IVP embryos, should be disease-free. PMID:17462725
During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate ‘trimming’ of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry. Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic. This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example. PMID:22738170
African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.
The survival of Ethiopia as a religious and national unit is investigated through inquiry. Intended as a learning experience for students of African history, the paper provides information on Ethiopia's past, its present status, and on the choice the nation faces between modernity and tradition. A calendar of religious and political events in…
Alfredo González-Ruibal; Yonatan Sahle; Xurxo Ayán Vila
The archaeology of twentieth-century warfare, with its focus on Western armies and military issues, has often neglected indigenous experiences of war and social aspects, particularly the role of women in reproducing culture through material practices in situations of great distress. In this article, we propose a postcolonial examination of imperialistic war in Ethiopia. We study the cave of Zeret, the
The purpose of this article is to provide a more comprehensive picture of teacher preparation in Ethiopia on top of a closer scrutiny of current teacher education reforms. In particular, it presents teacher education within the context of policy implementation over the last six decades by highlighting key reforms and how these reforms impacted the…
Tim D. White; F. Clark Howell; Henry Gilbert
The genus Metridiochoerus (Artiodactyla: Suidae) is well documented in the African Plio-Pleistocene, but its origins are obscure. We report here on a specimen from the Usno Formation (ca. 3.4 Ma) of Ethiopia that confirms the First Appearance Datum (FAD) for this genus. This earliest known upper third molar is the most primitive example of Metridiochoerus yet documented, and firmly anchors
Tanguy Bernard; Alemayehu Seyoum Taffesse; Eleni Gabre-Madhin
This article examines the impact of marketing cooperatives on smallholder commercialization of cereals using detailed household data in rural Ethiopia. We use the strong government role in promoting the establishment of cooperatives to justify the use of propensity score matching to compare households that are cooperative members to similar households in comparable areas without cooperatives. The analysis reveals that although
Berry, Chris; Bogale, Solomon Shiferaw
Ethiopia is a large country in the Horn of Africa. It has a diverse population of eighty million people who speak over thirty distinct languages. Approximately 80% of the population live in rural areas and rely on subsistence agriculture. Despite economic growth and an abundance of natural resources, it is a country with a per-capita income of…
Sadler, Charlotte; Hytowitz, Sarah Gail; Frutiger, Eliso
This report presents information to help teachers work with diverse students. The report includes: information regarding the countries and cultures of Haiti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia (for helping to establish rapport with diverse learners); characteristics of Haitians, Eritreans, and Ethiopians as contrasted with American students' characteristics…
Fungal Diversity 51 Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum isolates from Ethiopia using AFLP, SSR using AFLP, SSR and DNA sequence analyses. Fungal Diversity 23: 51-66. Fusarium oxysporum is one agriculture has not been well investigated. We employed Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), Simple
James Hoot; Judit Szente; Selamawit Tadesse
This article extends concerns of our National Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators (NAECTE) membership beyond the borders of the United States to the continent of Africa. Specifically, it explores the current status of early childhood teacher education in one of the poorest nations of the world—Ethiopia. It includes an analysis of recent policy developments as well as continuing challenges
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to give an analysis of the problems and prospects of housing development in Ethiopia with particular emphasis on the city of Addis Ababa. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The methodology employed here is a descriptive analysis where the source of the data is mainly secondary data. Basic statistical tools are employed in the analyses of
CAN INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT BRING GREATER FOOD SECURITY IN ETHIOPIA? Oloro V. McHugh, Amy S are discussed for implementation of these findings at a watershed scale in order to increase food security with a rapidly growing population, chronic poverty, and capricious rainfall, have caused severe food security
R. I. M. Dunbar; E. P. Dunbar
The ecology of Colobus guereza in Ethiopia is described. Data on group size from a number of localities are given, and groups are typically found to be one-male groups of 5-8 animals. The dynamics of one population are discussed with particular reference to birth and death rates and immigration and emigration. Daily activity patterns and use of home ranges are
The major purpose of the study was to look into change and continuity in the policy and practices of adult basic literacy initiatives in Ethiopia and to deduce lessons that can be drawn from the experiences for the future of adult basic literacy program in the country and elsewhere. Data was obtained through critical review of documents on the…
Maureen L. Cropper; Mitiku Haile; Julian Lampietti; Christine Poulos; Dale Whittington
This study measures the monetary value households place on preventing malaria in Tigray, Ethiopia. We estimate a household demand function for a hypothetical malaria vaccine and compute the value of preventing malaria as the household's maximum willingness to pay to provide vaccines for all family members. This is contrasted with the traditional costs of illness (medical costs and lost productivity).
The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using…
Akalu, Girmaw Abebe
This article chronicles the key challenges facing Ethiopia as it embarks on an ambitious, ideologically-driven and aggressive expansion of its higher education system in an effort to address its national goals of economic growth and poverty reduction. It is argued that the urge for higher education expansion has placed undue pressures particularly…
to medium potential for tourism development. However, the baseline information was changed when a NGO development. Recommendations were made to the community and NGO pursuing tourism, and the frameworkSUSTAINABLE HERITAGE TOURISM PLANNING IN ETHIOPIA: AN ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK by Stefanie Jones B
Clive Bell; Anastasios Koukoumelis
An AIDS epidemic threatens Ethiopia with a long wave of premature adult mortality, and thus with an enduring setback to capital formation and economic growth. The authors develop a two-sector model with three overlapping generations and intersectorally mobile labor, in which young adults allocate resources under rational expectations. They calibrate the model to the demographic and economic data, and perform
Ethiopia seems to be charting a unique discourse on women which is similar to many of the ‘gender’ discourses on the continent (Namibia, Jamaica, Cameroon, etc.) that are embedded in the state. The situation is one where the government does not feel compelled to follow global trends on gender discursive practices. Instead it defines its own contextual framework of operations.
Divisive debates on what constitutes the Ethiopian nation, how the state should be structured and how power should be devolved, have dominated Ethiopia's private press since the ruling party, the Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), came to power. The press has served as both a mirror reflecting these issues and a space for literate elites to engage in political
Stefan Dercon; Pramila Krishnan
The article analyses the different income portfolios of households using survey data from rural Ethiopia and rural Tanzania. It suggests that the different portfolios held by households cannot be explained by their behaviour towards risk as is usually suggested. It is better explained by differences in ability, location, and in access to credit. A logit analysis of households with different
The paper investigates the causal link among inflation, money and budget deficits in Ethiopia for the period 1964 to 2003 using the bounds test approach to cointegration due to Pesaran et al. (2001) and using a modified version of the Granger causality test due to Toda and Yamamoto (1995). To check the robustness of the bounds test, we also used
Hoot, James; Szente, Judit; Tadesse, Selamawit
This article extends concerns of our National Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators (NAECTE) membership beyond the borders of the United States to the continent of Africa. Specifically, it explores the current status of early childhood teacher education in one of the poorest nations of the world--Ethiopia. It includes an analysis of…
S. A. Mebrate Mebrate; H. W. H. W. Dehne; K. K. Pillen Pillen; E. C. Oerke
A total of 43 isolates of the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina Eriks, collected from Ethiopia and Germany were analysed for their genetic diversity using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Out of 18 EcoRI\\/MseI primer com- binations screened, 15 produced 219 highly polymor- phic fragments. The average AFLP difference between pairs of the leaf rust isolates (26
Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine
This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…
L. Spampinato; C. Oppenheimer; S. Calvari; A. Cannata; P. Montalto
Active lava lakes represent the uppermost portion of a volume of convective magma exposed to the atmosphere, and provide open windows on magma dynamics within shallow reservoirs. Erta `Ale volcano located within the Danakil Depression in Ethiopia, hosts one of the few permanent convecting lava lakes, active at least since the last century. We report here the main features of
Hladik, W; Shabbir, I; Jelaludin, A; Woldu, A; Tsehaynesh, M; Tadesse, W
Objectives A possible decline in prevalence of HIV in some sub?Saharan African countries has been reported recently. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of HIV and behavioural data to investigate trends in HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. Methods A review was conducted of published reports and literature, raw and modelled (using Epidemic Projection Package and Spectrum software) surveillance data and estimates from antenatal clinics (ANCs) and data from voluntary counselling and testing centres. Observations were restricted to the adult population. Results Between 2001 and 2003, more ANC sites showed a decline than a rise in HIV prevalence, but most lacked statistical significance. Modelled data suggested a rise in prevalence of HIV in rural areas (2003: 2.6%) and in all Ethiopia (2003: 4.4%), but a stable or declining prevalence in Addis Ababa (2003: 14.6%) and other urban areas (2003: 11.8%). Modelled HIV incidence, inferred from prevalence changes, showed a slowly rising trend in Addis Ababa (2003: 2.0%), other urban areas (2003: 1.7%), and rural Ethiopia (2003: 0.46%). The total burden of HIV/AIDS is expected also to rise substantially due to population growth. In Addis Ababa, crude data on HIV prevalence from ANCs too suggested a falling trend. Voluntary counselling and testing data from 2002 to 2004 supported this trend but indicated a mixed trend pattern for high risk behaviour. No other serial behavioural trend data were available. Conclusions Lack of quality data on behavioural trends impedes the interpretation of prevalence and incidence data in Ethiopia. Modelled data suggest an expanding HIV epidemic in rural and all Ethiopia, but a possible decline in some urban areas. Crude site prevalence values may be more sensitive to acute changes, possibly indicating a slowing/reversal of the epidemic's expansion. PMID:16581757
The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.
Amorim, Ariane Ribeiro; Fornells, Luz Alba Maria Garcete; Reis, Felicidade da Costa; Rezende, Daiana Jacinto; Mendes, Gabriella da Silva; Couceiro, José Nelson dos Santos Silva; Santos, Norma Suely de Oliveira
Asymptomatic influenza virus infections in pigs are frequent and the lack of measures for controlling viral spread facilitates the circulation of different virus strains between pigs. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the circulation of influenza A virus strains among asymptomatic piglets in an abattoir in Brazil and discuss the potential public health impacts. Tracheal samples (n = 330) were collected from asymptomatic animals by a veterinarian that also performed visual lung tissue examinations. No slaughtered animals presented with any noticeable macroscopic signs of influenza infection following examination of lung tissues. Samples were then analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that resulted in the identification of 30 (9%) influenza A positive samples. The presence of asymptomatic pig infections suggested that these animals could facilitate virus dissemination and act as a source of infection for the herd, thereby enabling the emergence of influenza outbreaks associated with significant economic losses. Furthermore, the continuous exposure of the farm and abattoir workers to the virus increases the risk for interspecies transmission. Monitoring measures of swine influenza virus infections and vaccination and monitoring of employees for influenza infection should also be considered. In addition regulatory agencies should consider the public health ramifications regarding the potential zoonotic viral transmission between humans and pigs. PMID:23903968
Duffy, G; O'Brien, S B; Carney, E; Sheridan, J J; McDowell, D A; Blair, I S
Escherichia coli O157 isolates from bovine hide (n=117) and beef trimmings (n=32) from a single abattoir were examined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Using BioNumerics software, dendrograms of isolates from each sample type (i.e. hide and beef trimming) were produced. In assessing the genetic relatedness of isolates, a similarity criterion of 80% was applied. The 117 E. coli O157 hide isolates were grouped into 14 clusters, comprising of 109 different PFGE profiles. Of the 109 different PFGE profiles, 8 were common to multiple isolates (i.e. shared 100% similarity by PFGE). The 32 E. coli O157 beef trimming isolates produced 28 different PFGE profiles and 2 clusters. Of the 28 PFGE profiles, 2 were common to multiple isolates and the remaining 26 were distinct. On a number of sampling occasions, isolates displaying identical PFGE patterns were recovered from multiple isolates collected from a single sample type (i.e. hides or trimmings), suggesting cross contamination from contaminated hides/animals to uncontaminated hides/animals and from contaminated beef trimmings to uncontaminated beef trimmings during abattoir operations. PMID:15649539
Salvatore Di Falco
Ethiopia is one of the most vulnerable countries to harsh climatic conditions (ILRI, 2006). Ethiopia suffers from extreme climates, mostly manifested in the form of frequent droughts. A recent mapping on vulnerability and poverty in Africa (ILRI, 2006) puts Ethiopia as one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change and with least coping ability. A recent climate prediction model
Background As part of a situational analysis for a research programme on the integration of mental health care into primary care (Programme for Improving Mental Health Care-PRIME), we conducted a baseline study aimed at determining the broad indicators of the population level of psychosocial distress in a predominantly rural community in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a population-based cross-sectional survey of 1497 adults selected through a multi-stage random sampling process. Population level psychosocial distress was evaluated by estimating the magnitude of common mental disorder symptoms (CMD; depressive, anxiety and somatic symptoms reaching the level of probable clinical significance), harmful use of alcohol, suicidality and psychosocial stressors experienced by the population. Results The one-month prevalence of CMD at the mild, moderate and severe threshold levels was 13.8%, 9.0% and 5.1% respectively. The respective one-month prevalence of any suicidal ideation, persistent suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was 13.5%, 3.8% and 1.8%. Hazardous use of alcohol was identified in 22.4%, significantly higher among men (33.4%) compared to women (11.3%). Stressful life events were widespread, with 41.4% reporting at least one threatening life event in the preceding six months. A similar proportion reported poor social support (40.8%). Stressful life events, increasing age, marital loss and hazardous use of alcohol were associated with CMD while stressful life events, marital loss and lower educational status, and CMD were associated with suicidality. CMD was the strongest factor associated with suicidality [e.g., OR (95% CI) for severe CMD?=?60.91 (28.01, 132.48)] and the strength of association increased with increase in the severity of the CMD. Conclusion Indicators of psychosocial distress are prevalent in this rural community. Contrary to former assumptions in the literature, social support systems seem relatively weak and stressful life events common. Interventions geared towards modifying general risk factors and broader strategies to promote mental wellbeing are required. PMID:24999041
Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.
Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.
Jenberie, Shiferaw; Lynch, Stacey E.; Kebede, Fekadu; Christley, Robert M.; Gelaye, Esayas; Negussie, Haileleul; Asmare, Kassahun; Ayelet, Gelagay
The objective of the investigation was to characterise infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDV) circulating in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia between 2009 and 2011. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence for VP2 hypervariable region of ten IBDVs were determined by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to well characterised IBDV isolates worldwide. IBDV genetic material was amplified directly from bursa or cell passaged material. Phylogenetically, Ethiopian IBDVs represented two genetic lineages: very virulent (vv) IBDVs or variants of the classical attenuated vaccine strain (D78). The nucleotide identity between Ethiopian vvIBDVs ranged between 0% and 2.6%. Ethiopian vvIBDVs are clustered phylogenetically with the African IBDV genetic lineage, independent of the Asian/European lineage. This report demonstrates the circulation of vvIBDV in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia. PMID:24145155
Astatkie, Ayalew; Demissie, Meaza; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu
OBJECTIVES: Associations between khat (Catha edulis) chewing and different adverse oral-dental health conditions have been reported, yet evidence is still lacking. This study was designed to investigate the association between long-term regular khat chewing and self-reported oral symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1,255 university students in southern Ethiopia. Data on khat chewing status, a range of oral symptoms and other pertinent variables were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The association between long-term regular khat chewing and oral symptom count was investigated using negative binomial regression. RESULTS: The mean oral symptom count among long-term regular khat chewers was 1.75 (standard deviation [SD], 2.18; standard error [SE], 0.31), whereas that among those who were not long-term regular khat chewers was 1.18 (SD, 1.68; SE, 0.10). After adjustment for other variables, long-term regular khat chewers had approximately 50% more oral symptoms than those who were not long-term chewers did (adjusted count ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 2.10). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term khat chewing negatively affects the oral health of young university students. PMID:25773437
This paper reports on the plant use of laypeople of the Oromo in Southern Ethiopia. The Oromo in Bale had names/uses for 294 species in comparison to 230 species documented in the lower reaches of the Bale area. Only 13 species was used for veterinary purposes, or as human medicine (46). Plant medicine served mostly to treat common everyday ailments such as stomach problems and diarrhea, for wound treatment and as toothbrush-sticks, as anthelmintic, for skin infections and to treat sore muscles and. Interestingly, 9 species were used to treat spiritual ailments and to expel demons. In most cases of medicinal applications the leaves or roots were employed. Traditional plant knowledge has clearly declined in a large part of the research area. Western style health care services as provided by governments and NGOs, in particular in rural areas, seem to have contributed to a decline in traditional knowledge, in part because the local population simply regards western medicine as more effective and safer. PMID:21943288
Yohannes Haile-Selassie; Giday Woldegabriel; Tim D White; Raymond L Bernor; David Degusta; Paul R Renne; William K Hart; Elisabeth Vrba; Ambrose Stanley; F. C Howell
The Middle Awash paleontological study area, located in the Afar Rift of Ethiopia, has yielded fossils spanning the last six million years. The geology and geochronology of the Mio-Pliocene sites of the study area have been refined and a reliable chronostratigraphy has been established by 40Ar\\/39Ar radiometric dating. The latest Miocene Adu-Asa Formation is divided into four members distinguished from
The African Studies Center site at the University of Pennsylvania has posted this 1997 report on the political and social condition of Ethiopia. It is an announcement released by Human Rights Watch (HRW)/Africa in December 1997, which criticizes "the failure of the Ethiopian government to live up to its professed commitment to human rights, and calling on the US in particular to put pressure for the government to live up to its human rights obligations."
Werner F. Giggenbach; Francois Le Guern
The chemical composition of the gases emitted from a hornito close to the active lava lake of Erta'Ale, Ethiopia, as derived from chemical analyses on 18 samples collected on 23 January 1974, was found to be (in mol-%): H 2 O: 79.4, CO 2 : 10.4, total S: 7.36, HCl: 0.42, H 2 : 1.49, N 2 : 0.18, Ar:
Sefinew Alemu; Esayas Gelaye Leykun; Gelagay Ayelet; Aschalew Zeleke
A cross-sectional study of lungworm infection was carried out with the aim of determining the prevalence of lungworm infection of small ruminants and identifying the species of the respiratory helminthes circulating in six districts of northeastern Ethiopia: Debresina, Legambo, Habru, Kalu, Chaffa-Dawi and Artumana-Fersejelle. Faecal and postmortem examination were conducted from 1162 and 104 animals, respectively.An overall infection rate of
Hammond, James; Kendall, J.-Michael; Wookey, James; Stuart, Graham; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay
Ethiopia is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and use shear-wave splitting tomography to invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due aligned melt due to sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominate the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal magma storage dominate the signal and little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment, possibly due to a lack of mantle lithosphere. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is absent beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates in the upper mantle.
Western trauma frameworks, such as PTSD-focused inventories and interventions, are embedded in a psychosocial discourse saying\\u000a that highly distressing experiences must be expressed and confronted. This study, which is based on six months of focused\\u000a ethnographic research in postwar Tigray, Ethiopia, reveals authoritative Tigrayan discourses that encourage people to avoid\\u000a disclosing and expressing emotional pain. Dogmas of the Ethiopian Orthodox
Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera
An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 ?g m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 ?g m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 ?g m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 ?g m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P < 0.05), post hoc pairwise comparison indicated no significant difference in mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.
Amare Ayalew; Hartmut Fehrmann; Johann Lepschy; Robert Beck; Dawit Abate
The occurrence of mycotoxins in barley, sorghum, teff (Eragrostis tef) and wheat from Ethiopia has been studied. Samples were analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEN) using high performance liquid chromatography\\u000a (HPLC) and for fumonisins (FUM) using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). AFB1 and OTA were detected in samples of\\u000a all the
Erta Ale volcano lies along the on-shore Red Sea Rift (northern Afar, Ethiopia), separating the Nubia and Danakil plates. Erta Ale has a NNW–SSE elongated caldera, with a subvertical rim scarp, hosting a lava lake. Structural field work was aimed at defining the deformation pattern around the caldera. The caldera consists of along-rim and across-rim structures, resulting from local and
Pierre-Yves Burgi; Marc Caillet; Steven Haefeli
The shield volcano Erta'Ale, situated in the Danakil Depression, Ethiopia, is known for its active lava lake. In February 2001, our team visited this lake, located inside an 80-m-deep pit, to perform field temperature measurements. The distribution and variation of temperature inside the lake were obtained on the basis of infrared radiation measurements performed from the rim of the pit
...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...
Alemu, Daniel S.; Tekleselassie, Abebayehu A.
The purpose of this study is to explain the formulation, implementation, and outcome of Ethiopia's instructional language policy in light of the PRINCE system of power analysis as adapted by Fowler (2004), along with several literature references pertinent to the issue. After providing a brief background on Ethiopia and its education and language…
Yates, Brian James
This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia…
...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...
...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State...requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination...
Gemma Lucy Burgess
This article focuses on Ethiopia's first civil society organisation, the Ethiopian Women Lawyers Association (EWLA), which has been campaigning for legal reform to secure women's rights and address violence against women. Implementing legal changes to benefit women in Ethiopia is impeded by difficulties in using the formal legal system, by poverty and deeply embedded gender inequalities, by plural legal systems,
Gemma Lucy Burgess
This article focuses on Ethiopia's first civil society organisation, the Ethiopian Women Lawyers Association (EWLA), which has been campaigning for legal reform to secure women's rights and address violence against women. Implementing legal changes to benefit women in Ethiopia is impeded by difficulties in using the formal legal system, by poverty and deeply embedded gender inequalities, by plural legal systems,
Alemu, Daniel S.
Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led…
Vermont, University of
in Awassa, Ethiopia Travis W. Reynolds a, , Joshua Farley b,1 , Candice Huber c a Evans School of Public in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental is biomass, largely obtained from wood. However, forest resources in Ethiopia are dwindling so rapidly
T. B. Endalamaw; K. F. Wiersum
Forest beekeeping is an ancient form of forest exploitation in south west Ethiopia. The practice has continued to the present with a gradual evolution in beekeeping technology and resource access and management arrangements. The aim of the present study is to study traditional forest management systems for sustainable forest honey production. The study was carried out in southwest Ethiopia in
Kassegne, Samuel Kinde
Survey of Current Efforts and Potentials in Application of Telemedicine in Ethiopia Fikreyohannes. Telemedicine Â delivery of health services through the use of ICT Â that has met wide success in alleviating. To study the past and current effort on the application of telemedicine in Ethiopia, a survey of government
Describes the historical development of libraries in Ethiopia. Examines the National Library of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa University Libraries, the Institute of Ethiopian Studies Library, and the Ethiopian Science and Technology Documentation and Information Center. Discusses the development of special libraries, libraries and documentation centers of…
This paper examines the role of the judiciary in Ethiopia. Implicit in the notion of separation of powers is the fact that the judiciary has a crucial role in resolving disputes impartially, ensuring the rule of law and in setting limits to power. Yet in Ethiopia the legislature has sought to take away power from the courts, placing them in
This paper studies regional and temporal variation in age at marriage, fertility, mortality and population growth in Ethiopia. The data thas was used for this study was obtained from the 1970 and 1981 demographic surveys conducted by the Central Statistics Office of Ethiopia. Even though scientific methods of data collection were adopted, the final report was not free from errors
Mura, Alessandra; Socolovschi, Cristina; Ginesta, Jacques; Lafrance, Bertrand; Magnan, Stéphan; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Davoust, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe
DNA extracted from 363 ticks collected in Ethiopia and 9 ticks collected in Chad, Africa were screened by PCR to detect DNA from spotted fever group rickettsiae. Fifteen ticks (4.1%) collected in Ethiopia and one tick (11%) collected in Chad tested positive when PCR targeting the gltA and ompA rickettsial genes was performed. PCR-positive products of the gltA and ompA genes were used for DNA sequencing. Rickettsia africae was detected in 12/118 Amblyomma lepidum and in 1/2 A. variegatum. Also, 2/12 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes collected in Ethiopia and one H. marginatum rufipes collected in Chad were positive for R. aeschlimannii. Our results confirm the previously reported presence of R. africae in Ethiopia and also show the first evidence of R. aeschlimannii in ticks collected in Ethiopia and Chad. PMID:18440576
Block, P. J.
Explicit integration of seasonal precipitation forecasts into water resources operations and planning is practically nonexistent, even in regions of scarcity. This is often attributable to water manager’s tendency to act in a risk averse manner, preferring to avoid consequences of poor forecasts, at the expense of unrealized benefits. Convincing demonstrations of forecast value are therefore desirable to support assimilation into practice. A dynamic coupled system, including forecast, rainfall-runoff, and hydropower models, is applied to the upper Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia to compare benefits generated by actual forecasts against a climatology-based approach, commonly practiced in most water resources systems. Processing one hundred decadal sequences demonstrates superior forecast-based benefits in 68 cases, a respectable advancement, however benefits in a few forecast-based sequences are noticeably low, likely to dissuade manager’s adoption. A hydropower sensitivity test reveals a propensity toward poor-decision making when forecasts over-predict wet conditions. The forecast is therefore tailored to dampen precipitation projections in the above normal tercile while retaining critical near normal and dry predictions, subsequently improving reliability to 96-percent. Such tailoring potentially provides strong incentive to risk-adverse water managers cautious to embrace forecast technology.
Njisane, Yonela Z.; Muchenje, Voster
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality. PMID:25049733
Smith, M. G.
