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The study was carried out from July 2007 to June 2008 in Wolaita Sodo Abattoir to assess the status of hydatidosis in cattle. Routine meat inspection, hydatid cyst count and characterization were conducted. Out of 400 cattle slaughtered in Wolaita Sodo Abattoir 64 (16%) animals were found harboring hydatid cysts. Thorough meat inspection in the abattoir revealed that 74 visceral organ were found harboring one or more hydatid cysts. The infection of the lung, liver, spleen and kidney were found to be 45.94% 45.94%, 6.75% and 1.35% respectively. From the total of 283 hydatid cysts counted 153(54.06%), 17(6.00%), 5(1.76%), 108(38.16%) were found to be small, medium, large and calcified cysts respectively and 170(60.28%), 5(1.76%) and 108(38.16%) were sterile, fertile and calcified cysts respectively. The rate of cyst calcification was higher in the liver than in the lung while fertility rate was higher among the cysts of the lung. Hydatid cyst viability rate of 40% was observed. PMID:18787969
A study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the species of liver flukes in indigenous adult cattle, to compare\\u000a the diagnostic efficiency of fecal and post mortem examination and to assess the economic significance of bovine fasciolosis\\u000a due to liver condemnation in the abattoir. Of the 406 livers and fecal samples examined, 57 (14.0%) and 20 (4.9%) were
Fufa Abunna; Loma Asfaw; Bekele Megersa; Alemayehu Regassa
Background Despite the important role of goats for meat and milk production in Ethiopia, little information is available on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis (TB). Caprine TB is important as milk is usually consumed raw particularly by Ethiopian pastoralists. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of TB in goats at an abattoir, to evaluate associated risk factors and to characterize the causative mycobacteria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1990 randomly selected male goats that were slaughtered at Luna Export Abattoir of central Ethiopia. Postmortem examination, mycobacterial culturing and molecular typing techniques like genus typing, deletion typing and spoligotyping were used. Result The overall prevalence of caprine TB-like lesions was 3.5%. The lesion prevalence increased significantly with increasing age. Mycobacteria were found by culture and seen as acid fast bacilli in 12% of the goats with TB-like lesions. Characterization of the eight isolates using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that five of them belonged to the genus Mycobacterium. Four of the latter were confirmed to be members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Further characterization of the three M. tuberculosis isolates by spoligotyping identified them as type SIT53 and two new spoligotypes. Conclusion The isolation of M. tuberculosis from goats in this study indicates a potential risk of transmission of M. tuberculosis between humans and goats.
A retrospective study and active abattoir survey were conducted from December 2009 to April 2010 to determine the major causes of organs and carcasses condemnation and to estimate the associated direct financial loss at Luna Export Abattoir, Central Ethiopia. The active abattoir survey was conducted on 674 goats and 451 sheep (n=1125) and three years (2007, 2008 and 2009), retrospective data of 718,395 sheep and goats were also collected. From the retrospective data it was observed that liver was the most frequently condemned organ with condemnation rate of 32.4%, 46.7% and 70.5%, respectively. The major causes of condemnation for liver, lung, heart, kidneys and brain were cirrhosis (12.3%, 17.0% and 12.8%), pneumonia (6.6%, 11.6% and 12.5%), pericarditis (0.6%, 0.8% and 0.4%), nephritis (0.6%, 0.8% and 1.2%) and abscess (0.005%, 0.007% and 0.012%), respectively. Consequently, the overall direct financial loss from organs and carcass condemnation during the three years was estimated to be 22,993,591 Ethiopian birr (ETB) or 1,323,257 United State Dollar (USD). On the other hand, detailed post mortem inspection of liver, heart, kidneys, tongue, brain and carcass during the active abattoir survey revealed that higher losses were caused mainly due to cirrhosis (89.3 kg, 2998 ETB), pericarditis (5.4 kg, 308 ETB), faulty evisceration (8.4 kg, 472 ETB), calcification (8.4 kg, 469 ETB) and Coenurus cerebralis (4.3 kg, 243 ETB) and poor carcass condition (bonny carcass) (1390 kg, 78,500 ETB), respectively. Other causes of condemnation were also recorded and totally, about 110,361 ETB (6351 USD) was lost only from organs and carcasses condemnation during the active abattoir survey. In conclusion, this study identified the major causes of organs and carcass condemnation in Luna Export Abattoir and estimated the associated direct financial losses. PMID:23245843
A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2007 to April 2008 to estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir. An attempt was also made to estimate the annual economic loss due to condemnation of organs during meat inspection. A retrospective analysis of data spanning a 10-year period (1997–2007) was also undertaken to determine the presence
A. Getaw; D. Beyene; D. Ayana; B. Megersa; F. Abunna
Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from SouthernEthiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…
Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael
|Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from SouthernEthiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…
Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael
Objective To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city.
Cyanosis is a category of condemnation for poultry, as defined by Agriculture and Agrifood Can- ada. A retrospective study to examine the seasonal pat- terns and trends for turkey cyanosis condemnation was conducted for the years 1987 to 1995 with the use of condemnation records made available by a single abattoir in Ontario. Condemnation for cyanosis had a significant seasonal
J. G. Mallia; J.-P. Vaillancourt; S. W. Martin; S. A. McEwen
This document is a text dealing mainly with Ethiopia's rich cultural heritage and current lifestyles. It gives students the opportunity to go beyond the media coverage that has led to the perception of the whole of Ethiopia as a famine stricken land, and to discover the realities of this new nation, that about 15 percent of the population, mainly…
|This document is a text dealing mainly with Ethiopia's rich cultural heritage and current lifestyles. It gives students the opportunity to go beyond the media coverage that has led to the perception of the whole of Ethiopia as a famine stricken land, and to discover the realities of this new nation, that about 15 percent of the population, mainly…
Although the Ethiopian Transitional Government has been attempting since 1991 to set up new national and regional structures of administration and cooperation that may eventually lead to some form of locally entrenched, ethnic-based democracy, these are not yet fully in place in Käfa region in southernEthiopia. This paper analyses the possibilities and constraints of the Ethiopian model by highlighting
Plantation establishment using exotic species on disturbed cultivated and undisturbed primary forest soils is common in Gambo district, southernEthiopia, but their effects on soil properties are not fully known. This study investigated the effects of plantation species on major soil physical and chemical properties and further evaluated the soil quality under different land uses. Soil samples in triplicates, collected
Ambachew Demessie; Bal Ram Singh; Rattan Lal; Trond Børresen
Plantation establishment using exotic species on disturbed cultivated and undisturbed primary forest soils is common in Gambo district, southernEthiopia, but their effects on soil properties are not fully known. This study investigated the effects of plantation species on major soil physical and chemical properties and further evaluated the soil quality under different land uses. Soil samples in triplicates, collected
Ambachew Demessie; Bal Ram Singh; Rattan Lal; Trond Børresen
In this study, data gathered in southernEthiopia are used to explain how ethnic and religious identities affect current or intended contraceptive use. The only compositional factors that increase the likelihood of birth limitation are having a member of the family with a higher level of education and community access to health services. Compositional factors by themselves do not explain
Background: Despite the anticipated high impact of HIV and AIDS among young people, AIDS related mortality is not well documented because of the lack of death registration systems in Ethiopia. The objective of this analysis was to investigate the trends in mortality among young adults (aged 10-24 years) in the era of the AIDS epidemic. Methods: We analyzed data for
Mitike Molla; Peter Byass; Yemane Berhane; Bernt Lindtjorn
Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…
Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael
|Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…
Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael
|Community participation is a term frequently used and often cited in international educational development. In this article, Jennifer Swift-Morgan investigates the definition and impact of community participation in schooling in rural Ethiopia. Although national governments, development agencies, and nongovernmental organizations across the…
The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels. PMID:18667323
This study addresses whether or not crop cultivation by Borana herders in southernEthiopia is motivated by poverty since\\u000a 80% of the households belong to poor wealth classes (i.e., poor, very poor and destitute). Yet our findings showed little\\u000a evidence that Borana communities have become self-sufficient in grain production. Compared to wealthy households, poor households\\u000a generally cultivated the least land
A survey of plant biodiversity and ethnobotanical studies was conducted in southernEthiopia using an integrated approach\\u000a of botanical collections, group discussions, interviews and questionnaires. Species richness, growth forms and uses of native\\u000a wild plants are described. Borana pastoralists distinguished and named 86% of the plant species identified. A total of 327\\u000a plant species distributed among 197 genera and 69
T. Gemedo-Dalle; Brigitte L. Maass; Johannes Isselstein
This first, extensive, facility-based study of health services utilization in central, southern and western Ethiopia reveals steep distance decay gradients and underutilization of rural health services, the result of numerous geographical, socioeconomic, cultural and facility-based barriers. Out-patient statistics of 280,656 first-visit polyclinic patients in 8 hospitals, 8 health centres and 9 health stations in 7 administrative regions and of 10,885
Despite gender trainings and gender mainstreaming, the Bureau of Agriculture in Ethiopia fails to involve women farmers in its extension activities. Based on interviews with staff members in the Awasa Bureau of Agriculture (ABA) in the Sidama zone of southernEthiopia, this article shows that ABA, being a gender–blind organization itself, is ill–equipped to motivate its staff to make specific
Researchers tested male and female infants from rural Ethiopia to investigate relations among hemoglobin, anthropometry, and attention. They utilized a longitudinal design to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron status and growth delays. Stunting (length-for-age z-scores < ?2.0) and attention performance [t(30) = ?2.42, p = .022] worsened over time. Growth and hemoglobin predicted attention at 9 months [R2 = .15, p < .05], but not at 6. The use of the attention task at 9 months was supported. The study contributes to the knowledge base of hemoglobin, growth, and attention.
Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael
Background Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious, granulomatous disease caused by acid-fast bacilli of the genus Mycobacterium. The disease affects practically all species of vertebrates. Although mammalian tuberculosis has been nearly controlled in many developed countries, it is still a serious problem in humans and domestic animals including pigs in developing countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of TB in pigs is not known. Therefore, this study was designed to estimate the prevalence of TB in pigs in central Ethiopia and to characterize the causative agents using molecular techniques. Results The estimated prevalence of TB was 5.8% (49/841). Age and origin of pigs were significantly associated (P<0.001) with the prevalence. In contrast, an association of sex, floor type and water source with the prevalence could not be shown. Culture positivity was confirmed in 30.6% (15/49) of the tuberculous-like lesions. Of the 15 isolates, 12 were acid fast positive while five of the latter were confirmed by multiplex PCR as members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Speciation of the five isolates further confirmed that they were M. tuberculosis, belonging to SIT1088 (two isolates) and SIT1195 (one isolate). The remaining two isolates belong to an identical spoligotype, the pattern of which was not found in the spoligotype database (SpolDB4). Conclusions The isolation of M. tuberculosis from pigs suggests a possible risk of transmission between humans and pigs. Hence, establishing feasible control methods is required.
The nodulation of provenances of Acacia seyal, Acacia tortilis and Faidherbia albida, and other indigenous multipurpose tree species were tested in 14 different soil samples collected from diverse agro-ecological zones in southernEthiopia. Associated rhizobia were isolated from these and from excavated nodules of field standing mature trees, and phenotypically characterized. Indigenous rhizobia capable of eliciting nodules on at least
Endalkachew Wolde-meskel; Trygve Berg; N. Kent Peters; ?sa Frostegård
|The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of working conditions at school on teachers' level of instructional media use in the primary school system of Gedeo Zone, southernEthiopia. The survey was made on a sample of 139 (24.4% female and male 75.6%) teachers who were randomly drawn from 9 primary schools (four rural and five urban…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of working conditions at school on teachers’ level of instructional media use in the primary school system of Gedeo Zone, southernEthiopia. The survey was made on a sample of 139 (24.4 % female and male 75.6 %) teachers who were randomly drawn from 9 primary schools (four rural and
Primary and placer gold mining sites in southernEthiopia were studied to see the contribution of mining to the accumulation of metals in different environmental media. Sediment, water and plant samples were analyzed for Al, Mn, Fe, As, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Pb, W, Sb, Mo, Zn and V. Water parameters (pH, Eh, TDS, anions and cations) were also measured.
The Lega Dembi deposit is the largest gold producer in Ethiopia. It is situated in late-Precambrian metamorphosed sediments\\u000a of the N-S trending, volcano-sedimentary Megado belt, which forms part of the late-Proterozoic Adola granite-greenstone terrane\\u000a in southernEthiopia. The lode-gold mineralization occurs in a N-S trending, steep westerly dipping quartz-vein system that\\u000a follows the structural contact between underlying feldspathic gneisses and
A. Y. Billay; A. F. M. Kisters; F. M. Meyer; J. Schneider
Of an estimated 210 million pregnancies that occur in the world each year, 38% are unplanned, out of which 22% end in abortion. In Ethiopia, the estimates of unintended pregnancy indicate that it is one of the major reproductive health problems with all its adverse outcomes. Women risk their lives in by seeking illegal abortions following unintended pregnancies. Thus, this study aims to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant married women residing in Hossana, SouthernEthiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study involving both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods was carried out in Hossana from April 02 to 15, 2011. 385 pregnant married women randomly selected from the census were included for the quantitative data and took in-depth interviews for the qualitative. Descriptive, binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 16. Out of the total pregnancies, 131 (34%) were unintended and 254 (66%) were reported to be intended. A history of previous unintended pregnancy, the husband not wanting to limit family size, a desire for at least two children, the number of pregnancy 3–4 and parity of 5 and above were factors significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. With over one third of pregnancies unintended, having a previous unintended pregnancy, the number of previous pregnancies, and husbands’ disagreement over family size, and the desired number of children are factors that reproductive health programs should aim to focus on to reduce unintended pregnancy.
Hospitals can serve as an important complement to Primary Health Care. Therefore it is necessary to undertake periodic reviews of hospital function. We reviewed hospital use and pattern of referral by analyzing 4,797 admissions, at a regional hospital in southernEthiopia. The main causes of sickness were related to childbirth, gastrointestinal disorders, infectious diseases and injuries. Acute diseases were more common in the younger age-groups. Infections were the main cause of death. Hospital use was inversely proportional to distance from the patient's home, but varied for different groups of patients. Thus, the effect of proximity was more obvious for poor patients, for women, and for children. The study demonstrates limitations in hospital function in third world countries, and recommends closer cooperation between primary and secondary levels of health care. PMID:2024260
We examine how the system of grazing management of cattle in savanna rangelands affects the herd response to drought. We have used long-term time series data to evaluate the effects of management on drought-induced cattle mortality using traditional livestock management practices. There was no control of stocking densities, as compared to a government ranch where stocking densities would be adjusted in accordance with available pasture. We tested the responses under two scenarios. Scenario 1: Response of cattle herds to inter-annual rainfall variability (IRV) under a regulated grazing management system; this provides more reliable predictions of cattle population and performance in terms of herd mortality and calving rates than does the communal land use system. Scenario 2: Regardless of the management system, similar trends in cattle populations will be observed in response to IRV. The results of the study showed that fluctuations in cattle numbers, herd mortality and calving rates were highly correlated with IRV, with stronger linear impacts in accordance with scenario 2. In both management systems, cattle herd sizes and calving rates declined during periods of drought, followed by slow recovery. Cattle populations in Borana rangelands in southernEthiopia did not recover for a period of two decades. We conclude that a management system based on control of stocking densities did not improve herd survival, as compared with traditional drought management strategies. This contradicts common expectations. Increased drought frequencies aggravated cattle mortality and lowered calving rates. The implication of the findings is that regardless of adjusted stocking density, livestock populations in the arid savanna ecosystems of southernEthiopia remain at risk from climate change. PMID:23054807
A cross-sectional study of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) was conducted in pastoral cattle herds in southernEthiopia, from February to August 2008 using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test. The prevalence of BTB and the risk factors for having positive reactor herds were assessed in four pastoral associations in two districts of southernEthiopia, namely Goro-Dola with 242 cattle in 16 herds and Liben with 231 cattle in 15 herds. A herd was considered positive if there was at least one reactor animal in a herd. The test results were interpreted based on the Office Internationale des Epizooties recommended 4-mm and a recently suggested 2-mm cut-off. The apparent individual animal prevalence of tuberculin reactors was 5.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.0-8.0%) and 7.0% (95% CI, 5.0-10.0%), whereas the true prevalence estimate was 4.4% (95% CI, 0.8-8.0%) and 6.1% (95% CI, 2.6-9.5%), when using the 4-mm and the 2-mm cut-offs, respectively. The overall herd apparent prevalence of tuberculin reactor animals was 41.9% (95% CI, 24.9-60.9%) and 48.4% (95% CI, 30.2-66.9%) with the 4-mm and 2-mm cut-offs, respectively. A positive tuberculin test was associated with the age of animals and the main drinking water sources during dry seasons. In order to investigate the public health risks and the epidemiological importance of BTB in the area, we recommend to include other livestock species (camels and goats) as well as humans in future studies. PMID:21499975
Accurate determination of rifting chronology and associateduplift is crucial to understanding the evolution of the EastAfrican Rift System (EARS) and for identifying the significanceof mantle plumes during continental breakup. This investigationof rift-related cooling along a major fault scarp in southernEthiopia, using (U-Th)\\/He thermochronometry, shows that riftingstarted not before 20 Ma. Therefore, there is an absence ofsignificant rift activity synchronous with
Raphaël Pik; Bernard Marty; Jean Carignan; Gezahegn Yirgu; Teklewold Ayalew
This study evaluates the household income contribution and the profitability of traditional small ruminant enterprises in two mixed-farming systems of southernEthiopia (viz. Adilo and Kofele). Small ruminant production is an integral part of mixed systems in the Ethiopian highlands. The assessment of the current economic performance of small ruminants indicates production-related opportunities and constraints and provides baseline data against which the success of future interventions can be measured. Detailed information on economic parameters was gathered through a 1-year period of flock and household monitoring (155 households) between September 2005 and August 2006. Structured surveys were conducted with the participating households to elicit information on income-expense details of small ruminant and other agricultural enterprises. Small ruminants contributed considerably to cash income and to a limited extent to human nutrition especially when other sources were in short supply. The annual profit per animal ranged from 20 to 37 Ethiopian Birr. The return to capital was 17% in Kofele and 29% in Adilo, with both values vastly exceeding the national interest rate. The sale of small ruminants contributed to 39% and 23% of total farm cash income among small ruminant keepers in Adilo and Kofele, respectively. Sale prices are highest before holidays. Researches should target at how to use available feed resources in a timely and cost-effective fashion to make use of the seasonal market opportunities. PMID:20524064
Legesse, Getahun; Siegmund-Schultze, Marianna; Abebe, Girma; Zárate, Anne Valle
A commercial destocking intervention was piloted in southernEthiopia during the drought of early 2006. The intervention led to the purchase of an estimated 20,000 cattle valued at USD 1.01 million. On average, destocked households received USD 186 from the sale of cattle--approximately 5,405 households were involved. In terms of aid investment, the approximate cost-benefit ratio was 41:1. During the drought, income from destocking accounted for 54.2 per cent of household income (n = 114 households), and was used to buy food, care for livestock, meet various domestic expenses, support relatives, and either pay off debts or augment savings. Seventy-nine per cent of the income derived from destocking was used to buy local goods or services. Expenditure on livestock care amounted to 36.5 per cent of local spending, and included the private transportation of livestock to better grazing areas. The buoyant livestock export trade was considered to be an important driver of commercial destocking, demonstrating a positive link between livestock and meat exports, and pastoral vulnerability during drought. PMID:18380850
Post mortem surveillances, for the detection of tuberculous lesions in particular depend on the work load time and the diligence of the inspector conducting the examination. The first aim of the study was to determine the trend of occurrence of tuberculous lesions in two abattoirs in Addis Ababa and Debre-Zeit (Ethio - pia). The second aim of the study was
J. E. SHITAYE; B. GETAHUN; T. ALEMAYEHU; M. SKORIC; F. TREML; P. FICTUM; V. VRBAS; I. PAVLIK
Introduction Risky sexual behavior among Ethiopian university students, especially females, is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. Ambaw et al. found that female university students in Ethiopia may fear the humiliation associated with procuring condoms. A study in Thailand suggests condom machines may provide comfortable condom procurement, but the relevance to a high-risk African context is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine if the installation of condom machines in Ethiopia predicts changes in student condom uptake and use, as well as changes in procurement related stigma. Methods Students at a large urban university in SouthernEthiopia completed self reported surveys in 2010 (N ?=?2,155 surveys) and again in 2011 (N?=? 2,000), six months after the installation of condom machines. Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests were conducted to evaluate significant changes in student sexual behavior, as well as condom procurement and associated stigma over the subsequent one year period. Results After installing condom machines, the average number of trips made to procure condoms on-campus significantly increased 101% for sexually active females and significantly decreased 36% for sexually active males. Additionally, reports of condom use during last sexual intercourse showed a non-significant 4.3% increase for females and a significant 9.0% increase for males. During this time, comfort procuring condoms and ability to convince sexual partners to use condoms were significantly higher for sexually active male students. There was no evidence that the condom machines led to an increase in promiscuity. Conclusions The results suggest that condom machines may be associated with more condom procurement among vulnerable female students in Ethiopia and could be an important component of a comprehensive university health policy.
This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors and species composition of ticks, fleas and lice infesting dogs and cats in and around Hawassa in southernEthiopia. In total, 200 dogs and 100 cats were examined from November 2008 to April 2009. Of the dogs and cats examined, 99.5% and 91.5%, respectively, were infested with one or more species of ticks, fleas or lice. The overall prevalence was higher in dogs than in cats. A total of six different species of ectoparasites were collected and identified from dogs, but only three species from cats. Ctenocephalides felis was the predominant species amongst the animals, with a prevalence of 82.9% on dogs and 67% on cats. Other prevalent species on dogs included Ctenocephalides canis (73.8%), Heterodoxus spiniger (4%), nymphs of Amblyomma spp. (3.5%), Pulex irritans (2.5%) and Haemaphysalis leachi (0.5%). C. canis (18%) and P. irritans (6%) were also found on cats. More female than male fleas and lice were observed. The study revealed that the prevalence of fleas, ticks and lice on dogs was not significantly different between male and female animals or between young and adult dogs. However, the prevalence of these ectoparasites was significantly higher in female than in male and in adult than in young cats. The study showed that the prevalence of ectoparasites on both dogs and cats was significantly higher on animals with flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) than those without FAD, and on animals with lesions on their skin compared with those without lesions. PMID:23327214
The structure and evolution of East Africa Rift Valley has made the region sensitive to climate change, with alternating wet and arid periods that may have influenced human evolution. Understanding environmental change and its impact on human societies for the last few millennia may provide insights that can be applied to longer records from the region. Geophysical and geochemical data together with ostracods and sedimentary charcoal were used to reconstruct Holocene environments at Lake Chamo, a rift lake in southernEthiopia. Humid conditions in the early to mid Holocene are inferred from high Si count and high diatom abundance. Poor calcite preservation along with relatively lowered lightness (L*) value also confirm this humid period. Abundant charcoal suggests more stable woody savanna vegetation during this time. A major change to aridity occurred at 5200 cal yr BP, as indicated by high amounts of calcite in the sediments and high ostracod abundance. The dramatic decline of charcoal concentration after this time clearly shows the vegetation response to aridity. Fluctuating value of Ca and Sr in conjunction with high colour changes during 2400 - 800 cal yr BP, reflecting the changing conditions of reducing/oxidizing reaction that might indicate the occurrence of both humid and dry periods. High catchment inwash and deposition of terrigenious material at 1500 - 800 cal yr BP indicate periods of intensive erosion. This intensive erosion might favor as a function of both anthropogenic impact and climatic variability. Moderate values of all the geochemical data along with higher values of "L*-a*-b*" colour data from 800 cal yr BP to the present indicated generally dry conditions. Overall, the record from Lake Chamo shows major environmental changes, in agreement with other studies from the region.
Gebru, Tsige; Viehberg, Finn A.; Frank, Ute; Asrat, Asfawossen; Weber, Michael E.; Foerster, Verena; Wennrich, Volker; Rethemeyer, Janet; Brown, Maxwell C.; Lamb, Henry F.; Schäbitz, Frank
The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status and cognitive performance of women and their 5-year-old children using a cross-sectional design. Cognitive performance of mothers and children was assessed with Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-II (KABC-II). Demographic characteristics, food consumption patterns and anthropometry were also measured. Four rural districts in Sidama, southernEthiopia served as the setting for this study. Subjects were one hundred women and their 5-year-old children. Mean?±?standard deviation age of the mothers was 29?±?6 years and family size was 7.0?±?2.6. Maternal body mass index (BMI) ranged from 15.3 to 29.0 with 14% of the mothers having BMI?18.5. Anthropometric assessment of children revealed 29% to be stunted (height-for-age z-score?-2) and 12% to be underweight (weight-for-age z-score?-2). Mothers' education significantly contributed to prediction of both mothers' and children's cognitive test scores. There were significant differences in mean cognitive test scores between stunted and non-stunted, and between underweight and normal-weight children. Height-for-age z-scores were correlated with scores for short-term memory (r?=?0.42, P?0.001), and visual processing (r?=?0.42, P?0.001) indices and weight-for-age z-scores were also correlated with scores of short-term memory (r?=?0.41, P?0.001) and visual processing (r?=?0.43, P?0.001) indices. Malnutrition in the community likely contributed to the cognitive performance of the subjects. Performance on memory and visual processing tasks was significantly lower in children with growth deficits suggesting that efficient and cost effective methods to alleviate malnutrition and food insecurity would impact not only child health but also cognitive function. PMID:21806779
Bogale, Alemtsehay; Stoecker, Barbara J; Kennedy, Tay; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Thomas, David; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael
Representative staple foods from Sidama, SouthernEthiopia, were analyzed for phytate using HPLC, and for Zn, Fe and Ca by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Enset starchy foods had the lowest phytic acid content, followed by fermented injera prepared from tef. Oleaginous seeds (niger and sesame) had the highest phytate content (?1600mg\\/100g). The iron content of raw tef and tef
Yewelsew Abebe; Alemtsehay Bogale; K. Michael Hambidge; Barbara J. Stoecker; Karl Bailey; Rosalind S. Gibson
Background Health-related stigma adds to the physical and economic burdens experienced by people suffering from neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Previous research into the NTD podoconiosis showed significant stigma towards those with the disease, yet no formal instrument exists by which to assess stigma or interventions to reduce stigma. We aimed to develop, pilot and validate scales to measure the extent of stigma towards podoconiosis among patients and in podoconiosis-endemic communities. Methods Indicators of stigma were drawn from existing qualitative podoconiosis research and a literature review on measuring leprosy stigma. These were then formulated into items for questioning and evaluated through a Delphi process in which irrelevant items were discounted. The final items formed four scales measuring two distinct forms of stigma (felt stigma and enacted stigma) for those with podoconiosis and those without the disease. The scales were formatted as two questionnaires, one for podoconiosis patients and one for unaffected community members. 150 podoconiosis patients and 500 unaffected community members from Wolaita zone, SouthernEthiopia were selected through multistage random sampling to complete the questionnaires which were interview-administered. The scales were evaluated through reliability assessment, content and construct validity analysis of the items, factor analysis and internal consistency analysis. Results All scales had Cronbach’s alpha over 0.7, indicating good consistency. The content and construct validity of the scales were satisfactory with modest correlation between items. There was significant correlation between the felt and enacted stigma scales among patients (Spearman’s r?=?0.892; p?0.001) and within the community (Spearman’s r?=?0.794; p?0.001). Conclusion We report the development and testing of the first standardised measures of podoconiosis stigma. Although further research is needed to validate the scales in other contexts, we anticipate they will be useful in situational analysis and in designing, monitoring and evaluating interventions. The scales will enable an evidence-based approach to mitigating stigma which will enable implementation of more effective disease control and help break the cycle of poverty and NTDs.
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the use of self-treatment and to determine the actions taken to manage malaria illness. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in six peasant associations in Butajira district, southernEthiopia, between January and September 1999. Simple random sampling was used to select a sample of 630 households with malaria cases within the last six months. FINDINGS: Overall, 616 (>97%) of the study households acted to manage malaria, including the use of antimalarial drugs at home (112, 17.8%), visiting health services after taking medication at home (294, 46.7%), and taking malaria patients to health care facilities without home treatment (210, 33.3%). Although 406 (64.5%) of the households initiated treatment at home, the use of modern drugs was higher (579, 92%) than that of traditional medicine (51, 8%). Modern drugs used included chloroquine (457, 73.5%) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (377, 60.6%). Malaria control programmes were the main sources of antimalarials. In most cases of malaria, treatment was started (322, 52.3%) or health services visited (175, 34.7%) within two days of the onset of symptoms. Cases of malaria in the lowland areas started treatment and visited health services longer after the onset of malaria than those in the midland areas (adjusted odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.30-0.64; and adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.25-0.56, respectively). Similarly, those further than one hour's walk from the nearest health care facility initiated treatment later than those with less than one hour's walk (adjusted odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI 0.43-0.87). This might be because of inaccessibility to antimalarial drugs and distant health care facilities in the lowland areas; however, statistically insignificant associations were found for sex, age, and religion. CONCLUSION: Self-treatment at home is the major action taken to manage malaria. Efforts should be made to improve the availability of effective antimalarials to communities in rural areas with malaria, particularly through the use of community health workers, mother coordinators, drug sellers, and shop owners.
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in cattle in the Ethiopian Highlands but no studies have been done so far in pastoralists in South Omo. This study assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) at an intensive interface of livestock, wildlife and pastoralists in Hamer Woreda (South Omo), Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey including a comparative intradermal skin testing (CIDT) was conducted
Rea Tschopp; Abraham Aseffa; Esther Schelling; Stefan Berg; Elena Hailu; Endalamaw Gadisa; Meseret Habtamu; Kifle Argaw; Jakob Zinsstag; Madhukar Pai
A study was conducted in southernEthiopia to evaluate the nutrient status on smallholder farms with respect to land use class (garden, grassland, and outfield) and slope position (upper, middle, and lower). Soil physical and chemical properties were quantified using soil samples collected at two depths (0 15 and 15 30 cm). Available phosphorous was significantly different among the three land use classes. However, organic carbon and total nitrogen were lower in the outfield compared to the garden and grass land but not significantly different. The lower than expected nutrient status of the garden and grassland, which receive almost all available organic supplements, was attributed to the overall low availability of these inputs. Similarly, pH and cation exchange capacity were not significantly different among the different land use classes. However, the sum of the exchangeable cations was significantly higher in the garden compared to the outfields. Comparison at landscape level revealed that the sand fraction was significantly greater, whereas the silt fractions were significantly smaller, on the lower slopes relative to the middle slopes. Moreover, the organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, Ca, and Mg values were significantly less on lower slopes than upper and middle slopes. Perhaps this is because of leaching and the effect of deposition of coarser sediments from the prevailing gully system. Overall, the fertility of the soil was adequate for supporting smallholder farming, but consideration must be given to reducing pressure on the land resources, addressing erosion problems, and providing a line of credit for purchasing inputs.
Background Apart from basic determinants, appropriate child care practices are important in prevention of growth faltering and undernutrition. Providing safe and appropriate quality complementary foods is crucial to child growth and development. However, some children in low-income communities grow normally mainly due to proper caregiver feeding behaviors. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine caregivers' feeding styles as well as to indentify predictors in Derashe special district, SouthernEthiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study design was employed in the seven randomly selected Kebeles (smallest administrative unit) of Derashe special district. A total of 826 caregivers provided data pertaining to socio-demographic variables. However, 764 caregivers had complete data for the outcome variable (caregiver feeding style). A multistage stratified sampling technique was used to identify study subjects. An adapted Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) was used to gather information about caregivers' feeding styles. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was employed to identify predictors of caregivers' feeding style. Results The majority (80.6%) of caregivers were biological mothers. Nearly seventy-six percent of the caregivers practiced a responsive feeding style. Caregivers other than the biological mother favoured a laissez-faire feeding style, while caregivers residing in rural Kebeles were more responsive. Caregivers with a breastfeeding frequency of more than eight times predicted both laissez-faire (RRR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.03-3.41) and controlling (RRR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.02-2.85) feeding styles as compared to responsive feeding. Conclusion Responsive feeding was the commonest style practiced by the caregivers. Many of the caregivers who were rural residents and birth parents have been responsive in child feeding. The instruments needed to be validated in the Ethiopian context and an additional prospective study based on direct observation of caregiver-child interactions is recommended.
