The prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Addis Ababa Abattoir, Ethiopia between September 2004 and August 2005 was reported. The examination of various organs of 11227 cattle in Addis Ababa Abattoir showed that 842 (7.5%) were infected with T. saginata cysticercosis. The tongue, masseter muscles, cardiac muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. The cysts of bovine cysticercosis were also identified on the spleen, intercostal muscles, diaphragm and liver. Out of 10,329 male cattle, examined, 783 (7.6%) had cysts of bovine cysticercosis while 59 (6.6%) of the 898 female animals investigated were infected. The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in prevalence rates was recorded between the sexes. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was higher in local zebu cattle breeds than Holstein-Frisian cattle. PMID:18551380
Kebede, Nigatu; Tilahun, Getachew; Hailu, Asrat
A cross sectional and retrospective studies were conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 to determine the prevalence and characteristics of hydatid cysts in cattle slaughtered at Gondar Elfora Abattoir in northern Ethiopia. Out of the 308 cattle examined for the presence of hydatid cysts, 63 (20.5 %) of them were found harboring hydatid cysts in one or more of their internal organs. Results of the study showed higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in adult (22.4 %; 49/219) than in young (15.7 %; 14/89) cattle. Lowest prevalence of hydatid cysts was observed in cattle from Debark (7.7 %; 2/26) whereas highest prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was recorded in cattle from Fogera (28.2 %; 11/39). The lungs (69.3 %; 61/88) were the most affected organs followed by the livers (28.4 %; 25/88). A total of 230 hydatid cysts from different internal organs of 63 infected cattle were differentiated into 60.4 % calcified, 30 % fertile and 9.6 % sterile cysts. Likewise, a total of 13 % (30/230) small, 15.6 % (36/230) medium, and 10.9 % (25/230) large hydatid cysts were recorded. Lung harbored the highest overall count (76.9 %; 177/230) and greatest proportion of large size cysts (13.5 %; 103/177) than all the other organs. Liver harbored the highest proportion of calcified cysts (68 %; 34/50). An overall proportion of 30 % (69/230) fertile cysts were recorded. The greatest proportion of fertile cysts (33.3 %; 59/177) was recorded in lungs followed by the livers (20 %; 10/50). A retrospective data of 5 years (2004/5-2009/10) revealed an overall prevalence of 30.4 % (9,106/29,951) and highest overall prevalence of 65.5 % hydatid cysts in the lungs followed by livers (33.5 %) and least in spleen (0.04 %). In conclusion the findings reported herein show that cystic echinococcosis is widespread in cattle slaughtered in Gondar export Abattoir and suggests that the lung is the most important source of hydatid cysts for definitive hosts in the area. PMID:25320493
Abebe, Abebaw; Beyene, Desta; Kumsa, Bersissa
Background Bovine Tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resource. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. We evaluated efficiency of RA inspection for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection and discussed its public health implications in light of a high risk of human exposure. Methods The study was conducted in five abattoirs: Addis Ababa, Adama, Hawassa, Yabello and Melge-Wondo abattoirs. The efficiency of routine abattoir (RA) inspection was validated in comparison to detailed abattoir (DA) inspection, followed by culture and microscopy (CM) and region of difference (RD) deletion analysis. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity) and likelihood estimations using web-based SISA diagnostic statistics software. Post-test probability of detecting TB infected carcasses was estimated using nomograms. Agreement between RA and DA inspections was measured using kappa statistics. The study was conducted and reported in accordance with standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy (STARD) requirements. Both routine and detailed meat inspection protocols were performed on a subpopulation of 3322 cattle selected randomly from among 78,269 cattle slaughtered during the study period. Three hundred thirty seven carcasses identified through detailed meat inspection protocols were subjected to culture and microscopy; of the 337, a subset of 105 specimens for culture and microscopy were subjected to further molecular testing. Results There was a substantial agreement between RA and DA inspections in Addis Ababa (Kappa = 0.7) and Melge-Wondo abattoirs (Kappa = 0.67). In Adama, Hawassa and Yabello abattoirs, the agreement was however poor (Kappa ? 0.2). RA inspection was able to detect only 117 of the total 3322 carcasses inspected (3.5%). The sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) of RA inspection were 28.2% (95/337) [95%CI: 23.4-33.0] and 99.3% (2963/2985) [95%CI: 99.0-99.6], respectively, when DA inspection was considered as reference test. When culture and microscopy (CM) was considered as reference test, the Sn and Sp of RA were 55.2% (58/105) [95%CI: 45.7-64.7] and 84.1% (195/232) [95%CI: 79.3-88.8]. RA inspection failed to detect 71.8% (242/337) and 44.8% (47/105) of TB infected carcasses as judged by DA inspection and CM, respectively. On the other hand, a much higher sensitivity of DA was obtained when CM and RD deletion analysis were considered as reference tests (96.3% (105/109) and 100.0% (24/24), respectively). Conclusions The study results indicate that meat inspection protocols currently utilized in abattoirs are insufficient to detect the majority of TB lesions at the gross level. DA inspection protocols were demonstrated to improve the detection level by approximately 3-fold. The failure of current inspection techniques to detect approximately 70% of carcasses presented with grossly-visible lesions of TB at the slaughter-plants indicates the magnitude of meat-borne zoonotic TB as an on-going risk to public health. Standardization of abattoir inspection protocols (in line with international sanitary requirements), enhanced training and proficiency testing of meat inspections, and raising public awareness are recommended as essential and cost-effective interventions to improve meat inspection service in Ethiopia, with subsequent protection of consumers' health. PMID:20691081
A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of bovine cysticercosis and hydatidosis was conducted from October 2007 to March 2008 in cattle slaughtered at the Jimma municipal abattoir. Cyst distribution and viability of bovine cysticercosis and hydatidosis were also determined. A total of 512 carcasses were inspected of which 15 (2.93%) and 161 (31.44%) were infected with Taenia saginata metacestodes and hydatid cysts, respectively. From a total of 109 cysticerci collected from infected carcasses, 47 (43.12%) were viable. The anatomical distribution of the cysticerci was, shoulder muscle (39.5%), heart (33.9%), neck muscle (13.8%), tongue (10.1%), masseter muscles (1.8%) and diaphragm (0.9%). Of the 1171 hydatid cysts collected 223 (19.0%) were fertile, 505 (43.1%) sterile, 49 (29.8%) calcified and 94 (8.0%) contained pus. A greater proportion of fertile cysts were found in the lungs than in other organs. It was concluded that these zoonotic cestodes deserve due attention to safeguard public health, and that further studies are needed on genotyping, epidemiology and public health importance of Echinococcus granulosus in the study area. PMID:21105600
Tolosa, T; Tigre, W; Teka, G; Dorny, P
Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…
Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael
Ethiopia is a key region to understand the evolution of the East African rift system, since it is the area of interaction between the main Ethiopian rift (MER) and the Kenyan rift. However, geological data constraining rift evolution in this remote area are still relatively sparse. In this study the timing, distribution, and style of rifting in southern Ethiopia are constrained by new structural, geochronological, and geomorphological data. The border faults in the area are roughly parallel to preexisting basement fabrics and are progressively more oblique with respect to the regional Nubia-Somalia motion proceeding southward. Kinematic indicators along these faults are mainly dip slip, pointing to a progressive rotation of the computed direction of extension toward the south. Radiocarbon data indicate post 30 ka faulting at both western and eastern margins of the MER with limited axial deformation. Similarly, geomorphological data suggest recent fault activity along the western margins of the basins composing the Gofa Province and in the Chew Bahir basin. This supports that interaction between the MER and the Kenyan rift in southern Ethiopia occurs in a 200 km wide zone of ongoing deformation. Fault-related exhumation at ~10-12 Ma in the Gofa Province, as constrained by new apatite fission track data, occurred later than the ~20 Ma basement exhumation of the Chew Bahir basin, thus pointing to a northward propagation of the Kenyan rift-related extension in the area.
Philippon, Melody; Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Bonini, Marco; Balestrieri, Maria-Laura; Molin, Paola; Willingshofer, Ernst; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Cloetingh, Sierd
A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2005 to April 2006 on bovine cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered at Awassa municipal abattoir with the objective of determining the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis, cyst viability, distribution and its public health implication. Questionnaire survey involving 120 respondents was also conducted on human taeniasis. A total of 400 carcasses were examined during the study period, of which 105 (26.25%) were infected with T. saginata metacestodes. From a total of 3200 samples inspected, 500 cysticerci were detected in 141 samples, of which 221 (44.2%) were alive. The anatomical distribution of cysticerci were 65 (29.2%) heart, 56 (25.3%) shoulder muscle, 59 (26.7%) masseter, 23 (10.4%) tongue, 12 (5.4%) diaphragm, three (1.4%) liver, two (0.9%) lung and one (0.5%) kidney samples. The prevalence varied significantly between local and crossbred animals (OR = 3.15, P < 0.05), but not varied between sex, age groups and origin of the animals. T. saginata taeniasis was a widespread public health problem in the town with an overall prevalence of 64.2% (77 of 120). The potential risk factors for disease contraction were raw meat consumption, religion and occupational risks. In conclusion, the study revealed high prevalence of T. saginata metacestodes throughout the edible organs together with existence of deep-rooted tradition of raw meat consumption. This may magnify the public health hazards of T. saginata in the study area. As a result, the disease deserves due attention to safeguard the public health and further promote beef industry in the country. PMID:18234026
Abunna, F; Tilahun, G; Megersa, B; Regassa, A; Kumsa, B
This document is a text dealing mainly with Ethiopia's rich cultural heritage and current lifestyles. It gives students the opportunity to go beyond the media coverage that has led to the perception of the whole of Ethiopia as a famine stricken land, and to discover the realities of this new nation, that about 15 percent of the population, mainly…
Endorheic basins, often found in semi-arid and arid climates, are particularly sensitive to changes in climatological fluxes such as precipitation, evaporation and runoff, resulting in variability of river flows as well as of water levels in end-point lakes that are often present. In this paper we apply the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) to characterise change to the natural flow regime of the Omo-Ghibe basin in Southern Ethiopia. This endorheic basin is considered relatively pristine, with the basin being the main source of flow to Lake Turkana, the end-point lake in the East-African rift valley. The water level in Lake Turkana shows significant fluctuation, but an increasing trend can be observed over the past 20 yr. The reasons are currently not well understood. Of the five groups of metrics in the IHA, only those related to magnitude were found to show significant trends, with the main trend being the increase of flow during the dry season. This trend was not reflected in climatological drivers such as rainfall, evaporation, and temperature (which shows an increasing trend), but rather is attributed to the substantial changes in Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) in the basin. The impact on the basin hydrology is apparent mainly in the more humid part of the basin. The significant shift from forest and woodland to grassland and cropland results in a decrease of actual evaporation and subsequent increase in (dry season) runoff. The long term trend of the increasing levels in lake Turkana are related to these trends in dry season flows, while shorter term fluctuations of the lake levels are attributed primarily to anomalies in consecutive wet and dry season rainfall.
Worku, F. F.; Werner, M.; Wright, N.; van der Zaag, P.; Demissie, S.
Anthropological research conducted from July 2005 to June 2006 in southern Ethiopia demonstrates that Guji-Oromo women have more subtle cultural and economic rights than is immediately apparent. Women actively participate in the ritual aspect of the gada generation grade system, but they are marginally involved in political activities. While customary laws provide women with strong protection from mistreatment by husbands
Dejene N. DEBSU
Little effort has been made to improve village chickens housing, feeding, and health care. Due to this, the amount of output obtained is usually low. The aim of this study was to elicit farmers' knowledge on the routine husbandry practices of village chickens. One hundred nineteen farmers were one-on-one interviewed in the highland and lowland areas of Wolaita zone (southern Ethiopia) to generate the dataset used in this analysis. We found that all the respondents supplemented the scavenging chickens with locally available feed resources. However, the amount of supplementary feeds provided hardly meets the nutritional requirement of the flock. As a result, farmers were forced to practice a sort of preferential feeding mainly based on laying performance and the scavenging ability of different classes of the family flock. Moreover, there is a wide difference in the amount and type of feed available among seasons. This variation has forced farmers to resort on strategic supplementation to overcome the adverse effect of inherent feed (grain) scarcity on chickens' performance especially during wet season. Feed loss should be kept at a minimum by using feeding troughs, and a fraction of money obtained from selling of the chickens and eggs needs to be set aside to purchase feed. The risk of disease was higher during main rain season (June to September). Besides providing sanitary condition and feed supplementation, capacitating the veterinary service and validating the efficacy of ethno-veterinary practices through objective studies is required to improve the health status of village chickens. Majority of the farmers use rudimentary types of in-house built shelters to protect their chickens from adverse effects of bad weather, predation, and theft. This indicates the importance of constructing proper types of shelters from locally (freely) available or inexpensive materials. The existing tradition of responsibility sharing among family members while doing the routine husbandry practices needs to be strengthened to maximize the efficient use of family's labor force. This improvement plan needs to be mainly implemented through adoption of the existing best traditional practices and through the rational use of cheap and readily available local resources. PMID:22826116
Desta, Takele Taye; Wakeyo, Oli
Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…
Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael
Community participation is a term frequently used and often cited in international educational development. In this article, Jennifer Swift-Morgan investigates the definition and impact of community participation in schooling in rural Ethiopia. Although national governments, development agencies, and nongovernmental organizations across the…
Over the past few decades the inhabitants of the Oromo–Somali borderlands of southern Ethiopia have encountered three competing nationalisms: Ethiopian state nationalism (patriotism), Somali ethno-nationalism (irredentism), and Oromo ethno-nationalism. The territories and peoples claimed by each competing nationalism overlap. In the 1960s and 1970s Somali irredentist claims predominated, and generated a severe Ethiopian response. In the post-1991 period, claims and
Background Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious, granulomatous disease caused by acid-fast bacilli of the genus Mycobacterium. The disease affects practically all species of vertebrates. Although mammalian tuberculosis has been nearly controlled in many developed countries, it is still a serious problem in humans and domestic animals including pigs in developing countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of TB in pigs is not known. Therefore, this study was designed to estimate the prevalence of TB in pigs in central Ethiopia and to characterize the causative agents using molecular techniques. Results The estimated prevalence of TB was 5.8% (49/841). Age and origin of pigs were significantly associated (P<0.001) with the prevalence. In contrast, an association of sex, floor type and water source with the prevalence could not be shown. Culture positivity was confirmed in 30.6% (15/49) of the tuberculous-like lesions. Of the 15 isolates, 12 were acid fast positive while five of the latter were confirmed by multiplex PCR as members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Speciation of the five isolates further confirmed that they were M. tuberculosis, belonging to SIT1088 (two isolates) and SIT1195 (one isolate). The remaining two isolates belong to an identical spoligotype, the pattern of which was not found in the spoligotype database (SpolDB4). Conclusions The isolation of M. tuberculosis from pigs suggests a possible risk of transmission between humans and pigs. Hence, establishing feasible control methods is required. PMID:23647845
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of working conditions at school on teachers' level of instructional media use in the primary school system of Gedeo Zone, southern Ethiopia. The survey was made on a sample of 139 (24.4% female and male 75.6%) teachers who were randomly drawn from 9 primary schools (four rural and five urban…
Abdo, Mehadi; Semela, Tesfaye
Improved hand hygiene efficiently prevents the major killers of children under the age of five years in Ethiopia and globally, namely diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases. Effective handwashing interventions are thus in great demand. Evidence- and theory-based interventions, especially when matched to the target population's needs, are expected to perform better than common practice. To test this hypothesis, we selected two interventions drawing on a baseline questionnaire-study that applied the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) approach and focused on the primary caregivers of households in four rural, water-scarce kebeles (smallest administrative units of Ethiopia) in southern Ethiopia (N = 462). The two interventions were tested in combination with a standard education intervention in a quasi-experiment, as follows: kebele 1, education intervention, namely an f-diagram exercise, (n = 23); kebele 2, education intervention and public-commitment (n = 122); kebele 3, education intervention and tippy-tap-promotion (i.e. handwashing-station-promotion; n = 150); kebele 4, education intervention, public-commitment and tippy-tap-promotion (n = 113). In kebeles 3 and 4, nearly 100% of the households followed the promotion and invested material and time to construct for themselves a tippy-tap. Three months after intervention termination, the tippy-taps were in use with water and soap being present in up to 83% of the households (kebele 4). Pre-post data analysis on self-reported handwashing revealed that the population-tailored interventions, and especially the tippy-tap-promotion, performed better than the standard education intervention. Tendencies in observed behaviour and a recently developed implicit self-measure pointed to similar results. Changing people's hand hygiene is known to be a challenging task, especially in a water-scarce environment. The present project suggests not only to apply theory and evidence to improve handwashing interventions' effectiveness, but also emphasizes the relevance of tailoring interventions to the target population. PMID:25461867
Contzen, Nadja; Meili, Iara Helena; Mosler, Hans-Joachim
Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.
Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf
Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR?=?4.28, CI: (1.24–14.71)), age of 30–34 years (AOR?=?0.15, CI: (0.04–0.55)), primary education (AOR?=?0.26, CI: (0.13–0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR?=?0.44, CI: (0.14–0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079
Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie
Background Podoconiosis is a lymphoedema of non-infectious cause which results in long-term ill health in affected individuals. Simple, effective treatment is available in certain parts of Ethiopia, but evidence indicates that not all patients continue collecting treatment supplies from clinic sites once started. We used qualitative techniques to explore factors related to discontinued attendance at outreach clinics of a non-government organization in southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in four clinic sites through unstructured in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions with the involvement of 88 study subjects. Results Discontinuation of clinic visits is common among podoconiosis patients. The reasons were: remoteness from the clinic sites, unrealistic expectation of ‘special’ aid, worry about increasing stigma, illness and misconceptions about treatment. Conclusions Several of these factors are remediable through community and individual information and education. Appropriate routes to deliver this information must be identified. Certain factors (such as distance to clinic sites and stigma) require substantial expansion of services or liaison with village-level government health services. PMID:23095311
Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR = 4.28, CI: (1.24-14.71)), age of 30-34 years (AOR = 0.15, CI: (0.04-0.55)), primary education (AOR = 0.26, CI: (0.13-0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR = 0.44, CI: (0.14-0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care. PMID:24800079
Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie
Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management. PMID:24292396
Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf
To assess dietary habits and nutritional state in drought-prone areas of southern Ethiopia, we studied 334 households in a pastoral and 282 in an agricultural community. Milk and cereals were the main sources of food among children of the pastoral Boran in Dubluk, while cereals with limited supplements of animal products or legumes formed the main sources of food among children of the agricultural population of Elka in the Rift valley. Of the children in Elka, 54.9% were stunted, as compared with 19.5% among children in Dubluk. Also, stunting occurred at an earlier age among the Elka children. Prevalences of wasting were less than 5% in both communities. Improvement in the state of nutrition of the pastoral children followed soon after the main rains, but occurred later and after the main harvest among the agricultural children. In contrast to arm circumference, the weight-for-height measure showed marked seasonal variation. Socio-economic factors, such as family wealth and crowding, significantly influenced the state of nutrition among the children. Nutritional recovery following the prolonged drought among the agricultural children was slow and associated with families acquiring more wealth. PMID:7681641
Lindtjørn, B; Alemu, T; Bjorvatn, B
A commercial destocking intervention was piloted in southern Ethiopia during the drought of early 2006. The intervention led to the purchase of an estimated 20,000 cattle valued at USD 1.01 million. On average, destocked households received USD 186 from the sale of cattle--approximately 5,405 households were involved. In terms of aid investment, the approximate cost-benefit ratio was 41:1. During the drought, income from destocking accounted for 54.2 per cent of household income (n = 114 households), and was used to buy food, care for livestock, meet various domestic expenses, support relatives, and either pay off debts or augment savings. Seventy-nine per cent of the income derived from destocking was used to buy local goods or services. Expenditure on livestock care amounted to 36.5 per cent of local spending, and included the private transportation of livestock to better grazing areas. The buoyant livestock export trade was considered to be an important driver of commercial destocking, demonstrating a positive link between livestock and meat exports, and pastoral vulnerability during drought. PMID:18380850
Abebe, Dawit; Cullis, Adrian; Catley, Andy; Aklilu, Yacob; Mekonnen, Gedlu; Ghebrechirstos, Yodit
Background Around 80% of the people of Ethiopia are estimated to be relying on medicinal plants for the treatment of different types of human health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the use and management of medicinal plants used for the treatment of human health problems by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including individual and focus group discussions (18), observations, individual interviews (n?=?74), preference ranking and paired comparison were used. Data were collected in three study sites and from two markets; the latter surveyed every 15 days from February 2011 to February 2012. Results A total of 128 medicinal plant species, belonging to 111 genera and 49 families, used as herbal medicine by Maale and Ari communities were documented. Predominantly harvested plant parts were leaves, which are known to have relatively low impact on medicinal plant resources. Species with high familiarity indices included Solanum dasyphyllum, Indigofera spicata, Ruta chalepensis, Plumbago zeylanica and Meyna tetraphylla. Low Jaccards similarity indices (? 0.33) indicated little correspondence in medicinal plant use among sites and between ethnic communities. The dominant ways of medicinal plant knowledge acquisition and transfer is vertical: from parents to children through oral means. Gender and site significantly influenced the number of human medicinal plants known currently in the study sites. Age was only a factor of significance in Maale. Marketing of medicinal plants harvested from wild and semi-wild stands is not common. Expansion of agricultural land and lack of cultivation efforts by local communities are mentioned by locals to affect the availability of medicinal plant resources. Conclusion S. dasyphyllum, I. spicata, P. zeylanica, M. tetraphylla, and Oxalis radicosa need to be considered for phytochemical and pharmacological testing to verify their efficacy and determine their dosages. Land use planning and development initiatives in the area and beyond need to sharply focus on strategies that could alleviate the major threats affecting medicinal plant resources in the landscape and encourage their cultivation to enhance their availability and complement ex-and in-situ conservation. PMID:24898079
Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Turkana Depression of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia rest on basement rocks that yield K/Ar cooling ages between 433 and 522 Ma. Proven Cretaceous strata are exposed in Lokitaung Gorge in northwest Kenya. Eocene basalts and rhyolites in Lokitaung Gorge, the Nabwal Hills, and at Kangamajoj, date between 34 and 36 Ma, recording the earliest volcanism in the region. Oligocene volcanic rocks, with associated fossiliferous sedimentary strata at Eragaleit, Nakwai, and Lokone, all west of Lake Turkana, are 23 to 28 Ma old, as is the Langaria Formation east of Lake Turkana. Lower and Middle Miocene volcanic and sedimentary sequences are present both east and west of Lake Turkana, where ages from 17.9 to 9.1 Ma have been measured at many levels. Upper Miocene strata are presently known only at Lothagam, with ages ranging from 7.4 to 6.5 Ma. Deposition of Pliocene strata of the Omo Group begins in the Omo-Turkana, Kerio, and South Turkana basins -4.3 Ma ago and continues in parts of those basins until nearly the present time, but with some gaps. These strata are linked through volcanic ash correlations at many levels, as are Pleistocene strata of the Omo Group (principally the Shungura, Koobi Fora, and Nachukui formations). (40) Ar/(39) Ar dates on many volcanic ash layers within the Omo Group, supplemented by K/Ar ages on intercalated basalts and paleomagnetic polarity stratigraphy, provide excellent age control from 4.2 to 0.75 Ma, although there is a gap in the record between -1 Ma and 0.8 Ma. Members I to III of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo Valley record deposition between 0.2 and 0.1 Ma ago; Member IV, correlative with the Galana Boi Formation, was deposited principally between 12 and 7 ka BP. PMID:22170691
Brown, Francis H; McDougall, Ian
A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and correlates of prenatal vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia. Seven hundred randomly-selected pregnant women took part in the study. Serum retinol concentration was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed by logistic and linear regression. Interpretation of data was made using adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and adjusted linear regression coefficient. The prevalence of VAD (serum retinol <0.7 µmol/L) was 37.9%. Advanced gestational age and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP ?5 mg/dL) were negatively associated with retinol concentration (p<0.05). The odds of VAD was significantly higher among the women with no education and those devoid of self-income. Women aged 35-49 years had 2.23 (95% CI 1.31-3.81) times higher odds compared to those aged 15-24 years. The lower the dietary diversity score in the preceding day of the survey, the higher were the odds of VAD. With reference to nulliparas, grand multiparas had 1.92 (95% CI 1.02-3.64) times increased odds of VAD. VAD and zinc deficiency (serum zinc <8.6 µmol/L during the first trimester, or <7.6 µmol/L during the second or third trimester) were significantly associated with AOR of 1.80 (95% CI 1.28-2.53). VAD has major public-health significance in the area. Accordingly, it should be combated through enhancement of diet diversity, birth control, and socioeconomic empowerment of women. PMID:23930336
Gase, Fikre Enquselassie; Deressa, Melaku Umeta
The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status and cognitive performance of women and their 5-year-old children using a cross-sectional design. Cognitive performance of mothers and children was assessed with Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-II (KABC-II). Demographic characteristics, food consumption patterns and anthropometry were also measured. Four rural districts in Sidama, southern Ethiopia served as the setting for this study. Subjects were one hundred women and their 5-year-old children. Mean?±?standard deviation age of the mothers was 29?±?6 years and family size was 7.0?±?2.6. Maternal body mass index (BMI) ranged from 15.3 to 29.0 with 14% of the mothers having BMI?18.5. Anthropometric assessment of children revealed 29% to be stunted (height-for-age z-score?-2) and 12% to be underweight (weight-for-age z-score?-2). Mothers' education significantly contributed to prediction of both mothers' and children's cognitive test scores. There were significant differences in mean cognitive test scores between stunted and non-stunted, and between underweight and normal-weight children. Height-for-age z-scores were correlated with scores for short-term memory (r?=?0.42, P?0.001), and visual processing (r?=?0.42, P?0.001) indices and weight-for-age z-scores were also correlated with scores of short-term memory (r?=?0.41, P?0.001) and visual processing (r?=?0.43, P?0.001) indices. Malnutrition in the community likely contributed to the cognitive performance of the subjects. Performance on memory and visual processing tasks was significantly lower in children with growth deficits suggesting that efficient and cost effective methods to alleviate malnutrition and food insecurity would impact not only child health but also cognitive function. PMID:21806779
Bogale, Alemtsehay; Stoecker, Barbara J; Kennedy, Tay; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Thomas, David; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael
The primary objective of this dissertation is to reconstruct the history of the Omotic societies of southwestern Ethiopia. Although historical, anthropological, and linguistic studies exist for this region, the gaps in our knowledge are great. Information on the history of Omotic people, their economic and political systems, beliefs and values,…
Assefa, Shiferaw Alemu
Background Both podoconiosis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections occur among barefoot people in areas of extreme poverty; however, their co-morbidity has not previously been investigated. We explored the overlap of STH infection and podoconiosis in Southern Ethiopia and quantified their separate and combined effects on prevalent anemia and hemoglobin levels in podoconiosis patients and health controls from the same area. Methods and Principal Findings A two-part comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita zone, southern Ethiopia. Data were collected from adult patients presenting with clinically confirmed podoconiosis, and unmatched adult neighborhood controls living in the same administrative area. Information on demographic and selected lifestyle factors was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and examined qualitatively using the modified formalin-ether sedimentation method. Hemoglobin level was determined using two different methods: hemoglobinometer and automated hematology analyzer. A total of 913 study subjects (677 podoconiosis patients and 236 controls) participated. The prevalence of any STH infection was 47.6% among patients and 33.1% among controls (p<0.001). The prevalence of both hookworm and Trichuris trichiura infections was significantly higher in podoconiosis patients than in controls (AOR 1.74, 95% CI 1.25 to2.42, AOR 6.53, 95% CI 2.34 to 18.22, respectively). Not wearing shoes and being a farmer remained significant independent predictors of infection with any STH. There was a significant interaction between STH infection and podoconiosis on reduction of hemoglobin level (interaction p value?=?0.002). Conclusions Prevalence of any STH and hookworm infection was higher among podoconiosis patients than among controls. A significant reduction in hemoglobin level was observed among podoconiosis patients co-infected with hookworm and ‘non-hookworm STH’. Promotion of consistent shoe-wearing practices may have double advantages in controlling both podoconiosis and hookworm infection in the study area. PMID:23516659
Birhanu, Asaye; Desta, Kassu; Addisu, Sisay; Petros, Beyene; Davey, Gail; Tsegaye, Aster
Leguminous trees play an important role in agroforestry in Ethiopia, but studies of their rhizobial symbionts are scarce. In earlier studies, we surveyed natural nodulation of native leguminous trees growing in different agro-ecological zones in Southern Ethiopia, isolated 400 rhizobia, and characterized them based on different phenotypic and genotypic methods. In the present study we characterized 18 strains belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium, isolated from nodules of Acacia abyssinica, A. senegal, A. tortilis and Sesbania sesban. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene grouped the test strains into three distinct clades separated from all currently recognized Mesorhizobium species. Three divergent strains formed separate branches while the other 15 strains formed three distinct groups, genospecies I-III. Grouping of the isolates under study based on the house-keeping genes recA, gyrB, rpoB and gltA were consistent and in agreement with that of 16S rRNA. Similarly phylogenetic relationships based on the symbiosis-related genes nodC, nodA and nifH were generally similar to those shown by the core genes, suggesting that these Acacia and Sesbania symbionts have a long history of separate evolution within Mesorhizobium. Cross inoculation experiments demonstrated a large variation in the ability of the test strains to elicit effective nodules. The Sesbania isolates, occupying a distinct clade in the nodC phylogenetic tree, formed effective nodules only with this host legume. The study strongly suggests that this collection of Mesorhizobium strains comprises several new species, and also indicates the role of the symbiotic genes in determining the host range of these bacteria. PMID:21194867
Degefu, Tulu; Wolde-meskel, Endalkachew; Frostegård, Asa
Eighty-seven rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of field standing native and exotic woody legumes in southern Ethiopia were characterized using the Biolog method and AFLP fingerprinting technique. Cluster analysis of the metabolic and genomic fingerprints revealed 18 and 25 groups, respectively, demonstrating considerable diversity in rhizobial population indigenous to Ethiopian soils. While 25 strains (29%) were linked to members of Agrobacterium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium or Sinorhizobium, the bulk of the strains formed several distinct groups in both methods and did not relate to reference species included in the study. In contrast to exotic species which formed symbiosis with strains of only one specific genomic group, indigenous host species nodulated by metabolically and genomically diverse groups. The results in this study support the view, that long-term association between the symbionts allows gradual differentiation and diversity in compatible rhizobial population resident in native soils. Lack of significant metabolic and genomic relatedness to the reference strains in our results suggested that test strains in our collection probably included 'unique' types, which belong to several yet undefined rhizobial species. PMID:15490562
Wolde-meskel, Endalkachew; Terefework, Zewdu; Lindström, Kristina; Frostegård, Asa
A study was conducted in southern Ethiopia to evaluate the nutrient status on smallholder farms with respect to land use class (garden, grassland, and outfield) and slope position (upper, middle, and lower). Soil physical and chemical properties were quantified using soil samples collected at two depths (0 15 and 15 30 cm). Available phosphorous was significantly different among the three land use classes. However, organic carbon and total nitrogen were lower in the outfield compared to the garden and grass land but not significantly different. The lower than expected nutrient status of the garden and grassland, which receive almost all available organic supplements, was attributed to the overall low availability of these inputs. Similarly, pH and cation exchange capacity were not significantly different among the different land use classes. However, the sum of the exchangeable cations was significantly higher in the garden compared to the outfields. Comparison at landscape level revealed that the sand fraction was significantly greater, whereas the silt fractions were significantly smaller, on the lower slopes relative to the middle slopes. Moreover, the organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, Ca, and Mg values were significantly less on lower slopes than upper and middle slopes. Perhaps this is because of leaching and the effect of deposition of coarser sediments from the prevailing gully system. Overall, the fertility of the soil was adequate for supporting smallholder farming, but consideration must be given to reducing pressure on the land resources, addressing erosion problems, and providing a line of credit for purchasing inputs.
Moges, Awdenegest; Holden, Nicholas M.