The growth of coliform organisms on meat tissue from sheep carcasses processed in a commercial abattoir was investigated. The results indicated that for practical purposes the minimum temperature of growth of these organisms on meat may be taken as 8 degrees C. Equations were derived relating the generation time and the lag time of coliform organisms in raw blended mutton to the temperature at which the meat is held. Estimates of growth obtained with these equations were found to agree closely with the experimental results, especially at temperatures above 10 degrees C, and allowed the generation times and the lag times for all temperatures up to 40 degrees C to be calculated. These times were also found to agree closely with the times determined using a strain of Escherichia coli inoculated into blended mutton tissue. A strain of Salmonella typhimurium inoculated in the same way into blended mutton tissue gave longer generation and lag times at temperatures below 15 degrees C. Therefore, it is believed that the calculated tables of lag and generation times included in this paper can be used to determine the length of time raw chilled meat may be held afterwards at temperatures above the minimum temperature of growth without an increase in the number of any salmonella organisms present, and these times include a safety margin at each temperature. The study indicates that the mandatory codes of practice presently applied in commercial abattoirs are too stringent. Maintaining the temperature of boning rooms at 10 degrees C or less does not appear to be necessary providing the meat is processed within the calculated time limits. A relaxation of the restrictions on boning room temperatures would decrease costs, increase worker comfort and safety and would not compromise the bacteriological safety of the meat produced. PMID:3891847
Nega, Desalegn; Dana, Daniel; Tefera, Tamirat; Eshetu, Teferi
Background In Sub-Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia, malaria in pregnancy is a major public health threat which results in significant morbidities and mortalities among pregnant women and their fetuses. In malaria endemic areas, Plasmodium infections tend to remain asymptomatic yet causing significant problems like maternal anemia, low birth weight, premature births, and still birth. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and predictors of asymptomatic Plasmodium infection among pregnant women in the rural surroundings of Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study comprising multistage sampling was conducted between April and June, 2013. Socio-demographic data were collected by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Plasmodium infection was diagnosed by using Giemsa-stained blood smear microscopy and a rapid diagnostic test (SD BIOLINE Malaria Ag Pf/Pv POCT, standard diagnostics, inc., Korea). Results Of the total 341 pregnant women participated in this study, 9.1% (31/341) and 9.7% (33/341) were confirmed to be infected with Plasmodium species by microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), respectively. The geometric mean of parasite density was 2392 parasites per microliter (?l); 2275/ ?l for P. falciparum and 2032/ ?l for P. vivax. Parasitemia was more likely to occur in primigravidae (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 9.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.3–60.5), secundigravidae (AOR: 6.3, 95% CI: 2.9–27.3), using insecticide treated bed net (ITN) sometimes (AOR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.8- 57.9), not using ITN at all (AOR: 4.6, 95% CI: 1.4–14.4) compared to multigravidae and using ITN always, respectively. Conclusion Asymptomatic malaria in this study is low compared to other studies’ findings. Nevertheless, given the high risk of malaria during pregnancy, pregnant women essentially be screened for asymptomatic Plasmodium infection and be treated promptly via the antenatal care (ANC) services. PMID:25849587
Ayelet, G; Haftu, R; Jemberie, S; Belay, A; Gelaye, E; Sibhat, B; Skjerve, E; Asmare, K
The study was a combination of two investigations into active outbreaks of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in cattle in central Ethiopia and a retrospective analysis of outbreak reports between January 2007 and December 2011 covering the entire country. Active outbreaks were investigated in four districts of central Ethiopia: Adama, Wenji, Mojo and Welenchiti. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to acquire data at individual and herd levels, and tissue samples were collected for viral isolation and characterisation. The retrospective analyses showed that, during the five-year period, a total of 1,675 outbreaks were reported, with 62,176 cases and 4,372 deaths. The highest number of outbreaks was reported in Oromia (1,066), followed by Amhara (365) and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Region (123). Outbreaks were more frequently observed between September and December and the highest number of outbreaks was reported in 2010. During the period studied, a total of 2,174 local zebu cattle were clinically examined and morbidity and mortality rates of 13.61% (296) and 4.97% (108) were recorded, respectively. Analysis of the active outbreaks revealed a relatively consistent morbidity rate, with the highest observed in Adama (15.38%), followed by Wenji (10.26%). The highest mortality rates were also observed in Adama (5.89%) and Wenji (3.42%). The LSD virus was isolated from 22 samples and all tested positive in polymerase chain reaction analysis. The disease was observed in the cattle regardless of previous vaccination with Kenyan sheep- and goat-pox vaccine; thus, vaccine efficacy was assessed under field conditions and the authors' findings, together with a possible remedy, are presented in this paper. PMID:25812211
Pegurri, Elisabetta; Konings, Elke; Crandall, Bud; Haile-Selassie, Hiwot; Matinhure, Nelia; Naamara, Warren; Assefa, Yibeltal
Objective As elsewhere, due to scarcity of data and limited awareness of HIV infection, especially in older children, the HIV epidemic among Ethiopian children appears neglected in national programs (children ART coverage is of only 12% in 2013). This paper estimates the country burden of HIV in older children and investigates the prevalence of HIV in orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) households. Design/Methods We analyzed national HIV data for Ethiopia, using Spectrum/ Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) and primary data on children living in households with at least one HIV-positive adult in the Amhara and Tigrai regions. Descriptive analysis of the age and sex distribution of HIV-positive OVC in Ethiopia was performed. Results Our Spectrum/EPP analysis estimated the population of HIV-positive children under 15 years old to be 160,000 in 2013. The majority of children (81•6%) were aged five to 14 years. The estimated number of orphans due to AIDS was 800,000. The empirical data from almost 10,000 OVC under 18 years showed 11•9% were HIV-positive, the majority of whom were between five and 10 years old with no significant difference between males and females. Conclusions There is a large population of children living with HIV in Ethiopia, the magnitude of which not previously recognized. The majority were vertically infected and never identified nor linked into treatment. OVC represent a reachable group which could account for a substantial proportion of the HIV infected older children. We recommend that HIV programs urgently synergize with social protection sectors and address these children with HIV testing and related services. PMID:25879446
Steenhuis, Tammo; Collick, Amy; Wondie, Ayalew; Jemberu, Tsehai
This presentation will highlight our experience in teaching 19 Master's students from diverse backgrounds hydrology and watershed management in Ethiopia. Although the program was based at Bahir Dar University on the shores of Lake Tana in Ethiopia, the students received an US degree. The goal was to train professionals who can help to institute more effective and sustainable watershed management practices in Ethiopia. Teaching hydrology was a challenge. From the literature and personal observation, it was obvious that the traditional techniques of predicting runoff based on infiltration excess runoff and SCS curve number method were not satisfactory. Saturation excess runoff was more likely. However there was no research to prove that it actually was the case. In class we taught both runoff principles but stressed the saturation excess runoff. It was impossible to convince the students that the techniques that came from the western world be incorrect. For their Masters thesis, eight students did field research on runoff and erosion processes in watershed (some of which has a long record of discharge and sediment data). The students recorded water table heights, measured infiltration rates and determined where most erosion took place in the landscape. Based on this data they modeled the previously observed discharge successful using a saturation excess type model. From these studies we could establish that saturation in the landscape had a great effect on both runoff and sediment losses. As result of the field work, students had changed their mind about the appropriateness of using for example the SCS curve number method in Ethiopian highlands Perhaps the lesson to be learned is that we do not need a lot of funds to teach students the right hydrology. However, there is no substitute for going out in the field and experiencing what the right hydrology is by studying the processes in the landscape itself. By simply teaching in class, students will and cannot accept that the hydrologic processes that were taught for a century might be incorrect.
Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Wookey, J.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.
is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow, or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study, we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and we directly invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due to shear segregated melt along sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominates the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from regions with significant lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal and uppermost mantle magma storage dominate the signal in localized regions. In general, little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle beneath Afar suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is lacking beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates flow in the upper mantle.
Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Deneer, John W; Van den Brink, Paul J
Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small stream and for two types of small ponds. Seven selected pesticides were selected since they were estimated to bear the highest risk to humans on the basis of volume of use, application rate and acute and chronic human toxicity, assuming exposure as a result of the consumption of surface water. Potential ecotoxicological risks were not considered as a selection criterion at this stage. Estimates of exposure concentrations in surface water were established using modelling software also applied in the EU registration procedure (PRZM and TOXSWA). Input variables included physico-chemical properties, and data such as crop calendars, irrigation schedules, meteorological information and detailed application data which were specifically tailored to the Ethiopian situation. The results indicate that for all the pesticides investigated the acute human risk resulting from the consumption of surface water is low to negligible, whereas agricultural use of chlorothalonil, deltamethrin, endosulfan and malathion in some crops may result in medium to high risk to aquatic species. The predicted environmental concentration estimates are based on procedures similar to procedures used at the EU level and in the USA. Addition of aquatic macrophytes as an ecotoxicological endpoint may constitute a welcome future addition to the risk assessment procedure. Implementation of the methods used for risk characterization constitutes a good step forward in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia. PMID:25481716
Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe
In Ethiopia, information on the transmission of human zoonotic pathogens through ixodid ticks remains scarce. To address the occurrence and molecular identity of spotted fever group rickettsiae using molecular tools, a total of 767 ixodid ticks belonging to thirteen different species were collected from domestic animals from September 2011 to March 2014. Rickettsia africae DNA was detected in 30.2% (16/53) Amblyommma variegatum, 28.6% (12/42) Am. gemma, 0.8% (1/119) Am. cohaerens, 18.2% (4/22) Amblyomma larvae, 6.7% (2/60) Amblyomma nymphs, 0.7% (1/139) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus and 25% (1/4) nymphs of Rh. (Bo.) decoloratus. A markedly low prevalence of R. africae was recorded in both Am. cohaerens and Rh. (Bo.) decoloratus (p<0.0001) compared with that in Am. variegatum and Am. gemma. The prevalence of R. africae was markedly low in the western districts (Gachi and Abdela) (p<0.0001); however, the prevalence of R. africae was relatively high in the central (Ada'a, Wolmara and Arsi) and eastern (Arero, Moyale and Yabelo) districts, where Am. variegatum and Am. gemma were predominantly associated with R. africae, respectively. R. aeschlimannii DNA was detected in 45.4% (5/11) Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and 2.2% (1/46) Hy. truncatum. Moreover, the first report of R. massiliae DNA in 1.9% (1/52) Rhipicephalus praetextatus ticks in Ethiopia is presented herein. Altogether, these results suggest that the transmission of spotted fever group rickettsiae through ixodid ticks is a potential risk for human health in different parts of Ethiopia. Clinicians in this country should consider these pathogens as a potential cause of febrile illness in patients. PMID:25262832
Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad
Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (P<0.0003) and both sheep and cattle had higher rates of infection compared to goats (P<0.0001). Four species of Theileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact. PMID:24360645
Yared, Adanech; Demissie, Solomon S.; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Viglione, Alberto; MacAlister, Charlotte
Hydrological variability and seasonality is one of the Ethiopia's primary water resource management challenges. Variability is most obviously manifest in endemic, devastating droughts and floods. While the level of flooding is quite often extremely high and destroys human beings and property, in many cases flooding is of vital importance because the community benefits from flood recession agriculture. This is the case of the lower Omo plain whose agriculture is based on the regularity of the inundations due to flooding of the Omo Gibe River. The big flood in 2006, which caused death for more than 300 people and 2000 cattle, poses a dilemma. Flooding must be controlled and regulated in a way that the damages are reduced as much as possible but the flooding-related benefits are not lost. To this aim, characterization and understanding of hydrological variability of the Omo Gibe River basin is fundamental. The goal of this work is to extract the maximal amount of information on the hydrological variability and specially on the flooding regime from the few data available in the region. Because most of the basin is ungauged, hydrological information is reconstructed using the data from 9 gauged catchments. A daily water balance model has been developed, calibrated and validated for 9 gauged catchments and, subsequently, the parameters have been correlated to catchment characteristics in order to establish a functional relationship that allows to apply the model to ungauged catchments. Daily streamflow has been predicted for 15 ungauged catchments, which are assumed to comprehensively represent the hydrological variability of the Omo-Gibe River Basin. Even though both northern and southern catchments are affected by a strong seasonality of precipitation, with most of the rain falling in less than 3 months, most of the northern catchments are humid, while in the southern part of the Omo-Gibe River basin, the catchments are either humid, dry sub humid, semiarid or arid. As for climate, also landscape and vegetation cover is more homogeneous in the northern part of the Omo Gibe River basin than in the southern part. Consequently, the runoff variability reflects the interesting diversity of climate and landscape of the basin. The gradient of flooding regimes from the north to the south of the Omo Gibe River basin will be analysed and the impacts of possible regime changes will be discussed.
Abattoirs as Non-Hospital Source of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Producers: Confirmed by the Double Disc Synergy Test and Characterized by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry
Ikegbunam, Moses Nkechukwu; Anagu, Linda Onyeka; Iroha, Ifeanyi R.; Ejikeugwu, Chika Ebiye; Esimone, Charles Okey
In this study, the presence of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms in abattoirs, a non-hospital community was investigated. The presence of ESBL-producing phenotypes was confirmed by the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST). Out of the 99 isolates screened for ESBL, 28 (28.3%) were confirmed positive. The positive isolates were characterised by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of flight Mass Spectrometry. 50% of the isolates were Pseudomonas spp., the rest were different species of Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas and Achromobacter. Pseudomonas monteilli and Pseudomonas putida were the most occurring in the intestine. The entire positive ESBL producers were subjected to plasmid curing to ascertain the location of the resistant marker. The result of the plasmid curing indicated that the resistant genes were chromosomally borne. The findings have therefore established the presence of ESBL producing organisms in the gut of animals from abattoirs and the table were the meat are sold, and its rate of occurrence is comparable to hospital ICUs. Abattoir communities could probably be a source of human infection with ESBL expressing pathogens and possible transfer to non-ESBL producers. PMID:24728403
Keywords: Wheat,Triticum<\\/span>spp<\\/span>., Barley,Hordeum<\\/span>vulgare<\\/span> L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, Syria <\\/o:p><\\/ins><\\/span><\\/span>
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
incisions and fast destruction of the pedological and vertisolic cover. A morphostructural analysis (Bardin or geomorphological study. Studies on the Early Paleolithic site of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia - 2004: 83-92. #12;G
Kim, Christina Sujin
The WFP's transport of food aid to Ethiopia's landlocked population is constrained by supply chain bottlenecks at the port, and limited availability of trucks for inland transport. How can the WFP supply chain be optimized ...
Endo, Noriko S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
This thesis applies the HYDRology, Entomology and MAlaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS) to the environment around a water resources reservoir in Ethiopia. HYDREMATS was modified to simulate the local hydrology and the ...
Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H O; Lemenih, Mulugeta
Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time-before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term. PMID:24488085
Tonini, F.; Hochmair, H. H.; Jona Lasinio, G.
The analysis and forecasting of extreme climatic events has become increasingly relevant to planning effective financial and food-related interventions in third-world countries. Natural disasters and climate change, both large and small scale, have a great impact on non-industrialized populations who rely exclusively on activities such as crop production, fishing, and similar livelihood activities. It is important to identify the extent of the areas prone to severe drought conditions in order to study the possible consequences of the drought on annual crop production. In this paper, we aim to identify such areas within the South Tigray zone, Ethiopia, using a transformation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) called Absolute Difference NDVI (ADVI). Negative NDVI shifts from the historical average can generally be linked to a reduction in the vigor of local vegetation. Drought is more likely to increase in areas where negative shifts occur more frequently and with high magnitude, making it possible to spot critical situations. We propose a new methodology for the assessment of drought risk in areas where crop production represents a primary source of livelihood for its inhabitants. We estimate ADVI return levels pixel per pixel by fitting extreme value models to independent monthly minima. The study is conducted using SPOT-Vegetation (VGT) ten-day composite (S10) images from April 1998 to March 2009. In all short-term and long-term predictions, we found that central and southern areas of the South Tigray zone are prone to a higher drought risk compared to other areas.; Temporal autocorrelation among monthly minima within the Alamata woreda. (a) ACF-Boxplot and (b) PACF-Boxplot. ; ADVI return level estimates. (a) 10-Month return levels. (b) 100-Month return levels. (c) 1000-Month return levels.
Mesfin, Fisseha; Demissew, Sebsebe; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun
Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR). Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF) were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'). Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71%) from natural vegetation and 27 (29%) from home gardens. Forty-five (62%) were used for humans, 15(21%) for livestock and 13(18%) for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2%) were Shrubs, 28(34.5%) herbs, 17 (20.9%) trees and 1(1.2%) climbers. The root (35.8%) was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4%) in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%). Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies. PMID:19821994
Background Infections account for up to a half of neonatal deaths in low income countries. The umbilicus is a common source of infection in such settings. This qualitative study investigates practices and perspectives related to umbilical cord care in Ethiopia. Methods In-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted in a district in each of the four most populous regions in the country: Oromia, Amhara, Tigray and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR). In each district, one community was purposively selected; and in each study community, IDIs were conducted with 6 mothers, 4 grandmothers, 2 Traditional Birth Attendants and 2 Health Extension Workers (HEWs). The two main questions in the interview guide related to cord care were: How was the umbilical cord cut and tied? Was anything applied to the cord stump immediately after cutting/in the first 7 days? Why was it applied/not applied? Results The study elucidates local cord care practices and the rational for these practices. Concepts underlying cord tying practices were how to stem blood flow and facilitate delivery of the placenta. Substances were applied on the cord to moisturize it, facilitate its separation and promote healing. Locally recognized cord problems were delayed healing, bleeding or swelling. Few respondents reported familiarity with redness of the cord - a sign of infection. Grandmothers, TBAs and HEWs were influential regarding cord care. Conclusions This study highlights local rationale for cord practices, concerns about cord related problems and recognition of signs of infection. Behavioral change messages aimed at improving cord care including cleansing with CHX should address these local perspectives. It is suggested that HEWs and health facility staff target mothers, grandmothers, TBAs and other community women with messages and counseling. PMID:24742223
Azagegn, Tilahun; Asrat, Asfawossen; Ayenew, Tenalem; Kebede, Seifu
In central Ethiopia, litho-structural setup of the three sub-basins of the southern flank of the Middle Blue Nile basin (Guder, Muger and Jema) and the adjacent Upper Awash River basin have been investigated to develop conceptual groundwater flow model and to characterize the groundwater hydrodynamic relationship between the aquifer systems of the two basins. The development of conceptual groundwater flow model is based on interpretation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from SRTM and Landsat images together with field geological observation, integrated with existing boreholes lithologic logs and pumping test data. The litho-structural framework, reconstructed from regional stratigraphy and analysis of major regional fault systems, controls the size of recharge area for aquifer systems and aquifer distributions in the groundwater sub-basins. The study has indicated the distinctive geometric setting of the litho-strata of aquifers and aquicludes. The NW-SE trending horsts beneath the volcanic successions and the overlying volcanic ridges control aquifer distribution in the Guder, Muger and Jema groundwater sub-basins, while the E-W trending horsts control aquifer distribution between the Middle Blue Nile and the Upper Awash Rivers basins. Impermeable mudstone constitutes the upper part of the E-W oriented horst at the center of the Muger River sub-basin. This mudstone capped horst underlying the volcanic aquifers is a groundwater divide channeling recharged water in the Blue Nile basin partly towards the Upper Awash basin. Significant proportion of groundwater recharged in the Middle Blue Nile basin (Muger and Jema River sub-basins) contributes to the storage of the aquifer systems of the Upper Awash basin.
Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of NTDs, integrated mapping, rapid scale up of interventions and operational research into co implementation of intervention packages will be crucial. PMID:23095679
Amare Deribew; Markos Tesfaye; Yohannes Hailmichael; Ludwig Apers; Gemeda Abebe; Luc Duchateau; Robert Colebunders
BACKGROUND-: The relationship between TB\\/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB\\/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. METHODS-: We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB\\/HIV co-infected and 465
Abebe Alemu; Asmamaw Atnafu; Zelalem Addis; Yitayal Shiferaw; Takele Teklu; Biniam Mathewos; Wubet Birhan; Simon Gebretsadik; Baye Gelaw
Background In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant\\u000a causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths\\u000a and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and\\u000a associated risk factors
R. D. Pathak; Gurmeet Singh; Rakesh Belwal; R. F. I. Smith
This paper reports the results of a survey of 400 respondents in Ethiopia about factors generating corruption and the potential\\u000a of e-Governance to mitigate corruption. It is suggested that e-Governance can help not only in weeding out corruption but\\u000a also in the establishment of sounder government citizen relationships in Ethiopia. While e-Governance cannot cure all the\\u000a structural factors that breed
Studies indicate that girls and women encounter sexual violence in their day-to-day social life in all cultures and societies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual violence against female students in Wolaita Sodo University; 374 female students provided responses to self-administered questionnaire. The study revealed 23.4% (95% CI = 18.7-27.3) attempted rape, 8.7% (95% CI = 3.6-12.9) completed rape, 24.2% (95% CI = 17.7-26.1) committed physical harassment, 18.7% (95% CI = 12.8-20.3) committed verbal harassment, and 11.3% (95% CI = 6.6-12.6) forced sexual initiation. Reported level of these perpetrations was experienced mainly at high school and during enrollment year in the university. Boyfriends, close friends, family members and relatives, school and university teachers, other employees, and strangers were found to be the key perpetrators of sexual violence against women. Interventions are required to create a safe learning environment for female students through prevention and rehabilitation programs. PMID:23400881
Tora, Abebayehu; Franklin, Hannah; Deribe, Kebede; Reda, Ayalu A; Davey, Gail
Studies have indicated that social stigma related to podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) has a major impact on the psychosocial wellbeing of patients. However, little effort has been made so far to quantify the level of both felt and enacted stigma in a range of domains of life. We used a recently developed podoconiosis stigma assessment scale to measure levels of stigma as recalled over the previous 12 months. One hundred and fifty patients with podoconiosis rated the levels of stigma they perceived and experienced in 'interpersonal interactions', 'major life areas' and 'community, social and civic life'. High levels of stigma were observed on both felt and enacted stigma scales. The overall average stigma score was 40.7 (range 0 to 96). Enacted stigma was scored higher than felt stigma (mean score 21.2 vs. 19.5, respectively). The mean enacted stigma score was higher in 'major life areas', and 'community, social and civic life' than 'interpersonal interactions', while felt stigma was experienced most at the interpersonal level. Over half of patients reported that they had considered suicide in response to discrimination and prejudice, particularly in interpersonal interactions. Forced divorce, dissolution of marriage plan, insults and exclusion at social events were some of the most commonly mentioned forms of enacted stigma reported by affected individuals. Scores for overall level of stigma and enacted stigma increased significantly with stage of podoconiosis while the association observed in relation to felt stigma was only marginally significant (p = 0.085). Appropriate stigma reduction strategies must be identified and implemented in communities highly endemic for podoconiosis. PMID:25485190
Studies indicate that girls and women encounter sexual violence in their day-to-day social life in all cultures and societies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual violence against female students in Wolaita Sodo University; 374 female students provided responses to self-administered questionnaire. The study revealed 23.4% (95%…
Fekadu, Abebaw; Teferra, Solomon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Addissie, Adamu; Deressa, Wakgari; Yimer, Getnet; Reja, Ahmed
Low income countries like Ethiopia are underrepresented in clinical research. As a major public commitment to clinical research, Ethiopia celebrated the International Clinical Trial Day (ICTD) for the first time on 20 May 2014 under the auspices of Addis Ababa University. The motto for the day was 'Clinical Trials for Excellence in Patient Care'. The celebration offered an opportunity to inform academic staff, researchers, students and the leadership about clinical trials being conducted and to discuss the future of clinical trials in the country. Although clear challenges to the conduct of trials abound, clinical trials registered from Ethiopia in trial registration databases is increasing. Cross-country collaborations, international funding support, motivation of academic staff to conduct clinical trials and the commitment and engagement of the leadership in research are all improving. The overall impact of clinical trials is also encouraging. For example, some of the trials conducted in Ethiopia have informed treatment guidelines. However, administrative capacity, research infrastructure as well as financial support remain weak. There is a need for enhanced university-industry linkage and translation of research findings into locally relevant evidence. Ethiopia, as well as the whole of Africa, has an unparalleled opportunity to lead the way in clinical trials, given its prospect of development and the need to have locally relevant evidence for its growing population. In this commentary we reflect on the celebration of ICTD, the status and opportunities for conducting clinical trials and the way forward for facilitating clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa. PMID:25526797
Bisaillon, J R; Feltmate, T E; Sheffield, S; Julian, R; Todd, E; Poppe, C; Quessy, S
This study was designed to review all grossly detectable abnormalities and conditions (GDACs) encountered in poultry in Canadian abattoirs to determine which have potential to cause adverse health effects for the consumer. Review of the literature and consultation with scientists in the field of microbiology, epidemiology, poultry pathology, chemistry, and meat inspection served to generate an inventory of GDACs, and a decision tree containing algorithms was developed to identify GDACs potentially representing a health hazard to consumers. Through the use of the decision tree, GDACs were classified into different categories with regard to the risk they represent to humans. A number of GDACs were identified as being of potential concern from a food safety perspective, namely Erysipelas, fowl cholera, Campylobacteriosis, clostridial diseases, hepatitis/enteritis associated with Helicobacter, Listeriosis, Salmonella infections (nontyphoid infections, Salmonella arizonae, pullorum disease, and fowl typhoid), Staphylococcosis, and Toxoplasmosis. Further characterization--i.e., hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization--is required to quantify or better characterize the probability that products derived from affected carcasses may affect the consumer as well as the resulting consequences. Risk assessment is a dynamic process. Results presented in this paper are based on available information and expert opinion. As new information is obtained, the inventory of GDACs and their classification may be modified. PMID:11770626
Rampey, Michael L.; Oppenheimer, Clive; Pyle, David M.; Yirgu, Gezahegn
Despite their significance for understanding the potential environmental factors involved in hominin evolution in Ethiopia, very few modern volcanologic studies have been carried out on the Quaternary calderas and associated silicic tephra deposits of the Ethiopian Rift. We present here the second of a set of papers reporting the findings of fieldwork and laboratory analyses of one of the largest of these structures, Kone Caldera, located within the Kone Volcanic Complex in the northern Main Ethiopian Rift. The most recent major episode of explosive eruptive activity at Kone Caldera was apparently associated with formation of part of the overall 8-km-diameter collapse area, and deposited a widely-dispersed alkali rhyolite tephra that reaches a thickness of up to 60 m in vent-proximal deposits. We report here the physical characteristics of this unit in order to constrain eruptive conditions. The pumice fall deposit suggests that an abrupt decrease in magma discharge rate occurred part way through the eruption.
Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M.
Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to semi-intensive producer, and require support to slowly build up a flock into a profitable venture. PMID:25466215
Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M
Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to semi-intensive producer, and require support to slowly build up a flock into a profitable venture. PMID:25466215
Background Medication administration errors in patient care have been shown to be frequent and serious. Such errors are particularly prevalent in highly technical specialties such as the intensive care unit (ICU). In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU is not studied. Objective To assess medication administration errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Prospective observation based cross-sectional study was conducted in the ICU of JUSH from February 7 to March 24, 2011. All medication interventions administered by the nurses to all patients admitted to the ICU during the study period were included in the study. Data were collected by directly observing drug administration by the nurses supplemented with review of medication charts. Data was edited, coded and entered in to SPSS for windows version 16.0. Descriptive statistics was used to measure the magnitude and type of the problem under study. Results Prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU of JUSH was 621 (51.8%). Common administration errors were attributed to wrong timing (30.3%), omission due to unavailability (29.0%) and missed doses (18.3%) among others. Errors associated with antibiotics took the lion's share in medication administration errors (36.7%). Conclusion Medication errors at the administration phase were highly prevalent in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Supervision to the nurses administering medications by more experienced ICU nurses or other relevant professionals in regular intervals is helpful in ensuring that medication errors don’t occur as frequently as observed in this study. PMID:22559252
Robinson, W C; Yamazaki, F
This paper deals with the economic development of Ethiopia in the 3 decades between 1950 and 1980. In particular, it examines governmental efforts at agricultural planning during this period compared to the actual experience of the country. The dominant forces governing the changes that occurred in this period were accelerated population growth and the declining availability of arable land, which combined to push a fragile, traditional ecosystem to the brink of disaster. Government planning efforts had little impact in the pre-1974 period, since they were too modest and small scale to affect the highly traditional and primitive mode of peasant cultivation. The sweeping structural changes introduced by the new regime since 1974 seem to have mainly adverse effects and to have decreased both productivity and yields. Ethiopia lacks the basic infrastructure and incentive system to create an environment in which technological change is possible. Presumably the declining agricultural growth rate from 1953 to 1974 suggests that the traditional, prerevolution system was failing to create these favorable conditions and hence was losing the race with population growth. The post-1974 revolutionary government's policy has been, in effect, an effort to jump to an advanced phase of agricultural development, and this seems to have been even less successful. These plans have, in all fairness, been hamstrung since 1981 by drought, famine, and civil war, but have probably themselves contributed to the severity of those events. Overall, Ethiopian agricultural planning has not been notably successful. From 1953-1980, total agricultural production is estimated to have grown at a slowly decreasing rate. The collapse of agriculture due to several years of drought obviously cannot be blamed on government planning, but its severity clearly has been at least partly a function of policy failures. PMID:12280692
De Waal, A; Taffesse, A Seyoum; Carruth, L
Droughts in Ethiopia have commonly been associated with increased child mortality. Early indications were that the 2002/03 drought, which affected 13.2 million people, was no exception, despite a large relief operation. Humanitarian agencies reported sharp increases in child deaths and pockets of acute distress in some hard-hit localities. In response, the 2004 Ethiopia Child Survival Survey (ECSS) was designed to investigate the impact of the drought on child survival in the general population. The survey covered 4816 households in both drought-affected and non-drought affected, as well as rural and urban localities. Data from the ECSS indicate that child mortality was indeed higher in drought-affected areas. However, a closer analysis reveals that this differential is attributable to chronic conditions in those localities, rather than the immediate impact of the 2002/03 drought. Multivariate analysis was used to construct a model for the determinants of child survival in the sample population. Household-level demographic factors, household-level food and livelihood security, community-level economic production, and access to potable water, were predictive of child survival. Additionally, household receipt of food aid had a small but significant positive association with child survival, even though the ECSS cannot determine either the underlying causal mechanisms of this association or the role of confounding factors. Nonetheless, it is remarkable that the most extensive drought in the country's modern history passed without a measurable increase in child mortality among the general population. Yet Ethiopian children still suffer unacceptably high rates of chronic malnutrition and poor life chances, and large populations continue to live at the brink of destitution and calamity. PMID:19153901
Despite a record of mineral activity that dates back to Biblical times and the occurrence of a wide variety of minerals, as well as continuing efforts to discover major ore deposits, Ethiopia's mineral resources ahve remained of minor importance in the world economy. Mineral production in the last 20 years, for example, forms less than 1% of the estimated GDP. Well known minerals andmineral products available in the country in commercial quantities are: gold, platinum, manganese ore, natural agas, clays and clay products, feldspars, gypsum and anhydrite, slat, lime, limestone, cement, sand, structural and crushed stones, marble, mineral water and pumice. There are also vast reserves of water and geothermal power. Recently discovered deposits (over the last 20 years), with major reserves that may attain an important role in mineral production in the future, include potash salts, copper ore and diatomites. Minerals which are known to occur in Ethiopia, but of which supplies are deficient, or which have not yet been proved to exist in economic quantities are: nickel, iron, chromium, mineral fuels (oil, coal and uranium), sulphur, asbesttos, mica, talc, barytes, fluorites, borates, soda-ash, phosphates, wolframite, abrasives (garnet), molybdenite and vanadium. Within the last few years there has been an increasing appreciation of the economic significance of a mineral industry and a definite attempt to foster it. Mineral ownership is vested in the state are cotnrolled by the MInistry of Mines, Energy and Water Resources. The law relating to foreign investment in mines is liberal. The plans for the future have to provide for detailed and intensive exploration of the country's mineral resources, manufacture and fabrication.
Belachew, Tefera; Yimam, Ebrahim
Background. Workplace turnover is destructive to nursing and patient outcomes as it leads to losing competent and qualified nurses. However, developments of coping strategies demand a clear understanding of workplace variables that either motivate nurses to remain employed or lead them to leave their current jobs. Objective. This study was designed toassess factors influencing job satisfaction and intention to turnover among nurses in Sidama zone public health facilities, in Southern Ethiopia. Method. Cross-sectional study design was carried out on 278 nurses using both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods from May 12 to June 05, 2010. Result. A total of 242 nurses were interviewed giving a response rate of 87%. Nearly two-third (68.6%) of the participants were female, and the mean age was 28 (±6.27) years for both sexes. All job satisfaction subscale except benefit and salary subscale were significant predictors of overall job satisfaction. Satisfactions with work environment and group cohesion (AOR: 0.25 [95% CI: 0.12, 0.51]), single cohesion (AOR: 2.56 [95% CI: 1.27, 5.13]), and working in hospital (AOR: 2.19 [95% CI: 1.12, 4.30]) were the final significant predictors of anticipated turnover of Sidama zone nurses. Conclusions. More than any factors managers should consider the modification of working environment and group cohesions rather than trying to modify nurses to retain and maintain more experienced nurses for the organizations. PMID:24707397
The honey bees of Ethiopia represent a new subspecies of Apis mellifera--Apis mellifera simensis n that the Ethiopian bees are clearly distinct and statistically separable from honey bees belonging to neighboring this population. There is no indication for the presence of more than one subspecies of honey bee in Ethiopia
Gani, Nahid DS
Remote sensing analysis of the Gorge of the Nile, Ethiopia with emphasis on DejenGohatsion region and geomorphological information in order to understand the geological controls on the Gorge of the Nile in Ethiopia in extracting the river's geometric properties and the analysis of drainage network. (2) ASTER band (7
Jeylan Wolyie Hussein
This paper deals with the politics of language, power and pedagogy in Ethiopia, with a focus on the past and present conditions of the Oromo language. The paper evaluates the major historico-political factors that constrained the linguistic human rights of the Oromo during Haile Sellassie's and Mengistu's Ethiopia, and reflects on the status of the Oromo language and the divergent
Tadesse Woldemariam Gole
Coffee is the second most important exported commodity on earth, next to oil. It is the source of foreign currency for many developing countries in the tropics. For instance, Ethiopia used to get upto 67% of its income from foreign exchange. About 25% of Ethiopia's 65 million population depend on coffee for their livelihood. The Ethiopian coffee is also important
Brest, UniversitÃ© de
High-resolution sedimentary record of the last deglaciation from a high-altitude lake in Ethiopia J long core collected from Lake Garba Guracha (Ethiopia) associated with a precise AMS-14 C time-altitude glacier in the Bale Mountains since 17,000 yr cal BP. Lake sedimentation is interpreted as the result
Hamidi, A; Irsigler, H; Jaeger, D; Muschaller, A; Fries, R
Water used in a modern poultry processing line was tested from October 2005 to June 2006 to determine the level of bacteria in an abattoir in Germany. A total of 420 water samples were taken from 14 processing sites (PSs), at 10 times, and from three different hours of the working shift at three sampling hours (SHs) at 5:00 a.m. (SH 1), 9:00 a.m. (SH 2) and 12:00 a.m. (SH 3). Each sample was assessed for the aerobic plate count (APC) and the prevalence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria and Yersinia over 30 sampling weeks. The APC numbers of each PS from three SHs were compared, and the prevalence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria and Yersinia from each PS of three SHs was determined as well as change from the initial PS to the end of the processing line. A total of 46 water samples were positive for Salmonella, 120 positive for Campylobacter and 4 positive for Listeria. None of the water samples was found to be positive for Yersinia. During the course of the day, the APC increased. Salmonella was mostly found during SH 1 (5 a.m.) in water from all PSs. A high number of Campylobacter were observed at SH 2 (9 a.m.) and SH 3 (12 a.m.) from all PSs. The results show that water, which is still used in substantial amounts in present poultry processing technology, can serve as a carrier for Salmonella and Campylobacter. The findings indicate that birds might progressively contaminate the equipment and become contaminated via the same equipment, that water at every processing position of the line constitutes a risk and that more attention should be paid to effective water management in the processing plan. PMID:25188272
Milas, S; Latif, J A
During the 1980s Ethiopia experienced the effects of conflict, drought and famine on a scale far greater than many CPEs elsewhere. In May 1991, after the decisive defeat of the military dictatorship of Mengistu Haile Mariam by the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) and after decades of civil war, drought and famine, Ethiopia faced the prospects of peace and of much needed development. This paper explores both Ethiopia's experience of conflict and humanitarian intervention in areas of Tigray held by the Tigray Peoples' Liberation Front (TPLF) during the 1980s, and its experience of post-conflict rehabilitation and reconstruction in the 1990s. It first deals with the roots of the conflicts within Ethiopia: political marginalisation, heavy state intervention and highly extractive relations between state and peasants, inappropriate and failed development policies, ethnic identity and the politicisation of ethnicity. The Mengistu regime's counter-insurgency measures are then contrasted with the policies and programmes of the TPLF, Ethiopia's most effective opposition movement and the leading element in the EPRDF, and its achievements in mobilising popular support: its establishment of democratically elected structures of local governance and its famine relief distribution programme. PMID:11138371
Background Globally, an estimated 287 000 maternal deaths occurred in 2010 annually as a result of complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia were accounted for 85% of the global burden (245 000 maternal deaths) including Ethiopia. Obstetric related complications cannot be reliably predicted. Hence, insignificant decline of maternal mortality ratio might be due to the non use of birth preparedness and complication readiness strategies. Therefore, this paper aimed to assess knowledge and practices towards birth preparedness and complication readiness and associated factors among women of reproductive age group (15–49) in Robe Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Method Community-based cross-sectional study supplemented by qualitative design was conducted in January, 2012. A total of 575 women from 5 kebeles were selected after proportionally allocated to population size and interviewed using structured and semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaires. Univariate and bivariate analysis was performed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also done to control for possible confounding variables. Results Taking into account place of delivery identification, means of transportation, skilled attendant identification and saving money, about 16.5% of the respondents were prepared for birth and its complications. Preparation for birth and its complication was higher among educated mothers (AOR?=?6.23, 95% CI?=?1.5, 25.87). Monthly income of >716 Ethiopian birr (AOR?=?1.94, 95% CI?=?1.01, 3.87), ANC visit (AOR?=?5.68, 95% CI?=?1.27, 25.4), knowledge of obstetric complications (AOR?=?2.94, 95% CI?=?1.61, 5.37) and those who had given birth at health facility before their last delivery (AOR?=?3.9, 95% CI?=?2.04, 7.46) were also significantly associated with birth preparedness and complication readiness. Conclusion The study identified very low magnitude of birth preparedness and complication readiness in the study area and poor knowledge and practices of preparation for birth and its complication. Community education about preparation for birth and its complication and empowerment of women through expansion of educational opportunities are important steps in improving birth preparedness. In all health facilities during antenatal care emphasis should given to preparation for birth and its complication and provide information and education to all pregnant women. PMID:25038820
Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the Beechmont Historic District, showing changes in landscaping, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY
Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Bortel, Wim Van; Denis, Leen; Coosemans, Marc; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko
The status of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation was investigated in the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) from Ethiopia. Among 240 mosquito samples from 15 villages of southwestern Ethiopia that were screened by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for kdr mutations, the West African kdr mutation (L1014F) was detected in almost all specimens (98.5%), whereas the East African kdr mutation (L1014S) was absent. Moreover, the mortality of An. gambiae s.l. to diagnostic dosages of 4% DDT, 0.75% permethrin, and 0.05% deltamethrin from bioassay results was 1.0%, 18.1%, and 82.2%, respectively. We report here the highest kdr allele frequency ever observed in An. arabiensis and its implications in malaria vector control in Ethiopia are discussed. PMID:20595490
Damtie, B.; Bosinger, T.; Usoskin, I.
This paper describes the potential of Ethiopia in establishing space research facilities and conducting collaborative research and training. It also describes the goals and objectives of a proposed cosmic ray station in Ethiopia which would greatly improve the abilities of the existing worldwide network for heliospheric and cosmic ray research. The station will be located at the geomagentic equator, which is a very unique place for geomagnetic and heliospheric studies. Moreover, the paper presents an overview of the research and training activities in space physics and the successful collaborative project between Ethiopia and Finland, which facilitated the installation of a pulsation magnetometer and a photometer at Entoto Mountain in a suburb of the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa.
Benoit, M. H.; Li, C.; van der Hilst, R.
Much of Eastern Africa, including Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania, has undergone extensive tectonism, including rifting, uplift, and volcanism during the Cenozoic. The cause of this tectonism is often attributed to the presence of one or more mantle upwellings, including starting thermal plumes and superplumes. Previous regional seismic studies and global tomographic models show conflicting results regarding the spatial and thermal characteristics of these upwellings. Additionally, there are questions concerning the extent to which the Archean and Proterozoic lithosphere has been altered by possible thermal upwellings in the mantle. To further constrain the mantle structure beneath Southern and Eastern Africa and to investigate the origin of the tectonism in Eastern Africa, we present preliminary results of a large-scale P wave travel time tomographic study of the region. We invert travel time measurements from the EHB database with travel time measurements taken from regional PASSCAL datasets including the Ethiopia Broadband Seismic Experiment (2000-2002); Kenya Broadband Seismic Experiment (2000-2002); Southern Africa Seismic Experiment (1997- 1999); Tanzania Broadband Seismic Experiment (1995-1997), and the Saudi Arabia PASSCAL Experiment (1995-1997). The tomographic inversion uses 3-D sensitivity kernels to combine different datasets and is parameterized with an irregular grid so that high spatial resolution can be obtained in areas of dense data coverage. It uses an adaptive least-squares context using the LSQR method with norm and gradient damping.
Background Accurate early diagnosis and prompt treatment is one of the key strategies to control and prevent malaria in Ethiopia where both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are sympatric and require different treatment regimens. Microscopy is the standard for malaria diagnosis at the health centres and hospitals whereas rapid diagnostic tests are used at community-level health posts. The current study was designed to assess malaria microscopy capacity of health facilities in Oromia Regional State and Dire Dawa Administrative City, Ethiopia. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2011 in 122 health facilities, where health professionals were interviewed using a pre-tested, standardized assessment tool and facilities’ laboratory practices were assessed by direct observation. Results Of the 122 assessed facilities, 104 (85%) were health centres and 18 (15%) were hospitals. Out of 94 health facilities reportedly performing blood films, only 34 (36%) used both thin and thick smears for malaria diagnosis. The quality of stained slides was graded in 66 health facilities as excellent, good and poor quality in 11(17%), 31 (47%) and 24 (36%) respectively. Quality assurance guidelines and malaria microscopy standard operating procedures were found in only 13 (11%) facilities and 12 (10%) had involved in external quality assessment activities, and 32 (26%) had supportive supervision within six months of the survey. Only seven (6%) facilities reported at least one staff’s participation in malaria microscopy refresher training during the previous 12 months. Although most facilities, 96 (79%), had binocular microscopes, only eight (7%) had the necessary reagents and supplies to perform malaria microscopy. Treatment guidelines for malaria were available in only 38 (31%) of the surveyed facilities. Febrile patients with negative malaria laboratory test results were managed with artemether-lumefantrine or chloroquine in 51% (53/104) of assessed health facilities. Conclusions The current study indicated that most of the health facilities had basic infrastructure and equipment to perform malaria laboratory diagnosis but with significant gaps in continuous laboratory supplies and reagents, and lack of training and supportive supervision. Overcoming these gaps will be critical to ensure that malaria laboratory diagnosis is of high-quality for better patient management. PMID:25073561
Thurmond, Allison K.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Thurmond, John B.
The advantages of integrating optical (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)) and radar (Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) - C, X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and RADARSAT-1) remote sensing data, and digital elevation models (DEMs) (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)) for geological mapping in arid regions such as the Afar Depression in Ethiopia are demonstrated. The Afar Depression in NE Africa is a natural laboratory for studying processes of sea-floor spreading and the transition from rifting to true sea-floor spreading. It is ideal for geological remote sensing because of its vastness, remoteness and inaccessibility together with almost continuous exposure, and lack of vegetation and soil cover. Optical-radar-DEM remote sensing data integration is used for: (1) Distinguishing spatial and temporal distribution of individual lava flows in the Quaternary Erta 'Ale Volcanic Range in the northern part of the Afar Depression, by integrating band-ratios of ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) data with Landsat ETM+ visible and near infrared (VNIR) and SIR-C/X-SAR L-band ( ? = 24 cm) data with horizontally transmitted and horizontally received (HH) polarization. (2) Visualizing and interpreting extensional imbrication fans that constitute part of the Dobe Graben in the central part of the Afar Depression by integrating Landsat ETM+ VNIR data with RADARSAT C-band ( ? = 6 cm) data with HH polarization and SRTM DEMs. These imbrication fans were developed as layer-parallel gravitational slip of the border fault hanging-wall towards the graben center. (3) Mapping morphologically defined structures in rhyolite flows exposed on the flanks of the Tendaho Rift by merging ASTER VNIR and short wave infrared (SWIR) with RADARSAT C-band data with HH polarization. The Tendaho Rift constitutes part of the Tendaho-Gobaad Discontinuity that separates the southern and the central eastern parts of the Afar Depression. Optical-radar-DEM data integration proved to be an effective approach for aiding geological mapping and structural analysis in arid regions such as the Afar Depression.
Levels and trends of fertility in the Arsi and Shoa regions of Central Ethiopia are examined, using data from the 1986 Population, Health and Nutrition baseline survey of the Ministry of Health of Ethiopia. The population has high fertility. Total fertility of six children per woman in the late 1960s increased to eight children per woman in the early 1980s, then declined to seven children per woman in the mid-1980s. Urban fertility declined by a substantial amount during the 15 years before the survey while rural fertility increased during the same period. The implications of high fertility are considered. PMID:1939287
Background Most maternal deaths take place during labour and within a few weeks after delivery. The availability and utilization of emergency obstetric care facilities is a key factor in reducing maternal mortality; however, there is limited evidence about how these institutions perform and how many people use emergency obstetric care facilities in rural Ethiopia. We aimed to assess the availability, quality, and utilization of emergency obstetric care services in the Gamo Gofa Zone of south-west Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of three hospitals and 63 health centres in Gamo Gofa. Using a retrospective review, we recorded obstetric services, documents, cards, and registration books of mothers treated and served in the Gamo Gofa Zone health facilities between July 2009 and June 2010. Results There were three basic and two comprehensive emergency obstetric care qualifying facilities for the 1,740,885 people living in Gamo Gofa. The proportion of births attended by skilled attendants in the health facilities was 6.6% of expected births, though the variation was large. Districts with a higher proportion of midwives per capita, hospitals and health centres capable of doing emergency caesarean sections had higher institutional delivery rates. There were 521 caesarean sections (0.8% of 64,413 expected deliveries and 12.3% of 4,231 facility deliveries). We recorded 79 (1.9%) maternal deaths out of 4,231 deliveries and pregnancy-related admissions at institutions, most often because of post-partum haemorrhage (42%), obstructed labour (15%) and puerperal sepsis (15%). Remote districts far from the capital of the Zone had a lower proportion of institutional deliveries (<2% of expected births compared to an overall average of 6.6%). Moreover, some remotely located institutions had very high maternal deaths (>4% of deliveries, much higher than the average 1.9%). Conclusion Based on a population of 1.7 million people, there should be 14 basic and four comprehensive emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facilities in the Zone. Our study found that only three basic and two comprehensive EmOC service qualifying facilities serve this large population which is below the UN’s minimum recommendation. The utilization of the existing facilities for delivery was also low, which is clearly inadequate to reduce maternal deaths to the MDG target. PMID:24180672
Fell, M J; Ayalew, Y; McClenaghan, F C; McGurk, M
Hyenas are effective hunters and will consider humans as potential prey if the need and opportunity arise. This study describes the circumstances of hyena attacks, the patterns of injuries sustained, and reconstruction in a resource-poor setting. As part of a charitable surgical mission to Ethiopia in 2012, 45 patients with facial deformities were reviewed, of whom four were victims of hyena attacks. A semi-structured interview was performed to ascertain the circumstances of the attack and the subsequent consequences. The age of the victims at the time of attack varied from 5 to 50 years. The attacks occurred when the victims were alone and vulnerable and took place in outdoor open spaces, during the evening or at night. The initial lunge was made to the facial area; if the jaws closed on the facial bones they were crushed, but in all cases the soft tissues were grasped and torn from the underlying bone. Reconstruction was dictated by the extent of soft tissue loss but could normally be obtained by use of local or regional flaps. Hyenas have been shown to attack humans in a predictable way and cause injuries that typically involve the soft tissues of the face. PMID:25132572
Wynn, Jonathan G; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K; Wilson, Jessica N
The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4-2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa. PMID:23733965
Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Grant, Stephanie L; Thomas, David G; Kennedy, Tay S; Berhanu, Getenesh; Stoecker, Barbara J; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Hambidge, K Michael
Several recent studies have supported relations between infant behaviour (alertness and responsiveness) and nutrition in addition to investigating infant behaviour within the context of changes in iron status over time. Existing research is typically limited to the investigation of the effects of a single vitamin or mineral, and no studies have been found that examined the influence that early alertness and responsiveness have on growth in early infancy, despite the fact that relations between behaviour and nutritional status may be bidirectional. The current study used a sample of Ethiopian infants and investigated anthropometrics, haemoglobin, the frequency of alertness and the frequency of responsiveness at 6 and 9 months of age. Six-month weight-for-age predicted 9-month frequency of alertness, while 6-month haemoglobin predicted 9-month frequency of responsiveness. Compared with responsive infants, non-responsive infants at 6 months remained more non-responsive at 9 months, although weight-for-age for both groups converged at 9 months. Results support relations between nutrition and behaviour (alertness and responsiveness) and provide evidence of a potentially useful tool (the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery) that was adapted to evaluate these relations in Ethiopia. PMID:22233352
Wynn, Jonathan G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K.; Wilson, Jessica N.
The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4–2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa. PMID:23733965
Masuda, Yuta J.; Fortmann, Lea; Gugerty, Mary Kay; Smith-Nilson, Marla; Cook, Joseph
Time use researchers working in least developed countries (LDCs) face difficulties collecting data from illiterate populations who may conceptualize time differently than those in industrialized countries. We identify existing gaps in time use data collection methods and discuss two novel, pictorial methods to collect time use data from these populations. The first method is a modified recall interview modeled on participatory rural appraisal (PRA) methods that asks respondents to place macaroni on pictures of activity categories in proportion to the amount of time spent on that activity during the previous day. The second is a simplified pictorial time diary that uses a timer and sequentially-numbered stickers to re-create the temporal order of activities in 30-minute increments. The latter method also avoids recall bias problems. We present time use data collected in 2009 using these methods in a study examining the impacts of water infrastructure on women and children’s time use in rural Ethiopia. In total, we collected information using the first method from 263 household members over age 10, including 167 water collectors, and pilot-tested the pictorial diary approach with 10 adult respondents. PMID:25620832
Keflie, Tibebe Seyoum; Ameni, Gobena
Introduction Tuberculosis causes illness among millions of people each year and ranks as the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of microscopic examination and estimate risk of transmission of TB by smear negative pulmonary TB patients. Methods A cross-sectional study and retrospective data analysis on TB were undertaken in Northwest Shewa, Ethiopia. Microscopic examination, bacterial culture and PCR were performed. The statistical analysis was made by using STATA software version 10. Results A total of 92 suspected TB cases was included in the study. Of these, 27.17% (25/92) were positive for microscopic examination and 51% (47/92) for culture. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopic examination with 95% CI were 48.94% (34.08% to 63.93%) and 95.56% (84.82 to 99.33%), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 92% (73.93% to 98.78%) and 64.18% (51.53% to 75.53%), respectively. Of 8150 pulmonary TB cases in the retrospective study, 58.9% was smear negative. The proportion of TB-HIV co-infection was 28.66% (96/335). Conclusion The sensitivity of microscopic examination was 48.94% which was very low. The poor sensitivity of this test together with the advent of HIV/AIDS elevated the prevalence of smear negative pulmonary TB. This in turn increased the risk of TB transmission.