Promoting self-financing healthcare helps restore efficiency and equity to national health systems. This study was conducted in malaria-endemic areas of southernEthiopia to assess the bednet possession of the community, determine the people's willingness-to-pay for insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), and identify what factors influence it. The study provided relevant information for programme planners and policymakers for evidence-based decision-making. This quantitative cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in four selected malarious Kebeles of Arbaminch Zuria district using a pretested interview-administered structured questionnaire. In total, 982 household heads were interviewed. The community's willingness-to-pay was assessed by contingent valuation, technique using binary with follow-up method. The advantage, the distribution, and the payment mechanism were explained, and three different qualities of ITN were shown by constructing a hypothetical market scenario. Of the 982 respondents, 466 (47.5%) households had at least one functional bednet. Of 849 children aged less than five years in the 982 households, 185 (21.8%) slept under a net the night preceding the survey. The results of the study revealed that around 86% of the respondents were willing to buy ITNs. The average maximum willingness-to-pay for three different types of bednets was statistically different. The maximum amount the people were willing to pay was US$ 3.3 for a blue conical ITN, US$ 3.2 for a white conical one, and US$ 1.7 for a blue rectangular ITN. The community's willingness-to-pay was significantly affected by gender, educational status, perceived benefit of ITN, previous source of bednet, and characteristics of bednet. The results showed that a significant proportion of the community people were willing to pay for ITNs. Therefore, introducing a subsidized ITN market rather than free distribution for all should be considered to ensure sustainability and self-reliance in the prevention and control of malaria. PMID:21766555
Promoting self-financing healthcare helps restore efficiency and equity to national health systems. This study was conducted in malaria-endemic areas of southernEthiopia to assess the bednet possession of the community, determine the people's willingness-to-pay for insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), and identify what factors influence it. The study provided relevant information for programme planners and policy-makers for evidence-based decision-making. This quantitative cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in four selected malarious Kebeles of Arbaminch Zuria district using a pretested interview-administered structured questionnaire. In total, 982 household heads were interviewed. The community's willingness-to-pay was assessed by contingent valuation technique using binary with follow-up method. The advantage, the distribution, and the payment mechanism were explained, and three different qualities of ITN were shown by constructing a hypothetical market scenario. Of the 982 respondents, 466 (47.5%) households had at least one functional bednet. Of 849 children aged less than five years in the 982 households, 185 (21.8%) slept under a net the night preceding the survey. The results of the study revealed that around 86% of the respondents were willing to buy ITNs. The average maximum willingness-to-pay for three different types of bednets was statistically different. The maximum amount the people were willing to pay was US$ 3.3 for a blue conical ITN, US$ 3.2 for a white conical one, and US$ 1.7 for a blue rectangular ITN. The community's willingness-to-pay was significantly affected by gender, educational status, perceived benefit of ITN, previous source of bednet, and characteristics of bednet. The results showed that a significant proportion of the community people were willing to pay for ITNs. Therefore, introducing a subsidized ITN market rather than free distribution for all should be considered to ensure sustainability and self-reliance in the prevention and control of malaria.
Background Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease. Methods A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using the rose Bengal test as screening and complement fixation test as confirmatory tests. The Stata survey command was used to establish prevalences for the overall and individual variables, while potential risk factors for seropositivity were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The results showed that 3.5% (95% CI = 2.4, 4.5%) of the animals and 26.1% (95% CI = 18.6, 33.7) of the herds tested had antibodies against Brucella species. Village level seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 100%. A higher seroprevalence was observed in pastoral system than mixed farming although this variable was not significant in the final model. The final logistic regression model identified herd size; with large (odd ratio (OR) = 8.0, 95% CI = 1.9, 33.6) and medium herds (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.9, 34.2) showing higher risk of Brucella infection when compared to small herds. Similarly, the odds of Brucella infection was higher in cattle aged above 4 years when compared to age groups of 1-2 (OR = 5.4, 2.1, 12.9) and 3-4 years (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.0, 9.6). Herd level analysis of the risk factors revealed that large and medium herds as well as herds kept with multiple livestock species were at higher risk of acquiring Brucella infection. Brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practices certainly poses a zoonotic risk to the public, in consequence of raw milk consumption, close contact with animals and provision of assistance during parturition. Due to lack of diagnostic facilities and information on its occurrence, human brucellosis is most likely misdiagnosed for other febrile diseases prevailing in the areas and treated empirically. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that bovine brucellosis is widely prevalent in the study areas particularly in pastoral production system. Hence, the study suggests the need for implementing control measures and raising public awareness on prevention methods of brucellosis.
Nineteen communities located in the southern part of the Ethiopian Rift Valley were surveyed for S. mansoni infection and other helminth parasites of man. S. mansoni infected individuals were recorded in 11 communities and human prevalence reached more than 10% in 4 of them. The snail intermediate hosts were Biomphalaria pfeifferi in the lower Omo River basin and B. sudanica in the Rift Valley lakes. Other parasites encountered included A. lumbricoides (11.2%), T. trichiura (10.3%), hookworms (25.3%), Taenia sp. (8.1%), Strongyloides sp. (2.9%), H. nana (0.8%), Trichostrongylus sp (0.3%) F. hepatica (0.1%) and E. vermicularis (0.1%). In some communities the prevalence of hookworms, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura reached 70%, 66.6% and 60%, respectively. A strong association (r = 0.9) was observed between altitude and parasite prevalence and burden. In nine communities located below 1200 metres, infected individuals harboured nearly two or less the number of parasite species while in 10 communities located at altitude above 1200 metres, multiple infection with three or more parasites reached as high as 53.2%. Similarly, the average parasite species per infected person ranged from 0 to 1.4 in the nine communities located at lower altitudes and from 1% to 2.6% in the 10 communities located at higher altitudes. By ages, both prevalence and multiparasitism are significantly in favour of those below 20 years of age (P < 0.005) although hookworms are prevalent in a wider age range. The widespread occurrence of intestinal schistosomiasis in the southern Rift Valley and the epidemiological pattern of other intestinal helminth parasites of man in this section of the Valley are discussed. PMID:7828499
The East African rift (EAR) is a Tertiary-Miocene system that extends from the Middle East, through East Africa, to Mozambique in southern Africa. Much of the present information is from the Ethiopian and Kenyan parts of the rift. Several characteristics of the EAR such as rift-related volcanism, faulting and topographic relief being exposed make it attractive for studying continental rift processes. Structural complexities reflected in the geometries of grabens and half-grabens, the existence of transverse fault zones and accommodation zones, and the influence of pre-existing geologic structures have been documented. In particular, the EAR traverses the Anza graben and related structures near the Kenya/Ethiopian border. The Anza graben is one in a series of Cretaceous-Paleogene failed rifts that trend across Central Africa from Nigeria through Chad to Sudan and Kenya with an overall northwest-southeast trend. In spite of a number of recent studies, we do not understand the interaction of these two rift systems. In both Ethiopia and Kenya, the rift segments share some broad similarities in timing and are related in a geographic sense. For example, volcanism appears to have generally preceded or in some cases have been contemporaneous with major rift faulting. Although, these segments are distinct entities, each with its own tectonic and magmatic evolution, and they do connect in the region crossed by the Anza graben and related structures. In our present study, we are using a combination of recently collected seismic, gravity and remote sensing data to increase our understanding of these two segments of the EAR. We hope that by analysing the satellite data, the variety and differences in the volume of magmatic products extruded along in southernEthiopia and northern Kenya will be identified. The geometry of structures (in particular, those causing the gravity axial high) will be modelled to study the impact of the older Anza graben structural trends with the younger EAR. For example there is significant crustal thinning in the Lake Turkana area of the northern Kenya segment of the EAR system. In regard to the recent EAGLE experiment in Ethiopia, we are ivestigating if the transition from relatively thick crust (~40 km) to thinned, rifted crust is as abrupt in Ethiopia as it is in Kenya.
The western Afar margin represents the southern end of the Red Sea rift system. It developed in the heart of the Afar plume related volcanic province which lies at the famous triple junction connecting the East African, the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea rifted systems. This margin is presently separating the Afar depression from the Ethiopian Highlands and is topographically expressed by an impressive altitudinal gradient (more than 3000 m in less than 50 km). This topographical passive margin has been developed during Miocene times from the top of an uplifted dome, which has been related principally to the Afar plume impingement and the associated extrusion and differentiation of Ethiopian Continental Flood Basalts 30 Ma ago (Pik et al. 2003). This margin is also typically separating the edge of a thick continental block (below the Oligocene CFB) from an extremely thinned domain (the Afar depression) which most probably represents one of the rare worldwide rifting step corresponding to the Ocean Continent Transition zone at the rift to drift transition. Mechanisms invocated to explain this geodynamical phenomenon of extreme lithospheric thinning, predating continental break-up and sea floor spreading, are up to know controversial and do not really satisfy geological and geophysical observations along old passive margins bounding well developed oceanic domains. In this context, the on-shore western Afar margin is an ideal case study to try to precise geodynamic and structural thinning processes because time lapse since the initiation of rifting is so reduce (less than 30 Ma) that outcropping morphological expression of implicated geological events has been preserved and can be easily documented and investigated with traditional approaches. A particular geological characteristic of this southern part of the Red Sea margin resides in the well developed marginal basins, morphologically expressed (but at various altitude) all along the topographical gradient from the Eritrean margin to the heart of the volcanic province at the transition with the East African Rift branch. Such morphological steps have been variously described and interpreted in the past. In this study we will present a new geomorphological view and interpretation of these marginal basins development, as well as the potential structural and geodynamic implications of this new interpretation in the margin development and thinning.
A survey was conducted in the Borana pastoral areas of southernEthiopia to assess current livestock production systems, rangeland management practices and the perceptions of the pastoralists towards rangeland degradation. This information is considered vital to future pastoral development planning and interventions. Data were collected from a total of 20 villages that were identified from 5 peasant associations, namely Did Yabello, Moyatte, Did Harra, Dubuluk and Melbana. The average household size in the study area was 7.23. The majority of the pastoralists relied on both livestock and crop farming. The average livestock holding per household was 14 cattle, 10 goats, 6 sheep and 2 camels. Livestock holdings, with the exception of camels, has shown a declining trend over time. The two most important traditional rangeland management strategies adopted by the pastoralists included burning and mobility, but since 1974/75 burning has no longer been practised. With regard to mobility, the livestock herding falls in two categories, namely: home based and satellite herding. The former involves the herding of milking cows, calves and immature animals (<2 years) close to the encampments. The latter constitutes the herding of bulls and immatures (>2 years) further away from the encampments. Based on the pastoralists' perceptions, the major constraints on livestock production in descending order, were recurrent drought, feed and water scarcity, animal diseases, predators and communal land ownership. All the respondents considered the condition of the rangelands to have declined dramatically over time. In the past most development policies were based on equilibrium theories that opposed the communal use of the rangelands and traditional range management practices. The way in which the pastoral system affects the rangeland ecosystem functioning is contentious to this theory and the 'tragedy of the commons'. There was also a perceived problem of bush encroachment and the ban on traditional burning practices and recurrent droughts were seen as aggravating factors to this invasion process. The increasing practice of crop cultivation on the rangelands was identified as a serious threat to future livestock production and traditional resource management practices. Suggestions for possible interventions to improve the productivity and sustainable use of these rangelands are made. PMID:16616986
Primary and placer gold mining sites in southernEthiopia were studied to see the contribution of mining to the accumulation of metals in different environmental media. Sediment, water and plant samples were analyzed for Al, Mn, Fe, As, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Pb, W, Sb, Mo, Zn and V. Water parameters (pH, Eh, TDS, anions and cations) were also measured. The sediment analyses results show that the most abundant metals are Ni (average 224.7 mg/kg), Cr (199 mg/kg), Cu (174.2 mg/kg), V (167.3 mg/kg), Zn (105.5 mg/kg), Pb (61.5 mg/kg) and As (59.7 mg/kg) in the primary gold mining sites while the placer sites show high concentration of V (average 301.2 mg/kg), Cr (260.4 mg/kg), Zn (179 mg/kg), Ni (113.4 mg/kg), Cu (46.7 mg/kg), As (32.2 mg/kg) and Co (31 mg/kg). The metals Cu, Ni, W, Cr, As and Pb in primary and Sb, W, Cr, Ni, Zn, As and Mo in placer gold mining sites have geoaccumulation indexes ( I geo) from one to four indicating considerable accumulation of these metals. Waters from both primary and placer mining sites are near neutral to alkaline. Arsenic (average 92.8 ?g/l), Ni (276.6 ?g/l), Pb (18.7 ?g/l), Sb (10.7 ?g/l), Mn (1 mg/l), Fe (8.3 mg/l) and Al (23.8 mg/l) exceeded the guideline value for drinking water. Plants show high concentration of Cr (average 174.5 mg/kg), Ni (163.5 mg/kg), Zn (96 mg/kg) and W (48 mg/kg). Zinc, W, Mo, Ni and Cr show the maximum biological absorption coefficient (BAC) ranging 0.4 1.7, 0.1 104.6, 1.1 2.6, 0.2 1.6 and 0.2 3.6, respectively, and the results suggest bioaccumulation of these elements in plants. The minerals especially sulfides in the ore aggregate are the ultimate source of the metals. The release of the metals into the environmental media is facilitated (in addition to normal geologic processes) by human activities related to gold mining.
The school curricula are widely believed to be the best vehicle for generating public awareness of and action related to areas of energy concern. In an attempt to build the capacity of schools to address key environmental issues in Ethiopia, a pilot project had been designed in 2004. The principal aim of the project was to bring about positive changes
|The school curricula are widely believed to be the best vehicle for generating public awareness of and action related to areas of energy concern. In an attempt to build the capacity of schools to address key environmental issues in Ethiopia, a pilot project had been designed in 2004. The principal aim of the project was to bring about positive…
A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and distribution of Salmonella serotypes from apparently healthy slaughtered sheep and goats from November 2002 to May 2003 at Debre Zeit abattoir, Ethiopia. From a total of 107 slaughtered animals (60 goats and 47 sheep), 642 samples (feces, mesenteric lymph node, spleen, liver, abdominal and diaphragmatic muscle) were collected aseptically. Of
Background In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira\\u000a highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission.\\u000a Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted
Until recently, the Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis), an arboreal primate endemic to the southern Ethiopian highlands, remained virtually unstudied, and its distribution pattern inadequately documented. To broaden our knowledge of the species' distribution and abundance, we carried out interviews with local people and total count surveys for Bale monkeys across 67 fragmented forest sites in human-dominated landscapes in the Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Regions, Ethiopia. From January 2010 to May 2011, we discovered 26 new Bale monkey populations inhabiting forest fragments at elevations ranging from 2,355 to 3,204 m asl. Across these populations, we recorded 37 groups ranging in size from 9 to 29 individuals (Mean = 19.5, SD = 4.5), for a total of 722 individuals. Black-and-white colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) were sympatric with Bale monkeys at all sites, while grivet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) were found only at sites where Bale monkeys did not occur. All of the newly discovered Bale monkey sites once contained bamboo forest, though at 35% of the sites bamboo forest had been eliminated during the past two decades. The persistence of Bale monkeys at fragmented sites lacking bamboo suggests greater habitat flexibility for the species than previously thought, though the long-term viability of populations both with and without bamboo remains uncertain. Human hunting in response to crop raiding, a behavior the monkeys engaged in at all sites, represents a major threat facing the newly discovered Bale monkey populations. Furthermore, despite their current lack of sympatry, apparently hybrid individuals between Bale monkeys and grivets were noted at three sites, posing yet another potential obstacle to Bale monkey conservation. Community conservation programs aimed at (1) protecting remaining habitat fragments, (2) planting bamboo and trees within and between fragments, and (3) reducing crop raiding represent the only hope for survival of the newly discovered Bale monkey populations. PMID:22311711
Mekonnen, Addisu; Bekele, Afework; Fashing, Peter J; Lernould, Jean-Marc; Atickem, Anagaw; Stenseth, Nils Chr
Background Data on lipid profile abnormalities among patients receiving highly active antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia are very limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia and characteristics of lipid profiles among patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in SouthernEthiopia. Methods This cross sectional comparative group study was conducted between March and May 2012, and included 113 HIV infected patients treated for a minimum of one year with first-line HAART regimens that included Efavirenz and Nevirapine (HAART group) and others 113 who had never received HAART (pre-HAART group). Serum lipid profiles were determined after overnight fasting and dyslipidemia was assessed according to the United State National Cholesterol Education program-III guideline. For statistical analysis Chi-square, student’s t-test, and logistic regression were used using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20. Result Ninety-three (82.3%) of HAART and 87 (76.9%) pre-HAART patients had at least one laboratory abnormality, which is compatible with a diagnosis of dyslipidemia. Total cholesterol ? 200 mg/dl occurred in 43.4% of HAART and 15.9% pre-HAART patients (p=<0.0001), whereas HDL-cholesterol below 40 mg/dl occurred in 43.4% and in 63.7% respectively, (p=0.002). The LDL-cholesterol ? 130 mg/dl occurred in 33.6% of HAART and 15% pre-HAART patients (p=0.001), while triglycerides ? 150 mg/dl occurred in 55.8% and 31.0% respectively, (p=0.001). Receiving of HAART was significantly and positively associated with raised total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) of HAART-treated vs. pre-HAART was 3.80 (1.34-6.55) for total cholesterol ? 200 mg/dl; 2.64 (1.31-5.32) for LDL- cholesterol ? 130 mg/dl and 2.50 (1.41-4.42) for triglycerides ?150 mg/dl. Conclusion Use of first-line antiretroviral therapy regimens that contain Efavirenz and Nevirapine were associated with raised total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, an established atherogenic lipid profiles. Lipid profiles should be performed at baseline before commencement of antiretroviral therapy and then periodically through treatment follow-up to monitor any rising trends.
In this cross-sectional study, the associations between helminth infections and ABO blood group, anaemia and undernutrition were investigated in 480 febrile outpatients who visited Dore Bafeno Health Centre, southernEthiopia, in December 2010. Stool specimens were processed using the Kato-Katz method and examined for intestinal helminth infections. Haemoglobin level was measured using a HemoCue machine and blood group was determined using an antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using height and weight measurements. Among the study participants, 50.2% were infected with intestinal helminths. Ascaris lumbricoides (32.7%), Trichuris trichiura (12.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (11.9%) and hookworm (11.0%) were the most frequently diagnosed helminths. The odds of infection and mean eggs per gram of different intestinal helminth species were comparable between the various blood groups. Among individuals who were infected with intestinal helminth(s), the mean haemoglobin level was significantly lower in individuals harbouring three or more helminth species and blood type AB compared to cases with double or single helminth infection and blood type O, respectively. The odds of being underweight was significantly higher in A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infected individuals of age ? 5 and ? 20 years, respectively, when compared to individuals of the matching age group without intestinal helminths. In conclusion, infection with multiple intestinal helminths was associated with lower haemoglobin level, which was more severe in individuals with blood type AB. Future studies should focus on mechanisms by which blood group AB exacerbates the helminth-related reduction in mean haemoglobin level. PMID:23286203
Degarege, A; Animut, A; Medhin, G; Legesse, M; Erko, B
Background Culture affects the way people conceptualize causes of severe mental disturbance which may lead to a variation in the preferred intervention methods. There is a seemingly dichotomous belief regarding what causes severe mental disturbance: people living in western countries tend to focus mainly on biological and psychosocial risk factors; whereas, in non-western countries the focus is mainly on supernatural and religious factors. These belief systems about causation potentially dictate the type of intervention preferred. Studying such belief systems in any society is expected to help in planning and implementation of appropriate mental health services. Methods A qualitative study was conducted among the Borana semi-nomadic population in southernEthiopia to explore perceived causes of severe mental disturbance and preferred interventions. We selected, using purposive sampling, key informants from three villages and conducted a total of six focus group discussions: three for males and three for females. Results The views expressed regarding the causes of mental disturbance were heterogeneous encompassing supernatural causes such as possession by evil spirits, curse, bewitchment, ‘exposure to wind’ and subsequent attack by evil spirit in postnatal women and biopsychosocial causes such as infections (malaria), loss, ‘thinking too much’, and alcohol and khat abuse. The preferred interventions for severe mental disturbance included mainly indigenous approaches, such as consulting Borana wise men or indigenous healers, prayer, holy water treatment and seeking modern mental health care as a last resort. Conclusions These findings will be of value for health care planners who wish to expand modern mental health care to this population, indicating the need to increase awareness about the causes of severe mental disturbance and their interventions and collaborate with influential people and indigenous healers to increase acceptability of modern mental health care. It also provides information for further research in the area of mental health in this semi-nomadic population.
Chew Bahir, today a saline mudflat in a tectonically-bounded basin in southernEthiopia, lies between the Main Ethiopian Rift and the Omo-Turkana basin, site of the oldest known anatomically modern human fossils. Sedimentary records from Chew Bahir can therefore provide fundamental data for reconstructing Late Quaternary environments in the source region of Homo sapiens. This project focuses on rapid climate shifts and their influence on the biosphere, and is a preliminary study for the ICDP "Hominid Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project", and part of Cologne University's CRC-806 programme "Our Way to Europe", which aim to determine climatic and environmental history of East Africa during the last 200 ka - 1 Ma. Reconstruction of the major dry-wet-dry alternations is crucial for understanding the impact of climate variability on the emergence and dispersal of Homo sapiens from Africa into Eurasia. We present new results from six cores (9-18 m depth) drilled in a NW-SE transect across the basin. Sedimentological, geochemical, physical, magnetic and biological indicators, and a suite of AMS radiocarbon dates, reveal substantial variations in moisture availability during the last 45 ka. The data provide valuable insight into the timing, possible abruptness and synchronicity of precession-driven climate shifts like the African Humid Period (AHP ~ 15-5 ka BP), the last major alternation from dry to wet to dry conditions, and show that the site responded sensitively to older climatic fluctuations on millennial to centennial timescales. Chew Bahir therefore presents a suitable climate archive of a highly variable environment and offers an opportunity to retrieve 200 ka sediment records of paleoenvironmental history during the physical and cultural evolution of Homo sapiens.
Foerster, V.; Trauth, M. H.; Junginger, A.; Asrat, A.; Lamb, H. F.; Gebru, T.; Wennrich, V.; Weber, M.; Rethemeyer, J.; Nowaczyk, N.; Frank, U.; Brown, M. C.; Schaebitz, F.
In 2011, drought in the Horn of Africa again made news headlines. This study aims to quantify the meteorological component of this and other drought episodes in Ethiopia since 1971. A monthly precipitation data set for 14 homogeneous rainfall zones was constructed based on 174 gauges, and the standardized precipitation index was calculated on seasonal, annual, and biannual time scales. The results point to 2009 as a year of exceptionally widespread drought. All zones experienced drought at the annual scale, although in most zones, previous droughts were more extreme. Nationally, 2009 was the second driest year, surpassed only by the historic year 1984. Linear regression analysis indicates a precipitation decline in southernEthiopia, during both February-May and June-September. In central and northern Ethiopia, the analysis did not provide evidence of similar tendencies. However, spring droughts have occurred more frequently in all parts of Ethiopia during the last 10-15 years.
Background The effects of prenatal Zinc Deficiency (ZD) and Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD) on birthweight are controversial and their interaction has not been investigated. Objective To assess the independent and interaction effects of prenatal zinc and vitamin A deficiencies on birthweight in rural Sidama, SouthernEthiopia. Methodology A community-based prospective cohort study design was employed. Six hundred fifty pregnant women in their second or third trimester were randomly selected and their serum zinc and retinol concentrations were determined. About 575 subjects were successfully followed until delivery and birthweight was measured within 72 hours after delivery. The association between the exposures and birthweight was examined using log-binomial and liner regression analyses. Potential interaction between ZD and VAD was examined using Synergy Index (SI). Results The mean birthweight (± standard deviation) was 2896 g (±423). About 16.5% (95% CI: 13.5–19.6%) of the babies had Low Birthweight (LBW). Prenatal ZD and VAD were not significantly associated to LBW with Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR) of 1.25 (95 CI: 0.86–1.82) and 1.27 (95% CI: 0.86–1.87), respectively. Stratified analysis on the basis of gestational trimester showed that the occurrence of the deficiencies neither in the second nor third trimester were associated to LBW. The deficiencies did not show synergetic interaction in causing LBW [SI?=?1.04 (95% CI: 0.17–6.28)]. Important risk factors of LBW were maternal illiteracy [RR?=?1.80 (95% CI: 1.11–2.93)], female sex of the newborn [RR?=?1.79 (95% CI: 1.19–2.67)], primiparity [RR?=?1.16 (95% CI: 1.02–1.35)], short maternal stature [RR?=?1.63 (95% CI: 1.06–2.51)] and maternal thinness [RR?=?1.52 (95% CI: 1.03–2.25)]. In the linear regression model, elevated CRP was also negatively associated to birthweight. Conclusion LBW is of public health significance in the locality. The study did not witness any independent or interaction effect of prenatal ZD and VAD on birthweight.
Chew Bahir is a tectonically bounded basin in the southern part of the Main Ethiopian Rift and in close proximity to the Omo valley, which contains some of the oldest known early modern human sites. As East African palaeoenvironments are highly variable and marked by extreme fluctuations in moisture availability, this in turn bears far reaching implications for the life, evolution and most notably for the expansion of Homo sapiens beyond the limits of the African continent. This study is a prerequisite for the ICDP- Hominin Sites And Paleolakes Drilling Project and part of the CRC-806 "Our way to Europe". The Chew Bahir Project will provide fundamental data to reconstruct late Quaternary East African environments including the timing, amplitude, synchronicity and abruptness of dry-wet-dry cycles and focuses on the interaction between those rapid climate shifts and their influence on the biosphere. This poster presents results from six cores (9-18m depth) from a NW-SE transect across the Chew Bahir basin that have recorded the climatic history of the past 45 ka and therewith can potentially elucidate those highly variable East African palaeoenvironments with emphasis on the last of the wet periods, the African Humid Period (AHP). Based on a series of multi-proxy analyses, comprising geochemical, physical and biological indicators as well as AMS 14C dates, it becomes obvious that the Chew Bahir responds decidedly sensitive towards even minor climatic fluctuations on millennial to even centennial timescales. Therefore, the Chew Bahir represents a unique site to reveal the impact of timing and mechanisms of local, regional and global climate events on the key region for humankind.
Tertiary magmatism in Ethiopia has been linked to the thermal influence of the Afar mantle plume. However, new laser 40Ar\\/39Ar ages for the volcanic succession in southernEthiopia confirm the presence of two distinct magmatic phases at 45 35 Ma and 19 12 Ma. The earliest phase predates both extension and magmatism in northern Ethiopia by 15 m.y. and cannot
There are few reports of the prevalence of psychotic disorders among isolated population groups. Where present, variations in prevalence estimates raise questions about the validity of methods of case ascertainment in such settings. In a previous population-based survey of the Borana pastoralist community in Ethiopia using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, no cases of schizophrenia were identified. In order to further explore this finding and investigate how serious mental disorder is conceptualized, we conducted focus group discussions with key members of the Borana pastoralist community. Subsequently, focus group participants were used as key informants to identify cases with possible psychotic disorder, based on their conceptualization. Cases identified by key informants were interviewed by a trained psychiatrist using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), to confirm presence of disorder. Focus group discussions were subjected to thematic analysis. The incongruity between local and psychiatric concepts lay mainly in the fact that key informants described characteristics of marata (“madness”) in terms of overt behavioural symptoms. Following the focus group discussions, participants identified eight individuals with schizophrenia and 13 with a psychotic mood disorder, confirmed through SCAN interview. Studies of psychotic disorders in such communities are likely to benefit from combining structured interviews with the key informant method.
The consumption of marijuana amongst the youth at Karu abattoir is very fearsome. It is said that marijuana amongst many views, is an incentive to hard work; to some it enables ease thinking; and to some it relaxes the body nerves. However good these views are, the consumption of this hard substance still remains illegal in the society. While strategies
Objective: workers in slaughterhouses and processing plants that handle pigs, and pork butchers\\/meatcutters have been little studied for health risks associated with employment, in spite of the fact that they are potentially exposed to oncogenic and non-oncogenic transmissible agents and chemical carcinogens at work. We report here on an update of mortality in 510 workers employed in abattoirs and processing
Eric S. Johnson; Harrison Ndetan; Martha J. Felini; Mohammed F. Faramawi; Karan P. Singh; Kyung-Mee Choi; Raquel Qualls-Hampton
Background There has been recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia where transmission is unstable. While household ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) has increased greatly, there are concerns about inadequate net use. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with net use at two time points, before and after mass distribution of nets. Methods Two cross sectional surveys were carried out in 2006 and 2007 in Amhara, Oromia and SNNP regions. The latter was a sub-sample of the national Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS 3R). Each survey wave used multi-stage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster (224 clusters with 5,730 households in Baseline 2006 and 245 clusters with 5,910 households in MIS 3R 2007). Net ownership was assessed by visual inspection while net utilization was reported as use of the net the previous night. This net level analysis was restricted to households owning at least one net of any type. Logistic regression models of association between net use and explanatory variables including net type, age, condition, cost and other household characteristics were undertaken using generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM). Results A total of 3,784 nets in 2,430 households were included in the baseline 2006 analysis while the MIS 3R 2007 analysis comprised 5,413 nets in 3,328 households. The proportion of nets used the previous night decreased from 85.1% to 56.0% between baseline 2006 and MIS 3R 2007, respectively. Factors independently associated with increased proportion of nets used were: LLIN net type (at baseline 2006); indoor residual spraying (at MIS 3R 2007); and increasing wealth index at both surveys. At both baseline 2006 and MIS 3R 2007, reduced proportion of nets used was independently associated with increasing net age, increasing damage of nets, increasing household net density, and increasing altitude (>2,000 m). Conclusion This study identified modifiable factors affecting use of nets that were consistent across both surveys. While net replacement remains important, the findings suggest that: more education about use and care of nets; making nets more resistant to damage; and encouraging net mending are likely to maximize the huge investment in scale up of net ownership by ensuring they are used. Without this step, the widespread benefits of LLIN cannot be realized.
A total of 165 serum samples of abattoir personnel of Delhi were tested by Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT), Standard tube agglutination test (STAT), Complement fixation test (CFT) and Dot-Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ElISA). The Seroprevalence was 20.60, 12.75, 50.30 and 25.45 percent, respectively on the basis of RBPT, STAT, CFT and Dot-ELISA. Seroprevalence was highest among blood collectors (99.77%) followed by miscellaneous group (72%), animal handlers (68.96%), butchers (68.00%) and sweepers (57.14%). Among veterinarians, Seroprevalance was 28.57%. The Seroprevalence was more among persons of higher age group. The study indicates that abattoir personnel are at high risk to infection with brucellosis. PMID:9282512
A survey of abnormalities of the reproductive tract of female sheep was undertaken at two abattoirs in the south west of England over a period of 12 months. During the survey, 9970 reproductive tracts from cull ewes and 23,536 tracts from nulliparous sheep (prime lambs and hoggets) were examined. A total of 655 (6.57 per cent) ewes and 459 (1.95
Meat plant wastewater quality depends on water usage, the type of animal slaughtered, and the amount of rendering or processing that is done on site. In Ontario and Quebec, abattoir wastewater total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) ranged from 2333 to 8627?mg\\/L, and suspended solids (SS) from 736 to 2099?mg\\/L, volatile suspended solids (VSS) represented 80% of SS, and protein content
The aim of this study was to investigate contamination of carcasses and abattoir environment with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Five abattoirs in Istanbul were visited between January 2000 and April 2001. During visits, sampling was performed and a total of 330 cattle were selected. Cattle were examined for the presence of faeces on the hide (abdomen and legs) before slaughter. The
H. Gun; A. Yilmaz; S. Turker; A. Tanlasi; H. Yilmaz
Changes in annual, June-September and March-May rainfall and rainy days herein (defined as a day with rainfall greater than 1 mm) have been analysed based on 11 key stations located in different climatic zones of Ethiopia over the common period 1965-2002. The progressive Mann-Kendall trend test shows that there is no trend in the annual rainfall total, the seasonal rainfall total or rainy days over central, northern and northwestern Ethiopia in the period 1965-2002. In contrast, the annual and the June-September total rainfalls for the eastern (Jijiga, 137 mm/decade), southern (Negele, 119 mm/decade) and southwestern (Gore 257 mm/decade) stations show a significant decline since about 1982. Correlation analysis shows that the decline of rainfall in eastern, south and southwestern Ethiopia is caused by the corresponding persistent warming of the South Atlantic Ocean over the period approximately from 1986 to 2002. The sea-surface temperature (SST) over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean is not significantly correlated with the main rainfall of the semi-arid lowland areas of eastern, southern, and southwestern Ethiopia, except at marginal zones in transition to the Ethiopian Highlands.June-September rainfall over the Ethiopian Highlands is positively correlated to the equatorial east Pacific sea-level pressure and the southern oscillation index, and negatively correlated to SST over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean as expected, confirming again that warm El Niño-southern oscillation episodes are associated with below-average June-September rainfall over the Ethiopian Highlands.
Bacteriological characteristics of abattoir effluents (wastewater), abattoir water source, and water bodies receiving abattoir wastewater were investigated in Abuja, Nigeria using the multiple-tube fermentation technique. Source of water to the abattoirs and the usage of water bodies receiving abattoir effluents were determined using questionnaires. Bacterial counts ranged from 4.8 × 10(6) to 5.8 × 10(5) /100?mL of total coliform (TC), 8.2 × 10(4) to 3.2 × 10(4)/100?mL of Fecal coliform (FC), 5.2 × 10(4) to 2.0 × 10(4)/100?mL of Fecal streptococcus and 1.2 × 10(4) to 2.0 × 10(3)/100?mL of Escherichia coli for abattoir effluents 6.6 × 10(5) to 6.0 × 10(5)/100?mL of TC, 6.2 × 10(4) to 1.8 × 10(4)/100?mL of FC, 1.8 × 10(4) to 6.0 × 10(3)/100?mL of F. streptococcus, and 4.8 × 10(3) to 6.6 × 10(2)/100?mL of E. coli for water bodies receiving abattoir effluents 100?m downstream. TC bacteria counts for abattoir effluents exceeded recommended limit for discharge into surface water in Nigeria. No significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between bacterial counts of abattoir effluents and receiving water bodies 100?m downstream: an indication of contamination of receiving water bodies by abattoir effluents and possible public and environmental health hazards. PMID:23738127
Nafarnda, W D; Ajayi, I E; Shawulu, J C; Kawe, M S; Omeiza, G K; Sani, N A; Tenuche, O Z; Dantong, D D; Tags, S Z
Ethiopia’s childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussell’s methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia’s childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000). The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation.