The occurrence of cysticercosis due to Taenia saginata in cattle slaughtered for meat in Amhara National Regional State, northwestern Ethiopia between September 2005 and February 2007 was investigated. Routine meat inspection of various organs of 4456 cattle in eight abattoirs of this region showed that 824 (18.49%) were infected with Cysticercus bovis. The occurrence rate did not vary significantly from abattoir to abattoir (P>0.5). The tongue, masseter muscles, heart muscles, triceps muscles and thigh muscles were the main predilection sites of the cysts. Of 4102 male cattle, examined, 768 (18.72%) had cysts of C. bovis while 56 (15.82%) of the 354 female animals investigated were infected. The animals slaughtered were all adults. No significant difference in occurrence was recorded between the sexes. Monthly occurrence of the cysts in the animals revealed a rise of infected animals during the dry season. PMID:18321540
Stagnant early growth and mortality are the major impediments for sheep production in southern Ethiopia. We evaluated the effects of non-genetic factors on early growth performance of lambs in Halaba district with 467 lambs owned by 60 households. Body weights (kilograms) of lambs at birth, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 days were 2.30 ± 0.03, 4.45 ± 0.11, 6.94 ± 0.13, 10.4 ± 0.19, 13.3 ± 0.19, and 15.7 ± 0.20, respectively. The average daily gain (ADG; gram) from birth to 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 days were 71.18 ± 8.18, 77.18 ± 2.19, 89.20 ± 1.98, 91.18 ± 1.51, and 90.68 ± 1.27, respectively. Season effect was significant (p < 0.05) for weight at birth, 30, and 120 days. Similarly, season of birth influenced (p < 0.05) ADG (gram) at all ages except from birth to 60 days. Single-born lambs were heavier over multiple births (p < 0.01), 90 (p < 0.001) and 120 days (p < 0.05) and higher (p < 0.001) ADG from birth to 90 days. There were significant interaction effects of parity by sex at birth (p < 0.01) and parity by type of birth (p < 0.001) and 90 days (p < 0.01). From the non-genetic factors estimated in this study, season and type of birth, and their interaction had a more profound effect at early growth of lambs, and they need to be considered in the improvement plan of sheep under Halaba arid to semi-arid environments. Efforts geared towards planned breeding, improved nutrition, and health would assist farmers to exploit these indigenous and adaptable sheep resources efficiently. PMID:24174269
Gemiyo, Deribe; Abebe, Girma; Tegegne, Azage
Background To date, non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, are becoming severe public health challenges particularly in developing countries. Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor that contributes the leading role for mortality. The problem is significant in low- and middle-income countries like sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are limited studies in developing countries, particularly in Ethiopia. Hence, determining the magnitude of hypertension and identifying risk groups are important. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted in April 2013 among adults (age>31 years) old. A systematic sampling technique was used to select a total of 518 study participants. Data were collected after full verbal informed consent was obtained from each participant. Multivariable logistic regressions were fitted to control the effect of confounding. Adjusted Odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to measure associations. Variables having P-value <0.05 were considered as significant. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension in Durame town was 22.4% (95% CI: 18.8–26.0). Nearly 40% of hypertensive patients were newly screened. Male sex [AOR ?=?2.03, 95% CI; 1.05–3.93], age [AOR ?=?29.49, 95% CI; 10.60–81.27], salt use [AOR ?=?6.55, 95% CI; 2.31–18.53], eating vegetable three or fewer days per week [AOR ?=?2.3,95% CI; 1.17–4.51], not continuously walking at least for 10 minutes per day [AOR ?=?7.82, 95% CI; 2.37–25.82], having family history of hypertension [AOR ?=?2.46, 95%CI; 1.31–4.61] and being overweight/obese [AOR ?=?15.7, 95% CI 7.89–31.21)] were found to be risk factors for hypertension. Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension is found to be high. Older age, male sex, having family history of hypertension, physical inactivity, poor vegetable diet, additional salt consumption and obesity were important risk factors associated with hypertension among adults. Community level intervention measures with a particular emphasis on prevention by introducing lifestyle modifications are recommended. PMID:25415321
Helelo, Tsegab Paulose; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Adane, Akilew Awoke
The East African rift (EAR) is a Tertiary-Miocene system that extends from the Middle East, through East Africa, to Mozambique in southern Africa. Much of the present information is from the Ethiopian and Kenyan parts of the rift. Several characteristics of the EAR such as rift-related volcanism, faulting and topographic relief being exposed make it attractive for studying continental rift processes. Structural complexities reflected in the geometries of grabens and half-grabens, the existence of transverse fault zones and accommodation zones, and the influence of pre-existing geologic structures have been documented. In particular, the EAR traverses the Anza graben and related structures near the Kenya/Ethiopian border. The Anza graben is one in a series of Cretaceous-Paleogene failed rifts that trend across Central Africa from Nigeria through Chad to Sudan and Kenya with an overall northwest-southeast trend. In spite of a number of recent studies, we do not understand the interaction of these two rift systems. In both Ethiopia and Kenya, the rift segments share some broad similarities in timing and are related in a geographic sense. For example, volcanism appears to have generally preceded or in some cases have been contemporaneous with major rift faulting. Although, these segments are distinct entities, each with its own tectonic and magmatic evolution, and they do connect in the region crossed by the Anza graben and related structures. In our present study, we are using a combination of recently collected seismic, gravity and remote sensing data to increase our understanding of these two segments of the EAR. We hope that by analysing the satellite data, the variety and differences in the volume of magmatic products extruded along in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya will be identified. The geometry of structures (in particular, those causing the gravity axial high) will be modelled to study the impact of the older Anza graben structural trends with the younger EAR. For example there is significant crustal thinning in the Lake Turkana area of the northern Kenya segment of the EAR system. In regard to the recent EAGLE experiment in Ethiopia, we are ivestigating if the transition from relatively thick crust (~40 km) to thinned, rifted crust is as abrupt in Ethiopia as it is in Kenya.
Mariita, N. O.; Tadesse, K.; Keller, G. R.
The school curricula are widely believed to be the best vehicle for generating public awareness of and action related to areas of energy concern. In an attempt to build the capacity of schools to address key environmental issues in Ethiopia, a pilot project had been designed in 2004. The principal aim of the project was to bring about positive…
Introduction In Ethiopia, knowledge of contraceptive methods is high though there is low contraceptive prevalence rate. This study was aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in Jinka town, southern Ethiopia. Methods Community based cross sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence and factors affecting long acting and permanent methods of contraceptives utilization from March to April 2008. Eight hundred child bearing age women were participated in the quantitative study and 32 purposively selected focus group discussants were participated in the qualitative study. Face to face interview was used for data collection. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13.0 statistical software. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were computed to analyze the data. Results The prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive method was 7.3%. Three fourth (76.1%) of the women have ever heard about implants and implant 28 (50%) were the most widely used method. Almost two third of women had intention to use long acting and permanent methods. Knowledge of contraceptive and age of women have significant association with the use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods. Conclusion The overall prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive method was low. Knowledge of contraceptive and age of women have significant association with use of long acting and permanent contraceptive. Extensive health information should be provided. PMID:25404960
Mekonnen, Getachew; Enquselassie, Fikre; Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Semahegn, Agumasie
Background In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, and anti-malarial drug resistance is the most pressing problem confronting control of the disease. Since co-infection by both species of parasite is common and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has been intensively used, resistance to these drugs has appeared in both P. falciparum and P. vivax populations. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of anti-malarial drug resistance in P. falciparum and P. vivax isolates collected at a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia. Methods A total of 1,147 patients with suspected malaria were studied in different months across the period 2007-2009. Plasmodium falciparum dhfr and dhps mutations and P. vivax dhfr polymorphisms associated with resistance to SP, as well as P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations conferring chloroquine resistance, were assessed. Results PCR-based diagnosis showed that 125 of the 1147 patients had malaria. Of these, 52.8% and 37.6% of cases were due to P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively. A total of 10 cases (8%) showed co-infection by both species and two cases (1.6%) were infected by Plasmodium ovale. Pfdhfr triple mutation and pfdhfr/pfdhps quintuple mutation occurred in 90.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 82.2%-95.5%) and 82.9% (95% CI: 72.9%-89.7%) of P. falciparum isolates, respectively. Pfcrt T76 was observed in all cases and pfmdr1 Y86 and pfmdr1 Y1246 in 32.9% (95% CI: 23.4%-44.15%) and 17.1% (95% CI: 10.3-27.1%), respectively. The P. vivax dhfr core mutations, N117 and R58, were present in 98.2% (95% CI: 89.4-99.9%) and 91.2% (95% CI: 80.0-96.7%), respectively. Conclusion Current molecular data show an extraordinarily high frequency of drug-resistance mutations in both P. falciparum and P. vivax in southern Ethiopia. Urgent surveillance of the emergence and spread of resistance is thus called for. The level of resistance indicates the need for implementation of entire population access to the new first-line treatment with artemether-lumefantrine, accompanied by government monitoring to prevent the emergence of resistance to this treatment. PMID:21810256
Land tenure policies are highly contentious political issues in Ethiopia. Most of the debates dwell on the public\\/state versus private land ownership options. At present, although 'public' land ownership is the only officially recognized one, people may also ac- quire land through inheritance in the framework of customary rules. One of the outcomes of co-existence(but without integration) of the state
Background Immunization averts an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths every year globally. In Ethiopia only quarter of children are fully immunized; the rest are remained at risk for vaccine-preventable mortality. To increase the immunization, its coverage and predictors has to be identified. This study has measured immunization coverage and identified the predictors. Methods Cross-sectional community based study has been conducted within 630 age 12–23 months children in 15 districts of Arba Minch town and Arba Minch Zuria district, Southern Ethiopia in March 2013. Census was done to identify eligible children. The 2005 world health organization expanded program of immunization cluster sampling method has been used. Data were collected using semi-structured pretested Amharic version questionnaire by interviewing index children’s mothers/caretakers, copying from vaccine card and observing BCG vaccine scar. Data were processed using SPSS version 16. Associations between dependent and independent variables has been assessed and presented using three consecutive logistic regression models. Result Nearly three fourth (73.2%) of children in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch Zuria district were fully immunized. The rest 20.3% were partially immunized and 6.5% received no vaccine. Mother education, mothers’ perception to accessibility of vaccines, mothers’ knowledge to vaccine schedule of their site, place of delivery and living altitude were independent predictors of children immunization status. Conclusion Expanded program of immunization (EPI) coverage at Arba Minch town and Arba Minch Zuria district is better than the national immunization coverage but still below the goal. Educating mother, promoting institution delivery could help to maintain and enhance current immunization coverage. More emphasis should be given to the highland areas of the area. PMID:24884641
Background The use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) has not kept step with that of short-acting methods such as oral pills and injectable in Africa. This study explores the association between women’s awareness, attitude and barriers with their intention to use LAPMs among users of short term methods, in Southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design of mixed methods was conducted in the public health facilities of Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia, in January 2013. Women who were using short term contraceptive methods were the study population (n?=?416). Moreover, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted among family planning providers and women who have been using short term methods. Data were entered into EPI Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. The odds ratios in the binary logistic regression model along with 95% confidence interval were used. Results One hundred fifty six (38%) of women had the intention to use LAPMs while nearly half of them (n?=?216) had a negative attitude to use such methods. Moreover, two-third of study participants (n?=?276) held myths and misconceptions about such methods. The women who had a positive attitude were found to be 2.5 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had a negative attitude (AOR =2. 47; 95% CI: 1.48- 4.11). Women who had no myths and misconceptions on LAPMs were found to be 1.7 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women who had myths and misconceptions (AOR?=?1.71; 95% CI: 1.08- 2.72). Likewise, women who attained secondary and higher level of education were found to be 2 and 2.8 times more intention to use LAPMs compared to women with no education, respectively (AOR?=?2. 10; 95% CI: 1.11- 3.98) and AOR?=?2. 80; 95% CI: 1.15- 6.77). Conclusions Intention to use LAPMs was low and nearly half of women had a negative attitude to use such methods. Positive attitude, absence of myths and misconceptions on LAPMs and secondary and plus level of education predicts intention to use LAPMs. Educating communities to change the attitude, myths and misconceptions on LAPMs should be aggressively done. PMID:25216640
Background Plants have traditionally been used for treatment of human and livestock ailments in Ethiopia by different ethnic and social groups. However, this valuable source of knowledge is not adequately documented, which impedes their widespread use, evaluation and validation. Here, we recorded indigenous knowledge and standard practices for human and livestock disease control, of three ethnic groups (Aari, Maale and Bena-Tsemay) in South Omo Zone of Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out using a semi-structured questionnaire to document knowledge of 50 traditional healers (40 male and 10 female) in medicinal plant use for treatment of human and livestock ailments. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and summarize the ethno-botanical data. Results Ninety-one plants, with claimed medicinal properties against a total of 34 human and livestock ailments, were reported and botanically identified as belonging to 57 genera and 33 plant families. Most of the plant species reported belonged to one of seven major families: Lamiaceae, Solanaceae, Menispermiaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Plumbaginaceae and Geraniaceae. Woody plants (shrubs 21% and trees 29%) were the major growth form used, whilst roots (40%) and leaves (35%) were the major plant parts used in the study areas. Healers mostly practice oral administration of plant preparations (65%). Multiple medicinal plants were cited against particular ailments, and mixing of two or more different medicinal plants (14.3%) against a single ailment was also commonly reported. Conclusion This study showed that traditional medicine, mainly involving the use of medicinal plants, is playing a significant role in meeting the primary healthcare needs of the three ethnic groups. Acceptance of traditional medicine and limited access to modern healthcare facilities could be considered as the main factors for the continuation of the practice. Documented knowledge of the traditional healers can be used to support the country’s human and livestock health care system and improve lives and livelihoods. Information generated will be used in future studies to validate bioactivity of selected medicinal plants used by traditional healers, so to increase their acceptability in health care systems both nationally and internationally. PMID:23680260
Background Culture affects the way people conceptualize causes of severe mental disturbance which may lead to a variation in the preferred intervention methods. There is a seemingly dichotomous belief regarding what causes severe mental disturbance: people living in western countries tend to focus mainly on biological and psychosocial risk factors; whereas, in non-western countries the focus is mainly on supernatural and religious factors. These belief systems about causation potentially dictate the type of intervention preferred. Studying such belief systems in any society is expected to help in planning and implementation of appropriate mental health services. Methods A qualitative study was conducted among the Borana semi-nomadic population in southern Ethiopia to explore perceived causes of severe mental disturbance and preferred interventions. We selected, using purposive sampling, key informants from three villages and conducted a total of six focus group discussions: three for males and three for females. Results The views expressed regarding the causes of mental disturbance were heterogeneous encompassing supernatural causes such as possession by evil spirits, curse, bewitchment, ‘exposure to wind’ and subsequent attack by evil spirit in postnatal women and biopsychosocial causes such as infections (malaria), loss, ‘thinking too much’, and alcohol and khat abuse. The preferred interventions for severe mental disturbance included mainly indigenous approaches, such as consulting Borana wise men or indigenous healers, prayer, holy water treatment and seeking modern mental health care as a last resort. Conclusions These findings will be of value for health care planners who wish to expand modern mental health care to this population, indicating the need to increase awareness about the causes of severe mental disturbance and their interventions and collaborate with influential people and indigenous healers to increase acceptability of modern mental health care. It also provides information for further research in the area of mental health in this semi-nomadic population. PMID:22789076
In this cross-sectional study, the associations between helminth infections and ABO blood group, anaemia and undernutrition were investigated in 480 febrile outpatients who visited Dore Bafeno Health Centre, southern Ethiopia, in December 2010. Stool specimens were processed using the Kato-Katz method and examined for intestinal helminth infections. Haemoglobin level was measured using a HemoCue machine and blood group was determined using an antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using height and weight measurements. Among the study participants, 50.2% were infected with intestinal helminths. Ascaris lumbricoides (32.7%), Trichuris trichiura (12.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (11.9%) and hookworm (11.0%) were the most frequently diagnosed helminths. The odds of infection and mean eggs per gram of different intestinal helminth species were comparable between the various blood groups. Among individuals who were infected with intestinal helminth(s), the mean haemoglobin level was significantly lower in individuals harbouring three or more helminth species and blood type AB compared to cases with double or single helminth infection and blood type O, respectively. The odds of being underweight was significantly higher in A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infected individuals of age ? 5 and ? 20 years, respectively, when compared to individuals of the matching age group without intestinal helminths. In conclusion, infection with multiple intestinal helminths was associated with lower haemoglobin level, which was more severe in individuals with blood type AB. Future studies should focus on mechanisms by which blood group AB exacerbates the helminth-related reduction in mean haemoglobin level. PMID:23286203
Degarege, A; Animut, A; Medhin, G; Legesse, M; Erko, B
Introduction The global burden of Tuberculosis (TB) remains enormous. Delay in TB diagnosis may lead to a higher infectious pool in the community and a more advanced disease state at presentation increasing the risk of mortality. This study is conducted to determine the total delay before treatment among smear positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) patients. Methods A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted in five primary health centers in southern Ethiopia from June to December 2012. A total of 328 smear positive PTB patients were enrolled in the study. A structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used. Median patient, diagnostic, and treatment delays were calculated to determine the total delay. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with total delay. Results The median patient, diagnostic, treatment and total delays measured in days were 30 (IQR 20.2, 60), 7 (IQR: 3, 14), 3 (IQR: 1, 4) and 45 (IQR: 34.5, 69.5) days respectively. Patients for whom treatment was not initiated within 45 days of onset of symptom(s) (total delay) constituted 49% of the study participants (59.5% among males and 39.2% among females; P<0.001). Total delay was found to be associated with: being female [AOR ?=?0.34, 95% CI: 0.18–0.62], having attended tertiary level education [AOR ?=?0.11, 95% CI: 0.02–0.55], perceived severity of stigma during the current TB disease course [AOR?=?2. 18, 95% CI: 1.07, 4.42] and living in houses with higher family size [AOR?=?0.26, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.61]. Conclusion Total delay in treatment of TB is still high in the study area. Patient's sex, perceived stigma, educational status and family size are significantly contributing for total delay. Therefore, a concerted effort should be taken in order to improve health seeking behavior of the community on TB and to reduce delays from seeking care after experiencing TB symptoms. PMID:25048601
Asefa, Anteneh; Teshome, Wondu
Background Azithromycin mass distribution was given to residents of Gurage zone Cheha district in 2004, 2005 and 2006 for three consecutive years with more than 90% coverage. The effect of treatment in the study community was not yet determined. The present study was therefore designed to assess the effect of azithromycin on the prevalence of active trachoma two years after three rounds of mass treatment of the community at Cheha district, Gurage zone. Methods A multistage stratified cluster random survey was employed to determine the prevalence of active trachoma among children aged 1 to 9. Selected children were examined for trachoma using the simplified WHO grading system and their households were assessed for trachoma risk factors. Results This survey demonstrated that the prevalence of active trachoma in the study community was 22.8% (95% CI 18.24% - 27.36%) that was lower than that of Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Regional prevalence (33.2%) in 2006. Only 27.6% (95% CI 25.7% - 30.1%) of the study population had a safe and clean water supply, whereas 42.7% (95% CI 39.8% - 46.2%) of the visited households had simple pit latrines. Conclusion This survey demonstrated that despite repeated mass oral azithromycin distributions, the prevalence of active trachoma was still high. Therefore, the other components of the SAFE strategy such as fly control program, improving the water sources, measures to improve face washing and construction of utilizable latrines that are being implemented through the health extension package have to be integrated with mass azithromycin treatment to eliminate active trachoma in the district. PMID:24289535
Currently, 18 impact structures have been identified on the continent of Africa. No impact structures are so far known in Ethiopia, with the exception of a suggestion of an impact crater centered on the town of Shakiso, southern Ethiopia. Our field work, petrographic, and geochemical studies on rocks from the area do not show any evidence of an impact structure at that locality.
Abate, Begosew; Koeberl, Christian
Detailed physico-chemical studies on abattoir effluent using lime, alum, ferrous sulphate and an anionic polyelectrolyte were tried individually and in combination. Among the coagulants tried, lime resulted in good settling of the sludge. At 400 mg l(-1) of lime dose, the Suspended Solids (SS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removals were found to be 41.9%, 38.9% and 36.1%, respectively. Best results were obtained with lime and ferrous sulphate in a combination ratio of 400:100 mg l(-1), and the COD reduction of 36.1% at 400 mg l(-1) of lime, further improved to 56.8%. Lime and alum dose of 400:50 mg l(-1) resulted in an increased COD reduction of 42.6% compared to 36.1% at lime dose of 400 mg l(-1). However, the same lime dose with ferrous sulphate addition of 100 mg l(-1) resulted in an increased COD reduction of 56.8% compared to 36.1%. This is a more efficient option for abattoir wastewater treatment and also cost effective. Ferrous sulphate with anionic polyelectrolyte resulted in good removals. Though it is a costly chemical, the dose needed is just half that of lime and just 0.1 mg l(-1) of anionic polyelectrolyte resulted in good reductions in SS, BOD and COD of 54.2%, 49.6% and 43.8% respectively. Studies indicated that the lime and ferrous sulphate in the combination of 400:100 mg l(-1), and ferrous sulphate and polyelectrolyte in the combination of 100:0.1 mg l(-1) are the two feasible options. Lime in combination with alum can also be applied but resultant sludge volume would be more. PMID:15906496
Satyanarayan, S; Ramakant; Vanerkar, A P
There are few reports of the prevalence of psychotic disorders among isolated population groups. Where present, variations in prevalence estimates raise questions about the validity of methods of case ascertainment in such settings. In a previous population-based survey of the Borana pastoralist community in Ethiopia using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, no cases of schizophrenia were identified. In order to further explore this finding and investigate how serious mental disorder is conceptualized, we conducted focus group discussions with key members of the Borana pastoralist community. Subsequently, focus group participants were used as key informants to identify cases with possible psychotic disorder, based on their conceptualization. Cases identified by key informants were interviewed by a trained psychiatrist using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), to confirm presence of disorder. Focus group discussions were subjected to thematic analysis. The incongruity between local and psychiatric concepts lay mainly in the fact that key informants described characteristics of marata (“madness”) in terms of overt behavioural symptoms. Following the focus group discussions, participants identified eight individuals with schizophrenia and 13 with a psychotic mood disorder, confirmed through SCAN interview. Studies of psychotic disorders in such communities are likely to benefit from combining structured interviews with the key informant method. PMID:20671898
SHIBRE, TESHOME; TEFERRA, SOLOMON; MORGAN, CRAIG; ALEM, ATALAY
Discusses Ethiopia's expanding educational system. Reports on such factors as the influence of socialism on education, the emergence of female education, language barriers in the classroom, adult literacy initiatives, community participation, and improved teacher preparation. (BSR)
Hough, J. R.
Gumuz is a Nilo-Saharan dialect cluster spoken in the river valleys of northwestern Ethiopia and the southeastern part of the Republic of the Sudan. There are approximately 200,000 speakers, the majority of which reside in Ethiopia. This study is a phonological and grammatical analysis of two main dialects/languages: Northern Gumuz and Southern…
Ahland, Colleen Anne
Cattle carcasses from two abattoirs were examined at selected stages of slaughter (skinning, evisceration, trimming, washing, blast chilling) for aerobic colony counts (ACC) and Enterobacteriaceae. At each stage and abattoir, 50 carcasses were sampled by swabbing at the neck, brisket, flank and rump. After skinning, average ACC on carcasses was 1.5logCFUcm(-2) and Enterobacteriaceae frequencies at sites were ?6%. From skinned to washed carcasses, certain abattoir- and site-specific changes occurred. Blasting clearly reduced ACC and Enterobacteriaceae results on carcasses from abattoir B, but reductions were limited or lacking in abattoir A. In addition, 100 hides and corresponding chilled carcasses were examined. On hides, average ACC was 5.6logCFUcm(-2) and Enterobacteriaceae frequencies at sites ranged from 74 to 96%. Average carcass-hide ratios of the two abattoirs were comparable for ACC (0.0182-0.0202%) but differed for Enterobacteriaceae counts (abattoir A: 0.4627%; abattoir B: 0.0941%). Such ratios allow comparing process performance between abattoirs in the daily practice. PMID:24967539
Zweifel, Claudio; Capek, Michel; Stephan, Roger
Leptospirosis is an important occupational disease in New Zealand. The objectives of this study were to determine risk factors for sero-prevalence of leptospiral antibodies in abattoir workers. Sera were collected from 567 abattoir workers and tested by microscopic agglutination for Leptospira interrogans sv. Pomona and Leptospira borgpetersenii sv. Hardjobovis. Association between prevalence and risk factors were determined by species specific multivariable analysis. Eleven percent of workers had antibodies against Hardjobovis or/and Pomona. Workers from the four sheep abattoirs had an average sero-prevalence of 10%–31%, from the two deer abattoirs 17%–19% and the two beef abattoirs 5%. The strongest risk factor for sero-positivity in sheep and deer abattoirs was work position. In sheep abattoirs, prevalence was highest at stunning and hide removal, followed by removal of the bladder and kidneys. Wearing personal protective equipment such as gloves and facemasks did not appear to protect against infection. Home slaughtering, farming or hunting were not significantly associated with sero-prevalence. There is substantial risk of exposure to leptospires in sheep and deer abattoirs in New Zealand and a persisting, but lower risk, in beef abattoirs. Interventions, such as animal vaccination, appear necessary to control leptospirosis as an occupational disease in New Zealand. PMID:24503973
Dreyfus, Anou; Benschop, Jackie; Collins-Emerson, Julie; Wilson, Peter; Baker, Michael G.; Heuer, Cord
To identify the etiologic agents of cystic echinococcosis in Ethiopia, unilocular hydatid cysts were collected from 11 sheep, 16 cattle and 16 camels slaughtered in abattoirs of Aweday, Jijiga, Haramaya and Addis Ababa during June 2010 to February 2011. A PCR-based DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) was conducted for 40 cysts. The majority of cysts (87.5%) were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and the rest as Echinococcus canadensis. The fertile cysts of E. granulosus s.s. were found only from sheep, although it occurred in all the host species. The predominance of E. granulosus s.s. has important implications for public health since this species is the most typical causative agent of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide. The major cox1 haplotype of E. granulosus s.s. detected in Ethiopia was the same as that has been reported to be most common in Peru and China. However, a few cox1 haplotypes unique to Ethiopia were found in both of the two Echinococcus species. The present regional data would serve as baseline information in determining the local transmission patterns and in designing appropriate control strategies. PMID:22329916
Hailemariam, Zerihun; Nakao, Minoru; Menkir, Sissay; Lavikainen, Antti; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira
Bacteriological characteristics of abattoir effluents (wastewater), abattoir water source, and water bodies receiving abattoir wastewater were investigated in Abuja, Nigeria using the multiple-tube fermentation technique. Source of water to the abattoirs and the usage of water bodies receiving abattoir effluents were determined using questionnaires. Bacterial counts ranged from 4.8 × 10(6) to 5.8 × 10(5) /100?mL of total coliform (TC), 8.2 × 10(4) to 3.2 × 10(4)/100?mL of Fecal coliform (FC), 5.2 × 10(4) to 2.0 × 10(4)/100?mL of Fecal streptococcus and 1.2 × 10(4) to 2.0 × 10(3)/100?mL of Escherichia coli for abattoir effluents 6.6 × 10(5) to 6.0 × 10(5)/100?mL of TC, 6.2 × 10(4) to 1.8 × 10(4)/100?mL of FC, 1.8 × 10(4) to 6.0 × 10(3)/100?mL of F. streptococcus, and 4.8 × 10(3) to 6.6 × 10(2)/100?mL of E. coli for water bodies receiving abattoir effluents 100?m downstream. TC bacteria counts for abattoir effluents exceeded recommended limit for discharge into surface water in Nigeria. No significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between bacterial counts of abattoir effluents and receiving water bodies 100?m downstream: an indication of contamination of receiving water bodies by abattoir effluents and possible public and environmental health hazards. PMID:23738127
Nafarnda, W D; Ajayi, I E; Shawulu, J C; Kawe, M S; Omeiza, G K; Sani, N A; Tenuche, O Z; Dantong, D D; Tags, S Z
Oxytetracycline residues were examined in 600 samples (200 each of muscles, livers and kidneys) collected randomly from bovine carcasses slaughtered at Mansoura abattoir in Dakahlia Province, Egypt. A microbial inhibition test using Bacillus subtilis ATCC- 6633 was employed to screen the obtained samples for antibiotic residues in meat. The results showed that 2% of samples were positive. Oxytetracycline residues exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in 1.33% of the examined samples. Thus, regulatory authorities should insure proper withdrawal period before slaughtering of the animals (28 days for oxytetracycline). Public health importance was discussed. PMID:23631152
Morshdy, Alaa Eldin M A; El-Atabany, Adel I; Hussein, Mohamed A M; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy
The pitfall trap was used in the study of the dipteran populations of an abattoir and a contiguous fallow plot, in relation to their relative abundance and distribution. A total number of 140 adult species of Synydas and Stomorhina cribrata, and 400 dipteran larvae were captured at the abattoir using pitfall techniques, with correspondingly fewer species of similar dipterans trapped at the contiguous fallow plot. Significant difference existed in the trapping of the Diptera larvae with more trapped at the abattoir than the fallow plot using Student t-test. There was also a preponderance of calliphorid species at the abattoir when the sweep net was used, with these species implicated as being potential pests of medical and forensic importance. The presence of Sarcophaga sp. and Fannia canicularis in the sweep net collection at the abattoir was also traced to the presence of decaying fall-offs from carcass. Other possible implications of the collected dipteran species at the abattoir and its vicinity were also discussed.
Ewuim Sylvanus Chima
This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year?1 and downward trends in rainfall of ? 0.4 mm month?1 year?1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts.
Jury, Mark R.; Funk, Chris
A survey of the status of language usage in Ethiopia begins with an overview of the distribution of Amharic, the sole official language and medium of elementary instruction, and Tigrinya, Oromo, Wolayto, Somali, Sidamo, Hadiyya, and English, the medium of secondary and higher education instruction. The relationship of language usage patterns to…
Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…
Casale, Carolyn Frances
This paper addresses issues related to the dynamics of income poverty using unique household panel data for urban and rural areas of Ethiopia covering the period 1994-97. The percentage of households that remained in poverty was twice as large in urban areas as in rural areas. This suggests that income variability is a serious problem in rural areas, while the
Arne Bigsten; Abebe Shimeles
Analyzes student dissertations at the School of Information Studies for Africa (SISA) at Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia) in order to present an overview of the library and information systems and services available in seven eastern and southern African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. (Author/LRW)
Chowdhury, G. G.; Tadesse, Taye T.
This is a cross-sectional study involving 364 clients who have had Norplant implants insertion for contraception at the Gandhi Memorial Hospital (GMH) during the second half of 1994. It was part of the pilot project designed to introduce Norplant in Ethiopia after evaluating the safety, efficacy, tolerance, acceptability and reversibility of the method. The vast majority of the clients were found to be married, housewives, multiparae, relatively educated, urban dwellers, Christian by faith and in their reproductive age group with a mean age of 27.9 +/- 5.7 years. A significant number of them used one or more types of contraceptive methods prior to their switch to Norplant (P < 0.05). A third of the patients were lactating at the time of the Norplant insertion. The time taken to insert the implants was 12.5 +/- 4.3 minutes. The mean duration since the insertion is computed to be 25.3 +/- 4.2 months. Their main source of information was from the medical personnel. The acceptability and continuation rate of the method was 93.9% and 95.1%, respectively. The fertility-reversibility among those who desired to have childbirth was achieved in 72.3% and 84.1% at one and two years, respectively. Adverse effects of Norplant were registered in a quarter of the study population and included abnormal menstruation, headache, weight changes and pain at the site of implantation. These were not influenced by age, body weight, parity, duration of usage of the method, blood pressure patterns and previous use of contraception (P > 0.05). We have not encountered any method failure in the last 30 months. The study concludes that Norplant is safe, effective, acceptable, and reversible long-term birth control method which can be used in our setting in parallel with other available options. PMID:9299831
Argina, H; Lukman, H Y
The quality and shelf-life of perishable foodstuffs can be reduced by high concentrations in the processing environment of bioaerosols consisting of spoilage microbiota. A lack of documented literature on the distribution of such bioaerosols has, however, led to the underestimation of their impact. In the study reported here, the deboning rooms of selected South African red-meat abattoirs were investigated for airborne concentrations of staphylococci; the authors studied the distribution of Staphylococcus species in general, as well as the coagulase types of Staphylococcus aureus in particular. Average staphylococci bioaerosol concentrations varied considerably among the abattoirs investigated, with Abattoir B having the highest counts (3 x 10(2) CFUs/m3) and Abattoir A having the lowest (7.6 CFUs/m3). There was a significant link between bioaerosols and microbial loads from red meat in the same environment. The recorded levels were, however, well below the recommended maximum limits for bioaerosols suggested by various international and governmental authorities. Staphylococcus xylosus and S. saprophyticus were found to be the most abundant species in the air of the deboning rooms, while among S. aureus coagulase types, Type III and Type VIII were predominant. On the basis of the ecology of the bacterial groups, the authors suggest probable sources of staphylococcal bioaerosols and propose strategies that could be developed for red-meat abattoirs to reduce the levels of airborne pathogens. PMID:17091740
Shale, K; Lues, J E R; Venter, P; Buys, E M
The severity and temporal dynamics of anthracnose on susceptible (BTx623 and AL70) and resistant lines (2001PWColl#022 and 2001HararghieColl#12) were studied in field plots during the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in southern Ethiopia. The initial, final, and mean anthracnose severities and area un...