Tadeg, Hailu; Downing, Don; Suleman, Sultan; Bedada, Worku; Paulos, Getahun; Mekonnen, Hailemeskel; Negussu, Mekonnen; Bartlein, Rebecca; Stergachis, Andy
Objective. To describe the development, implementation, and initial outcomes of a pharmaceutical care training-of-trainers course developed to assist Ethiopian pharmacy faculty members and graduate students in the development of curriculum and provision of pharmaceutical care services of relevance to this low-income country. Design. In this collaboration, US and Ethiopian faculty members worked together in a week-long seminar and in hospital ward rounds to develop and offer a course to facilitate faculty members, curricular, and service development in pharmaceutical care in Ethiopia. Assessment. Assessments were conducted during the seminar, immediately post-seminar, at 3 months post-seminar, and at 1 year post-seminar. An examination was administered at the conclusion of the course to assess immediate learning outcomes for the graduate students. Post-course assessments of short-term (3-month) and longer-term (12-month) impact were conducted to identify pharmaceutical care services that had been implemented to assess knowledge and skill gained during the seminar. Correspondence between seminar participants and the US faculty members as well as graduate student thesis projects provided further evidence of changes at 3 and 12 months post-course. Conclusion. Pharmaceutical care training was developed for Ethiopian faculty members through a seminar and hospital ward rounds. Enhancements have been added to curricula for bachelor in pharmacy students and select pharmaceutical care services have been implemented through master's thesis projects. PMID:21969720
Takele, Yegnasew; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Tiruneh, Moges; Mohammed, Rezika; Lynen, Lutgarde; van Griensven, Johan
Background and Objectives. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the neglected diseases affecting the poorest segment of world populations. Sepsis is one of the predictors for death of patients with VL. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with bacterial sepsis, causative agents, and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among patients with VL. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among parasitologically confirmed VL patients suspected of sepsis admitted to the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, from February 2012 to May 2012. Blood cultures and other clinical samples were collected and cultured following the standard procedures. Results. Among 83 sepsis suspected VL patients 16 (19.3%) had culture confirmed bacterial sepsis. The most frequently isolated organism was Staphylococcus aureus (68.8%; 11/16), including two methicillin-resistant isolates (MRSA). Patients with focal bacterial infection were more likely to have bacterial sepsis (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The prevalence of culture confirmed bacterial sepsis was high, predominantly due to S. aureus. Concurrent focal bacterial infection was associated with bacterial sepsis, suggesting that focal infections could serve as sources for bacterial sepsis among VL patients. Careful clinical evaluation for focal infections and prompt initiation of empiric antibiotic treatment appears warranted in VL patients. PMID:24895569
Ayalew, Amare; Fehrmann, Hartmut; Lepschy, Johann; Beck, Robert; Abate, Dawit
The occurrence of mycotoxins in barley, sorghum, teff (Eragrostis tef) and wheat from Ethiopia has been studied. Samples were analyzed for aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEN) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and for fumonisins (FUM) using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). AFB1 and OTA were detected in samples of all the four crops. AFB1 was detected in 8.8% of the 352 samples analyzed at concentrations ranging from trace to 26 microg kg(-1). OTA occurred in 24.3% of 321 samples at a mean concentration of 54.1 microg kg(-1) and a maximum of 2106 microg kg(-1). DON occurred in barley, sorghum and wheat at 40-2340 microg kg(-1) with an overall incidence of 48.8% among the 84 mainly 'suspect' samples analyzed; NIV was co-analyzed with DON and was detected at 40 microg kg(-1) in a wheat sample and at 50, 380, and 490 microg kg(-1) in three sorghum samples. FUM and ZEN occurred only in sorghum samples with low frequencies at concentrations reaching 2117 and 32 microg kg(-1), respectively. The analytical results indicate higher mycotoxin contamination in sorghum, which could be related to the widespread storage of sorghum grain in underground pits leading to elevated seed moisture contents. This is the first report on the occurrence of OTA in teff. PMID:16830193
Burgi, Pierre-Yves; Caillet, Marc; Haefeli, Steven
The shield volcano Erta'Ale, situated in the Danakil Depression, Ethiopia, is known for its active lava lake. In February 2001, our team visited this lake, located inside an 80-m-deep pit, to perform field temperature measurements. The distribution and variation of temperature inside the lake were obtained on the basis of infrared radiation measurements performed from the rim of the pit and from the lake shores. The crust temperature was also determined from the lake shores with a thermocouple to calibrate the pyrometer. We estimated an emissivity of the basalt of 0.74 from this experiment. Through the application of the Stefan-Boltzmann law, we then obtained an estimate of the total radiative heat flux, constrained by pyrometer measurements of the pit, and visual observations of the lake activity. Taking into account the atmospheric convective heat flux, the convected magma mass flux needed to balance the energy budget was subsequently derived and found to represent between 510 and 580 kg s-1. The surface circulation of this mass flux was also analyzed through motion processing techniques applied to video images of the lake. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00445-002-0224-3.
Spampinato, L.; Oppenheimer, C.; Calvari, S.; Cannata, A.; Montalto, P.
Active lava lakes represent the uppermost portion of a volume of convective magma exposed to the atmosphere, and provide open windows on magma dynamics within shallow reservoirs. Erta ‘Ale volcano located within the Danakil Depression in Ethiopia, hosts one of the few permanent convecting lava lakes, active at least since the last century. We report here the main features of Erta ‘Ale lake surface investigated using a hand-held infrared thermal camera between 11 and 12 November 2006. In both days, the lake surface was mainly characterized by efficient magma circulation reflecting in the formation of well-marked incandescent cracks and wide crust plates. These crossed the lake from the upwelling to the downwelling margin with mean speeds ranging between 0.01 and 0.15 m s-1. Hot spots opened eventually in the middle of crust plates and/or along cracks. These produced explosive activity lasting commonly between ~10 and 200 sec. Apparent temperatures at cracks ranged between ~700 and 1070?C, and between ~300 and 500?C at crust plates. Radiant power output of the lake varied between ~45 and 76 MW according to the superficial activity and continuous resurfacing of the lake. Time series analysis of the radiant power output data reveals cyclicity with a period of ~10 min. The combination of visual and thermal observations with apparent mean temperatures and convection rates allows us to interpret these signals as the periodic release of hot overpressured gas bubbles at the lake surface.
A. Hailu; G. J. Schoone; E. Diro; A. Tesfaye; Y. Techane; T. Tefera; Y. Assefa; A. Genetu; Y. Kebede; T. Kebede; H. D. F. H. Schallig
A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of Leishmania antibodies in human serum samples was evaluated under harsh field conditions in northern Ethiopia. Test performance was compared with a standard serological test, namely the direct agglutination test (DAT), and with parasitology. In total, 103 suspected cases were recruited for the study. Based on parasitological examination, 49 patients were
. Introduction  In recent years, concern has increased over climate change caused by increasing concentrationsImpact of climate change on the hydroclimatology of Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia Shimelis G. Setegn,1; revised 3 January 2011; accepted 17 February 2011; published 19 April 2011.  Climate change has
Yohannes Haile-Selassie; Gen Suwa; Tim D. White
Late Miocene fossil hominid teeth recovered from Ethiopia's Middle Awash are assigned to Ardipithecus kadabba. Their primitive morphology and wear pattern demonstrate that A. kadabba is distinct from Ardipithecus ramidus. These fossils suggest that the last common ancestor of apes and humans had a functionally honing canine-third premolar complex. Comparison with teeth of Sahelanthropus and Orrorin, the two other named
Jean-Renaud Boisserie; Tim D. White
A new species of hippopotamid, Hexaprotodon bruiteti, sp. nov., was discovered in both the Hata Member of the Bouri Formation and at upper Maka in the Middle Awash study area of Ethiopia. Hexaprotodon bruiteti is characterized by an enlarged i3 and differs from all African fossil and living hippos in the shape of its mandibular symphysis. It has stronger phylogenetic
J. Desmond Clark; Yonas Beyene; Giday WoldeGabriel; William K. Hart; Paul R. Renne; Henry Gilbert; Alban Defleur; Gen Suwa; Shigehiro Katoh; Kenneth R. Ludwig; Jean-Renaud Boisserie; Berhane Asfaw; Tim D. White
Clarifying the geographic, environmental and behavioural contexts in which the emergence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens occurred has proved difficult, particularly because Africa lacked adequate geochronological, palaeontological and archaeological evidence. The discovery of anatomically modern Homo sapiens fossils at Herto, Ethiopia, changes this. Here we report on stratigraphically associated Late Middle Pleistocene artefacts and fossils from fluvial and lake margin
Tim D. White; Gen Suwa
A new species of Notochoerus, N. clarki, sp. nov., has been identified from three Pliocene Formations in Ethiopia, the Omo Shungura, Konso, and Bouri (Middle Awash). This taxon, formerly known from isolated dentognathic elements and attributed to a long-lasting Notochoerus euilus, represents the fourth species of Notochoerus to be recognized. Its temporal distribution shows that Notochoerus euilus was not the
Giday Woldegabriel; Tim D. White; Gen Suwa; Paul Renne; Jean de Heinzelin; William K. Hart; Grant Heiken
SEDIMENTARY deposits in the Middle Awash research area of Ethiopia's Afar depression have yielded vertebrate fossils including the most ancient hominids known. Radioisotopic dating, geochem-ical analysis of interbedded volcanic ashes and biochronological considerations place the hominid-bearing deposits at around 4.4 million years of age. Sedimentological, botanical and faunal evidence suggests a wooded habitat for the Aramis hominids.
Tim D. White; Gen Suwa; Berhane Asfaw
Seventeen hominoid fossils recovered from Pliocene strata at Aramis, Middle Awash, Ethiopia make up a series comprising dental, cranial and postcranial specimens dated to around 4.4 million years ago. When compared with Australopithecus afarensis and with modern and fossil apes the Aramis fossil hominids are recognized as a new species of Australopithecus---A. ramidus sp. nov. The antiquity and primitive morphology
Tanguy Bernard; Eleni Z. Gabre-Madhin; Alemayehu Seyoum Taffesse
This paper examines the impact of marketing cooperatives on smallholder commercialization of cereals using detailed household data in rural Ethiopia. We use the strong government role in promoting the establishment of cooperatives to justify the use of propensity score matching in order to compare households that are cooperative members to similar households in comparable areas without cooperatives. The analysis reveals
Tewodros Alemayehu; Martin Dietzel; Albrecht Leis
The groundwater from volcanic aquifer is the main source for water supply of the Axum town in semi-arid region of northern Ethiopia. Poor quality of groundwater from high yielding bore holes in study area has been a major problem for the water supply of the town. The groundwater geochemistry of the area shows distinctive spatial variation suggesting diverse geochemical processes
Growing Acacia albida as a permanent tree crop, on farmlands with cereals, vegetables and coffee underneath or in between, is an indigenous agroforestry system in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia. However, there is practically no systematic record or data on the merits and benefits of this practice.
A. Wassie Eshete; Frank J. Sterck; Demel Teketay; Frans Bongers
Tree regeneration is severely hampered in the fragmented afromontane forests of northern Ethiopia. We explored how trees regenerate in remnant forests along the gradient from open field, forest edge to closed sites and canopy gaps inside the forest. We investigated the effects of seed sowing, litter removal, and weeding on the regeneration success along this gradient. Regeneration success was investigated
Tesfaye Wubet; Ingrid Kottke; Demel Teketay; Franz Oberwinkler
The dry Afromontane forests in Ethiopia are composed of a number of indigenous tree species. Currently, indigenous trees are declining at an alarming rate in this ecosystem. The few reforestation programs, which have so far been undertaken, employ exotic tree species. This is mainly due to lack of knowledge on the environmental requirements of indigenous trees. Though there have been
D. CONWAY; N. BROOKS; K. R. BRIFFA; P. D. MERRIN
The aim of this paper is to explore the feasibility of developing long-term dendroclimatological analyses in a climatically important area of Africa. Rainfall over the highlands of northern Ethiopia is highly seasonal and the main source of runoff to the Blue Nile and through it, the main determinant of variability in Main Nile discharge. The region is also climatically interesting
Munir A. Hanjra; Tadele Ferede; Debel Gemechu Gutta
Investments in agricultural water management should complement or strengthen the livelihood and coping systems of the rural poor, and should thus be instrumental for breaking the poverty trap in Ethiopia. Underdeveloped water resources constrain progress towards poverty reduction. We examine linkages and complementarities between agricultural water, education, markets and rural poverty through an empirical study using household level data from
BEKELE Wagayehu; DRAKE Lars
Problems related to soil erosion have been receiving more and more attention in recent years, especially in developing countries. Attention to be given to the problem, however, may vary from country to country depending on the physical environment, importance of agriculture in the national economy and the level of technology applied in the sector. Agriculture in Ethiopia is the dominant
of the piling and imbedding of volcanic direct air-fall deposits and volcano-derived sediments in a general Kieffer Volcanic markers in coarse alluvium at Melka Kunture (Upper Awash, Ethiopia Kieffer, Jean-Paul Raynal, Andy Milton, Sarah Delerue Lithology, dynamism and volcanic successions
Courtney Quirin; Alan Dixon
Farmers in Illubabor Zone, Ethiopia, lead a subsistence existence and hence any crop loss to wildlife is perceived to threaten food security. In the context of increasing farmer concerns about the level of crop damage caused by wild vertebrates, this study aimed to (1) determine the perceived impacts of a 2004 cull on wildlife and patterns of crop-raiding by wild
The author, as an otolaryngologist and the Director of Global ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) Outreach, traveled to Ethiopia to help 11 children who could not breathe because of respiratory papillomas blocking their airways and who had been hospitalized for years. The disease, called juvenile respiratory papillomatosis, is what affected these 11…
Thirty-eight sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali along with resistant (Sureno and SC719) and susceptible (RTx430 and RTx2536) checks were evaluated in replicated plots for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum at Isabela, Puerto Rico. Environmental conditions such as temperature, relative hum...
Admasu Gebru, Demewoz
Ethiopia, a country containing more than 80 ethnic groups, has remarkably expanded the higher education sector and established universities based on equitable regional distribution in the two past decades. This article discusses and analyzes attitudes and behaviors of university students from various ethnic groups toward their own and other…
This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…
Hussein, Jeylan Wolyie
The study is a phenomenological case study into the lived experience of teacher candidates and associate teachers in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to gain a phenomenological sensitivity to the "lived" experience of the participants and through that to identify key structural and conceptual impediments to meaningful professional learning. The…
Waktola, Daniel Kassahun
Lack of environmental awareness is one of the underlying causes of severe environmental degradation in Ethiopia. As teachers' colleges are a seedbed of such awareness, assessment of college curricula should shed light on the possibilities they offer to develop capacities to address environmental degradation. This small-scale study is based on the…
Abebe, Tatek; Kjorholt, Anne Trine
This article explores the role of children in household livelihoods among the Gedeo ethnic community in Ethiopia. Three themes are discussed--reproductive activities, entrepreneurial work in marketplaces and sociospatial mobility--in the context of recent theoretical debates over children's agency and social competence. With shifts in rural…
Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou
We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with females…
HABTAMU T. KASSAHUN; CHARLES F. NICHOLSON; DAWIT SOLOMON; AMY S. COLLICK; TAMMO S. STEENHUIS
Many developing countries implement programs and policies to increase or maintain soil fertility, with the objectives of increased crop yields and decreased poverty. However, few countries give emphasis to the biological management of soil fertility (BMSF) compared to more traditional approaches. Ethiopia emphasizes the use synthetic fertilizers to increase food security and reduce poverty, with little attention to BMSF. This
Lovise Aalen; Kjetil Tronvoll
This article assesses political developments in Ethiopia after its 2005 federal and regional watershed elections. Although an unprecedented liberalisation took place ahead of the contested and controversial 2005 polls, a crack-down occurred in the wake of the elections, when the opposition was neutralised. Subsequently, the government rolled out a deliberate plan to prevent any future large-scale protest against their grip
The highlands of northern Ethiopia suffer from severe land degradation manifested by widespread gully and channel erosion and network development. Research on the geomorphic adjustment of similar landscapes in the midcontinental United States has resulted in the development of the computer models BS...
Getu Degu Alene; Alemayehu Worku
Ethiopia is one of the most populous countries in Africa and ranks second only to Nigeria. Rapid population growth has hampered the country's development, making the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger difficult. This study which had two components—quantitative and qualitative—was aimed at exploring the perceptions of women and other social groups on the prevailing population pressures. The quantita- tive
Massimo Dragan; Enrico Feoli; Michele Fernetti; Woldu Zerihun
A spatial decision support system (SDSS) based on multi-criteria and multi-objective decision analysis is applied in a case study in Ethiopia to reduce soil erosion on the basis of reallocation of crops according to their capacity to protect the soil. The case study is carried out in the Adwa district. The SDSS has been implemented using the widespread GIS software
Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.
Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…
Agnès Waret-Szkuta; François Roger; David Chavernac; Laikemariam Yigezu; Geneviève Libeau; Dirk U Pfeiffer; Javier Guitián
BACKGROUND: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants in Africa and Asia. In 1999, probably the largest survey on PPR ever conducted in Africa was initiated in Ethiopia where 13 651 serum samples from 7 out of the 11 regions were collected and analyzed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). The objective of this
Addis Alene, Kefyalew; Mohamed Dohe, Abdulahi
This research work presents the magnitude of anemia and its determinant factors among pregnant women. As far as this research is done in the eastern part of Ethiopia, where there is a different cultural issue related to pregnancy and dietary habit, it will help the researchers to know the problem in different parts of the country. PMID:25215230
Hussen, Sophia Ahmed; Tsegaye, Mulugeta; Argaw, Meron Gurji; Andes, Karen; Gilliard, Danielle; del Rio, Carlos
People living with HIV (PLHIV) in Ethiopia and other developing nations face numerous challenges to their health and well-being, including poverty, limited healthcare infrastructure, and high levels of societal stigma. Despite these challenges, resilient trajectories have been observed even within such resource-limited settings. In Ethiopia, such resilience is exemplified by the ‘Expert Patients’, HIV-positive lay health workers who function as adherence counsellors, health educators, outreach workers and community advocates. We conducted a multi-method qualitative study with 20 Expert Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in order to understand pathways to resilience in this select population. Participants described 3 key mechanisms of resilient coping: (1) The use of spirituality and faith-based practices to manage psychological difficulties associated with living with HIV; (2) Utilisation of social capital from family and community networks as a buffer against the psychological and economic consequences of societal stigma; and (3) Serving others as a mechanism for finding optimism and purpose in life. Interventions designed to facilitate and/or augment these social processes in the wider community may be promising strategies for improving health among PLHIV in Ethiopia and other resource-limited settings. PMID:24520996
Barbara Hofmann; Tim Wright; Julie Rowland; Sophie Hautot; Douglas Paton; Tesfaye Kidane; Bekele Abebe
Continental break up, the formation of new oceans still holds many unanswered questions. The continental rift of Afar, Ethiopia is the only place on Earth today where the final stages of continental rupture and the beginning of seafloor spreading are occurring above sea level. In September 2005 a new rifting episode started at the Dabbahu segment with the intrusion of
This paper examines the linkage between the degree of land tenure security and adoption of sustainable natural resource management practices among smallholder farmers in Ethiopia. A review of the available literature indicated that the land tenure system of the Imperial regime was characterised by a complex pattern of land ownership, namely communal, church ownership, private and state holdings. Since 1975,
Negash Mamo; Mebrate Mihretu; Miftah Fekadu; Mulualem Tigabu; Demel Teketay
Variations in seed and germination characteristics among nine Juniperus procera populations in Ethiopia were evaluated. Bulk seed samples were collected and examined for variations in number of seeds per cone, seed length, width, 1000-seed weight and germination in the laboratory and nursery. In the laboratory, the effect of light conditions on seed germination was tested by incubating the seeds under
The study of Islam and Islamic populations in Ethiopia has been relatively understudied since the great survey of J.S. Trimingham published in 1952. Ethiopian Islam is interesting both because of its antiquity (since the inception of Islam itself) and because of the particular patterns of interaction and symbiosis with an, until recently, predominantly Christian culture. A socio?cultural and historical explanation
Mengesha Admassu; Abera Kumie; Mesganaw Fantahun
Background: Safe water supply coverage in the rural areas of Ethiopia is very marginal. The coverage still remains very low because of limited progress in water supply activities in these areas. Factors affecting the continued use of the outcome of water supply projects in the background of limited resources are not well studied. Objectives: To assess the utilization, functionality, community
Raf Aerts; Koen Van Overtveld; Mitiku Haile; Martin Hermy; Jozef Deckers; Bart Muys
In the highlands of northern Ethiopia, remnants of the original Afromontane forest vegetation are largely restricted to church yards and other sacred groves in a matrix of cropland and semiarid degraded savanna. To assess the potential for natural forest regeneration, species composition and diversity of all forest fragments (10) in a study area of 13,000 ha were analyzed in relation to
ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF IRRIGATION SCHEMES IN EASTERN AMHARA, ETHIOPIA: IN CASE OF SANKA TRADITIONAL AND GOLINA MODERN IRRIGATION SCHEMES A Project Paper Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate Belay #12;ABSTRACT This study was initiated to evaluate the performance of Sanka traditional irrigation
Kurtz, Kimberly M.; Shepherd, Terry L.
In many countries, children with disabilities seldom receive the educational services they need. Economic instability has often forced a reduction in services for children with disabilities. Cultural values have also impacted support for children with disabilities. A special education residential facility in Ethiopia that serves orphaned children…
Kedir Assefa Tessema
With the emergence of the discourse of TESO, teacher education in Ethiopia has been struggling to change rhetoric and practice by reaffirming a managerially driven reform performance. The terrain is now characterized by fresh, but globally dominant rhetoric. Salient in the emerging discourse is reform mottos and agendas such as ‘active learning’, ‘competence’, ‘participatory’, ‘paradigm shift’ and ‘system overhaul’. However,
During a 6-month field study at the Awash River, Ethiopia, more than 180 hybrid baboons in three groups were found in a zone of about 20 km between anubis groups and hamadry as groups. The genetical structure of the hybrid zone was preliminarily described using a simple morphological hybrid index. An ecological borderline, not coinciding with either boundary of the
Tekola, Bethlehem; Griffin, Christine; Camfield, Laura
This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitative methods to elicit poor children's perspectives about threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of…
Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).