The literature on schistosomiasis in Ethiopia is reviewed with the objective of bringing together in one paper diverse sources which may not be available to those interested in schistosomiasis. Particular attention is given to the influence of altitude and climate, snail ecology and government economic programs on the distribution of schistosomiasis. Out of 365 communities studied between 1961 and 1986 for Schistosomiasis mansoni, cases were reported from 225 (62%), and in 85 (23%) the prevalence ranged from 10 to 92%. Most transmission sites and S. mansoni infections are in agricultural communities along streams between 1300 and 2000 m altitude infested with Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the major snail intermediate host. S. mansoni transmission above 2200 m and below 800 m is precluded in many parts of Ethiopia by low and high water temperatures, respectively. Schistosomiasis haematobium cases have been reported from 30 of the 54 communities studied, 17 of them with infection rates between 14 and 75%. Endemic S. haematobium appears to be confined in its distribution to lowlands below 800 m altitude. The highly focal distribution of S. haematobium transmission is largely due to the nonsusceptibility of most bulinine snails to the Ethiopian strain of the parasite and low water temperatures in the highlands. Water resources development, resettlement programs, refugee migration and other population movements may result in the spread of endemic S. mansoni. Lack of information on snail host/parasite relationships and the ecology of proven and suspected snail hosts does not permit predictions on the spread of endemic S. haematobium. Past and present schistosomiasis control programs in Ethiopia are reviewed and recommendations made for the national control program. PMID:3131881
Kloos, H; Lo, C T; Birrie, H; Ayele, T; Tedla, S; Tsegay, F
BACKGROUND: Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty healers were selected
The ethnobotanical study on edible wild plants was carried out from May to December, 2001, in four districts of Ethiopia. The study areas included the rural and semiurban settings of Alamata, Cheha, Goma, and Yilmana Denssa districts of Tigray, Southern Peoples, Oromiya, and Amhara regional states, respectively. Voucher plant specimens were collected along with ethnobotanical information, and scientific names were
Over the past few years (1985-1991), the Suri of the far southwest of Ethiopia have lived through a deep ecological and social crisis without substantial external aid from either the Ethiopian government or international aid agencies. They have experienced drought, cattle disease and an increasing level of violent conflict with their southern neighbours, the Nyangatom, leading to severe disruption of
Rinderpest, a viral disease of mainly cattle and bu¡aloes, has been associated with signi¢cant numbers of deaths of cattle which have a¡ected the rural economy and contributed to the general poverty, mass starvation and subsequent famine in Ethiopia. The ¢rst epidemics of the disease entered the coastal region of Ethiopia, now Eritrea, in 1887 during the major outbreaks that a¡ected
Ethiopia's standards body, the Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia, has legalized the nation's first character set standard. The highly anticipated standard, ES 781:2002, sets the foundation that future computer, software, and electronic communication standards of Ethiopia will be built upon. With \\
In Ethiopia, the Italian Association for Women in Development (AIDOS) has been working with Ethiopia's National Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children for 5 years. AIDOS began working on female genital mutilation in the early 1980s and rejects charges of cultural imperialism that are applied to Northern organizations attempting to help African organizations address this violation of universal human rights. In Ethiopia, 85% of women are mutilated, with most undergoing Sunna, or removal of the prepuce of the clitoris. The joint project seeks to increase awareness about the health consequences of female genital mutilation in the target group. The primary technique used is provision of training of trainers courses and presentation of four modular units and audiovisual materials specifically designed for use with socially influential women, male and female secondary school students, community leaders, and health workers. In addition, an information/education campaign uses videos and sound and slide shows with accompanying story books. A second category of communication tools was developed for a mass information campaign, including radio spots, posters, information leaflets, and a newsletter. When the project was ready for expansion into the southern region of the country, it became clear that a new participatory communication strategy was required to stimulate discussion, such as the use of role playing and theater. Working together, the two organizations have successfully confronted project constraints such as the difficulty in assessing project impact, scheduling problems, and gender-biased assess to information. PMID:12294046
This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year?1 and downward trends in rainfall of ? 0.4 mm month?1 year?1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts.
A epidemiological study of Onchocerciasis among different ethnic groups in the Blue Nile valley of Western Ethiopia was conducted to obtain baseline data on disease prevalence, skin snips samples were obtained from 493 persons, representing different ethnic groups (Nilotic and Oromos), living under different geographic and climatic conditions (lowlands, Midland and highland) or Mendi district for parasitological verification. A total of 169 (34%) had microfilariae of the skin by direct microscopy. The highest prevalence rate (81%) was found among the Nilotic people living along the southern banks of the Blue Nile River. Most patient had wide spread skin infection. Epidemiological differences were also observed. PMID:8077003
Background More than 75% of the total area of Ethiopia is malarious, making malaria the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate and the associated socio-economic, geographic and demographic factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT) survey results. Methods From December 2006 to January 2007, a baseline malaria indicator survey in Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP) regions of Ethiopia was conducted by The Carter Center. This study uses this data. The method of generalized linear model was used to analyse the data and the response variable was the presence or absence of malaria using the rapid diagnosis test (RDT). Results The analyses show that the RDT result was significantly associated with age and gender. Other significant covariates confounding variables are source of water, trip to obtain water, toilet facility, total number of rooms, material used for walls, and material used for roofing. The prevalence of malaria for households with clean water found to be less. Malaria rapid diagnosis found to be higher for thatch and stick/mud roof and earth/local dung plaster floor. Moreover, spraying anti-malaria to the house was found to be one means of reducing the risk of malaria. Furthermore, the housing condition, source of water and its distance, gender, and ages in the households were identified in order to have two-way interaction effects. Conclusion Individuals with poor socio-economic conditions are positively associated with malaria infection. Improving the housing condition of the household is one of the means of reducing the risk of malaria. Children and female household members are the most vulnerable to the risk of malaria. Such information is essential to design improved strategic intervention for the reduction of malaria epidemic in Ethiopia.
Analyzes student dissertations at the School of Information Studies for Africa (SISA) at Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia) in order to present an overview of the library and information systems and services available in seven eastern and southern African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. (Author/LRW)
The microbial load on sheep\\/goat carcasses was investigated in Deonar abattoir and traditional meat shops in Mumbai. A total of 96 swab samples from carcass sites were collected and analysed from the abattoir, while 144 swab samples from carcass sites were analysed from three meat shops. These samples were processed for total viable count (TVC) and differential counts. The average
Sudhakar G. Bhandare; A. T. Sherikar; A. M. Paturkar; V. S. Waskar; R. J. Zende
A survey of abnormalities of the reproductive tract of female sheep was undertaken at two abattoirs in the south west of England over a period of 12 months. During the survey, 9970 reproductive tracts from cull ewes and 23,536 tracts from nulliparous sheep (prime lambs and hoggets) were examined. A total of 655 (6.57 per cent) ewes and 459 (1.95 per cent) nulliparous sheep had abnormalities of the reproductive tract. Of these, congenital abnormalities of the paramesonephric ducts accounted for 2.4 per cent of the ewes and 7.4 per cent of the nulliparous sheep, congenital abnormalities of the ovaries accounted for 2.6 per cent of the ewes and 7.4 per cent of the nulliparous sheep and cystic structures that were considered to have been of congenital origin accounted for 27.2 per cent of the ewes and 52.7 per cent of the nulliparous sheep. The most common lesion was paraovarian cysts (26.6 per cent of ewes and 39.0 per cent of nulliparous sheep), but few of these appeared to have affected the sheep's reproductive function. Several specific conditions were recorded, including some described for the first time in sheep. Uterus unicornis occurred in 20 sheep and other forms of segmental aplasia of parts of the paramesonephric ducts occurred in a further 13 animals. Uterus didelphys occurred in six sheep, and 11 animals were intersex. Intersex sheep had vestigial structures that were derived from the paramesonephric ducts, hypoplastic or masculinised gonads and some had masculinised external genitalia. Ovarian hypoplasia occurred in 34 sheep, and in a further 12 mainly nulliparous animals, the ovaries were fused. Sixty nulliparous animals and two ewes had hydatids of Morgagni. PMID:9921622
Ethiopia is implementing a radical programme of decentralising state power to ethnic?based regional units, which could be of interest to other countries in Africa faced with demands of ethnic communities for a greater role in the state. This apparent empowerment of ethnicity represents a complete reversal of this country's past practices, and is the joint product of the ethnocratic character
The British projects conducted in Ethiopia under the auspices of the I.B.P. have collected a vast amount of information concerning the peoples in Begemedir province, a highland area. This background served well as baseline data to establish the value of an applied nutrition project covering a broad range of activities. In the project township, Debarek, a polyclinic was introduced. Special
D. S. Miller; J. Baker; M. Bowden; E. Evans; J. Holt; R. J. McKeag; I. Meinertzhagen; P. M. Mumford; D. J. Oddy; J. P. W. R. Rivers; G. Sevenhuysen; M. J. Stock; M. Watts; A. Kebede; Y. Wolde-Gabriel; Z. Wolde-Gabriel
Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…
Background: Trachoma is known to be one of the major causes of blindness in Ethiopia. However recent data that indicate the disease burden were lacking. Objective: To determine the prevalence of active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis at national and regional levels. Methods: A population based cross sectional design with multistage sampling strategy was used. All nine regional states and two
Yemane Berhane; Alemayehu Worku; Abebe Bejiga; Liknaw Adamu; Wondu Alemayehu; Amir Bedri; Yilikal Adamu; Teshome Gebre; Tewodros D. Kebede; Emily West; Sheila West
Africa needs to develop a space physics research structure, and a key goal of the United Nations-sponsored International Heliophysical Year (IHY) is to provide support to those efforts. One key focus of IHY is the deployment of networks of small instruments to encourage development of space science research and educational infrastructures in developing nations. In addition to new scientific discoveries and advancing space science research in Africa by establishing scientific collaborations between scientists in developed and developing nations, an IHY objective is to increase the number of space scientists and increase the scientific awareness about the importance of the space science In order to develop space science research infrastructure, space science educational infrastructure also needs to be developed to support the long-term operation and use of the science instrumentation. Developing nations need to develop the necessary training and encouragement of students to enter and excel in scientific fields. In response to these needs, the authors, working under the auspices of the AGU Space Physics and Aeronomy Education and Public Outreach (SPA EPO) Committee, organized a Geophysics Information for Teachers (GIFT) workshop for Ethiopian high school physics educators on 10 November 2007 in Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia. The workshop, held in conjunction with the IHY-Africa Space Weather Science and Education Workshop, gathered together 62 high school physics teachers from around the country for a one-day professional development program that focused on fundamental physics concepts relevant to space weather. Our presentation will describe the workshop, the challenges of launching such a program, and present results from the assessment surveys taken by teachers at the end of the workshop.
Scherrer, D. K.; Moldwin, M.; Rabella-Soares, M.; Reiff, P.; Sumners, C.; Yizengaw, E.
From September 1970 to December 1971, samples were taken monthly from farm pigs, piglets and abattoir pigs in Southern Taiwan for virus isolations and serologic studies. A total of 10 strains of hemagglutinating agent were isolated in January and July 197...
C. P. Chang A. E. New G. S. Irving H. S. Chiang J. F. Taylor
Developing countries are faced with high incidences of food poisoning outbreaks, with obvious economic consequences. In highly perishable foodstuffs such as fresh red meat the threat of food poisoning is particularly intense. In this study, red meat samples were collected from a deboning room of a high throughput abattoir. The samples were analysed for the presence of Bacillus cereus., Staphylococcus
|The abattoir (meat processing) industry is facing a number of challenges in Australia, including introduction of technology, safety standards, restructuring, and development and implementation of an effective training culture. The training strategy will effectively target existing training resources for the industry and upskill employees in a…
Membrane fouling severely curtails the economical and practical implementation for the purification of biologically related process streams such as abattoir effluent (Jacobs, WRC Report no. K5\\/362, 1991, Pretoria, South Africa ). Mechanical and chemical removal of foulants usually lead to membrane damage and additional pollution. Enzymes, specific for the degradation of proteins and lipids, were tested as key components of
Background Abattoir condemnations may play an important role in a food animal syndromic surveillance system. Portion condemnation data may be particularly useful, as these data can provide more specific information on health outcomes than whole carcass condemnation data. Various seasonal, secular, disease, and non-disease factors have been previously identified to be associated with whole carcass condemnation rates in Ontario provincial abattoirs; and if ignored, may bias the results of quantitative disease surveillance methods. The objective of this study was to identify various seasonal, secular, and abattoir characteristic factors that may be associated with bovine portion condemnation rates and compare how these variables may differ from previously identified factors associated with bovine whole carcass condemnation rates. Results Data were collected from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) and the Ontario Cattlemen’s Association regarding “parasitic liver” and pneumonic lung condemnation rates for different cattle classes, abattoir compliance ratings, and the monthly sales-yard price for commodity classes from 2001-2007. To control for clustering by abattoirs, multi-level Poisson modeling was used to investigate the association between the following variables and “parasitic liver” as well as pneumonic lung condemnation rates: year, season, annual abattoir audit rating, geographic region, annual abattoir operating time, annual total number of animals processed, animal class, and commodity sales price. Conclusions In this study, “parasitic liver” condemnation rates were associated with year, season, animal class, audit rating, and region. Pneumonic lung condemnation rates were associated with year, season, animal class, region, audit rating, number of cattle processed per year, and number of weeks abattoirs processed cattle. Unlike previous models based on whole carcass condemnations, commodity price was not associated with partial condemnations in this study. The results identified material-specific predictor variables for condemnation rates. This is important for syndromic surveillance based on abattoir data and should be modeled and controlled for during quantitative surveillance analysis on a portion specific basis.
Investigating the experience of violence against women and exploring women's coping strategies is a crucial component of re-tailoring the provision of services for victims\\/survivors. This article explores violence against women in the context of culture, theory of fear of violence and literature on spaces perceived to be ‘safe’ or ‘dangerous’ by women victims\\/survivors of violence in Ethiopia. To collect the
A 6-year retrospective study (2000–2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was\\u000a carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed.\\u000a A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered\\u000a for the period,
Clement B. I. Alawa; I. Etukudo-Joseph; Judith N. Alawa
Proceedings from a March 1985 workshop on maize research and production in the eastern, central, and southern Africa regions are presented. Eighteen country reports are provided by scientists from Angola, Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mal...
The formation and performance of granular sludge was studied in an 8l sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating an abattoir (slaughterhouse) wastewater. Influent concentrations averaged 1520mgl?1 volatile suspended solids (VSS), 7685mgl?1 Chemical oxygen demand (COD), 1057mgl?1 total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), 217mgl?1 total P. The COD loading was 2.6kgm?3d?1. The SBR was seeded with flocculating sludge from a SBR with an 1h
Echinococcus granulosus infections are a major public health problem in livestock-raising regions around the world. The life cycle of this tapeworm is sustained between dogs (definitive host, canine echinococcosis), and herbivores (intermediary host, cystic hydatid disease). Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru; nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically unknown. Migration into Lima, an 8-million habitant's metropolis, creates peripheral areas where animals brought from endemic areas are slaughtered without veterinary supervision. We identified eight informal, unlicensed abattoirs in a peripheral district of Lima and performed a cross-sectional study in to assess the prevalence of canine echinococcosis, evaluated by coproELISA followed by PCR evaluation and arecoline purge. Eight of 22 dogs (36%) were positive to coproELISA, and four (18%) were confirmed to be infected with E. granulosus tapeworms either by PCR or direct observation (purge). Later evaluation of the human population living in these abattoirs using abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays and serology, found 3 out of 32 (9.3%) subjects with echinococcal cysts in the liver (two viable, one calcified), one of whom had also lung involvement and a strongly positive antibody response. Autochthonous transmission of E. granulosus is present in Lima. Informal, unlicensed abattoirs may be sources of infection to neighbouring people in this urban environment. PMID:22509413
Reyes, Maria M; Taramona, Claudia P; Saire-Mendoza, Mardeli; Gavidia, Cesar M; Barron, Eduardo; Boufana, Belgees; Craig, Philip S; Tello, Luis; Garcia, Hector H; Santivañez, Saul J
This Country Commercial Guide (CCG) offers a comprehensive look at Ethiopia's commercial environment, using economic, political and market analyses. The CCG's were established by recommendation of the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee (TPCC), a multi...
To explore the potential of trees and shrubs on farmlands on traditional systems in southernEthiopia, mineralization of macronutrients and loss of organics from leaves of Cordia africana and Albizia gummifera were studied under shaded-coffee and agricultural land-uses during the dry season. Leaves in litterbags were incorporated at 15 cm depth in soil under both land uses and residues were
Quasi-continuous variations of the Earth's magnetic field recorded in lake sediments can provide detailed time series describing the evolution of the geomagnetic field. To make robust conclusions about underlying geodynamo processes an improvement in the global coverage of recording sites is required. Current lake data for the late Brunhes are biased towards Europe and North America with only five studies reporting paleomagnetic results from equatorial Africa. We present inclination and relative paleointensity from Chew Bahir, southernEthiopia; a saline mudflat located in the East African Ridge System, previously covered by a ~2000 km2 lake. Discrete measurements were made on two ten meter cores, which we continuously sub-sampled at 2 cm intervals. Calibrated AMS radiocarbon ages constrain the base of the cores to ~45 ka. NRM was demagnetized in ten steps up to 100 mT and well defined characteristic remanence directions, with MAD < 3°, were determined for the majority of specimens. Secondary components of magnetization were generally removed after alternating field demagnetization to 15 mT. Inclination is compared with previously obtained directional records from Lake Turkana, northern Kenya (~60 km to the southwest of Chew Bahir), and we discuss differences between these records. The ratio of NRM to ARM intensity at 20 mT was used as a proxy for relative paleointensity. Broad similarities in variations in relative paleointensity are seen between Chew Bahir and other globally distributed sites; most evidently through the Holocene. The magnetic mineralogy of the cores has been determined using a number of rock magnetic methods and has been used to assess the fidelity of the paleomagnetic records.
Frank, U.; Brown, M. C.; Foerster, V. E.; Schäbitz, F.
Objectives Since 2000, American families have adopted 1,700 children from Ethiopia. Little is known about the health and development\\u000a of these children. Patients and Methods Retrospective chart review of the arrival health status of all 50 (26F:24M) children from Ethiopia\\/Eritrea seen in the International\\u000a Adoption Clinic. Results Prior to adoption, most children resided with relatives; 36% were >18 months old prior
Laurie C. Miller; Beverly Tseng; Linda G. Tirella; Wilma Chan; Emily Feig
Despite huge global efforts in tuberculosis (TB) control, pastoral areas remain under-investigated. During two years sputum and fine needle aspirate (FNA) specimens were collected from 260 Ethiopian pastoralists of Oromia and Somali Regional States with suspected pulmonary TB and from 32 cases with suspected TB lymphadenitis. In parallel, 207 suspected tuberculous lesions were collected from cattle, camels and goats at abattoirs. All specimens were processed and cultured for mycobacteria; samples with acid-fast stained bacilli (AFB) were further characterized by molecular methods including genus and deletion typing as well as spoligotyping. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were sequenced at the 16S rDNA locus. Culturing of AFB from human sputum and FNA samples gave a yield of 174 (67%) and 9 (28%) isolates, respectively. Molecular typing was performed on 173 of these isolates and 160 were confirmed as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, three as M. bovis, and the remaining 10 were typed as NTMs. Similarly, 48 AFB isolates (23%) yielded from tuberculous lesions of livestock, of which 39 were molecular typed, including 24 M. bovis and 4 NTMs from cattle, 1 M. tuberculosis and 1 NTM from camels and 9 NTMs from goats. Isolation of M. bovis from humans and M. tuberculosis from livestock suggests transmission between livestock and humans in the pastoral areas of South-East Ethiopia. PMID:22526748
In two pig abattoirs of different slaughter capacities, the stunning efficacy of CO2 on finishing pigs with and without pneumonic lesions (observed post mortem) was reflected against the corneal-reflex and blood parameters (blood pH, pCO2 and pO2) from individual finishers. Stunning duration was 120 s (abattoir A) and 90 s (abattoir B), respectively. Pneumonia in finisher pigs is frequently observed during post mortem inspection, which may raise concerns about a delay of unconsciousness because of hampered gas exchange in the lungs. The aim of this study was to examine possible pneumonia consequences for stunning efficacy under commercial conditions. For that, corneal reflex, O2 and CO2 partial pressure in the blood as well as blood pH were measured in 2650 finishers from abattoir A and 2100 from abattoir B. The partial pressure of O2 after stunning accounted to about 3 kPa, the partial pressure of CO2 was found at levels of about 24 kPa in abattoir A (after 120 s CO2 exposure) and 17.5 kPa in abattoir B (after 90 s CO2 exposure). In abattoir A, the blood pH was at 6.9, and at 7.0 in abattoir B. The corneal reflex was observed in 6.2% of pigs in abattoir A and 17.1% of pigs in abattoir B. A correlation between pneumonic lesions and blood status was not observed. However, for some individual farms, a significant correlation between pneumonia and corneal reflex was observed. PMID:22898535
Swab sample data from a 13-month microbiological baseline study of swine carcasses at Swedish abattoirs were combined with excision sample data collected routinely at five abattoirs. The aim was to compare the numbers of total aerobic counts, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia coli, recovered by swabbing four carcass sites with gauze (total area 400 cm2) with those obtained by excision at equivalent sites
The recent development of simple, rapid genotyping techniques for Campylobacter species has enabled investigation of the determinative epidemiology of these organisms in a variety of situations. In this study we have used the technique of fla typing (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the flaA and flaB genes) to identify the sources of strains contaminating the carcasses of five campylobacter-positive and two campylobacter-negative broiler flocks during abattoir processing. The results confirmed that, in the United Kingdom, individual broiler flocks are colonized by a limited number of subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni or C. coli. In some but not all cases, the same subtypes, isolated from the ceca, contaminated the end product as observed in carcass washes. However, the culture methodology, i.e, use of direct plating or enrichment, affected this subtype distribution. Moreover, the number of isolates analyzed per sample was limited. fla typing also indicated that some campylobacter subtypes survive poultry processing better than others. The extent of resistance to the environmental stresses during processing varied between strains. The more robust subtypes appeared to contaminate the abattoir environment, surviving through carcass chilling, and even carrying over onto subsequent flocks. From these studies it is confirmed that some campylobacter-negative flocks reach the abattoir but the carcasses from such flocks are rapidly contaminated by various campylobacter subtypes during processing. However, only some of these contaminating subtypes appeared to survive processing. The sources of this contamination are not clear, but in both negative flocks, campylobacters of the same subtypes as those recovered from the carcasses were isolated from the crates used to transport the birds. In one case, this crate contamination was shown to be present before the birds were loaded.
Newell, D. G.; Shreeve, J. E.; Toszeghy, M.; Domingue, G.; Bull, S.; Humphrey, T.; Mead, G.
Background Mali is one of the most important livestock producers of the Sahel region of Africa. A high frequency of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been reported but surveillance and control schemes are restricted to abattoir inspections only. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir. Of 3330 animals screened only 60 exhibited gross visible lesions. From these animals, twenty strains of M. bovis were isolated and characterised by spoligotyping. Results Organ lesions typical of BTB were most often detected in the liver, followed by the lung and the peritoneum. M. bovis was isolated from 20 animals and 7 different spoligotypes were observed among these 20 strains; three of the patterns had not been previously reported. Spoligotype patterns from thirteen of the strains lacked spacer 30, a characteristic common in strains of M. bovis found in Chad, Cameroon and Nigeria. However, unlike the other three Central African countries, the majority of spoligotype patterns observed in Mali also lacked spacer 6. Of the remaining seven strains, six had spoligotype patterns identical to strains commonly isolated in France and Spain. Conclusion Two groups of M. bovis were detected in cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir. The spoligotype pattern of the first group has similarities to strains previously observed in Chad, Cameroon and Nigeria. The additional absence of spacer 6 in the majority of these strains suggests a Mali specific clone. The spoligotype patterns of the remaining strains suggest that they may have been of European origin.
...Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation...Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia 1. Applicability. This Special...within the territory and airspace of Ethiopia north of 12 degrees north...
...Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation...Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia 1. Applicability. This Special...within the territory and airspace of Ethiopia north of 12 degrees north...
Ethiopia, among the world's poorest countries, suffers from a full spectrum of health problems. A plastic surgeon and a public health physician present their experiences in Sidamo province in the Rift Valley. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6
According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the Constitution's explicit reinstatement of ethnicity in law coincides with a politico-economic situation which has made ethnoregional groups more
An author relates memorable experiences of living in Ethiopia and describes how her brother's friendship with a poor boy in the city of Addis Ababa who cared for pigeons led to a children's book. Includes a descriptive list of books on pigeons, Africa, pets and wild animals, and cities, and a list of books by the author. (AEF)
Explored herein are historical roots of preschool through elementary grade education in the East Africa nation of Ethiopia. Also included are current difficult challenges to educational improvement as well as promising developments such as greater involvement of private institutions, organizations, and individuals in supporting Ministry of…
This article informs readers about early childhood in one of the poorest nations in the world--Ethiopia. Within the context of ecological systems theory, it emphasizes the characteristics of early education programs such as pre-school and basic (primary) education, and creates connections with families' views about education. The article concludes…
Since June of 1962, the University of Utah, in cooperation with the United States Agency for International Development and the Ethiopian Government, has helped to build a faculty of education at the Haile Sellassie I University in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The assignment has included two projects. The first was for preparation of junior-secondary and…
Using panel data from villages in rural Ethiopia, the paper studies the determinants of consumption growth (1989-97), based on a microgrowth model, controlling for heterogeneity. Consumption grew substantially, but with diverse experiences across villages and individuals. A key focus is on whether shocks affect growth. Rainfall shocks have a substantial impact on consumption growth, and its impact presists for many
This essay will make a brief historical synopsis and analysis of the crimes perpetrated by the Italian fascists against the Ethiopian people in the 1930s. At this particular juncture, it may sound ironic to revisit the crimes against humanity committed in Ethiopia by Fascist henchmen like Marshall Pietro Badoglio and Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, but sometimes the past contends with the
Since the 1800s, the only known vector of Borrelia recurrentis has been the body louse. In 2011, we found B. recurrentis DNA in 23% of head lice from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Whether head lice can transmit these bacteria from one person to another remains to be determined. PMID:23648147
Ethiopia's domestic politics have produced violence and continuing tension over the past two years. The deep shortcomings in the country's democratization and state- building processes may remain unresolved as the worsening instability of the region takes precedence. This report was commissioned as part of the Political Transitions in Africa project managed by Dorina Bekoe at the United States Institute of
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen in environmental waters with a high prevalence of multidrug resistance. In this study the synergistic efficacy of synergy antibiotic combinations in multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains isolated from an abattoir effluent was investigated. Water samples were processed using membrane filtration; Pseudomonas was isolated with Pseudomonas Isolation Agar and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction with specie-specific primer. Susceptibility studies and in vitro synergy interaction testing were carried out, employing agar dilution and Etest procedure, respectively. Resistance was noted for clinically relevant antipseudomonal agents tested. Finding from antibiotic synergy interaction studies revealed that cefepime, imipenem, and meropenem combined with amikacin resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.0001) in vitro antibiotics synergy interaction, indicating the possible use of this regimen in treatment of pseudomonal infections.
Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Orhue, Phillips O.; Omoigberale, May N. O.; Amhanre, Napoleon I.
Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards development. In September of 2008, Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti, and Somalia faced high or extreme conditions of food insecurity caused by repeated droughts and rapid
In 1967 the Kibish Formation in southernEthiopia yielded hominid cranial remains identified as early anatomically modern humans, assigned to Homo sapiens. However, the provenance and age of the fossils have been much debated. Here we confirm that the Omo I and Omo II hominid fossils are from similar stratigraphic levels in Member I of the Kibish Formation, despite the view that Omo I is more modern in appearance than Omo II. 40Ar/39Ar ages on feldspar crystals from pumice clasts within a tuff in Member I below the hominid levels place an older limit of 198 +/- 14 kyr (weighted mean age 196 +/- 2 kyr) on the hominids. A younger age limit of 104 +/- 7 kyr is provided by feldspars from pumice clasts in a Member III tuff. Geological evidence indicates rapid deposition of each member of the Kibish Formation. Isotopic ages on the Kibish Formation correspond to ages of Mediterranean sapropels, which reflect increased flow of the Nile River, and necessarily increased flow of the Omo River. Thus the 40Ar/39Ar age measurements, together with the sapropel correlations, indicate that the hominid fossils have an age close to the older limit. Our preferred estimate of the age of the Kibish hominids is 195 +/- 5 kyr, making them the earliest well-dated anatomically modern humans yet described. PMID:15716951
The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southernEthiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.
This study examined the factors that influence the use of maternal healthcare services in Ethiopia and particularly assessed the use of antenatal and delivery-care services. Data for the study were drawn from the 2000 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to explore the relative importance of a number of demographic and sociocultural variables in the
Mass media, radio and television, have been playing a very important role in the formal education of Ethiopian children for a quarter of a century. The chronological development and future plans of their use for educational purposes are described in this paper. Ethiopia is unique among most Third World countries in the sense that the mass media in Ethiopia function
Historically, members of the Anopheles gambiae complex from Ethiopia have been identified chromosomally as either A. arabiensis or A. quadriannulatus. Recent collections from the Jimma area in Ethiopia, south-west of Addis Ababa, revealed 29 specimens of A. quadriannulatus based on the standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification method. ‘Wild’ females were induced to lay eggs and the progeny reared as
This thesis 'Ethiopia's Foreign Relations With Israel: 1955-1998', examines the nature and the impact of the diplomatic relationship between Ethiopia and Israel. From the rupture in relations during the Yom Kippur War in 1973 to the drama of Operation SOL...
A comparison of recent contested elections in Kenya and Ethiopia points to divergences in the forms of political violence. While both countries saw the use of excessive force by members of the security services, Kenya experienced more widespread and deadly inter-ethnic violence than Ethiopia. This article considers these two countries in light of competing explanations for inter-ethnic violence, and concludes
Growth performances and feed utilization potentials of six chicken populations were investigated at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Centre, Ethiopia. Five local ecotypes originated from different Agro- ecologies and corresponding market sheds in Ethiopia, namely, Tilili, Horro, Chefe, Jarso, Tepi, and the Fayoumi breed was used as a reference breed. Ecotype had a significant (p<0.01) effect on overall body weight gain
Background: Ethiopia lacked accurate recent national estimates of blindness and low vision. Therefore, prevention and control programs face serious problem of lack of recognition of the problem and challenges in tracking achievements towards program goals. Objective: To determine the prevalence of blindness and low vision at the national and regional levels in Ethiopia. Method: A national survey was conducted on
Yemane Berhane; Alemayehu Worku; Abebe Bejiga; Wondu Alemayehu; Amir Bedri; Allehone Ayalew; Yilikal Adamu; Teshome Gebre; Tewodros D. Kebede; Emily West; Sheila West
Understanding trends in gully erosion, and the relation with changes in its triggers, is important to make sustainable development possible in semi-arid regions suffering from low food security and threatened by climatic deterioration. The reconstruction of long-term (1868-2009) patterns in gully erosion in North Ethiopia and environmental control, i.e. LUC changes and rainfall pattern changes, requires an extensive database of
Amaury Frankl; Jan Nyssen; Jean Poesen; Stephanie de Mûelenaere; Ellen Meire; Morgan de Dapper; Jozef Deckers; Mitiku Haile
Bovine tuberculosis is an important zoonotic disease transmissible through aerosols inhalation and the ingestion of contaminated milk and meat from cattle. Abattoirs in Ghana mainly depend on post-mortem examinations as means of diagnosing the presence of mycobacterium in meat (beef). A Ziehl-Neelsen microscopy was used to investigate the presence of Mycobacterium bovis as Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFBs) in beef samples from the Kumasi Metropolitan abattoir; thereby vetting post-mortem examinations at the abattoir. Lesioned lung tissues and calcified or puss-filled thoracic lymph nodes were collected at post-mortem as directed by an expert veterinarian. A total of 159 samples from 130 cattle (bulls and cows) were used in this study from April to July 2006. Ninety-five (i.e., 73.1%) of the 130 cattle sampled were positive for AFBs, whilst the remaining thirty-five (26.9%) were negative. Out of the total 159 individual samples specimen collected, 114 (71.7%) were found with AFBs. A total of 64 lung tissues and 95 lymph nodes were collected, respectively. Interestingly, 70.3% of the lung tissues were AFB-positive with 69 (72.6%) out of the 95 lymph nodes, also being positive. The ZN microscopy was effective in detecting the presence of mycobacteria, as 73.1% of the suspected samples were AFB-positive. It presupposes that, abattoir post-mortem examinations were also efficient however; the lapses of non-detection of asymptomatic carcasses could also pose a serious health risk to consumers. Also, lack of a functional on-site laboratory and a practical monitoring system was found to be unfavourable to the maintenance of meat quality. Detailed laboratory examinations (such as culture, PCR and other biochemical tests) to augment ZN microscopy is recommended for thorough detection of bovine tuberculosis. PMID:19943459
Adu-Bobi, N A K; Mak-Mensah, E E; Achel, D G; Gyamfi, O K; Bedzra, K D
Food handling facilities are under increased consumer and regulatory pressures to improve the micro-biological safety of perishable raw and ready-to-eat commodities. In this study workers from a deboning room of a high throughput abattoir were interviewed by means of a structured questionnaire to ascertain the knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices regarding personal and general hygiene applied specifically in the deboning
Studies to determine baseline levels of microbial contaminants and foodborne bacterial pathogens are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) programs, Good Manufacturing/Production Practices, and various interventions. In 2004 and 2005 poultry carcass rinses from provincially inspected abattoirs in Alberta, Canada, were tested to determine the levels of aerobic plate count bacteria, coliform bacteria, and generic Escherichia coli, the prevalence and levels of Campylobacter spp., and the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Samples were collected from 3 high volume and 62 low volume abbatoirs. All samples (1296) were positive for aerobic plate count bacteria, with 98.8% of samples having counts of 100 000 or less colony forming units (CFU)/cm2. Coliform bacteria were isolated from 99.7% of the 1296 carcasses and were recovered at levels of ? 1000 CFU/cm2 for 98.3% of the samples. Generic E. coli were recovered from 99.1% of the 1296 carcasses at levels of ? 1000 CFU/cm2 for 98.6% of the samples. Seventy five percent of 1234 samples that were tested for Campylobacter were positive; 37.5% of 1295 samples that were tested for Salmonella were positive; and only 2 of 1296 samples tested for STEC were positive (0.15%).