Investigating the experience of violence against women and exploring women's coping strategies is a crucial component of re-tailoring the provision of services for victims\\/survivors. This article explores violence against women in the context of culture, theory of fear of violence and literature on spaces perceived to be ‘safe’ or ‘dangerous’ by women victims\\/survivors of violence in Ethiopia. To collect the
Abbi Kedir; Lul Admasachew
The abattoir (meat processing) industry is facing a number of challenges in Australia, including introduction of technology, safety standards, restructuring, and development and implementation of an effective training culture. The training strategy will effectively target existing training resources for the industry and upskill employees in a…
Clements, Andrew; Speers, Geoff
This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of common disinfectants- these are (parachlorometaxylenol) dettol, savlon purit and jik (sodium hypochlorite) on Candida albicans isolated from displaying and cutting tables in five different abattoirs in Port Harcourt (Niger Delta region); the abattoirs include Trans Amadi, Agip, Woji, Rumuokoro, and Rumuodara. This research was carried out between January 2005 and June 2006. Swab samples were collected from abattoirs cutting tables with sterile swab sticks and immediately transferred and cultured in the laboratory on a selective medium Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). The disinfectants’ concentrations were prepared at 10%, 20%, 40%, and 70%, in triplicates and the mean values calculated. 0.5 Mc Farland turbidity method of standardization and Agar diffusion method were used for disinfectants testing of the isolates. Statistical analysis of the data showed no significant difference in the effectiveness of these disinfectants at (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study has shown that savlon and dettol were the most potent antimicrobial agents at 10% concentration on Candida albicans isolates when compared with purit and jik in this study, hence they are good sanitizing agents to be applied on the abattoirs cutting tables, before meat products can be displayed for sale. PMID:24358834
Olorode, Oluwayemisi A
Quasi-continuous variations of the Earth's magnetic field recorded in lake sediments can provide detailed time series describing the evolution of the geomagnetic field. To make robust conclusions about underlying geodynamo processes an improvement in the global coverage of recording sites is required. Current lake data for the late Brunhes are biased towards Europe and North America with only five studies reporting paleomagnetic results from equatorial Africa. We present inclination and relative paleointensity from Chew Bahir, southern Ethiopia; a saline mudflat located in the East African Ridge System, previously covered by a ~2000 km2 lake. Discrete measurements were made on two ten meter cores, which we continuously sub-sampled at 2 cm intervals. Calibrated AMS radiocarbon ages constrain the base of the cores to ~45 ka. NRM was demagnetized in ten steps up to 100 mT and well defined characteristic remanence directions, with MAD < 3°, were determined for the majority of specimens. Secondary components of magnetization were generally removed after alternating field demagnetization to 15 mT. Inclination is compared with previously obtained directional records from Lake Turkana, northern Kenya (~60 km to the southwest of Chew Bahir), and we discuss differences between these records. The ratio of NRM to ARM intensity at 20 mT was used as a proxy for relative paleointensity. Broad similarities in variations in relative paleointensity are seen between Chew Bahir and other globally distributed sites; most evidently through the Holocene. The magnetic mineralogy of the cores has been determined using a number of rock magnetic methods and has been used to assess the fidelity of the paleomagnetic records.
Frank, U.; Brown, M. C.; Foerster, V. E.; Schäbitz, F.
RADBOUDUNIVERSITY NIJMEGEN, THE NETHERLANDS ICT for Ethiopia's land administration Bachelor Thesis........................................................................................... 5 4.1 Ethiopia's history of land administration...................................................................................................... 7 4.2.3 Land use and Administration Committee (LAC
Visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar) is classified as one of the most neglected tropical diseases. It is becoming a growing health problem in Ethiopia, with endemic areas that are continually spreading. The annual burden of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ethiopia is estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,000 cases, and the population at risk is more than 3.2 million. There has been a change in the epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia. Over the last decades, almost all cases and outbreaks of VL were reported from arid and semi-arid parts of the country; however, recent reports indicated the introduction of this disease into the highlands. Migration of labourers to and from endemic areas, climatic and environmental changes, and impaired immunity due to HIV/AIDS and malnutrition resulted in the change of VL epidemiology. HIV spurs the spread of VL by increasing the risk of progression from asymptomatic infection towards full VL. Conversely, VL accelerates the onset of AIDS. In Ethiopia, VL epidemiology remains complex because of the diversity of risk factors involved, and its control is becoming an increasing challenge. This paper reviews the changes in epidemiology of VL in Ethiopia and discusses some of the possible explanations for these changes. The prospects for novel approaches to VL control are discussed, as are the current and future challenges facing Ethiopia's public health development program. PMID:25188253
Leta, Samson; Dao, Thi Ha Thanh; Mesele, Frehiwot; Alemayehu, Gezahegn
BACKGROUND: The rural populations in Ethiopia have a rich knowledge of wild edible plants and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of the different cultures in the country. In the southern part of the country, wild edible plants are used as dietary supplements and a means of survival during times of food shortage. Therefore, the aim
Tilahun Teklehaymanot; Mirutse Giday
Leptospirosis is an occupational zoonosis caused by pathogenic leptospires. In this study, the presence and prevalence of antibodies specific to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo in 142 cattle slaughtered between June and July 2011 was investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Five (3.50%) of the 142 cattle sampled were seropositive for antibodies to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo. Despite the fact that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in seropositivity between sexes and between breeds sampled, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in sero-positivity between the different age groups examined. Leptospirosis is present in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir; butchers and abattoir workers are exposed to infected animals and are at risk of being infected by Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo. PMID:22718334
Ngbede, Emmanuel O; Raji, Mashood A; Kwanashie, Clara N; Okolocha, Emmanuel C; Gugong, Victor T; Hambolu, Sunday E
This study was to investigate the prevalence of HEV in pig herds under different breeding environment and in abattoirs located in Beijing, China. In total 638 sera samples and 114 liver samples were collected for a serological survey and a RT-PCR assay, respectively. The average prevalence rate of HEV in pig herds in Beijing suburb were 47.5–100%. Seropositive rate was
Wengui Li; Ruiping She; Haitao Wei; Jingyi Zhao; Yinghua Wang; Quan Sun; Yanmei Zhang; Decheng Wang; Ruiwen Li
In two abattoirs, each slaughtering both cattle and pigs, 100 cattle and 100 pigs were randomly selected and sampled. From each animal, two samples were taken: a) immediately after sticking of bovines or stunning of pigs, approximately 2000cm2 hide (cattle) or 1500cm2 skin (pigs) areas were sponge-swabbed; and b) at the end of slaughter line but before chilling, the same
B. Blagojevic; D. Antic; M. Ducic; S. Buncic
The prevalence and degree of antibiotic resistance of faecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli and enteroccoci, were determined in 1321 faecal samples collected from pigs at five abattoirs in The Netherlands and in 100 samples from Swedish pigs. In the Dutch samples a high prevalence of resistance was observed in E. coli for three commonly used antibiotics in pig medicine, amoxycillin (70-94%), oxytetracycline (78-98%) and trimethoprim (62-96%). Also, the prevalence for chloramphenicol (55-67%) and neomycin (38-67%) was relatively high. For the other compounds tested the prevalence was less than 10%. The percentage of samples with a high degree of resistant E. coli showed the same tendency in all Dutch abattoirs although significant differences between the abattoirs were observed. The percentage of Swedish samples with a high degree of resistant E. coli was significantly lower for all antibiotics except nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, flumequin and ciprofloxacin. All enterococci were susceptible to amoxycillin and high-level resistance to gentamicin was observed in 4-6% of the Dutch samples. A high prevalence of resistance and a high degree of resistance was found for erythromycin and oxytetracycline. The prevalence of resistance to dalfopristin-quinupristin ranged from 6 to 8% and for vancomycin from 24 to 46%. Significant differences between the abattoirs were found for all compounds tested except amoxycillin. In the Swedish population both the prevalence and degree of resistance in enterococci were significantly lower except for amoxycillin and gentamicin. This point prevalence study showed that the prevalence and degree of antibiotic resistance in indicator bacteria, E. coli and enterococci, in faecal samples from pigs differed between two countries and reflected differences in antibiotic usage in pigs. To analyse the differences observed between the slaughterhouses, additional information about the farms of origin and antibiotic consumption is necessary. PMID:10797090
van Den Bogaard, A E; London, N; Stobberingh, E E
The study hypothesis was that pre-slaughter handling is not conducted in such a way that pigs can be considered humanely slaughtered, nor is it conducive to promoting those properties of fresh meat that could enhance pork quality. The 1st phase of the investigation was aimed at confirming the present compliance level within the prescribed norms. To this end the importance of stunning induction requirements for effective electrical stunning, the welfare implications relating to the pre-slaughter handling of pigs and the stunning and sticking techniques were investigated. Pre-slaughter welfare of the pigs at the abattoir was found to be influenced at the outset by the origin and type of pig slaughtered, the daily throughput range of pigs and the type of abattoir involved. A disappointing pre-arrival aspect was that deficiencies in road motor vehicles were observed while off-loading pigs. Through poor design or lack of maintenance, another factor that hampered free movement of pigs was the off-loading facilities. The nature of animal behaviour in the pens, in the passages and when going into the stunning area was directly related to the pig handling efficiency and to the nature and extent of design and maintenance problems with equipment. None of the abattoirs had a well designed in-feed to a well planned stunning area/facility, and a very high level of pig pre-slaughter stress prevailed. The optimum position of the electrodes is virtually impossible to attain under practical conditions and the practice of repeat application of electrical stunning is common. Of the total sample size (n = 1175), 34% were difficult to shackle, 90% of these being from the abattoirs tending to slaughter more routinely a wide range of different sized pigs. In this survey 149 pigs (13%) required more than a single sticking attempt to bleed out properly, considerably higher than in other published reports. PMID:21247016
Spencer, B T; Veary, C M
Background Increased resistance by Plasmodium falciparum parasites led to the withdrawal of the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Ethiopia. Since 2004 artemether-lumefantrine has served to treat uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. However, increasing reports on delayed parasite clearance to artemisinin opens up a new challenge in anti-malarial therapy. With the complete withdrawal of CQ for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, this study assessed the evolution of CQ resistance by investigating the prevalence of mutant alleles in the pfmdr1 and pfcrt genes in P. falciparum and pvmdr1 gene in Plasmodium vivax in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia. Methods Of the 1,416 febrile patients attending primary health facilities in Southern Ethiopia, 329 febrile patients positive for P. falciparum or P. vivax were recruited. Similarly of the 1,304 febrile patients from Eastern Ethiopia, 81 febrile patients positive for P. falciparum or P. vivax were included in the study. Of the 410 finger prick blood samples collected from malaria patients, we used direct sequencing to investigate the prevalence of mutations in pfcrt and pfmdr1. This included determining the gene copy number in pfmdr1 in 195 P. falciparum clinical isolates, and mutations in the pvmdr1 locus in 215 P. vivax clinical isolates. Results The pfcrt K76 CQ-sensitive allele was observed in 84.1% of the investigated P.falciparum clinical isolates. The pfcrt double mutations (K76T and C72S) were observed less than 3%. The pfcrt SVMNT haplotype was also found to be present in clinical isolates from Ethiopia. The pfcrt CVMNK-sensitive haplotypes were frequently observed (95.9%). The pfmdr1 mutation N86Y was observed only in 14.9% compared to 85.1% of the clinical isolates that carried sensitive alleles. Also, the sensitive pfmdr1 Y184 allele was more common, in 94.9% of clinical isolates. None of the investigated P. falciparum clinical isolates carried S1034C, N1042D and D1246Y pfmdr1 polymorphisms. All investigated P. falciparum clinical isolates from Southern and Eastern Ethiopia carried only a single copy of the mutant pfmdr1 gene. Conclusion The study reports for the first time the return of chloroquine sensitive P. falciparum in Ethiopia. These findings support the rationale for the use of CQ-based combination drugs as a possible future alternative. PMID:24964730
The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) allows rope casting and the tying of legs for nonhuman animal slaughter without stunning. The handling and welfare of bovine livestock (Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis) were studied in 8 local abattoirs in 5 districts of Bangladesh. A total of 302 animals were evaluated. At the local abattoirs, approximately 1/3 of the cattle and water buffalo were either emaciated or injured/sick. The size and vigor of the animals determined the casting method. Small and weak animals were cast on concrete floors by lifting a foreleg followed by pushing, or simply by twisting the head of the animal and then binding the legs with rope. Vigorous animals such as buffalo were cast using ropes and human force. Bleeding was slow and flaying was sometimes initiated before the animals were unconscious. Pulling and tearing of the trachea and pouring of water into the exposed trachea shortly after cutting were also observed in some cases. The overall animal handling was unnecessarily rough and the OIE standards were not implemented. Animals are subjected to considerable mistreatment, and there is an urgent need for the training and education of the staff in abattoirs concerning humane slaughtering practices as well as a need to build modern slaughtering plants in Bangladesh. PMID:24766081
Ahsan, Murshidul; Hasan, Badrul; Algotsson, Magnus; Sarenbo, Sirkku
experimental drought monitoring tool has been developed that predicts the vegetation condition (Vegetation Outlook) using a regression-tree technique at a monthly time step during the growing season in Eastern Africa. This prediction tool (VegOut-Ethiopia) is demonstrated for Ethiopia as a case study. VegOut-Ethiopia predicts the standardized values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at multiple time steps (weeks to months into the future) based on analysis of "historical patterns" of satellite, climate, and oceanic data over historical records. The model underlying VegOut-Ethiopia capitalizes on historical climate-vegetation interactions and ocean-climate teleconnections (such as El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)) expressed over the 24 year data record and also considers several environmental characteristics (e.g., land cover and elevation) that influence vegetation's response to weather conditions to produce 8 km maps that depict future general vegetation conditions. VegOut-Ethiopia could provide vegetation monitoring capabilities at local, national, and regional levels that can complement more traditional remote sensing-based approaches that monitor "current" vegetation conditions. The preliminary results of this case study showed that the models were able to predict the vegetation stress (both spatial extent and severity) in drought years 1-3 months ahead during the growing season in Ethiopia. The correlation coefficients between the predicted and satellite-observed vegetation condition range from 0.50 to 0.90. Based on the lessons learned from past research activities and emerging experimental forecast models, future studies are recommended that could help Eastern Africa in advancing knowledge of climate, remote sensing, hydrology, and water resources.
Tadesse, Tsegaye; Demisse, Getachew Berhan; Zaitchik, Ben; Dinku, Tufa
An Oregon resident returned from a photography trip to Ethiopia with a male Hyalomma truncatum tick attached to the skin on his lower back. The tick was identified morphologically and deposited in the U.S. National Tick Collection housed at Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia. The public health importance of Hyalomma species of ticks and diagnostic dilemmas with identifying exotic ticks imported into the U.S. are discussed. PMID:25435012
Mathison, Blaine A; Gerth, William J; Pritt, Bobbi S; Baugh, Stephen
This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.
Funk, Chris; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon
...Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation...Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia 1. Applicability. This Special...within the territory and airspace of Ethiopia north of 12 degrees north...
This meta-analysis estimates a single-group summary (effect size) for seroprevalence of Brucella spp. exposure in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. It also attempts to identify study-level variables that could explain the variation in apparent seroprevalence. The literature search was restricted to studies published in English language from January 2000 to December 2013. A template was designed to retrieve the most biologically plausible and consistent variables from the articles. A total of 29 published papers containing 40 animal-level studies were used in the analyses. The single-group summary of Brucella seroprevalence in cattle was estimated to reach 3.3 % with 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.6-4.2 %). Of all the variables considered, region was the only specific factor identified to explain about 20 % of between-study variation. Accordingly, the region-based meta-analysis forest plot revealed the highest prevalence in central Ethiopia followed by southern part. The lowest prevalence estimate was observed in the western part of the country. The visual inspection of the funnel plot demonstrated the presence of possible publication bias which might dictate shortage of studies with higher prevalences or variance inflation due to infectiousness of Brucella. In conclusion, the quantitative review showed the seroprevalence to be low but widely distributed. More importantly, the review underscores the need for isolation and characterization of the circulating Brucella spp. to capture the type of Brucella spp. involved and its distribution in cattle in Ethiopia. PMID:25236935
Asmare, Kassahun; Krontveit, Randi I; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein
In this study the occurrence of Salmonella in swine, pork meat and meat handlers along with their clonal relatedness is evaluated at abattoir level. Samples from the lymph nodes, carcass surface and meat of 100 pigs and 45 meat handlers were collected in eight abattoirs (July 2007-August 2008). Salmonella isolates were serotyped and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From the pigs tested, 42 produced at least one positive sample. A relatively high frequency of Salmonella occurrence was found in the ileoceacal lymph node samples (26.0%), followed by carcass (16.0%) and meat samples (14.0%). However, ileoceacal lymph nodes that test positive for Salmonella are not found to be a predictor of positive test results further on in the process. Besides the slaughterhouse environment, meat handlers were identified as a possible source of subsequent contamination, with 9.3% of the sample testing positive. Diverse Salmonella enterica serotypes were detected, mainly S. Typhimurium and the monophasic variant S. 4,,12:i:-, but also S. Derby, S. Rissen, S. Mbandaka, S. London, S. Give, S. Enteritidis and S. Sandiego, in total corresponding to 17 PFGE types. Our results demonstrate that besides a high level of Salmonella swine contamination at pre-harvest level, slaughtering, dressing, cutting and deboning operations are contributing to the occurrence of clinically relevant clones (e.g. S. Typhimurium DT104 and S. 4,,12:i:-) in pork products. This study also highlights the possibility of an ongoing Salmonella community being spread by abattoir workers. PMID:22607810
Gomes-Neves, Eduarda; Antunes, Patrícia; Tavares, Alcina; Themudo, Patrícia; Cardoso, Margarida Fonseca; Gärtner, Fátima; Costa, José Manuel; Peixe, Luísa
The rates of congenital and genetic disorders in low and middle income countries are similar or might be higher than in high income countries due to a multitude of risk factors and the dearth of community genetic services. To direct effective preventive, diagnostic and counseling services, collecting data on the incidence and prevalence of various congenital and genetic disorders and their risk factors is a pre-requisite for establishing genetic services at the community level and mainly at the primary health care setting. This brief review is meant to assess the available epidemiological data in Ethiopia pertaining to congenital and genetic disorders on which the future community genetic services could be built. Existing epidemiological data on congenital and genetic disorders in Ethiopia is limited, and the few studies conducted revealed that folate and iodine deficiencies are prevalent among women in the reproductive age. Pregnant women's infection with syphilis and rubella is prevailing. Based on available data, cleft lip and palate, congenital heart diseases, club-foot, and gastro-intestinalmalformations are the most common birth defects in Ethiopia. Community based studies to accurately demonstrate the incidence and prevalence levels of these disorders are almost unavailable. To plan for organization and implementation of community genetic services at the primary health care level in Ethiopia, conducting standardized epidemiological studies is currently highly recommended. PMID:25404975
Tadesse, Luche; Tafesse, Fikru; Hamamy, Hanan
This essay will make a brief historical synopsis and analysis of the crimes perpetrated by the Italian fascists against the Ethiopian people in the 1930s. At this particular juncture, it may sound ironic to revisit the crimes against humanity committed in Ethiopia by Fascist henchmen like Marshall Pietro Badoglio and Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, but sometimes the past contends with the
Explored herein are historical roots of preschool through elementary grade education in the East Africa nation of Ethiopia. Also included are current difficult challenges to educational improvement as well as promising developments such as greater involvement of private institutions, organizations, and individuals in supporting Ministry of…
Hoot, James L.; Szente, Judit; Mebratu, Belete
This article informs readers about early childhood in one of the poorest nations in the world--Ethiopia. Within the context of ecological systems theory, it emphasizes the characteristics of early education programs such as pre-school and basic (primary) education, and creates connections with families' views about education. The article concludes…
Szente, Judit; Hoot, James; Tadesse, Selamawit
Cranial and skeletal remains of modern humans, Homo sapiens, were discovered in the Kibish Formation in 1967 by a team from the Kenya National Museums directed by Richard Leakey. Omo I, from Kamoya's Hominid Site (KHS), consists of much of a skeleton, including most of the cranial vault, parts of the face and mandible, and many postcranial elements. Omo II,
John G. Fleagle; Zelalem Assefa; Francis H. Brown; John J. Shea
Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791
Ellström, Patrik; Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi
A passive surveillance study was conducted from April 2012 to April 2013 to determine the incidence, the affect of age, sex and cyst location, fertility, and viability on the occurrence of cystic hydatidosis in slaughtered goats from six municipal abattoirs around Oman. Morphologic characterization of suspected visceral organs has shown that Echinococcos granulosus (E. granulosus) metacestodes were present in 9.2 % of the total samples (682). Incidence (per 10,000) varied from 1.4 to 1.5. There was a significant difference between abattoirs, with Salalah having the highest infection (63.2 %), followed by Nizwa (27.2 %), Al Buraimi (10.8 %), Bousher (7.2 %), and the lowest in Sohar (1.6 %). Infection was significantly higher in indigenous goats (22.1 %) compared with imported breeds (2.5 %) from Somalia. The visceral organs were found harboring one or more hydatid cysts. Greatest cyst infection was recorded in lungs (53.4 %), followed by heart (50 %), liver (6.2 %), and multiple organs (14 %). A significant difference was observed between females (25 %) and male goats (6 %). Furthermore, the fertility of the hydatid cysts was found higher in heart and lungs (100 %, 51.6 %) and the viability rate of protoscolices was high (64 %). The findings of this study demonstrated that cystic hydatidosis is common and widely distributed in local goats, and they might play an important role in the life cycle and transmission of this zoonosis in Oman. PMID:25096054
Al-Kitani, Fadya; Baqir, Senan; Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Roberts, Derek
1. The mortality of broilers during pre-slaughter handling, including harvesting and transport, is an issue of increasing public concern which has led to the adoption of Council Directive EC/43/2007 implementing abattoir surveillance regarding the number of dead-on-arrival (DOA) broilers. 2. Pathological lesions and causes of death of DOA broilers at a Danish abattoir were investigated in a cross-sectional study comprising 300 DOA broilers (25 broilers from each of 12 randomly selected flocks). Major pathological manifestations of DOA broilers included severe pulmonary congestion (51.5%), lung congestion in combination with trauma (12.5%), trauma (10.2%), nephropathy accompanied by dehydration and/or discolouration (8.8%), morbus cordis (2.0%), septicaemia (1.7%) and suspected septicaemia (1.0%). Lung congestion accompanied by circulatory disturbances in other tissues was suggested to be due to suffocation. 3. Analyses of pathological diagnoses revealed that DOA broilers can be divided into two main categories, lung congestion and trauma, based on the chronicity of the lesions, both of which are primarily related to management and handling procedures. Most DOA broilers examined (74.2%) were estimated to have died as a consequence of events during pre-slaughter handling underlining the importance of increased focus on handling-related factors to reduce DOA rate. PMID:23906216
Lund, V P; Kyvsgaard, N C; Christensen, J P; Bisgaard, M
Taenia saginata cysticercosis is one of the zoonotic diseases that threaten food safety and food security, particularly in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and cyst distribution in infected cattle, and food safety implications of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Harari People's National Regional State, eastern Ethiopia. Post-mortem inspection of carcasses and organs of slaughtered cattle in Harar Municipal Abattoir, cyst viability tests and interviews with randomly selected meat consumers were undertaken. The post-mortem inspection showed that of the 898 local zebu cattle slaughtered for human consumption and examined for the presence of cysticerci of T. saginata, 19.7% (177/898; 95% CI = 17.2-22.5) harboured at least one cyst in the muscles or organs inspected. Of the edible anatomical sites with cysticerci, shoulder muscle, liver and heart together represented 65.4%, 66.0% and 65.4% respectively of relative prevalence, total cyst count and cyst viability. These edible sites are preferred above others by local people for preparation and consumption of raw or inadequately cooked meat dishes that are locally served as kurt, kitffo and dullet. The interviews revealed that among the 300 study participants, 182 (60.7%) had been infected by taeniosis at least once during the previous year and of these 99.0% had eaten raw or undercooked beef, the majority (88.3%) obtained from butchers assumed to provide officially inspected meat that was fit for consumption. This indicated that existing meat inspection processes were inadequate to prevent carcasses infected with T. saginata cysticerci from reaching consumers. The high prevalence of viable cysts in the edible parts of beef together with the widespread consumption of raw or undercooked beef indicated the importance of T. saginata cysticercosis as a food safety problem in eastern Ethiopia. The promotion of policies to upgrade existing meat inspection procedures and public education to ensure effective prevention of T. saginata taeniosis in humans were recommended. PMID:24833237
Terefe, Yitagele; Redwan, Feysel; Zewdu, Endrias
Pigs from four farms (two producing 'easy' and two 'difficult to handle' pigs) were slaughtered at two abattoirs, each with two slaughter handling systems, so that 25 pigs of each behavioural type were slaughtered by all four handling systems on each day; there were 16 replicates (3200 pigs) in total. The pigs at abattoir X were electrically stunned, either in a floor pen holding five pigs or in a race-restrainer. At abattoir Y the pigs were stunned either in a floor pen holding five pigs or in a dip-lift carbon dioxide stunner. The following measurements were made: hot carcase weight and backfat thickness at P2, degree of rigor mortis 35 minutes post mortem, skin blemish, pH and muscle reflectance in the m longissimus dorsi at 60 minutes and 18 hours post mortem, and pH and muscle reflectance in the m adductor at 18 hours post mortem. At abattoir X, the pigs slaughtered in the race-restrainer had heavier carcases (74.0 kg vs 73.0 kg, P < 0.05), developed rigor mortis more rapidly (8.1 mm vs 7.3 mm, P < 0.01), had more skin blemish (2.8 vs 2.7, P < 0.01), paler m longissimus dorsi muscles after one hour (15.7 vs 13.9, P < 0.01) and 18 hours (27.8 vs 26.6, P < 0.05), and paler m adductor muscles (24.5 vs 22.7, P < 0.001) after 18 hours. At abattoir Y, the pigs handled through the floor pen system had more skin blemish (2.7 vs 2.6, P < 0.05) and a tendency to develop rigor mortis more quickly (6.11 vs 5.32, P = 0.089).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7846833
Hunter, E J; Weeding, C M; Guise, H J; Abbott, T A; Penny, R H
Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia. PMID:24885355
From 1990 to 2011, contraceptive use in Ethiopia increased ninefold and the total fertility rate fell from 7.0 to 4.8. These are two dramatic illustrations of a family planning success story that has emerged over the last two decades and is still emerging. What are the main elements of this success? We posit that the four most significant factors are: political will, generous donor support, nongovernmental and public-private partnerships, and the government's establishment of a network of health extension workers. In this study, we look at these factors and how their interaction increased the proportion of women having both the desire to use and ability to access contraceptives. Also highlighted are some of the key lessons learned in Ethiopia that are relevant to other African countries interested in emulating the country's success. PMID:24323662
Olson, David J; Piller, Andrew
A new map of Tertiary volcanics occurrences in the Ogaden region of southeast Ethiopia and adjacent areas of Somalia has been prepared. Outcrop areas, mapped using satellite images and helicopter--supported field work in 2008, are more widespread than previously recognized, while magnetic and drill data reveal the vast subsurface extent of the magmatism. Several spectacular 'meandering' outcrops, over 100 km long, are undoubtedly exhumed canyon--filling flows and magnetic data show that many other apparently isolated outcrops are actually part of similar flows, the bulk of which are now subsurface. Age dating and well intersections show several volcanic episodes, with the major outpouring occurring across a broad peneplain in the Oligocene. Geological and aeromagnetic mapping, and 40Ar/39Ar age dating, reveal a dyke swarm extending SSE from the southern Afar margin more than 600 km across the Somali Plate, and coeval with dyke injection in the Red Sea rift at ~25 Ma. The Ogaden Dyke Swarm, which occurs in an area historically considered remote from the impact of the Afro--Arabian rifting and volcanism, appears associated with the Marda Fault and marks a zone of crustal dilation along the Red Sea trend across the Horn of Africa. Contemporaneous rifts, also trending WNW/ESE and over 120 km long, occur in NE Somalia, confirming the predominantly NE/SW--directed crustal stress regime in the Ogaden and adjacent region at this time.
Mège, Daniel; Purcell, Peter; Jourdan, Fred; Pochat, Stéphane
The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southern Ethiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.
Phoenix, David A.
SUSTAINABLE HERITAGE TOURISM PLANNING IN ETHIOPIA: AN ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK by Stefanie Jones B Management Project No.: 532 Title: Sustainable Heritage Tourism Planning in Ethiopia: An Assessment Framework government decide if tourism is appropriate for a heritage site? And, how can that site be conserved while
The 20 th century has been shaped by class and national struggles intended to end the asymmetrical relations that arose in the historical process of the creation of the multi-ethnic polity of Ethiopia. This study explores and assesses the democratization and decentralization experiment in Ethiopia. It focuses on the Oromia region, which is the country's largest region as well as
A survey into the prevalence of salmonella organisms in sewage in the Borders Region of South-east Scotland is described. A total of 317 isolates representing 34 different serotypes were made, of which only 5 serotypes appeared in animals, supporting the view that the spreading of sewage sludge on to pastureland presents little risk to livestock provided the recommended guidelines are followed. Nevertheless, Salmonella typhimurium phage type 12, identified in sewage, was also recovered from animals in incidents on 11 farms, including 4 which had received sludge from this source. A further 48 isolates (13 serotypes) were obtained from the parallel monitoring of abattoir effluents, indicating that the background level of salmonella infection in the animal population appears to be low in comparison to that in humans. PMID:3891848
Linklater, K. A.; Graham, M. M.; Sharp, J. C.
The intestinal tracts of 363 horses were examined after slaughter at a horse abattoir. The presence or absence of Anoplocephala perfoliata and the sites of attachment were recorded. A total of 51 per cent of the horses had A perfoliata attached to the mucosa of the ileocaecal junction and/or to the caecal mucosa; 5 per cent of the horses had A perfoliata attached only to the mucosa of the ileocaecal junction, 24 per cent had A perfoliata attached only to the caecal mucosa and 22 per cent of the horses had A perfoliata attached at both sites. The degree of infestation did not appear to be influenced by the season or by the age, breed or source of origin of the horses. The lesions at the sites of attachment included congestion, oedema, ulceration, diphtheresis, mucosal thickening, eosinophil infiltration and fibroplasia. The severity of the lesions was exacerbated by increasing numbers of worms. PMID:8085308
Fogarty, U; del Piero, F; Purnell, R E; Mosurski, K R
This publication compiles the findings and conclusions of the 3-year first phase (1980-83) of the Unesco Sub-regional Project for Special Education in Eastern and Southern Africa. It presents the state of the art of special education and prospects for future development in Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Seychelles, Somalia,…
Ross, D. H.