This report describes a course on early childhood education methodology and practice that was held at the Ministry of Education in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for 35 Ethiopian early childhood educators and administrators. In addition to presenting developmental profiles of preschool children, the 3-week course addressed philosophies of early childhood…
Macphee, Paula-Louise; Fitz-Gerald, Ann
This paper argues for the importance, benefits and wider impact of a donor-funded, locally supported postgraduate programme in security sector management (SSM) for government officials in Ethiopia. With the exception of specialised education and training programmes within the field of peace and conflict studies, the role of education in…
Weldeab, Chernet Tekle; Opdal, Liv Randi
Parental experiences in raising children with intellectual disability in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia are described. Using a qualitative research approach, interviews from eleven families formed a rich contextual data base, in addition to informal observations, informal conversations, discussions with key informants, and document review. Findings show…
H. Hengsdijk; G. W. Meijerink; M. E. Mosugu
Severe land degradation affects the livelihood of many farmers in the highlands of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Various soil and water conservation practices have been proposed to reduce land degradation and to improve the quality of the natural resource base but quantitative information on their agro-ecological effects is often lacking. In this study, effects of three soil and water conservation practices
A morphological description, the habitat and areas where 28 aromatic plants can be found growing in Ethiopia and their local uses is presented. Of the plants discussed, seven are cultivated (Trachyspermumammi, Artemisia rehan, Lepidum sativum, Ocimum basilicum, Ruta chalepensis, Curcuma domestica and Zingiber officinale), five are endemic (Echinops kebericho, Thymus schimperi, T. serrulatus, Lippia adoensis and Aframomum corrorima), while the
This article examines the social and political background of escalating violence between ethnic groups in southwestern Ethiopia who until recently had customary and ritually sanctioned ways of resolving conflict. It focuses on the Maji area, a frontier region inhabited by two indigenous groups - the Dizi and the Suri, and people from a mixed background, descendants of immigrants and recent
The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…
Stefan Dercon; Pramila Krishnan
To investigate risk-sh aring within the household, we model nutritional status as a durable good and we look at the consequences of individual health shocks. For household allocation to be pareto-efficient, households should pool shocks to income. We also investigate whether households can smooth nu tritional levels over time. Using data from rural Ethiopia on adult nutritional status, we find
Stefan Dercon; Pramila Krishnan
Much of the literature on consumption smoothing and on risk sharing has focused on the ability of the household as a unit to protect its consumption. Little is known about the ability of individual members of the household to keep consumption smooth over time or relative to other members of the household. We use data on adult nutrition in Ethiopia
The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…
Chisholm, Mervin E.; Jimma, Tefera Tadesse; Tatsuya, Natsume; Manathunga, Catherine
The purpose of this dialogue was to begin grappling with notions of neutrality and academic development in three non-western contexts: (1) Jamaica; (2) Ethiopia; and (3) Japan. The authors were asked to describe the political geography of academic development in their countries and to explore questions of neutrality. This dialogue therefore tries…
Taye, A; Mariam, D Haile; Murray, V
Historical accounts of famines in Ethiopia go as far back as the 9th century, however, evidence on its impact on health only started to emerge from the 15th century onwards. Unfortunately, famine has been endemic in Ethiopia in the last few decades. The 1973 famine is reported to have claimed over 300,000 lives. In 1985 approximately 10 million people were reported to be starving, with approximately 300,000 already dead and about 1000 dying daily. In the following years, droughts leading to food shortage have had local and national adverse health effects, in particular in 1999/2000. This paper describes the initial findings of a literature review of evidence on the health impact of droughts leading to famine in Ethiopia and highlights gaps in knowledge. The key finding, thus far, is the marked paucity of health impact data. This review also highlights the fact that adverse health impacts of famines are probably complex and long lasting. Interpretation of any health impact data is difficult as there are few baseline data to compare. Health effects also impact livelihoods. Livelihood disruption following famine does not just affect one generation but also subsequent generations. Surveillance systems are needed so that records of the health impacts of a drought that leads to famine can inform action. With climate change bringing increased likelihood of drought and famine in some parts of the world, the findings of this review could be beneficial not just for Ethiopia but also elsewhere. PMID:21086818
Dawit Kidane; Joseph O. Olobo; Abebe Habte; Yohannes Negesse; Abraham Aseffa; Getahun Abate; Mohammed A. Yassin; Kiflu Bereda; Morten Harboe; Armauer Hansen
Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) is a common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis with multiple dif- ferential diagnoses. Demonstration of the etiologic agent by smear microscopy or culture of fine needle aspirate (FNA) specimens is often unsuccessful. FNA specimens from 40 patients presenting at a rural health center in South Ethiopia and diagnosed as positive for TBLN on the basis of clinical and
Taye, T; Gossmann, M; Einhorn, G; Büttner, C; Metz, R; Abate, D
P. hsyterophorus is an exotic invasive annual weed now causing severe infestation in Ethiopia. Studies on diagnosis, incidence and distribution of pathogens associated with parthenium weed in Ethiopia were carried out from 1998-2002. Several fungal isolates were obtained from seed and other parts of parthenium plants. Among them were putative pathogenic fungal species of the genus Helminthosporium, Phoma, Curvularia, Chaetomium, Alternaria, and Fusarium. However, pathogenecity test of the isolates obtained showed no or non-specific symptoms. It was concluded that these pathogens could be opportunistic with insignificant potential for biological control of parthenium. Two most important diseases associated with parthenium were a rust disease, caused by Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola, and a phyllody disease, caused by a phytoplasma of fababean phyllody (PBP) phytoplasma group. The rust was commonly found in cool mid altitude (1500-2500 m) areas while phyllody was observed in low to mid altitude regions (900-2500 m) of Ethiopia, with a disease incidence up to 100% and 75%, respectively, in some locations. Study of the individual effects of the rust and phyllody diseases under field conditions showed a reduction on weed morphological parameters (plant height, leaf area, and dry matter yield). Parthenium seed production was reduced by 42% and 85% due to rust and phyllody, respectively. Phyllody and rust diseases of parthenium showed significant potential for classical biological control of parthenium after further confirmation of insect vectors that transmit phyllody and host range of phyllody disease to the related economic plants in Ethiopia. PMID:12696408
The Ethiopia-Eritrea border dispute is embedded within a set of domestic political conflicts in each state, is linked further through proxy conflicts to instability in Somalia and the Ogaden, and is skewed additionally by the application of Washington's global counter-terrorism policies to the region. Each of these arenas of contention has its own history, issues, actors and dynamic; however, each
Alexandre Kolev; Pablo Suárez Robles
This paper uses the 2005 Ethiopian Labour Force Survey to analyse the gender pay gap in Ethiopia. A particular attention is drawn on the relative importance of education parity to mitigate the most pressing wage inequality, together with the role of labour market segmentation. Decompositions of the gender wage gap are performed for different points in the wage distribution, different
Fassil Kebede; Charles Yamoah
Nutrient depletion is one of the major causes that contribute to decline in soil productivity in the highlands of Ethiopia. It is generally a reversible constraint as long as soil test based fertilizer application is in place. However, Ethiopian subsistence agriculture has suffered for years due to lack of proper knowledge to combat nutrient depletion. To date, blanket application is
This paper traces the history of Library and Information Science (LIS) education in Ethiopia, since its inception in 1959, reviewing both the retrospective (historical background) and prospective (rebirth and future direction). A comparison of the curricula of Jimma and Haramaya Universities demonstrates the transition from a traditional, closed model of librarianship to the contemporary, open model and the changes in
Empirical studies on gender and agricultural productivity are typically based on production function estimates of a single crop or aggregate output, ignoring the role of prices and endogeneity of input choice. We apply the profit function approach to farm-level data from Ethiopia to compare supply response between male and female farmers, incorporating the full range of crops and prices and
R D Pathak; Gurmeet Singh; Rakesh Belwal
Many developing countries are now realizing the need for e-Governance in order to provide customer-focused, cost effective, and easy to use services for citizens and businesses and to improve the internal workings of government. Fiji and Ethiopia are two such countries where, in spite of political instability and other governance related problems, e- Governance initiatives are in progress. This study,
G. Ottonello; G. B. Piccardo; A. Mazzucotelli; F. Cimmino
Major element and rare earth element (REE) partitioning among coexisting clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene pairs from mantle xenoliths of the Assab Range (Ethiopia) are discussed in terms of crystal-chemistry. Major element partitioning indicates relatively uniform conditions of subsolidus equilibration over a narrow range of temperatures (mean value about 1100 C) in the spinel peridotite stability field. Major element distributions and correlations, moreover, seem
Addis Alene, Kefyalew; Mohamed Dohe, Abdulahi
This research work presents the magnitude of anemia and its determinant factors among pregnant women. As far as this research is done in the eastern part of Ethiopia, where there is a different cultural issue related to pregnancy and dietary habit, it will help the researchers to know the problem in different parts of the country. PMID:25215230
Fassil Fanta; Mukti P. Upadhyay
We study the factors that determine the household supply of labour in food-for-work (FFW) projects that seek to address food insecurity and help capital formation in development. Based on data from a survey conducted in 2003 in Tigray, Ethiopia, our probit analysis identifies factors that significantly affect the household decision to participate in FFW programmes. We correct for selection bias,
A. H. Tufa; M. P. M. Meuwissen; Lans van der I. A; W. J. M. Lommen; A. Tsegaye; P. C. Struik
A low adoption of recommended seed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) technologies in Ethiopia could be due to a lack of alternative seed potato production methods compatible with farmers’ economic and agro-ecological conditions. A conjoint analysis (a technique used to measure relative contribution of product attributes) was conducted to elicit farmers’ opinions on management attributes that they believed to affect yield
continental flood basalts that mask the under- lying formations. Mesozoic and Tertiary sediments are exposed basin buried by the 12 km thick EoceneOligocene flood basalt sequences in this region. A magneto; Magnetotellurics; Mesozoic sediments; Flood basalts 1. Introduction In Ethiopia, Mesozoic and/or Tertiary sediments
Hersi, Afra Ahmed
This article explores the complex factors, both individual and social, that contribute to the resiliency and academic achievement of six adolescent African immigrant students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia who were enrolled in a small high school in the United States. The school was designed specifically for recent adolescent immigrant students.…
Woldehanna, Tassew; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele
The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative household…
Bacterial spot of tomato (BST) is a major constraint to tomato production in Ethiopia and many other countries leading to significant crop losses. In the present study, using pathogenicity tests, sensitivity to copper and streptomycin, and multilocus sequence analysis, a diverse group of Xanthomonas...
Eyualem Abebe; Jan Mees; August Coomans
Free-living nematodes from littoral benthic sediments of four lakes, two rivers and a hot spring in Ethiopia are studied. Populations of nematodes encountered are identified to the species level. The general nematode (generic and species) composition of the lakes, rivers and hot spring are appraised by giving special emphasis to the nematodes from L. Tana, i.e. three sites where different
Delenasaw Yewhalaw; Worku Legesse; Wim Van Bortel; Solomon Gebre-Selassie; Helmut Kloos; Luc Duchateau; Niko Speybroeck
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia plans to increase its electricity power supply by five-fold over the next five years to fulfill the needs of its people and support the economic growth based on large hydropower dams. Building large dams for hydropower generation may increase the transmission of malaria since they transform ecosystems and create new vector breeding habitats. The aim of this study
Teff is domesticated in Ethiopia and is locally important. Seventy accessions of teff collected from seven regions have been sown in a balanced block design. Significant and highly significant variation was observed between regions, within region and between individual plants within accession for most of the characters considered. Regions showed variations for different characteristics indicating that every region may contribute
A. Araya; S. D. Keesstra; L. Stroosnijder
The agro-climatic resources of Giba catchment in northern Ethiopia were assessed and characterized. The objectives were (i) to ascertain the suitability of the climate for growing teff (Eragrostis tef) and barley (Hordeum vulgare); (ii) to determine the onset and length of the growing period (LGP), (iii) to evaluate the traditional method of climate classification, and (iv) to produce comprehensive agro-climatic
Flood and Shield Basalts from Ethiopia: Magmas from the African Superswell BRUNO KIEFFER1. In the NE, a thick sequence of 30 Ma flood basalts is overlain by the 30 Ma Simien shield volcano. The flood. In the centre of the province, a far thinner sequence of flood basalt is overlain by the 22 Ma Choke and Guguftu
It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…
Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...
Salvatore Di Falco; Marcella Veronesi
This study investigates the impact of climate change adaptation on farm households’ downside risk exposure in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. The analysis relies on a moment-based specification of the stochastic production function. We use an empirical strategy that accounts for the heterogeneity in the decision on whether to adapt or not, and for unobservable characteristics of farmers and their
T. D. Barnie; D. J. Ferguson; C. Oppenheimer
Since 2005, there have been numerous dike intrusions in the Manda-Hararo rift segment in central Afar, Ethiopia, as part of an on-going rifting event similar to that which occurred at Krafla, Iceland between 1975 and 1984. Two of the dikes have been associated with basaltic fissure eruptions, in August 2007 and in June 2009. A large fissure eruption also occurred
C. Pagli; T. J. Wright; A. Ayele; T. Barnie
The Alu volcano is located within the Erta `Ale volcanic system in northern Afar (Ethiopia), about 30 km to the north of the Erta `Ale volcano whose summit caldera hosts a lava lake. Aster, Hotspot and S02 emissions images formed on 3rd November, 2008 showed that a fissural eruption was occurring east of the Alu volcano. Here we present an
C. Pagli; T. J. Wright; C. J. Ebinger; T. D. Barnie; A. Ayele
The Alu volcano is located within the Erta `Ale volcanic system in northern Afar (Ethiopia), about 30 km to the north of Erta `Ale volcano whose summit caldera hosts a persistent lava lake. On 3rd November 2008 a fissure eruption started east of Alu volcano. An unprecedented InSAR dataset, seismic records and other space satellite imagery allow us to study
L. Spampinato; C. Oppenheimer; S. Calvari; A. Cannata; P. Montalto
Active lava lakes represent the exposed, uppermost part of convecting magma systems and provide windows into the dynamics of magma transport and degassing. Erta 'Ale volcano located within the Danakil Depression in Ethiopia hosts one of the few permanent convecting lava lakes, probably active for a century or more. We report here on the main features of the lava lake
Allison K. Thurmond; Mohamed G. Abdelsalam; John B. Thurmond
The advantages of integrating optical (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)) and radar (Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) C, X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and RADARSAT-1) remote sensing data, and digital elevation models (DEMs) (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)) for geological mapping in arid regions such as the Afar Depression in Ethiopia
M. Treuil; J. Varet; M. Billhot; F. Barberi
NI, Cu and Zn were measured polarographically in 34 samples of volcanic rocks from the chain of Erta'Ale, Ethiopia. In this chain all rock types from picritic basalts to alkaline and peralkaline rhyolites can be found. The series is marked by a considerable iron enrichment in the intermediate stages. The distribution of Ni, Cu and Zn in the series emphasizes
Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew
CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the current situation. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, engineers, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has started to produce research outputs suitable for use in evidence-based planning activities in the case study cities. Indeed, climate change projections at 8 km resolution are ready for regions containing each of the case study cities; a preliminary hazard assessment for floods, drought and heat waves has already been performed, based on historical data; urban morphology and related green structures have been characterized; preliminary findings in social vulnerability have been achieved; a GIS based identification of Urban Residential hotspots to flooding is completed; and the vulnerability of informal settlements to flooding has been evaluated for one of the hotspots identified (Little Akaki case study area). Furthermore, a set of indicators relevant for Addis Ababa has been selected by local stakeholders to identify especially vulnerable, high risk areas and communities and an investigation of existing urban planning and governance systems and its interface with climate risks and vulnerability is ongoing. Evidence from the CLUVA project is being used to develop the next Master Plan for the Addis Ababa metropolitan area.
Johnson, Nicholas Edward
The Afar region of Ethiopia is slowly being torn apart by the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Main Ethiopian rifts which all meet at this remote, barren corner of Africa. Prior to rifting, volcanism probably started here some ...
The World Food Programme (WFP), the United Nations food agency, has recently acquired the difficult task of transporting aid into the Somali region of Ethiopia. The political instability, rebel activity, ethnic tensions, ...
Habte, Ermias; Yami, Alemeshet; Alemseged, Fissahye; Abdissa, Yishak; Deribe, Kebede; Memiah, Peter; Biadgilign, Sibhatu
Background:With transmission of HIV occurring mainly through heterosexual contact, it is paramount to identify serodiscordant couples and implement preventive strategies that will protect the negative partner. The burden of serodiscordance and its predictors in Ethiopia is not clearly understood due to the dearth of data.Objective: To assess the prevalence and predictors of HIV serodiscordance among couples tested in Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH) Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center.Methods:The study employed a case-control study design conducted at VCT center of JUSH in all registered serodiscordant couples and seroconcordant couples that were selected from the registered clients in the period from 2003 to 2010. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection using medical chart abstraction. Data were entered, cleaned, and coded using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.Results:The prevalence of serodiscordance in the study population was found to be 8.4%. Male and female discordants accounted for 5.8% (137) and 2.6% (62), respectively. Rare use of condom (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 7.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.59-32.54) and active tuberculosis (TB) at enrollment (AOR= 17.7; 95% CI = 2.3-139.2) were significantly found to be the predictors of serodiscordance. Conclusion:The prevalence of serodiscordance in the study area was found to be low, but it contributes to a clinically significant population that mandates implementation of preventive strategy. Sero-positive individuals who use condoms rarely should be encouraged to have their partners tested, and the association between active TB and serodiscordance underscores the need for further study. PMID:23697776
Mekonnen, H; Dehninet, G; Kelay, B
Factors influencing dairy technology adoption and impact on milk yield were studied in 240 smallholder farms in Dejen district, Ethiopia. The majority of the smallholders had more than 20 years of farming experience and were living at more than 10 km distance from market or trading centers (67% and 54% in that order). The dairy technologies studied included the use of crossbred animals, improved feed technologies and improved management practices. Application of acaricides, deworming, vaccination, heat-detection and haymaking had wide application (more than 80% adoption levels) while urea straw treatment, silage making, rotational grazing and fodder beet development were the least practiced ones. Only 20 percent of the cows were crossbred animals. It has been found that higher level of technology adoption is associated with better milk yield regardless of the breed of cattle (local or crossbred) owned by the farmers. Milk yields in local breeds increased by 0.07 times when the number of technologies increased by one unit. In crossbred cows, this rate of increase was five fold higher (0.38 times for one unit increase). Correlation coefficients between and within farm household characteristics and technologies adoption were, generally, significant. Male-headed households adopted significantly higher number of technologies than female-headed households (P < 0.001). Technology adoption rates increased significantly with increased education level and family size and decreasing distance from market or trade centers (P < 0.01). The level of technology adoption by smallholder farmers is still unsatisfactory and is highly dependent on gender, family size and level of education of smallholder farmers and location of farms. PMID:19669662
Kimbel, W H; Johanson, D C; Rak, Y
The Hadar site in Ethiopia is a prolific source of hominid fossils attributed to the species Australopithecus afarensis, which spans the period 3.4-3.0 million years (myr) in the Sidi Hakoma, Denen Dora and lower Kada Hadar Members of the Hadar Formation. Since 1992 a major focus of field work conducted at Hadar has centered on sediments younger than 3.0 myr, comprising the bulk of the Kada Hadar Member. Witnessing the rise of the "robust" Australopithecus clade(s), the origin of Homo, and the first record of lithic artifacts, the period between 3.0 and 2.0 myr is strategically vital for paleoanthropology. However, in eastern Africa it is a particularly poorly sampled temporal interval. This paper provides a detailed comparative description of a hominid maxilla with partial dentition found at Hadar in 1994. The specimen, A.L. 666-1, derives from a lithic artifact-bearing horizon high in the Kada Hadar Member, 0.8 m below the BKT-3 tephra, dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method to 2.33 +/- 0.07 myr. Our preliminary investigation of the hominid specimen showed unambiguous affinities with early representatives of the Homo clade (Kimbel et al.  J. Hum. Evol. 31:549-561). Further studies on maxillary and dental morphology lead us to attribute A.L. 666-1 to Homo aff. H. habilis. The new Hadar jaw is the first paleontological evidence for the projection of the H. habilis maxillofacial morphotype well back into the Pliocene. It may represent a male of this species, whose maxillary hypodigm consists chiefly of females. A subsidiary finding of our study is that of the three earliest recorded species of Homo (H. habilis, H. rudolfensis, H. erectus), it is H. habilis that exhibits facial morphology closest to that expected in their last common ancestor. PMID:9209580
Background and objectives Most studies on health inequalities use average measures, but describing the distribution of health can also provide valuable knowledge. In this paper, we estimate and compare within-group and between-group inequalities in length of life for population groups in Ethiopia in 2000 and 2011. Methods We used data from the 2011 and 2000 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey and the Global Burden of Disease study 2010, and the MODMATCH modified logit life table system developed by the World Health Organization to model mortality rates, life expectancy, and length of life for Ethiopian population groups stratified by wealth quintiles, gender and residence. We then estimated and compared within-group and between-group inequality in length of life using the Gini index and absolute length of life inequality. Results Length of life inequality has decreased and life expectancy has increased for all population groups between 2000 and 2011. Length of life inequality within wealth quintiles is about three times larger than the between-group inequality of 9 years. Total length of life inequality in Ethiopia was 27.6 years in 2011. Conclusion Longevity has increased and the distribution of health in Ethiopia is more equal in 2011 than 2000, with length of life inequality reduced for all population groups. Still there is considerable potential for further improvement. In the Ethiopian context with a poor and highly rural population, inequality in length of life within wealth quintiles is considerably larger than between them. This suggests that other factors than wealth substantially contribute to total health inequality in Ethiopia and that identification and quantification of these factors will be important for identifying proper measures to further reduce length of life inequality. PMID:23845045
Abera Birhanu Demeke; Alwin Keil; Manfred Zeller
Ethiopia’s agriculture is predominantly rainfed and hence any irregularity in weather conditions has adverse welfare implications.\\u000a Using panel data, this paper analyzes the effect of rainfall shocks on Ethiopian rural households’ food security and vulnerability\\u000a over time while controlling for a range of other factors. To this end, we generate a time-variant household food security\\u000a index which is developed by
Haileleul Negusssie; Moses N. Kyule; Martha Yami; Gelagay Ayelet; Shiferaw Jenberie T
The study was conducted in three regional states of Ethiopia: Amhara, Oromia, and Addis Ababa from August 2008 to April 2009\\u000a with the objectives of identifying the genetic diversity of serotypes and topotypes in Ethiopia, and determining the attack\\u000a rate and associations of potential risk factors with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) seropositivity. A total of 496 cattle were\\u000a clinically and serologically
Julie Howard; Eric Crawford; Valerie Kelly; Mulat Demeke; José Jaime Jeje
Critics argue that high-external-input technologies (HEIT) are too costly for African farmers, and that programs to promote them are economically unsustainable. This paper assesses Sasakawa-Global 2000 programs in Ethiopia and Mozambique, using financial and economic analysis, yield models, and subsector analysis. The SG 2000 technology was much more profitable in Ethiopia than in Mozambique, but varied depending on production location,
Snedeker, Kate G; Totton, Sarah C; Sargeant, Jan M
Study results are often presented as abstracts at scientific conferences before publication as full articles in peer-reviewed journals. Given the current emphasis on evidence-based decision-making, it is vital that the peer-reviewed literature represents as broad and un-biased a selection of studies as possible. While the proportion of abstracts published as full papers in the peer-reviewed literature has been extensively studied in human healthcare, no such studies have been published in the field of food safety. The goal of this study was to estimate the proportion published and average time to publication for conference abstracts involving studies of pre-harvest or abattoir interventions to reduce foodborne pathogens. Abstracts were obtained by hand-searching available proceedings between 1995 and 2004 from 10 conferences. Included abstracts were limited to those detailing non-observational, controlled in vivo trials where outcome(s) were measured in livestock, carcasses or eggs. Data on abstract type (
Fuller, G K; Lemma, A; Haile, T; Gemeda, N
The Leishmanin skin test was performed on 1353 people in a kala-azar endemic region of south-west Ethiopia. Physical examinations were also carried out on 2723. Two of these individuals, both males, had active visceral leishmaniasis with Leishmania organisms demonstrated by spleen puncture. Two other males, including one member of the research team, had parasitologically proven cutaneous leishmaniasis. Because there was negligible migration and little movement of individuals outside of their tribal territories, the geographical distribution of skin test positivity and clinical findings could be determined and correlated with environmental parameters. The level of positive skin tests for the groups tested ranged from over 64% for the three tribes collectively inhabiting the lower regions of the Omo Valley (altitude approx. 500 m) to 6.4% for the Suri tribe, which lives at 1400 m. Skin test positivity was highest in areas of deeply fissuring montmorillonite soils and where Phlebotomus langeroni orientalis have been collected. Termite mounds of the pipe-organ type seemed to occur independently of the proportion of positive skin tests, possibly because alternative resting and breeding sites for sandflies were available in the cotton clay soil or because of the cultural patterns of the people. Almost always, males had a markedly higher prevalence of positive skin tests than did females. The degree of positivity was strongly correlated with increasing age, most positive conversions occurring in the ten to 20 year olds, the age at which males join cattle camps as part of their herding activities. Splenomegaly reached a prevalence of nearly 50% among the Hamar speaking people to the east of the Omo River, where the pattern of disease suggests malaria as the principal cause. Hepatomegaly, however, was highest in the lower Omo Basin among the Nyangatom, Dassanetch and Kerre, where hydatid disease was a major cause of liver enlargement, but seemed unrelated to the proportion of positive Leishmanin skin tests. PMID:534446
Brown, Francis H; Fuller, Chad R
The Kibish Formation in southwestern Ethiopia, with an aggregate thickness of approximately 105 m, consists of lacustrine, marginal lacustrine, and deltaic deposits. It is divided into four members numbered I to IV on the basis of erosion surfaces (disconformities) between the strata of each member. It overlies the Mursi and Nkalabong formations, the latter of which is here shown to correlate with the Shungura Formation. Tephra layers in each member allow for secure correlation between geographically separated sections on the basis of the composition of their volcanic glass. Members I, III, and IV of the Kibish Formation appear to have been deposited at the same times as sapropels S7 (197 ka), S4 (104 ka), and S1 (8 ka) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, respectively. We correlate the KHS Tuff of the Kibish Formation with a >154-kyr-old unnamed tuff in the Konso Formation. Tephra in Member IV may derive from Mount Wenchi, a volcano situated on the divide between the Omo and Blue Nile drainage basins. Thin-bedded sedimentary layers probably represent annual deposition reflecting rapid sedimentation (approximately 30 m/kyr) of parts of the formation. This conclusion is supported by variation in paleomagnetic inclination through a sequence of these layers at KHS. Two fossils of early Homo sapiens (Omo I and Omo II) derive from Member I. Their stratigraphic placement is confirmed by analysis of the KHS Tuff in the lower part of Member II at both fossil sites. The KHS Tuff lies above a disconformity, which itself lies above the fossils at both sites. (40)Ar/(39)Ar dates provide an estimated age of approximately 195 kyr for these fossils. Omo III, a third fossil H. sapiens, probably also derives from Member I of the Kibish Formation and is of similar age. Hominin fossils from AHS, a new site, also derive from Member I. Hominin fossils from CHS can only be placed between 104 ka and 10 ka, the H. sapiens specimen from JHS is most likely 9-13 kyr in age, and a partial skeleton of H. sapiens from Pelvic Corner is most likely approximately 6.6 kyr in age. PMID:18692219
Wild, S.; Eden, J. M.; Widmann, M.; Leckebusch, G. C.
Variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation on both regional and global scales substantially influence interannual variability of precipitation in Ethiopia and the surrounding countries. Previous studies have revealed links between ENSO and summer rainfall in East Africa. As this region has been frequently affected by severe droughts during the last few decades, most recently in 2011, improving understanding of these influences is crucial for developing prediction methods for seasonal precipitation variability. More than half of the Ethiopian precipitation occurs during the Kiremt season (JJAS), which is therefore closely related to drought events. In the northwestern part the Kiremt rains are most prominent whereas the Belg precipitation (FMAM) is important for the southeastern part. We here objectively define homogenous rainfall regions in East Africa and analyse links between the rainfall in these regions with global SST. PCA of the gridded GPCP dataset (1979-2010), which includes station records and satellite data, reveals a dipole structure with two precipitation regimes divided geographically by the Ethiopian Rift Valley. We will show the response of precipitation in these regions to changes in Pacific SST, using the HadSST2 dataset. First results of concurrent relationships between Ethiopian precipitation (for the total over the whole country and for the northwestern part) and SST are consistent with an ENSO signal with positive correlation in the north- and southwestern Pacific, as well as negative correlation in the central eastern Pacific. Further investigations will also include lagged correlations. These findings corroborate the results of previous studies but extend them by using cross-validated principal component multiple linear regression (PC-MLR) models to estimate NW-, SE- and total Ethiopian rainfall from Pacific SST. It has already been shown by Eden et al. (see Poster in Session CL3.3/NP5.4, EGU2012-10302) that spring variability of an individual precipitation record from Addis Ababa can be partly estimated from Pacific SST. Considering our findings in seasonal prediction models may improve drought forecasting across East Africa.
Asaminew, Tsedeke; Gelaw, Yeshigeta; Bekele, Sisay; Solomon, Berhan
Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5%) had retinal detachment (RD) and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5). Fourteen patients (17.5%) had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9%) were blind from RD and 11 (13.8%) patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5%) and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%). The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%), myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%), posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%). Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1%) were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%). Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9%) and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes) had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011), and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040). Conclusions A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma. PMID:24086614
Palaeomagnetism and K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages in the Ali Sabieh area (Republic of Djibouti and Ethiopia): constraints on the mechanism of Aden ridge propagation into southeastern Afar during the last 10 Myr
Audin, L.; Quidelleur, X.; Coulié, E.; Courtillot, V.; Gilder, S.; Manighetti, I.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Tapponnier, P.; Kidane, T.