Bohaychuk, Valerie M.; Checkley, Sylvia L.; Gensler, Gary E.; Barrios, Pablo Romero
In 2006 and 2007 beef and pork carcass swabs from provincially inspected abattoirs in Alberta, Canada were tested to determine the levels of total aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, and generic Escherichia coli, and the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Swabs from beef and pork carcasses from 48 and 34 facilities, respectively, were analyzed. All samples tested were positive for aerobic bacteria with 99.8% of beef and 96.0% of pork samples, having total counts of ? 100 000 CFU/cm2. Coliform bacteria were isolated from 22.4% and 42.0% of beef and pork carcass samples, respectively. Generic E. coli were recovered from 14.6% of beef and 33.7% of pork carcass samples. For beef carcasses, positive tests were obtained for 0.1% of 1036 samples tested for Salmonella spp., 1.5% of 1022 samples tested for Campylobacter spp. and 5.4% of 1018 samples tested for STEC. For pork carcasses, positive tests were obtained for 1.6 % of 1076 samples tested for Salmonella spp., 8.8% of 1070 samples tested for Campylobacter spp. and 4.8% of 1067 samples tested for STEC.
Bohaychuk, Valerie M.; Gensler, Gary E.; Barrios, Pablo Romero
Four classes of Bayesian hierarchical models were evaluated using an historical dataset from an abattoir survey for fasciolosis conducted in Victoria, Australia. The purpose of this analysis was to identify areas of high prevalence and to explain these in terms of environmental covariates. The simplest of the Bayesian models, with a single random effect, validated the use of smoothed maps for cartographic display when the sample sizes vary. The model was then extended to partition the random effect into spatially structured and unstructured components, thus allowing for spatial autocorrelation. Rainfall, irrigation, temperature-adjusted rainfall and a remotely sensed surrogate for rainfall, the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), were then introduced into the models as explanatory variables. The variable that best explained the observed distribution was irrigation. Associations between prevalence and both rainfall and NDVI that were significant in fixed effects models were shown to be due to spatial confounding. Nevertheless, provided they are used cautiously, confounded variables may be valid predictors for the prevalence of disease. PMID:16188333
This study estimated the frequency of exposure of meat workers to carcasses infected with Leptospira serovars Hardjobovis or Pomona in a sheep-only abattoir in New Zealand. A stochastic spreadsheet model was developed to assess the daily risk of exposure of eviscerators, meat inspectors and offal handlers to live leptospires in sheep carcasses from May to November 2004 (high-risk period), and from December 2004 to June 2005 (low-risk period). The average sheep processed per day were 225 for an eviscerator, 374 for a meat inspector, and 1123 for an offal handler. The median daily exposures during high- and low-risk periods were 11 [95% distribution interval (DI) 5-19] and three (95% DI 1-8) infected carcasses/day for eviscerators, 18 (95% DI 9-29) and six (95% DI 2-12) for meat inspectors, and 54 (95% DI 32-83) and 18 (95% DI 8-31) for offal handlers, respectively. Stochastic risk modelling provided evidence that processing of sheep carcasses exposed meat workers regularly to live leptospires with substantial seasonal variation. PMID:20843385
Dorjee, S; Heuer, C; Jackson, R; West, D M; Collins-Emerson, J M; Midwinter, A C; Ridler, A L
Animals of both sexes are slaughtered for meat and meat products at the abattoirs. It has been found in few countries that one-out-of-every-three ewe and one-out-of-every-four doe with single, twin or multiple foetuses are slaughtered in registered slaughterhouses. In quest for meat, numerous viable embryos and foetuses are wasted unnoticed since the productive pregnant animals are not spared in the process. The trend in the slaughter of pregnant animals for meat (ranging from 54.5% to 70.1%) therefore calls for a review to reminisce issues on slaughter reforms, emphasize its implication on losses of genetic materials and sustainability of meat production. As a way of ensuring that welfare quality® assessment is not compromised and cruelty is prevented during animal slaughter, the quantitation of housekeeping genes and naturally occurring microRNAs (miRNAs) are recommended for identifying candidate pain biomarkers. In order to respect consumers' right however, the manuscript suggests meat branding where the consumption of meat from pregnant animals is ethical. PMID:23577300
Background Abattoir data have the potential to provide information for geospatial disease surveillance applications, but the quality of the data and utility for detecting disease outbreaks is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify non-disease factors that may bias these data for disease surveillance and 2) determine if major disease events that took place during the study period would be captured using multi-level modelling and scan statistics. We analyzed data collected at all provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario, Canada during 2001-2007. During these years there were outbreaks of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and swine influenza that produced widespread disease within the province. Negative binomial models with random intercepts for abattoir, to account for repeated measurements within abattoirs, were created. The relationships between partial carcass condemnation rates for pneumonia and nephritis with year, season, agricultural region, stock price, and abattoir processing capacity were explored. The utility of the spatial scan statistic for detecting clusters of high partial carcass condemnation rates in space, time, and space-time was investigated. Results Non-disease factors that were found to be associated with lung and kidney condemnation rates included abattoir processing capacity, agricultural region and season. Yearly trends in predicted condemnation rates varied by agricultural region, and temporal patterns were different for both types of condemnations. Some clusters of high condemnation rates of kidneys with nephritis in time and space-time preceded the timeframe during which case clusters were detected using traditional laboratory data. Yearly kidney condemnation rates related to nephritis lesions in eastern Ontario were most consistent with the trends that were expected in relation to the documented disease outbreaks. Yearly lung condemnation rates did not correspond with the timeframes during which major respiratory disease outbreaks took place. Conclusions This study demonstrated that a number of abattoir-related factors require consideration when using abattoir data for quantitative disease surveillance. Data pertaining to lungs condemned for pneumonia did not provide useful information for predicting disease events, while partial carcass condemnations of nephritis were most consistent with expected trends. Techniques that adjust for non-disease factors should be considered when applying cluster detection methods to abattoir data.
As a country whose economy is heavily dependent on low-productivity rainfed agriculture, rainfall trends are often cited as one of the more important factors in explaining various socio-economic problems such as food insecurity. Therefore, in order to help policymakers and developers make more informed decisions, this study investigated the temporal dynamics of rainfall and its spatial distribution within Ethiopia. Changes in rainfall were examined using data from 134 stations in 13 watersheds between 1960 and 2002. The variability and trends in seasonal and annual rainfall were analysed at the watershed scale with data (1) from all available years, and (2) excluding years that lacked observations from at least 25% of the gauges. Similar anlyses were also performed at the gauge, regional, and national levels. By regressing annual watershed rainfall on time, results from the one-sample t-test show no significant changes in rainfall for any of the watersheds examined. However, in our regressions of seasonal rainfall averages against time, we found a significant decline in June to September rainfall (i.e. Kiremt) for the Baro-Akobo, Omo-Ghibe, Rift Valley, and Southern Blue Nile watersheds located in the southwestern and central parts of Ethiopia. While the gauge level analysis showed that certain gauge stations experienced recent changes in rainfall, these trends are not necessarily reflected at the watershed or regional levels. Copyright ?? 2008 Royal Meteorological Society.
A detailed historical reconstruction and analysis is presented of the longest record of climate observations for Ethiopia, from 1898 to 2002 in Addis Ababa. Prior to 1951 the record comprises rainfall and minimum and maximum temperatures recorded in different locations by different observers. The rainfall series is complete except for 1899 and 1900, but the temperature series are very incomplete. Using documentary evidence, we attempt as far as is possible to establish the origins of all the pre-1951 observations. Rainfall observations originate from at least six different sites. After establishment of an Ethiopian meteorological department in 1951 the records are complete and, to our understanding, originate from the same location, the Addis Ababa Observatory (AAO). A revised rainfall series for 1898-1950 is derived using observations from sites with the longest records.The minimum and maximum temperature records show evidence of statistically significant inhomogeneities. Homogeneity tests on the full rainfall record (the revised series plus AAO) show it is reliable, with evidence of minor but not statistically significant breaks in the record before establishment of the AAO. Some, but not all, breaks can be accounted for using the historical information. Analysis of the records shows increasing trends in annual minimum and maximum temperatures from 1951 to 2002 (0.4 °C/decade and 0.2 °C/decade, respectively). There is little trend in rainfall from 1901-50, 1951-2002 and 1901-2002, dry years do not correspond with known drought years elsewhere in Ethiopia, and interannual variability is poorly correlated with another long rainfall series in Ethiopia (Gore), Blue Nile river flows and the southern oscillation index. This suggests strongly that the record for Addis Ababa should not be used as a proxy for conditions in Ethiopia, particularly the more drought-prone areas to the north and east. We conclude that the temperature series are suspect but that the full rainfall record is useful for analysis of long-term rainfall conditions in Addis Ababa.
This article identifies and examines the processes through which the social justice movements of African Americans in the US, Oromos in Ethiopia, and Southern and Western Sudanese in Sudan emerged, and the successes and failures of these movements in a global and comparative perspective. It specifically explores four interrelated issues. First, the paper deals with some theoretical and methodological insights.
Over 35000 onshore and offshore gravity stations have been compiled in order to test isostatic models and perform geologic correlations over a large section of the Afro-Arabian shield. Ethiopia is an important part of this system because it contains the major section of the ca. 5000km Afro-Arabian rift and it includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield (ANS) and Mozambique Belt (MB). Isostatic residual anomalies have been calculated using both Airy and Vening-Meinsez models. These anomalies outline the major Precambrian belts, the Cenozoic rifts and associated major structures. Positive residual anomalies associated with the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Kenyan rift systems could be the expression of an axial intrusive body and swarms of local faults and fractures. The residual anomalies indicate relative stability in the MER and increased tectonic activity over the areas of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar. Near-zero isostatic residuals flank the MER and Kenya rifts and are found within the Danakil Alps and some plateau regions. A series of NW-SE and E-W trending features are evident in the different isostatic residual maps. These parallel features include, from north to south, the Najid fault system, Red Sea axial zone, Melka Werer cross structure, the Anza rift and the Aswa shear zone. Additional NW-SE structures are apparent in the southern rift system, although these features are somewhat diffuse. Curvature enhanced maps are also useful for mapping fracture zones, major gravity lineaments and, in some cases, orientation of faults. Important areas from a metallogenesis point of view have been identified for further examination. The results of the qualitative interpretation form the basis of continuing three-dimensional gravity modelling and qualitative analysis that also integrates data from eastern Sudan.
Comparative biomolecular studies suggest that the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, lived during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Fossil evidence of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene hominid evolution is rare and limited to a few sites in Ethiopia, Kenya and Chad. Here we report new Early Pliocene hominid discoveries and their palaeoenvironmental context from the fossiliferous deposits of As Duma, Gona Western Margin (GWM), Afar, Ethiopia. The hominid dental anatomy (occlusal enamel thickness, absolute and relative size of the first and second lower molar crowns, and premolar crown and radicular anatomy) indicates attribution to Ardipithecus ramidus. The combined radioisotopic and palaeomagnetic data suggest an age of between 4.51 and 4.32 million years for the hominid finds at As Duma. Diverse sources of data (sedimentology, faunal composition, ecomorphological variables and stable carbon isotopic evidence from the palaeosols and fossil tooth enamel) indicate that the Early Pliocene As Duma sediments sample a moderate rainfall woodland and woodland/grassland. PMID:15662421
Semaw, Sileshi; Simpson, Scott W; Quade, Jay; Renne, Paul R; Butler, Robert F; McIntosh, William C; Levin, Naomi; Dominguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Rogers, Michael J
Cooperation for American Relief to Everywhere (CARE) was established in response to the needs of the people after World War II through the distribution of food and clothes. CARE/Ethiopia, which signed its first Basic Agreement with the Relief and Rehabilitation Commission, was provided with assistance during the 1994 drought that affected Ethiopia. The primary objective of CARE was to alleviate the suffering brought about by severe food shortages and to expand the program to mitigation and development. This approach was based on the premise of a community-based development philosophy and as an implementation strategy for reaching the rural poor. The five programmatic areas highlighted by the CARE projects were the rural and urban infrastructure; water and sanitation; small-scale irrigation; reproductive health and HIV/AIDS; and microcredit. On the other hand, the family planning and HIV/AIDS project aimed to improve the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural communities towards family planning and reproductive health through community-based family planning services. Results of the project evaluation emphasize the significance of community-based programs in the improvement of health status. Two critical program constraints identified in this paper are lack of access to referral-level services and lack of systemic provision of contraceptive commodities. Several suggestions for future programs include the assurance that the volunteers would be provided with aid in work, childcare and free health services for their families. PMID:12349450
Summary Ethiopia is central to population genetic studies investigating the out of Africa expansion of modern humans, as shown by Y chromosome and mtDNA studies. To address the level of genetic differentiation within Ethiopia, and its relationship to Sub-Saharan Africa and Eurasia, we studied an 8kb segment of the X-chromosome from 72 chromosomes from the Amhara, Oromo and Ethiopian Jews,
A. Lovell; C. Moreau; V. Yotova; F. Xiao; S. Bourgeois; D. Gehl; J. Bertranpetit; E. Schurr; D. Labuda
Male Phlebotomus (Synphlebotomus) vansomerenae, specimens were collected together with two other members of the same subgenus between August 2010 and December 2011 in Melka Guba village near Dawa River in Liben district, southeastern Ethiopia. This is the first record of the species in Ethiopia and the first time it has been found outside of Kenya where it was originally described, extending the known distribution of this species in East Africa. PMID:23802463
BackgroundPodoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) that is prevalent in red clay soil-covered highlands of tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northern India. It is estimated that up to one million cases exist in Ethiopia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones of Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA cross-sectional
Yordanos B. Molla; Sara Tomczyk; Tsige Amberbir; Abreham Tamiru; Gail Davey
The African Studies Center site at the University of Pennsylvania has posted this 1998 report on the political and social condition of Ethiopia. It is a consolidated UN report prepared by the Information Section of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Emergencies Unit for Ethiopia from information and reports provided by specialized UN agencies, media sources, the Government and NGOs. It focuses primarily on food supplies, weather, health and nutrition, and refugees and returnees.
This work presents a geoscientific map and database for geology, mineral and energy resources of Ethiopia in a digital form at a scale of 1:2,000,000, compiled from several sources. The final result of the work has been recorded on CD-ROM in GIS format so that the map and the database could be available to users on a personal computer.Metallic resources
Background Although Ethiopia ranks seventh among the world’s 22 high-burden tuberculosis (TB) countries, little is known about strain diversity and transmission. In this study, we present the first in-depth analysis of the population structure and transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from Northwest Ethiopia. Methods In the present study, 244 M. tuberculosis isolates where analysed by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit - variable number tandem repeat 24-loci typing and spoligotyping methods to determine phylogenetic lineages and perform cluster analysis. Clusters of strains with identical genotyping patterns were considered as an indicator for the recent transmission. Results Of 244 isolates, 59.0% were classified into nine previously described lineages: Dehli/CAS (38.9%), Haarlem (8.6%), Ural (3.3%), LAM (3.3%), TUR (2.0%), X-type (1.2%), S-type (0.8%), Beijing (0.4%) and Uganda II (0.4%). Interestingly, 31.6% of the strains were grouped into four new lineages and were named as Ethiopia_3 (13.1%), Ethiopia_1 (7.8%), Ethiopia_H37Rv like (7.0%) and Ethiopia_2 (3.7%) lineages. The remaining 9.4% of the isolates could not be assigned to the known or new lineages. Overall, 45.1% of the isolates were grouped in clusters, indicating a high rate of recent transmission. Conclusions This study confirms a highly diverse M. tuberculosis population structure, the presence of new phylogenetic lineages and a predominance of the Dehli/CAS lineage in Northwest Ethiopia. The high rate of recent transmission indicates defects of the TB control program in Northwest Ethiopia. This emphasizes the importance of strengthening laboratory diagnosis of TB, intensified case finding and treatment of TB patients to interrupt the chain of transmission.
Integrated inversions of short-period P, broadband P, and long-period P &s waves are done for fault mechanisms, focal depths, seismic moments, and source-time functions from the largest four earthquakes of the 1985 and 1987 earthquake sequence in south-western Ethiopia. These earthquakes had similar normal-faulting mechanisms. The general trends of the fault planes follow the Main Ethiopian Rift which is in agreement with foreshock-aftershock distribution, surface breaks and geology. Despite the morphological discontinuity of the Main Ethiopian Rift at its southern tip, the mode of deformation of the continental crust under study shows its extension southward. There are no significant strike-slip components trending NW-SE in all the mechanisms which would have been associated with the Aswa Fault Zone in southern Sudan or Anza Rift in northern Kenya. We also infer that the relatively broad fracture zone at the southern extreme of the Main Ethiopian Rift demonstrates the early stage of the break-up between the Nubia and Somalia plates in comparison with the Main Ethiopian Rift proper and the Afar Depression. The main shock of the sequence (Mw = 6.3) ruptured at a depth of 6.8 km, shallower than expected since the depth of earthquakes generally increase southward from the Afar Depression. The shallow depth of earthquake occurrence is supported by surface deformations with an overall trend in the direction of the Main Ethiopian Rift.
A 5-yr retrospective study in livestock slaughtered in abattoirs was carried out in Khuzestan Province (southwestern Iran) to determine the prevalence of parasitic infections responsible for condemnation of slaughtered animals' carcasses and viscera. The economic importance of such infections in terms of lost meat and offal were also estimated. Between 20 March 2006 and 19 March 2011, 125,593 cattle, 1,191,871 sheep, 240,221 goats, and 25,010 buffalos were slaughtered in the study area; the livers of 58,753 (3.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-3.8%), the lungs of 34,522 (2.2%; 95% CI: 2.1-2.2%), and the carcasses of 78 (0.0049% 95% CI: 0.0048-0.0049%) of these animals were condemned. Proportions of liver, lung, and carcass condemnations during the 5-yr study period in buffalos were significantly greater than the other species (P < 0.001). Frequency of liver condemnation during the 5-yr period for cattle was greater than sheep and goats (P < 0.001), but condemnation of lungs in goat was significantly greater than sheep and cattle (P < 0.001). The parasitic lesions observed in the condemned livers were attributed to Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica, or Dicrocoelium dendriticum, or some combination of these species. All the parasitic lesions observed in the condemned lungs from cattle, sheep, goats, and buffalos are ascribed to E. granulosus. Sarcocystis spp. cysts were found in ovine and buffalo muscles, whereas Taenia sp. cysticerci were detected in bovine muscle. Muscles of goats were devoid of any parasitic lesions. Parasites were responsible for 54.1% of the condemned organs or carcasses, with a retail value (based on market prices in 2011) of $1,148,181 (U.S.) ($137,880 for cattle, $602,699 for sheep, $280,955 for goats, and $126,647 for buffalos). The parasites contributing most to the condemnation of otherwise marketable organs and flesh were E. granulosus (29.2%) and F. hepatica (18.6%). These parasites clearly remain the most common, causing considerable economic loss in Khuzestan Province and, presumably, other areas of Iran. PMID:22568697
Ethiopia is climatically and environmentally extremely heterogeneous. The highlands receive a lot of rainfall (more than 2000 mm/year) concentrated in only three months. Most of Ethiopian runoff is produced in these highlands (part of this water reaches the Mediterranean sea through the Nile river). Lowlands vary from forests to deserts. The hottest place on earth is there (the Danakil depression, more than 150 meters below see level). This makes the spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic signatures very strong in the country. We present the results of a comparative hydrology exercise performed during a three-week Winter Research Workshop held in Addis Ababa during Christmas time this year. There, a new institution, the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR), and a new education program (18 PhD + 24 MSc) has been started less than one year ago. Instead of the traditional approach of education, based on lectures, reading and exercises, a learner-centered approach has been used: the students have been asked to collect available rainfall and runoff data, to interpret them by comparing and contrasting different catchments in the country, to develop conceptual models and use them to critically test ideas. The R software has been used in the workshop for two reason: (1) its flexibility makes it an ideal language for learner-centered education, since students can easily define new functions and extensions and can autonomously develop and test their hypothesis; (2) it is open source, light and free of charge, which makes it particularly appealing in developing countries like Ethiopia.
Berhanu, B.; Terefe, M.; Viglione, A.; Fant, C.; Gebretsadik, Y.; Cullis, J.; Mekonnen, G.; Alamirew, T.; Sivapalan, M.
A retrospective study was conducted to determine the causes of ostrich carcass and organ condemnations in Zimbabwe for the period 1999-2005. Records of meat inspection available at the single ostrich abattoir in Zimbabwe were used in this study. The number of ostriches slaughtered for the whole study period was 55 957. The total number of ostriches slaughtered decreased by 84.8%
S. Mukaratirwa; B. M. Dzoma; C. Matongo; M. Nyahuma
The main objective of this work was to investigate the potential of a microencapsulated mixture of organic acids (formic and lactic acid) added to the feed of fattening pigs to reduce the prevalence and shedding of Salmonella when arriving to the abattoir. Two trials were performed. In Trial 1, 24 fattening pigs received one of three diets: a control diet,
Joseane Willamil; Eva Creus; J. Francisco Pérez; Enric Mateu; Susana M. Martín-Orúe
Abattoir effluents reaching rivers and streams may contribute significant levels of biological oxygen demand (BOD) and other nutrients, resulting in riverbed and stream pollution. At the present time, there is no economical, stable, efficient, easy- to-use and operate process to stabilize, deodorize, or recover usable energy from slaughterhouse wastewater. The Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Center is currently evaluating the
To investigate the role of the Djibouti-Ethiopian railway as a potential vehicle for inter-regional spread of malaria vectors and malaria parasites, we performed a double-sided study, both entomological and parasitological, during November 1989, at the frontier post of Guelile where the trains from Ethiopia enter the Republic of Djibouti. No malaria-transmitting mosquitoes were collected either from the daily passenger train or from the weekly vegetables train. One hundred and five passengers entering Djibouti by train from Ethiopia had a thick film examined for malaria parasites. Five smears were positive for Plasmodium falciparum, among them two showed gametocytes. We conclude that the railway may be an effective route for the propagation of the human malaria parasite between Ethiopia and Djibouti. Indeed, passengers infected abroad could import plasmodia into Djibouti and thus become the index cases for local malaria outbreaks, in case the climatic and entomological prerequisites essential for sustaining malaria transmission are present. PMID:1895918
Fox, E; Bouloumie, J; Olson, J G; Tible, D; Lluberas, M; Shakib, S O; Parra, J P; Rodier, G
Lactic acid bacteria isolated from Irish pork and beef abattoirs were analysed for their susceptibility to antimicrobials. Thirty-seven isolates (12 enterococci, 10 lactobacilli, 8 streptococci, 3 lactococci, 2 Leuconostoc, and 2 pediococci) were examined for phenotypic resistance using the E-test and their minimum inhibitory concentration to a panel of six antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin) was recorded. The corresponding genetic determinants responsible were characterised by PCR. Also, the transferability of these resistance markers was assessed in filter mating assays. Of the 37 isolates, 33 were found to be resistant to one or more antibiotics. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. The erm(B) and msrA/B genes were detected among the 11 erythromycin-resistant strains of enterococci, lactobacilli, and streptococci. Two tetracycline-resistant strains, Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp., contained tet(M) and tet(S) genes respectively. Intrinsic streptomycin resistance was observed in lactobacilli, streptococci, lactococci and Leuconostoc species; none of the common genetic determinants (strA, strB, aadA, aadE) were identified. Four of 10 strains of Enterococcus faecium were resistant to vancomycin; however, no corresponding genetic determinants for this phenotype were identified. Enterococcus faecalis strains were susceptible to vancomycin. L. plantarum, L. mesenteroides and Pediococcus pentosaceus were intrinsically resistant to vancomycin. Transfer of antibiotic resistance determinants was demonstrated in one strain, wherein the tet(M) gene of L. plantarum (23) isolated from a pork abattoir was transferred to Lactococcus lactis BU-2-60 and to E. faecalis JH2-2. This study identified the presence of antibiotic resistance markers in Irish meat isolates and, in one example, resistance was conjugally transferred to other LAB strains. PMID:20074643
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread zoonosis in developing countries but has received little attention in many sub-Saharan African countries including Sudan and particularly in some parts such as Darfur states. This study aimed to detect bovine tuberculosis among caseous materials of cattle slaughtered in abattoirs in South Darfur State, Sudan by using microscopic and PCR-based methods. The study was a cross-sectional abattoir-based study which examined a total of 6,680 bovine carcasses for caseous lesions in South Darfur State between 2007 and 2009. Collected specimens were examined for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by using microscopic and culture techniques. Isolated mycobacteria were identified by selected conventional cultural and biochemical tests in comparison to a single tube multiplex PCR (m-PCR) assay which detect Mycobacterium bovis-specific 168-bp amplicons. Of the total 6,680 slaughtered cattle examined in South Darfur, 400 (6 %) showed caseations restricted to lymph nodes (86.8 %) or generalized (13.2 %). Bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in 12 (0.18 %), bovine farcy in 59 (0.88 %), unidentified mycobacteria in 6 (0.09 %), and missed or contaminated cultures in 7 (0.1 %). Out of 18 cultures with nonbranching acid-fast rods, 12 amplified unique 168-bp sequence specific for M. bovis and subsequently confirmed as M. bovis. With the exception of the reference M. tuberculosis strains, none of the remaining AFB amplified the 337-bp amplicon specific for M. tuberculosis. It could be concluded that bovine tuberculosis is prevalent among cattle in South Darfur representing 4.5 % from all slaughtered cattle with caseous lesions. The study sustains microscopy as a useful and accessible technique for detecting AFB. m-PCR assay proved to be valuable for confirmation of BTB and its differentiation from other related mycobacteriosis, notably bovine farcy. PMID:22843216
Asil, El Tigani A; El Sanousi, Sulieman M; Gameel, Ahmed; El Beir, Haytham; Fathelrahman, Maha; Terab, Nasir M; Muaz, Magzoub A; Hamid, Mohamed E
Background The Ethiopian neonatal mortality rate constitutes 42% of under-5 deaths. We aimed to examine the trends and determinants of Ethiopian neonatal mortality. Methods We analyzed the birth history information of live births from the 2000, 2005 and 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). We used simple linear regression analyses to examine trends in neonatal mortality rates and a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model using a hierarchical approach to examine the associated factors. Results The neonatal mortality rate declined by 1.9% per annum from 1995 to 2010, logarithmically. The early neonatal mortality rate declined by 0.9% per annum and was where 74% of the neonatal deaths occurred. Using multivariate analyses, increased neonatal mortality risk was associated with male sex (hazard ratio (HR)?=?1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23???1.55); neonates born to mothers aged?18 years (HR?=?1.41; 95% CI, 1.15???1.72); and those born within 2 years of the preceding birth (HR?=?2.19; 95% CI, 1.89???2.51). Winter birth increased the risk of dying compared with spring births (HR?=?1.28; 95% CI, 1.08???1.51). Giving two Tetanus Toxoid Injections (TTI) to the mothers before childbirth decreased neonatal mortality risk (HR?=?0.44; 95% CI, 0.36???0.54). Neonates born to women with secondary or higher schooling vs. no education had a lower risk of dying (HR?=?0.68; 95% CI, 0.49???0.95). Compared with neonates in Addis Ababa, neonates in Amhara (HR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.26???2.83), Benishangul Gumuz (HR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.15???2.67) and Tigray (HR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.01???2.34) regions carried a significantly higher risk of death. Conclusions Neonatal mortality must decline more rapidly to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 target for under-5 mortality in Ethiopia. Strategies to address neonatal survival require a multifaceted approach that encompasses health-related and other measures. Addressing short birth interval and preventing early pregnancy must be considered as interventions. Programs must improve the coverage of TTI and prevention of hypothermia for winter births should be given greater emphasis. Strategies to improve neonatal survival must address inequalities in neonatal mortality by women's education and region.
A survey conducted on a stable, mainly rural population of 60,820 in Central Ethiopia revealed an overall blindness prevalence of 1.1%. A follow up study was carried out to accurately determine the etiologies and causes of visual loss and impairment. A detailed ophthalmic evaluation was done on 523 out of 872 individuals identified as being visually impaired. The results showed that 194 (37%) were blind (Categories 3, 4, and 5 = maximum visual acuity less than 3/60 in the better eye). One hundred and seven (21%) (Categories 1 & 2 = maximum visual acuity better than 3/60 to less than 6/18 in the better eye using the WHO categories of visual impairment). The rest 222 (43%) were blind in one eye only. The commonest anatomical cause of blindness is corneal (32%). Cataract (25%), atrophied globe(s) (20%) and glaucoma (17%) follow as the other leading causes. Trachoma (35%), degenerative conditions (35%) and other infections (9%) were the major etiologies of blindness. Similar pattern of anatomical causation was observed in those classified under categories of visual impairment 1 and 2, referred to as "low vision". The most important etiologies of low vision were trachoma (30%), degenerative (24%), trauma (13%) and other infections (8%). Trauma was the most important etiology of monocular blindness (39%). Blindness was either preventable or curable in 74% of the cases. PMID:7588655
The survival of Ethiopia as a religious and national unit is investigated through inquiry. Intended as a learning experience for students of African history, the paper provides information on Ethiopia's past, its present status, and on the choice the nation faces between modernity and tradition. A calendar of religious and political events in…
African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.
We apply the set up of limited commitment model to empirically test the role of informal risk-sharing networks using panel data on informal credit transactions from rural Ethiopia. The empirical estimates provide convincing evidence for the belief that enforcement problem limits the direct role of credit transactions in risk-sharing arrangements between rural households, whether the villages are ethnically homogenous or
Divisive debates on what constitutes the Ethiopian nation, how the state should be structured and how power should be devolved, have dominated Ethiopia's private press since the ruling party, the Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), came to power. The press has served as both a mirror reflecting these issues and a space for literate elites to engage in political
We apply the set up of limited commitment model to empirically test the role of informal risk-sharing networks using panel data on informal credit transactions from rural Ethiopia. The empirical estimates provide convincing evidence for the belief that enforcement problem limits the direct role of credit transactions in risk-sharing arrangements between rural households, whether the villages are ethnically homogenous or
|This report presents information to help teachers work with diverse students. The report includes: information regarding the countries and cultures of Haiti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia (for helping to establish rapport with diverse learners); characteristics of Haitians, Eritreans, and Ethiopians as contrasted with American students' characteristics…
Sadler, Charlotte; Hytowitz, Sarah Gail; Frutiger, Eliso
Coffea arabica originates from montane forests in South and Southwest Ethiopia, part of the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot region. Wild coffee refers to coffee that grows and regenerates spontaneously in these forests and that is genetically different from commercial cultivars. Wild coffee is collected as a non-timber forest product both from little disturbed forest as well as from more intensively
K. F. WIERSUM; T. W. GOLE; F. GATZWEILER; J. VOLKMANN; E. BOGNETTEAU; OLANI WIRTU
A collection of sepia photographs, taken during Great Britain's military expedition to Abyssinia in 1868, are the oldest landscape photographs from northern Ethiopia, and have been used to compare the status of vegetation and land management 140 years ago with that of contemporary times. Thirteen repeat landscape photographs, taken during the dry seasons of 1868 and 2008, were analyzed for various
Jan Nyssen; Mitiku Haile; Jozef Naudts; Neil Munro; Jean Poesen; Jan Moeyersons; Amaury Frankl; Jozef Deckers; Richard Pankhurst
Molecular typing of 964 specimens from patients in Ethiopia with lymph node or pulmonary tuberculosis showed a similar distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains between the 2 disease manifestations and a minimal role for M. bovis. We report a novel phylogenetic lineage of M. tuberculosis strongly associated with the Horn of Africa. PMID:23622814
This study measures the monetary value households place on preventing malaria in Tigray, Ethiopia. We estimate a household demand function for a hypothetical malaria vaccine and compute the value of preventing malaria as the household's maximum willingness to pay to provide vaccines for all family members. This is contrasted with the traditional costs of illness (medical costs and lost productivity).