Carcase pH and temperature decline rates influence lamb tenderness; therefore pH decline parameters are beneficial when modelling tenderness. These include pH at temperature 18°C (pH@Temp18), temperature when pH is 6 (Temp@pH6), and pH at 24h post-mortem (pH24). This study aimed to establish a relationship between shear force (SF) as a proxy for tenderness and carcase pH decline parameters estimated using both linear and spline estimation models for the m. longissimus lumborum (LL). The study also compared abattoirs regarding their achievement of ideal pH decline, indicative of optimal tenderness. Based on SF measurements of LL and m. semimembranosus collected as part of the Information Nucleus slaughter programme (CRC for Sheep Industry Innovation) this study found significant relationships between tenderness and pH24LL, consistent across the meat cuts and ageing periods examined. Achievement of ideal pH decline was shown not to have significantly differed across abattoirs, although rates of pH decline varied significantly across years within abattoirs. PMID:25460110
Hopkins, David L; Holman, Benjamin W B; van de Ven, Remy J
SUMMARY The aims of this study were to determine the annual incidence of infection with Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona and/or Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo and its association with influenza-like illness (ILI) in meat workers in New Zealand. Sera were collected twice, 50-61 weeks apart, from 592 workers at eight abattoirs slaughtering sheep (n = 4), cattle (n = 2) and deer (n = 2), and tested by the microscopic agglutination test for Hardjo and Pomona. Forty-nine (8·3%) participants either seroconverted or had at least a twofold increased serological titre against either serovar. The worker infection risk was higher in sheep abattoirs (11·9%) than in abattoirs processing deer (0%) or cattle (1·2%) (P < 0·01). The annualized risk of mild (ILI) or severe clinical disease attributable to the two Leptospira serovars was 2·7%. This study has demonstrated that meat workers are at substantial risk of infection and clinical disease, suggesting further investigation of infection sources and preventive measures are warranted. PMID:25266854
Dreyfus, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P; Collins-Emerson, J; Baker, M G; Benschop, J
This study focuses on the analysis of dryness/wetness over Ethiopia from 1982 to 2009 using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which are derived from observational and RegCM4 dataset over Ethiopia. Trend empirical orthogonal function (TEOF), regression and wavelet analysis are used to investigate the long term change, frequency and intra-annual variability of drought over Ethiopia. All method analysis of PDSI and SPI are consistent and showed, the southern regions to be more drought-prone than other regions of Ethiopia and statistically significant dry trend are dominated in particular during the recent decade. By contrast, the likelihood of drought occurrence of northern regions is considerably less and dominated by low frequency signals. Both indices indicated that the North and Northwest regions experienced frequent and worst drought conditions centered at the year 1983/1984 and similar conditions centered at the year 2007-2009 over the southern and southwestern regions have been identified. The first two most dominant trend principal components (TPCs) of observational driven PDSI and SPI-12 with corresponding RegCM4 driven TPCs of PDSI and SPI-12 indicates significant correlations (correlation exceeding ~0.8). In addition, the corresponding patterns (TEOFs) of RegCM4 and observational driven drought indices are so similar. Generally, the RegCM4 shows a good performance in simulating the multi-scale spatial and temporal variability of drought occurrence over Ethiopia. The correlation pattern of trend principal components (TPCs) of PDSI and SPI-12 with raw sea surface temperature (SST) indicates that the possible association of the observed variability of drought. The equatorial pacific, the northern and equatorial Atlantic are correlated significantly with first dominant TPC of drought indices, whereas ENSO, Indian and Atlantic Ocean significantly correlated with the second dominant TPC of drought indices. In addition we observe the association between ocean basin and drought indices is highly seasonal dependant with the strongest association in the spring. The physical mechanisms responsible for such linkage in the atmosphere are examined using both ERA-Interim (ERIM) and RegCM4 dataset. Moreover, it was found that droughts occurred in events of strong El Niño years mainly severe and wider areal coverage. During events of negative values of Indian Ocean dipole (-IOD) the southern and west border regions of the country hit by severe drought. The northern and some part of Ethiopia during events of negative anomaly SST of North Atlantic suffered at a significant level by drought conditions. Overall, the common power variance, phase, frequency and confidence of the time-lagged relationships between oceanic basin TPC and drought indices TPCs indicate that oceanic parameters can be used as indicators of drought occurrence in Ethiopia.
Zeleke, T. T.; Tsidu, G. M.; Giorgi, F.; Diro, G. T.
We describe the incidence of some childhood infections in drought prone areas of southern Ethiopia. Our results are based on 24 months' biweekly observations of 828 children aged 0-5 years in the pastoralist community of Dubluk and the agricultural community of Elka. An average of 23% of the children in Dubluk and 13% in Elka were sick during any 2-week period. Diarrhoeal diseases represented the main cause of morbidity, but the yearly number of diarrhoeal episodes were lower than previously reported from Ethiopia. Respiratory tract infections and to a lesser extent diarrhoeal diseases, showed highest incidence rates during the main dry season. The highest incidence of lower respiratory tract infections coincided with an outbreak of measles. In Dubluk, children who lived near to the wells had higher incidence rates than those who lived further away, probably reflecting the importance of crowding on transmission rates. In Elka, literacy of mothers was associated with reduced incidence of both diarrhoeal and respiratory tract infections, whereas the use of open pit latrines was associated with increased diarrhoeal incidence. The decline in disease incidence in this region during the last months of our study may reflect an improvement of nutritional status. PMID:1509243
Lindtjørn, B; Alemu, T; Bjorvatn, B
As a country whose economy is heavily dependent on low-productivity rainfed agriculture, rainfall trends are often cited as one of the more important factors in explaining various socio-economic problems such as food insecurity. Therefore, in order to help policymakers and developers make more informed decisions, this study investigated the temporal dynamics of rainfall and its spatial distribution within Ethiopia. Changes in rainfall were examined using data from 134 stations in 13 watersheds between 1960 and 2002. The variability and trends in seasonal and annual rainfall were analysed at the watershed scale with data (1) from all available years, and (2) excluding years that lacked observations from at least 25% of the gauges. Similar anlyses were also performed at the gauge, regional, and national levels. By regressing annual watershed rainfall on time, results from the one-sample t-test show no significant changes in rainfall for any of the watersheds examined. However, in our regressions of seasonal rainfall averages against time, we found a significant decline in June to September rainfall (i.e. Kiremt) for the Baro-Akobo, Omo-Ghibe, Rift Valley, and Southern Blue Nile watersheds located in the southwestern and central parts of Ethiopia. While the gauge level analysis showed that certain gauge stations experienced recent changes in rainfall, these trends are not necessarily reflected at the watershed or regional levels. Copyright ?? 2008 Royal Meteorological Society.
Cheung, W.H.; Senay, G.B.; Singh, A.
The presence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella serotypes in slaughtered swine, carcasses, meat and meat handlers is scarcely evaluated. Recently we demonstrated that diverse Salmonella serotypes are frequently present in swine, pork meat and carcasses, and meat handlers at Portuguese abattoirs. Here we have characterized their antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes, helping elucidate the flow of MDR Salmonella in the food chain. Testing 60 Salmonella isolates from different serotypes, the highest frequencies of resistance were observed for tetracycline (T) [70% (n=42/60), tet(A)/tet(B)/tet(G)], streptomycin (S) [63% (n=38/60), aadA2/strA/strB], sulfamethoxazole (Sul) [62% (n=37/60), sul1/sul2/sul3] and ampicillin (A) [57% (n=34/60), blaPSE-1/blaTEM]. Thirty-seven percent (n=22/60) carried class 1 integrons and multidrug resistance was frequently observed (63% n=38/60), including those serotypes common to human infections [S. Typhimurium 78% n=25/32; S. 4,,12:i:- 67% n=2/3; S. Rissen 75% (n=3/4); S. London 67% n=2/3; S. Derby 55%; n=6/11)]. The emergent S. 4,,12:i:- isolates were mostly characterized by ASSuT phenotype [blaTEM/strA-strB/sul2/tet(B)], typical of the European clone, while for the first time the ST phenotype [strA-strB-tet(A)-tet(B)] was also observed. Moreover, we report a first finding of a MDR phenotype in S. London [ANSSuT; blaTEM-strA-strB-sul2-tet(A)]. Our findings suggest that the abattoir environment and the slaughter operations seem not only to harbor MDR serotypes that originated in the pig reservoir, but also propagate them through cross-contamination processes, involving meat handlers. The present study suggests a probable relationship between swine and human salmonellosis throughout the food chain, which is of interest for epidemiological, animal health and public health purposes. PMID:24239169
Gomes-Neves, Eduarda; Antunes, Patrícia; Manageiro, Vera; Gärtner, Fátima; Caniça, Manuela; da Costa, José Manuel Correia; Peixe, Luísa
Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent progenitor cells characterized by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate into tissues of mesodermal origin. The plasticity or transdifferentiation potential of MSC is not limited to mesodermal derivatives, since under appropriate cell culture conditions and stimulation by bioactive factors, MSC have also been differentiated into endodermal (hepatocytes) and neuroectodermal (neurons) cells. The potential of MSC for hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation has been well documented in different animal models; however, few reports are currently available on large animal models. In the present study we sought to characterize the hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation and multipotent potential of bovine MSC (bMSC) isolated from bone marrow (BM) of abattoir-derived fetuses. Results Plastic-adherent bMSC isolated from fetal BM maintained a fibroblast-like morphology under monolayer culture conditions. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that bMSC populations were positive for MSC markers CD29 and CD73 and pluripotency markers OCT4 and NANOG; whereas, were negative for hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45. Levels of mRNA of hepatic genes ?-fetoprotein (AFP), albumin (ALB), alpha1 antitrypsin (?1AT), connexin 32 (CNX32), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) were up-regulated in bMSC during a 28-Day period of hepatogenic differentiation. Functional analyses in differentiated bMSC cultures evidenced an increase (P?0.05) in albumin and urea production and glycogen storage. bMSC cultured under neurogenic conditions expressed NESTIN and MAP2 proteins at 24 h of culture; whereas, at 144 h also expressed TRKA and PrPC. Levels of MAP2 and TRKA mRNA were up-regulated at the end of the differentiation period. Conversely, bMSC expressed lower levels of NANOG mRNA during both hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation processes. Conclusion The expression patterns of linage-specific markers and the production of functional metabolites support the potential for hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation of bMSC isolated from BM of abattoir-derived fetuses. The simplicity of isolation and the potential to differentiate into a wide variety of cell lineages lays the foundation for bMSC as an interesting alternative for investigation in MSC biology and eventual applications for regenerative therapy in veterinary medicine. PMID:25011474
A decontamination trial on the effectiveness of hot water or acidified sodium chlorite (SANOVA) treatment on Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Total Viable Count (TVC) was undertaken on pork carcases prior to primary chilling in two large pork abattoirs in Australia using belly-strip excision sampling. A total of 123 samples from Abattoir A and 400 samples from Abattoir B were cultured and analysed. Test pigs were selected from herds with a known high level of on-farm Salmonella infection. At Abattoir A, Salmonella spp. were not isolated from carcases. The prevalence of E. coli on control carcases was 92.9% compared with 9.8% for hot water and 12.5% for SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) E. coli concentration for control carcases was 0.89 cfu/gram, compared with -0.83 cfu/gram from hot water and -0.75 cfu/gram from SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) TVC for control carcases was 4.06 compared with 1.81 cfu/gram for hot water and 2.76 cfu/gram for SANOVA treated carcases. At Abattoir B, the prevalence of Salmonella on control carcases was 16% compared with 2.7% for hot water and 7.0% for SANOVA treated carcases. The prevalence of E. coli on control carcases was 69.3% compared with 22% for hot water and 30% for SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) E. coli concentration for control carcases was 0.45 cfu/gram, compared with -0.65 cfu/gram from hot water and -0.60 cfu/gram from SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) TVC for control carcases was 3.00 cfu/gram compared with 2.10 cfu/gram for hot water and 2.53 cfu/gram for SANOVA treated carcases. The reductions in prevalence and mean log(10) concentrations in the present trial were all found to be statistically significant and indicate that carcases decontamination with either hot water or SANOVA are effective risk management options immediately available to the pork industry. PMID:21083814
Hamilton, D; Holds, G; Lorimer, M; Kiermeier, A; Kidd, C; Slade, J; Pointon, A
Cooperation for American Relief to Everywhere (CARE) was established in response to the needs of the people after World War II through the distribution of food and clothes. CARE/Ethiopia, which signed its first Basic Agreement with the Relief and Rehabilitation Commission, was provided with assistance during the 1994 drought that affected Ethiopia. The primary objective of CARE was to alleviate the suffering brought about by severe food shortages and to expand the program to mitigation and development. This approach was based on the premise of a community-based development philosophy and as an implementation strategy for reaching the rural poor. The five programmatic areas highlighted by the CARE projects were the rural and urban infrastructure; water and sanitation; small-scale irrigation; reproductive health and HIV/AIDS; and microcredit. On the other hand, the family planning and HIV/AIDS project aimed to improve the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural communities towards family planning and reproductive health through community-based family planning services. Results of the project evaluation emphasize the significance of community-based programs in the improvement of health status. Two critical program constraints identified in this paper are lack of access to referral-level services and lack of systemic provision of contraceptive commodities. Several suggestions for future programs include the assurance that the volunteers would be provided with aid in work, childcare and free health services for their families. PMID:12349450
Comparative biomolecular studies suggest that the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, lived during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Fossil evidence of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene hominid evolution is rare and limited to a few sites in Ethiopia, Kenya and Chad. Here we report new Early Pliocene hominid discoveries and their palaeoenvironmental context from the fossiliferous deposits of As Duma, Gona Western Margin (GWM), Afar, Ethiopia. The hominid dental anatomy (occlusal enamel thickness, absolute and relative size of the first and second lower molar crowns, and premolar crown and radicular anatomy) indicates attribution to Ardipithecus ramidus. The combined radioisotopic and palaeomagnetic data suggest an age of between 4.51 and 4.32 million years for the hominid finds at As Duma. Diverse sources of data (sedimentology, faunal composition, ecomorphological variables and stable carbon isotopic evidence from the palaeosols and fossil tooth enamel) indicate that the Early Pliocene As Duma sediments sample a moderate rainfall woodland and woodland/grassland. PMID:15662421
Semaw, Sileshi; Simpson, Scott W; Quade, Jay; Renne, Paul R; Butler, Robert F; McIntosh, William C; Levin, Naomi; Dominguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Rogers, Michael J
The African Studies Center site at the University of Pennsylvania has posted this 1998 report on the political and social condition of Ethiopia. It is a consolidated UN report prepared by the Information Section of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Emergencies Unit for Ethiopia from information and reports provided by specialized UN agencies, media sources, the Government and NGOs. It focuses primarily on food supplies, weather, health and nutrition, and refugees and returnees.
Animals of both sexes are slaughtered for meat and meat products at the abattoirs. It has been found in few countries that one-out-of-every-three ewe and one-out-of-every-four doe with single, twin or multiple foetuses are slaughtered in registered slaughterhouses. In quest for meat, numerous viable embryos and foetuses are wasted unnoticed since the productive pregnant animals are not spared in the process. The trend in the slaughter of pregnant animals for meat (ranging from 54.5% to 70.1%) therefore calls for a review to reminisce issues on slaughter reforms, emphasize its implication on losses of genetic materials and sustainability of meat production. As a way of ensuring that welfare quality® assessment is not compromised and cruelty is prevented during animal slaughter, the quantitation of housekeeping genes and naturally occurring microRNAs (miRNAs) are recommended for identifying candidate pain biomarkers. In order to respect consumers' right however, the manuscript suggests meat branding where the consumption of meat from pregnant animals is ethical. PMID:23577300
Fayemi, Peter Olutope; Muchenje, Voster
Objective The liver flukes, Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, infect ruminants and other mammalian extensively and cause major diseases of livestock that produce considerable economic losses. Methods A survey of 2391 sheep and goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Amol region, northern Iran was used to determine the prevalence of the liver flukes infection based on season, sex and specie of the animals. Results The results revealed that the prevalence rate of Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum was 6.6% and 4.3% respectively. Dicrocoeliosis was more dominant in female animals (7.1%) whereas there was no sex-related difference in the prevalence of Fasciola spp. in male and female animals. Furthermore, Fasciolosis was significantly more prevalent than dicrocoeliosis in both sheep and goats. The Seasonal prevalence of Fasciola spp. was highest (P<0.005) during spring (8.3%) followed in order by autumn (8.1%), winter (5.9%) and summer (4.0%) but Dicrocoeliosis did not follow any seasonal pattern. Conclusions According to this study, it can be concluded that Amol is regarded as an endemic region for Fasciola spp and D. dandriticum infection. Moreover, Fasciola spp. is the most widespread liver fluke found in sheep and goats which is more dominant in sheep than goats.
Khanjari, Ali; Bahonar, Alireza; Fallah, Sepideh; Bagheri, Mahboube; Alizadeh, Abbas; fallah, Marjan; Khanjari, Zahra
In 2006 and 2007 beef and pork carcass swabs from provincially inspected abattoirs in Alberta, Canada were tested to determine the levels of total aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, and generic Escherichia coli, and the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Swabs from beef and pork carcasses from 48 and 34 facilities, respectively, were analyzed. All samples tested were positive for aerobic bacteria with 99.8% of beef and 96.0% of pork samples, having total counts of ? 100 000 CFU/cm2. Coliform bacteria were isolated from 22.4% and 42.0% of beef and pork carcass samples, respectively. Generic E. coli were recovered from 14.6% of beef and 33.7% of pork carcass samples. For beef carcasses, positive tests were obtained for 0.1% of 1036 samples tested for Salmonella spp., 1.5% of 1022 samples tested for Campylobacter spp. and 5.4% of 1018 samples tested for STEC. For pork carcasses, positive tests were obtained for 1.6 % of 1076 samples tested for Salmonella spp., 8.8% of 1070 samples tested for Campylobacter spp. and 4.8% of 1067 samples tested for STEC. PMID:22467964
Bohaychuk, Valerie M.; Gensler, Gary E.; Barrios, Pablo Romero
The literature on the effects of agricultural market reform in Africa is sharply divided and inconsistent. This article attempts to reconcile opposing viewpoints on the effects of food and input market policy reform in eastern and southern Africa. Drawing from studies of Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, we argue that a major source of the controversy stems from assumptions
A Chapoto; J. Govereh; A. Mwanaumo; J. K. Nyoro
The Acheulean technological tradition, characterized by a large (>10 cm) flake-based component, represents a significant technological advance over the Oldowan. Although stone tool assemblages attributed to the Acheulean have been reported from as early as circa 1.6–1.75 Ma, the characteristics of these earliest occurrences and comparisons with later assemblages have not been reported in detail. Here, we provide a newly established chronometric calibration for the Acheulean assemblages of the Konso Formation, southern Ethiopia, which span the time period ?1.75 to <1.0 Ma. The earliest Konso Acheulean is chronologically indistinguishable from the assemblage recently published as the world’s earliest with an age of ?1.75 Ma at Kokiselei, west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. This Konso assemblage is characterized by a combination of large picks and crude bifaces/unifaces made predominantly on large flake blanks. An increase in the number of flake scars was observed within the Konso Formation handaxe assemblages through time, but this was less so with picks. The Konso evidence suggests that both picks and handaxes were essential components of the Acheulean from its initial stages and that the two probably differed in function. The temporal refinement seen, especially in the handaxe forms at Konso, implies enhanced function through time, perhaps in processing carcasses with long and stable cutting edges. The documentation of the earliest Acheulean at ?1.75 Ma in both northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia suggests that behavioral novelties were being established in a regional scale at that time, paralleling the emergence of Homo erectus-like hominid morphology. PMID:23359714
Beyene, Yonas; Katoh, Shigehiro; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Uto, Kozo; Sudo, Masafumi; Kondo, Megumi; Hyodo, Masayuki; Renne, Paul R.; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane
The Acheulean technological tradition, characterized by a large (>10 cm) flake-based component, represents a significant technological advance over the Oldowan. Although stone tool assemblages attributed to the Acheulean have been reported from as early as circa 1.6-1.75 Ma, the characteristics of these earliest occurrences and comparisons with later assemblages have not been reported in detail. Here, we provide a newly established chronometric calibration for the Acheulean assemblages of the Konso Formation, southern Ethiopia, which span the time period ?1.75 to <1.0 Ma. The earliest Konso Acheulean is chronologically indistinguishable from the assemblage recently published as the world's earliest with an age of ?1.75 Ma at Kokiselei, west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. This Konso assemblage is characterized by a combination of large picks and crude bifaces/unifaces made predominantly on large flake blanks. An increase in the number of flake scars was observed within the Konso Formation handaxe assemblages through time, but this was less so with picks. The Konso evidence suggests that both picks and handaxes were essential components of the Acheulean from its initial stages and that the two probably differed in function. The temporal refinement seen, especially in the handaxe forms at Konso, implies enhanced function through time, perhaps in processing carcasses with long and stable cutting edges. The documentation of the earliest Acheulean at ?1.75 Ma in both northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia suggests that behavioral novelties were being established in a regional scale at that time, paralleling the emergence of Homo erectus-like hominid morphology. PMID:23359714
Beyene, Yonas; Katoh, Shigehiro; Woldegabriel, Giday; Hart, William K; Uto, Kozo; Sudo, Masafumi; Kondo, Megumi; Hyodo, Masayuki; Renne, Paul R; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane
Background Although Ethiopia ranks seventh among the world’s 22 high-burden tuberculosis (TB) countries, little is known about strain diversity and transmission. In this study, we present the first in-depth analysis of the population structure and transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from Northwest Ethiopia. Methods In the present study, 244 M. tuberculosis isolates where analysed by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit - variable number tandem repeat 24-loci typing and spoligotyping methods to determine phylogenetic lineages and perform cluster analysis. Clusters of strains with identical genotyping patterns were considered as an indicator for the recent transmission. Results Of 244 isolates, 59.0% were classified into nine previously described lineages: Dehli/CAS (38.9%), Haarlem (8.6%), Ural (3.3%), LAM (3.3%), TUR (2.0%), X-type (1.2%), S-type (0.8%), Beijing (0.4%) and Uganda II (0.4%). Interestingly, 31.6% of the strains were grouped into four new lineages and were named as Ethiopia_3 (13.1%), Ethiopia_1 (7.8%), Ethiopia_H37Rv like (7.0%) and Ethiopia_2 (3.7%) lineages. The remaining 9.4% of the isolates could not be assigned to the known or new lineages. Overall, 45.1% of the isolates were grouped in clusters, indicating a high rate of recent transmission. Conclusions This study confirms a highly diverse M. tuberculosis population structure, the presence of new phylogenetic lineages and a predominance of the Dehli/CAS lineage in Northwest Ethiopia. The high rate of recent transmission indicates defects of the TB control program in Northwest Ethiopia. This emphasizes the importance of strengthening laboratory diagnosis of TB, intensified case finding and treatment of TB patients to interrupt the chain of transmission. PMID:23496968
Pressure-State-Response in Land Resource Changes, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia Birru Yitaferu, Amhara), University of Bern, Switzerland; Gete Zeleke, Global Mountain Program, Ethiopia Lake Tana Basin (LTB) is the uppermost part of the Blue Nile River Basin in Ethiopia. The 15,000 km2 headwater is a main water source
Sheep harbor pathogenic Escherichia coli, which may cause severe disease in humans. In this study, the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) was examined in sheep feces and carcasses on three farms and at an abattoir in Brazil. The isolates were further characterized for the presence of markers recently associated with disease in humans, to investigate their possible origin and role as food-borne pathogens. At the abattoir, 99 carcass samples yielded two STEC and 10 EPEC isolates while 101 fecal samples yielded five EPEC and eight STEC isolates. On the other hand, on the farms, 202 samples yielded 44 STEC and eight EPEC isolates. The 77 isolates were typed by PFGE. Isolates with the same PFGE pattern and also those that were not restricted with XbaI were termed as "clones" (n=49). The isolates of any one clone mostly originated from the same sampling site. In addition, seven isolates encoded for novel Stx2 variants and five for Stx2e, the subtype related to porcine edema disease, which was for the first time isolated from sheep feces and carcasses. Also, three stx2-only isolates harbored genes of predicted Stx2 variants that were formed by A and B subunits of different types including Stx2a and Stx2d. The EPEC isolates were heterogeneous, 21 (91.3%) of them possessing efa1, ehxA, lpfAO113 or paa genes associated with diarrhea in humans. Thus, using markers recently associated with disease, we have demonstrated that E. coli similar to those pathogenic for humans are present in the sheep intestinal microflora, particularly at the abattoir, underlining the potential for food-borne transmission. PMID:24438985
Maluta, Renato Pariz; Fairbrother, John Morris; Stella, Ariel Eurides; Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; Martinez, Roberto; de Ávila, Fernando Antonio
Rainfall and river flow variability have been deeply investigated and and the impact of climate change on both is rather well known in Europe (EEA, 2012) or in other industrialized countries. Reports of international organizations (IPCC, 2012) and the scientific literature provide results and outlooks that were found contrasting and spatially incoherent (Manton et al., 2001; Peterson et al., 2002; Griffiths et al., 2003; Herath and Ratnayake, 2004) or weakened by limitation of data quality and quantity. According to IPCC (2012), in East Africa precipitation there are contrasting regional and seasonal variations and trends, though Easterling et al. (2000) and Seleshi and Camberlin (2006) report decreasing trends in heavy precipitation over parts of Ethiopia during the period 1965-2002. Literature on the impact of climate change on river flow is scarce in Africa and IPCC Technical Paper VI (IPCC, 2008) concluded that no evidence, based on instrumental records, has been found for a climate-driven globally widespread change in the magnitude/frequency of floods during the last decades (Rosenzweig et al., 2007), though increases in runoff and increased risk of flood events in East Africa are expected. Some papers have faced issues regarding rainfall and river flow variability in Ethiopia (e.g. Seleshi and Demaree, 1995; Osman and Sauerborn, 2002; Seleshi and Zanke, 2004; Meze-Hausken, 2004; Korecha and Barnston, 2006; Cheung et al., 2008) but their investigations are commonly geographically limited or used a small number of rain and flow gauges with the most recent data bound to the beginning of the last decade. In this study an attempt to depict rainfall and river flow variability, considering the longer as possible time series for the largest as possible number of meteo-stations and flow gauge evenly distributed across Ethiopia, is presented. 25 meteo-stations and 21 flow gauges with as much as possible continuous data records were selected. The length of the time series ranges between 35 to 50 and 9 to 49 years for rainfall and river flow, respectively. In order to improve the poor linear correlation model to describe rainfall gradient with altitude a simple topographic parameter is introduced capable to better depict the spatial variability of annual rainfall and its coefficient of variation. The small rains (Belg) were found to be much more unpredictable than the long, monsoon-type rains (Kiremt) and hence much more out of phase with the variation of annual precipitation amount that is significantly influenced by the Kiremt rains. In order to investigate the long term trends, rainfall anomalies were calculated as Z score for annual, Belg and Kiremt precipitation for all the stations and average values are calculated and plotted against time. The three Z trend lines obtained show no marked deviation from the mean as only an almost negligible decreasing trend is observed. Rainfall intensity in 24 hours is analyzed and the trend line of the maximum intensity averaged over the maximum value of each year recorded at each meteo-station is constructed. These data indicate a general decrease in daily rainfall intensity across Ethiopia with clear exceptions in a few selected areas. The same procedure, based on the Z scores, used to analyze rainfall variability is applied also to the river flow data and a similar result is obtained. If compared with rainfall, annual runoff shows a much wider range of variation among the study rivers. This issue is discussed and possible explanations are presented.
Billi, Paolo; Fazzini, Massimiliano; Tadesse Alemu, Yonas; Ciampalini, Rossano
Pathogenic Escherichia coli can be released with the wastes coming from slaughterhouses into the environment, where they can persist. We investigated the presence of diarrheagenic E. coli in specimens taken at an abattoir located in the Zaria region, Nigeria, in samples of water from the river Koreye, where the effluent from the abattoir spills in, and vegetable specimens taken at a nearby farm. All the isolated E. coli were assayed for the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) by using the Ridascreen verotoxin Immunoassay and by PCR amplification of genes associated with the diarrheagenic E. coli. Three strains from the rectal content of two slaughtered animals and a cabbage were positive for the presence of the Stx-coding genes. Additionally we have isolated one Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC) from the abattoir effluent and two Subtilase-producing E. coli from the slaughterhouse's effluent and a sample of carrots. Our results provide evidence that pathogenic E. coli can contaminate the environment as a result of the discharge into the environment of untreated abattoir effluent, representing a reservoir for STEC and other diarrheagenic E. coli favouring their spread to crops. PMID:25590145
Kabiru, Lawan Mohammed; Bello, Mohammed; Kabir, Junaid; Grande, Laura; Morabito, Stefano
Pathogenic Escherichia coli can be released with the wastes coming from slaughterhouses into the environment, where they can persist. We investigated the presence of diarrheagenic E. coli in specimens taken at an abattoir located in the Zaria region, Nigeria, in samples of water from the river Koreye, where the effluent from the abattoir spills in, and vegetable specimens taken at a nearby farm. All the isolated E. coli were assayed for the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) by using the Ridascreen verotoxin Immunoassay and by PCR amplification of genes associated with the diarrheagenic E. coli. Three strains from the rectal content of two slaughtered animals and a cabbage were positive for the presence of the Stx-coding genes. Additionally we have isolated one Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC) from the abattoir effluent and two Subtilase-producing E. coli from the slaughterhouse’s effluent and a sample of carrots. Our results provide evidence that pathogenic E. coli can contaminate the environment as a result of the discharge into the environment of untreated abattoir effluent, representing a reservoir for STEC and other diarrheagenic E. coli favouring their spread to crops. PMID:25590145
Kabiru, Lawan Mohammed; Bello, Mohammed; Kabir, Junaid; Grande, Laura; Morabito, Stefano
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS), statistical analysis and modelling. Odds ratio (OR) of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relative importance of environmental factors, accepting P ? 0.056 as the inclusion level for the model's environmental variables. When estimating risk from the viewpoint of geographical surface, slope, elevation and annual rainfall were found to be good predictors of CL presence based on both probabilistic and weighted overlay approaches. However, when considering Ethiopia as whole, a minor difference was observed between the two methods with the probabilistic technique giving a 22.5% estimate, while that of weighted overlay approach was 19.5%. Calculating the population according to the land surface estimated by the latter method, the total Ethiopian population at risk for CL was estimated at 28,955,035, mainly including people in the highlands of the regional states of Amhara, Oromia, Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region, one of the nine ethnic divisions in Ethiopia. Our environmental risk model provided an overall prediction accuracy of 90.4%. The approach proposed here can be replicated for other diseases to facilitate implementation of evidence-based, integrated disease control activities. PMID:24893015
Seid, Ahmed; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Tsegaw, Teshome; Abera, Adugna; Teshome, Aklilu; Mulugeta, Abate; Herrero, Merce; Argaw, Daniel; Jorge, Alvar; Kebede, Asnakew; Aseffa, Abraham
Palynological investigation was carried out on surface samples from up to 400 m thick continental siliciclastic sediments, here referred to as “Fincha Sandstone”, in the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia. One hundred sixty species were identified from 15 productive samples collected along a continuous road-cut exposure. Six informal palynological assemblage zones have been identified. These assemblage zones, in ascending order, are: “Central Ethiopian Permian Assemblage Zone - CEPAZ I”, earliest Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian); “CEPAZ II”, late Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian); CEPAZ III - Late Permian (Kazanian-Tatarian); “CETAZ IV”, Lower Triassic (Olenekian Induan); “CETAZ V”, Middle Triassic (Anisian Ladinian); “CETAZ VI”, Late Triassic (Carnian Norian). Tentative age ranges proposed herein are compared with faunally calibrated palynological zones in Gondwana. The overall composition and vertical distribution of miospores throughout the studied section reveals a wide variation both qualitatively and quantitatively. The high frequency of monosaccate pollen in CEPAZ I may reflect a Glossopterid-dominated upland flora in the earliest Permian. The succeeding zone is dominated by straite/taeniate disaccate pollen and polyplicates, suggesting a notable increase in diversity of glossopterids. The decline in the diversity of taeniate disaccate pollen and the concomitant rise in abundance of non-taeniate disaccates in CEPAZ III may suggest the decline in Glossopteris diversity, though no additional evidence is available to equate this change with End-Permian extinction. More diverse and dominant non-taeniate, disaccate, seed fern pollen assignable to FalcisporitesAlisporites in CETAZ IV may represent an earliest Triassic recovery flora. The introduction of new disaccate forms with thick, rigid sacci, such as Staurosaccites and Cuneatisporites, in CETAZ V and VI may indicate the emergence of new gymnospermous plants that might have favourably adapted to coastal plain wetland environments with the return of humid conditions in the Middle to early Late Triassic. The present data constitute the first paleontologically substantiated record for the existence of Permian strata in the Blue Nile Basin. The new results allow for the first time a reliable biostratigraphic subdivision of the central Ethiopia Karoo and its correlation with coeval strata of adjacent regions in Gondwana. From a phytogeographic point of view, the overall microfloral evidence is in support of the position of central Ethiopia occupying the northern part of the southern Gondwana palynofloral province. In view of palaeoecological and paleoclimatic conditions, the microfloral change from the base to the top of the studied section may indicate a response to shifting climatic belts from warm- and cool-temparate climate in the earliest Permian to progressively drier seasonal conditions at successively higher palaeolatitudes during the Late Permian to Middle Triassic.