A new detailed palaeomagnetic study of Tertiary volcanics, including extensive K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating, helps constrain the deformation mechanisms related to the opening processes of the Afar depression (Ethiopia and Djibouti). Much of the Afar depression is bounded by 30 Myr old flood basalts and floored by the ca 2 Myr old Stratoid basalts, and evidence for pre-2 Ma deformation processes is accessible only on its borders. K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating of several mineral phases from rhyolitic samples from the Ali Sabieh block shows indistinguishable ages around 20 Myr. These ages can be linked to separation of this block in relation to continental breakup. Different amounts of rotation are found to the north and south of the Holhol fault zone, which cuts across the northern part of the Ali Sabieh block. The southern domain did not record any rotation for the last 8 Myr, whereas the northern domain experienced approximately 12 +/- 9° of clockwise rotation. We propose to link this rotation to the counter-clockwise rotation observed in the Danakil block since 7 Ma. This provides new constraints on the early phases of rifting and opening of the southern Afar depression in connection with the propagation of the Aden ridge. A kinematic model of propagation and transfer of extension within southern Afar is proposed, with particular emphasis on the previously poorly-known period from 10 to 4 Ma.
'Southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium sp.) are hybrids derived from crosses between the (northern) highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) and germplasm developed from Vaccinium spp. that are both native and adapted to the southeastern United States. Southern highbush blueberries have an advantage o...
This image shows ice-front retreat in part of the southern Antarctic Peninsula from 1947 to 2009. USGS scientists are studying coastal and glacier change along the entire Antarctic coastline. The southern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula is one area studied as part of this project, and is summariz...
Southern screamer along marsh boardwalk at Fortín Patria, Pantanal. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. This region, situated in the extreme northeastern corner of western Paraguay and extending south along the Paraguay river forms a southern...
The area known as the Afar Triangle is located at the northern end of the East Africa Rift, where it approaches the southeastern end of the Red Sea and the southwestern end of the Gulf of Aden. The East African Rift, the Red Sea, and the Gulf of Aden are all zones where Earth's crust is pulling apart in a process known as crustal spreading. Their three-way meeting is known as a triple junction, and their spreading creates a triangular topographic depression for which the area was named.Not surprisingly, the topographic effects of crustal spreading are more dramatic in the Afar Triangle than anywhere else upon Earth's landmasses. The spreading is primarily evident as patterns of numerous tension cracks. But some of these cracks provide conduits for magma to rise to the surface to form volcanoes.Shown here are a few of the volcanoes of the Afar Triangle. The larger two are Nabro Volcano (upper right, in Eritrea) and Mallahle Volcano (lower left, in Ethiopia). Nabro Volcano shows clear evidence of multiple episodes of activity that resulted in a crater in a crater in a crater. Many volcanoes in this area are active, including one nearby that last erupted in 1990.This image was created directly from an SRTM elevation model. A shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. The shade image was then combined with a color coding of topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, orange, and red, up to purple at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.Size: 35.2 kilometers (21.8 miles) by 22.5 kilometers (14.0 miles) Location: 13.3 degrees North latitude, 41.7 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000
DiMaggio, Erin N; Campisano, Christopher J; Rowan, John; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Deino, Alan L; Bibi, Faysal; Lewis, Margaret E; Souron, Antoine; Garello, Dominique; Werdelin, Lars; Reed, Kaye E; Arrowsmith, J Ramón
Sedimentary basins in eastern Africa preserve a record of continental rifting and contain important fossil assemblages for interpreting hominin evolution. However, the record of hominin evolution between 3 and 2.5 million years ago (Ma) is poorly documented in surface outcrops, particularly in Afar, Ethiopia. Here we present the discovery of a 2.84- to 2.58-million-year-old fossil and hominin-bearing sediments in the Ledi-Geraru research area of Afar, Ethiopia, that have produced the earliest record of the genus Homo. Vertebrate fossils record a faunal turnover indicative of more open and probably arid habitats than those reconstructed earlier in this region, which is in broad agreement with hypotheses addressing the role of environmental forcing in hominin evolution at this time. Geological analyses constrain depositional and structural models of Afar and date the LD 350-1 Homo mandible to 2.80 to 2.75 Ma. PMID:25739409
Gonsalves, Lianne; Donovan, Samuel E; Ryan, Victoria; Winch, Peter J
In rural Ethiopia, environmental degradation and a shortage of arable land impose a major toll on the population. Population, health, and environment (PHE) programs, such as that of the Ethio-Wetlands and Natural Resources Association (EWNRA), have evolved to address these issues. This article examines the community-based distribution (CBD) of family planning commodities in rural Ethiopia through EWNRA's large, multisectoral PHE program. Participants indicated that the integrated program encouraged acceptance of family planning and reduced geographic barriers to access. Through peer education and collaboration across government ministries, EWNRA leveraged integrated population-environment messages to garner support for its network of CBD providers. These integration strategies are a model for PHE programs worldwide, especially amid the global response to climate change. Because of the complex nature of PHE organizations, researchers often find it difficult to effectively document and evaluate their programs. With this in mind, we propose a framework to assess PHE integration. PMID:25753058
Reeler, A V; Sikora, K; Solomon, B
The incidence of breast cancer is rising in many developing countries. Here we describe a programme to improve the support infrastructure for the management of patients with breast cancer in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Tamoxifen, a cheap, oral, yet effective, anti-cancer agent was made available freely to encourage staff and patients to follow well-defined, but achievable, protocols of care. Mammography, improved histopathological review, tissue hormone receptor assays, agreed treatment algorithms with a cycle of continuous audit of over 250 patients and cross-departmental patient management groups led to a considerable improvement in the management of breast cancer patients in a single institution. Aspects of this programme are now being extended to other regional hospitals in Ethiopia. Fairly limited investments in programmes for cancer can stimulate considerable improvements in the overall approach to malignant disease by encouraging a positive approach, even in very low resource environments. PMID:18248968
Abebe, M; Haimanot, R T; Gustafsson, A; Forsgren, L; Denis, F
Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), a chronic progressive myelopathy, occurs in Ethiopia in epidemic form as neurolathyrism, while the endemic form has remained obscure. We describe the clinical features of 22 patients with TSP and the results of screening for HTLV-1 in these patients, 26 patients with other neurological disorders, 14 patients with leukaemia and 66 blood donors. The major manifestations in the patients with TSP were weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs with upper motor neurone signs and minimal sensory loss and bladder dysfunction. Two patients with TSP (9%), 2 patients with other neurological disorders (7.7%) and one patient with leukaemia and deafness were seropositive for HTLV-1. All the 66 blood donors were seronegative. Our results suggest that HTLV-1 may not play a major role in the pathogenesis of TSP in Ethiopia. PMID:2068736
This paper examines the 1998-2000 'border' war between Eritrea and Ethiopia and its continuing legacies from the perspective of food security. Focusing on the food crisis that hit both countries during the same period and was allowed to develop into a famine in southeast Ethiopia, it argues that this was linked with the war in more ways than hitherto recognised. Such connections can be appreciated only by taking a longer-term view of the decline of the rural economy of which this food crisis was part, factoring in the role played by this and other conflicts that have flared up in the region. An analysis of this kind might have helped donors and aid agencies to respond more effectively both to short-term humanitarian needs in the midst of an inter-state war and to the need for longer-term support for food security in a region beset by endemic conflict. PMID:15910679
Dassoni, Federica; Morrone, Aldo; Padovese, Valeska
Reports of congenital diseases in Africa are scanty, probably because of their rarity, the lack of knowledge among health workers, and the difficult political and social situation in different African countries. We describe here the spectrum of genetic and rare congenital cutaneous conditions encountered at the Italian Dermatological Center of Ayder referral hospital of Mekele, Ethiopia, over a 3-year period. All patients attending the Italian Dermatological Center were registered in a database, and medical records of genetic and congenital disorders diagnosed from January 2008 to December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Over the total, 24 different genetic and congenital disorders affecting 122 individuals (0.4% of the total case load) were observed. In our case series, we did not report any patient affected by albinism, in contrast with literature from other African countries. To our knowledge, this is the first report from northern Ethiopia. A brief update on the commonest disorders is included. PMID:25257394
This study examines irrigation practices, state intervention and the responses of farmers in theTigray<\\/span>region of<\\/span>
The stratigraphic record of fluvial and infilled valley deposits in the area of Adwa (Northern Ethiopia) allowed the description and identification of three main episodes of soil formation (between ca.50 ka - ca.10 ka yrs BP), related to wetter climatic conditions in the area, which constitute the oldest soil formation episodes described in northern Ethiopia. The oldest soil formation episode ca 50 ka yr BP correlates in time with a high lakes phase further south in the Ethiopian rift area (Abhé II). A second important episode of soil formation took place during the oldest gemorphological and sedimentary record of past active karst processes in the Adwa area, affecting the carbonaceous rock layers of the Tambien formation (Work Amba Surface), ca 30-35 ka yr BP. The preserved record of soil formation phases also register, interbedded, thick coluvial deposits units, corresponding to periods of rapid incision and erosion in the catchment area.
Simpson, Scott W; Kleinsasser, Lynnette; Quade, Jay; Levin, Naomi E; McIntosh, William C; Dunbar, Nelia; Semaw, Sileshi; Rogers, Michael J
Since 2000, significant collections of Latest Miocene hominin fossils have been recovered from Chad, Kenya, and Ethiopia. These fossils have provided a better understanding of earliest hominin biology and context. Here, we describe five hominin teeth from two periods (ca. 5.4 Million-years-ago and ca. 6.3 Ma) that were recovered from the Adu-Asa Formation in the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area in the Afar, Ethiopia that we assign to either Hominina, gen. et sp. indet. or Ardipithecus kadabba. These specimens are compared with extant African ape and other Latest Miocene and Early Pliocene hominin teeth. The derived morphology of the large, non-sectorial maxillary canine and mandibular third premolar links them with later hominins and they are phenetically distinguishable and thus phyletically distinct from extant apes. PMID:25795338
M. U. Mohammed; R. Bonnefille
The pollen record presented here gives a high resolution proxy data for recent climate changes in Ethiopia. This study emphasizes\\u000a fluctuations of strong amplitude that affected the vegetation of the highland countries far above the tree line on the mountains\\u000a during the last three thousand years that include the historical period. Because these vegetation changes occurred in unpopulated\\u000a areas, they
H. M. Mekonnen; K. Asmamaw; J. F. Courreau
Our study was conducted from November 2001 to April 2002 in the Debre-Zeit area (near Addis Ababa), Ethiopia to assess the husbandry practices and to identify health constraints in 100 market-oriented smallholder dairy farms. A questionnaire survey, farm visit and animal examination were conducted.Thirty-eight percent of the smallholder farms were owned by women. Women-owned farms had more cows (median=3) than
Giday WoldeGabriel; Yohannes Haile-Selassie; Paul R. Renne; William K. Hart; Stanley H. Ambrose; Berhane Asfaw; Grant Heiken; Tim White
The Middle Awash study area of Ethiopia's Afar rift has yielded abundant vertebrate fossils (~10,000), including several hominid taxa. The study area contains a long sedimentary record spanning Late Miocene (5.3-11.2Myr ago) to Holocene times. Exposed in a unique tectonic and volcanic transition zone between the main Ethiopian rift (MER) and the Afar rift, sediments along the western Afar rift
Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Melka, Alemu Sufa
Introduction People living with HIV (PLHIV) have diverse family planning (FP) needs. Little is reported on FP needs among women living with HIV in Ethiopia. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the demand for modern FP among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia. Methods A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 401 married women living with HIV selected from Nekemte Referral Hospital and Health Center, Nekemte, Oromia, Ethiopia. Convenience sampling of every other eligible patient was used to recruit respondents. Data were collected using a pretested, structured questionnaire. We first calculated frequency and percentage of unmet need, met need and total demand by each explanatory variable, and performed chi-squared testing to assess for differences in groups. We then fitted logistic regression models to identify correlates of unmet need for modern FP at 95% CL. Results The proportion of respondents with met need for modern FP among married women living with HIV was 61.6% (30.7% for spacing and 30.9% for limiting). Demand for family planning was reported in 77.0% (38.2% for spacing and 38.8% for limiting), making unmet need for modern FP prevalent in 15.4% (7.5% for spacing and 7.9% for limiting). Whereas age 25–34 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) ?=?.397 (.204–.771)] was protective against unmet need for modern FP, not having knowledge of MTCT [AOR (95% CI) ?=?2.531 (1.689–9.290)] and not discussing FP with a partner [AOR (95% CI) ?=?3.616(1.869–6.996)] were associated with increased odds of unmet need for modern FP. Conclusions There is high unmet need for modern FP in HIV-positive married women in western Ethiopia. Health care providers and program managers at a local and international level should work to satisfy the unmet need for modern family planning. PMID:25390620
Leah E. Morgan; Paul R. Renne; R. E. Taylor; Giday WoldeGabriel
Extrusion ages of archaeological obsidian, especially as determined by the 40Ar\\/39Ar method, can provide reliable maximum ages for tool manufacture. In at least one case in the Middle Awash of Ethiopia, freshly extruded obsidian was used for tool making, resulting in useful maximum ages for site occupation. Hydration resulting in mobility of K and\\/or Ar in glass, and recoil artifacts
Thor-Henrik Henriksen' J; Gunnar Nysaeter; Tesfaye Madebo Kebede; Arnold Berstad; Degefe Setegn; Yirga Alem; Vestfold Sentralsykehus
Helicobacterpylori infection was detected in 93% of 174 patients with a peptic ulcer compared with 63% of 116 patients with normal findings k2 = 37.3; P CO.00 1) in a cohort of 834 consecutive patients examined by gastroscopy in Yirga Alem Hospital in south Ethiopia. Fourteen patients were given 14 days' treatment with metronidazole 500 mg t.i.d., doxycycline 100 mg
Thor-Henrik Henriksen; Gunnar Nysæter; Tesfaye Madebo; Degefe Setegn; Øystein Brorson; Tedla Kebede; Arnold Berstad
Helicobacter pylori infection was detected in 93% of 174 patients with a peptic ulcer compared with 63% of 116 patients with normal findings (?2 = 37·3; P < 0·001) in a cohort of 834 consecutive patients examined by gastroscopy in Yirga Alem Hospital in south Ethiopia. Fourteen patients were given 14 days' treatment with metronidazole 500 mg t.i.d., doxycycline 100mg
Amare Getahun; A. D. Krikorian
Summary The early history, botany, cultivation, economics and sociological aspects of the use ofCatha edulis (Vahl) Forsk. ex Endl., commonly known as chat, have been presented in some detail with special emphasis being given to agricultural\\u000a practice around Harar, Ethiopia, an area where the plant is probably native. Chat attains an average height of 2.5 to 3 meters\\u000a but may occasionally
J. E. Phillips-Conroy; C. J. Jolly; P. Nystrom; H. A. Hemmalin
Among “savanna” baboons, males are the dispersing sex, and females are philopatric. Despite clear evidence for migration of\\u000a adult males at Erer-Gota, Ethiopia (Abegglen, 1984), it is generally believed that a different pattern-dispersal only by female\\u000a transfer-is found in hamadryas baboons,Papio hamadryas hamadryas (Pusey and Packer, 1987; Pusey, 1988; Stammbach, 1987). Since the late 1960's, there have been isolated observations
Helmut Kloos; Tadesse Wuhib; Damen Haile Mariam; Bernt Lindtjorn
The main objective of this review is to provide a preliminary evaluation of the suitability of community-based organizations (CBOs) to contribute to HIV\\/AIDS prevention, care\\/support and control programs in Ethiopia. In order to put CBOs and programs in the context of HIV transmission and spread, the role of the Multisectoral HIV\\/AIDS Strategy (2000-2004) and other government policies and programs in
Karl Herweg; Eva Ludi
This paper investigates the performance of selected soil and water conservation measures in the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea, namely Fanya Juu, soil\\/stone bund, grass strips and double ditches. The impact of these techniques on runoff, soil loss, crop yield and biomass production is measured at on-farm experimental sites in seven research sites under different agro-ecological conditions. On one hand,
Dawit M. Mekonnen
In 2003 the Ethiopian education system experienced wide-ranging reform that touches every aspect of the system. This reform\\u000a is called TESO (Teacher Education System Overhaul). Designed to address educational problems in Ethiopia, TESO introduced\\u000a significant structural changes and promised to bring a ‘paradigm shift’ in the Ethiopian educational system by engaging teacher\\u000a education in changing society and promoting democratic, practical,
Background Antiretroviral treatment (ART) was provided to more than nine million people by the end of 2012. Although ART programs in resource-limited settings have expanded treatment, inadequate retention in care has been a challenge. Ethiopia has been scaling up ART and improving retention (defined as continuous engagement of patients in care) in care. We aimed to analyze the ART program in Ethiopia. Methods A mix of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Routine ART program data was used to study ART scale up and patient retention in care. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with program managers. Results The number of people receiving ART in Ethiopia increased from less than 9,000 in 2005 to more than 439, 000 in 2013. Initially, the public health approach, health system strengthening, community mobilization and provision of care and support services allowed scaling up of ART services. While ART was being scaled up, retention was recognized to be insufficient. To improve retention, a second wave of interventions, related to programmatic, structural, socio-cultural, and patient information systems, have been implemented. Retention rate increased from 77% in 2004/5 to 92% in 2012/13. Conclusion Ethiopia has been able to scale up ART and improve retention in care in spite of its limited resources. This has been possible due to interventions by the ART program, supported by health systems strengthening, community-based organizations and the communities themselves. ART programs in resource-limited settings need to put in place similar measures to scale up ART and retain patients in care. PMID:24886686
Peter R. Gildemacher; Wachira Kaguongo; Oscar Ortiz; Agajie Tesfaye; Gebremedhin Woldegiorgis; William W. Wagoire; Rogers Kakuhenzire; Peter M. Kinyae; Moses Nyongesa; Paul C. Struik; Cees Leeuwis
Increased productivity of potatoes can improve the livelihood of smallholder potato farmers in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia\\u000a and is required to meet the growing demand. This paper investigates the opportunities for potato system improvement that could\\u000a result in improved productivity. Through a diagnosis of the potato systems in the three countries on the basis of surveys\\u000a and stakeholder workshops, seed
C. Oppenheimer; A. J. S. McGonigle; P. Allard; M. J. Wooster; V. Tsanev
We report here the first measurements of the SO2 flux from Erta `Ale volcano (Ethiopia); the measurements were obtained in March 2003 with a portable ultraviolet spectrometer. Emission rates averaged 0.7 kg·s-1 from the active lava lake and 1.3 kg·s-1 from the whole volcano (including fumarolic emissions in the north part of the caldera). This modest output combined with an
M. De Fino; L. La Volpe; L. Lirer
The paper presents geological and petrological data on one of the alkaline ranges developed along the borders of the Afar\\u000a depression (Ethiopia). These alkaline ranges occur in a position transversal to the dominant NNW trend of the spreading zones\\u000a of northern and central Afar which are characterized by magmas of tholeiitic affinity.\\u000a \\u000a The Edd-Bahar Assoli volcanic range consists of broad
Joshua Jones; Roberto Carniel; Andrew J. L. Harris; Steve Malone
The active summit lava lake of Erta ?Ale volcano, Ethiopia, offers a unique opportunity to study magma convection. In February 2002, we collected a multiparametric set of seismic, thermal and video data. These data indicate that the lake cycled between periods characterized by low (0.01–0.08 m s?1) and high (0.1–0.4 m s?1) convection rates, typically lasting tens to hundreds of
Timothy De Ver Dye; Solomon Bogale; Claire Hobden; Yared Tilahun; Vanessa Hechter; Teshome Deressa; Marion Bize; Anne Reeler
A large proportion of breast cancer patients in Ethiopia present for biomedical care too late, or not at all, resulting in high mortality. This study was conducted to better learn of beliefs and practices among patients accessing breast cancer services in a large referral centre in Ethiopia. Using a mixed-method design, we interviewed 69 breast cancer patients presenting for care
Timothy De Ver Dye; Solomon Bogale; Claire Hobden; Yared Tilahun; Vanessa Hechter; Teshome Deressa; Marion Bize; Anne Reeler
A large proportion of breast cancer patients in Ethiopia present for biomedical care too late, or not at all, resulting in high mortality. This study was conducted to better learn of beliefs and practices among patients accessing breast cancer services in a large referral centre in Ethiopia. Using a mixed-method design, we interviewed 69 breast cancer patients presenting for care
Bordia, A.; Carron, G.
Intended as a guide for other field operational training programs, this paper reports the organization and conduct of a workshop held in Nazareth (Ethiopia) November 20-30, 1981, for 35 local-level administrators of literacy programs in five African nations (Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe). According to the authors, the organizers…
Amare Deribew; Gemeda Abebe; Ludwig Apers; Chali Jira; Markos Tesfaye; Jafar Shifa; Alemseged Abdisa; Kifle Woldemichael; Fetene Deribie; Mesele Bezabih; Abraham Aseffa; Robert Colebunders
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, where HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are very common, little is known about the prejudice and misconceptions of rural communities towards People living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLHA) and TB. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study in Gilgel Gibe Field Research area (GGFRA) in southwest Ethiopia to assess the prejudice and misconceptions of rural and urban communities towards PLHA
Julie A. Howard; Mulat Demeke; Valerie A. Kelly; Mywish K. Maredia; Julie Stepanek
A joint research activity of: Ministry of Economic Development and Cooperation Grain Marketing Research Project\\/ Michigan State University. Ethiopia, one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, faces increasing food insecurity unless it can dramatically boost agricultural productivity per hectare. In 1993, the Sasakawa\\/Global 2000 Program (SG2000) began work in Ethiopia in partnership with the Ministry of Agriculture's Department
A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…
Dye, Timothy D.; Bogale, Solomon; Hobden, Claire; Tilahun, Yared; Deressa, Teshome; Reeler, Anne
Objective. This study assessed the initial experiences, symptoms, and actions of patients in Ethiopia ultimately determined to have breast cancer. Methods. 69 participants in a comprehensive breast cancer treatment program at the main national cancer hospital in Ethiopia were interviewed using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches. Participants' narratives of their initial cancer experience were coded and analyzed for themes around their symptoms, time to seeking advice, triggers for action, and contextual factors. The assessment was approved by the Addis Ababa University Faculty of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Results. Nearly all women first noticed lumps, though few sought medical advice within the first year (average time to action: 1.5 years). Eventually, changes in their symptoms motivated most participants to seek advice. Most participants did not think the initial lump would be cancer, nor was a lump of any particular concern until symptoms changed. Conclusion. Given the frequency with which lumps are the first symptom noticed, raising awareness among participants that lumps should trigger medical consultation could contribute significantly to more rapid medical advice-seeking among women in Ethiopia. Primary care sites should be trained and equipped to offer evaluation of lumps so that women can be referred appropriately for assessment if needed. PMID:22315692
Dye, Timothy D; Bogale, Solomon; Hobden, Claire; Tilahun, Yared; Deressa, Teshome; Reeler, Anne
Objective. This study assessed the initial experiences, symptoms, and actions of patients in Ethiopia ultimately determined to have breast cancer. Methods. 69 participants in a comprehensive breast cancer treatment program at the main national cancer hospital in Ethiopia were interviewed using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches. Participants' narratives of their initial cancer experience were coded and analyzed for themes around their symptoms, time to seeking advice, triggers for action, and contextual factors. The assessment was approved by the Addis Ababa University Faculty of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Results. Nearly all women first noticed lumps, though few sought medical advice within the first year (average time to action: 1.5 years). Eventually, changes in their symptoms motivated most participants to seek advice. Most participants did not think the initial lump would be cancer, nor was a lump of any particular concern until symptoms changed. Conclusion. Given the frequency with which lumps are the first symptom noticed, raising awareness among participants that lumps should trigger medical consultation could contribute significantly to more rapid medical advice-seeking among women in Ethiopia. Primary care sites should be trained and equipped to offer evaluation of lumps so that women can be referred appropriately for assessment if needed. PMID:22315692
Teka, Alemnesh; Adamek, Margaret E
In Ethiopia where family care is a centuries-long tradition, living in an elder care institution invariably brings social devaluation. Accordingly, this study explored the psychosocial needs of older adults in a residential elder care center in Ethiopia from the perspective of both staff and residents. Three focus group discussions of 24 residents and interviews with 5 staff persons revealed that elders were living a subsistence lifestyle, eating the same meal every day, mostly cutoff from the surrounding community, and lacking basic amenities. Despite the absence of basic amenities, residents yearned even more so for meaningful social interaction. Psychosocial support was both undervalued and underutilized by staff members, and thus, residents' psychosocial well-being appeared to be at risk. The addition of social workers in institutional care in Ethiopia may help to promote improved living standards. Advocacy is needed on behalf of residents to establish and implement guidelines on care and support of residents in old age homes. As elders in developing countries are living longer--a growing number with disabilities--at the same time that informal supports are waning, the need for developing long term care policies is becoming critical. PMID:25287990
King, A.; Block, P. J.
Climate variability and change cause unsteady hydrologic response, commonly experienced through varying river flows. These variations affect the performance and reliability of water resources dependent systems, including domestic, agriculture, energy, and the environment, with economic implications. Long-term design and operation of these systems is therefore inherently uncertain, producing copious risks at time-scales of months to decades. Yet evaluation of system performance under non-stationary climate conditions is typically ignored. Here we demonstrate the potential performance of Ethiopia's forthcoming Grand Renaissance hydropower dam on the Blue Nile River, subject to coincident climate change and reservoir filling policies. Presently, no agreed-upon reservoir retention policy exists between Ethiopia and downstream countries, even though construction has already begun. We will present a tool designed to allow users to select expected future climate conditions and reservoir filling rates, from a stochastic perspective. Additionally, the maximum reservoir volume may also be varied. Major outputs include hydropower generation and downstream flow for use by policy-makers. Ethiopia's desire to rapidly expand hydropower dams on the Nile constitutes an enormous financial investment and latent risk, with further implications on streamflow reduction to Sudan and Egypt, and a need for multi-national energy contracts, necessitating proper advanced planning.