Most previous studies conducted to examine food barley production constraints in Ethiopia were single factor experiments and unsuitable to determine the relative importance of various factors and interactions among these factors. To develop sustainable food systems in regions with limited resources, it is essential to understand the relative importance of alternative production inputs and their interactions. A replicated 2 factorial
This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…
Examines individual and household characteristics that affect the probability of a boy or girl attending and completing primary school in two regions of Ethiopia. Finds that school attendance was related to household wealth, parents' education, and child's nutritional status, while completion was affected more by economic constraints and, for…
This article extends concerns of our National Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators (NAECTE) membership beyond the borders of the United States to the continent of Africa. Specifically, it explores the current status of early childhood teacher education in one of the poorest nations of the world--Ethiopia. It includes an analysis of…
The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using…
The article analyses the different income portfolios of households using survey data from rural Ethiopia and rural Tanzania. It suggests that the different portfolios held by households cannot be explained by their behaviour towards risk as is usually suggested. It is better explained by differences in ability, location, and in access to credit. A logit analysis of households with different
The ecology of Colobus guereza in Ethiopia is described. Data on group size from a number of localities are given, and groups are typically found to be one-male groups of 5-8 animals. The dynamics of one population are discussed with particular reference to birth and death rates and immigration and emigration. Daily activity patterns and use of home ranges are
Child stunting in Ethiopia has persisted at alarming rates, despite enormous amounts of food aid, often procured in response to shocks. Using nationally representative data, the study finds that while harvest failure leads to child growth faltering, food aid affected child growth positively and offset the negative effects of shocks in communities that received food aid. However, many communities that
Takashi Yamano; Harold Alderman; Luc Christiaensen
We use a large data set from Ethiopia that differentiates tenure security and transferability to explore determinants of different types of land-related investment and its possible impact on productivity. While we find some support for endogeneity of investment in trees, this is not the case for terraces. Transfer rights are unambiguously investment-enhancing. The large productivity effect of terracing implies that,
|Ethiopia is a large country in the Horn of Africa. It has a diverse population of eighty million people who speak over thirty distinct languages. Approximately 80% of the population live in rural areas and rely on subsistence agriculture. Despite economic growth and an abundance of natural resources, it is a country with a per-capita income of…
This article addresses current crises of governance in Ethiopia. Internal conflicts within the ruling coalition arise from its origins in a localised insurgency and its flawed capacity to create a broader political base. In the national context, particularly in the major towns, it rules only by effective force and not through dialogue or negotiation. A policy of ethnic federalism promised
Participatory rural appraisal (PRA), supported by checklists and intensive case studies on individual households, was carried out in three villages at three different altitudes in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The chicken production system in each village is described and the problems are discussed. More than 60% of the families kept chickens, and in most cases the women owned and
In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then
An increasing scarcity of water for crop farming and livestock watering among agropastoralists of Mieso in Eastern Ethiopia has largely disrupted their livelihoods. Indigenous water well maintenance and government initiated rainwater harvesting are two important collective actions common among these communities. With the aim of examining collective action institutions in both cases, we collected data from different stakeholders and individual
A census and an ecologic survey were performed in 39 villages of a rural district of Arsi Region, Ethiopia, in difficult field circumstances. Information on age, ethnic group, education and family relationship, as well as data on health facilities and availability of basic serivices were collected. Supervised students, working in teams, were used as interviewers. Communities were involved through plenary
E. Materia; W. Mehari; A. Mele; F. Rosmini; M. A. Stazi; H. M. Damen; T. Kifle; G. Basile; G. Miuccio; L. Ferrigno; J. Osborn; A. Miozzo; P. Pasquini
Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic…
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Summary This research program aims to contribute to ongoing reforms in food aid and food security policies through studying the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) and surrounding food security policies in Ethiopia. Since 1984, annually more than 5 million people have received food aid in this country, creating a situation of chronic food insecurity. The new Food Security Policy has
Background: Laboratory service facility in health institutions in Ethiopia of is very weak and limited. This can be explained by lack of properly designed laboratory rooms, shortage of equipment and supplies, poor maintenance system and lack of close follow-up and supervision. Objective: To assess the laboratory service at a Hospital and Regional levels, and to come up with some recommendations
Background: Obstructed labour is a common cause of maternal and pernatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. There are few data from Ethiopia, although the problem is believed to be common. Objective: To describe the frequency, causes, complications and treatment outcome of mothers with obstructed labour. Methods: a retrospective (April 1, 1993 - March 30, 2001) review of delivery registration
Irrigation stimulates agricultural productivity and economic growth, but this may come at the cost of growing inequality. Using data at community and household level, this paper analyzes the distributional impacts of irrigation in Ethiopia. Regression analyses reveal the direct effects of irrigation on expenditures and labour demand, and the indirect effects of irrigation on food prices and expenditures of non-irrigation
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in the Horn of Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected where TB cases increase at the rate of 2.6% each year. One of the main contributing factors for this rise is increasing transmission due to large number of untreated patients, serving as reservoirs of the infection within the communities. Reduction
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is practiced in many areas of the world, including the Middle East, Africa and Australia. Although it is most common in Muslim populations it is not a dictate of Islam. In the 1980s this practice was reported among Bedouin tribes, originally nomadic, in the southern area of Israel. Almost all of the women interviewed in the first study intended to continue the practice by performing FGM on their daughters including educated women who were teachers, dental assistants or university students. A second study was therefore done based in the obstetrical clinic where only women from tribes reporting to undergo FGM were examined for signs of FGM by an experienced gynecologist, in the presence of an Arabic-speaking female nurse and translator, as part of a gynecologic examination that was indicated for other reasons. In no cases was clitoridectomy or any damage to the labia found. All women had a small scar from a 1cm. incision somewhere on the labia or prepuce of the clitoris. this study concluded that the importance of the ritual in this population was unrelated to its severity. the ritual had apparently become over time a small symbolic scar, even though this population continued to believe in its importance. By contrast, a group of Ethiopian Jews who had immigrated to Israel was interviewed by an Amharic translator, and examined during routine gynecological examination in the same manner as the Bedouin group above. In Ethiopia, FGM is universal among Christian, Muslim and Jewish groups. All women interviewed reported that FGM was universal in Ethiopia, but none intended to continue this practice with their daughters. All stated that this was a practice that would be left behind in their country of origin. on physical examination many of the women had amputation of the clitoris. the conclusion of this study was that the severity of the operation performed had no relation to the social and cultural adherence to the operation, since the Ethiopian Jews who practiced a more severe form of the operation intended to abandon this practice while the Muslim Bedouin who had a much milder form intended to continue it. A follow-up study in 2009 of the Bedouin population of southern Israel has found that FGM had disappeared, both by self-report of women under the age of 30, and by physical examination of women under the age of 30 in an obstetrical clinic. these results suggest an optimistic approach toward cultural change involving unhealthy cultural practices and emphasize the importance of cognitive approaches to cultural change. PMID:23314088
The situation of children in Ethiopia deserves particular attention from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Of its 70 million people, approximately half are children and adolescents. Poverty puts many of Ethiopia's children at high ris...
A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2010 up to April 2011 to estimate mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors and to assess its bacterial causes in traditionally managed camels in Borana Zone, SouthernEthiopia. Thus, 348 lactating camels were examined clinically, and subclinical cases were checked with California mastitis test (CMT). The overall prevalence of mastitis was 44.8 % (156/348), comprising clinical (19, 5.4 %) and subclinical (137, 39.4 %) cases. The quarter level prevalence of mastitis was 24.0 % (334/1,392). Of the total 1,392 examined teats, 30 were blind, and hence, from the 1,362 non-blind CMT-examined teats, 22.3 % (304/1,362) were CMT positive. Of the 304 CMT-positive samples, 264 were culture positive (197 Gram-positive, 41 Gram-negative, and 26 mixed isolates), and 40 were culture negative. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the highest at both the animal (12.8 %, 39/304) and quarter level (2.9 %, 39/1,362). Regression analysis revealed higher likelihood of mastitis occurrence among camels from Dharito (OR?=?3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI)?=?1.8, 6.4), Gagna (OR?=?3.4, 95 % CI?=?1.8, 6.5), and Haro Bake (OR?=?2.6, 95 % CI?=?1.3, 5.1) than camels from Surupha. Likewise, there was higher chance of mastitis occurrence among camels at the early lactation stage (OR?=?2.3, 95 % CI?=?1.1, 4.6) and camels with udder/teat lesions (OR?=?13.7, 95 % CI?=?1.7, 109.4) than among camels at late lactation stage and camels with healthy udder/teats, respectively. In conclusion, this study reveals the current status of camel mastitis in SouthernEthiopia. PMID:23563738
We investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and hepatitis E virus (HEV) in swine liver. We collected swine livers from 110 pigs at an abattoir from September 2011 to March 2012 [corrected] . Pathogens were detected in the liver samples of 19 (17.3%) pigs. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from the liver samples of 14 (12.7%) pigs. In 10 of the 14 Campylobacter-positive pigs, bacteria were present in the internal regions of the liver. Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were detected in the liver samples of 5 (4.5%) pigs and 1 (1%) pig, respectively. No HEV was detected in the swine liver samples tested. Regarding antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter and Salmonella isolates, all isolates, except 1 Campylobacter jejuni isolate, were resistant to 1 or more antimicrobial agent. Campylobacter spp. resistant to erythromycin and/or enrofloxacin were isolated from the liver samples of 9 (8%) pigs. These results suggest that the consuming swine liver without proper heat treatment may increase the risk of foodborne illnesses. PMID:23514917
A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used for the treatment of abattoir wastewater to produce effluent with desirable nitrogen and phosphorus levels for irrigation. The SBR cycle consisted of an anaerobic phase with wastewater feeding, a relatively short aerobic period (allowing full ammonium oxidation), a second anoxic period with feeding, followed by settling and decanting. This design of operation allowed biological nitrification and denitrification via nitrite, and therefore with reduced demand for aeration and COD for nitrogen removal. The design also allowed ammonium, rather than oxidized nitrogen, being the primary nitrogen species in the effluent. Biological phosphorus removal was also achieved, with an effluent level desirable for irrigation. A high-level of nitrite accumulation (40 mg N/L) in the reactor caused inhibition to the biological P uptake. This problem was solved through process optimization. The cycle time of the SBR was reduced, with the wastewater load per cycle also reduced, while the daily hydraulic loading maintained. This modification proved to be an effective method to ensure reliable N and P removal. N(2)O accumulation was measured in two experiments simulating the anoxic phase of the SBR and using nitrite and nitrate respectively as electron donors. The estimated N(2)O emissions for both experiments were very low. PMID:20389009
Ascaris suum is the most important internal parasite in farmed pigs world-wide. In England, the BPEX Pig Health Scheme (BPHS) monitors the prevalence of ascariosis in slaughtered finished pigs by identifying milk spots - the healing lesions caused by A. suum larvae migration through the liver. This study investigates the trend of milk spot lesions from July 2005 to December 2010 to identify the progress made by the industry in controlling this parasitic disease. For visual explorations, the monthly prevalence for milk spots was modelled using "STL", a seasonal-trend decomposition method based on locally weighted regression. Random effects binomial modelling accounting for clustering at batch level was used to test the significance of the trend and seasonality. Additionally, the differences in the milk spot prevalence trends for BPHS members (those that joined the scheme) and non-members were investigated and tested. A mean of 12,442 pigs was assessed per month (in 290 batches) across 12 pig abattoirs over the study period, from which a monthly mean of 7102 pigs (159 batches) came from BPHS members. A mild overall decrease in prevalence of milk spots over the monitored period was identified as well as a seasonal variation which showed peaks in summer and at the beginning of autumn. BPHS members maintained a lower prevalence than non-members. The results from this work illustrate ascariosis as a persistent problem in current farm production. PMID:21889266
Sanchez-Vazquez, Manuel J; Nielen, Mirjam; Gunn, George J; Lewis, Fraser I
This paper reports on the plant use of laypeople of the Oromo in SouthernEthiopia. The Oromo in Bale had names/uses for 294 species in comparison to 230 species documented in the lower reaches of the Bale area. Only 13 species was used for veterinary purposes, or as human medicine (46). Plant medicine served mostly to treat common everyday ailments such as stomach problems and diarrhea, for wound treatment and as toothbrush-sticks, as anthelmintic, for skin infections and to treat sore muscles and. Interestingly, 9 species were used to treat spiritual ailments and to expel demons. In most cases of medicinal applications the leaves or roots were employed. Traditional plant knowledge has clearly declined in a large part of the research area. Western style health care services as provided by governments and NGOs, in particular in rural areas, seem to have contributed to a decline in traditional knowledge, in part because the local population simply regards western medicine as more effective and safer.
The provenance and age of two Homo sapiens fossils (Omo I and Omo II) from the Kibish Formation in southernEthiopia have been much debated. Here we confirm that Omo I and the somewhat more primitive-looking Omo II calvariae are from similar stratigraphic levels in Member I of the Kibish Formation. Based on (40)Ar/(39)Ar age measurements on alkali feldspar crystals from pumice clasts in the Nakaa'kire Tuff, a tuffaceous bed in Member I just below the hominin levels, we place an older limit of 198+/-14 ka (weighted mean age=196+/-2 ka) for the hominins. A younger limit of 104+/-7 ka (weighted mean age=104+/-1 ka) is provided by feldspars separated from pumice clasts in the Aliyo Tuff in Member III. Geological evidence indicates rapid deposition of each member of the Kibish Formation, concurrent with deposition of sapropels in the Mediterranean Sea. The (40)Ar/(39)Ar age measurements, together with correlations with sapropels, indicate that the hominin fossils are close in age to the older limit. Our preferred estimate of the age of the hominins is 195+/-5 ka, making them the earliest well-dated anatomically modern humans yet described. PMID:18602675
Provenance analysis is an essential discipline for describing the generation and dispersal of sediments and yields a fundamental understanding of hydrological and sedimentological processes. Chew Bahir basin is a hardly accessible terrain in southernEthiopia, which is barely investigated by sedimentological studies until today. In this work, those studies were conducted via remotely sensed digital image analysis (ASTER, Landsat ETM+, Worldview-1 and SRTM) combined with a climatological approach through precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Besides remote sensing, sedimentological investigations were achieved from a highly resolved paleo-climate record through a short drill-core from Chew Bahir basin. In order to identify and localize potential source areas and to describe the dispersal of sediments, different processing methodologies were applied (achievement of sediment composition, land-surface classification, digital terrain analysis and generation of remote sensing time series). The result of this work demonstrates two different source rocks, which belong to two distinct source localities. Hence, the analysis of remote sensed digital imaginary provides an effective tool for studying the provenance of sediments, especially in remote regions such as Chew Bahir basin. Moreover, remotely sensed time series provide important insights into climatologically induced variations in the uppermost sediment-layer. However, fully automated analysis of remotely sensed imaginary cannot replace fieldwork, but provides outstanding contributions to interdisciplinarity.
This paper examines the domestic political economy of so-called ‘land-grabbing’ in Ethiopia, assessing the motivations of the Ethiopian government, which has strongly promoted foreign agricultural investment. The paper draws on a unique set of federal and regional databases detailing foreign and domestic investments in Ethiopia to analyse the likely role investment will play in the Ethiopian economy and the areas
This paper examines the role of the judiciary in Ethiopia. Implicit in the notion of separation of powers is the fact that the judiciary has a crucial role in resolving disputes impartially, ensuring the rule of law and in setting limits to power. Yet in Ethiopia the legislature has sought to take away power from the courts, placing them in
|Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led…
Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They
Sediment deposition in reservoirs is a serious off-site consequence of soil erosion in Tigray (Northern Ethiopia). So far insufficient and less reliable sediment yield data have been collected for Northern Ethiopia. Nor are there any adaptable methodologies for sediment yield assessment in the country as a whole, which could be used when designing new reservoirs. This study addresses those problems
Nigussie Haregeweyn; Jean Poesen; Jan Nyssen; Gert Verstraeten; Joris de Vente; Gerard Govers; Seppe Deckers; Jan Moeyersons
Describes the historical development of libraries in Ethiopia. Examines the National Library of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa University Libraries, the Institute of Ethiopian Studies Library, and the Ethiopian Science and Technology Documentation and Information Center. Discusses the development of special libraries, libraries and documentation centers of…
This study, with the objective of assessing the effect of risk factors on dairy cow mastitis in the central highlands of Ethiopia, was undertaken between February and September 2001 in the urban and peri-urban areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A prevalence study and questionnaire survey were carried out simultaneously. Clinical examination of lactating udders and California mastitis test (CMT) determined
E. O. Mungube; B.-A. Tenhagen; T. Kassa; F. Regassa; M. N. Kyule; M. Greiner; M. P. O. Baumann
This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia…
...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State...requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination...
...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...
The purpose of this study is to explain the formulation, implementation, and outcome of Ethiopia's instructional language policy in light of the PRINCE system of power analysis as adapted by Fowler (2004), along with several literature references pertinent to the issue. After providing a brief background on Ethiopia and its education and language…
Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led…
Ethiopia has experienced high food prices, especially since 2005. This paper examines the welfare impacts of rising food prices in rural Ethiopia using Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) approach controlled for expenditure endogeniety and zero consumption expenditure. The elasticity coefficients from QUAIDS are used to estimate Compensated Variations (CV), which explicitly accounts for profit function and substitution effects. The
Nigussie Tefera Uregia; Mulat Demeke Desta; Shahidur Rashid
Ethiopia has experienced high food prices since early 2004. This paper examines the welfare impacts of rising food prices in rural Ethiopia using Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) approach controlled for expenditure endogeniety and zero consumption expenditure. The elasticity coefficients from QUAIDS are used to estimate Compensated Variations (CV), which explicitly accounts for profit function and substitution effects. The
Nigussie Tefera Uregia; Mulat Demeke Desta; Shahidur Rashid
Unusually for an African country, Ethiopia was only briefly colonised. As such, this multi-ethnic yet predominantly ancient Christian country, for hundreds of years ruled by an Imperial Dynasty, preserved a unique cultural identity underpinned by a powerful social memory. The ‘story of Ethiopia’ (which in the present article is given the label ‘heritage meta-narrative’) was carefully nurtured over hundreds of
This study describes novelist-turned-war correspondent Evelyn Waugh's criticisms of war correspondents' practices on the eve of Italy's invasion of Ethiopia in 1935. Few critics during Waugh's time treated Waugh's writings about Ethiopia as formal journalism criticism, elaborating specific criticisms. This problem persists because most contemporary Waugh scholars have literary backgrounds and little interest in journalism. The present study focuses on
Africa is widely held to be highly vulnerable to future climate change and Ethiopia is often cited as one of the most extreme examples. With this in mind we seek to identify entry points to integrate short- to medium-term climate risk reduction within development activities in Africa, drawing from experiences in Ethiopia. To achieve this we employ a range of
This article argues the case for introducing new energy policies in Ethiopia that will ensure energy initiatives for rural development meet the desired expectations. A review of the rural energy sector in Ethiopia is presented. Rural communities have for centuries relied solely on traditional biomass energy sources, human and animal power. In addition, sample findings show that the basic stock
This article focuses on Ethiopia's first civil society organisation, the Ethiopian Women Lawyers Association (EWLA), which has been campaigning for legal reform to secure women's rights and address violence against women. Implementing legal changes to benefit women in Ethiopia is impeded by difficulties in using the formal legal system, by poverty and deeply embedded gender inequalities, by plural legal systems,
This article focuses on Ethiopia's first civil society organisation, the Ethiopian Women Lawyers Association (EWLA), which has been campaigning for legal reform to secure women's rights and address violence against women. Implementing legal changes to benefit women in Ethiopia is impeded by difficulties in using the formal legal system, by poverty and deeply embedded gender inequalities, by plural legal systems,
This article discusses the successful value-added chain within India's leather industry, and then draws contrasts with the evolution of the leather products industries of Kenya and Ethiopia. Much of India's success derives from the ability of its stakeholders—from government to industry—to set their own policies and priorities regarding the development of the leather industry. The fact that India selectively liberalized
We apply the set-up of limited commitment model to empirically test the role of informal risk-sharing networks using panel data on informal credit transactions from rural Ethiopia. The empirical estimates provide convincing evidence for the belief that enforcement problem limits the direct role of credit transactions in risk-sharing arrangements between rural households, whether the villages are ethnically homogeneous or not.
The results of petrological and volcanological investigations of the Assab area (Ethiopia) are reported. Fissure activity\\u000a — which produced basaltic lava flows and several spatter cones — and central activity — represented by a cumulus dome and\\u000a two explosive craters — have been recognized.\\u000a \\u000a The area is characterized by E-W and NE-SW tectonic trends, whereas the NNW-SSE Eritrean trend is
A study was carried out to estimate the prevalence, larval burden and risk factors of ovine and caprine oestrosis from December\\u000a 2007 to May 2008 on 554 heads of randomly selected sheep and goat slaughtered at Ambo town, Western Shoa, Ethiopia. The results\\u000a show an overall prevalence of 59.9% with infection rate of 69.8% and 47.3% in sheep and goats
Erta Ale volcano lies along the on-shore Red Sea Rift (northern Afar, Ethiopia), separating the Nubia and Danakil plates. Erta Ale has a NNW–SSE elongated caldera, with a subvertical rim scarp, hosting a lava lake. Structural field work was aimed at defining the deformation pattern around the caldera. The caldera consists of along-rim and across-rim structures, resulting from local and
This article presents an assessment of the groundwater resources in the Geba basin, Ethiopia. Hydrogeological characteristics\\u000a are derived from a combination of GIS and field survey data. MODFLOW groundwater model in a PMWIN environment is used to simulate\\u000a the movement and distribution of groundwater in the basin. Despite the limited data available, by simplifying the model as\\u000a a single layered
Kibrewossen Tesfagiorgis; Tesfamichael Gebreyohannes; Florimond De Smedt; Jan Moeyersons; Miruts Hagos; Jan Nyssen; Jozef Deckers
In the farming community of the sub-district of Meskan and Mareko in central Ethiopia, where the prevalence of epilepsy is knoen to be 5.2\\/1000, a door-to-door survey was undertaken in 1546 sampled households to find out public attitudes to epilepsy. Nearly 64% of the respondents were in the age group of 14-50 years, and 58.6% were women. The majority *86%)
Redda Tekle-Haimanot; Mekonnen Abebe; Lars Forsgren; Ayele Gebre-Mariam; Jan Heijbel; Gösta Holmgren; Jan Ekstedt
The African Studies Center site at the University of Pennsylvania has posted this 1997 report on the political and social condition of Ethiopia. It is an announcement released by Human Rights Watch (HRW)/Africa in December 1997, which criticizes "the failure of the Ethiopian government to live up to its professed commitment to human rights, and calling on the US in particular to put pressure for the government to live up to its human rights obligations."
It has been suggested that volcanism in the Ethiopian region of the Afro-Arabian Rift System has migrated with time, both laterally towards the present axial zone1-3 and longitudinally southwards from the Red Sea4,5. Field data and K-Ar isotopic ages from southwestern Ethiopia, summarised below, indicate that volcanism in this area began earlier than previously suspected, and that Quaternary volcanism was
This paper uses a unique panel data set from Ethiopia to examine the determinants of participation in and receipts of food aid through free distribution (FD) and food-for-work (FFW). Results show that aggregate rainfall and livestock shocks increase household participation in both FD and FFW. FFW also seems well targeted to asset-poor households. The probability of receiving FD does not
Abstract Ethiopia has embarked,upon what it claims to be a novel experiment,in 'ethnic federalism'. The ruling Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front has as- serted that it is intent on forthrightly addressing the claims of ethnic groups in the country of historic discrimination and inequality, and to build a multi-ethnic democracy. The essay critically assesses this effort, concentrating on the emerging
Objectives: A possible decline in prevalence of HIV in some sub-Saharan African countries has been reported recently. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of HIV and behavioural data to investigate trends in HIV\\/AIDS in Ethiopia.Methods: A review was conducted of published reports and literature, raw and modelled (using Epidemic Projection Package and Spectrum software) surveillance data
W Hladik; I Shabbir; A Jelaludin; A Woldu; M Tsehaynesh; W Tadesse
Introduction Ethiopia is a country of 81 million people, half of whom are children. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children ranges from 3.5–23.2%. However, there are very limited mental health resources in the country, including few psychiatrists. Thus the training of more psychiatrists, including providing them with expertise in child psychiatry, is an imperative. Method The article briefly reviews the development of the Toronto Addis Ababa Psychiatry Project (TAAPP), a collaborative program between the University of Toronto and Addis Ababa University designed to help train psychiatry residents in Ethiopia. The article then focuses on the author’s experiences on one recent trip to Ethiopia to provide some of this training. Results Formal teaching sessions as well as clinical supervision were provided to the Ethiopian residents. Content had to be adapted to be relevant to the Ethiopian context, but teaching approaches did not have to be modified significantly. The Ethiopian residents were very enthusiastic learners and made quick changes to their practices based on the teaching. Conclusion Collaborative programs such as TAAPP may be important mechanisms to improve the training of psychiatrists internationally, especially when there are limited local educational resources.
Ten year official condemnation records of one officially inspected poultry abattoir in state of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed. Seasonal and cyclical trends were analyzed in relation to traumatic lesions and airsacculitis, which were the most relevant official condemnation causes. Time series analysis of the records, seasonal indexes and moving averages was used to describe the adherence to the mathematical model and to offer preventive management strategies for the slaughterhouse industry. Although cause-effect relationships were not defined, some insight was given into the causal mechanisms that generated the series. PMID:20233633
Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support, resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This unit describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, and subsequent immobilization by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in the second alternate protocol is therefore more rapid and can result in more complete transfer. PMID:18432697
Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in the second alternate protocol is therefore more rapid than the basic protocol and can result in more complete transfer. Although the ease and reliability of capillary transfer methods makes this far and away the most popular system for Southern blotting with agarose gels, it unfortunately does not work with polyacrylamide gels, whose smaller pore size impedes the transverse movement of the DNA molecules. The third alternate protocol describes an electroblotting procedure that is currently the most reliable method for transfer of DNA from a polyacrylamide gel. Dot and slot blotting are also described. PMID:18429082
Exploring the American South is a splendid idea, and this online journal is a great way to think about the "real and imagined places" of this unique cultural region. Southern Spaces is a peer-reviewed Internet journal and forum that "provides open access to essays, interviews and performances, events and conferences, gateways, timescapes, and annotated links about real and imagined spaces and places of the U.S. South." Their work is supported by the Robert W. Woodruff Library of Emory University, and visitors will want to browse around the site more than once. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking at interactive features like "Negotiating Gender Lines: Women's Movement across Atlanta Mosques" and "The Other Side of Paradise: Glimpsing Slavery in the University's Utopian Landscapes". The site also includes information about the journal's editorial board and a set of thematically organized weblinks.
Encounters between foreign tourists and people of different cultural background become very common in a globalized world. The nature of this exchange in cultural terms relates questions of identity construction and the emergence or creation of difference. This article addresses tourist-'native' encounters in a semiotic perspective, which helps to reveal its essentially contested aspects. The empirical study relates to the
Background Longer intervals between consecutive births decrease the number of children a woman can have. This results in beneficial effects\\u000a on population size and on the health status of mothers and children. Therefore, understanding the practice of birth interval\\u000a and its determinants is helpful to design evidence based strategies for interventions. The objective of this study was to\\u000a determine duration and
Samuel Yohannes; Mekitie Wondafrash; Mulumebet Abera; Eshetu Girma
Polydeformed and metamorphosed Neoproterozoic rocks of the East African Orogen in the Negele area constituted three lithostructurally distinct and thrust-bounded terranes. These are, from west to east, the Kenticha, Alghe and Bulbul terranes. The Kenticha and Bulbul terranes are metavolcano-sedimentary and ultramafic sequences, representing parts of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), which are welded to the central Alghe gneissic terrane of
Browse is an important forage in pastoral systems, especially during dry seasons, because it is high in nitrogen and digestibility. However, browse palatability may be reduced by possible plant defenses such as tannins and physical attributes. Chemical and physical properties of 20 browse species were correlated with the feeding preference of camels, sheep and goats during wet and dry seasons
Studies indicate that girls and women encounter sexual violence in their day-to-day social life in all cultures and societies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual violence against female students in Wolaita Sodo University; 374 female students provided responses to self-administered questionnaire. The study revealed 23.4% (95% CI = 18.7-27.3) attempted rape, 8.7% (95% CI = 3.6-12.9) completed rape, 24.2% (95% CI = 17.7-26.1) committed physical harassment, 18.7% (95% CI = 12.8-20.3) committed verbal harassment, and 11.3% (95% CI = 6.6-12.6) forced sexual initiation. Reported level of these perpetrations was experienced mainly at high school and during enrollment year in the university. Boyfriends, close friends, family members and relatives, school and university teachers, other employees, and strangers were found to be the key perpetrators of sexual violence against women. Interventions are required to create a safe learning environment for female students through prevention and rehabilitation programs. PMID:23400881
After decades of fieldwork spurred by the search for human ancestors, paleontologists in East Africa are compiling networks\\u000a of databases to address questions of long-term evolutionary, environmental, and ecological change. Paleontological databases\\u000a from the Turkana Basin of Kenya and Ethiopia (East Turkana, West Turkana, Kanapoi, Lothagam, and Omo) and the Hadar Basin\\u000a of Ethiopia’s Afar region consist of nearly 70,000
René Bobe; Anna K. Behrensmeyer; G. G. Eck; J. M. Harris
Hematologic and rectal temperature values were determined on 30 clinically normal juvenile grivet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops matschiei) in highland Ethiopia. Determinations included total white blood cell count, differential white cell classification...
This Intelligence Community Assessment (ICA) highlights the rising HIV/AIDS problem through 2010 in five countries of strategic importance to the United States that have large populations at risk for HIV infection: Nigeria, Ethiopia, Russia, India, and Ch...
Both Senegal and Ethiopia have recently undertaken changes in the political and financial administration of government services, decentralizing decisionmaking power to local levels. In Senegal, decentralization of health service planning and implementatio...
The bibliography of research in Ethiopia includes soils, fertilizers, plant nutrition and general agronomy. It is intended for use by researchers, national research and development agencies, planners and administrators. The bulk of the work included in th...
Thirty-eight arbovirus strains were recovered from mosquitoes collected in Gambela, Ethiopia, in 1970. Thirty-two of the isolates were Tataguine virus, and 6 represented Arumowot, Pongola, and Olifantsvlei viruses. (Author)
W. K. Ota H. M. S. Watkins P. Neri M. L. Schmidt J. R. Schmidt
A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to identify the risk factors associated with childhood anaemia in Ethiopia. The overall mean (SD/standard deviation) haemoglobin (Hgb) level among the under-five children was 10.7 (2.2) g/dl and 50.3% were anaemic. Childhood anaemia demonstrated an increasing trend with maternal anaemia levels of mild, moderate and severe anaemia: odds ratio of 1.82, 2.16 and 3.73 respectively (p< 0.01). Children whose mothers had no formal education were 1.38 times more likely to be anaemic (p<0.01). The poorest and poorer wealth index groups had 1.52 and 1.25 increased odds of childhood anaemia respectively (p< 0.01). Childhood anaemia in Ethiopia is a severe public health problem. Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with anaemia in children. A holistic approach of addressing mothers and children is of paramount importance. PMID:24069773
Habte, Dereje; Asrat, Kalid; Magafu, Mgaywa G M D; Ali, Ibrahim M; Benti, Tadele; Abtew, Wubeshet; Tegegne, Girma; Abera, Dereje; Shiferaw, Solomon
A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the presence and prevalence of salmonellae in retail raw chicken meat and giblets (gizzard and liver) in supermarkets in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). A total of 301 samples (244 chicken meat, 32 gizzards and 25 livers) were collected from 22 randomly selected supermarkets and examined for the presence of Salmonella. For the isolation and identification of salmonellae, the technique recommended by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 6579, 1998) was used. Salmonellae were detected from 54 (17.9%) of the 301 samples examined. Chicken meat and giblet samples in 68.2% (15/22) of the supermarkets were contaminated with salmonellae. The contamination level of Salmonella was higher in chicken giblets as compared to chicken meat, which were respectively 12.3%, 53.1% and 28.0% in chicken meat, gizzard and liver samples. Out of the 54 Salmonella isolates, nine different serotypes were identified: Salmonella Braenderup (31.5%), S. Anatum (25.9%), S. Saintpaul (14.8%), S. Uganda (11.1%), S. Haifa, S. Group B, S. Rough form and S. Typhimurium (each 3.7%) and S. Virchow (1.8%). The high level of Salmonella contamination of chicken meat and giblets observed in the present study indicated the need in an improvement in the microbiological quality of retail chicken in Ethiopia. PMID:12592931
Tibaijuka, Boniphace; Molla, Bayleyegn; Hildebrandt, Goetz; Kleer, Josef
Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria among working East African adults. Design. This cross-sectional study of 1,935 individuals (1,171 men and 764 women) was conducted among working adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in accordance with the STEPwise approach of the World Health Organization. Results. According to ATP III and IDF definitions, the overall prevalence of MetS was 12.5% and 17.9%, respectively. Using ATP III criteria, the prevalence of MetS was 10.0% in men and 16.2% in women. Application of the IDF criteria resulted in a MetS prevalence of 14.0% in men and 24.0% in women. The most common MetS components among women were reduced high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (23.2%) and abdominal obesity (19.6%); whilst reduced HDL-C concentrations (23.4%) and high blood pressure (21.8%) were most common among men. Conclusion. MetS and its individual components are prevalent among an apparently healthy working population in Ethiopia. These findings indicate the need for evidence-based health promotion and disease prevention programs; and more robust efforts directed towards the screening, diagnosis and management of MetS and its components among Ethiopian adults.
Tran, A.; Gelaye, B.; Girma, B.; Lemma, S.; Berhane, Y.; Bekele, T.; Khali, A.; Williams, M. A.
Historically, members of the Anopheles gambiae complex from Ethiopia have been identified chromosomally as either A. arabiensis or A. quadriannulatus. Recent collections from the Jimma area in Ethiopia, southwest of Addis Ababa, revealed 29 specimens of A. quadriannulatus based on the standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification method. 'Wild' females were induced to lay eggs and the progeny reared as individual families. Resulting adults were cross-mated to a laboratory colony strain of A. quadriannulatus originating from the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Hybrid progeny were obtained only from the colony female x Ethiopian male cross. This cross produced a female/male sex ratio of 0.48. Male offspring were sterile and ovarian polytene chromosomes from hybrid females showed typical asynapsis as expected in interspecific crosses within the A. gambiae complex. The X chromosomes, although apparently having homosequential banding patterns, were usually totally asynapsed. All autosomes were homosequential. The lack of inversion heterozygotes, in both the wild and hybrid samples, may simply be a reflection of the small sample size. Until such time as the Ethiopian species can be formally described and assigned a scientific name, it is provisionally designated Anopheles quadriannulatus species B because of its close similarity to this species. PMID:9764342
Aims: To determine the characteristics of trichiasis patients presenting for surgery in Wolayta Zone of Ethiopia. Methods: Patients referred for trichiasis surgery by community health agents were evaluated by trained integrated eye care workers (IECWs) for the presence of trichiasis, locations of inturned lashes, severity of trichiasis, corneal opacity, and visual acuity. Results: 1635 individuals with trichiasis presented for surgery. 82% had bilateral trichiasis; 91% of patients reported trichiasis duration of >2 years. Epilation was practised by over three fourths of the study subjects. A high proportion of patients tested positive for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis at presentation. 17% had monocular blindness and 8% were binocularly blind. Corneal opacity was highly associated with the trichiasis duration and severity and visual loss was associated with corneal opacity. Conclusion: Severe trichiasis reflects the magnitude of the trachoma problem in Ethiopia. Visual impairment due to trichiasis is highly associated with disease severity and duration. Early intervention to correct trichiasis before it become severe is recommended to prevent visual impairment.