Dawit, Enkurie L.
Background Although, Plasmodium vivax is a rare parasite in most parts of Africa, it has significant public health importance in Ethiopia. In some parts of the country, it is responsible for majority of malaria associated morbidity. Recently severe life threatening malaria syndromes, frequently associated to P. falciparum, has been reported from P. vivax mono-infections. This prompted designing of the current study to assess prevalence of severe malaria complications related to P. vivax malaria in Ethiopia. Methods The study was conducted in two study sites, namely Kersa and Halaba Kulito districts, located in southwest and southern parts of Ethiopia, respectively. Children, aged ? 10 years, who visited the two health centers during the study period, were recruited to the study. Clinical and demographic characteristics such as age, sex, temperature, diarrhea, persistent vomiting, confusion, respiratory distress, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, hemoglobinuria, and epitaxis were assessed for a total of 139 children diagnosed to have P. vivax mono-infection. Parasitological data were collected following standard procedures. Hemoglobin and glucose level were measured using portable hemocue instrument. Results Median age of children was 4.25 ± 2.95 years. Geometric mean parasite count and mean hemoglobin level were 4254.89 parasite/?l and 11.55 g/dl, respectively. Higher prevalence rate of malaria and severe malaria complications were observed among children enrolled in Halaba district (P < 0.001). However, severe parasitemia was higher (72.4%) among children who visited Serbo health center (Kersa district). Male children had significantly higher risk of malaria infection (OR = 1.9, 95% CI, 1.08 to 3.34), while female had higher risk to anemia (OR = 1.91, 95% CI, 1.08 - 3.34). The observed number of anemic children was 43%, of which most of them were found in age range from 0–3 years. Furthermore, P. vivax malaria was a risk factor for incidence of anemia (P < 0.05) in the two sites. Conclusion P. vivax associated severe malaria complications observed in this study was lower than those reported from other countries. However, incidence of severe malaria complications in one of the sites, Halaba district, where there is highest treatment failure to first line drug, could have significant impact on national malaria prevention and control activities. PMID:23834734
Prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites were studied through a longitudinal survey in 400 horses over a 17-month period in an abattoir in Germany. Three hundred and ten horses (77.5 %) were demonstrated harbouring endoparasites either by direct recovery of parasites from the digestive tract and/or in terms of faecal egg counts (strongyles). The following parasites were found (percentage prevalence, range of counts): Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae (2.25 %, 1-154), Gasterophilus nasalis larvae (0.25 %, 44), Trichostrongylus axei (11.0 %, 1-3,620), Habronema majus (8.0 %; 1-422), Habronema muscae (26.5 %, 1-3,563), Habronema spp. fourth-stage larvae (5.5 %; 1-1,365), Parascaris equorum (total prevalence 11.3 %; adults 8.8 %, 1-178; fourth-stage larvae 2.5 %, 5-2,320), Anoplocephala perfoliata (28.5 %, 1-2,013) and Paranoplocephala mamillana (1.0 %, 1-11). Strongyle eggs (?10 eggs per gram of faeces) were recorded in 60.8 % of the horses (10-6,450 eggs per gram of faeces).Prevalences of infection with T. axei, P. equorum and strongyles did not show a correlation to specific seasons. In contrast, a significant variation among seasons of collection was shown for the infection rates of Habronema spp. (p?0.05) and A. perfoliata (p?0.001). Seasonal prevalence of Habronema spp. infection was significantly (p?0.01) higher in summer (39.0 %), autumn (34.8 %) and winter (36.5 %) than in spring (18.7 %), and A. perfoliata were significantly (p?0.001) more often recorded during autumn (36.1 %) and winter (36.5 %) than in spring (17.3 %) and summer (15.9 %). Prevalences of T. axei, Habronema spp., strongyles and A. perfoliata in male and female horses were almost alike, but ascarids were significantly (p?=?0.025) more often recorded in male than in female horses. PMID:23052780
Rehbein, Steffen; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate
Background Improving upon traditional animal disease surveillance systems may allow more rapid detection of disease outbreaks in animal populations. In Ontario, between the years 2001 – 2007, widespread outbreaks of several diseases caused major impacts to the swine industry. This study was undertaken to investigate whether whole carcass condemnation data of market pigs from provincial abattoirs from 2001 – 2007 could have provided useful information for disease surveillance of Ontario swine. The objective was to examine the suitability of these data for detection of disease outbreaks using multi-level models and spatial scan statistics. We investigated the ability of these data to provide spatially-relevant surveillance information by determining the approximate distance pigs are shipped from farm to provincial abattoirs in the province, and explored potentially biasing non-disease factors within these data. Results Provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario were found to be located in close proximity to the hog farms of origin. The fall season and increasing abattoir capacity were associated with a decrease in condemnation rates. Condemnation rates varied across agricultural regions by year, and some regions showed yearly trends consistent with the timing of emergence of new disease strains that affected the Ontario swine population. Scan statistics identified stable clusters of condemnations in space that may have represented stable underlying factors influencing condemnations. The temporal scans detected the most likely cluster of high condemnations during the timeframe in which widespread disease events were documented. One space-time cluster took place during the beginning of the historical disease outbreaks and may have provided an early warning signal within a syndromic surveillance system. Conclusions Spatial disease surveillance methods may be applicable to whole carcass condemnation data collected at provincially-inspected abattoirs in Ontario for disease detection on a local scale. These data could provide useful information within a syndromic disease surveillance system for protecting swine herd health within the province. However, non-disease factors including region, season and abattoir size need to be considered when applying quantitative methods to abattoir data for disease surveillance. PMID:24674622
Toxoplasma gondi, Leptospira spp., and Brucella abortus are all established parasitic and bacterial zoonoses that manifest themselves in several forms of human diseases. They have been associated with occupational exposures, particularly amongst workers associated with livestock farms. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii immunoglobulin M (IgM) immunoglobulins (serum antibodies), Leptospira IgM immunoglobulins, and B. abortus IgG immunoglobulins, suggestive of acute or chronic infections, in livestock/farm and abattoir workers in Trinidad, and to relate to risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 394 consenting livestock/farm workers and 99 abattoir workers across the island of Trinidad. Serological status was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for T. gondii IgM, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Leptospira IgM immunoglobulins, and buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and competitive ELISA for B. abortus IgG immunoglobulins. Of 394 apparently healthy livestock/farm workers sampled, 150 (38.1%) were seropositive for T. gondii IgM immunoglobulins, compared with 44 (44.4%) of 99 abattoir workers (p > .05; ?(2) test). Five (1.3%) of 371 and 1 (1.0%) of 99 livestock/farm and abattoir workers respectively were positive for Leptospira IgM immunoglobulins. All samples from livestock/farm workers and abattoir workers were negative for B. abortus immunoglobulins. None of the risk factors investigated was statistically significantly (p > .05; ?(2) test) associated with T. gondii and Leptospira spp. infections. PMID:21728871
Adesiyun, Abiodun; Campbell, Mervyn; Rahaman, Saed; Bissessar, Sham; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Dookeran, Shakti; Gittens-St Hilaire, Marquita
The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide. PMID:19548106
Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J
In 25 permanent sample plots in Cupressus lusitanica plantations of the Munesa Shashemene Wood Industry Enterprise, in the Oromia Federal Regional State, Ethiopia, the dominant height growth was observed and site index functions fitted. The plots had been continuously observed from ages 7 (10) to 21 (18) in the Gambo–Shashemene and the Munesa growth districts, respectively. Measurements in each plot
Negash Mamo; Hubert Sterba
Molecular typing of 964 specimens from patients in Ethiopia with lymph node or pulmonary tuberculosis showed a similar distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains between the 2 disease manifestations and a minimal role for M. bovis. We report a novel phylogenetic lineage of M. tuberculosis strongly associated with the Horn of Africa. PMID:23622814
Firdessa, Rebuma; Berg, Stefan; Hailu, Elena; Schelling, Esther; Gumi, Balako; Erenso, Girume; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Kiros, Teklu; Habtamu, Meseret; Hussein, Jemal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Robertson, Brian D.; Ameni, Gobena; Lohan, Amanda J.; Loftus, Brendan; Comas, Iñaki; Gagneux, Sebastien; Tschopp, Rea; Yamuah, Lawrence; Hewinson, Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V.; Young, Douglas B.
This study reviews Ethiopia's efforts, experiences, and achievements with respect to developing education for international understanding over the past two decades in response to the United Nations recognition of the role education plays in promoting peace. It is an overture aimed at sharing ideas and experiences with all concerned for the…
International Bureau of Education, Paris (France).
The major purpose of the study was to look into change and continuity in the policy and practices of adult basic literacy initiatives in Ethiopia and to deduce lessons that can be drawn from the experiences for the future of adult basic literacy program in the country and elsewhere. Data was obtained through critical review of documents on the…
The purpose of this article is to provide a more comprehensive picture of teacher preparation in Ethiopia on top of a closer scrutiny of current teacher education reforms. In particular, it presents teacher education within the context of policy implementation over the last six decades by highlighting key reforms and how these reforms impacted the…
The 15 Barbus species of Lake Tana, a large shallow lake located at an altitude of 1830 m in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia, form the only remaining intact species flock of large (max. 100cm) cyprinid fishes. Lake Tana is the source of the Blue Nile and high waterfalls (40 m) at Tissisat ('smoking water'), 30 km downstream from the
Graaf de M
The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using…
This report presents information to help teachers work with diverse students. The report includes: information regarding the countries and cultures of Haiti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia (for helping to establish rapport with diverse learners); characteristics of Haitians, Eritreans, and Ethiopians as contrasted with American students' characteristics…
Sadler, Charlotte; Hytowitz, Sarah Gail; Frutiger, Eliso
Introduction Access to sanitation services in Ethiopia is currently reported at 43% (WaterAid, 2010) approaching only the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target (52%). According to literature, the sanitation-functionality of sanitation facilities continues, the risk of fecal-oral transmission and the mortality rate of children due
Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Dahomey, Ethiopia, Mali, and Mauritius. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic…
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Ethiopia is a large country in the Horn of Africa. It has a diverse population of eighty million people who speak over thirty distinct languages. Approximately 80% of the population live in rural areas and rely on subsistence agriculture. Despite economic growth and an abundance of natural resources, it is a country with a per-capita income of…
Berry, Chris; Bogale, Solomon Shiferaw
This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…
Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine
This article extends concerns of our National Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators (NAECTE) membership beyond the borders of the United States to the continent of Africa. Specifically, it explores the current status of early childhood teacher education in one of the poorest nations of the world--Ethiopia. It includes an analysis of…
Hoot, James; Szente, Judit; Tadesse, Selamawit
A 6-year retrospective study (2000-2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed. A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered for the period, 22,459 (32.41%) were males and 46,848 (67.59%) were females, while 1,763 sheep were slaughtered comprising of 506 (28.70%) males and 1,257 (71.30%) females, and 3,820 goats made up of 1,212 (31.73%) males and 2,608 (68.27%) were females. The major disease and/or pathological conditions were helminthosis (fascioliasis, haemonchosis and paramphistomosis) 16.20%, Streptothricosis 4.15%, Pericarditis 2.20%, liver cirrhosis 2.08%, abscesses 1.04%, pneumonia 0.14%, nephritis 0.05% and Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, Tuberculosis and Nocardiosis 0.01% each. Out of the 15,075 infected organs, 13,314 (88.38%) were partially salvaged while 1,751 (11.6%) whole organs were condemned. A total of 1,239 pregnant cows, 221 pregnant ewes and 637 pregnant does were slaughtered, representing a foetal wastage of 2.65% for cattle, 17.58% for sheep and 24.43% for goats. The result of this study apart from serving as an indicator of field disease condition also demonstrates cases of serious losses in production due to slaughter of pregnant animals especially for sheep and goats. PMID:20734135
Alawa, Clement B I; Etukudo-Joseph, I; Alawa, Judith N
Objective To estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis and toxoplasmosis in slaughtered bovine stock (aged ±3 years) at Tanga city abattoir, Tanzania. Methods Prevalence estimation of the five zoonotic diseases was undertaken through an active abattoir and sero-survey was carried out in Tanga city, during the period of January 2002 and March 2004. Serum samples collected from a sub-sample (n=51) of the slaughter stock were serologically screened for antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis using Rose Bengal plate test, microscopic agglutination test (for 5 serovars of Leptospira interrogans) and Eiken latex agglutination test, respectively. The same animals were tested for tuberculosis using the single intradermal tuberculin test. Results Post mortem examination of 12 444 slaughter cattle (10 790 short horn zebu and 1 654 graded) over a period of twenty two months, showed a prevalence of 1.56% (194) for hydatidosis, 1.49% (185) for cysticercosis and 0.32% (40) for tuberculosis. In all three zoonoses, a statistically significant difference in infection rates was noted between the short horn zebu and graded breeds (P<0.05). The overall seroprevalences of animals with brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis antibodies were found to be 12%, 12% and 51%, respectively. The most common leptospiral antibodies detected were those against antigens of serovars Leptospira hardjo (29%), Leptospira tarassovi (18%), Leptospira bataviae (4%) and Leptospira pomona (0%). With regard to tuberculosis, 10% (n=5) of the animals tested were classified as non-specific reactors or inconclusive. Conclusions The study findings suggest that brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis are prevalent in Tanga and provide definitive evidence of slaughtered stock exposure to these zoonotic agents with concurrent public health consequences. PMID:23569835
Swai, ES; Schoonman, L
Ethiopia is central to population genetic studies investigating the out of Africa expansion of modern humans, as shown by Y chromosome and mtDNA studies. To address the level of genetic differentiation within Ethiopia, and its relationship to Sub-Saharan Africa and Eurasia, we studied an 8 kb segment of the X-chromosome from 72 chromosomes from the Amhara, Oromo and Ethiopian Jews, and compared these results with 804 chromosomes from Middle Eastern, African, Asian and European populations, and 22 newly typed Saharawi. Within Ethiopia the two largest ethnic groups, the Amhara and Oromo, were not found to be statistically distinct, based on an exact test of haplotype frequencies. The Ethiopian Jews appear as an admixed population, possibly of Jewish origin, though the data remain equivocal. There is evidence of a close relationship between Ethiopian and Yemenite Jews, likely a result of indirect gene flow. Within an African and Eurasian context, the distribution of alleles of a variable T(n) repeat, and the spread of haplotypes containing Africa-specific alleles, provide evidence of a genetic continuity from Sub-Saharan Africa to the Near East, and furthermore suggest that a bottleneck occurred in Ethiopia associated with an out of Africa expansion. Ethiopian genetic heterogeneity, as evidenced by principal component analysis of haplotype frequencies, most likely resulted from periods of subsequent admixture. While these results are from the analysis of one locus, we feel that in association with data from other marker systems they add a complementary perspective on the history of Ethiopia. PMID:15845032
Lovell, A; Moreau, C; Yotova, V; Xiao, F; Bourgeois, S; Gehl, D; Bertranpetit, J; Schurr, E; Labuda, D
This work presents a geoscientific map and database for geology, mineral and energy resources of Ethiopia in a digital form at a scale of 1:2,000,000, compiled from several sources. The final result of the work has been recorded on CD-ROM in GIS format so that the map and the database could be available to users on a personal computer. Metallic resources (precious, rare, base and ferrous-ferroalloy metals) are widely related to the metamorphic meta-volcano-sedimentary belts and associated intrusives belonging to various terranes of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, accreted during the East and West Gondwana collision (Neoproterozoic, 900-500 Ma). Industrial minerals and rock resources occur in more diversified geological environments, including the Proterozoic basement rocks, the Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediments and recent (Cenozoic) volcanics and associated sediments. Energy resources (oil, coal, geothermal resources) are restricted to Phanerozoic basin sediments and Cenozoic volcanism and rifting areas.
Tadesse, Solomon; Milesi, Jean-Pierre; Deschamps, Yves
article title: Southern Africa View larger JPEG image ... These Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Africa were acquired on August 25, 2000, during Terra orbit 3655. The left ... of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. Distinctive ...
Pollen analysis of a 1 m 80 core, taken from Tamsaa swamp at 3000 m on the northern side of the Bale Mountains, southern Ethiopia, shows, from ca. 13,000-10,000 14C year BP, Apiaceae-dominated pioneer treeless vegetation on the deglaciated landscape. A rise in Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae around 10,000 year BP may indicate a change to a drier climate. A hiatus in peat accumulation occurred during the early to mid Holocene. This may be related to the destruction of organic matter during dry intervals of the early Holocene and during the mid-Holocene aridity. Late Holocene peat accumulation is thought to be related to the onset of a moist phase around 2500 year BP. During the same period, pollen from the present day forest limit taxa, namely Juniperus and Hagenia, which presently grow around the studied site, began to rise.
Mohammed, M. U.; Bonnefille, R.
...Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...91, SFAR No. 87 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87—Prohibition...
The honey bees of Ethiopia represent a new subspecies of Apis mellifera--Apis mellifera simensis n bees endemic to the volcanic dome system of Ethiopia are described as a new subspecies, Apis mellifera. Ethiopia / Apis mellifera simensis / subspecies / morphometrics / Africa 1. INTRODUCTION
Strong correlations between clinical signs on farms and the presence of lesions at slaughter have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine if changes in condemnation rates provide a data source for surveillance of disease outbreaks in pigs. The data were obtained from 1 abattoir in Ontario (2005–2007). The epidemiological relevance of the results was based on an outbreak of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in Ontario in 2005. The total condemnations and condemnations due to arthritis and pneumonia patterns reflected the field infection of PCVAD in 2005 followed by the widespread use of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) vaccine in 2007. In contrast, increased rates of nephritis and enteritis suggested areas for enhanced surveillance for unexplained changes in disease patterns not identified through traditional passive surveillance. Further studies looking at the benefits of using abattoir data should compare condemnation patterns with multiple sources of swine health data. PMID:21461204
Amezcua, Rocio; Pearl, David L.; Martinez, Alejandro; Friendship, Robert M.
Background As part of a situational analysis for a research programme on the integration of mental health care into primary care (Programme for Improving Mental Health Care-PRIME), we conducted a baseline study aimed at determining the broad indicators of the population level of psychosocial distress in a predominantly rural community in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a population-based cross-sectional survey of 1497 adults selected through a multi-stage random sampling process. Population level psychosocial distress was evaluated by estimating the magnitude of common mental disorder symptoms (CMD; depressive, anxiety and somatic symptoms reaching the level of probable clinical significance), harmful use of alcohol, suicidality and psychosocial stressors experienced by the population. Results The one-month prevalence of CMD at the mild, moderate and severe threshold levels was 13.8%, 9.0% and 5.1% respectively. The respective one-month prevalence of any suicidal ideation, persistent suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was 13.5%, 3.8% and 1.8%. Hazardous use of alcohol was identified in 22.4%, significantly higher among men (33.4%) compared to women (11.3%). Stressful life events were widespread, with 41.4% reporting at least one threatening life event in the preceding six months. A similar proportion reported poor social support (40.8%). Stressful life events, increasing age, marital loss and hazardous use of alcohol were associated with CMD while stressful life events, marital loss and lower educational status, and CMD were associated with suicidality. CMD was the strongest factor associated with suicidality [e.g., OR (95% CI) for severe CMD?=?60.91 (28.01, 132.48)] and the strength of association increased with increase in the severity of the CMD. Conclusion Indicators of psychosocial distress are prevalent in this rural community. Contrary to former assumptions in the literature, social support systems seem relatively weak and stressful life events common. Interventions geared towards modifying general risk factors and broader strategies to promote mental wellbeing are required. PMID:24999041
Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.
Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.
The objective of the investigation was to characterise infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDV) circulating in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia between 2009 and 2011. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence for VP2 hypervariable region of ten IBDVs were determined by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to well characterised IBDV isolates worldwide. IBDV genetic material was amplified directly from bursa or cell passaged material. Phylogenetically, Ethiopian IBDVs represented two genetic lineages: very virulent (vv) IBDVs or variants of the classical attenuated vaccine strain (D78). The nucleotide identity between Ethiopian vvIBDVs ranged between 0% and 2.6%. Ethiopian vvIBDVs are clustered phylogenetically with the African IBDV genetic lineage, independent of the Asian/European lineage. This report demonstrates the circulation of vvIBDV in commercial and breeding poultry farms in Ethiopia. PMID:24145155
Jenberie, Shiferaw; Lynch, Stacey E.; Kebede, Fekadu; Christley, Robert M.; Gelaye, Esayas; Negussie, Haileleul; Asmare, Kassahun; Ayelet, Gelagay
This paper reports on the plant use of laypeople of the Oromo in Southern Ethiopia. The Oromo in Bale had names/uses for 294 species in comparison to 230 species documented in the lower reaches of the Bale area. Only 13 species was used for veterinary purposes, or as human medicine (46). Plant medicine served mostly to treat common everyday ailments such as stomach problems and diarrhea, for wound treatment and as toothbrush-sticks, as anthelmintic, for skin infections and to treat sore muscles and. Interestingly, 9 species were used to treat spiritual ailments and to expel demons. In most cases of medicinal applications the leaves or roots were employed.Traditional plant knowledge has clearly declined in a large part of the research area. Western style health care services as provided by governments and NGOs, in particular in rural areas, seem to have contributed to a decline in traditional knowledge, in part because the local population simply regards western medicine as more effective and safer. PMID:21943288
Bussmann, Rainer W; Swartzinsky, Paul; Worede, Aserat; Evangelista, Paul
To assess the population dynamics of drought-prone communities, we investigated 605 households in the pastoralist Boran community of Dubluk and in the agricultural community of Elka, both located in southern Ethiopia. The age and sex composition of the population as well as records of births, deaths and patterns of migration were observed for 2 consecutive years. Repeated surveys of the same households revealed much higher rates for deaths and births than did cross-sectional surveys with a one-year recall period. Indirect mortality estimates showed that the under 5 years mortality rates (per 1000 births) were 135 in Dubluk and 219 in Elka. Highest crude death rates were observed in Elka during periods of meningitis and malaria epidemics. During the period of observation, death rates fluctuated to a greater extent than birth rates. Both communities had very high rates of natural increase: in Dubluk 39.0/1000 and in Elka 37.1/1000. In Dubluk, this rate was far higher than any previously recorded and may have indicated that fertility regulating mechanisms, traditionally inherent in the pastoralist social organization, had become weaker as part of cultural changes. Dubluk represented a semi-nomadic society with a moderately high mobility pattern. Peak periods of migration coincided with times of food scarcity in Elka. PMID:8465386
Lindtjørn, B; Alemu, T; Bjorvatn, B
This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia…
Yates, Brian James
Impact of climate change on the hydroclimatology of Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia Shimelis G. Setegn,1 investigated the sensitivity of water resources to climate change in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia, using). The SWAT model itself was calibrated and validated using the flows from four tributaries of Lake Tana
This paper examines the role of the judiciary in Ethiopia. Implicit in the notion of separation of powers is the fact that the judiciary has a crucial role in resolving disputes impartially, ensuring the rule of law and in setting limits to power. Yet in Ethiopia the legislature has sought to take away power from the courts, placing them in
Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led…
Alemu, Daniel S.
Survey of Current Efforts and Potentials in Application of Telemedicine in Ethiopia Fikreyohannes. Telemedicine Â delivery of health services through the use of ICT Â that has met wide success in alleviating. To study the past and current effort on the application of telemedicine in Ethiopia, a survey of government
Kassegne, Samuel Kinde
...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State...requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination...
...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...
The purpose of this study is to explain the formulation, implementation, and outcome of Ethiopia's instructional language policy in light of the PRINCE system of power analysis as adapted by Fowler (2004), along with several literature references pertinent to the issue. After providing a brief background on Ethiopia and its education and language…
Alemu, Daniel S.; Tekleselassie, Abebayehu A.
...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...
Pollen and charcoal analysis of sediment cores from two lakes in the highlands of northern Ethiopia provide evidence that the vegetation has changed in response to human impact during the last 3000 years. The natural, pre-disturbance vegetation of the area was Podocarpus-Juniperus forest. At about 500 bc, following Semitic immigration to northern Ethiopia, the forests were cleared and replaced by
Iain Darbyshire; Henry Lamb; Mohammed Umer
The paper implements simultaneous random effect models as a means to analyse causality issues related to poverty and fertility in Ethiopia, a country which is plagued by high and persistent poverty and very high fertility rates in rural areas. Using longitudinal data from both urban and rural areas of Ethiopia, we analyse the relationship between childbearing and poverty. In addition
Arnstein Aassve; Abbi M. Kedir; Habtu Tadesse Weldegebriel
A 1980-81 survey of the rural population of Ethiopia found high levels of infecundity and subfertility, although there was considerable variation by region, ethnicity and age of women. Higher levels of infecundity were geographically concentrated in a broad belt that ran from the south and south-west of the country, across to the north-east. The analyses suggest that infecundity is influenced by ecological factors, more than by ethnicity. PMID:1939294
A preliminary study to characterise mycobacteria infecting tuberculous cattle from two different management systems in central Ethiopia was carried out. Approximately 27% of isolates from grazing cattle were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while cattle in a more intensive-production system were exclusively infected with M. bovis. The practice of local farmers discharging chewed tobacco directly into the mouths of pastured cattle was identified as a potential route of human-to-cattle transmission of M. tuberculosis. PMID:20965132
Ameni, Gobena; Vordermeier, Martin; Firdessa, Rebuma; Aseffa, Abraham; Hewinson, Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V; Berg, Stefan
A preliminary study to characterise mycobacteria infecting tuberculous cattle from two different management systems in central Ethiopia was carried out. Approximately 27% of isolates from grazing cattle were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while cattle in a more intensive-production system were exclusively infected with M. bovis. The practice of local farmers discharging chewed tobacco directly into the mouths of pastured cattle was identified as a potential route of human-to-cattle transmission of M. tuberculosis. PMID:20965132
Ameni, Gobena; Vordermeier, Martin; Firdessa, Rebuma; Aseffa, Abraham; Hewinson, Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V.; Berg, Stefan
Ethiopia is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and use shear-wave splitting tomography to invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due aligned melt due to sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominate the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal magma storage dominate the signal and little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment, possibly due to a lack of mantle lithosphere. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is absent beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates in the upper mantle.
Hammond, James; Kendall, J.-Michael; Wookey, James; Stuart, Graham; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay
The wind energy potential at four different sites in Ethiopia – Addis Ababa (09:02N, 38:42E), Mekele (13:33N, 39:30E), Nazret (08:32N, 39:22E), and Debrezeit (8:44N, 39:02E) – has been investigated by compiling data from different sources and analyzing it using a software tool. The results relating to wind energy potential are given in terms of the monthly average wind speed, wind
Getachew Bekele; Björn Palm
This article discusses spate irrigation in Ethiopia and aims to take stock of the current status of spate irrigation development.\\u000a It summarizes experiences so far and formulates a number of recommendations on the development of this upcoming resource management\\u000a system. It argues that raised weirs are useful mainly in areas where a large head for spate flow diversion is required,
Frank van Steenbergen; Abraham Mehari Haile; Taye Alemehayu; Tena Alamirew; Yohannes Geleta
The first evidence of HIV infection in Ethiopia was found in 1984, and the first AIDS case was reported in 1986. By 1993 and 1996, an estimated 3.2% and 5.2%, respectively, of adults in the country had been infected. According to the Ethiopian government's epidemiology and AIDS control department, more than 400,000 people may have already developed AIDS since the beginning of the epidemic. However, only a small proportion of these cases has ever been recorded in the official health statistics. In urban areas, probably more than 11% of adults are infected with HIV, most who do not know that they are infected. The main mode of HIV transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The number of male cases in Ethiopia approximately equals the number of female cases. Among 15-19 year olds, however, there are far more females than males infected. Unequal power relations, the failure of faithfulness, lack of communication and knowledge, arranged marriages, economic dependence, illiteracy, excessive workloads, and poverty leading to prostitution for survival are risk factors which predispose women in Ethiopia to exposure to HIV. PMID:12347435
Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small stream and for two types of small ponds. Seven selected pesticides were selected since they were estimated to bear the highest risk to humans on the basis of volume of use, application rate and acute and chronic human toxicity, assuming exposure as a result of the consumption of surface water. Potential ecotoxicological risks were not considered as a selection criterion at this stage. Estimates of exposure concentrations in surface water were established using modelling software also applied in the EU registration procedure (PRZM and TOXSWA). Input variables included physico-chemical properties, and data such as crop calendars, irrigation schedules, meteorological information and detailed application data which were specifically tailored to the Ethiopian situation. The results indicate that for all the pesticides investigated the acute human risk resulting from the consumption of surface water is low to negligible, whereas agricultural use of chlorothalonil, deltamethrin, endosulfan and malathion in some crops may result in medium to high risk to aquatic species. The predicted environmental concentration estimates are based on procedures similar to procedures used at the EU level and in the USA. Addition of aquatic macrophytes as an ecotoxicological endpoint may constitute a welcome future addition to the risk assessment procedure. Implementation of the methods used for risk characterization constitutes a good step forward in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia. PMID:25481716
Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Deneer, John W; Van den Brink, Paul J
In Ethiopia, information on the transmission of human zoonotic pathogens through ixodid ticks remains scarce. To address the occurrence and molecular identity of spotted fever group rickettsiae using molecular tools, a total of 767 ixodid ticks belonging to thirteen different species were collected from domestic animals from September 2011 to March 2014. Rickettsia africae DNA was detected in 30.2% (16/53) Amblyommma variegatum, 28.6% (12/42) Am. gemma, 0.8% (1/119) Am. cohaerens, 18.2% (4/22) Amblyomma larvae, 6.7% (2/60) Amblyomma nymphs, 0.7% (1/139) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus and 25% (1/4) nymphs of Rh. (Bo.) decoloratus. A markedly low prevalence of R. africae was recorded in both Am. cohaerens and Rh. (Bo.) decoloratus (p<0.0001) compared with that in Am. variegatum and Am. gemma. The prevalence of R. africae was markedly low in the western districts (Gachi and Abdela) (p<0.0001); however, the prevalence of R. africae was relatively high in the central (Ada'a, Wolmara and Arsi) and eastern (Arero, Moyale and Yabelo) districts, where Am. variegatum and Am. gemma were predominantly associated with R. africae, respectively. R. aeschlimannii DNA was detected in 45.4% (5/11) Hyalomma marginatum rufipes and 2.2% (1/46) Hy. truncatum. Moreover, the first report of R. massiliae DNA in 1.9% (1/52) Rhipicephalus praetextatus ticks in Ethiopia is presented herein. Altogether, these results suggest that the transmission of spotted fever group rickettsiae through ixodid ticks is a potential risk for human health in different parts of Ethiopia. Clinicians in this country should consider these pathogens as a potential cause of febrile illness in patients. PMID:25262832
Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe
is a region where continental rifting gives way to oceanic spreading. Yet the role that pre-existing lithospheric structure, melt, mantle flow, or active upwellings may play in this process is debated. Measurements of seismic anisotropy are often used to attempt to understand the contribution that these mechanisms may play. In this study, we use new data in Afar, Ethiopia along with legacy data across Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Yemen to obtain estimates of mantle anisotropy using SKS-wave splitting. We show that two layers of anisotropy exist, and we directly invert for these. We show that fossil anisotropy with fast directions oriented northeast-southwest may be preserved in the lithosphere away from the rift. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift and parts of Afar, anisotropy due to shear segregated melt along sharp changes in lithospheric thickness dominates the shear-wave splitting signal in the mantle. Beneath Afar, away from regions with significant lithospheric topography, melt pockets associated with the crustal and uppermost mantle magma storage dominate the signal in localized regions. In general, little anisotropy is seen in the uppermost mantle beneath Afar suggesting melt retains no preferential alignment. These results show the important role melt plays in weakening the lithosphere and imply that as rifting evolves passive upwelling sustains extension. A dominant northeast-southwest anisotropic fast direction is observed in a deeper layer across all of Ethiopia. This suggests that a conduit like plume is lacking beneath Afar today, rather a broad flow from the southwest dominates flow in the upper mantle.
Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Wookey, J.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.