On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors. PMID:23580251
From 1978 to 2003, the Atlanta-based Southern Regional Council published "Southern Changes," a journal featuring social research, cultural analysis, reportage, interviews, and commentary. Recently, the Southern Regional Council teamed up with the Beck Center for Electronic Collections at Emory University to digitize the complete run of the journal. The journal covered topics such as desegregation, racial equality, housing issues, and a myriad of other issues. Visitors can browse the collection by issue date or keyword search the entire archive. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the issues from 1999, as there is interesting coverage of the national health care movement, the upcoming Census, and public schools.
Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are widespread in underdeveloped countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence and distribution of helminth infection varies by place and with age. We therefore investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for STH infection in mothers and their one year-old children living in Butajira town and surrounding rural areas in southern Ethiopia. Methods In 2005-2006, 1065 pregnant women were recruited in their third trimester of pregnancy. In 2006-2007, when children reached their first birthdays, data on the infants and their mothers were collected, including stool samples for qualitative STH analysis. Questionnaire data on various demographic, housing and lifestyle variables were available. Logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the independent risk factors for STH infection in the mothers and children. Results 908 mothers and 905 infants provided complete data for analysis. Prevalence of any STH infection was 43.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 40.2-46.8%) in mothers and 4.9% (95%CI 3.6-6.5%) in children. In the fully adjusted regression model, infrequent use of soap by the mother was associated with increased risk (odds ratio (OR) 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.88, and 1.66, 95% CI 0.92-2.99, for use at least once a week and less frequent than once a week respectively, relative to daily use; p for trend = 0.018), and urban place of residence (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.28-0.73, p = 0.001) was associated with reduced risk of maternal STH infection. The only factor associated with STH infection in infants was household source of water, with the greatest risk in those using piped water inside the compound (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.38 for river water, 0.20, 95% CI 0.56-0.69 for either well or stream water and 0.21, 95% CI 0.09-0.51 for piped water outside compared with piped water inside the compound, overall p = 0.002) Conclusion In this rural Ethiopian community with a relatively high prevalence of STH infection, we found a reduced risk of infection in relation to maternal hygiene and urban living. Daily use of soap and a safe supply of water are likely to reduce the risk of STH infection. PMID:20085635
Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.
Williams, A. Park; Funk, Chris
An estimated 14.3 million people are currently (July 2010) food insecure in Kenya and Ethiopia, and the U.S. government has spent more than $972 million on food aid in these two countries since 2009 (USAID, 2010). This insecurity stems from recent drought and rapid population growth that has outpaced agricultural development (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Brown, 2009). Previous work by Funk and others (2005, 2008) and Verdin and others (2005) has linked drought conditions in Kenya and Ethiopia with warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Indian Ocean. Recent work has shown that Indian Ocean SSTs substantially affect rainfall in this region from March through June (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Verdin, 2009). This season is known as the 'long rains' in Kenya and the 'Belg' rains in Ethiopia.
Nigatu Wondrade; Dick, Øystein B; Tveite, Havard
Classifying multi-temporal image data to produce thematic maps and quantify land cover changes is one of the most common applications of remote sensing. Mapping land cover changes at the regional level is essential for a wide range of applications including land use planning, decision making, land cover database generation, and as a source of information for sustainable management of natural resources. Land cover changes in Lake Hawassa Watershed, Southern Ethiopia, were investigated using Landsat MSS image data of 1973, and Landsat TM images of 1985, 1995, and 2011, covering a period of nearly four decades. Each image was partitioned in a GIS environment, and classified using an unsupervised algorithm followed by a supervised classification method. A hybrid approach was employed in order to reduce spectral confusion due to high variability of land cover. Classification of satellite image data was performed integrating field data, aerial photographs, topographical maps, medium resolution satellite image (SPOT 20 m), and visual image interpretation. The image data were classified into nine land cover types: water, built-up, cropland, woody vegetation, forest, grassland, swamp, bare land, and scrub. The overall accuracy of the LULC maps ranged from 82.5 to 85.0 %. The achieved accuracies were reasonable, and the observed classification errors were attributable to coarse spatial resolution and pixels containing a mixture of cover types. Land cover change statistics were extracted and tabulated using the ERDAS Imagine software. The results indicated an increase in built-up area, cropland, and bare land areas, and a reduction in the six other land cover classes. Predominant land cover is cropland changing from 43.6 % in 1973 to 56.4 % in 2011. A significant portion of land cover was converted into cropland. Woody vegetation and forest cover which occupied 21.0 and 10.3 % in 1973, respectively, diminished to 13.6 and 5.6 % in 2011. The change in water body was very peculiar in that the area of Lake Hawassa increased from 91.9 km(2) in 1973 to 95.2 km(2) in 2011, while that of Lake Cheleleka whose area was 11.3 km(2) in 1973 totally vanished in 2011 and transformed into mud-flat and grass dominated swamp. The "change and no change" analysis revealed that more than one third (548.0 km(2)) of the total area was exposed to change between 1973 and 2011. This study was useful in identifying the major land cover changes, and the analysis pursued provided a valuable insight into the ongoing changes in the area under investigation. PMID:24310365
Keba, Habtamu T; Madakadze, I C; Angassa, A; Hassen, A
We examined the nutritive value of common grass species in the semi-arid rangelands of Borana in southern Ethiopia using local experience based herbage preference (LEBHP) perception and laboratory techniques. Local pastoralists in the study area were asked to identify common grass species and rank them according to the species' preferences and palatability to cattle. The pastoralists listed a total of 15 common grass species which were then sampled during the main rain and cold dry seasons and analyzed for crude protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and ash content to verify pastoralists' claim regarding the quality of individual species. The relative feed value (RFV) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) were also calculated using NDF and ADF contents. Spearman's rank correlation was used to examine possible relationships between laboratory results and pastoralists' experience on grass quality. Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aucheri, Digitaria milanjiana, Eragrostis papposa and Panicum maximum were the top five species based on LEBHP perception. There were indications of inconsistency in terms of LEBHP perception among the different pastoral communities. The chemical composition of all grass species showed significant (p<0.05) variation between sites, seasons and species. The results showed that the CP values for the Borana rangelands were in the range of 8.7% in the main rain season to 5.1% for the cold dry season. The fiber constituents were relatively low in the main rain season compared to the cold dry season. Overall, Digitaria milanjiana had the highest CP (16.5%) content, while the least was recorded with Heteropogon contortus (10.8) and Aristida adoensis (9.8%) during the main rain season. It seems that the spatial variability of landscapes within the wider geographical regions, soil properties and texture, and land-use patterns probably contributed to site differences in species quality. Generally, the RFV of individual grass species was significantly (p<0.05) varied between and within sites. The ranking of species by pastoralists according to their preferences by cattle was highly correlated with the chemical composition of laboratory results of individual grass species with 'r' values for CP (0.94), ash (0.95), NDF (-0.98), ADF (-0.93) and ADL (-0.93). We suggest the complimentary use of LEBHP and laboratory techniques in evaluating the nutritive quality of rangeland forage species for sustainable animal production. PMID:25049799
Keba, Habtamu T.; Madakadze, I. C.; Angassa, A.; Hassen, A.
We examined the nutritive value of common grass species in the semi-arid rangelands of Borana in southern Ethiopia using local experience based herbage preference (LEBHP) perception and laboratory techniques. Local pastoralists in the study area were asked to identify common grass species and rank them according to the species’ preferences and palatability to cattle. The pastoralists listed a total of 15 common grass species which were then sampled during the main rain and cold dry seasons and analyzed for crude protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and ash content to verify pastoralists’ claim regarding the quality of individual species. The relative feed value (RFV) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) were also calculated using NDF and ADF contents. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to examine possible relationships between laboratory results and pastoralists’ experience on grass quality. Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aucheri, Digitaria milanjiana, Eragrostis papposa and Panicum maximum were the top five species based on LEBHP perception. There were indications of inconsistency in terms of LEBHP perception among the different pastoral communities. The chemical composition of all grass species showed significant (p<0.05) variation between sites, seasons and species. The results showed that the CP values for the Borana rangelands were in the range of 8.7% in the main rain season to 5.1% for the cold dry season. The fiber constituents were relatively low in the main rain season compared to the cold dry season. Overall, Digitaria milanjiana had the highest CP (16.5%) content, while the least was recorded with Heteropogon contortus (10.8) and Aristida adoensis (9.8%) during the main rain season. It seems that the spatial variability of landscapes within the wider geographical regions, soil properties and texture, and land-use patterns probably contributed to site differences in species quality. Generally, the RFV of individual grass species was significantly (p<0.05) varied between and within sites. The ranking of species by pastoralists according to their preferences by cattle was highly correlated with the chemical composition of laboratory results of individual grass species with ‘r’ values for CP (0.94), ash (0.95), NDF (?0.98), ADF (?0.93) and ADL (?0.93). We suggest the complimentary use of LEBHP and laboratory techniques in evaluating the nutritive quality of rangeland forage species for sustainable animal production. PMID:25049799
Mekonnen, Mulatie; Keesstra, Saskia; Baartman, Jantiene; Ritsema, Coen
Gully erosion is a prime problem in Ethiopia. This study assessed the severity of gully erosion and the role of sediment storage dams (SSD) in restoring gullies and preventing further gully development, its sediment trapping efficacy (STE) and its capacity in converting degraded gully lands to productive land. On average 2.5 m deep, 6.6 m wide and 28.3 m long gullies were formed in Minizr watershed, northwest Ethiopia, in 2013. Concentrated surface runoff, traditional ditches, graded terraces without suitable water ways and road construction are the main causes of such serious gully erosion. Over grazing, tunnel flow and lack of proper immediate gully treatment actions after gully initiation are found to be additional causes of the problem. Gully erosion was also found as the major source of sediment for downstream rivers and water reservoirs. The annual volume of soil eroded from only four gullies was 1941.3 m3. To control gully erosion, SSDs were found to be important physical structures, which can trap significant amount of sediment within gullies and they can convert unproductive gully land to productive agricultural land for fruit and crop production. Eight SSDs trapped about 44*103 m3 of sediment within 2 to 8 years. Two representative SSDs constructed using gabion and stone were tested for their STE. Results showed that their efficacy was 74.1% and 66.4% for the gabion and stone SSDs, respectively. Six of the older SSDs were already full of sediment and created 0.75 ha of productive land within 2 to 8 years. SSDs best fits to treat large size and deep gullies where other gully control measures, check dams, could not function well. To prevent gully formation, controlling its causes that is avoiding traditional ditches, practicing grassed water ways to safely remove runoff water from graded terraces, integrated watershed and road side management practices are important solutions. KEY WORDS: Sediment storage dam, gully erosion, sediment trapping efficacy, productive land, Ethiopia
Background Reservoirs created by damming rivers are often believed to increase malaria incidence risk and/or stretch the period of malaria transmission. In this paper, we report the effects of a mega hydropower dam on P. falciparum malaria incidence in Ethiopia. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted over a period of 2 years to determine Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence among children less than 10 years of age living near a mega hydropower dam in Ethiopia. A total of 2080 children from 16 villages located at different distances from a hydropower dam were followed up from 2008 to 2010 using active detection of cases based on weekly house to house visits. Of this cohort of children, 951 (48.09%) were females and 1059 (51.91%) were males, with a median age of 5 years. Malaria vectors were simultaneously surveyed in all the 16 study villages. Frailty models were used to explore associations between time-to-malaria and potential risk factors, whereas, mixed-effects Poisson regression models were used to assess the effect of different covariates on anopheline abundance. Results Overall, 548 (26.86%) children experienced at least one clinical malaria episode during the follow up period with mean incidence rate of 14.26 cases/1000 child-months at risk (95% CI: 12.16 - 16.36). P. falciparum malaria incidence showed no statistically significant association with distance from the dam reservoir (p?=?0.32). However, P. falciparum incidence varied significantly between seasons (p?0.01). The malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, was however more abundant in villages nearer to the dam reservoir. Conclusions P. falciparum malaria incidence dynamics were more influenced by seasonal drivers than by the dam reservoir itself. The findings could have implications in timing optimal malaria control interventions and in developing an early warning system in Ethiopia. PMID:23566411
Background Induced abortion is one of the greatest human rights dilemmas of our time. Yet, abortion is a very common experience in every culture and society. According to the World Health Organization, Ethiopia had the fifth largest number of maternal deaths in 2005 and unsafe abortion was estimated to account for 32% of all maternal deaths in Ethiopia. Youth are disproportionately affected by the consequences of unsafe abortion. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the magnitude and identify factors associated with abortion among female Wolaita Sodo University students. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita Sodo University between May and June 2011. Data were collected from 493 randomly selected female students using structured and pre-tested questionnaires. Results The rate of abortion among students was found to be 65 per 1000 women, making it three fold the national rate of abortion for Ethiopia (23/1000 women aged 15–44). Virtually all of the abortions (96.9%) were induced and only half (16) were reported to be safe. Students with history of alcohol use, who are first-year and those enrolled in faculties with no post-Grade 10 Natural Science background had higher risk of abortion than their counterparts. About 23.7% reported sexual experience. Less than half of the respondents (44%) ever heard of emergency contraception and only 35.9% of those who are sexually experienced ever used condom. Conclusions High rate of abortion was detected among female Wolaita Sodo University students and half of the abortions took place/initiated under unsafe circumstances. Knowledge of students on legal and safe abortion services was found to be considerably poor. It is imperative that improved sexual health education, with focus on safe and legal abortion services is rendered and wider availability of Youth Friendly family planning services are realized in Universities and other places where young men and women congregate. PMID:24666926
Jemberu, Wudu Temesgen; Molla, Wassie; Almaw, Gizat; Alemu, Sefinew
Background Rabies is a zoonotic disease that has been prevalent in humans and animals for centuries in Ethiopia and it is often dealt with using traditional practices. There is lack of accurate quantitative information on rabies both in humans and animals in Ethiopia and little is known about the awareness of the people about the disease. In this study, we estimated the incidence of rabies in humans and domestic animals, and assessed the people's awareness about the disease in North Gondar zone, Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings The incidence of rabies in humans and domestic animals was prospectively followed up for one year period based on clinical observation. A questionnaire was also administered to 120 randomly selected dog owners and 5 traditional healers to assess the knowledge and practices about the disease. We found an annual estimated rabies incidence of 2.33 cases per 100,000 in humans, 412.83 cases per 100,000 in dogs, 19.89 cases per 100,000 in cattle, 67.68 cases per 100,000 in equines, and 14.45 cases per 100,000 in goats. Dog bite was the source of infection for all fatal rabies cases. Ninety eight percent of the questionnaire respondents were familiar with rabies and mentioned dog bite as a means of transmission. But discordant with current scientific knowledge, 84% and 32% of the respondents respectively mentioned any type of contact (irrespective of skin condition) with saliva, and inhalation as a means of transmission of rabies. Eighty four percent of the respondents relied on traditional healers for management of rabies. Conclusions The study shows high canine rabies burden, and lack of sufficient awareness about the disease and high reliance on traditional treatment that interfere with timely post exposure management. Vaccination of dogs, proper post exposure management, and increasing the awareness of the community are suggested to reduce the disease burden. PMID:23675547
Background Monitoring the outcome of tuberculosis treatment and understanding the specific reasons for unsuccessful treatment outcome are important in evaluating the effectiveness of tuberculosis control program. This study investigated tuberculosis treatment outcomes and predictors for unsuccessful treatment outcome in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. Methods Medical records of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients registered from September 2009 to June 2011 in 15 districts of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, were reviewed. Additional data were collected using a structured questionnaire administered through house-to-house visits by trained nurses. Tuberculosis treatment outcomes were assessed according to WHO guidelines. The association of unsuccessful treatment outcome with socio-demographic and clinical factors was analyzed using logistic regression model. Results Out of the 407 PTB patients (221 males and 186 females) aged 15 years and above, 89.2% had successful and 10.8% had unsuccessful treatment outcome. In the final multivariate logistic model, the odds of unsuccessful treatment outcome was higher among patients older than 40 years of age (adj. OR = 2.50, 95% CI: 1.12-5.59), family size greater than 5 persons (adj. OR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.43-7.44), unemployed (adj. OR = 3.10, 95% CI: 1.33-7.24) and among retreatment cases (adj. OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.37-2.92) as compared to their respective comparison groups. Conclusions Treatment outcome among smear-positive PTB patients was satisfactory in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. Nonetheless, those patients at high risk of an unfavorable treatment outcome should be identified early and given additional follow-up and social support. PMID:22824524
Wado, Yohannes Dibaba; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Hindin, Michelle J
Introduction Vaccination can reduce child mortality significantly and is a cost effective way to improve child health.Worldwide, more than 22 million children do not receive the basic recommended vaccinations.Vaccination coverage in Ethiopia remains low. Research on child health has focused on socio-economic factors such as maternal education and access to health care, but little attention has been given to demographic factors and women's autonomy within the household. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of demographic factors and women's autonomy on the completion of childhood vaccination in rural Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a Health and Demographic Survelliance System (HDSS) in southwestern Ethiopia. Data were drawn from a random sample of women with children aged 12-24 months (n = 889). Information on maternal socio-demographic characteristics and household variables were collected using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Vaccination data were obtained from vaccination cards or mother's recall. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of independent variables with completion of childhood vaccination. Results Of 889 children aged 12-24 months, 690 (78%) had received at least one vaccination. Only 37% (95% CI, 33.5-39.9) were fully vaccinated. Women's decision making autonomy, number of under-five children in the household, mother's education, use of antenatal care services and proximity to health facility were the main factors associated with full vaccination status. Conclusion Completion of basic vaccination series is very low in the study area. Initiatives that enhance women's autonomy within the household and that promote healthy timing and spacing of pregnancies may help in improving child health through vaccination. PMID:24624243
Mekonen, Seblework; Lachat, Carl; Ambelu, Argaw; Steurbaut, Walter; Kolsteren, Patrick; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Wondafrash, Mekitie; Houbraken, Michael; Spanoghe, Pieter
Infants in Ethiopia are consuming food items such as maize as a complementary diet. However, this may expose infants to toxic contaminants like DDT. Maize samples were collected from the households visited during a consumption survey and from markets in Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia. The residues of total DDT and its metabolites were analyzed using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method combined with dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup (d-SPE). Deterministic and probabilistic methods of analysis were applied to determine the consumer exposure of infants to total DDT. The results from the exposure assessment were compared with the health based guidance value in this case the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI). All maize samples (n=127) were contaminated by DDT, with a mean concentration of 1.770mg/kg, which was far above the maximum residue limit (MRL). The mean and 97.5 percentile (P 97.5) estimated daily intake of total DDT for consumers were respectively 0.011 and 0.309mg/kgbw/day for deterministic and 0.011 and 0.083mg/kgbw/day for probabilistic exposure assessment. For total infant population (consumers and non-consumers), the 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake were 0.265 and 0.032mg/kgbw/day from the deterministic and probabilistic exposure assessments, respectively. Health risk estimation revealed that, the mean and 97.5 percentile for consumers, and 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake of total DDT for total population were above the PTDI. Therefore, in Ethiopia, the use of maize as complementary food for infants may pose a health risk due to DDT residue. PMID:25569581
Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres
Background Ethiopia is one of the six countries which have contributed to more than 50% of all maternal deaths across the world. This country has adopted the millennium development goals (MDGs) including reducing the maternal mortality by three-quarter, and put improvement in maternal health as one of the health sector development program (HSDP) performance indicators. The purpose of this study was to review the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Ethiopia in the past 30 years using available literature. Methods A computer based literature search in the databases of MEDLINE, PubMed, HINARI, EBASE, MEASURE DHS, The Cochrane Library, Google Search and Google Scholar was carried out. Manual search for local articles that are not available electronically in full document were also conducted. Eighteen data sources (3 nationally representative surveys, 2 secondary data analyses, 5 small scale community based studies, and 8 hospital based studies) were included in the review. The results of this review are presented in the form of line and stock graphs. Results The national maternal mortality trend estimated by the central statistics agency of Ethiopia, The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, WHO and other UN agencies showed inconsistent results. Similarly, although there were marked variations in the 95% confidence intervals among individual studies, the small scale community based and hospital based studies have shown that there has been no significant change in maternal mortality over the last three decades. A 22-year cohort analysis from Atat Hospital is the only evidence that demonstrated a very significant drop in maternal mortality among mothers who were kept in the maternity waiting area before the onset of labor. Conclusion Although the MDG and HSDP envisaged significant improvement in maternal health by this time, this review has shown that the performances are still far from the target. The multisectoral huge investment by the Ethiopian Government is a big hope to reduce the maternal mortality by three-quarters in the near future beyond 2015. PMID:25489179
Background Several health hazards including communicable diseases and skin conditions are associated with Barbers’ profession to which their visitors are exposed. Thus, knowledge and practice of Barbers would play a vital part in prevention and control of these health hazards. So, the aim of this study is to assess knowledge and practice, and associated factors among barbers about biological hazards associated with their profession in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. Methods To assess knowledge and practice, and associated factors among barbers about biological hazards associated with their profession in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia, A work place based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 28 to April 6, 2012. The total numbers of Barbers in the town were 960 of which 400 Barbers were participated in the study. Sample size was determined using the formula for single population proportion by considering, 51% proportion, knowledgeable Barbers from Jimma, Ethiopia, 95% level of confidence, 5% margin of error and 15% none response rate. The numbers of barbers included in the study were selected by using systematic random sampling. Data was collected by face to face interview using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with knowledge and practice of barbers. Results Of 400 barbers, only 72 (18%) had good knowledge about biological hazards associated to their profession, While only 61 (15.3%) were practicing safely during barbering. Knowledge of the barbers was associated significantly with educational level, owner of the business, working hour and work experience, while practice was associated only with availability of UV sterilizers in the room and working hour. Conclusion Barbers’ practice and knowledge to prevent biological hazards associated with their profession is very poor. Thus, giving training for the Barbers is required toward prevention of biological hazards associated to their profession. PMID:23116167
Gashawbeza, E.; Keranen, K.; Nyblade, A.; Klemperer, S. L.; Walker, K.
We have utilized a dataset from the broadband seismic experiment of Nyblade and Langston (EOS v.83 p. 405, 2002) for a shear-wave splitting analysis in Ethiopia. A total of twenty-five broadband seismic stations, widely distributed in various physiographic regions in Ethiopia, were used. Six stations were installed on the southeastern plateau, twelve stations on the western plateau, and seven stations inside the Rift Valley, which runs northeast-southwest and separates the western and eastern highlands. The distribution of the broadband stations in the present study spans a broad region and allows us to compare the results of shear-wave splitting analysis inside the rift and on the rift-bounding plateaus. Previous shear-wave splitting results in Kenya, located south of Ethiopia, show fast polarization azimuths sub-parallel to the strike of the rift which are interpreted to be the result of vertical magma-filled cracks in the lithosphere opening in the direction perpendicular to the extension direction (Gao et al., 1997; Barruol and Ismail, 2001). However, this orientation is also perpendicular to the collision direction for the Mozambique belt and thus consistent with the fast azimuth being the result of fossilized anisotropy in the Precambrian lithosphere. Results from an SKS splitting analysis in Ethiopia (Maguire et al., EOS 2003 in press; Kendall et al., this session) show the orientation of the fast polarization azimuth within the Main Ethiopian Rift to be approximately NNE-SSW. Similar to the results from Kenya, this is parallel to the volcanic centers in the rift and perpendicular to the geodetically determined opening direction. Splitting directions on the rift shoulders are closer to NE, parallel to both the rift-bounding faults (perpendicular to the inferred average Neogene opening direction) and to the Precambrian accretionary structures. Our preliminary result from Addis Ababa suggests a fast azimuth of N23E, sub-parallel to the rift orientation in agreement with previous results by other workers. Further south near Arbaminch, results suggest an azimuth of N6E possibly due to the shift of rift orientation from NE-SW to nearly N-S in this region. Stations 250 km NW of the rift axis (Debre Markos) and 250 km SE of the rift axis (Goba) both show more north-easterly trends (N37E and N21E, respectively). Because of the distance of these stations from the rift, we suggest that this NE fast splitting direction is more likely related to fossilized anisotropy in the Precambrian lithosphere than to Neogene rifting.