Melese, M; West, E S; Alemayehu, W; Munoz, B; Worku, A; Gaydos, C A; West, S K
The study explored factors influencing attitudes towards the practice of female genital cutting (FGC) among women in Oromia region, Ethiopia. Representative data from 2221 women aged 15–49years from the Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey in 2005 were evaluated. Overall, 88.4% of women had undergone FGC. Prevalence significantly decreased with birth date, ranging from 95.1% in women aged 45–49years to 75.8%
Background In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant\\u000a causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths\\u000a and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and\\u000a associated risk factors
Knowledge and information on farmers' perception and its influence on adoption of modern wheat varieties, awareness and source of new wheat production technology, wheat seed sources, and on-farm seed-management practices remain sporadic in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to understand the functioning of the wheat seed system in four major wheat-growing areas of Ethiopia. A total of 304 wheat growers
This paper reports the results of a survey of 400 respondents in Ethiopia about factors generating corruption and the potential\\u000a of e-Governance to mitigate corruption. It is suggested that e-Governance can help not only in weeding out corruption but\\u000a also in the establishment of sounder government citizen relationships in Ethiopia. While e-Governance cannot cure all the\\u000a structural factors that breed
R. D. Pathak; Gurmeet Singh; Rakesh Belwal; R. F. I. Smith
This study looked into tree-growing behavior of rural households in Ethiopia. With data collected at household and parcel levels from the four major regions of Ethiopia, we analyzed the decision to grow trees and the number of trees grown, using such econometric strategies as a zero-inflated negative binomial model, Heckman’s two-step procedure, and panel data techniques. Our findings show the
The Oldowan Stone tool industry was named for 1.8-million-year-old (Myr) artefacts found near the bottom of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Subsequent archaeological research in the Omo (Ethiopia) and Turkana (Kenya) also yielded stone tools dated to 2.3 Myr. Palaeoanthropological investigations in the Hadar region of the Awash Valley of Ethiopia1, revealed Oldowan assemblages in the adjacent Gona River drainage2. We conducted
S. Semaw; P. Renne; J. W. K. Harris; C. S. Feibel; R. L. Bernor; N. Fesseha; K. Mowbray
The aim of this paper is to examine how ethnicity af fects political parties in Africa in general and in Ethiopia in part icular. The paper attempts to investigate ethnic-based parties in Ethiopia in t hree successive administrations: the Imperial government (1930-1974), the Socialist Military government ( Derg) (1974-1991), and the EPRDF-led Federal government (1991-present). In this paper, case stud
We have utilized a dataset from the broadband seismic experiment of Nyblade and Langston (EOS v.83 p. 405, 2002) for a shear-wave splitting analysis in Ethiopia. A total of twenty-five broadband seismic stations, widely distributed in various physiographic regions in Ethiopia, were used. Six stations were installed on the southeastern plateau, twelve stations on the western plateau, and seven stations
E. Gashawbeza; K. Keranen; A. Nyblade; S. L. Klemperer; K. Walker
Poverty, hunger and demand for agricultural land have driven local communities to overexploit forest resources throughout\\u000a Ethiopia. Forests surrounding the township of Humbo were largely destroyed by the late 1960s. In 2004, World Vision Australia\\u000a and World Vision Ethiopia identified forestry-based carbon sequestration as a potential means to stimulate community development\\u000a while engaging in environmental restoration. After two years of
Douglas R. Brown; Paul Dettmann; Tony Rinaudo; Hailu Tefera; Assefa Tofu
BACKGROUND: Artemether\\/Lumefantrine (Coartem®) has been used as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection since 2004 in Ethiopia. In the present study the therapeutic efficacy of artemether\\/lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum infection at Kersa, Jima zone, South-west Ethiopia, has been assessed. METHODS: A 28 day therapeutic efficacy study was conducted between November 2007 and January 2008,
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, the existence of iron deficiency anemia is controversial despite the fact that Ethiopia is one of the least developed in Africa with a high burden of nutrient deficiencies. METHODS: The first large nutrition study of a representative sample of women in Ethiopia was conducted from June to July 2005 and a systematically selected sub-sample of 970 of
Portions of Ethiopia today are experiencing increasing temperatures and drought frequencies. The longest known hominid record is in Ethiopia's Awash Basin. Reconstructing past environments in Ethiopia may, therefore, contribute both to understanding present day and past consequences of climate change. Studies suggest that at least 7000 years of environmental reconstruction may be possible from isotopic analyses of organic matter in
V. J. Terwilliger; Z. Eshetu; A. S. Colman; M. Fogel
Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in the Horn of Africa with Ethiopia being the most affected where TB cases increase at the rate of 2.6% each year. One of the main contributing factors for this rise is increasing transmission due to large number of untreated patients, serving as reservoirs of the infection within the communities. Reduction of the time between onset of TB symptoms to diagnosis is therefore a prerequisite to bring the TB epidemic under control. The aim of this study was to measure duration of delay among pastoralist TB patients at TB management units in Somali Regional State (SRS) of Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study of 226 TB patients with pastoralist identity was conducted in SRS of Ethiopia from June to September 2007. Patients were interviewed using questionnaire based interview. Time between onset of TB symptoms and first visit to a professional health care provider (patient delay), and the time between first visits to the professional health care provider to the date of diagnosis (medical provider's delay) were analyzed. Both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB patients were included in the study. Result A total of 226 pastoralist TB patients were included in this study; 93 (41.2%) were nomadic pastoralists and 133 (58.8%) were agro-pastoralists. Median patient delay was found to be 60 days with range of 10–1800 days (83 days for nomadic pastoralists and 57 days for agro-pastoralists). Median health care provider's delay was 6 days and median total delay was 70 days in this study. Patient delay constituted 86% of the total delay. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, nomadic pastoralism (aOR. 2.69, CI 1.47–4.91) and having low biomedical knowledge on TB (aOR. 2.02, CI 1.02–3.98) were significantly associated with prolonged patient delay. However, the only observed risk factor for very long patient delay >120 days was distance to health facility (aOR.4.23, CI 1.32–13.54). Extra-pulmonary TB was the only observed predictor for health care providers' delay (aOR. 3.39, CI 1.68–6.83). Conclusion Patient delay observed among pastoralist TB patients in SRS is one of the highest reported so far from developing countries, exceeding two years in some patients. This long patient delay appears to be associated with patient's inadequate knowledge of the disease and distance to health care facility with nomadic pastoralists being the most affected. Regional TB control programmes need to consider the exceptional circumstances of pastoralists, to maximise their access to TB services.
Background Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) that is prevalent in red clay soil-covered highlands of tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northern India. It is estimated that up to one million cases exist in Ethiopia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones of Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha woredas (districts) in East and West Gojam Zones, respectively. The survey covered all 17,553 households in 20 kebeles (administrative subunits) randomly selected from the two woredas. A detailed structured interview was conducted on 1,704 cases of podoconiosis identified in the survey. Results The prevalence of podoconiosis in the population aged 15 years and above was found to be 3.3% (95% CI, 3.2% to 3.6%). 87% of cases were in the economically active age group (15–64 years). On average, patients sought treatment five years after the start of the leg swelling. Most subjects had second (42.7%) or third (36.1%) clinical stage disease, 97.9% had mossy lesions, and 53% had open wounds. On average, patients had five episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ALA) per year and spent a total of 90 days per year with ALA. The median age of first use of shoes and socks were 22 and 23 years, respectively. More men than women owned more than one pair of shoes (61.1% vs. 50.5%; ?2?=?11.6 p?=?0.001). At the time of interview, 23.6% of the respondents were barefoot, of whom about two-thirds were women. Conclusions This study showed high prevalence of podoconiosis and associated morbidities such as ALA, mossy lesions and open wounds in northern Ethiopia. Predominance of cases at early clinical stage of podoconiosis indicates the potential for reversing the swelling and calls for disease prevention interventions.
Data relating to 35,389 inseminations carried out in the first three years after inseminators were trained were collected by postal questionnaire from 94 do-it-yourself (DIY) artificial inseminators in the UK. The mean calving rate from 14,528 inseminations they carried out on 92 farms in the first year after they were trained was 59.4 per cent (range 5 to 92 per cent). In the second year the mean calving rate from 11,515 inseminations by 64 inseminators was 62.3 per cent (range 33 to 88 per cent), and in the third year the mean calving rate from 9346 inseminations by 49 inseminators was 64.6 per cent (range 41 to 92 per cent). There was an increase of 5.2 per cent in the mean calving rate over the three years with an overall mean calving rate of 61.5 per cent. Each trainee carried out an average of 376 inseminations (range 20 to 800) during the three years. Thirteen instructors were responsible for the tuition and the average time the trainees spent in an abattoir with access to live cows was 2.88 days, with a range from none to five days. For the trainees who spent up to three days training in an abattoir there was an increase of 5.9 per cent in the calving rate they achieved in their first year for every day they spent training with access to live cows (P < 0.005), but there were no significant effects on the outcome of their inseminations in their second or third years. PMID:10212504
Due to concerns about a link between variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and similar prion protein-induced disease in cattle, i.e., bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), strict controls are in place to exclude BSE-positive animals and/or specified risk materials including bovine central nervous system (CNS) tissue from the human food chain. However, current slaughter practice, using captive bolt guns, may induce disruption of brain tissues and mobilize CNS tissues into the bovine circulatory system, leading to the dispersion of CNS tissues (including prion proteins) throughout the derived carcass. This project used a marker (antibiotic-resistant) strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens to model the effects of commercial captive bolt stunning procedures on the movement of mobilized CNS material within slaughtered animals and the abattoir environment. The marker organism, introduced by injection through the bolt entry aperture or directly using a cartridge-fired captive bolt, was detected in the slaughter environment immediately after stunning and in the abattoir environment at each subsequent stage of the slaughter-dressing process. The marker organism was also detected on the hands of operatives; on slaughter equipment; and in samples of blood, organs, and musculature of inoculated animals. There were no significant differences between the results obtained by the two inoculation methods (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that material present in, or introduced into, the CNS of cattle during commercial captive bolt stunning may become widely dispersed across the many animate and inanimate elements of the slaughter-dressing environment and within derived carcasses including meat entering the human food chain.
Daly, D. J.; Prendergast, D. M.; Sheridan, J. J.; Blair, I. S.; McDowell, D. A.
Due to concerns about a link between variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and similar prion protein-induced disease in cattle, i.e., bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), strict controls are in place to exclude BSE-positive animals and/or specified risk materials including bovine central nervous system (CNS) tissue from the human food chain. However, current slaughter practice, using captive bolt guns, may induce disruption of brain tissues and mobilize CNS tissues into the bovine circulatory system, leading to the dispersion of CNS tissues (including prion proteins) throughout the derived carcass. This project used a marker (antibiotic-resistant) strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens to model the effects of commercial captive bolt stunning procedures on the movement of mobilized CNS material within slaughtered animals and the abattoir environment. The marker organism, introduced by injection through the bolt entry aperture or directly using a cartridge-fired captive bolt, was detected in the slaughter environment immediately after stunning and in the abattoir environment at each subsequent stage of the slaughter-dressing process. The marker organism was also detected on the hands of operatives; on slaughter equipment; and in samples of blood, organs, and musculature of inoculated animals. There were no significant differences between the results obtained by the two inoculation methods (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that material present in, or introduced into, the CNS of cattle during commercial captive bolt stunning may become widely dispersed across the many animate and inanimate elements of the slaughter-dressing environment and within derived carcasses including meat entering the human food chain. PMID:11823220
Daly, D J; Prendergast, D M; Sheridan, J J; Blair, I S; McDowell, D A
A multiple answer model of Randomized Response Technique (known as Hopkins RRT Model II) was tried in a rural area (Nekempte) in Ethiopia to estimate the incidence of induced abortion among currently married women of childbearing age. In the RRT adopted here, the question on abortion--sensitive as it is--was preceded by two innocuous "practice questions". Despite the very low literacy level of the women, nearly all of them cooperated. The RRT estimates in regard to the two innocuous "practice questions" were fairly reasonable, while the RRT estimate of the rate of induced abortion (35 per cent) was far higher than that derived from direct reporting. The differentials in abortion rates by age and parity were consistent with expectation. A post RRT survey indicated that more than one-half (58 per cent) of the women found RRT "easy" or "moderately easy" to understand, while nearly 80 per cent of them thought that there was no "trick" involved in it.
Studies show reduced HIV risk behaviors after couple voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), either resulting from the couple counseling process or the type of people it attracts. A total of 1858 sexually active individual VCT clients in partnerships were compared to 866 sexually experienced couple VCT participants with multilevel logistic regression. Sexually experienced couple VCT clients were also compared to those couple VCT clients who never had sex. Among sexually experienced participants in partnerships, women, non-premarital testers, and those who felt at risk for HIV were less likely to attend couple VCT than individual VCT. Among couple VCT clients, sexually inexperienced individuals were more likely to be: testing for the first time, premarital testers, and more educated than those who were sexually experienced. Couple VCT’s effectiveness might partly result from who it attracts. Addressing the diverse needs of a heterogeneous testing population is a programmatic challenge for couple VCT in Ethiopia. PMID:22292531
In contemporary Ethiopia, abortion decision-making is a challenging process involving moral and/or religious dilemmas, as well as considerations of health and safety. Amidst widespread condemnation of female premarital sex and clear moral sanction against induced abortion, young Ethiopian women are nevertheless sexually active and induced abortions are still sought and performed, with the potential for grave physical harm and social stigmatization. This paper examines young unmarried Ethiopian women's narratives of abortion decision-making. In particular, it identifies and explores the operations of a particular discursive shape from within in such narratives, here described as The tale of the hearts. Analysing The tale of the hearts as a decision-making resource, it is argued, allows us to explore the particular, local, historical and cultural character of Ethiopian women's abortion decision-making dilemmas and the culturally available resources contributing to their resolution. PMID:22250576
Kebede, Meselu Taye; Hilden, Per Kristian; Middelthon, Anne-Lise
In May and June of 2007, sudden death was observed in camels in southern pastoral areas of Oromia, Ethiopia. It significantly (p < 0.001) affected reproductive age groups of both male and female camels (in females and males, 63.9% and 10.8% of those in reproductive age groups were affected, respectively). Pregnant females (37.6%) were affected significantly more often (p < 0.001) than non-pregnant females. Absence of rigor mortis and absence of blood clotting, together with the death of pregnant and lactating camels, were common findings during different outbreaks, but no aetiological agent such as Bacillus anthracis was isolated. In addition to loss of milk in lactating camels and loss of the calf in pregnant individuals, the average value of the dead camels was 2377.6 birr (approximately US$264). A multifactorial cause of mortality is hypothesised. Hence, research to develop an intervention, with increased input of financial resources and time, is required urgently so that the cause of the problem can be discovered and the disease can be controlled. PMID:21309459
A collection of sepia photographs, taken during Great Britain's military expedition to Abyssinia in 1868, are the oldest landscape photographs from northern Ethiopia, and have been used to compare the status of vegetation and land management 140 years ago with that of contemporary times. Thirteen repeat landscape photographs, taken during the dry seasons of 1868 and 2008, were analyzed for various environmental indicators and show a significant improvement of vegetation cover. New eucalypt woodlands, introduced since the 1950s are visible and have provided a valuable alternative for house construction and fuel-wood, but more importantly there has also been locally important natural regeneration of indigenous trees and shrubs. The situation in respect to soil and water conservation measures in farmlands has also improved. According to both historical information and measured climatic data, rainfall conditions around 1868 and in the late 19th century were similar to those of the late 20th/early 21st century. Furthermore, despite a ten-fold increase in population density, land rehabilitation has been accomplished over extensive areas by large-scale implementation of reforestation and terracing activities, especially in the last two decades. In some cases repeat photography shows however that riparian vegetation has been washed away. This is related to river widening in recent degradation periods, particularly in the 1970s-1980s. More recently, riverbeds have become stabilized, and indicate a decreased runoff response. Environmental recovery programmes could not heal all scars, but this study shows that overall there has been a remarkable recovery of vegetation and also improved soil protection over the last 140 years, thereby invalidating hypotheses of the irreversibility of land degradation in semi-arid areas. In a highly degraded environment with high pressure on the land, rural communities were left with no alternative but to improve land husbandry: in northern Ethiopia such interventions have been demonstrably successful. PMID:19155052
This paper deals with the economic development of Ethiopia in the 3 decades between 1950 and 1980. In particular, it examines governmental efforts at agricultural planning during this period compared to the actual experience of the country. The dominant forces governing the changes that occurred in this period were accelerated population growth and the declining availability of arable land, which combined to push a fragile, traditional ecosystem to the brink of disaster. Government planning efforts had little impact in the pre-1974 period, since they were too modest and small scale to affect the highly traditional and primitive mode of peasant cultivation. The sweeping structural changes introduced by the new regime since 1974 seem to have mainly adverse effects and to have decreased both productivity and yields. Ethiopia lacks the basic infrastructure and incentive system to create an environment in which technological change is possible. Presumably the declining agricultural growth rate from 1953 to 1974 suggests that the traditional, prerevolution system was failing to create these favorable conditions and hence was losing the race with population growth. The post-1974 revolutionary government's policy has been, in effect, an effort to jump to an advanced phase of agricultural development, and this seems to have been even less successful. These plans have, in all fairness, been hamstrung since 1981 by drought, famine, and civil war, but have probably themselves contributed to the severity of those events. Overall, Ethiopian agricultural planning has not been notably successful. From 1953-1980, total agricultural production is estimated to have grown at a slowly decreasing rate. The collapse of agriculture due to several years of drought obviously cannot be blamed on government planning, but its severity clearly has been at least partly a function of policy failures. PMID:12280692
Background The prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Ethiopia in general, and Jimma area in particular, is not well documented. We conducted a study at Jimma University specialized hospital in southwest Ethiopia among new cases of smear positive TB patients to determine the pattern of resistance to first-line drugs. Methods A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to September 2011. Any newly diagnosed smear positive TB patient 18?years and above was included in the study. Demographic and related data were collected by trained personnel using a pretested structured questionnaire. Mycobacterial drug susceptibility testing (DST) to the first line drugs isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB) and streptomycin (STM) was performed on cultures using the indirect proportion method. M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) was identified with the Capilia TB-Neo test. Results 136 patients were enrolled in the study. Resistance to at least one drug was identified in 18.4%. The highest prevalence of resistance to any drug was identified against INH (13.2%) followed by STM (8.1%). There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of any resistance by sex, age, HIV status and history of being imprisoned. The highest mono resistance was observed against INH (7.4%). Mono resistance to streptomycin was associated with HIV infection (crude OR 15.63, 95%CI: 1.31, 187). Multidrug-resistance TB (MDR-TB) was observed in two patients (1.5%). Conclusion Resistance to at least one drug was 18.4% (INH-13.2% and STM-8.1%). STM resistance was associated with HIV positivity. There was relatively low prevalence of MDR-TB yet INH resistance was common around Jimma. The capacity of laboratories for TB culture and DST should be strengthened, in order to correctly manage TB patients and avoid amplification of drug resistance.
The A.L. 894 site (Hadar, Ethiopia) is, together with OGS 7 (Gona, Ethiopia), one of the oldest archaeological sites documenting a spatial association of stone tools and bones retrieved from an in situ excavation. In contrast with OGS 7, the better preservation of the bone assemblage at A.L. 894 allows the identification of taphonomic processes of bone breakage, thanks to
Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo; Bienvenido Martínez-Navarro
In the Highlands of Northern Ethiopia gully occurrence is linked to poverty-driven unsustainable use of the land in a vulnerable semi-arid and mountainous environment, where intensive rainfall challenges the physical integrity of the landscape. Trends in gully and river channel erosion, and their relation to triggering environmental changes can proffer valuable insights into sustainable development in Northern Ethiopia. In order
Amaury Frankl; Jan Nyssen; Morgan De Dapper; Mitiku Haile; Paolo Billi; R. Neil Munro; Jozef Deckers; Jean Poesen
This paper outlines the emergence of pastoral settl ements in urban and peri-urban spaces of Ethiopia focusing on Yabello, the present capital o f Borana zone. By doing so, the paper seeks to contribute to ongoing debates on the manner in whic h pastoral livelihoods are changing in Ethiopia, and elsewhere in Africa. More specificall y, a livelihoods approach is
BACKGROUND: Eastern Ethiopia hosts a substantial number of refugees originated from Somalia. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common practice in the area, despite the campaigns to eliminate it. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 492 respondents sampled from three refugee camps in Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence and associated factors of FGM. Data were
During the 1980s Ethiopia experienced the effects of conflict, drought and famine on a scale far greater than many CPEs elsewhere. In May 1991, after the decisive defeat of the military dictatorship of Mengistu Haile Mariam by the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) and after decades of civil war, drought and famine, Ethiopia faced the prospects of peace and of much needed development. This paper explores both Ethiopia's experience of conflict and humanitarian intervention in areas of Tigray held by the Tigray Peoples' Liberation Front (TPLF) during the 1980s, and its experience of post-conflict rehabilitation and reconstruction in the 1990s. It first deals with the roots of the conflicts within Ethiopia: political marginalisation, heavy state intervention and highly extractive relations between state and peasants, inappropriate and failed development policies, ethnic identity and the politicisation of ethnicity. The Mengistu regime's counter-insurgency measures are then contrasted with the policies and programmes of the TPLF, Ethiopia's most effective opposition movement and the leading element in the EPRDF, and its achievements in mobilising popular support: its establishment of democratically elected structures of local governance and its famine relief distribution programme. PMID:11138371
Objective To reconstruct the onset date and evolutionary history of the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in Ethiopia - one of the earliest recorded subtype C epidemics in the world. Design HIV-1 C env sequences with a known sampling year isolated from HIV-1 positive patients from Ethiopia between 1984 and 2003. Methods Evolutionary parameters including origin and demographic growth patterns were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent-based approach under either strict or relaxed molecular clock models. Results Bayesian evolutionary analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor date of 1965 with three distinct epidemic growth phases. Regression analysis of root-to-tip distances revealed a highly similar estimate for the origin of the clade. In addition we reveal that the HIV-1C epidemic in Ethiopia has grown at a faster rate than the epidemic of subtype C in sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion Reconstruction of the epidemic history in Ethiopia revealed that subtype C likely originated from either a single lineage or multiple descendents in the late 1960s or early 1970s where it grew exponentially throughout the mid-1970s and early 1980s, corresponding to a wave of urbanization and migration. In light of these findings we suggest that subtype C strains were circulating at least a decade before previous estimates and the first recognition of symptomatic patients in Ethiopia. The timing of the Ethiopian epidemic is also in agreement with similar HIV-1 epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa.
The southern Red Sea and adjacent Afar area represent an enigmatic portion of the Red Sea/Gulf of Aden basin system. Although the topographic rift shoulders of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden can be traced through this elbow, and appear to suggest that a similar width for the zone of extension is maintained across the region, the character of the floor of the rift zone changes. The distinctive character of the southern Red Sea-Afar area results in part from a topographically elevated region, possibly associated with the Red Sea-Gulf of Aden-East African rift triple junction. In addition, however, seismic data from offshore Ethiopia suggests that the distinctive character is due a complex pattern of rifting. The central axial trough of the Red Sea decreases in depth to the south toward the strait of Bab al Mandab, suggesting that rifting is dying out southward. Farther to the west at the same latitude, a major but narrow half-graben can be seen on seismic in the Gulf of Zula, bounded to the east by a large west-dipping normal fault. This structure continues south into the Danakil Depression of the Afar area. Between these two en echelon rift trends, the Danakil Alps form a long-lived high. Seismic data from the southern Red Sea of Ethiopia show southward thinning and pinch-out of the Miocene syn-rift evaporite sequence onto the northern Danakil block. Thus, it appears that the Danakil block has largely escaped Red Sea extension and subsidence. Instead, it forms a large unextended terrain located between overlapping en echelon rift trends, and may represent an accommodation zone structure associated with offset in the rift axis of the southern Red Sea.
Allen, R.B. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (United States)); Sikander, A.H. (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)); Abouzakhm, A.G.
This paper describes the potential of Ethiopia in establishing space research facilities and conducting collaborative research and training. It also describes the goals and objectives of a proposed cosmic ray station in Ethiopia which would greatly improve the abilities of the existing worldwide network for heliospheric and cosmic ray research. The station will be located at the geomagentic equator, which is a very unique place for geomagnetic and heliospheric studies. Moreover, the paper presents an overview of the research and training activities in space physics and the successful collaborative project between Ethiopia and Finland, which facilitated the installation of a pulsation magnetometer and a photometer at Entoto Mountain in a suburb of the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa.
Detrital modes of modern Nile sands, together with estimates of sediment volumes trapped in Sudanese reservoirs, allow us to calculate sediment loads of major tributaries (Blue Nile, White Nile, Atbara) and erosion rates in the Nile catchment. A tridimensional array of high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral data was obtained on both levee (suspended load) and bar (bedload) deposits, analysed separately for each grain-size subclass at 0.5? intervals. From available information on sediments stored in the Roseires, Khashm el Girba and Lake Nasser reservoirs between 1964 and 1990, the total Nile load is reassessed at 230 ± 20 106 t/a, an estimate two to four times higher than figures reported so far, on which previous estimates of sediment yields and erosion rates were based. Of such huge amount of detritus, 82 ± 10 106 t/a are contributed by River Atbara, which carries more volcanic rock fragments, brown augite and olivine from basaltic rocks, and 140 ± 20 106 t/a by the Blue Nile, which carries more K-feldspar and hornblende from amphibolite-facies basement rocks. The additional ? 107 t/a of almost purely quartzose sediments supplied by the rest of the Nile catchment, corresponding to insignificant average yields and erosion rates, represent the stable residue which survived extreme subequatorial weathering in southern Sudan swamps (White Nile, Bahr ez Zeraf, and Sobat sands) or fluvial and eolian recycling of ancient quartzarenites in hyperarid climates (Nubian sands). Sediment production is thus markedly focused on Ethiopian rift highlands, where rainfall is concentrated in a single July August peak. High average yields and erosion rates (800 ± 150 t/km2 a, 0.29 ± 0.05 mm/a) partly reflect anthropically-accelerated erosion caused by deforestation and intensive land use, and cannot be extrapolated far in the past. Erosion patterns may have changed repeatedly during Quaternary climatic oscillations, and possibly also in the longer term during the multistage rift-related events which, since impingement of the Afar plume and eruption of flood basalts in the Oligocene, caused elevated topography and monsoonal climate in Ethiopia.
Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Ali Abdel Megid, Ada; El Kammar, Ahmed
Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led to mixed feelings among the Ethiopian public. While some laud the opportunities and advantages these new institutions bring, others are apprehensive that the quality of education might be compromised by an expansion motivated by monetary gain. This article sheds light on these paradoxes and provides suggestions for policy and practices.
In the farming community of the sub-district of Meskan and Mareko in central Ethiopia, where the prevalence of epilepsy is known to be 5.2/1000, a door-to-door survey was undertaken in 1546 sampled households to find out public attitudes to epilepsy. Nearly 64% of the respondents were in the age group of 14-50 years, and 58.6% were women. The majority (86%) were illiterate, and 94% had incomes of a subsistence level; 89% had heard or witnessed seizures. Traditional views on the association of evil spirits and superstition was prevalent. By 45% of the interviewees, the disease was believed to be contagious through physical contacts during an attack. Although there was sympathetic concern in the community for the person suffering from epilepsy, negative attitudes were strong on matrimonial associations, sharing of accommodation and physical contacts with affected persons, particularly when there were obvious signs and frequent attacks by seizures. The study demonstrates that the rural community has very poor knowledge of the causes and nature of epilepsy, and this has resulted in social deprivations and at times, rejection of the sufferers. PMID:2014416
Antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) were measured in 1,580 Ethiopian subjects representing urban and rural populations. Sera found positive by a repeated second generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were subjected to three additional confirmatory tests. The overall confirmed seroprevalence was 2.0%. Less than 1% were confirmed to be seropositive in rural communities, with 1.4% positive among blood donors, 1.6% positive among patients with dermatologic disorders, 3.6% among leprosy patients, and 6.0% among patients attending a University Hospital clinic for neurologic disorders. The patients in the groups with leprosy and neurologic disorders have most likely been in ill health for many years and have sought relief by traditional healers or treatment at poorly equipped clinics. This group of patients demonstrated a high prevalence of antibodies to HCV. In Ethiopia, especially in small clinics, there is a shortage of syringes and needles and they have to be reused many times often with inadequate sterilization. Therefore, these syringes and needles may be contaminated, thus being a risk factor for HCV and HIV infection. PMID:7692753
Frommel, D; Tekle-Haimanot, R; Berhe, N; Aussel, L; Verdier, M; Preux, P M; Denis, F
To assess the prevalence of eye disease among malnourished children in a rural Ethiopian health center and evaluate correlations between xerophthalmia and grades of malnutrition. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey. An institution-based cross-sectional prospective study was performed at Bushulo Health Center in rural south Ethiopia and included all children age 6 months to 14 years receiving care for malnourishment from June 1st to July 30th, 2008. Data collection involved a combination of interviews with caretakers, ocular examination by a pediatric ophthalmologist and anthropometric measurements. One hundred and seventy-three children (average age at examination 2.9 ± 0.2 years) were treated for malnutrition (97 female, 76 male). One hundred and forty-nine patients had moderate malnutrition (86.03 %) and 24 had severe malnutrition (13.9 %). The following eye diseases were diagnosed-trachoma (12.1 %), blepharitis (13.3 %) and xerophthalmia (20.8 %). Severely malnourished children were more likely to suffer from xerophthalmia than moderately malnourished children (p < 0.0001). When comparing anthropometric measurements to the diagnosis of xerophthalmia, only weight percentile showed significance (p = 0.008). Xerophthalmia is a common global cause of pediatric blindness and is highly correlated with severe malnutrition. Continued efforts are necessary to improve nutrition and outcomes in these patients. PMID:23354453
Abstract. We collected anophelines every second week for one year from randomly selected houses in southwestern Ethiopia by using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, pyrethrum spray catches, and artificial pit shelter constructions to detect circumsporozoite proteins and estimate entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs). Of 3,678 Anopheles arabiensis tested for circumsporozoite proteins, 11 were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and three for P. vivax. The estimated annual P. falciparum EIR of An. arabiensis was 17.1 infectious bites per person per year (95% confidence interval = 7.03-34.6) based on CDC light traps and 0.1 infectious bites per person per year based on pyrethrum spray catches. The P. falciparum EIRs from CDC light traps varied from 0 infectious bites per person per year (in 60% of houses) to 73.2 infectious bites per person per year in the house nearest the breeding sites. Risk of exposure to infectious bites was higher in wet months than dry months, with a peak in April (9.6 infectious bites per person per month), the period of highest mosquito density. PMID:23878184
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of respiratory problems, in particular byssinosis, and to explore factors associated with their occurrence among a group of 595 randomly selected workers representing 40.5% of those exposed to dusty operations in a typical Ethiopian cotton textile mill. A standard questionnaire on respiration was administered and pre and postshift forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were determined for each worker; workers found to have byssinosis and other respiratory diseases were compared with workers having no respiratory diseases in terms of the level and duration of exposure to cotton dust and other variables. Multiple area air samples from different sections were analysed for elutriated cotton dust concentrations (0.86-3.52 mg/m3). The prevalence of byssinosis was 43.2% among blowers and 37.5% in carders in comparison with four to 24% among workers in other sections. Prevalence of chronic bronchitis ranged from 17.6 to 47.7% and bronchial asthma from 8.5 to 20.5% across all sections. Significant across shift decrements in FEV1 and FVC were seen in those workers with respiratory tract diseases compared with those workers without such diseases. A significant dose response relation for pulmonary function and respiratory illnesses was also found by regression analysis. Preventive measures are proposed. Further research including a nationwide survey of textile mills is suggested. This is the first epidemiological study of the textile industry in Ethiopia.
Woldeyohannes, M; Bergevin, Y; Mgeni, A Y; Theriault, G
The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4-2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa. PMID:23733965
Wynn, Jonathan G; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K; Wilson, Jessica N
The geomorphological map of Lake Tana basin (15 077 km², Nile basin, Ethiopia) was prepared from fieldwork data, maps and satellite data that were processed in a GIS system. It contains four major components: (i) hydrography, (ii) morphology and -metry, (iii) materials and (iv) processes. The scale is 1:500 000. The geomorphological setting of the basin consists of lavas that erupted from fissures or (shield) volcanoes during the Tertiary and Quaternary eras, were uplifted and ultimately sculpted by (mainly water) erosion. Lake Tana emerged by the combination of a lava barrier blocking the Blue Nile to the south and by epirogenetic subsidence. Since the time that the lake reached its maximum extent, extensive floodplains were created, river valleys have been filled with sediment and higher laying topography has been eroded. Today, the lake plays a lesser role in landscape formation because of a decreased lake extent (3041 km² now) as compared to the ancient maximum (6602 km²). Dominant processes today are merely fluvial and denudative. Recent (1886-2010) changes in lake coast are small with exception of the delta of the major feeding river, Gilgel Abay, which increased disproportionally the last 15 years. This indicates a large input of sediment which is mainly due to rivers flowing through Quaternary lavas. The recent sediment input increase is most probably related to human induced land-use changes.