Hydrological variability and seasonality is one of the Ethiopia's primary water resource management challenges. Variability is most obviously manifest in endemic, devastating droughts and floods. While the level of flooding is quite often extremely high and destroys human beings and property, in many cases flooding is of vital importance because the community benefits from flood recession agriculture. This is the case of the lower Omo plain whose agriculture is based on the regularity of the inundations due to flooding of the Omo Gibe River. The big flood in 2006, which caused death for more than 300 people and 2000 cattle, poses a dilemma. Flooding must be controlled and regulated in a way that the damages are reduced as much as possible but the flooding-related benefits are not lost. To this aim, characterization and understanding of hydrological variability of the Omo Gibe River basin is fundamental. The goal of this work is to extract the maximal amount of information on the hydrological variability and specially on the flooding regime from the few data available in the region. Because most of the basin is ungauged, hydrological information is reconstructed using the data from 9 gauged catchments. A daily water balance model has been developed, calibrated and validated for 9 gauged catchments and, subsequently, the parameters have been correlated to catchment characteristics in order to establish a functional relationship that allows to apply the model to ungauged catchments. Daily streamflow has been predicted for 15 ungauged catchments, which are assumed to comprehensively represent the hydrological variability of the Omo-Gibe River Basin. Even though both northern and southern catchments are affected by a strong seasonality of precipitation, with most of the rain falling in less than 3 months, most of the northern catchments are humid, while in the southern part of the Omo-Gibe River basin, the catchments are either humid, dry sub humid, semiarid or arid. As for climate, also landscape and vegetation cover is more homogeneous in the northern part of the Omo Gibe River basin than in the southern part. Consequently, the runoff variability reflects the interesting diversity of climate and landscape of the basin. The gradient of flooding regimes from the north to the south of the Omo Gibe River basin will be analysed and the impacts of possible regime changes will be discussed.
Yared, Adanech; Demissie, Solomon S.; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Viglione, Alberto; MacAlister, Charlotte
A diarrhoea morbidity survey was conducted in children between the ages of six and 59 months in Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia. Nearly 37% of the 820 children surveyed had one or more episodes of diarrhoea over a period of one month preceding the study. Although several factors showed significant association with diarrhoea morbidity on bivariate analysis, child's age, immunisation status, father's ethnicity, family income and availability of latrine were the only significant variables on multivariate analysis. Based on the study results feasible intervention measures are recommended. PMID:9487413
Getaneh, T; Assefa, A; Tadesse, Z
As a result of land clearing operations in the local area, the Omo River Delta (4.5N, 36.0E) at the north end of Lake Turkana, on the Ethiopia/Kenya border has become enlarged through topsoil erosion. The delta measured 800 sq. km. in 1981 doubled to 1,600 sq. km. by 1988 and was up to 1,800 sq. km. in 1991. This is the same area where the Leaky Anthropological Team discovered the earliest remains of human ancestors.
The potential medical transmission of HIV through unsafe medical injections was evaluated in 16 rural health institutions in Ethiopia. Most institutions reported re-using disposable needle/syringes, and 12% of observed injections were given with used, disposable syringes prepared for re-use. Analysis of used needle flushes showed no HIV RNA; however, the sensitivity of our method was limited. Despite the re-use of disposable needles, medical injection practices are not likely to contribute significantly to HIV transmission in this region. PMID:15718849
Priddy, Frances; Tesfaye, Fikru; Mengistu, Yohannes; Rothenberg, Richard; Fitzmaurice, Dorothy; Mariam, Damen Haile; del Rio, Carlos; Oli, Kebede; Worku, Alemayehu
During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate ‘trimming’ of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry. Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic. This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example. PMID:22738170
Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread yet poorly controlled in Nigeria hence posing a public health threat. This study determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and factors associated with MTC among slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir in Plateau State, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in which we collected 168 lung samples systematically from 485 slaughtered cattle from May-June, 2012, and tested for acid fact bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen test and a duplex polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) for MTC detection. Data on cattle socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for zoonotic BTB infection was obtained and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 to determine frequency, proportions, and prevalence odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression was done at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results The mean age of the cattle was 5.6 ± 1.3 years and (108) 64.3% were females. Majority were indigenous White Fulani breed of cattle (58.5%) and about half (54.8%) were slightly emaciated. Prevalence of MTB complex was 21.4% by AFB test and 16.7% by duplex PCR. Of 33 (19.6%) lungs with lesions, 27 (81.8%) were positive for AFB; while of 135 (80.4%) lungs without lesions, 9 (6.7%) were positive for AFB. Lungs with lesions were 52 times more likely to test positive to AFB test compared to tissues without lesions (AOR=52.3; 95% CI: 16.4-191.8) Conclusion The presence of MTC in cattle signifies its potential risk to public health. Presence of lesions on lungs is a reliable indicator of MTC infection that meat inspectors should look out for. PMID:25328626
Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Cadmus, Simeon; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Muhammad, Maryam; Awoloh, Oluchi; Dairo, David; Waziri, Endie Ndadilnasiya; Olayinka, Adebola; Nguku, Patrick Mboyo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo
of the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), one of the biggest political parties during the Transitional Government of Ethiopia (1991-1995), and Ginbot 7, part of the main opposition group during the 2005 elections, as terrorist organisations means that any...
Abstract Background Malaria transmission in Ethiopia is unstable and seasonal, with the majority of the country's population living in malaria-prone areas. Results from DHS 2005 indicate that the coverage of key malaria interventions was low...
Shargie, Estifanos B; Gebre, Teshome; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Graves, Patricia M; Mosher, Aryc W; Emerson, Paul M; Ejigsemahu, Yeshewamebrat; Endeshaw, Tekola; Olana, Dereje; WeldeMeskel, Asrat; Teferra, Admas; Tadesse, Zerihun; Tilahun, Abate; Yohannes, Gedeon; Richards, Frank O Jr
Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use...
Graves, Patricia M; Ngondi, Jeremiah M; Hwang, Jimee; Getachew, Asefaw; Gebre, Teshome; Mosher, Aryc W; Patterson, Amy E; Shargie, Estifanos B; Tadesse, Zerihun; Wolkon, Adam; Reithinger, Richard; Emerson, Paul M; Richards, Frank O Jr
The WFP's transport of food aid to Ethiopia's landlocked population is constrained by supply chain bottlenecks at the port, and limited availability of trucks for inland transport. How can the WFP supply chain be optimized ...
Kim, Christina Sujin
Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term.
Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H. O.; Lemenih, Mulugeta
We present the results of a study of the group velocity dispersion characteristics of fundamental-mode surface waves across Afar, Ethiopia. We analyze surface wave data for more than 200 events recorded in 2007 and 2008 by the NERC Afar Consortium experiment and the NSF Rochester seismic networks deployed in northern Ethiopia. We first apply a dispersion analysis using the frequency-time analysis to obtain the group velocity of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves for periods ranging from 3 to 15 sec. We then invert path-averaged dispersion curves to obtain 2D maps, of group velocity for discrete periods using a method that is the generalization to two dimensions of the Backus and Gilbert method. The resulting tomographic maps show a significant low velocity anomaly below the Dabbahu and Hararo magmatic segments, the site of recent dyke intrusions and maps out crustal anomalies within the Afar rift segments. Our results represent the first detailed surface wave study of crustal and uppermost upper mantle structure of Afar and could lead to significant progress towards a better understanding of the lithospheric structure and magma distribution in the area.
Guidarelli, M.; Stuart, G. W.; Hammond, J.; Kendall, J. M.; Ebinger, C. J.
Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members' analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time-before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key informant interviews and transect walks through the PFM forests. The results show that in all of the five cases the state of the forest is perceived to have improved with the introduction of PFM, and in four of the cases the improvement was maintained after projects ended. Regulated access to the forests following introduction of PFM was not perceived to have affected forest income negatively. There are, however, serious concerns about the institutional effectiveness of the FUGs after projects ended, and this may affect the success of the PFM approach in the longer term. PMID:24488085
Ameha, Aklilu; Larsen, H O; Lemenih, Mulugeta
In central Ethiopia, litho-structural setup of the three sub-basins of the southern flank of the Middle Blue Nile basin (Guder, Muger and Jema) and the adjacent Upper Awash River basin have been investigated to develop conceptual groundwater flow model and to characterize the groundwater hydrodynamic relationship between the aquifer systems of the two basins. The development of conceptual groundwater flow model is based on interpretation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from SRTM and Landsat images together with field geological observation, integrated with existing boreholes lithologic logs and pumping test data. The litho-structural framework, reconstructed from regional stratigraphy and analysis of major regional fault systems, controls the size of recharge area for aquifer systems and aquifer distributions in the groundwater sub-basins. The study has indicated the distinctive geometric setting of the litho-strata of aquifers and aquicludes. The NW-SE trending horsts beneath the volcanic successions and the overlying volcanic ridges control aquifer distribution in the Guder, Muger and Jema groundwater sub-basins, while the E-W trending horsts control aquifer distribution between the Middle Blue Nile and the Upper Awash Rivers basins. Impermeable mudstone constitutes the upper part of the E-W oriented horst at the center of the Muger River sub-basin. This mudstone capped horst underlying the volcanic aquifers is a groundwater divide channeling recharged water in the Blue Nile basin partly towards the Upper Awash basin. Significant proportion of groundwater recharged in the Middle Blue Nile basin (Muger and Jema River sub-basins) contributes to the storage of the aquifer systems of the Upper Awash basin.
Azagegn, Tilahun; Asrat, Asfawossen; Ayenew, Tenalem; Kebede, Seifu
Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR). Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF) were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'). Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71%) from natural vegetation and 27 (29%) from home gardens. Forty-five (62%) were used for humans, 15(21%) for livestock and 13(18%) for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2%) were Shrubs, 28(34.5%) herbs, 17 (20.9%) trees and 1(1.2%) climbers. The root (35.8%) was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4%) in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%). Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies. PMID:19821994
Mesfin, Fisseha; Demissew, Sebsebe; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun
Despite 25 years of development assistance, Ethiopia experiences one of the highest child mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa. In northwestern Ethiopia, CARE International implemented a five-year child survival project in the Farta district from 2002 to 2007.Although similar to other child survival projects in terms of behavioral change communication approaches, the Farta Child Survival Project exceeded targets, including those for
Sara E. Buchanan; Barbara Pose
Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of NTDs, integrated mapping, rapid scale up of interventions and operational research into co implementation of intervention packages will be crucial. PMID:23095679
Poverty, hunger and demand for agricultural land have driven local communities to overexploit forest resources throughout\\u000a Ethiopia. Forests surrounding the township of Humbo were largely destroyed by the late 1960s. In 2004, World Vision Australia\\u000a and World Vision Ethiopia identified forestry-based carbon sequestration as a potential means to stimulate community development\\u000a while engaging in environmental restoration. After two years of
Douglas R. Brown; Paul Dettmann; Tony Rinaudo; Hailu Tefera; Assefa Tofu
Asymptomatic influenza virus infections in pigs are frequent and the lack of measures for controlling viral spread facilitates the circulation of different virus strains between pigs. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the circulation of influenza A virus strains among asymptomatic piglets in an abattoir in Brazil and discuss the potential public health impacts. Tracheal samples (n = 330) were collected from asymptomatic animals by a veterinarian that also performed visual lung tissue examinations. No slaughtered animals presented with any noticeable macroscopic signs of influenza infection following examination of lung tissues. Samples were then analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that resulted in the identification of 30 (9%) influenza A positive samples. The presence of asymptomatic pig infections suggested that these animals could facilitate virus dissemination and act as a source of infection for the herd, thereby enabling the emergence of influenza outbreaks associated with significant economic losses. Furthermore, the continuous exposure of the farm and abattoir workers to the virus increases the risk for interspecies transmission. Monitoring measures of swine influenza virus infections and vaccination and monitoring of employees for influenza infection should also be considered. In addition regulatory agencies should consider the public health ramifications regarding the potential zoonotic viral transmission between humans and pigs. PMID:23903968
Amorim, Ariane Ribeiro; Fornells, Luz Alba Maria Garcete; Reis, Felicidade da Costa; Rezende, Daiana Jacinto; Mendes, Gabriella da Silva; Couceiro, José Nelson dos Santos Silva; Santos, Norma Suely de Oliveira
Escherichia coli O157 isolates from bovine hide (n=117) and beef trimmings (n=32) from a single abattoir were examined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Using BioNumerics software, dendrograms of isolates from each sample type (i.e. hide and beef trimming) were produced. In assessing the genetic relatedness of isolates, a similarity criterion of 80% was applied. The 117 E. coli O157 hide isolates were grouped into 14 clusters, comprising of 109 different PFGE profiles. Of the 109 different PFGE profiles, 8 were common to multiple isolates (i.e. shared 100% similarity by PFGE). The 32 E. coli O157 beef trimming isolates produced 28 different PFGE profiles and 2 clusters. Of the 28 PFGE profiles, 2 were common to multiple isolates and the remaining 26 were distinct. On a number of sampling occasions, isolates displaying identical PFGE patterns were recovered from multiple isolates collected from a single sample type (i.e. hides or trimmings), suggesting cross contamination from contaminated hides/animals to uncontaminated hides/animals and from contaminated beef trimmings to uncontaminated beef trimmings during abattoir operations. PMID:15649539
Duffy, G; O'Brien, S B; Carney, E; Sheridan, J J; McDowell, D A; Blair, I S
??Preventing environmental degradation and alleviating poverty are the twin challenges of sustainable development. Participatory forest management (PFM) takes the challenge of preventing the degradation of… (more)
Studies have indicated that social stigma related to podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) has a major impact on the psychosocial wellbeing of patients. However, little effort has been made so far to quantify the level of both felt and enacted stigma in a range of domains of life. We used a recently developed podoconiosis stigma assessment scale to measure levels of stigma as recalled over the previous 12 months. One hundred and fifty patients with podoconiosis rated the levels of stigma they perceived and experienced in 'interpersonal interactions', 'major life areas' and 'community, social and civic life'. High levels of stigma were observed on both felt and enacted stigma scales. The overall average stigma score was 40.7 (range 0 to 96). Enacted stigma was scored higher than felt stigma (mean score 21.2 vs. 19.5, respectively). The mean enacted stigma score was higher in 'major life areas', and 'community, social and civic life' than 'interpersonal interactions', while felt stigma was experienced most at the interpersonal level. Over half of patients reported that they had considered suicide in response to discrimination and prejudice, particularly in interpersonal interactions. Forced divorce, dissolution of marriage plan, insults and exclusion at social events were some of the most commonly mentioned forms of enacted stigma reported by affected individuals. Scores for overall level of stigma and enacted stigma increased significantly with stage of podoconiosis while the association observed in relation to felt stigma was only marginally significant (p = 0.085). Appropriate stigma reduction strategies must be identified and implemented in communities highly endemic for podoconiosis. PMID:25485190
Tora, Abebayehu; Franklin, Hannah; Deribe, Kebede; Reda, Ayalu A; Davey, Gail
Low income countries like Ethiopia are underrepresented in clinical research. As a major public commitment to clinical research, Ethiopia celebrated the International Clinical Trial Day (ICTD) for the first time on 20 May 2014 under the auspices of Addis Ababa University. The motto for the day was 'Clinical Trials for Excellence in Patient Care'. The celebration offered an opportunity to inform academic staff, researchers, students and the leadership about clinical trials being conducted and to discuss the future of clinical trials in the country. Although clear challenges to the conduct of trials abound, clinical trials registered from Ethiopia in trial registration databases is increasing. Cross-country collaborations, international funding support, motivation of academic staff to conduct clinical trials and the commitment and engagement of the leadership in research are all improving. The overall impact of clinical trials is also encouraging. For example, some of the trials conducted in Ethiopia have informed treatment guidelines. However, administrative capacity, research infrastructure as well as financial support remain weak. There is a need for enhanced university-industry linkage and translation of research findings into locally relevant evidence. Ethiopia, as well as the whole of Africa, has an unparalleled opportunity to lead the way in clinical trials, given its prospect of development and the need to have locally relevant evidence for its growing population. In this commentary we reflect on the celebration of ICTD, the status and opportunities for conducting clinical trials and the way forward for facilitating clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa. PMID:25526797
Fekadu, Abebaw; Teferra, Solomon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Addissie, Adamu; Deressa, Wakgari; Yimer, Getnet; Reja, Ahmed
Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support, resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This unit describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, and subsequent immobilization by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in the second alternate protocol is therefore more rapid and can result in more complete transfer. PMID:18432697
Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in the second alternate protocol is therefore more rapid than the basic protocol and can result in more complete transfer. Although the ease and reliability of capillary transfer methods makes this far and away the most popular system for Southern blotting with agarose gels, it unfortunately does not work with polyacrylamide gels, whose smaller pore size impedes the transverse movement of the DNA molecules. The third alternate protocol describes an electroblotting procedure that is currently the most reliable method for transfer of DNA from a polyacrylamide gel. Dot and slot blotting are also described. PMID:18429082
Exploring the American South is a splendid idea, and this online journal is a great way to think about the "real and imagined places" of this unique cultural region. Southern Spaces is a peer-reviewed Internet journal and forum that "provides open access to essays, interviews and performances, events and conferences, gateways, timescapes, and annotated links about real and imagined spaces and places of the U.S. South." Their work is supported by the Robert W. Woodruff Library of Emory University, and visitors will want to browse around the site more than once. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking at interactive features like "Negotiating Gender Lines: Women's Movement across Atlanta Mosques" and "The Other Side of Paradise: Glimpsing Slavery in the University's Utopian Landscapes". The site also includes information about the journal's editorial board and a set of thematically organized weblinks.
Despite their significance for understanding the potential environmental factors involved in hominin evolution in Ethiopia, very few modern volcanologic studies have been carried out on the Quaternary calderas and associated silicic tephra deposits of the Ethiopian Rift. We present here the second of a set of papers reporting the findings of fieldwork and laboratory analyses of one of the largest of these structures, Kone Caldera, located within the Kone Volcanic Complex in the northern Main Ethiopian Rift. The most recent major episode of explosive eruptive activity at Kone Caldera was apparently associated with formation of part of the overall 8-km-diameter collapse area, and deposited a widely-dispersed alkali rhyolite tephra that reaches a thickness of up to 60 m in vent-proximal deposits. We report here the physical characteristics of this unit in order to constrain eruptive conditions. The pumice fall deposit suggests that an abrupt decrease in magma discharge rate occurred part way through the eruption.
Rampey, Michael L.; Oppenheimer, Clive; Pyle, David M.; Yirgu, Gezahegn
A sample of 117 fossil cercopithecids has been collected from the Middle Pleistocene site of Asbole, Afar Region, Ethiopia. A minimum of five species is present. There are two species of Cercopithecini, here recognized as cf. Chlorocebus aff. aethiops, and cf. Chlorocebus cf. patas. There are also two species of Papionini: Papio hamadryas ssp. indet. and Theropithecus oswaldi leakeyi. Finally, there is a single species of colobine present, Colobus sp. indet. The assemblage is chronologically constrained and is derived from sediments dated to approximately 600 ka. Within this sample Colobus sp. is by far the most common species present, outnumbering the other four species combined. The cercopithecid assemblage is most consistent with a woodland habitat, corroborating an earlier interpretation based on the non-primate fauna. Taxonomic, biogeographic, and evolutionary implications of the assemblage are also discussed. PMID:17658583
Frost, Stephen R; Alemseged, Zeresenay
Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to semi-intensive producer, and require support to slowly build up a flock into a profitable venture. PMID:25466215
Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M.
Background The prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Ethiopia in general, and Jimma area in particular, is not well documented. We conducted a study at Jimma University specialized hospital in southwest Ethiopia among new cases of smear positive TB patients to determine the pattern of resistance to first-line drugs. Methods A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to September 2011. Any newly diagnosed smear positive TB patient 18?years and above was included in the study. Demographic and related data were collected by trained personnel using a pretested structured questionnaire. Mycobacterial drug susceptibility testing (DST) to the first line drugs isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB) and streptomycin (STM) was performed on cultures using the indirect proportion method. M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) was identified with the Capilia TB-Neo test. Results 136 patients were enrolled in the study. Resistance to at least one drug was identified in 18.4%. The highest prevalence of resistance to any drug was identified against INH (13.2%) followed by STM (8.1%). There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of any resistance by sex, age, HIV status and history of being imprisoned. The highest mono resistance was observed against INH (7.4%). Mono resistance to streptomycin was associated with HIV infection (crude OR 15.63, 95%CI: 1.31, 187). Multidrug-resistance TB (MDR-TB) was observed in two patients (1.5%). Conclusion Resistance to at least one drug was 18.4% (INH-13.2% and STM-8.1%). STM resistance was associated with HIV positivity. There was relatively low prevalence of MDR-TB yet INH resistance was common around Jimma. The capacity of laboratories for TB culture and DST should be strengthened, in order to correctly manage TB patients and avoid amplification of drug resistance. PMID:22574696
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology has become a powerful tool for reproductive biology to preserve and propagate valuable genetics for livestock. Embryo production through SCNT involves enucleation of the oocyte and insertion of a somatic donor cell into the oocyte. These procedures lead to a few small openings on the zona pellucida that may elevate risk of viral infection for the produced SCNT embryos. The oocytes used for SCNT are mainly obtained from abattoirs where viral contamination is almost inevitable. Therefore, a systematic evaluation of risk of disease transmission through SCNT embryo production is necessary prior large scale implementation of this technology in the livestock industry. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the risk of disease transmission via SCNT embryo production and transfer by testing for the presence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) throughout the process of SCNT embryo production. The presence of PRRSV in each step of SCNT embryo production, from donor cells to pre-implantation SCNT embryo culture, was carefully examined using a real-time PCR assay with a sensitivity of five copies per-reaction. All 114 donor cell lines derived from pig skin tissue over a period of 7 years in our facility tested negative for PRRSV. Out of the 68 pooled follicular fluid samples collected from 736 ovaries, only four (5.9%) were positive indicating a small amount of viral molecule present in the oocyte donor population. All 801 Day 7 SCNT embryos produced in four separate trials and over 11,571 washed oocytes obtained in 67 batches over 10 months tested negative. These oocytes were collected from multiple abattoirs processing animals from areas with high density of pig population and correspond to a donor population of over 5828 individuals. These results indicate that the oocytes from abattoirs were free of PRRSV infection and therefore could be safely used for in vitro embryo production. Additionally, the established SCNT embryo production system, including donor cell testing, oocytes decontamination, and pathogen free embryo reconstruction and culturing, bears no risk of PRRSV transmission. PMID:21550737
Gregg, K; Xiang, T; Arenivas, S S; Hwang, E; Arenivas, F; Chen, S-H; Walker, S; Picou, A; Polejaeva, I
25 developmental competence of cloned buffalo (bubalus bubalis) embryos produced by transfected or nontransfected fibroblasts transfer to enucleated oocytes derived from ovum pick-up and abattoir ovaries.
The objective of this study was to explore whether fibroblasts transfection and the source of oocytes - ovum pick-up (OPU) versus abattoir ovaries - affected the in vitro and in vivo developmental competence of somatic cell nuclear transferred (SCNT) embryos in buffalo. To this aim, the serum-starved ear fibroblasts were fused into enucleated oocytes derived from abattoir ovaries (Group 1) and OPU (Group 2). Furthermore, the enucleated buffalo oocytes derived from abattoir ovaries were also fused with pEGFP-N1 transfected ear fibroblasts, and the cloned embryos were enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-positive confirmed by fluorescence microscopy (Group 3). The reconstructed embryos cultured in Groups 1 to 3 were 262, 83, 120, respectively (5 replicates); and the data were analysed by one-way ANOVA (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). As a result, the cleavage rate in Group 3 was significantly higher than that in Group 1 (75.0% v. 54.3%; P<0.01), and the total blastocyst rate of reconstructed embryos in Group 3 (27.3%) was significantly higher than that in Group 1 (17.4%; P<0.01) and Group 2 (24.4%; P<0.05). The SCNT blastocysts were vitrified with 20% ethylene glycol+20% dimethylsulfoxide+0.5M sucrose; the cryosurvival rates of SCNT blastocysts in the 3 groups were not different from each other (90.0%, 94.7%, 92.3%). Following culture, the cryosurvived blastocysts were transferred into synchronized local and crossbred buffaloes, with each recipient receiving 1 or 2 embryos. The pregnancy rates after transferring embryos derived from Groups 1 to 3 were not different from each other, and were 18.75% (3/16), 33.33% (4/12), and 26.67% (4/15), respectively. These results indicate that the oocytes derived from OPU can be enucleated as recipient cytoplasm and transfected fibroblast can be adopted as nuclei donor without decreasing the SCNT efficiency in buffalo. PMID:25472074
Yang, C; Shang, J; Zheng, H; Chen, M; Huang, F; Li, C; Yang, B; Liang, X
Background. Workplace turnover is destructive to nursing and patient outcomes as it leads to losing competent and qualified nurses. However, developments of coping strategies demand a clear understanding of workplace variables that either motivate nurses to remain employed or lead them to leave their current jobs. Objective. This study was designed toassess factors influencing job satisfaction and intention to turnover among nurses in Sidama zone public health facilities, in Southern Ethiopia. Method. Cross-sectional study design was carried out on 278 nurses using both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods from May 12 to June 05, 2010. Result. A total of 242 nurses were interviewed giving a response rate of 87%. Nearly two-third (68.6%) of the participants were female, and the mean age was 28 (±6.27) years for both sexes. All job satisfaction subscale except benefit and salary subscale were significant predictors of overall job satisfaction. Satisfactions with work environment and group cohesion (AOR: 0.25 [95% CI: 0.12, 0.51]), single cohesion (AOR: 2.56 [95% CI: 1.27, 5.13]), and working in hospital (AOR: 2.19 [95% CI: 1.12, 4.30]) were the final significant predictors of anticipated turnover of Sidama zone nurses. Conclusions. More than any factors managers should consider the modification of working environment and group cohesions rather than trying to modify nurses to retain and maintain more experienced nurses for the organizations. PMID:24707397
Belachew, Tefera; Yimam, Ebrahim
This paper deals with the politics of language, power and pedagogy in Ethiopia, with a focus on the past and present conditions of the Oromo language. The paper evaluates the major historico-political factors that constrained the linguistic human rights of the Oromo during Haile Sellassie's and Mengistu's Ethiopia, and reflects on the status of the Oromo language and the divergent
Jeylan Wolyie Hussein
Due to concerns about a link between variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and similar prion protein-induced disease in cattle, i.e., bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), strict controls are in place to exclude BSE-positive animals and/or specified risk materials including bovine central nervous system (CNS) tissue from the human food chain. However, current slaughter practice, using captive bolt guns, may induce disruption of brain tissues and mobilize CNS tissues into the bovine circulatory system, leading to the dispersion of CNS tissues (including prion proteins) throughout the derived carcass. This project used a marker (antibiotic-resistant) strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens to model the effects of commercial captive bolt stunning procedures on the movement of mobilized CNS material within slaughtered animals and the abattoir environment. The marker organism, introduced by injection through the bolt entry aperture or directly using a cartridge-fired captive bolt, was detected in the slaughter environment immediately after stunning and in the abattoir environment at each subsequent stage of the slaughter-dressing process. The marker organism was also detected on the hands of operatives; on slaughter equipment; and in samples of blood, organs, and musculature of inoculated animals. There were no significant differences between the results obtained by the two inoculation methods (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that material present in, or introduced into, the CNS of cattle during commercial captive bolt stunning may become widely dispersed across the many animate and inanimate elements of the slaughter-dressing environment and within derived carcasses including meat entering the human food chain. PMID:11823220
Daly, D. J.; Prendergast, D. M.; Sheridan, J. J.; Blair, I. S.; McDowell, D. A.