Fresh stool specimens, collected at random from 63 medical in-patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), were studied prospectively for Cryptosporidium oocyst. The diagnosis of AIDS was made according to the clinical case definition of the Bangui criteria. These patients presented with profuse watery diarrhoea, significant weight loss and other associated symptoms and signs of clinical manifestations of symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Using the modified Kinyoun acid fast staining technique, 25(39.7%) of the stool specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium oocyst. This study showed that the protozoan, Cryptosporidium parvum, may be responsible for a significant proportion of cases of chronic diarrhoea among AIDS patients in Ethiopia. PMID:7835259
Plorde, D S
Sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries are causing concern to those responsible for their control and eradication. To gain a better understanding of the problems involved in a country struggling with development, the economic and psychosocial factors influencing the spread of STD in Ethiopia have been studied. Increased migration and urbanisation and the changing role of women have led to a rise in prostitution. Thus changes in the social structure--particularly in relation to the education and employment of women--and improved medical services are essential for the long-term control of STD. PMID:6895708
Background Hypocalcaemia, defined by serum calcium level less than 8.5 mg/dl, could be caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and diarrheal diseases. In Ethiopia, while morbidities from diarrheal diseases and HIV are serious health problems, studies assessing the interactions amongst of the three do not exist. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the level of calcium among diarrheic patients with and without HIV co-infection. Methods Consecutive diarrheic patients attending Gondar University Hospital in Ethiopia were enrolled and screened for HIV, intestinal parasites, Shigella and Salmonella. Concentration of calcium in serum was determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results A total of 206 diarrheic patients were included in the study (109?=?HIV positive, 97?=?HIV negative). Intestinal parasites and Shigella species were detected in 32.2% and 8.5% of the patients, respectively. The serum calcium levels in the patients who were found positive for Shigella species or intestinal parasites was not significantly different by the presence or absence of HIV co-infection. HIV infected diarrheic patients had significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.82?±?1.23 mg/dl) than those negative for HIV (8.38?±?1.97) (P?=?0.015). The age groups 25–35 and greater than 45 years showed significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.77?±?1.55 mg/dl) in comparison to the other age groups (7.84?±?1.41 mg/dl, P?=?0.009). On the other hand, females presented with significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.79?±?1.60 mg/dl, P?=?0.044) than males (8.26?±?1.65 mg/dl). Conclusion There is high prevalence of hypocalcaemia among diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia. And HIV stood out to be a major risk factor for development of hypocalcaemia among the diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia. Further studies are required to substantiate and characterize the mechanisms and consequences of calcium metabolism disorders among HIV infected individuals in the study area. PMID:24993127
Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Gebregiorgis, Seifu Hagos; Roro, Meselech Assegid; Lemma, Alemayehu Mekonnen; Ahmed, Saifuddin
Background The benefits of Health and Demographic Surveillance sites for local populations have been the topic of discussion as countries such as Ethiopia take efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goal targets, on which they lag behind. Ethiopia's maternal mortality ratio is very high, and in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2011 EDHS) it was estimated to be 676/100,000 live births. Recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD) and estimates based on the United Nations model reported better, but still unacceptably high, figures of 497/100,000 and 420/100,000 live births for 2013. In the 2011 EDHS, antenatal care (ANC) utilization was estimated at 34%, and delivery in health facilities was only 10%. Objectives To compare maternal health service utilization among populations in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) to non-HDSS populations in Butajira district, south central Ethiopia. Design A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in January and February 2012 among women who had delivered in the 2 years before the survey. Results A total of 2,296 women were included in the study. One thousand eight hundred and sixty two (81.1%) had attended ANC at least once, and 37% of the women had attended ANC at least four times. A quarter of the women delivered their last child in a health facility. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, 715 (75.3%) attended ANC at least once compared to 85.1% of women living in the HDSS areas [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.59; 95% CI 0.46, 0.74]. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, only 170 (17.9%) delivered in health facilities and were assisted by skilled attendants during delivery, whereas 30.0% of those living in HDSS areas delivered in health facilities (AOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91). Conclusion This paper provides possible evidence that living in an HDSS site has a positive influence on maternal health. In addition, there may be a positive influence on those living nearby or in the same district where an HDSS is located even when not included in the surveillance system. PMID:24998383
Azadi, Hossein; Talsma, Nanda; Ho, Peter; Zarafshani, Kiumars
Much has been published on the application of genetically modified (GM) crops in Africa, but agricultural performance has hardly been addressed. This paper discusses the main consequences of GM crops on agricultural performance in Ethiopia. Three main criteria of performance - productivity, equitability and sustainability - are evaluated in the context of the Ethiopian agricultural sector. We conclude that the application of GM crops can improve the agricultural productivity and sustainability, whereas equitability cannot be stimulated and might even exacerbate the gap between socioeconomic classes. Before introducing GM crops to Ethiopian agriculture, regulatory issues should be addressed, public research should be fostered, and more ex ante values and socioeconomic studies should be included. PMID:21055835
Yaya, Yaliso; Eide, Kristiane Tislevoll; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Lindtjørn, Bernt
Introduction Ethiopia has achieved the fourth Millennium Development Goal by reducing under 5 mortality. Nevertheless, there are challenges in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate maternal and neonatal mortality and the socio-economic inequalities of these mortalities in rural south-west Ethiopia. Methods We visited and enumerated all households but collected data from those that reported pregnancy and birth outcomes in the last five years in 15 of the 30 rural kebeles in Bonke woreda, Gamo Gofa, south-west Ethiopia. The primary outcomes were maternal and neonatal mortality and a secondary outcome was the rate of institutional delivery. Results We found 11,762 births in 6572 households; 11,536 live and 226 stillbirths. There were 49 maternal deaths; yielding a maternal mortality ratio of 425 per 100,000 live births (95% CI:318–556). The poorest households had greater MMR compared to richest (550 vs 239 per 100,000 live births). However, the socio-economic factors examined did not have statistically significant association with maternal mortality. There were 308 neonatal deaths; resulting in a neonatal mortality ratio of 27 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 24–30). Neonatal mortality was greater in households in the poorest quartile compared to the richest; adjusted OR (AOR): 2.62 (95% CI: 1.65–4.15), headed by illiterates compared to better educated; AOR: 3.54 (95% CI: 1.11–11.30), far from road (?6 km) compared to within 5 km; AOR: 2.40 (95% CI: 1.56–3.69), that had three or more births in five years compared to two or less; AOR: 3.22 (95% CI: 2.45–4.22). Households with maternal mortality had an increased risk of stillbirths; OR: 11.6 (95% CI: 6.00–22.7), and neonatal deaths; OR: 7.2 (95% CI: 3.6–14.3). Institutional delivery was only 3.7%. Conclusion High mortality with socio-economic inequality and low institutional delivery highlight the importance of strengthening obstetric interventions in rural south-west Ethiopia. PMID:24787694
This polar projection of Triton's southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds.
Mekuria Argaw; Demel Teketay; Mats Olsson
The objectives of this study were to determine the composition, density and spatial distribution of the soil seed bank of woody species, as well as their regeneration pattern in two different land use systems, controlled (ranch) and open grazing, in an Acacia woodland of the Rift Valley in Ethiopia. We also compared the species composition of the soil seed bank
A. Amsalu Taye
Land degradation in the form of soil erosion and nutrient loss is a major constraint to farming activities and agricultural development in the highlands of Ethiopia. Though large-scale conservation projects have been initiated and carried out by the government during the past few decades, the conservation measures introduced have not been sustained by most farmers and land degradation continued to
Conrad Murendo; Alwin Keil; Manfred Zeller
Climate risk studies have largely neglected household coping and adaptation strategies. In this paper we analyze drought impacts, drought risk management, and resulting drought resilience in Awash River Basin of Ethiopia based on socio-economic data collected from 43 randomly selected Peasant Associations. We find that severe drought periods have led to a significant depression of crop yields and to widespread
Gondo, Tendayi; Dafuleya, Gift
Technical vocational education and training (TVET) programmes have recently received increased attention as an area of priority for stimulating growth in developed and developing countries. This paper considers the situation in Ethiopia where the promotion of micro and small-sized enterprises (MSEs) has been central to the development and…
Bekalo, S.; Bangay, C.
Whether talking to local farmers or studying academic papers there is general agreement that environmental degradation is impacting upon agricultural productivity in Ethiopia. In a country, where around 90% of the population are dependent on agriculture for subsistence requirements and a similar fraction of the country's export income is generated…
Yemataw Wondie; Workie Zemene; Konrad Reschke; Harry Schröder
This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale–Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child prostitution were more symptomatic than those who were married early. Respondents
Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry
This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child…
Mally Shechory; Sarah Ben-David
Israel is a nation characterized by great ethnic complexity. It consists of the dominant group of native Israelis and various other immigrant ethnic groups from the former Soviet Union (FSU) and the immigrants from Ethiopia. These 2 immigrant ethnic groups differ from each other both with regard to their adaptation to and the impact of Israeli society on them. The
Alula Pankhurst; Damen Haile Mariam
Problem Statement: Mortality from AIDS has been increasing at an alarming rate in Ethiopia, especially in urban centers, to the great detriment of households and communities. The epidemic causes stress or even collapse of social institutions performing valued community functions. One such institution threatened by the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic is the iddir, a form of indigenous social insurance whose main function
Neqniq, Ato Million
The major responsibility of this workshop on nonformal education is to establish some prototypes of community training activities which will coordinate with the agricultural and health components of Ethiopia's Fourth Five Year Plan for rural development and which can later be reproduced in the countryside. Linking education to overall development…
Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is a measure that is used to display the achievement of college students in Ethiopia. It also serves as a key yardstick in career and scholarship assessment. In recent time there has been a rapid massification of higher educational institutions (HEIs). Many academics believe that the expansion has increased a…
Alem, Atalay; Pain, Clare; Araya, Mesfin; Hodges, Brian D.
Background: Globalization in medical education often means a "brain drain" of desperately needed health professionals from low- to high-income countries. Despite the best intentions, partnerships that simply transport students to Western medical schools for training have shockingly low return rates. Ethiopia, for example, has sent hundreds of…
Teachers and teacher center personnel were used to gather evaluative information on Awraja Pedagogical Centers (APCs) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Teachers discussed their access to center facilities and services, and ratings of center materials and personnel. APC staff discussed their work, hours of center operation, procedures followed in the…
Baggaley, Rebecca F.; Burgin, Joanna; Campbell, Oona M. R.
Background Unsafe abortion is estimated to account for 13% of maternal mortality globally. Medical abortion is a safe alternative. Methods By estimating mortality risks for unsafe and medical abortion and childbirth for Tanzania and Ethiopia, we modelled changes in maternal mortality that are achievable if unsafe abortion were replaced by medical abortion. We selected Ethiopia and Tanzania because of their high maternal mortality ratios (MMRatios) and contrasting situations regarding health care provision and abortion legislation. We focused on misoprostol-only regimens due to the drug's low cost and accessibility. We included the impact of medical abortion on women who would otherwise choose unsafe abortion and on women with unwanted/mistimed pregnancies who would otherwise carry to term. Results Thousands of lives could be saved each year in each country by implementing medical abortion using misoprostol (2122 in Tanzania and 2551 in Ethiopia assuming coverage equals family planning services levels: 56% for Tanzania, 31% for Ethiopia). Changes in MMRatios would be less pronounced because the intervention would also affect national birth rates. Conclusions This is the first analysis of impact of medical abortion provision which takes into account additional potential users other than those currently using unsafe abortion. Thousands of women's lives could be saved, but this may not be reflected in as substantial changes in MMRatios because of medical abortion's demographic impact. Therefore policy makers must be aware of the inability of some traditional measures of maternal mortality to detect the real benefits offered by such an intervention. PMID:20948995
Pia Nystrom; Jane E. Phillips-Conroy; Clifford J. Jolly
We describe dental microwear in baboons (Papio hamadryas sensu lato) from the anubis-hamadryas hybrid zone of Awash National Park, Ethiopia, outline its variation with sex and age, and attempt to relate the observed microwear pattern to environment and diet. Casts of the maxillary second molar of 52 adult and subadult individuals of both sexes were examined with a scanning electron
Solomon Worku; Mesganaw Fantahun
Introduction: It is a universally accepted fact that unintended pregnancy and births could have negative consequences for women, children, families and societies at large. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Harrar town in southeast Ethiopia where family planning services are relatively easily accessible. The study was carried out in nine kebeles (smallest administrative units), selected from three woredas (districts).
Twenty isolates resembling members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (Fg complex; O’Donnell et al., Fungal Genet. Biol. 41:600-623, 2004) were isolated from ground wheat samples collected in two different geographic areas in Ethiopia. Results of a multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay (Ward ...
1 The Pleistocene fauna (other than Primates) from Asbole, lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia, and its environmental and biochronological implications La faune plÃ©istocÃ¨ne (sauf Primates) d'Asbole, basse vallÃ©e de l fauna (excluding Primates, which are being studied separately). It is therefore a modified and expanded
De Coninck, Zaake; Feyissa, Ibrahim A.; Ekström, Anna Mia; Marrone, Gaetano
Introduction The HIV prevalence rate in Ethiopia for married (or cohabiting) women is 3 times that found amongst women who have never been married. While marriage used to be seen as a protective factor against HIV, evidence suggests that this is no longer necessarily the case. This study analyses the trend and socio-demographic determinants of HIV awareness and safe sex negotiation among married women in Ethiopia between 2005 and 2011. Methods Data from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2005 and in 2011 were analysed. Socio-demographic variables as well as ‘survey year’ were selected to assess their interaction with selected HIV awareness and safe sex negotiation indicators. Multivariable regression analyses were performed. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were computed. Results A significant increase in knowledge of HIV and ability to negotiate safer sex occurred between 2005 and 2011 reflecting a positive trend in gender empowerment amongst married Ethiopian women. Some of these advancements were striking, for instance respondents were 3.6 times more likely to have “Heard of AIDS” in 2011 than in 2005. HIV awareness and safer sex negotiation were significantly associated with higher education, higher socioeconomic status, those who had heard of HIV, those of the Orthodox Christian faith, and (to some extent) those living in rural areas. Conclusion HIV awareness has increased significantly in Ethiopia over the last decade but married women are still disproportionately susceptible to HIV. Community programmes, already effective in Ethiopia, also need to target this vulnerable sub-group of women. PMID:25506823
Bogale, Gebeyehu W.; Boer, Henk; Seydel, Erwin R.
In Ethiopia the level of illiteracy in rural areas is very high. In this study, we investigated the effects of an audio HIV/AIDS prevention intervention targeted at rural illiterate females. In the intervention we used social-oriented presentation formats, such as discussion between similar females and role-play. In a pretest and posttest…
Much research has suggested that focusing on the determinants of female enrolment and dropout tells us little about girls' experiences of schooling in developing countries and cannot explain variation in their educational trajectories. This paper draws on quantitative (n = 1177) and qualitative data (n = 15) collected by "Young Lives" in Ethiopia…
Kindie Getnet; Wim Verbeke; Jacques Viaene
Following the agricultural market liberalization policy, there is an emerging grain market structure in Ethiopia in which the central wholesale market exhibits concentration of power and spatial integration with the local markets. Due to this, it is hypothesized that the central wholesale market influences the long-run price movements in the local markets. The relationship can be modeled as spatial price
A survey of Fusarium head blight (FHB)-contaminated wheat in Ethiopia recovered 31 isolates resembling members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex. Results of a multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay for FHB species and trichothecene chemotype determination suggested that 22 of these isolates m...
E. Bouche; S. Vergniolle; T. Staudacher; A. Nercessian; J.-C. Delmont; M. Frogneux; F. Cartault; A. Le Pichon
The activity at the surface of the lava lake on Erta 'Ale volcano (Ethiopia) shows that large bubbles are regularly breaking at a fixed position on the lava lake. This is also where the small lava fountains are sometimes produced. Since this location is likely to be directly above the volcanic conduit feeding the lava lake, we have done continuous
T. Barnie; C. Oppenheimer
The Dala Filla volcano lies in the north of the Erta Ale volcanic range in the Afar Depression, Ethiopia, and was the site of an effusive fissure eruption in November 2008. The volcano lies in a remote, sparsely populated region where access is difficult, so satellite images are the main source of information for reconstructing the eruption and estimating duration,
Southern California Edison January 2007 A DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM FOR OPTIMAL OXYGEN TRANSFER TRANSFER EFFICIENCY MONITORING OF WASTEWATER AERATION Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program PIERFINALPROJECTREPORT Prepared By: Southern California Edison University
'Biloxi' tetraploid southern highbush blueberry is a new cultivar developed and released by the Agricultural Reseach Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture breeding programs in Beltsville, MD, and Poplarville MS. Plants of 'Biloxi' are upright, vigorous and productive. The fruit ripens earl...
On the night of December 4, 2004, a Texas Southern University (TSU) student named Ashley Sloan was gunned down near campus, struck in the temple by a bullet after leaving a party with her friends. The murder prompted an outpouring of accusations concerning poor campus security. For many Houstonians, the shooting raised old fears of the…
Sclerotium rolfsii attacks a wide range of plants throughout the world. It is most severe in tropical and subtropical areas. Southern Sclerotium blight is of major concern in the eastern, southeastern, and southwestern United States and in Mexico. Although severe losses are reported annually in pe...
BGD 4, 4283Â4322, 2007 Southern Ocean phytoplankton and climate change P. W. Boyd et al. Title Page Climate-mediated changes to mixed-layer properties in the Southern Ocean: assessing the email@example.com) 4283 #12;BGD 4, 4283Â4322, 2007 Southern Ocean phytoplankton and climate change P. W. Boyd et al. Title
Chung, Christophe (Christopher J.)
During the height of a political crisis in the late 1980s, hundreds of thousands of Somali refugees crossed into eastern Ethiopia. A humanitarian crisis soon unfolded as water was in short supply in the arid region. In ...
Background Modern contraceptive use persists to be low in most African countries where fertility, population growth, and unmet need for family planning are high. Though there is an evidence of increased overall contraceptive prevalence, a substantial effort remains behind in Ethiopia. This study aimed to identify factors associated with modern contraceptive use and to examine its geographical variations among 15–49 married women in Ethiopia. Methods We conducted secondary analysis of 10,204 reproductive age women included in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The survey sample was designed to provide national, urban/rural, and regional representative estimates for key health and demographic indicators. The sample was selected using a two-stage stratified sampling process. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were applied to determine the prevalence of modern contraceptive use and associated factors in Ethiopia. Results Being wealthy, more educated, being employed, higher number of living children, being in a monogamous relationship, attending community conversation, being visited by health worker at home strongly predicted use of modern contraception. While living in rural areas, older age, being in polygamous relationship, and witnessing one’s own child’s death were found negatively influence modern contraceptive use. The spatial analysis of contraceptive use revealed that the central and southwestern parts of the country had higher prevalence of modern contraceptive use than that of the eastern and western parts. Conclusion The findings indicate significant socio-economic, urban–rural and regional variation in modern contraceptive use among reproductive age women in Ethiopia. Strengthening community conversation programs and female education should be given top priority. PMID:24067083
Melese, Dagnachew; Suryabhagavan, Karuturi Venkata; Gelet, Melakneh; Balakrishnan, Mundanthra
Remote sensing and geographic information systems have enormous applications in ecological studies, particularly in the habitat analysis of wild animals. The present study aimed to evaluate the habitats of the African civet in Andracha, Ethiopia, in order to generate geo-referenced ecological data on the habitats of this species. Habitat evaluation and habitat changes during 1986 to 2012 were analyzed using LANDSAT imageries. In the year 1986, 1017.56 km2 (99.75%) of the study area was covered with forest, but in 2012 only 949.61 km2 (93.09%) had forest cover. There has been a reduction of 5.97% forest cover at a rate of 0.22% per year since 1986. The study area has been classified into three suitability categories based on forest cover, water, settlement/agriculture, road and slope. Currently, 611.07 km2 (59.9%) of the area has dense forest cover, which is less preferred by the African civet, 336.75 km2 (33.01%) is moderately interfered with human activities and is suitable for civets, and 70.56 km2 (6.91%) is degraded forest around human habitats, which is highly preferred by civets. Habitat suitability analysis is useful to predict potential habitats of African civets in Ethiopia and elsewhere in Africa.
Kedir, Haji; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu
Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia). Data on the study subjects' background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/obstetric histories were collected via a structured questionnaire. UIC of <150??g/L defined subclinical iodine deficiency. Data were analyzed by Stata 11. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency. Results. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) was 58.1??g/L and 82.8% of the women who had subclinical iodine deficiency. The risk of subclinical iodine deficiency was reduced by the use of iodized salt (AOR = 0.13) and by intake of milk twice a month or more (AOR = 0.50), but it was increased by maternal illiteracy (AOR = 3.52). Conclusion. Iodine nutritional status of the pregnant women was poor. This shows that women and their children are exposed to iodine deficiency and its adverse effects. Thus, they need urgent supplementation with iodine and improved access to and intake of iodized salt and milk during pregnancy. PMID:25132987
Hawaze, S; Deti, H; Suleman, S
THE LEAVES EXTRACTS OF TWO INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF ETHIOPIA: Clematis longicauda steud ex A. Rich. and Clematis burgensis Engl. are used in Southwestern Ethiopia to treat otorrhoea and eczema. Antimicrobial activity and MIC of crude extracts were determined by disk diffusion and broth dilution. Phytochemical screening was performed on the extracts. The methanol and petroleum ether extracts of both plants showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. Sensitivity of reference strains was concentration dependent. Methanol and petroleum ether extracts of C. burgensis leaves exerted greater inhibitory effects than C. longicauda extracts whereas aqueous extracts of both plants were inactive. The MIC study revealed a concentration of 0.78 mg/ml on bacteria and 3.125 mg/ml on fungi for methanol extract and 1.56 mg/ml on both fungi and bacteria for petroleum ether extract. Phytochemical screening results indicated the presence of proteins, fixed oils, carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and steroids. Preliminary chromatographic investigation showed fluorescing spots with R(f) values that ranged from 0.05 to 0.96 for phenolic compounds and saponins. As the study is one of the first reports on the two indigenous species of Clematis; isolation, purification and characterization of the different primary and secondary metabolites may further yield alternative options to the microbial chemotherapy. PMID:23204619
Dassoni, Federica; Abebe, Zerihun; Ricceri, Federica; Morrone, Aldo
Background. Zinc deficiency occurs in infants when its demand exceeds its supply. It presents with cutaneous signs which, in severe cases, are associated with diarrhea, alopecia, and irritability. Genetic and acquired forms of zinc deficiency have been reported and often overlap clinical features. Malnutrition, prematurity, malabsorption syndromes, and burns may cause an increased demand for zinc. Methods. Cases of acquired transient infantile zinc deficiency (TIZD) observed during a period of 3 years at Ayder Referral Hospital of Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia, are reported here. Since no sophisticated tests were available at our center, the diagnosis was based on the clinical signs and prompt response to oral zinc supplementation. Results. We observed 18 cases of TIZD at our center. All patients were full-term and breastfeeding infants with no relevant associated diseases. Conclusions. In this region, a high incidence of this condition is observed. We could not rule out whether heterozygosity for the genetic mutation was present or that the disease was caused by a nutritional deficiency in the mothers or more probably because both the factors coexisted together. However, further studies are necessary to better understand the causes of the increased incidence of this disease in Northern Ethiopia. PMID:25548552
Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres
Background Although the common direct obstetric causes of maternal mortality are known from the literature, the contribution of each cause and the change in trend over decades is unknown in Ethiopia. The objective of this review was to assess the trend of proportion of maternal mortality due to the common direct causes. Methods This systematic review was done on eighteen health facility based maternal mortality studies conducted between 1980 and 2012 in Ethiopia. Emphasis was given to the proportion of maternal mortality due to direct causes and their case fatality rates. Results The summary of the findings has shown that the top four causes of maternal mortality in the year 1980–1999 were abortion related complications (31%), obstructed labor/uterine rupture (29%), sepsis/infection (21%) and hemorrhage (12%). In the last decade, however, the top four causes of maternal mortality were obstructed labor/uterine rupture (36%), hemorrhage (22%), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (19%) and sepsis/infection (13%). Conclusion Abortion and infection related maternal deaths have declined significantly in the last decade. Obstructed labor continues to be the major cause of maternal deaths; maternal deaths due to hypertensive disorders and hemorrhage showed an increasing trend. The findings in this review were somehow comparable with the WHO analysis for Africa in the same period with the exception of obstructed labor. PMID:25489180
Mahmud, Mahmud Abdulkader; Spigt, Mark; Mulugeta Bezabih, Afework; López Pavon, Ignacio; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Blanco Velasco, Roman
Research on associated risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition in various geographic regions is needed for the development of appropriate control strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections, anaemia, and malnutrition in school children, living in urban and rural areas of northern Ethiopia. Six hundred school children, aged 6-15 years, were randomly selected in a cross-sectional survey from 12 primary schools. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were collected. Faecal samples were examined using direct, concentration, and the Kato-Katz methods. Urine specimens were analysed for Schistosoma haematobium ova. Haemoglobin was measured using a HemoCue spectrometer. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 66-76%). The prevalence of anaemia, stunting, and thinness were 11% (95% CI: 8-13%), 35% (95% CI: 31-38%), and 34% (95% CI: 30-38%), respectively. Poor personal hygiene habits were generally associated with anaemia and nutritional deficiency (low body mass index). Multivariate logistic regression models related Schistosoma mansoni infection with boys. Boys were also more likely to be malnourished. Hookworm infection was associated with anaemia and unhygienic finger nails. Access to clean water and latrines, with some hygiene and sanitation communication activities, could improve health of children in Ethiopia. The use of smartphone technology in demographic data collection proved to be successful. The potential advantage offered by this technology for parasitological field surveys merits further investigation. PMID:23683331
Delesa, Effa Kefena; Yohannes, Aster; Alemayehu, Mengistu; Samuel, Temesgen; Yehualaeshet, Teshome
A study was undertaken with the objective to identify some intrinsic (genotype of the cow, estrus time and parity) and extrinsic factors (service type, service time and estrus seasons) that affect calf sex ratio in naturally and artificially bred cattle in the central highlands of Ethiopia. A total of 4657 calving events were extracted from the long-term dairy cattle genetic improvement experiment at Holetta Agricultural Research Center. Factors that affect the logit of the probability of a female calf being born were obtained by using PROC GENMODE in Statistical Analysis System. Moreover, multivariate analysis was performed using PROC LOGISTIC procedure using forward selection procedure. Accordingly, genotype of the cow, parity, estrus season, and service type had considerable influences on calf sex ratio. However, estrus time and service time did not affect calf sex ratio (?(2) = 0.83 and 0.79, respectively). In Ethiopia, smallholder dairy farmers often complain that artificial insemination (AI) skewed to producing more male calves. However, our study showed that AI did not alter female-to-male calf sex ratio. On the contrary, natural mating increases the probability of female calves born (odds ratio 1.38) over AI. Heifer/cows that showed estrus and bred during the harsh seasons of the years produced more female calves than those that bred during the good seasons of the year. This strongly agreed with Trivers and Willard sex allocation theory. PMID:24908336
Background There is paucity of data on the smoking habits of rural populations in developing countries. This study aimed to explore cigarette smoking practices of a rural community in Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 548 individuals from a random sample of households in a rural town and its surrounding rural districts. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed. Results Twenty-eight percent (95% CI: 24.3% - 31.6%) of the respondents were current smokers. A total of 105 (68%) smokers expressed an interest to quit while 37 (34%) had tried to quit previously but without success. There was high exposure to second-hand smoke: 285 (52%) homes allowed indoor smoking, and in 181 (33%) indoor smoking took place daily. Current smoking was strongly associated with male sex (OR?=?83.0; 95% CI: 11.5 – 599.0), and being a student was found to be protective of smoking (OR?=?0.04; 95% CI: 0.005 – 0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking is prevalent among the male rural town population in Ethiopia. In addition, a high level of exposure to indoor second-hand smoke exists. There is a need for investment in rural tobacco control, including educational campaigns and cost-effective smoking cessation services. PMID:24171800