Parasitological, malacological and transmission studies were made for a period of one year in the town of Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis mansoni in residents of Kebeles 8, 9 and 10 was 12%. The prevalence in Sertse Dengel school children was 45% and that in Dil Chibo school children was 32%. The peak prevalence in both sexes in school and non-school populations occurred in the age group 10-14 years. Intensity of infection showed a similar pattern of age variation as prevalence. Biomphalaria pfeifferi snail density peaked towards the end of the rainy season (September) in Lake Tana and around the middle of the dry season (January) on the shore of the River Abay. In September, infected snails were recovered from all collection sites. Of mice immersed in four water contact sites in September, schistosome infections developed in those immersed in three sites. Parasitological findings suggested that schistosomiasis infection rates depended on age and sex of individuals and geographical location of the place from the potentially infective water bodies. Snail population density and associated schistosomal infection in a human population depended on rainfall and associated ecological changes such as fluctuation in water level and vegetation density. As malacological findings and sentinel mouse immersion results indicated, it appeared that the main transmission season in Lake Tana region is towards the end of the rainy season although low level intermittent transmission may take place throughout the year. PMID:1954954
We collected anophelines every second week for one year from randomly selected houses in southwestern Ethiopia by using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, pyrethrum spray catches, and artificial pit shelter constructions to detect circumsporozoite proteins and estimate entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs). Of 3,678 Anopheles arabiensis tested for circumsporozoite proteins, 11 were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and three for P. vivax. The estimated annual P. falciparum EIR of An. arabiensis was 17.1 infectious bites per person per year (95% confidence interval = 7.03–34.6) based on CDC light traps and 0.1 infectious bites per person per year based on pyrethrum spray catches. The P. falciparum EIRs from CDC light traps varied from 0 infectious bites per person per year (in 60% of houses) to 73.2 infectious bites per person per year in the house nearest the breeding sites. Risk of exposure to infectious bites was higher in wet months than dry months, with a peak in April (9.6 infectious bites per person per month), the period of highest mosquito density.
|Ethiopia, a country containing more than 80 ethnic groups, has remarkably expanded the higher education sector and established universities based on equitable regional distribution in the two past decades. This article discusses and analyzes attitudes and behaviors of university students from various ethnic groups toward their own and other…
Observations were made over the period from June 1967 through December 1968 and concern the role of An. nili in the transmission of malaria in an unsprayed lowland region of western Ethiopia, an area climatically similar to that in Northern Nigeria, and t...
The efficacy of praziquantel against schistosomiasis mansoni has been measured in 10–14 years old schoolchildren in a highly endemic area of north-west Ethiopia. The egg reduction rate was 97% and the cure rate was 94%, as assessed by a single Kato smear. No evidence for praziquantel resistance was detected.
Geographical imbalances in the health workforce have been a consistent feature of nearly all health systems, and especially in developing countries. In this paper we investigate the willingness to work in a rural area among final year nursing and medical students in Ethiopia. Analyzing data obtained from contingent valuation questions, we find that household consumption and the student’s motivation to
Pieter Serneels; Magnus Lindelow; José Garcia Montalvo; Abigail Barr
Modern Ethiopia has made progress that has altered the status and functions of its various languages. With modernization, the reasons for and means of interethnic contact have multiplied, creating the need for a common language. Amharic, once confined to a rather small area, has spread geographically and grown in status in the last thousand years,…
This study has been conducted in three districts in Afar of Northeastern Ethiopia. The objective is to (1) describe the traditional land use arrangements among pastoralists; (2) explain changes in pastoral customary rights; (2) explain resource-based conflicts among various pastoral groups. The results show that the state is the giant actor behind property right changes especially in areas with better
The study of Islam and Islamic populations in Ethiopia has been relatively understudied since the great survey of J.S. Trimingham published in 1952. Ethiopian Islam is interesting both because of its antiquity (since the inception of Islam itself) and because of the particular patterns of interaction and symbiosis with an, until recently, predominantly Christian culture. A socio?cultural and historical explanation
This article addresses the protracted state of political violence in and around the Borana and Guji zones of Oromia region after the introduction of ethnic federalism in Ethiopia. To account for the persistence of the conflict, we must elaborate on the connections between ethnic identity, natural resource and customary institutions by introducing the notion of “primary identity”. Since the turn
When people of different cultures interact, a degree of linguistic and\\/or cultural adaptation is expected. This paper examines the implication of the relationship between the Aari and the Gama for the naming practices of the former. The Aari people, who speak Araf, came into contact with Amharic-speaking migrants from central and northern Ethiopia (collectively called the Gama) during the southward
Theoretical discourse on nationalism and ethnicity has crystallized around three schools of thought: primordialism, instrumentalism and constructivism. I take an instrumentalist approach to examine the processes that shaped the drafting of the new constitutions of Ethiopia and Eritrea, with particular focus on the role of élites in group identity definition, formation and mobilization. I argue that despite their similar ethnic
This article explores the role of children in household livelihoods among the Gedeo ethnic community in Ethiopia. Three themes are discussed — reproductive activities, entrepreneurial work in marketplaces and sociospatial mobility — in the context of recent theoretical debates over children's agency and social competence. With shifts in rural livelihoods, children have developed new agentic and entrepreneurial skills in domestic
A growing literature in political science has examined the impact of democratization on decentralization without much attention, however, to how decentralization influences political opposition movements. In order to help fill this gap, in this contribution I examine two case studies of decentralization in Africa, namely Sudan's experiment with decentralization in the 1970s and Ethiopia's more recent experience with decentralization since
Major element and rare earth element (REE) partitioning among coexisting clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene pairs from mantle xenoliths of the Assab Range (Ethiopia) are discussed in terms of crystal-chemistry. Major element partitioning indicates relatively uniform conditions of subsolidus equilibration over a narrow range of temperatures (mean value about 1100 C) in the spinel peridotite stability field. Major element distributions and correlations, moreover, seem
G. Ottonello; G. B. Piccardo; A. Mazzucotelli; F. Cimmino
Climate change has become an issue which touches upon all spheres of life. To combat the problem, understanding the perceptions of all that have stake in it provides with stronger ground for decision-making. Ethiopia is one those countries that are or going to be severely affected by climate change, the solution of which partly depends on how its key decision-makers
|The author, as an otolaryngologist and the Director of Global ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) Outreach, traveled to Ethiopia to help 11 children who could not breathe because of respiratory papillomas blocking their airways and who had been hospitalized for years. The disease, called juvenile respiratory papillomatosis, is what affected these 11…
Frankincense, an aromatic exudate obtained from several Boswellia species, is an important commodity with the potential to invigorate economic development of the drylands of Ethiopia. Local people have been producing and trading frankincense for centuries to diversify their income sources. However, local people's involvement in the production of frankincense varies considerably among the producing dryland regions of the country. The
This study assessed the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) status of Boswellia papyrifera (frankincense-tree) dominated dry deciduous woodlands in relation to season, management and soil depth in Ethiopia. We studied 43 woody species in 52 plots in three areas. All woody species were colonized by AM fungi, with average root colonization being relatively low (16.6% – ranging from 0% to 95%). Mean
Emiru Birhane; Thomas W. Kuyper; Frank J. Sterck; Frans Bongers
Boswellia papyrifera, a frankincense producing tree, grows in the arid lowlands of Ethiopia. It is a multipurpose tree species with ecological, environmental, cultural and socio-economic values. The resource has been declining due to unsustainable management. This study is aimed at estimating frankincense yield in a single production year, assessing the relationship between yield and dendrometric variables, and developing predictive yield
M. Tilahun; B. Muys; E. Mathijs; C. Kleinn; R. Olschewski; K. Gebrehiwot
Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst is a dryland tree species native to Ethiopia and widely known for its frankincense production. Besides, it has also other numerous environmental, socio-economic, traditional and industrial benefits. However, the population of the species is declining at an alarming rate due to extensive human encroachment. This paper presents the importance of the species, techniques of tapping, harvesting
Kindeya Gebrehiwot; Bart Muys; Mitiku Haile; Ralph Mitloehner
The study was conducted to determine the demographic and health-related risk factors of subclinical vi- tamin A deficiency in Ethiopia. Blood samples were collected from 996 children in 210 clusters across the nation for analysis of serum retinol. Interviews were conducted with the respective mothers of the 996 children on presumed risk factors of vitamin A deficiency. A higher subclinical
Tsegaye Demissie; Ahmed Ali; Yared Mekonnen; Jemal Haider; Melaku Umeta
The zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, phytate, tannin and moisture content of 36 foods consumed in rural Ethiopia were analysed. The foods analysed included those based on cereals, starchy tubers and roots, and legumes and vegetables as well as some fruits. Although many foods were relatively rich in zinc and iron, many also contained high levels of phytic acid and tannins,
Background: Providing quality of care in family planning services is an important task for care providers so as to increase service utilization and coverage; however, little is known about the existing quality of care in such services. Objective: To assess quality of care in family planning services in Jimma Zone, southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January
Assessing genetic erosion has been suggested as the first priority in any major effort to arrest loss of genetic diversity. In Ethiopia, although it is generally accepted that significant amount of genetic erosion has occurred and is still occurring, there is little data on its amount and extent. Thus, this study is conducted to quantify the extent of genetic erosion
Yellow fever antibody of apparently recent origin has been found in two areas studied by the Institute Pasteur during the 1961-1962 yellow fever outbreak in Ethiopia. Yellow fever antibody in an eight year old child in Kulo Konta Awrajah would indicate th...
This paper examines the nature of community management of woodlots and investigates the determinants of collective action and its effectiveness in managing woodlots, based on a survey of 100 villages in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Despite limited current benefits received by community members, the woodlots contribute substantially to community wealth, increasing members willingness to provide collective effort to manage the woodlots.
Parental experiences in raising children with intellectual disability in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia are described. Using a qualitative research approach, interviews from eleven families formed a rich contextual data base, in addition to informal observations, informal conversations, discussions with key informants, and document review. Findings show…
|R. Feuerstein's Instrumental Enrichment (IE) Program was used as a tool of cognitive educational intervention with 10 deaf children (ages 7 to 15), all recent immigrants from Ethiopia to Israel. The group's special education needs resulted from their deafness, lack of formal educational experience, lack of previous exposure to sign language or…
Afromontane rainforest stands in Ethiopia with a high frequency of wild populations of Coffea arabica are commonly known as ‘coffee forests’. These forests are important for the conservation of the genetic diversity of wild Arabica coffee, and for subsistence coffee production. This study analyses the floristic composition and environmental factors of such coffee forests, using the Yayu forest as a
Tadesse Woldemariam Gole; Thomas Borsch; Manfred Denich; Demel Teketay
This paper presents a development paradigm for Ethiopia, based on appropriate services and innovative use of mobile communications technologies via applications tailored for sectors like business, finance, healthcare, governance, education and infotainment. The experience of other developing countries like India and Kenya is cited so as to adapt those to the Ethiopian context. Notable application areas in the aforementioned sectors
Abstract: In order to combat land degradation in the form of water erosion and fertility depletion in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia farmers are of crucial importance. If they perceive land degradation as a problem they will be more willing to invest in land management measures. This study presents farmers’ perceptions of land degradation, respective investments, and factors
Clarifying the geographic, environmental and behavioural contexts in which the emergence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens occurred has proved difficult, particularly because Africa lacked adequate geochronological, palaeontological and archaeological evidence. The discovery of anatomically modern Homo sapiens fossils at Herto, Ethiopia, changes this. Here we report on stratigraphically associated Late Middle Pleistocene artefacts and fossils from fluvial and lake margin
J. Desmond Clark; Yonas Beyene; Giday WoldeGabriel; William K. Hart; Paul R. Renne; Henry Gilbert; Alban Defleur; Gen Suwa; Shigehiro Katoh; Kenneth R. Ludwig; Jean-Renaud Boisserie; Berhane Asfaw; Tim D. White
A preliminary survey of seven coffee producing Awrajas (Provinces) in eastern Ethiopia revealed that there is a traditional tree crop based agroforestry system being practised by the farmers. Coffee (C. arabica) was found to grow under the shade of several trees, 16 species, usually intercropped by one or several, a total of 15, important grain, fruit, vegetable, stimulant, oil-seed and
To determine annual litter production of regenerating forest areas in the Tigray highlands of northern Ethiopia monthly litter production was monitored over a two-year period in areas with varying degree of vegetation cover restoration. Total annual litter production varied from 30 to 425gm?2 and increased significantly where areas were closed for a longer time. Litter production was depending on vegetation
Katrien Descheemaeker; Bart Muys; Jan Nyssen; Jean Poesen; Dirk Raes; Mitiku Haile; Jozef Deckers
The hydrodynamic behaviour of a sloped phreatic aquifer in the Tigray Highlands in northern Ethiopia is described. The aquifer is situated in the soils of a plateau on top of a basalt sequence and lies on steep slopes; the latter lead to hydraulic gradients that can cause high discharge fluxes. Distinct wet and dry seasons characterize the climate of the
KRISTINE WALRAEVENS; INE VANDECASTEELE; KRISTINE MARTENS; JAN NYSSEN; JAN MOEYERSONS; TESFAMICHAEL GEBREYOHANNES; FLORIMOND DE SMEDT; JEAN POESEN; JOZEF DECKERS; MARC VAN CAMP
The illustrative power of a set of repeat photographs is often stronger than that of other scientific output, but historical photographs are also a very useful research tool and object. Here we demonstrate how historical photographs in Ethiopia are used in studies on landscape and land use changes, soil erosion and geomorphology, history and historical context, livelihood and archaeology. Further,
Jan Nyssen; Amaury Frankl; R. Neil Munro; Paolo Billi; Mitiku Haile
As a response to land degradation in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, regional authorities have promoted rehabilitation of degraded lands through closed areas since 1991. It is generally assumed that exclosures lead to restoration of natural resources such as soil fertility, vegetation biomass and composition, fauna, and water storage; however, this is not supported by studies. In the present study, our objective
Wolde Mekuria; E. Veldkamp; Mitiku Haile; J. Nyssen; B. Muys; Kindeya Gebrehiwot
In Tigray-northern Ethiopia, lack of sediment yield data and appropriate methodologies for predicting sediment yield have contributed to poor planning resulting in rapid sedimentation in reservoirs and storage capacity loss. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess the spatial variability of absolute sediment yield (SY) and area-specific sediment yield (SSY) and to identify their controlling factors for 11
Nigussie Haregeweyn; Jean Poesen; Jan Nyssen; Gerard Govers; Gert Verstraeten; Joris de Vente; Jozef Deckers; Jan Moeyersons; Mitiku Haile
In Tigray (Northern Ethiopia), soil moisture has been identified as the most limiting factor in agricultural production; on the other hand, loss of rain water through runoff as well as the induced soil loss has been determined as a critical problem in the region in the last two to three decades. To alleviate the above paradox, the government has mobilized
Tewodros Gebreegziabher; Jan Nyssen; Bram Govaerts; Fekadu Getnet; Mintesinot Behailu; Mitiku Haile; Jozef Deckers
Mass movement topography characterises the escarpments and piedmont zones of the tabular ridges in the western part of the Mekelle outlier, Tigray, Ethiopia. Several types of mass movements can be distinguished. The first type is rockfall produced by 357 km rocky escarpments and cliffs during the rainy season. In the study area, every current kilometer of Amba Aradam sandstone cliff annually
J. Moeyersons; M. Van Den Eeckhaut; J. Nyssen; Tesfamichael Gebreyohannes; J. Van de Wauw; J. Hofmeister; J. Poesen; J. Deckers; Haile Mitiku
Due to rapid vegetation restoration, exclosures (i.e. areas protected from grazing) are an effective and efficient measure for soil and water conservation. As a result, exclosures have become a widespread measure to combat the severe soil erosion and to rehabilitate the degraded land in the Tigray highlands of northern Ethiopia. Given the high infiltration rates and sediment trapping capacity of
K. Descheemaeker; J. Nyssen; J. Poesen; D. Raes; L. Terryn; M. Haile; B. Muys; J. Deckers
In the Tigray highlands of Northern Ethiopia, the establishment of exclosures (i.e., areas closed for grazing and agriculture) has become an important measure to combat land degradation and restore vegetative cover. Exclosures are commonly found on steep slopes and downslope from a sediment source area. In this study their sediment trapping capacity and controlling factors were investigated. Total sediment depth
Katrien Descheemaeker; Jan Nyssen; Joni Rossi; Jean Poesen; Mitiku Haile; Dirk Raes; Bart Muys; Jan Moeyersons; Seppe Deckers
The paper investigates the impact of growth on poverty in Ethiopia by analysing panel data covering 1994–97, a period of economic recovery driven by peace, good weather, and much improved macroeconomic management. The analysis of poverty shows land ownership, education, type of crops planted, occupations in urban areas, dependency ratios, and location to be important determinants. The characteristics of households
A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and associations with potential risk factors of brucellosis in indigenous cattle breeds of Western Tigray zone, North West Ethiopia. A total of 1968 cattle were examined between October 2007 and April 2008. Of these, 1120 cattle were from semi-intensive production system composed mainly of barka breed while 848 cattle were
Community forestry projects in Ethiopia have been implemented using the top down approach, which may have contributed to the failure of most of these projects. The so-called community plantations practically belonged to the government and the labour contribution of the local communities in the establishment of the plantations was mainly in exchange for wages. In this paper, we use the
Appropriate knowledge and beliefs about sexuality and necessary life skills do not often precede sexual behaviours among young people. This study outlines a profile of sexual risk factors and the underlying sexual and reproductive health perception and beliefs among youth (aged 15–24 years) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Five hundred and sixty-one youth residing in two of the six zones of
This report describes a course on early childhood education methodology and practice that was held at the Ministry of Education in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for 35 Ethiopian early childhood educators and administrators. In addition to presenting developmental profiles of preschool children, the 3-week course addressed philosophies of early childhood…
Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).
A detailed historical reconstruction and analysis is presented of the longest record of climate observations for Ethiopia, from 1898 to 2002 in Addis Ababa. Prior to 1951 the record comprises rainfall and minimum and maximum temperatures recorded in different locations by different observers. The rainfall series is complete except for 1899 and 1900, but the temperature series are very incomplete.
This paper compares the agricultural patterns in the immediate umland of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, with the crop theory in von Thünen's Isolated State. Although many of the assumptions upon which the Isolated State was built are not met in the study area, several striking empirical parallels can be seen. First, there is a ninety-five square mile eucalyptus forest surrounding the
The number of people with HIV/AIDS will grow significantly by the end of the decade. The increase will be driven by the spread of the disease in five populous countries - Nigeria, Ethiopia, Russia, India, and China- where the number of infected people wil...
The knowledge of soil erosion processes, attitude towards rational use of resources and institutional support affect the capability of farmers to implement soil and water conservation (SWC) measures. This research was conducted to determine soil erosion problems and the factors that affect the adoption of SWC measures in Fincha’a watershed, western Ethiopia. A total of 50 farmers were interviewed using
Many developing countries are now realizing the need for e-Governance in order to provide customer-focused, cost effective, and easy to use services for citizens and businesses and to improve the internal workings of government. Fiji and Ethiopia are two such countries where, in spite of political instability and other governance related problems, e- Governance initiatives are in progress. This study,
In many countries, children with disabilities seldom receive the educational services they need. Economic instability has often forced a reduction in services for children with disabilities. Cultural values have also impacted support for children with disabilities. A special education residential facility in Ethiopia that serves orphaned children…
The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative household…
This article explores the role of children in household livelihoods among the Gedeo ethnic community in Ethiopia. Three themes are discussed--reproductive activities, entrepreneurial work in marketplaces and sociospatial mobility--in the context of recent theoretical debates over children's agency and social competence. With shifts in rural…
The study is a phenomenological case study into the lived experience of teacher candidates and associate teachers in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to gain a phenomenological sensitivity to the "lived" experience of the participants and through that to identify key structural and conceptual impediments to meaningful professional learning. The…
We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with females…
This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitative methods to elicit poor children's perspectives about threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of…
Tekola, Bethlehem; Griffin, Christine; Camfield, Laura
Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...
This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in Ethiopia,…
Ethiopia, a country containing more than 80 ethnic groups, has remarkably expanded the higher education sector and established universities based on equitable regional distribution in the two past decades. This article discusses and analyzes attitudes and behaviors of university students from various ethnic groups toward their own and other…
This article explores the complex factors, both individual and social, that contribute to the resiliency and academic achievement of six adolescent African immigrant students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia who were enrolled in a small high school in the United States. The school was designed specifically for recent adolescent immigrant students.…
It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…
The purpose of this dialogue was to begin grappling with notions of neutrality and academic development in three non-western contexts: (1) Jamaica; (2) Ethiopia; and (3) Japan. The authors were asked to describe the political geography of academic development in their countries and to explore questions of neutrality. This dialogue therefore tries…
This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…
There have been significant increases in the number of universities and student enrollments in the last fifteen years in Ethiopia. The numerical gains have brought about improved access to higher education for students. The expansion has also diversified fields of study and opened opportunities to pursue higher degrees to a significant number of…
This paper explores some of the indigenous sources available in Ethiopia as a resource for philosophy and philosophy of education. In the process it makes a small contribution to the ongoing debate among philosophers as to whether there is a distinctive African philosophy. The paper illustrates, first, what is sometimes referred to as the "deep…
Vanilla planifolia Andr. is a tropical commercial spice crop known for its popular flavoring substance called vanillin. Vanillin is the second most expensive spice in the world market, next to saffron. Ethiopia has favorable environment for vanilla production and the crop has huge local and international market. There is a soaring investors' interest to produce vanilla in the country provided
|This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…
A geographic information system (GIS) forecast model based on moisture and thermal regime was developed to assess the risk of Fasciola hepatica, a temperate species, and its tropical counterpart, Fasciola gigantica, in Ethiopia. Agroecological map zones and corresponding environmental features that control the distribution and abundance of the disease and its snail intermediate hosts were imported from the Food and
At the request of PEPFAR(President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief)/Ethiopia, the USAID Office of Infrastructure and Engineering's Energy Team conducted a two-week assessment of Ethiopian health facilities in April 2008. The purpose of the assessment was...
Conservation tillage systems have been adopted by farmers in many countries to solve the problem of land degradation and declining water productivity. However, direct application of such tillage systems was not possible among resource poor smallholder farmers in semi arid areas of Ethiopia. Problems such as shortage of rainfall, cost of herbicides, cost of implements and the small seeded crop,
This study examines farmers' perception and knowledge of the soil erosion process and its impacts and control techniques in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. It is based on interviews with 119 farmers and informal discussions with 12 farmers from four villages. Of the interviewed farmers, over 83 percent stated that soil erosion was damaging their agricultural lands. Visible soil erosion
Background: Listeriosis is one of the important emerging bacterial zoonotic infections worldwide. Among the different species of the genus Listeria, Listeria monocytogens is known to cause listeriosis in humans and animals. Information on the occurrence and distribution of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species is very limited both in the veterinary and public health sectors in Ethiopia. Objectives: The present
This paper examines the nature of community management of woodlots and investigates the determinants of collective action and its effectiveness in managing woodlots, based on a survey of 100 villages in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. We find that collective management of woodlots generally functions well in Tigray. Despite limited current benefits received by community members, the woodlots contribute substantially to community
Berhanu Gebremedhin; John L. Pender; Girmay Tesfaye
The rates of soil erosion and land degradation in Ethiopia are frighteningly high. Crop production, livestock keeping and energy supply situations are at risk. The highlands are the most affected. Past rehabilitation efforts have been immense. Much labour, capital and trained staff have been mobilized to correct the situation, but the outcome has not been encouraging. There are a number
Sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries are causing concern to those responsible for their control and eradication. To gain a better understanding of the problems involved in a country struggling with development, the economic and psychosocial factors influencing the spread of STD in Ethiopia have been studied. Increased migration and urbanisation and the changing role of women have led to
Geochemical and environmental isotope data were used to gain the first regional picture of groundwater recharge, circulation and its hydrochemical evolution in the upper Blue Nile River basin of Ethiopia. Q-mode statistical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify water into objective groups and to conduct inverse geochemical modeling among the groups. Two major structurally deformed regions with distinct groundwater
|It is believed that the possibilities of integrating environmental issues into the formal and nonformal education programs depend on the capacity of teachers who put such programs into effect. A pilot project, aimed at building the capacity of schools in Ethiopia to address key environmental issues, was initiated in 2004. Among the major…
The aim of this study was to describe spatial and temporal variations in malaria epidemic risk in Ethiopia and to examine factors involved in relation to their implications for early warning and interpretation of geographical risk models. Forty-eight epidemic episodes were identified in various areas between September 1986 and August 1993 and factors that might have led to the events
Tarekegn Abose Abeku; Gerrit J van Oortmarssen; Gerard Borsboom; Sake J de Vlas; J. D. F Habbema
Theropithecus gelada, Papio anubis and Cercopithecus aethiops are commonly sympatric in Ethiopia. It is suggested that niche separation would be more marked among terrestrial open country species than among forest primates. The ecological relationships between these three species in an Ethiopian valley where they coexist are analysed. Quantitative data are presented on density and biomass, size of home ranges and
To investigate risk-sh aring within the household, we model nutritional status as a durable good and we look at the consequences of individual health shocks. For household allocation to be pareto-efficient, households should pool shocks to income. We also investigate whether households can smooth nu tritional levels over time. Using data from rural Ethiopia on adult nutritional status, we find
This article synthesizes case studies from Kenya, Zambia, and Ethiopia to assess how differences in the implementation of fertilizer marketing policies have affected the costs and risks borne by marketing actors, the investment response by private traders, and fertilizer consumption.Financial cost accounting techniques indicate that domestic marketing costs account for 50% or more of farm-gate prices. The sum of importer,
Much of the literature on consumption smoothing and on risk sharing has focused on the ability of the household as a unit to protect its consumption. Little is known about the ability of individual members of the household to keep consumption smooth over time or relative to other members of the household. We use data on adult nutrition in Ethiopia
Fossils and artifacts recovered from the middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar depression sample the Middle Pleistocene transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Ar\\/Ar ages, biostratigraphy, and tephrachronology from this area indicate that the Pleistocene Bodo hominid cranium and newer specimens are approximately 0.6 million years old. Only Oldowan chopper and flake assemblages are present in the lower stratigraphic
J. D. Clark; J. de Heinzelin; K. D. Schick; W. K. Hart; T. D. White; G. Woldegabriel; R. C. Walter; G. Suwa; B. Asfaw; E. Vrba; Y. H.-Selassie
Seventeen hominoid fossils recovered from Pliocene strata at Aramis, Middle Awash, Ethiopia make up a series comprising dental, cranial and postcranial specimens dated to around 4.4 million years ago. When compared with Australopithecus afarensis and with modern and fossil apes the Aramis fossil hominids are recognized as a new species of Australopithecus---A. ramidus sp. nov. The antiquity and primitive morphology
SEDIMENTARY deposits in the Middle Awash research area of Ethiopia's Afar depression have yielded vertebrate fossils including the most ancient hominids known. Radioisotopic dating, geochem-ical analysis of interbedded volcanic ashes and biochronological considerations place the hominid-bearing deposits at around 4.4 million years of age. Sedimentological, botanical and faunal evidence suggests a wooded habitat for the Aramis hominids.
Giday Woldegabriel; Tim D. White; Gen Suwa; Paul Renne; Jean de Heinzelin; William K. Hart; Grant Heiken
During a 6-month field study at the Awash River, Ethiopia, more than 180 hybrid baboons in three groups were found in a zone of about 20 km between anubis groups and hamadry as groups. The genetical structure of the hybrid zone was preliminarily described using a simple morphological hybrid index. An ecological borderline, not coinciding with either boundary of the
Assessing changes in poverty levels over time is bedevilled by problems in questionnaire design, the choice of the poverty line, the exact timing of the survey and uncertainty about the appropriate cost-of-living deflators. In this paper, we focus on testing the robustness of measured changes in poverty to these common problems, using household panel data collected in rural Ethiopia in
A population of baboons, Papio anubis, was studied for 3 months in an area of arid thornscrub in Ethiopia. The ecology of the habitat is described. Eight troops were surveyed, and one troop was studied in detail. The daily pattern of activity is outlined, and differential use of various parts of the habitat described. During movement and foraging the troop
F. P. G. Aldrich-Blake; T. K. Bunn; R. I. M. Dunbar; P. M. Headley
Growing Acacia albida as a permanent tree crop, on farmlands with cereals, vegetables and coffee underneath or in between, is an indigenous agroforestry system in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia. However, there is practically no systematic record or data on the merits and benefits of this practice.
Lack of environmental awareness is one of the underlying causes of severe environmental degradation in Ethiopia. As teachers' colleges are a seedbed of such awareness, assessment of college curricula should shed light on the possibilities they offer to develop capacities to address environmental degradation. This small-scale study is based on the…
Background: Malaria morbidity and mortality reduction in children greatly depends on caregivers' knowledge about childhood malaria. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess caregivers' knowledge about malaria in Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November to December 2005. A Sample of 588 households having children between the ages of 2-59
Fessahaye Alemseged; Ayalew Tegegn; Abraham Haileamlak; Wondwossen Kassahun
Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental problems in Ethiopia. Coupled with growing populations, falling per capita food production and worsening poverty, loss of productive land due to land degradation undermines rural livelihoods and national food security. Despite their awareness of the erosion problem, peasants' investments in land have been limited. We use an applied nonseparable model to
Livestock production in Ethiopia has, for long, remained subsistence with limited market- orientation and poor institutional support. Farmers and pastoralists produce and keep animals for various valid reasons, with little market-orientation. However, producing for the market requires re-orientation of the production system and development of a knowledge based and responsive institutional support services. Institutional support services of extension, research, input
Background Evidence from developed countries has shown that abortion-related mortality and morbidity has decreased with the liberalization of the abortion law. This study aimed to assess the trend of hospital-based abortion complications during the transition of legalization in Ethiopia in May 2005. Methods Medical records of women with abortion complications from 2003 to 2007 were reviewed (n ¼ 773). Abortion
Historical accounts of famines in Ethiopia go as far back as the 9th century, however, evidence on its impact on health only started to emerge from the 15th century onwards. Unfortunately, famine has been endemic in Ethiopia in the last few decades. The 1973 famine is reported to have claimed over 300,000 lives. In 1985 approximately 10 million people were reported to be starving, with approximately 300,000 already dead and about 1000 dying daily. In the following years, droughts leading to food shortage have had local and national adverse health effects, in particular in 1999/2000. This paper describes the initial findings of a literature review of evidence on the health impact of droughts leading to famine in Ethiopia and highlights gaps in knowledge. The key finding, thus far, is the marked paucity of health impact data. This review also highlights the fact that adverse health impacts of famines are probably complex and long lasting. Interpretation of any health impact data is difficult as there are few baseline data to compare. Health effects also impact livelihoods. Livelihood disruption following famine does not just affect one generation but also subsequent generations. Surveillance systems are needed so that records of the health impacts of a drought that leads to famine can inform action. With climate change bringing increased likelihood of drought and famine in some parts of the world, the findings of this review could be beneficial not just for Ethiopia but also elsewhere. PMID:21086818
Cities in developing countries experiencing rapid urbanization and population growth too often lack the financial resources and institutional capacity to provide needed municipal infrastructure for adequate solid waste management, despite citizens’ demand for it. This paper uses a cross-sectional survey of 226 randomly selected households in Mekelle City, Ethiopia, to assess the current municipal sanitation fees and the willingness to
Lake Hayq, a highland lake in Ethiopia, was stocked with Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) in late 1970s, offering an opportunity to study the effect of fish predation in a natural lake. Since 1930s, some limnological surveys have been done sporadically documenting a change in zooplankton composition including the disappearance of cladocerans, hypothesizing the stocked planktivorous fish could be a cause.
Tadesse Fetahi; Seyoum Mengistou; Michael Schagerl
|We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with females…
Climate change is likely to harm developing economies that generate major portion of their GDP from climate sensitive sectors. This paper computes economy-wide impact of climate change and its distributional consequence with the help of a sector wise disaggregated general equilibrium model using Ethiopia as a case. The projected climate shock reduces output in the sector with the strongest forward
Coffee (Coffea arabica) as a qualified beverage with a great demand in many countries and coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix) as a quarantine pathogen causing high losses have attracted world-wide high attention. Ethiopia as the source of origin for perhaps both, the host and pathogen, plays an important role in science either for breeders or pathologists. Coffee leaf rust occurs
This article compares the essence and effects of Ethiopian and Sudanese state terrorism by focusing on the commonalities between the two states. These peripheral African states have used global and regional connections and state terrorism as political tools for creating and maintaining the confluence of identity, religion, and political power. Ethiopia primarily depends on the West, and Sudan on the
To determine the presence of Bartonella quintana in head and body lice from persons in different locations in Ethiopia, we used molecular methods. B. quintana was found in 19 (7%) genotype C head lice and in 76 (18%) genotype A body lice. B. quintana in head lice was positively linked to altitude (p = 0.014). PMID:22172306
One thousand and eighty tef, Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter, entries representing 36 populations collected from six central and northern regions of Ethiopia were evaluated at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center during the 1995 main season to assess the quantitative trait diversity in the germplasm with respect to collection regions and altitude zones. Hierarchical analysis of variance showed large (p =
Teff is domesticated in Ethiopia and is locally important. Seventy accessions of teff collected from seven regions have been sown in a balanced block design. Significant and highly significant variation was observed between regions, within region and between individual plants within accession for most of the characters considered. Regions showed variations for different characteristics indicating that every region may contribute
Much of the existing literature on the use of informal credit arrangements such as ROSCAs (Rotating and Credit Saving Associations) theorises the use of such institutions as arising from market failures in the development of formal saving and credit mechanisms. As economic development proceeds, formal institutions might therefore be expected to displace ROSCAs. We show, using household data for Ethiopia,
As part of the continuing investigation of human trypanosomiasis in southwestern Ethiopia, a visit was made in January and February 1970 to the village of Pinybago, just north of the river Gilo. During 1969 this village had been affected by an epidemic du...