The growth of coliform organisms on meat tissue from sheep carcasses processed in a commercial abattoir was investigated. The results indicated that for practical purposes the minimum temperature of growth of these organisms on meat may be taken as 8 degrees C. Equations were derived relating the generation time and the lag time of coliform organisms in raw blended mutton to the temperature at which the meat is held. Estimates of growth obtained with these equations were found to agree closely with the experimental results, especially at temperatures above 10 degrees C, and allowed the generation times and the lag times for all temperatures up to 40 degrees C to be calculated. These times were also found to agree closely with the times determined using a strain of Escherichia coli inoculated into blended mutton tissue. A strain of Salmonella typhimurium inoculated in the same way into blended mutton tissue gave longer generation and lag times at temperatures below 15 degrees C. Therefore, it is believed that the calculated tables of lag and generation times included in this paper can be used to determine the length of time raw chilled meat may be held afterwards at temperatures above the minimum temperature of growth without an increase in the number of any salmonella organisms present, and these times include a safety margin at each temperature. The study indicates that the mandatory codes of practice presently applied in commercial abattoirs are too stringent. Maintaining the temperature of boning rooms at 10 degrees C or less does not appear to be necessary providing the meat is processed within the calculated time limits. A relaxation of the restrictions on boning room temperatures would decrease costs, increase worker comfort and safety and would not compromise the bacteriological safety of the meat produced. PMID:3891847
Smith, M. G.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality. PMID:25049733
Njisane, Yonela Z.; Muchenje, Voster
A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of performing "on-site" screening for sulfamethazine (SMT), at an abattoir, using a rapid immunobiosensor method. This involved transfer of the biosensor technology and an assay developed in the laboratory, to the cold, humid conditions of a modern pig-processing factory. A pre-determined threshold limit of 0.4 microgram ml-1 SMT in bile was used to identify the likelihood that corresponding tissue samples contained SMT concentrations in excess of the European maximum permissible residue limit of 0.1 mg kg-1. Bile samples containing SMT concentrations above the threshold limit were deemed positive and the corresponding kidney and muscle samples were sent to the laboratory for HPLC analysis. The robustness of the biosensor instrumentation in the harsh operating conditions was monitored throughout the project. The performance of the assay, on-site, was assessed by the regular inclusion of QA samples and by the submission of control 'SMT-positive' pigs to the abattoir. Sampling procedures, identification and traceability were also under scrutiny. During the project, 337 (9.35%) of the total kill were tested for SMT residues, representing 75% of all producers submitting pigs for slaughter. Twelve animals, including the ten controls, gave positive bile results. HPLC analysis confirmed SMT residues in all 12 kidneys (11 in excess of the permissible level). Ten muscle samples also contained violative SMT levels. Throughout the project, the biosensor performed reliably, with no adverse reaction of any mechanical or electrical components. The SMT assay also performed reliably. This is the first report of a biosensor being used for 'on-site' drug screening. PMID:10736854
Baxter, G A; O'Connor, M C; Haughey, S A; Crooks, S R; Elliott, C T
Background Globally, an estimated 287 000 maternal deaths occurred in 2010 annually as a result of complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia were accounted for 85% of the global burden (245 000 maternal deaths) including Ethiopia. Obstetric related complications cannot be reliably predicted. Hence, insignificant decline of maternal mortality ratio might be due to the non use of birth preparedness and complication readiness strategies. Therefore, this paper aimed to assess knowledge and practices towards birth preparedness and complication readiness and associated factors among women of reproductive age group (15–49) in Robe Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Method Community-based cross-sectional study supplemented by qualitative design was conducted in January, 2012. A total of 575 women from 5 kebeles were selected after proportionally allocated to population size and interviewed using structured and semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaires. Univariate and bivariate analysis was performed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also done to control for possible confounding variables. Results Taking into account place of delivery identification, means of transportation, skilled attendant identification and saving money, about 16.5% of the respondents were prepared for birth and its complications. Preparation for birth and its complication was higher among educated mothers (AOR?=?6.23, 95% CI?=?1.5, 25.87). Monthly income of >716 Ethiopian birr (AOR?=?1.94, 95% CI?=?1.01, 3.87), ANC visit (AOR?=?5.68, 95% CI?=?1.27, 25.4), knowledge of obstetric complications (AOR?=?2.94, 95% CI?=?1.61, 5.37) and those who had given birth at health facility before their last delivery (AOR?=?3.9, 95% CI?=?2.04, 7.46) were also significantly associated with birth preparedness and complication readiness. Conclusion The study identified very low magnitude of birth preparedness and complication readiness in the study area and poor knowledge and practices of preparation for birth and its complication. Community education about preparation for birth and its complication and empowerment of women through expansion of educational opportunities are important steps in improving birth preparedness. In all health facilities during antenatal care emphasis should given to preparation for birth and its complication and provide information and education to all pregnant women. PMID:25038820
Impacts of co-occurring stressors (organic wastes and various human activities) on macroinvertebrate assemblages and environmental\\u000a variables were investigated in a municipal stream, River Orogodo in southern Nigeria between the months of June 2004 and July\\u000a 2005. Four sampling sites, each 25 m long were selected along 15 km stretch of the stream. There was a marked difference in\\u000a the taxonomic composition of
Francis O. Arimoro; Robert B. Ikomi
ABSTRACT Background: Postpartum common mental disorders (CMD) such as depression and anxiety are increasingly recognized for their burden in low-resource countries such as Ethiopia. However, the magnitude of postpartum CMD in Ethiopia is not well-established. This short report describes the mental health status of women who had given birth in the last 24 months in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,319 women aged 15–49 years old who had a delivery in the previous 24 months from 30 randomly selected kebeles (smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia) across Amhara region. The survey included the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) developed by the World Health Organization—a CMD screening instrument that includes 20 yes/no questions on depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms experienced in the last 30 days. We used 2 cutoff scores to determine probable cases of mental disorder: (1) 4/5 (? 4 “yes” responses?=?non-case, ? 5 “yes” responses?=?case) based on a study that validated the SRQ-20 against a diagnostic tool in Butajira, Ethiopia, and (2) a more conservative and commonly used 7/8 cutoff. Results: Among the 1,294 women who completed the full survey including the SRQ-20, 32.8% had probable CMD using the 4/5 cutoff score versus 19.8% using the more conservative 7/8 cutoff. About 15% of the women responded affirmatively that they had had suicidal thoughts. Conclusion: Poor mental health was common among the surveyed women who had given birth in the past 24 months in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Integrating mental health care into maternal and child health services could potentially alleviate the burden of CMD among women in the extended postpartum period. PMID:25611481
Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Parcesepe, Angela; Mekuria, Yared Getachew; Abitew, Dereje Birhanu; Gebeyehu, Wondimu; Okello, Francis; Shattuck, Dominick
Background Paediatric tuberculosis (TB) is poorly addressed in Ethiopia and information about its magnitude and the genotype distribution of the causative Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains responsible for its spread are scanty. Methods Gastric lavage or sputum samples were collected from consecutively enrolled TB suspect children visiting Jimma University Hospital in 2011 and cultured on Middlebrook 7H11 and Löwenstein-Jensen media. Acid fast bacterial (AFB) isolates were subjected to molecular typing targeting regions of difference (RDs), 16S rDNA gene and the direct repeat (DR) region using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), gene sequencing and spoligotyping, respectively. Molecular drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis isolates was performed by Genotype®MTBDRplus line probe assay (LPA) (Hain Life Sciences, Germany). Results Gastric lavage (n?=?43) or sputum (n?=?58) samples were collected from 101 children and 31.7% (32/101) of the samples were positive for AFB by microscopy, culture and/or PCR. Out of 25 AFB isolates, 60% (15/25) were identified as M. tuberculosis by PCR, and 40% isolates (10/25) were confirmed to be non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) by genus typing and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Lineage classification assigned the M. tuberculosis strains into Euro-American (EUA, 66.7%; 10/15), East-African-Indian (EAI; 2/15), East-Asian (EA; 1/15) and Indio-Oceanic (IO; 1/15) lineages. Seven M. tuberculosis strains were new to the SpolDB4 database. All of the M. tuberculosis isolates were susceptible to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF), except for one strain (of spoligotype SIT-149 or T3_ETH family) which had a mutation at the inhA locus which often confers resistance to INH (low level) and ethionamide. Conclusions Analysis of the genetic population structure of paediatric M. tuberculosis strains suggested similarity with that of adults, indicating an on-going and active transmission of M. tuberculosis from adults to children in Ethiopia. There were no multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) strains among the isolates. PMID:24007374
Background Despite a substantial decrease in child mortality in Ethiopia over the past decade, neonatal mortality remains unchanged (37/1000 live-births). This paper describes a qualitative study on beliefs and practices on immediate newborn and postnatal care in four rural communities of Ethiopia conducted to inform development of a package of community-based interventions targeting newborns. Methods The study team conducted eight key informant interviews (KII) with grandmothers, 27 in-depth interviews (IDI) with mothers; seven IDI with traditional birth attendants (TBA) and 15IDI with fathers, from four purposively selected communities located in Sidama Zone of Southern Nationalities, Nations, and Peoples (SNNP) Region and in East Shewa and West Arsi Zones of Oromia Region. Results In the study communities deliveries occurred at home. After cutting the umbilical cord, the baby is put to the side of the mother, not uncommonly with no cloth covering. This is largely due to attendants focusing on delivery of the placenta which is reinforced by the belief that the placenta is the ‘house’ or ‘blanket’ of the baby and that any “harm” caused to the placenta will transfer to the newborn. Applying butter or ointment to the cord “to speed drying” is common practice. Initiation of breastfeeding is often delayed and women commonly report discarding colostrum before initiating breastfeeding. Sub-optimal breastfeeding practices continue, due to perceived inadequate maternal nutrition and breast milk often leading to the provision of herbal drinks. Poor thermal care is also demonstrated through lack of continued skin-to-skin contact, exposure of newborns to smoke, frequent bathing—often with cold water baths for low-birth weight or small babies; and, poor hygienic practices are reported, particularly hand washing prior to contact with the newborn. Conclusion Cultural beliefs and newborn care practices do not conform to recommended standards. Local perspectives related to newborn care practices should inform behaviour change messages. Such messages should target mothers, grandmothers, TBAs, other female family members and fathers. PMID:24885760
Background Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with anemia. Understanding the magnitude of H.pylori infection and its association with anemia is important in the management of anemic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the association between H.pylori infection and anemia among dyspeptic patients.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted in Butajira Hospital, Southern Ethiopia among 401 systematically dyspeptic patients. A structured questionnaire was used to collected data about the patient characteristics. Blood samples were analyzed for red blood cell parameters. Stool samples were assessed for the presence of H.pylori antigens and the presence of intestinal helminthes. Data were summarized in frequencies (%) and mean (SD) as appropriate. Chi-square test, logistic regression and independent t-tests were used in the analysis as needed. In all cases P-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.ResultsThe overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 52.4% and it was significantly associated with age, presence of intestinal parasites, smoking habit, alcohol drinking habit and body mass index. The prevalence of anemia among H.pylori infected patients (30.9%) was significantly (P¿<¿0.001) higher than uninfected patients (22.5%). The mean (SD) values of HGB, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HCT and RBC count was significantly different between H.pylori infected and uninfected patients.ConclusionThis study showed high prevalence of H.pylori infection among dyspeptic patients and this was associated with age and some behavioral characteristics of the patients. H.pylori infected patients showed high rate of anemia prevalence as compared to their H.pylori unifected counter parts. From this study it can be recommended that intervention activities related to the behavioral characteristics and prevention of intestinal parasitic infections should be in place. The cross sectional nature of the study has a limitation to show cause and effect associations and hence association between H.pylori infections with anemia need to be investigated in cohort type studies. PMID:25487159
Kibru, Dargaze; Gelaw, Baye; Alemu, Agersew; Addis, Zelalem
A census and an ecologic survey were performed in 39 villages of a rural district of Arsi Region, Ethiopia, in difficult field circumstances. Information on age, ethnic group, education and family relationship, as well as data on health facilities and availability of basic services were collected. Supervised students, working in teams, were used as interviewers. Communities were involved through plenary meetings and community health agents participated in the data collection process. A total of 64,714 people in 12,152 households were registered. The repeatability of age assessment was investigated by comparing the results from two villages with data obtained in a pilot study carried out 6 months earlier. The technical error was only 0.80 and 1.67 in the 0-5 and 6-15 age-groups, respectively. Three percent of the total population was under one year, less than previously estimated. This may, in part, be due to the family planning programme in the region. Eighteen percent of the households were headed by females. School attendance was less common among females and in the Oromo ethnic group. The availability of basic services, including safe water and basic sanitation supplies, was very poor in the area. PMID:8472801
Materia, E; Mehari, W; Mele, A; Rosmini, F; Stazi, M A; Damen, H M; Basile, G; Kifle, T; Miuccio, G; Ferrigno, L
A community based cross sectional study was conducted in a rural district of North West Ethiopia between February and April 1997 to determine the magnitude of marriage through abduction ('Telefa') and identify problems associated with it. Randomly selected and currently married 1,168 women were interviewed. The prevalence of marriage through abduction was 6.2% (72/1168). All the abductions reported were only once in lifetime during the first marriage. The median age at first marriage of abducted women was 13 years with a range of 13 (Minimum = 7 and Maximum 20). About two third (66.7%) of abducted women had been married more than once in their life time. Following a multivariate analysis in a logistic regression model abducted women were likely to be victims of abortion [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.71 (1.10-3.05)], marital instability [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.87 (1.10-3.18)], rape [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 7.77 (3.78-15.95)] and domestic violence [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.69 (1.11-2.81)]. The recognition of the magnitude and the associated health problems of marriage through abduction (Telefa) is important. Appropriate strategies that address the health needs of abducted women must be designed. Enforcing the judiciary system to discourage this harmful practice and empowerment of young girls and rural women is needed. PMID:11501287
Hyenas are effective hunters and will consider humans as potential prey if the need and opportunity arise. This study describes the circumstances of hyena attacks, the patterns of injuries sustained, and reconstruction in a resource-poor setting. As part of a charitable surgical mission to Ethiopia in 2012, 45 patients with facial deformities were reviewed, of whom four were victims of hyena attacks. A semi-structured interview was performed to ascertain the circumstances of the attack and the subsequent consequences. The age of the victims at the time of attack varied from 5 to 50 years. The attacks occurred when the victims were alone and vulnerable and took place in outdoor open spaces, during the evening or at night. The initial lunge was made to the facial area; if the jaws closed on the facial bones they were crushed, but in all cases the soft tissues were grasped and torn from the underlying bone. Reconstruction was dictated by the extent of soft tissue loss but could normally be obtained by use of local or regional flaps. Hyenas have been shown to attack humans in a predictable way and cause injuries that typically involve the soft tissues of the face. PMID:25132572
Fell, M J; Ayalew, Y; McClenaghan, F C; McGurk, M
The geomorphological map of Lake Tana basin (15 077 km², Nile basin, Ethiopia) was prepared from fieldwork data, maps and satellite data that were processed in a GIS system. It contains four major components: (i) hydrography, (ii) morphology and -metry, (iii) materials and (iv) processes. The scale is 1:500 000. The geomorphological setting of the basin consists of lavas that erupted from fissures or (shield) volcanoes during the Tertiary and Quaternary eras, were uplifted and ultimately sculpted by (mainly water) erosion. Lake Tana emerged by the combination of a lava barrier blocking the Blue Nile to the south and by epirogenetic subsidence. Since the time that the lake reached its maximum extent, extensive floodplains were created, river valleys have been filled with sediment and higher laying topography has been eroded. Today, the lake plays a lesser role in landscape formation because of a decreased lake extent (3041 km² now) as compared to the ancient maximum (6602 km²). Dominant processes today are merely fluvial and denudative. Recent (1886-2010) changes in lake coast are small with exception of the delta of the major feeding river, Gilgel Abay, which increased disproportionally the last 15 years. This indicates a large input of sediment which is mainly due to rivers flowing through Quaternary lavas. The recent sediment input increase is most probably related to human induced land-use changes.
Poppe, Ludwin; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; Admasu, Teshager; Dessie, Mekete; Adgo, Enyew; Deckers, Jozef; Frankl, Amaury
Understanding changes in ontogenetic development is central to the study of human evolution. With the exception of Neanderthals, the growth patterns of fossil hominins have not been studied comprehensively because the fossil record currently lacks specimens that document both cranial and postcranial development at young ontogenetic stages. Here we describe a well-preserved 3.3-million-year-old juvenile partial skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis discovered in the Dikika research area of Ethiopia. The skull of the approximately three-year-old presumed female shows that most features diagnostic of the species are evident even at this early stage of development. The find includes many previously unknown skeletal elements from the Pliocene hominin record, including a hyoid bone that has a typical African ape morphology. The foot and other evidence from the lower limb provide clear evidence for bipedal locomotion, but the gorilla-like scapula and long and curved manual phalanges raise new questions about the importance of arboreal behaviour in the A. afarensis locomotor repertoire. PMID:16988704
Alemseged, Zeresenay; Spoor, Fred; Kimbel, William H; Bobe, René; Geraads, Denis; Reed, Denné; Wynn, Jonathan G
In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal. PMID:17936609
Tadesse, Tewodros; Ruijs, Arjan; Hagos, Fitsum
The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4-2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa. PMID:23733965
Wynn, Jonathan G; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K; Wilson, Jessica N
In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal.
Tadesse, Tewodros [Agricultural Economics and Rural Policy Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Ruijs, Arjan [Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen (Netherlands); Hagos, Fitsum [International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Subregional Office for the Nile Basin and East Africa, P.O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)
Background and Objectives. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the neglected diseases affecting the poorest segment of world populations. Sepsis is one of the predictors for death of patients with VL. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with bacterial sepsis, causative agents, and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among patients with VL. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among parasitologically confirmed VL patients suspected of sepsis admitted to the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, from February 2012 to May 2012. Blood cultures and other clinical samples were collected and cultured following the standard procedures. Results. Among 83 sepsis suspected VL patients 16 (19.3%) had culture confirmed bacterial sepsis. The most frequently isolated organism was Staphylococcus aureus (68.8%; 11/16), including two methicillin-resistant isolates (MRSA). Patients with focal bacterial infection were more likely to have bacterial sepsis (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The prevalence of culture confirmed bacterial sepsis was high, predominantly due to S. aureus. Concurrent focal bacterial infection was associated with bacterial sepsis, suggesting that focal infections could serve as sources for bacterial sepsis among VL patients. Careful clinical evaluation for focal infections and prompt initiation of empiric antibiotic treatment appears warranted in VL patients. PMID:24895569
Takele, Yegnasew; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Tiruneh, Moges; Mohammed, Rezika; Lynen, Lutgarde; van Griensven, Johan
Time use researchers working in least developed countries (LDCs) face difficulties collecting data from illiterate populations who may conceptualize time differently than those in industrialized countries. We identify existing gaps in time use data collection methods and discuss two novel, pictorial methods to collect time use data from these populations. The first method is a modified recall interview modeled on participatory rural appraisal (PRA) methods that asks respondents to place macaroni on pictures of activity categories in proportion to the amount of time spent on that activity during the previous day. The second is a simplified pictorial time diary that uses a timer and sequentially-numbered stickers to re-create the temporal order of activities in 30-minute increments. The latter method also avoids recall bias problems. We present time use data collected in 2009 using these methods in a study examining the impacts of water infrastructure on women and children’s time use in rural Ethiopia. In total, we collected information using the first method from 263 household members over age 10, including 167 water collectors, and pilot-tested the pictorial diary approach with 10 adult respondents.
Masuda, Yuta J.; Fortmann, Lea; Gugerty, Mary Kay; Smith-Nilson, Marla; Cook, Joseph
The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4–2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa. PMID:23733965
Wynn, Jonathan G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K.; Wilson, Jessica N.
Ethiopia, a country containing more than 80 ethnic groups, has remarkably expanded the higher education sector and established universities based on equitable regional distribution in the two past decades. This article discusses and analyzes attitudes and behaviors of university students from various ethnic groups toward their own and other…
Admasu Gebru, Demewoz
Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...
) for Snowball Earth events in the ArabianÂNubian Shield Nathan R. Millera,, Mulugeta Aleneb, Rosalino Sacchic Abstract Juvenile continental crust of the ArabianÂNubian Shield (ANS) formed within a Neoproterozoic; Ethiopia; ArabianÂNubian Shield; 13C; 87Sr/86Sr; Snowball Earth hypothesis 1. Introduction
Stern, Robert J.
This paper presents empirical material collected in the zonal capital town of kemise (population around 34,000) and three surrounding rural areas (peasant associations) in northeastern ethiopia. The study area is located in the oromiya zone of the large amhara region. The paper attempts to show how rural areas and the town of kemise are economically interdependent and demonstrates the role
An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document the indigenous medicinal plant knowledge and use by traditional healers in southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Data were collected from 45 randomly selected traditional healers using semi-structured interviews and observations. Sixty-seven ethnomedicinal plant species used by traditional healers to manage 51 different human ailments were identified and documented. Healers' indigenous
Haile Yineger; Delenasaw Yewhalaw; Demel Teketay
Purpose – This paper seeks to describe an attempt to assess at the local level the progress that has been internationally achieved in recognition of community and indigenous rights, and of indigenous and community conserved areas. An action-research exercise was implemented in Ethiopia with a mobile indigenous people of evaluating customary as well as government-led governance of the environment, with
Marco Bassi; Boku Tache
This article addresses the protracted state of political violence in and around the Borana and Guji zones of Oromia region after the introduction of ethnic federalism in Ethiopia. To account for the persistence of the conflict, we must elaborate on the connections between ethnic identity, natural resource and customary institutions by introducing the notion of “primary identity”. Since the turn
Parental experiences in raising children with intellectual disability in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia are described. Using a qualitative research approach, interviews from eleven families formed a rich contextual data base, in addition to informal observations, informal conversations, discussions with key informants, and document review. Findings show…
Weldeab, Chernet Tekle; Opdal, Liv Randi
This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in Ethiopia,…
Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga
strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short
Vermont, University of
During a 6-month field study at the Awash River, Ethiopia, more than 180 hybrid baboons in three groups were found in a zone of about 20 km between anubis groups and hamadry as groups. The genetical structure of the hybrid zone was preliminarily described using a simple morphological hybrid index. An ecological borderline, not coinciding with either boundary of the
To investigate hydrologic changes in eastern North Africa since the Last Glacial, we analysed hydrogen isotope compositions of terrestrial plant lipids from samples of core 03TL3 taken in the center of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Lake Tana is located at 1840 meters altitude in the Ethiopian highlands and the source of the Blue Nile. Under present-day conditions, the eastern North African
E. Schefuß; I. S. Castaneda; S. Schouten; M. Herold; G. Lohmann; M. H. Marshall; H. F. Lamb
In the highlands of northern Ethiopia, remnants of the original Afromontane forest vegetation are largely restricted to church yards and other sacred groves in a matrix of cropland and semiarid degraded savanna. To assess the potential for natural forest regeneration, species composition and diversity of all forest fragments (10) in a study area of 13,000 ha were analyzed in relation to
Raf Aerts; Koen Van Overtveld; Mitiku Haile; Martin Hermy; Jozef Deckers; Bart Muys
The author, as an otolaryngologist and the Director of Global ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat) Outreach, traveled to Ethiopia to help 11 children who could not breathe because of respiratory papillomas blocking their airways and who had been hospitalized for years. The disease, called juvenile respiratory papillomatosis, is what affected these 11…
The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…
This paper examines the impacts of disasters on dynamic human capital production using panel data from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Malawi. The empirical results show that the accumulation of biological human capital prior to disasters helps children maintain investments in the post-disaster period. Biological human capital formed in early childhood (long-term nutritional status) plays a role of insurance with resilience to
Futoshi Yamauchi; Yisehac Yohannes; Agnes R. Quisumbing
This research work presents the magnitude of anemia and its determinant factors among pregnant women. As far as this research is done in the eastern part of Ethiopia, where there is a different cultural issue related to pregnancy and dietary habit, it will help the researchers to know the problem in different parts of the country. PMID:25215230
Addis Alene, Kefyalew; Mohamed Dohe, Abdulahi
This research work presents the magnitude of anemia and its determinant factors among pregnant women. As far as this research is done in the eastern part of Ethiopia, where there is a different cultural issue related to pregnancy and dietary habit, it will help the researchers to know the problem in different parts of the country. PMID:25215230
Addis Alene, Kefyalew; Mohamed Dohe, Abdulahi
We test the unitary versus collective model of the household using specially designed data from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Indonesia, and South Africa. Human capital and individual assets at the time of marriage are used as proxy measures for bargaining power. In all four countries, we reject the unitary model as a description of household behaviour, but fail to reject the hypothesis
Agnes R. Quisumbing; John A. Maluccio
To investigate risk-sh aring within the household, we model nutritional status as a durable good and we look at the consequences of individual health shocks. For household allocation to be pareto-efficient, households should pool shocks to income. We also investigate whether households can smooth nu tritional levels over time. Using data from rural Ethiopia on adult nutritional status, we find
Stefan Dercon; Pramila Krishnan
Much of the literature on consumption smoothing and on risk sharing has focused on the ability of the household as a unit to protect its consumption. Little is known about the ability of individual members of the household to keep consumption smooth over time or relative to other members of the household. We use data on adult nutrition in Ethiopia
Stefan Dercon; Pramila Krishnan
Background: Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV infections and syphilis are well established in different segments of Ethiopian population but there are no such estimates in street dwellers. Objective: To assess seroprevalence of HIV, HBV and syphilis among street dwellers. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from April to August 2004 involving street dwellers in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia. Data on
Feleke Moges; Yenew Kebede; Afework Kassu; Andargachew Mulu; Moges Tiruneh; Getu Degu; Solomon Adugna; Fisha Wale
In Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia, currently about 90,000 ha or only about 3% of the cultivated land is under irrigation through traditional and modern irrigation schemes. Traditional schemes dominate the irrigation practices as it covers more than 75% of the irrigated area. Traditional irrigation schemes and its irrigation water management practices have been developed by farmers using their indigenous
Enyew Adgo; Muluken Lakachew; M. Zainul Abedin
BALCHIT OBSIDIAN (UPPER AWASH, ETHIOPIA) 1 2 3 4 Jean-Paul Raynal , GÃ©rard Poupeau , Guy Kieffer.soton.ac.uk Obsidian and man in the Melka Kunture area In the vicinity of Melka Kunture, obsidian is a major component of lithic series since the Oldowayan. The nearby Balchit volcanic massif constitutes a major obsidian source
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
) ...........................................93 Guy Kieffer, Jean-Paul Raynal, Guillaume Bardin Trace element geochemistry in Balchit obsidian, volcanology and geochemistry Trace element geochemistry in Balchit obsidian (Upper Awash, Ethiopia) GÃ©rard Poupeau1 , Guy Kieffer2 , Jean-Paul Raynal3 , Andy Milton4 , Sarah Delerue1 Obsidian is a large component
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
SWAT TO IDENTIFY WATERSHED MANAGEMENT OPTIONS: (ANJENI WATERSHED, BLUE NILE BASIN, ETHIOPIA in part to the soil erosion. The Anjeni watershed is located in the highlands in the Blue Nile Basin with an annual soil loss of 18.33 tons/year/ha. The existence of soil erosion in a watershed is an indication
, near Lake Tana, the source of Blue Nile in the northern highlands of Ethiopia. She worked iii ASSESSMENT OF HYDROLOGICAL CONTROLS ON GULLY FORMATION NEAR LAKE TANA, NORTHERN HIGHLANDS of Abay Park at the source of the Blue Nile. In the end of 2007, she began a Master's program offered
Understanding spatial and temporal distribution of water resources has an important role for water resource management. To understand water balance dynamics and runoff generation mechanisms at the Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into lake Tana, source of Blue Nile, Ethiopia) and to evaluate model transferability, catchment modeling was conducted using the conceptual hydrological model HBV. The catchment of the
A. S. Gragne; S. Uhlenbrook; Y. Mohammed; S. Kebede
Understanding catchment hydrological processes is essential for water resources management, in particular in data scarce regions. The Gilgel Abay catchment (a major tributary into Lake Tana, source of the Blue Nile) is undergoing intensive plans for water management, which is part of larger development plans in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. To obtain a better understanding of the water
S. Uhlenbrook; Y. Mohamed; A. S. Gragne
Over 70 percent of the main Nile flow originates from the Ethiopian plateau via the Blue Nile river which has in turn its source from lake Tana. Due to seasonality in surface water resources, and the frequent drought, groundwater resources play a major role in domestic water supply in rural Ethiopia. Classical isotope hydrology, coupled with hydrogeochemistry have been used
S. Kebede; Y. Travi; T. Alemayehu
The main objective of this study was to identify the most vulnerable areas to soil erosion in the Lake Tana Basin, Blue Nile, Ethiopia using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically based distributed hydrological model, and a Geographic Information System based decision support system that uses multi-criteria evaluation (MCE). The SWAT model was used to estimate the
Shimelis G. Setegn; Ragahavan Srinivasan; Bijan Dargahi; Assefa M. Melesse
Geochemical and environmental isotope data were used to gain the first regional picture of groundwater recharge, circulation and its hydrochemical evolution in the upper Blue Nile River basin of Ethiopia. Q-mode statistical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify water into objective groups and to conduct inverse geochemical modeling among the groups. Two major structurally deformed regions with distinct groundwater
Seifu Kebede; Yves Travi; Tamiru Alemayehu; Tenalem Ayenew
Growing Acacia albida as a permanent tree crop, on farmlands with cereals, vegetables and coffee underneath or in between, is an indigenous agroforestry system in the Hararghe highlands of Eastern Ethiopia. However, there is practically no systematic record or data on the merits and benefits of this practice.
The Middle Pleistocene environmental and climatic conditions at Asbole, lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia were reconstructed using stable carbon and oxygen isotopic composition (13C, 18O) of fossil tooth enamel coupled with faunal abundance data. We analyzed the isotopic composition of a total of 80 herbivorous tooth enamel samples from 15 mammalian taxa, which archive the dietary preferences and drinking behavior from
Zelalem Bedaso; Jonathan G. Wynn; Zeresenay Alemseged; Denis Geraads
Conventional accounts of modern state-formation either underplay its contradictory and variegated character or neglect its international dimensions. Against these approaches, alternative theories of state-formation have emerged centred on the constitutive significance of intersocietal relations and differential temporalities. This article develops the latter approaches in relation to the Ethiopian state. Contrary to widespread assumptions of Ethiopia's political insularity, it suggests that
Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) is a common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis with multiple dif- ferential diagnoses. Demonstration of the etiologic agent by smear microscopy or culture of fine needle aspirate (FNA) specimens is often unsuccessful. FNA specimens from 40 patients presenting at a rural health center in South Ethiopia and diagnosed as positive for TBLN on the basis of clinical and
Dawit Kidane; Joseph O. Olobo; Abebe Habte; Yohannes Negesse; Abraham Aseffa; Getahun Abate; Mohammed A. Yassin; Kiflu Bereda; Morten Harboe; Armauer Hansen
Clarifying the geographic, environmental and behavioural contexts in which the emergence of anatomically modern Homo sapiens occurred has proved difficult, particularly because Africa lacked adequate geochronological, palaeontological and archaeological evidence. The discovery of anatomically modern Homo sapiens fossils at Herto, Ethiopia, changes this. Here we report on stratigraphically associated Late Middle Pleistocene artefacts and fossils from fluvial and lake margin
J. Desmond Clark; Yonas Beyene; Giday WoldeGabriel; William K. Hart; Paul R. Renne; Henry Gilbert; Alban Defleur; Gen Suwa; Shigehiro Katoh; Kenneth R. Ludwig; Jean-Renaud Boisserie; Berhane Asfaw; Tim D. White
Empirical studies on gender and agricultural productivity are typically based on production function estimates of a single crop or aggregate output, ignoring the role of prices and endogeneity of input choice. We apply the profit function approach to farm-level data from Ethiopia to compare supply response between male and female farmers, incorporating the full range of crops and prices and
Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental problems in Ethiopia. Coupled with growing populations, falling per capita food production and worsening poverty, loss of productive land due to land degradation undermines rural livelihoods and national food security. Despite their awareness of the erosion problem, peasants' investments in land have been limited. We use an applied nonseparable model to
Bekele Shiferaw; Stein Holden
People living with HIV (PLHIV) in Ethiopia and other developing nations face numerous challenges to their health and well-being, including poverty, limited healthcare infrastructure and high levels of societal stigma. Despite these challenges, resilient trajectories have been observed even within such resource-limited settings. In Ethiopia, such resilience is exemplified by the 'Expert Patients (EPTs)', HIV-positive lay health workers who function as adherence counsellors, health educators, outreach workers and community advocates. We conducted a multi-method qualitative study with 20 EPTs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in order to understand pathways to resilience in this selected population. Participants described three key mechanisms of resilient coping: (1) the use of spirituality and faith-based practices to manage psychological difficulties associated with living with HIV; (2) utilisation of social capital from family and community networks as a buffer against the psychological and economic consequences of societal stigma; and (3) serving others as a mechanism for finding optimism and purpose in life. Interventions designed to facilitate and/or augment these social processes in the wider community may be promising strategies for improving health among PLHIV in Ethiopia and other resource-limited settings. PMID:24520996
Hussen, Sophia Ahmed; Tsegaye, Mulugeta; Argaw, Meron Gurji; Andes, Karen; Gilliard, Danielle; del Rio, Carlos
A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of Leishmania antibodies in human serum samples was evaluated under harsh field conditions in northern Ethiopia. Test performance was compared with a standard serological test, namely the direct agglutination test (DAT), and with parasitology. In total, 103 suspected cases were recruited for the study. Based on parasitological examination, 49 patients were
A. Hailu; G. J. Schoone; E. Diro; A. Tesfaye; Y. Techane; T. Tefera; Y. Assefa; A. Genetu; Y. Kebede; T. Kebede; H. D. F. H. Schallig
Background: Listeriosis is one of the important emerging bacterial zoonotic infections worldwide. Among the different species of the genus Listeria, Listeria monocytogens is known to cause listeriosis in humans and animals. Information on the occurrence and distribution of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species is very limited both in the veterinary and public health sectors in Ethiopia. Objectives: The present
Bayleyegn Molla; Roman Yilma; Daniel Alemayehu
OPTIMUM UTILIZATION OF GROUND WATER IN KOBO VALLEY, EASTERN AMHARA, ETHIOPIA A Thesis Presented and the yield of cereals in the rainy periods. Irrigation from ground water could enable farmers to cultivate more than once a year. Since pumping has an effect on the ground water resources availability
at Melka Kunture (Upper Awash, Ethiopia) ........................111 Jean-Paul Raynal, Guy Kieffer Garba IV, volcanology and geochemistry Garba IV and the Melka Kunture Formation. A preliminary lithostratigraphic The site of Garba IV is set by the Awash River, at the outlet of a small tributary of the Garba creek (Fig
at Melka Kunture (Upper Awash, Ethiopia) ........................111 Jean-Paul Raynal, Guy Kieffer Garba IV (1), Kella (3 present, 4 recent, 8 ancient), Gombore Ig (15), Gombore II (16), Garba IV D (14), Garba I B (17), Melka Garba (2 present, 11 ancient), Simbiro (7 pres- ent, 10 ancient), Wutale lag
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Severe land degradation affects the livelihood of many farmers in the highlands of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Various soil and water conservation practices have been proposed to reduce land degradation and to improve the quality of the natural resource base but quantitative information on their agro-ecological effects is often lacking. In this study, effects of three soil and water conservation practices
H. Hengsdijk; G. W. Meijerink; M. E. Mosugu
Stone terraces have been widely constructed in the Tigray region of Ethiopia as a response to the severe soil erosion and land degradation of the area. In order to study the effects of stone terracing on plant available phosphorus 42 composite soil samples from 210 test plots were collected and analysed. The results showed increases in plant available P on
Tor-Gunnar Vagen; Yibabe Tilahun; Kjell B. Esser
From the antiquity, the hilly landscape around the city of Axum in northern Ethiopia has been terraced and extensively used for agriculture purposes. Impacts of the “ard” plough on protruding and\\/or buried boulder at a depth less than the tillage depth produce scratches on their sides or their top. The spatial relationship among plough marks and rock surface orientations gives
R. Ciampalini; P. Billi; G. Ferrari; L. Borselli
This article explores the role of children in household livelihoods among the Gedeo ethnic community in Ethiopia. Three themes are discussed--reproductive activities, entrepreneurial work in marketplaces and sociospatial mobility--in the context of recent theoretical debates over children's agency and social competence. With shifts in rural…
Abebe, Tatek; Kjorholt, Anne Trine
BACKGROUND: Delays seeking care increase transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis and hence the burden of tuberculosis, which remains high in developing countries. This study investigates patterns of health seeking behavior and determines risk factors for delayed patient consultation at public health facilities in 10 districts of Ethiopia. METHODS: New pulmonary TB patients ? 15 years old were recruited at 18 diagnostic
Mengiste M Mesfin; James N Newell; John D Walley; Amanuel Gessessew; Richard J Madeley
In many countries, children with disabilities seldom receive the educational services they need. Economic instability has often forced a reduction in services for children with disabilities. Cultural values have also impacted support for children with disabilities. A special education residential facility in Ethiopia that serves orphaned children…
Kurtz, Kimberly M.; Shepherd, Terry L.