Empirical studies on gender and agricultural productivity are typically based on production function estimates of a single crop or aggregate output, ignoring the role of prices and endogeneity of input choice. We apply the profit function approach to farm-level data from Ethiopia to compare supply response between male and female farmers, incorporating the full range of crops and prices and
Waste management is a growing public concern in Ethiopia. This study examined the patterns and determinants of solid waste disposal practices adopted by families using a random sample of 200 households from Jimma town. The descriptive results revealed that open-dumping, burying, burning and composting are the four most important kinds of household solid waste disposal practices. Estimation results of a
Proper understanding of the relationship among concern for the environment, waste separation and disposal can contribute to good waste management and safer environment. This is particularly vital in cities of developing countries (such as Ethiopia) where waste separation is poor and there is widespread illegal dumping, with dire consequences for the environment. In this study, household data are collected in
An increasing scarcity of water for crop farming and livestock watering among agropastoralists of Mieso in Eastern Ethiopia has largely disrupted their livelihoods. Indigenous water well maintenance and government initiated rainwater harvesting are two important collective actions common among these communities. With the aim of examining collective action institutions in both cases, we collected data from different stakeholders and individual
The Sagantole Formation comprises more than 200 m of lacustrine, alluvial, and volcaniclastic sediments, plus compositionally bimodal tephras and basaltic lavas, exposed in a domelike horst named the Central Awash Complex in the southwestern Afar rift of Ethiopia. The Sagantole Formation is widely known for abundant vertebrate faunas, including the 4.4 Ma primitive hominid Ardipithecus ramidus. New lithostratigraphic data are
P. R. Renne; G. WoldeGabriel; G. Heiken; W. K. Hart; T. D. White
Despite recent traces of economic growth, Ethiopia remains one of the poorest countries in the world. Though about 80% of its population is engaged in agriculture, agricultural productivity remains low and extremely vulnerable to climatic conditions. The adoption and use of modern technologies is generally accepted as a potential vehicle out of poverty for many but adoption rates in the
Despite the promise of many new farm technologies, technology adoption rates in Ethiopia remain low. This paper studies the impact of social networks on technology adoption through social learning. In addition to geographic networks, intentional relationships are considered. The differential impacts by network type, technology, and asset poverty status are explored. We find evidence that although social learning occurs, it
This book describes the unique problems faced by smallholder farmers in semi arid regions of Ethiopia. It is the result of years of on-farm research that involved farmers and incorporated their indigenous knowledge to develop appropriate tillage systems and implements. It describes tillage implements that were developed as modifications of or attachments to the traditional tillage implement, which is simple,
Soil erosion by water is an old problem in Ethiopia. The prevalence of mountainous and undulating landscapes, coupled with the expansion of arable farming on steep areas due to population pressure have aggravated the soil erosion problem in the country. Prompted by one of the great famines in the country in 1973, the international community and the Ethiopian government began
For centuries, land degradation triggered by deforestation has occurred in Ethiopia, in particular in the northern regional state Tigray, the area under study. In order to change this situation, the local government started to establish enclosures. In these sites, grazing is no longer permitted so that forest can naturally regenerate. In order to develop sustainable yield planning for forest rehabilitation
Stijn Cleemput; Bart Muys; Christoph Kleinn; Marc J. J. Janssens
Irrigation with untreated wastewater from several industrial, commercial, and domestic discharges for decades caused accumulation of various heavy metals and metalloids in soils along the Akaki River in Ethiopia. Assessment of environmental threats and the potential phytoremediation of the soils require understanding of the toxic elements’ uptake and distribution in plant parts. Hence, a greenhouse study was performed to examine
Daniel Fitamo; Seyoum Leta; Gurja Belay; Bekele Lemma; Mats Olsson
|With the emergence of the discourse of TESO, teacher education in Ethiopia has been struggling to change rhetoric and practice by reaffirming a managerially driven reform performance. The terrain is now characterized by fresh, but globally dominant rhetoric. Salient in the emerging discourse is reform mottos and agendas such as "active learning",…
|In this paper, the author argues that the pre-service secondary teacher education "paradigm shift" or "system overhaul" that has been implemented during the 2003-2005 time period in Ethiopia reflects the pursuit of pathways which the author refers to as a managerial approach. Grounded mainly on personal narratives of a key self-narrator and views…
The rural non-farm sector has gained increasing importance over the past decades. In much of Africa, this has had limited effect on the poor, who face entry barriers to non-farm activities. As a result, the nonfarm economy does not reduce poverty but increases inequality instead. Some, but not all, evidence for Ethiopia, however, contradicts this general pattern: the poor do
An article in the Soviet journal (Narody Azii i Afriki) (Peoples of Asia and Africa), No. 1, 1989, contains the strongest criticism seen to date of Ethiopia's Marxist-Leninist regime. Ostensibly the work of a graduate student, Galina Krylova, the article ...
In this article I propose an alternative interpretation of political disorder in Ethiopia's Somali Regional State since the rise to power of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) in 1991. Some observers have perceived contemporary politics in the former Ogaden as an example of 'internal colonization' by highland Ethiopians. Others attribute political instability to the 'nomadic culture' inherent in
BackgroundLittle is known about the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV among TB suspects in primary health care units in Ethiopia.MethodsIn the period of February to March, 2009, a cross sectional survey was done in 27 health centers of Addis Ababa to assess the prevalence of TB and HIV among TB suspects who have > = 2 weeks symptoms of
Amare Deribew; Nebiyu Negussu; Zenebe Melaku; Kebede Deribe; Cesar V. Munayco
The objective of this work was to assess sensory quality and retail life of Horro beef muscles in Ethiopia. Six muscles: M. rhomboideus (RM), M. infraspinatus (IS), M. longissimus lumborum (LL), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. biceps femoris (BF) and M. rectus femoris (RF) were considered. Sensory quality of the muscles was rated by a 9-member trained panel for palatability, tenderness,
Melese Abdisa Yadata; Carsten Werner; Markos Tibbo; Clemens B. A. Wollny; Michael Wicke
A breeding program has been established in 2008 to improve productivity of Horro chicken, an indigenous population in the western highlands of Ethiopia. The pedigree descended from 26 sires and 260 dams. Body weights were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 8 weeks then every 4 weeks for the next 8 weeks. Egg production was recorded to 44 weeks
The reproductive and lamb mortality data (n=4890) of Horro and Menz ewes following controlled breeding in Ethiopia were analyzed. Sheep were treated with flugestone acetate (FGA) intravaginal sponges during the wet and dry seasons to compare the reproductive performance of the two indigenous Ethiopian highland sheep breeds. There was a significant (P<0.001) difference in the fertility rate (conception rate) (79%
European cattle breeds are being introduced into Ethiopia in an effort to improve the productivity of indigenous breeds. The Ethiopian cattle breeds Horro and Boran were compared for tick burdens with their crosses with Friesian, Jersey and Simmental. Horro animals had the lowest tick burdens and the Horro × Friesian the highest. Adaptation to their environment and long-term natural selection
Non-communicable diseases are becoming major problems of public health importance in most developing countries as a result of the effects of globalization and epidemiologic transition; however, there is little evidence regarding diabetes and other non-communicable diseases in these countries. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on the magnitude of diabetes, the relationship between malnutrition and diabetes, diabetic complications, and the management of diabetes in Ethiopia. Relevant studies and other evidence were identified by searches in the Embase from 1970 to December 2011 and by reviewing the reference lists from retrieved articles. Relevant articles from non-indexed local journals were also included. Data were extracted and summarized using the major themes of the systematic review. Although the prevalence of diabetes in Ethiopia is estimated to be 2% nationally, evidence suggests that it prevalence could be >5% in those older than 40 years of age in some settings. Studies in the 1980s and 1990s have reported conflicting evidence regarding malnutrition-related diabetes; however, more recent studies are reconfirming a strong association between malnutrition and diabetes. There is remarkable prevalence of both acute and chronic complications in diabetic cases in Ethiopia. In addition to this, more than one-third, but only less than half, of diabetic patients in Ethiopia receive standard diabetes care. The results of this study indicate that, in response to the emergence of diabetes and other non-communicable diseases, effective and efficient prevention and control strategies should be designed and implemented in Ethiopia. PMID:22212307
CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the current situation. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, engineers, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has started to produce research outputs suitable for use in evidence-based planning activities in the case study cities. Indeed, climate change projections at 8 km resolution are ready for regions containing each of the case study cities; a preliminary hazard assessment for floods, drought and heat waves has already been performed, based on historical data; urban morphology and related green structures have been characterized; preliminary findings in social vulnerability have been achieved; a GIS based identification of Urban Residential hotspots to flooding is completed; and the vulnerability of informal settlements to flooding has been evaluated for one of the hotspots identified (Little Akaki case study area). Furthermore, a set of indicators relevant for Addis Ababa has been selected by local stakeholders to identify especially vulnerable, high risk areas and communities and an investigation of existing urban planning and governance systems and its interface with climate risks and vulnerability is ongoing. Evidence from the CLUVA project is being used to develop the next Master Plan for the Addis Ababa metropolitan area.
BACKGROUND: Information on adult mortality is essentially non-existent in Ethiopia particularly from rural areas where access to health services is limited and most deaths occur at home. This study was conducted with the aim of identifying causes of adult death in a rural population of Ethiopia using a simplified verbal autopsy instrument. METHODS: All deaths in the age-group 15–49 years
BackgroundUnsafe abortion is estimated to account for 13% of maternal mortality globally. Medical abortion is a safe alternative.MethodsBy estimating mortality risks for unsafe and medical abortion and childbirth for Tanzania and Ethiopia, we modelled changes in maternal mortality that are achievable if unsafe abortion were replaced by medical abortion. We selected Ethiopia and Tanzania because of their high maternal mortality
Rebecca F. Baggaley; Joanna Burgin; Oona M. R. Campbell
Background:With transmission of HIV occurring mainly through heterosexual contact, it is paramount to identify serodiscordant couples and implement preventive strategies that will protect the negative partner. The burden of serodiscordance and its predictors in Ethiopia is not clearly understood due to the dearth of data.Objective: To assess the prevalence and predictors of HIV serodiscordance among couples tested in Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH) Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center.Methods:The study employed a case-control study design conducted at VCT center of JUSH in all registered serodiscordant couples and seroconcordant couples that were selected from the registered clients in the period from 2003 to 2010. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection using medical chart abstraction. Data were entered, cleaned, and coded using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.Results:The prevalence of serodiscordance in the study population was found to be 8.4%. Male and female discordants accounted for 5.8% (137) and 2.6% (62), respectively. Rare use of condom (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 7.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.59-32.54) and active tuberculosis (TB) at enrollment (AOR= 17.7; 95% CI = 2.3-139.2) were significantly found to be the predictors of serodiscordance. Conclusion:The prevalence of serodiscordance in the study area was found to be low, but it contributes to a clinically significant population that mandates implementation of preventive strategy. Sero-positive individuals who use condoms rarely should be encouraged to have their partners tested, and the association between active TB and serodiscordance underscores the need for further study. PMID:23697776
Factors influencing dairy technology adoption and impact on milk yield were studied in 240 smallholder farms in Dejen district, Ethiopia. The majority of the smallholders had more than 20 years of farming experience and were living at more than 10 km distance from market or trading centers (67% and 54% in that order). The dairy technologies studied included the use of crossbred animals, improved feed technologies and improved management practices. Application of acaricides, deworming, vaccination, heat-detection and haymaking had wide application (more than 80% adoption levels) while urea straw treatment, silage making, rotational grazing and fodder beet development were the least practiced ones. Only 20 percent of the cows were crossbred animals. It has been found that higher level of technology adoption is associated with better milk yield regardless of the breed of cattle (local or crossbred) owned by the farmers. Milk yields in local breeds increased by 0.07 times when the number of technologies increased by one unit. In crossbred cows, this rate of increase was five fold higher (0.38 times for one unit increase). Correlation coefficients between and within farm household characteristics and technologies adoption were, generally, significant. Male-headed households adopted significantly higher number of technologies than female-headed households (P < 0.001). Technology adoption rates increased significantly with increased education level and family size and decreasing distance from market or trade centers (P < 0.01). The level of technology adoption by smallholder farmers is still unsatisfactory and is highly dependent on gender, family size and level of education of smallholder farmers and location of farms. PMID:19669662
|A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…
Background Skilled attendants during labor, delivery, and in the early postpartum period, can prevent up to 75% or more of maternal death. However, in many developing countries, very few mothers make at least one antenatal visit and even less receive delivery care from skilled professionals. The present study reports findings from a region where key challenges related to transportation and availability of obstetric services were addressed by an ongoing project, giving a unique opportunity to understand why women might continue to prefer home delivery even when facility based delivery is available at minimal cost. Methods The study took place in Ethiopia using a mixed study design employing a cross sectional household survey among 15–49 year old women combined with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Results Seventy one percent of mothers received antenatal care from a health professional (doctor, health officer, nurse, or midwife) for their most recent birth in the one year preceding the survey. Overall only 16% of deliveries were assisted by health professionals, while a significant majority (78%) was attended by traditional birth attendants. The most important reasons for not seeking institutional delivery were the belief that it is not necessary (42%) and not customary (36%), followed by high cost (22%) and distance or lack of transportation (8%). The group discussions and interviews identified several reasons for the preference of traditional birth attendants over health facilities. Traditional birth attendants were seen as culturally acceptable and competent health workers. Women reported poor quality of care and previous negative experiences with health facilities. In addition, women’s low awareness on the advantages of skilled attendance at delivery, little role in making decisions (even when they want), and economic constraints during referral contribute to the low level of service utilization. Conclusions The study indicated the crucial role of proper health care provider-client communication and providing a more client centered and culturally sensitive care if utilization of existing health facilities is to be maximized. Implications of findings for maternal health programs and further research are discussed.
Participatory rural appraisal (PRA), supported by checklists and intensive case studies on individual households, was carried out in three villages at three different altitudes in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The chicken production system in each village is described and the problems are discussed. More than 60% of the families kept chickens, and in most cases the women owned and managed the birds and controlled the cash from the sales. The production systems followed were mainly low-input and small-scale, with 7-10 mature birds per household, reared in the back yards with inadequate housing, feeding and health care. The average egg production per clutch was 15-20, with 3-4 clutches per year. The mean number of eggs set per bird was 12.9 +/- 2.2 (n = 160), depending on the size of the bird and season, and the hatching rate was 80.9% +/- 11.1%, range 44%-100% (n = 160). Poultry meat and eggs were generally accepted and appreciated in all three villages. In addition to the small amount of cash income they provide, scavenging chickens have nutritional, cultural and social functions. The flock composition, price of poultry and poultry products, disease outbreaks and hatching of chicks were strongly affected by season. Disease was cited as the most important problem by most of the members of the community, followed by predation, lack of feed, poor housing, insufficient water and parasites. Disease periodically decimated the flocks, and consequently, about 50% of the eggs produced were incubated in order to replace the birds that had died. The major source of loss in the system was the high mortality of chicks (61%) that occurred between hatching and the end of brooding at 8 weeks of age. The system was characterized by no or few inputs and a low output level. The major input was the cost of foundation stock, but after that virtually no cost was involved. The major source of feed for the birds was from the scavenging feed resource base, which comprised table leftovers, small grain supplements and anything edible from the immediate environment. PMID:11770206
The Red sea, Gulf of Aden and the Main Ethiopian rift form a triple junction in the Afar Region. Although the East African Rift, the divergent plate boundary between Nubian and Somalia, is often cited as a modern archetype for rifting and continental breakup, its current kinematics is the least known of all major plate boundaries. Moreover, geodetic datum in such tectonically active area is subject to distortion that increases with time. Therefore, a close study of the positions and velocities of reference stations in such tectonic active areas is necessary, if one wants to have high precise geodetic measurement for any developmental activity. In this study phase and pseudo-range GPS measurements were processed to derive the daily solutions of positions in reference to the ITRF05. This solution from 8 continuous stations in Ethiopia, with a length of 0.75 to 2.67 years, is then combined into a cumulative solution with position and velocity estimates. Here a method that combines GPS observation data from 2007 to 2009 to estimate time-dependent motion of stations in a region of active deformation is implemented. First, observations were analysed separately to produce loosely constrained estimates of station positions and coordinate system parameters which are then combined with appropriate constraints to estimate velocities and co-seismic displacements. The result archived gives a good insight about the velocity at which the three major plates, namely the Nubian, Arabian and Somalia plates are moving with respect to each other. The study shows the relative velocity between Nubia and Somalia plates with 4.6±0.3 mm/yr. While, the Nubia and Arabia plates are moving with 33±0.15mm/yr.Moreover; positions of stations are computed with high precession for any future reference purpose. Due to short duration of measurements at some stations further observation are recommended to compute positions and velocity fields after all stations have data at least for two years time. Key words: GPS, Space geodesy, ITRF05, Deformation
Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5%) had retinal detachment (RD) and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5). Fourteen patients (17.5%) had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9%) were blind from RD and 11 (13.8%) patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5%) and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%). The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%), myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%), posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%). Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1%) were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%). Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9%) and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes) had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011), and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040). Conclusions A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma.
Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.
Inability to retain HIV-infected patients in care undermines the benefits of starting millions in low-income countries on antiretroviral therapy (ART). In a hospital HIV clinic in rural southernEthiopia, we conducted focus groups of HIV-infected men and women to learn more about experiences with and barriers to attending clinic appointments. Respondents reported multiple barriers, including those that were patient related (eg, misunderstandings about ART, mistaken belief in AIDS cures, and drug/alcohol use), clinic related (eg, negative provider interactions, lack of familiarity with patients' medical situation, and overcrowding), medication related (eg, side effects), social (eg, stigma and discrimination and lack of support), and situational/resource related (eg, distance to clinic, lack of funds, competing domestic/work priorities, and lack of food). Based on the lessons learned from these focus groups, we implemented a community intervention to improve retention, using trained community support workers who provide patient education, counseling, social support, problem-solving assistance, needed referrals, and improved communication/linkage to the patients' HIV clinic. PMID:22993233
Lifson, Alan R; Demissie, Workneh; Tadesse, Alemayehu; Ketema, Kassu; May, Randy; Yakob, Bereket; Metekia, Meka; Slater, Lucy; Shenie, Tibebe
The nature and type of landscape that hominins (early humans) frequented has been of considerable interest. The recent works on Ardipithecus ramidus, a 4.4 million years old hominin found at Middle Awash, Ethiopia, provided critical information about the early part of human evolution. However, habitat characterization of this basal hominin has been highly contested. Here we present new sedimentological and stable isotopic (carbon and oxygen) data from Aramis, where the in situ, partial skeleton of Ar. ramidus (nicknamed 'Ardi') was excavated. These data are interpreted to indicate the presence of major rivers and associated mixed vegetations (grasses and trees) in adjacent floodplains. Our finding suggests that, in contrast to a woodland habitat far from a river, Ar. ramidus lived in a river-margin forest in an otherwise savanna (wooded grassland) landscape at Aramis, Ethiopia. Correct interpretation of habitat of Ar. ramidus is crucial for proper assessment of causes and mechanisms of early hominin evolution, including the development of bipedalism.
This study examines irrigation practices, state intervention and the responses of farmers in theTigray<\\/span>region of<\\/span>Ethiopia<\\/span><\\/st1:place><\\/st1:country-region>. Although governments have been involved in the construction of irrigation infrastructures since the mid-1980s to mitigate drought and famine in many parts of<\\/span>Ethiopia<\\/span><\\/st1:place><\\/st1:country-region>, the responses of irrigators to such interventions have never been studied. The main
Clarifying the geographic, environmental and behavioural contexts in which the emergence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens occurred has proved difficult, particularly because Africa lacked adequate geochronological, palaeontological and archaeological evidence. The discovery of anatomically modern Homo sapiens fossils at Herto, Ethiopia, changes this. Here we report on stratigraphically associated Late Middle Pleistocene artefacts and fossils from fluvial and lake margin sandstones of the Upper Herto Member of the Bouri Formation, Middle Awash, Afar Rift, Ethiopia. The fossils and artefacts are dated between 160,000 and 154,000 years ago by precise age determinations using the 40Ar/39Ar method. The archaeological assemblages contain elements of both Acheulean and Middle Stone Age technocomplexes. Associated faunal remains indicate repeated, systematic butchery of hippopotamus carcasses. Contemporary adult and juvenile Homo sapiens fossil crania manifest bone modifications indicative of deliberate mortuary practices. PMID:12802333
Clark, J Desmond; Beyene, Yonas; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K; Renne, Paul R; Gilbert, Henry; Defleur, Alban; Suwa, Gen; Katoh, Shigehiro; Ludwig, Kenneth R; Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; Asfaw, Berhane; White, Tim D
The use of reagent strips as indirect morbidity indicators in Schistosoma haematobium infection has been assessed in comparison with urine filtration technique in the lower Awash valley of Ethiopia in 1991. The prevalence of infection by reagent sticks and urine filtration was 16.0% and 3.6%, respectively. Reagent stick haematuria was highly related with urine filtration at the 2+ limit rather than the 1+ limit. A strong association was also obtained between prevalence rate and intensity of infection of all children at both haematuria limits. The prevalence of haematuria was not sex-related but there was age-associated infection and the prevalence was highest in the 10-13 year age group. The possible use of reagent stick haematuria in the monitoring of S. haematobium infection in Ethiopia is discussed. PMID:8513780
Jemaneh, L; Shewakena, F; Tedla, S; Erko, B; Birrie, H
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency is severe public health problem in Ethiopia. Although urinary iodine excretion level (UIE) is a better indicator for IDD the goitre rate is commonly used to mark the public health significance. The range of ill effect of IDD is however beyond goitre in Ethiopia. In this study the prevalence of goitre and its association with reproductive failure,
A large proportion of breast cancer patients in Ethiopia present for biomedical care too late, or not at all, resulting in high mortality. This study was conducted to better learn of beliefs and practices among patients accessing breast cancer services in a large referral centre in Ethiopia. Using a mixed-method design, we interviewed 69 breast cancer patients presenting for care
Timothy De Ver Dye; Solomon Bogale; Claire Hobden; Yared Tilahun; Vanessa Hechter; Teshome Deressa; Marion Bize; Anne Reeler
A large proportion of breast cancer patients in Ethiopia present for biomedical care too late, or not at all, resulting in high mortality. This study was conducted to better learn of beliefs and practices among patients accessing breast cancer services in a large referral centre in Ethiopia. Using a mixed-method design, we interviewed 69 breast cancer patients presenting for care
Timothy De Ver Dye; Solomon Bogale; Claire Hobden; Yared Tilahun; Vanessa Hechter; Teshome Deressa; Marion Bize; Anne Reeler
SUMMARY We undertook a representative survey of measles antibodies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 1994, to characterize immunity and transmission. Specific-antibody levels (IU\\/l) were determined by ELISA for 4654 sera from individuals aged 0- 49 years (1805 <15 years) collected by stratified household-cluster sampling. The proportion seronegative (<100 IU\\/l) was 20 % (95 % CI : 16-25) in children 9-59 months
F. E NQUSELASSIE; W. A YELE; A. DEJENE; T. MESSELE; A. A BEBE
The few remaining Afromontane forest fragments in northern Ethiopia and the surrounding degraded, semiarid matrix form a habitat\\u000a mosaic of varying suitability for forest birds. To evaluate the effect of recent land rehabilitation efforts on bird community\\u000a composition and diversity, we studied bird species distributions in ten small forest fragments (0.40–20.95 ha), five grazing\\u000a exclosures (10-year-old forest restoration areas without wood
Raf Aerts; Frederik Lerouge; Luc Lens; Martin Hermy; Bart Muys
In Ethiopia, the number of HIV tests administered doubled from 2007 to 2008. However, very little is known about the number\\u000a of clients testing repeatedly in one year, or their motivations for doing so. We examine repeat HIV testing among 2,027 Ethiopian\\u000a women attending eight VCT facilities in 2008. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between repeat\\u000a HIV
This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitative methods to elicit poor children’s perspectives about\\u000a threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences\\u000a of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of wellbeing, threats to their wellbeing,\\u000a coping strategies,
Bethlehem Tekola; Christine Griffin; Laura Camfield
transformation. Mengistu's regime, enjoying the support of the then Soviet-led socialist bloc, reigned in terror for seventeen years. Besides the realization of the much anticipated nationalization of land, little actual economic and\\/or social development was achieved. Famine, misery and wars continued to be associated with Ethiopia. Armed struggle against the government by a number of opposition groups - ethno-nationalist (TPLF,
Special Series on Social Norms and Harmful Practices Female Genital Mutilation\\/Cutting (FGM\\/C) is still a widespread practice in Ethiopia, although important declines in prevalence rates can be observed in some areas of the country. Attitudes towards the practice have drastically changed, evidenced by the fact that overall support for FGM\\/C has declined and younger mothers are less likely than older
This paper investigates the performance of selected soil and water conservation measures in the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea, namely Fanya Juu, soil\\/stone bund, grass strips and double ditches. The impact of these techniques on runoff, soil loss, crop yield and biomass production is measured at on-farm experimental sites in seven research sites under different agro-ecological conditions. On one hand,
Summary Using Ethiopia rural household survey (ERHS) panel data set (1994-97), we evaluated the impact of prime age adult mortality on child survival and growth. We employed propensity score matching (PSM) with difference-in-difference (DID) estimators to control for endogeneity of adult mortality to child survival and growth. Bereavement (child living in a household with adult mortality) increased the probability of
The paper presents geological and petrological data on one of the alkaline ranges developed along the borders of the Afar\\u000a depression (Ethiopia). These alkaline ranges occur in a position transversal to the dominant NNW trend of the spreading zones\\u000a of northern and central Afar which are characterized by magmas of tholeiitic affinity.\\u000a \\u000a The Edd-Bahar Assoli volcanic range consists of broad
Summary The early history, botany, cultivation, economics and sociological aspects of the use ofCatha edulis (Vahl) Forsk. ex Endl., commonly known as chat, have been presented in some detail with special emphasis being given to agricultural\\u000a practice around Harar, Ethiopia, an area where the plant is probably native. Chat attains an average height of 2.5 to 3 meters\\u000a but may occasionally
Ethiopia is one of the countries well endowed with various species of Acacia, Boswellia and Commiphora that are known to produce gum arabic, frankincense and myrrh, respectively. Over 60 gum and resin bearing species are found in the country. The total area of oleo-gum resin bearing woodlands cover about 2.9 million ha of land in the country, with over 300,000
The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of coffee genetic resources that are dwindling\\u000a at an alarming rate in Ethiopia, the centre of diversity of Coffea arabica. Firstly, we describe the coffee growing systems (forest coffee, semi-forest coffee, garden coffee and plantation coffee)\\u000a and recent research on the genetic diversity of the coffee
Ethiopia is a centre of diversity and hosts rich genetic resources of tetraploid wheats. Through time, the wheat materials\\u000a were subject to genetic erosion. Closer investigation was made to assess the status of loss, and identify the possible causes\\u000a by studying two districts from East Shewa. Information from primary and secondary sources was reviewed and analysed. Farmers\\u000a identified 26 tetraploid
Integrated watershed management (IWSM) was implemented to address issues of poverty and land resource degradation in the 14,500ha upper Agula watershed, in semi-arid Eastern Tigray (Ethiopia), an area known for poverty and resource degradation caused by natural and man-made calamities. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of IWSM and determine the land use and cover dynamics
Fikir Alemayehu; Nurhussen Taha; Jan Nyssen; Atkilt Girma; Amanuel Zenebe; Mintesinot Behailu; Seppe Deckers; Jean Poesen
There are only a few studies of land cover-land use changes which provide an integrated assessment of the biophysical and\\u000a societal causes and consequences of environmental degradation in Ethiopia. Our objectives were to determine the status of\\u000a the environmental degradation, analyse and evaluate the relationships among vegetation, geomorphological and socio-economic\\u000a factors contributing to environmental degradation, and propose opportunities for rehabilitation
Enrico Feoli; Laura Gallizia Vuerich; Zerihun Woldu
BACKGROUND: The synergy between tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on perceived stigma is not well studied. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of TB\\/HIV co-infection on perceived stigma in selected hospitals of Oromiya region, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from February to April, 2009 in Adama, Nekemet and Jimma Specialized hospitals.
Livestock fulfill different functions. Depending on their livelihood strategies, households differ in their choice of what\\u000a type of animal to keep and on accumulation of the chosen animal overtime. Using a panel data of 385 rural households in a\\u000a mixed farming system in northern Ethiopia, this paper investigates the dynamic behavior of rural households’ livestock holding\\u000a to identify determinants of
Fredu Nega Tegebu; Erik Mathijs; Joseph Deckers; Mitiku Haile; Jan Nyssen; Eric Tollens
Indigenous tillage systems are often undervalued in conservation agriculture (CA). In Ethiopia, since the 1970s there have\\u000a been several attempts to develop and implement often major modifications to the marasha, the traditional ox-drawn ard plough, with the main aim of creating various types of surface depressions. The establishment\\u000a of furrows and ridges increases soil moisture and grain yield and reduces
Jan Nyssen; Bram Govaerts; Tesfay Araya; Wim M. Cornelis; Hans Bauer; Mitiku Haile; Ken Sayre; Jozef Deckers
\\u000a Indigenous tillage systems are often undervalued in conservation agriculture (CA). In Ethiopia, since the 1970s there have\\u000a been several attempts to develop and implement often major modifications to the marasha, the traditional ox-drawn ard plough, with the main aim of creating various types of surface depressions. The establishment\\u000a of furrows and ridges increases soil moisture and grain yield and reduces
Jan Nyssen; Bram Govaerts; Tesfay Araya; Wim M. Cornelis; Hans Bauer; Mitiku Haile; Ken Sayre; Jozef Deckers
Global declines of carnivores are related to difficult integration with human land use, in particular conflicts caused by\\u000a livestock depredation. Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) live in remarkably close proximity to humans in the degraded and prey-depleted Enderta district, northern Ethiopia. Their\\u000a diet and interaction with people were investigated in sub-districts close to the regional capital, Mekelle. We interviewed\\u000a 1,686 randomly
Gidey Yirga Abay; Hans Bauer; Kindeya Gebrihiwot; Jozef Deckers
The semi-arid highlands of Northern Ethiopia (Tigray) have numerous small reservoirs that have been created by microdams in\\u000a an attempt to provide water supply for irrigation and livestock drinking. Although the reservoirs have substantial added value\\u000a to residents, their use as water resource is jeopardized by eutrophication and a high occurrence of blooms of toxic cyanobacteria.\\u000a So far, there is
Tadesse Dejenie; Tsehaye Asmelash; Luc De Meester; Afework Mulugeta; Abreha Gebrekidan; Sarah Risch; Annemie Pals; Katleen Van der Gucht; Wim Vyverman; Jan Nyssen; Jozef Deckers; Steven Declerck
Study was conducted in two sub-districts in northwestern Ethiopia to compile and analyse knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for treatment or prevention of human ailments by three socio-cultural groups, namely the Amharas, Shinashas and Agew-Awis. Data were mainly collected through individual interviews conducted with selected knowledgeable farmers and professional healers of the three socio-cultural groups. A total of
Our study was conducted from November 2001 to April 2002 in the Debre-Zeit area (near Addis Ababa), Ethiopia to assess the husbandry practices and to identify health constraints in 100 market-oriented smallholder dairy farms. A questionnaire survey, farm visit and animal examination were conducted.Thirty-eight percent of the smallholder farms were owned by women. Women-owned farms had more cows (median=3) than
Between 1986 and 1988 a door-to-door survey was conducted on a stable rural population of 60,820 in central Ethiopia. Trained lay health workers made a complete census and identified cases with symptoms -and signs of neurological disorders, using specially designed questionnaires which, in a previous pilot study, were found to have a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 85%. Neurological
Redda Tekle-Haimanot; Mekonnen Abebe; Ayele Gebre-Mariam; Lars Forsgren; Jan Heijbel; Gösta Holmgren; Jan Ekstedt
Hedonic price models were fitted to a sample of 1,397 sheep and 1,293 goats, for which data were collected from nine markets in Ethiopia over a 12-month period. The objective was to determine seasonal and inter-market differences in prices after controlling for the effects on different attributes of the animals, the buyers and the sellers. Results indicate that, controlling for
Gezahegn Ayele; Mohammad A. Jabbar; Hailemariom Teklewold; Elias Mulugeta; Getahun Kebede
385 patients were seen in the cardiology clinic of Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia over 20 months. Of 338 with defined pathology, 152 had rheumatic heart disease, 47 were hypertensive, 39 had cardiomyopathy, 36 had congenital heart disease and 24 arrhythmia. Average age of rheumatics was 25.5, 78% were ?30, male:female = 58:94. The mitral valve was affected in
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing world. There is paucity of data on smoking and predictors of smoking among school-going adolescents in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associations among school-going adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: Data from the Global
Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Abdurahman Abdo; Adamson S Muula
At the outset of the 1990s, Ethiopia was among the Afri- can countries with the highest fertility. During the subse- quent decade, the total fertility rate (TFR) dropped from 6.4 to 5.9 children per woman of reproductive age. Early studies of the fertility transition in sub-Saharan Africa documented significant declines in fertility in Botswana, Kenya, South Africa, and Zimbabwe (van
Amson Sibanda; Zewdu Woubalem; Dennis P. Hogan; David P. Lindstrom
Extrusion ages of archaeological obsidian, especially as determined by the 40Ar\\/39Ar method, can provide reliable maximum ages for tool manufacture. In at least one case in the Middle Awash of Ethiopia, freshly extruded obsidian was used for tool making, resulting in useful maximum ages for site occupation. Hydration resulting in mobility of K and\\/or Ar in glass, and recoil artifacts
Leah E. Morgan; Paul R. Renne; R. E. Taylor; Giday WoldeGabriel