The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…
We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with females…
Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou
This paper argues for the importance, benefits and wider impact of a donor-funded, locally supported postgraduate programme in security sector management (SSM) for government officials in Ethiopia. With the exception of specialised education and training programmes within the field of peace and conflict studies, the role of education in…
Macphee, Paula-Louise; Fitz-Gerald, Ann
This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…
Lack of environmental awareness is one of the underlying causes of severe environmental degradation in Ethiopia. As teachers' colleges are a seedbed of such awareness, assessment of college curricula should shed light on the possibilities they offer to develop capacities to address environmental degradation. This small-scale study is based on the…
Waktola, Daniel Kassahun
The study is a phenomenological case study into the lived experience of teacher candidates and associate teachers in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to gain a phenomenological sensitivity to the "lived" experience of the participants and through that to identify key structural and conceptual impediments to meaningful professional learning. The…
Hussein, Jeylan Wolyie
This article explores the complex factors, both individual and social, that contribute to the resiliency and academic achievement of six adolescent African immigrant students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia who were enrolled in a small high school in the United States. The school was designed specifically for recent adolescent immigrant students.…
Hersi, Afra Ahmed
Historical accounts of famines in Ethiopia go as far back as the 9th century, however, evidence on its impact on health only started to emerge from the 15th century onwards. Unfortunately, famine has been endemic in Ethiopia in the last few decades. The 1973 famine is reported to have claimed over 300,000 lives. In 1985 approximately 10 million people were reported to be starving, with approximately 300,000 already dead and about 1000 dying daily. In the following years, droughts leading to food shortage have had local and national adverse health effects, in particular in 1999/2000. This paper describes the initial findings of a literature review of evidence on the health impact of droughts leading to famine in Ethiopia and highlights gaps in knowledge. The key finding, thus far, is the marked paucity of health impact data. This review also highlights the fact that adverse health impacts of famines are probably complex and long lasting. Interpretation of any health impact data is difficult as there are few baseline data to compare. Health effects also impact livelihoods. Livelihood disruption following famine does not just affect one generation but also subsequent generations. Surveillance systems are needed so that records of the health impacts of a drought that leads to famine can inform action. With climate change bringing increased likelihood of drought and famine in some parts of the world, the findings of this review could be beneficial not just for Ethiopia but also elsewhere. PMID:21086818
Taye, A; Mariam, D Haile; Murray, V
The offence of homicide is ubiquitous.However, a diversity of factors precipitating the action may vary from culture to culture. Ethiopia is one of the oldest independent countries in Africa as well as one of the poorest. As a poverty stricken economy whose mainstay is Agriculture, the presence of famine, displacement, land disputes make the production and distribution of the stimulant
Flood and Shield Basalts from Ethiopia: Magmas from the African Superswell BRUNO KIEFFER1. In the NE, a thick sequence of 30 Ma flood basalts is overlain by the 30 Ma Simien shield volcano. The flood basalts and most of this shield volcano, except for a thin veneer of alkali basalt, are tholeiitic
, Ethiopia Denis Geraads 1* , Stephanie Melillo 2 , & Yohannes Haile-Selassie 3 1 UPR 2147 du CNRS, 44 rue de-cores exhibit reduced anterior keel and antero-posterior compression foreshadowing the most common form at Hadar
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the current situation. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, engineers, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has started to produce research outputs suitable for use in evidence-based planning activities in the case study cities. Indeed, climate change projections at 8 km resolution are ready for regions containing each of the case study cities; a preliminary hazard assessment for floods, drought and heat waves has already been performed, based on historical data; urban morphology and related green structures have been characterized; preliminary findings in social vulnerability have been achieved; a GIS based identification of Urban Residential hotspots to flooding is completed; and the vulnerability of informal settlements to flooding has been evaluated for one of the hotspots identified (Little Akaki case study area). Furthermore, a set of indicators relevant for Addis Ababa has been selected by local stakeholders to identify especially vulnerable, high risk areas and communities and an investigation of existing urban planning and governance systems and its interface with climate risks and vulnerability is ongoing. Evidence from the CLUVA project is being used to develop the next Master Plan for the Addis Ababa metropolitan area.
Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew
Background:With transmission of HIV occurring mainly through heterosexual contact, it is paramount to identify serodiscordant couples and implement preventive strategies that will protect the negative partner. The burden of serodiscordance and its predictors in Ethiopia is not clearly understood due to the dearth of data.Objective: To assess the prevalence and predictors of HIV serodiscordance among couples tested in Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH) Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center.Methods:The study employed a case-control study design conducted at VCT center of JUSH in all registered serodiscordant couples and seroconcordant couples that were selected from the registered clients in the period from 2003 to 2010. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for data collection using medical chart abstraction. Data were entered, cleaned, and coded using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.Results:The prevalence of serodiscordance in the study population was found to be 8.4%. Male and female discordants accounted for 5.8% (137) and 2.6% (62), respectively. Rare use of condom (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 7.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.59-32.54) and active tuberculosis (TB) at enrollment (AOR= 17.7; 95% CI = 2.3-139.2) were significantly found to be the predictors of serodiscordance. Conclusion:The prevalence of serodiscordance in the study area was found to be low, but it contributes to a clinically significant population that mandates implementation of preventive strategy. Sero-positive individuals who use condoms rarely should be encouraged to have their partners tested, and the association between active TB and serodiscordance underscores the need for further study. PMID:23697776
Habte, Ermias; Yami, Alemeshet; Alemseged, Fissahye; Abdissa, Yishak; Deribe, Kebede; Memiah, Peter; Biadgilign, Sibhatu
The late Quaternary Kibish Formation of the Omo Valley, southwestern Ethiopia, preserves environments reflecting a history of fluctuations in the level of nearby Lake Turkana over the past 200,000 years. The Kibish Formation has yielded a diverse mammalian fauna (as well as birds and crocodiles), stone tools, and the oldest anatomically modern Homo sapiens. Fish, the most common vertebrate fossils in this unit, are reported in this study. Catfish (especially clariids and Synodontis) and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) predominate, but the gymnarchid Gymnarchus, a cyprinid (Barbus), tigerfish (Hydrocynus), pufferfish (Tetraodon), and other catfish are also present. In total, nine teleost genera are found in the Kibish Formation, representing a subset of the 37 genera that constitute the modern Omo-Turkana ichthyofauna. Several taxa present in the modern fauna, including Polypterus and members of the family Cichlidae, are not found in the Kibish deposits. Most specimens are preserved as disarticulated or broken skeletal elements, but some preservation of articulated elements (e.g., sets of vertebrae, crania with lower jaws or cleithra) also occurs. Many of the catfish and Nile perch specimens are larger than the largest reported from the modern river or lake. Faunas of Kibish Members I and III closely resemble one another; the fauna from Member IV contains only the three most common taxa (Clarias, Synodontis, Lates), though this may result from insufficient sampling. Barbed bone points have been collected from the upper part of the formation, indicating a long association between the human inhabitants and the fish fauna of the Omo Valley. PMID:18691738
BACKGROUND: Information on adult mortality is essentially non-existent in Ethiopia particularly from rural areas where access to health services is limited and most deaths occur at home. This study was conducted with the aim of identifying causes of adult death in a rural population of Ethiopia using a simplified verbal autopsy instrument. METHODS: All deaths in the age-group 15–49 years
Kidest Lulu; Yemane Berhane
Ethiopia’s agriculture is predominantly rainfed and hence any irregularity in weather conditions has adverse welfare implications.\\u000a Using panel data, this paper analyzes the effect of rainfall shocks on Ethiopian rural households’ food security and vulnerability\\u000a over time while controlling for a range of other factors. To this end, we generate a time-variant household food security\\u000a index which is developed by
Abera Birhanu Demeke; Alwin Keil; Manfred Zeller
Background Improving newborn survival is essential if Ethiopia is to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4. The national Health Extension Program (HEP) includes community-based newborn survival interventions. We report the effect of these interventions on changes in maternal and newborn health care practices between 2008 and 2010 in 101 districts, comprising 11.6 million people, or 16% of Ethiopia’s population. Methods and Findings Using data from cross-sectional surveys in December 2008 and December 2010 from a representative sample of 117 communities (kebeles), we estimated the prevalence of maternal and newborn care practices, and a program intensity score in each community. Women with children aged 0 to 11 months reported care practices for their most recent pregnancy and childbirth. The program intensity score ranged between zero and ten and was derived from four outreach activities of the HEP front-line health workers. Dose-response relationships between changes in program intensity and the changes in maternal and newborn health were investigated using regression methods, controlling for secular trend, respondents’ background characteristics, and community-level factors. Between 2008 and 2010, median program intensity score increased 2.4-fold. For every unit increase in the score, the odds of receiving antenatal care increased by 1.13 times (95% CI 1.03–1.23); the odds of birth preparedness increased by 1.31 times (1.19–1.44); the odds of receiving postnatal care increased by 1.60 times (1.34–1.91); and the odds of initiating breastfeeding immediately after birth increased by 1.10 times (1.02–1.20). Program intensity score was not associated with skilled deliveries, nor with some of the other newborn health care indicators. Conclusions The results of our analysis suggest that Ethiopia’s HEP platform has improved maternal and newborn health care practices at scale. However, implementation research will be required to address the maternal and newborn care practices that were not influenced by the HEP outreach activities. PMID:23750240
Karim, Ali Mehryar; Admassu, Kesetebirhane; Schellenberg, Joanna; Alemu, Hibret; Getachew, Nebiyu; Ameha, Agazi; Tadesse, Luche; Betemariam, Wuleta
Aeration phase length control and step-feed of wastewater are used to achieve nitrogen removal from wastewater via nitrite in sequencing batch reactors (SBR). Aeration is switched off as soon as ammonia oxidation is completed, which is followed by the addition of a fraction of the wastewater that the SBR receives over a cycle to facilitate denitrification. The end-point of ammonia oxidation is detected from the on-line measured pH and oxygen uptake rate (OUR). The method was implemented in an SBR achieving biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal from anaerobically pre-treated abattoir wastewater. The degree of nitrite accumulation during the aeration period was monitored along with the variation in the nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) population using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. It is demonstrated that the nitrite pathway could be repeatedly and reliably achieved, which significantly reduced the carbon requirement for nutrient removal. Model-based studies show that the establishment of the nitrite pathway was primarily the result of a gradual reduction of the amount of nitrite that is available to provide energy for the growth of NOB, eventually leading to the elimination of NOB from the system. PMID:18553405
Lemaire, Romain; Marcelino, Marcos; Yuan, Zhiguo
The Red sea, Gulf of Aden and the Main Ethiopian rift form a triple junction in the Afar Region. Although the East African Rift, the divergent plate boundary between Nubian and Somalia, is often cited as a modern archetype for rifting and continental breakup, its current kinematics is the least known of all major plate boundaries. Moreover, geodetic datum in such tectonically active area is subject to distortion that increases with time. Therefore, a close study of the positions and velocities of reference stations in such tectonic active areas is necessary, if one wants to have high precise geodetic measurement for any developmental activity. In this study phase and pseudo-range GPS measurements were processed to derive the daily solutions of positions in reference to the ITRF05. This solution from 8 continuous stations in Ethiopia, with a length of 0.75 to 2.67 years, is then combined into a cumulative solution with position and velocity estimates. Here a method that combines GPS observation data from 2007 to 2009 to estimate time-dependent motion of stations in a region of active deformation is implemented. First, observations were analysed separately to produce loosely constrained estimates of station positions and coordinate system parameters which are then combined with appropriate constraints to estimate velocities and co-seismic displacements. The result archived gives a good insight about the velocity at which the three major plates, namely the Nubian, Arabian and Somalia plates are moving with respect to each other. The study shows the relative velocity between Nubia and Somalia plates with 4.6±0.3 mm/yr. While, the Nubia and Arabia plates are moving with 33±0.15mm/yr.Moreover; positions of stations are computed with high precession for any future reference purpose. Due to short duration of measurements at some stations further observation are recommended to compute positions and velocity fields after all stations have data at least for two years time. Key words: GPS, Space geodesy, ITRF05, Deformation
Boku, E.; Teklemariam, E.; Rivalta, E.
Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5%) had retinal detachment (RD) and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5). Fourteen patients (17.5%) had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9%) were blind from RD and 11 (13.8%) patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5%) and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%). The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%), myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%), posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%). Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1%) were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%). Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9%) and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes) had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011), and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040). Conclusions A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma. PMID:24086614
Asaminew, Tsedeke; Gelaw, Yeshigeta; Bekele, Sisay; Solomon, Berhan
This image shows ice-front retreat in part of the southern Antarctic Peninsula from 1947 to 2009. USGS scientists are studying coastal and glacier change along the entire Antarctic coastline. The southern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula is one area studied as part of this project, and is summariz...
- Garching - 2nd to 4th Nov 2005 #12;2 European Southern Observatory Cloudiness; Humidity, Precipitable Water, Seismicity; Survival loads (earthquakes, wind, precipitations); Present and future potential light pollution that skies are clear (%) at night for the years 1999 and 2000 over Canaries, NW Africa and Southern Spain (A
'Southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium sp.) are hybrids derived from crosses between the (northern) highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) and germplasm developed from Vaccinium spp. that are both native and adapted to the southeastern United States. Southern highbush blueberries have an advantage o...
The improvement of surgical and anaesthetic safety in low-resource settings is hampered by a lack of reliable information on the current provision of these services. Ethiopia is one of the world's poorest countries and, despite large amounts of both foreign and domestic investment, still reports some of the worst health outcomes. However, information on anaesthesia and surgical provision is sparse. This work reproduces a questionnaire study, first used in Uganda in 2006, to survey practising anaesthetists regarding the current state of anaesthesia services across Ethiopia. The results indicate that a large proportion of centres remain unable to provide safe general, spinal, paediatric and obstetric anaesthesia, at all levels of hospital and across almost all of the country's regions. In addition to a lack of equipment and pharmaceuticals, anaesthetists report problems with professional recognition and a lack of access to continuing professional development as key barriers to service development. PMID:24240776
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and species of camel mange mite infestation in Raya-Azebo district, Northern part of Ethiopia. Accordingly, Three hundred and eighty-four camels were examined and mange mite infestation was detected on 64 of camels. Only Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli was identified as the only mite species in all skin scraping samples collected from the suspected mange mite lesions. There was significant difference in the prevalence of mange mite infestation between male and female camels (p < 0.05) but no significance difference was observed among the age groups and body condition score of camels (p > 0.05). The result indicated that camel mange mite infestation was a problem in northern part of Ethiopia, hence, further studies and strategic control measures are recommended to reduce the effect of mange mite infestation on camel husbandry.
Awol, Nesibu; Kiros, Semere; Tsegaye, Yisehak; Ali, Mohammed; Hadush, Birhanu
The stratigraphic record of fluvial and infilled valley deposits in the area of Adwa (Northern Ethiopia) allowed the description and identification of three main episodes of soil formation (between ca.50 ka - ca.10 ka yrs BP), related to wetter climatic conditions in the area, which constitute the oldest soil formation episodes described in northern Ethiopia. The oldest soil formation episode ca 50 ka yr BP correlates in time with a high lakes phase further south in the Ethiopian rift area (Abhé II). A second important episode of soil formation took place during the oldest gemorphological and sedimentary record of past active karst processes in the Adwa area, affecting the carbonaceous rock layers of the Tambien formation (Work Amba Surface), ca 30-35 ka yr BP. The preserved record of soil formation phases also register, interbedded, thick coluvial deposits units, corresponding to periods of rapid incision and erosion in the catchment area.
Inability to retain HIV-infected patients in care undermines the benefits of starting millions in low-income countries on antiretroviral therapy (ART). In a hospital HIV clinic in rural southern Ethiopia, we conducted focus groups of HIV-infected men and women to learn more about experiences with and barriers to attending clinic appointments. Respondents reported multiple barriers, including those that were patient related (eg, misunderstandings about ART, mistaken belief in AIDS cures, and drug/alcohol use), clinic related (eg, negative provider interactions, lack of familiarity with patients' medical situation, and overcrowding), medication related (eg, side effects), social (eg, stigma and discrimination and lack of support), and situational/resource related (eg, distance to clinic, lack of funds, competing domestic/work priorities, and lack of food). Based on the lessons learned from these focus groups, we implemented a community intervention to improve retention, using trained community support workers who provide patient education, counseling, social support, problem-solving assistance, needed referrals, and improved communication/linkage to the patients' HIV clinic. PMID:22993233
Lifson, Alan R; Demissie, Workneh; Tadesse, Alemayehu; Ketema, Kassu; May, Randy; Yakob, Bereket; Metekia, Meka; Slater, Lucy; Shenie, Tibebe
BACKGROUND: Good adherence to antiretroviral therapy is necessary to achieve the best virological response, lower the risk that drug resistance will develop, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the rate and predictors of adherence in Ethiopia. Therefore this study determines the magnitude and predictors of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV\\/AIDS in Southwest Ethiopia.
Ayele Tiyou; Tefera Belachew; Fisehaye Alemseged; Sibhatu Biadgilign
A study on some biological features of Prosopis juliflora, a multipurpose leguminous species introduced to Ethiopia, was carried out at Melka-Worer, North-east Ethiopia. The study focused on the number of seeds produced in a pod during the study period, seed dispersal through droppings of animals, soil seed banks, seed germination and stumping height of trees and coppicing ability of P.
Hailu Shiferaw; Demel Teketay; Sileshi Nemomissa; Fassil Assefa
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)\\/acquired immunodefi-ciency syndrome (AIDS), for which we have no cure or vaccination, is the major health problem in Ethiopia. This epidemic generally has affected poor communities and women. To contain this epidemic, the empowerment of women is essential. In fact, the current working definition of health by the World Health Organization (WHO) makes social well-being a part
BEGNA FUFA DUGASSA
Dispute over land-use between the local people and conservation agencies is becoming a serious problem in Africa. Ethiopia is no exception after the socialist regime (1974-1991) established most of the conservation areas in the 1970s. This has placed the local people in opposition with the imposed policy of wildlife conservation after the revolu- tion of 1991. This paper examines the
The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of coffee genetic resources that are dwindling\\u000a at an alarming rate in Ethiopia, the centre of diversity of Coffea arabica. Firstly, we describe the coffee growing systems (forest coffee, semi-forest coffee, garden coffee and plantation coffee)\\u000a and recent research on the genetic diversity of the coffee
Jean-Pierre Labouisse; Bayetta Bellachew; Surendra Kotecha; Benoît Bertrand
Background Antiretroviral treatment (ART) was provided to more than nine million people by the end of 2012. Although ART programs in resource-limited settings have expanded treatment, inadequate retention in care has been a challenge. Ethiopia has been scaling up ART and improving retention (defined as continuous engagement of patients in care) in care. We aimed to analyze the ART program in Ethiopia. Methods A mix of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Routine ART program data was used to study ART scale up and patient retention in care. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with program managers. Results The number of people receiving ART in Ethiopia increased from less than 9,000 in 2005 to more than 439, 000 in 2013. Initially, the public health approach, health system strengthening, community mobilization and provision of care and support services allowed scaling up of ART services. While ART was being scaled up, retention was recognized to be insufficient. To improve retention, a second wave of interventions, related to programmatic, structural, socio-cultural, and patient information systems, have been implemented. Retention rate increased from 77% in 2004/5 to 92% in 2012/13. Conclusion Ethiopia has been able to scale up ART and improve retention in care in spite of its limited resources. This has been possible due to interventions by the ART program, supported by health systems strengthening, community-based organizations and the communities themselves. ART programs in resource-limited settings need to put in place similar measures to scale up ART and retain patients in care. PMID:24886686
Introduction People living with HIV (PLHIV) have diverse family planning (FP) needs. Little is reported on FP needs among women living with HIV in Ethiopia. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the demand for modern FP among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia. Methods A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 401 married women living with HIV selected from Nekemte Referral Hospital and Health Center, Nekemte, Oromia, Ethiopia. Convenience sampling of every other eligible patient was used to recruit respondents. Data were collected using a pretested, structured questionnaire. We first calculated frequency and percentage of unmet need, met need and total demand by each explanatory variable, and performed chi-squared testing to assess for differences in groups. We then fitted logistic regression models to identify correlates of unmet need for modern FP at 95% CL. Results The proportion of respondents with met need for modern FP among married women living with HIV was 61.6% (30.7% for spacing and 30.9% for limiting). Demand for family planning was reported in 77.0% (38.2% for spacing and 38.8% for limiting), making unmet need for modern FP prevalent in 15.4% (7.5% for spacing and 7.9% for limiting). Whereas age 25–34 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) ?=?.397 (.204–.771)] was protective against unmet need for modern FP, not having knowledge of MTCT [AOR (95% CI) ?=?2.531 (1.689–9.290)] and not discussing FP with a partner [AOR (95% CI) ?=?3.616(1.869–6.996)] were associated with increased odds of unmet need for modern FP. Conclusions There is high unmet need for modern FP in HIV-positive married women in western Ethiopia. Health care providers and program managers at a local and international level should work to satisfy the unmet need for modern family planning. PMID:25390620
Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Melka, Alemu Sufa
This paper explores institutional arrangements governing reciprocal grazing resource sharing among different pastoral and\\u000a agropastoral clans in eastern Ethiopia. It describes and compares multiple institutional arrangements that define non-exclusive\\u000a property rights in order to increase the social and economic efficiency of grazing resource uses in a risky environment. Results\\u000a indicate that social capital, explained using lineage as a proxy, plays
A population-based study of hydatid disease was conducted among the Hamar of Ethiopia. Seven of 990 patients examined with a portable ultrasound scanner proved to have cysts (0.7% prevalence). Cysts were most common (4.7%) among women > or = 40 years of age. Only one male presented with a cyst. These results indicate a sex-specific hydatid public health problem in this tribe. PMID:8236382
Klungsøyr, P; Courtright, P; Hendrikson, T H
This paper investigates the performance of selected soil and water conservation measures in the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea, namely Fanya Juu, soil\\/stone bund, grass strips and double ditches. The impact of these techniques on runoff, soil loss, crop yield and biomass production is measured at on-farm experimental sites in seven research sites under different agro-ecological conditions. On one hand,
Karl Herweg; Eva Ludi
This paper describes how data from a variety of sources are merged to present new countrywide maps of the solar energy distribution over Ethiopia. The spatial coverage of stations with radiation data was found to be unsatisfactory for the purpose of a countrywide solar energy assessment exercise. Therefore, radiation had to be predicted from sunshine hours by employing empirical models. Using data from seven stations in Ethiopia, linear and quadratic correlation relationships between monthly mean daily solar radiation and sunshine hours per day have been developed. These regional models show a distinct improvement over previously employed countrywide models. To produce a national solar-energy distribution profile, a spatial extension of the radiation/sunshine relationships had to be carried out. To do this, the intercepts(a) and slopes(b) of each of the seven linear regression equations and another six from previous studies, completed in neighbouring Sudan, Kenya and Yemen, were used to interpolate the corresponding values to areas between them. Subsequent to these procedures, 142 stations providing only sunshine data were assigned their `appropriate` a and b values to estimate the amount of solar radiation received, which was then used to produce annual and monthly solar radiation distribution maps for Ethiopia. The results show that in all regions solar energy is an abundant resource. 19 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.
Drake, F.; Mulugetta, Y. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)
On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors. PMID:23580251
In Ethiopia where family care is a centuries-long tradition, living in an elder care institution invariably brings social devaluation. Accordingly, this study explored the psychosocial needs of older adults in a residential elder care center in Ethiopia from the perspective of both staff and residents. Three focus group discussions of 24 residents and interviews with 5 staff persons revealed that elders were living a subsistence lifestyle, eating the same meal every day, mostly cutoff from the surrounding community, and lacking basic amenities. Despite the absence of basic amenities, residents yearned even more so for meaningful social interaction. Psychosocial support was both undervalued and underutilized by staff members, and thus, residents' psychosocial well-being appeared to be at risk. The addition of social workers in institutional care in Ethiopia may help to promote improved living standards. Advocacy is needed on behalf of residents to establish and implement guidelines on care and support of residents in old age homes. As elders in developing countries are living longer--a growing number with disabilities--at the same time that informal supports are waning, the need for developing long term care policies is becoming critical. PMID:25287990
Teka, Alemnesh; Adamek, Margaret E
Background Little is known about factors contributing to inequities in antenatal care use in Ethiopia. We aimed to assess inequities in the use of antenatal care on the basis of area of residence, administrative region, economic status and education. Methods This study was based on data from repeated cross-sectional surveys carried out by Measure Demographic and Health Survey and Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia. The surveys were conducted in February-June 2000, April-August 2005, and December 2010-June 2011. The surveys employed a cluster sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of 15–49 year-old women. The main outcome variable was at least one antenatal care visit for the last live birth in the 5 years preceding the surveys. Statistical analysis was completed by applying the sampling weights in order to consider the complex sampling design. Results A total of 7978, 7307 and 7908 weighted number of women participated in the three surveys, respectively. The rate of antenatal care coverage in Ethiopia has increased from 26.8% in 2000 to 42.7% in 2011. The odds of antenatal care use were 2.4 (95% CI: 1.7-3.2, p?0.0001), 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.2, p?=?0.003) and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3-2.6, p?=?0.001) times higher among women from urban areas than those from rural areas at the three time points, respectively. The odds ratio of antenatal care use among women with secondary or higher education compared with women of no education increased from 2.6 (95% CI: 2.0-3.4, p?0.0001) in 2000 to 5.1 (95% CI: 2.8-9.4, p?0.0001) in 2011. Moreover, the odds of use among women from the richest households at the three time points were 2.7 (95% CI: 2.1-3.6, p?0.0001), 4.4 (95% CI: 3.3-6.0, p?0.0001), and 3.9 (95% CI: 2.8-5.5, p?0.0001) times higher compared with their counterparts from the poorest households. Furthermore, we have observed a wide regional variation in the use of ANC in Ethiopia. Conclusions The wide inequities between urban and rural areas, across economic and educational strata in the use of antenatal care highlight the need to put more resources to poor households, rural areas, and disadvantage regions. We suggest further study to understand additional factors for the deep unmet need in rural areas and some regions of Ethiopia. PMID:23767975
Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.
An estimated 14.3 million people are currently (July 2010) food insecure in Kenya and Ethiopia, and the U.S. government has spent more than $972 million on food aid in these two countries since 2009 (USAID, 2010). This insecurity stems from recent drought and rapid population growth that has outpaced agricultural development (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Brown, 2009). Previous work by Funk and others (2005, 2008) and Verdin and others (2005) has linked drought conditions in Kenya and Ethiopia with warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Indian Ocean. Recent work has shown that Indian Ocean SSTs substantially affect rainfall in this region from March through June (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Verdin, 2009). This season is known as the 'long rains' in Kenya and the 'Belg' rains in Ethiopia.
Williams, A. Park; Funk, Chris
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether case-finding through community outreach in a rural setting has an effect on case-notification rate, symptom duration, and treatment outcome of smear-positive tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: We randomly allocated 32 rural communities to intervention or control groups. In intervention communities, health workers from seven health centres held monthly diagnostic outreach clinics at which they obtained sputum samples for sputum microscopy from symptomatic TB suspects. In addition, trained community promoters distributed leaflets and discussed symptoms of TB during house visits and at popular gatherings. Symptomatic individuals were encouraged to visit the outreach team or a nearby health facility. In control communities, cases were detected through passive case-finding among symptomatic suspects reporting to health facilities. Smear-positive TB patients from the intervention and control communities diagnosed during the study period were prospectively enrolled. FINDINGS: In the 1-year study period, 159 and 221 cases of smear-positive TB were detected in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Case-notification rates in all age groups were 124.6/10(5) and 98.1/10(5) person-years, respectively (P = 0.12). The corresponding rates in adults older than 14 years were 207/10(5) and 158/10(5) person-years, respectively (P = 0.09). The proportion of patients with >3 months' symptom duration was 41% in the intervention group compared with 63% in the control group (P<0.001). Pre-treatment symptom duration in the intervention group fell by 55-60% compared with 3-20% in the control group. In the intervention and control groups, 81% and 75%, respectively of patients successfully completed treatment (P = 0.12). CONCLUSION: The intervention was effective in improving the speed but not the extent of case finding for smear-positive TB in this setting. Both groups had comparable treatment outcomes. PMID:16501728
Shargie, Estifanos Biru; Mørkve, Odd; Lindtjørn, Bernt
Mastitis prevalence and related risk factors were studied in 1,072 udder halves of 536 lactating goats from October, 2008\\u000a to February, 2009. Clinical and subclinical mastitis were prevalent in 4.3% (95% CI?=?2.8, 6.5) and 11.2% (95% CI?=?8.7, 14.3)\\u000a of the studied animals, respectively, resulting in an overall prevalence of 15.5% (95% CI?=?12.6, 18.9). Univariate analysis\\u000a of the potential risk factors
Bekele Megersa; Chala Tadesse; Fufa Abunna; Alemayehu Regassa; Berhanu Mekibib; Etana Debela
We examined the nutritive value of common grass species in the semi-arid rangelands of Borana in southern Ethiopia using local experience based herbage preference (LEBHP) perception and laboratory techniques. Local pastoralists in the study area were asked to identify common grass species and rank them according to the species' preferences and palatability to cattle. The pastoralists listed a total of 15 common grass species which were then sampled during the main rain and cold dry seasons and analyzed for crude protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and ash content to verify pastoralists' claim regarding the quality of individual species. The relative feed value (RFV) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) were also calculated using NDF and ADF contents. Spearman's rank correlation was used to examine possible relationships between laboratory results and pastoralists' experience on grass quality. Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aucheri, Digitaria milanjiana, Eragrostis papposa and Panicum maximum were the top five species based on LEBHP perception. There were indications of inconsistency in terms of LEBHP perception among the different pastoral communities. The chemical composition of all grass species showed significant (p<0.05) variation between sites, seasons and species. The results showed that the CP values for the Borana rangelands were in the range of 8.7% in the main rain season to 5.1% for the cold dry season. The fiber constituents were relatively low in the main rain season compared to the cold dry season. Overall, Digitaria milanjiana had the highest CP (16.5%) content, while the least was recorded with Heteropogon contortus (10.8) and Aristida adoensis (9.8%) during the main rain season. It seems that the spatial variability of landscapes within the wider geographical regions, soil properties and texture, and land-use patterns probably contributed to site differences in species quality. Generally, the RFV of individual grass species was significantly (p<0.05) varied between and within sites. The ranking of species by pastoralists according to their preferences by cattle was highly correlated with the chemical composition of laboratory results of individual grass species with 'r' values for CP (0.94), ash (0.95), NDF (-0.98), ADF (-0.93) and ADL (-0.93). We suggest the complimentary use of LEBHP and laboratory techniques in evaluating the nutritive quality of rangeland forage species for sustainable animal production. PMID:25049799
Keba, Habtamu T; Madakadze, I C; Angassa, A; Hassen, A
We examined the nutritive value of common grass species in the semi-arid rangelands of Borana in southern Ethiopia using local experience based herbage preference (LEBHP) perception and laboratory techniques. Local pastoralists in the study area were asked to identify common grass species and rank them according to the species’ preferences and palatability to cattle. The pastoralists listed a total of 15 common grass species which were then sampled during the main rain and cold dry seasons and analyzed for crude protein (CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and ash content to verify pastoralists’ claim regarding the quality of individual species. The relative feed value (RFV) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) were also calculated using NDF and ADF contents. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to examine possible relationships between laboratory results and pastoralists’ experience on grass quality. Cenchrus ciliaris, Chrysopogon aucheri, Digitaria milanjiana, Eragrostis papposa and Panicum maximum were the top five species based on LEBHP perception. There were indications of inconsistency in terms of LEBHP perception among the different pastoral communities. The chemical composition of all grass species showed significant (p<0.05) variation between sites, seasons and species. The results showed that the CP values for the Borana rangelands were in the range of 8.7% in the main rain season to 5.1% for the cold dry season. The fiber constituents were relatively low in the main rain season compared to the cold dry season. Overall, Digitaria milanjiana had the highest CP (16.5%) content, while the least was recorded with Heteropogon contortus (10.8) and Aristida adoensis (9.8%) during the main rain season. It seems that the spatial variability of landscapes within the wider geographical regions, soil properties and texture, and land-use patterns probably contributed to site differences in species quality. Generally, the RFV of individual grass species was significantly (p<0.05) varied between and within sites. The ranking of species by pastoralists according to their preferences by cattle was highly correlated with the chemical composition of laboratory results of individual grass species with ‘r’ values for CP (0.94), ash (0.95), NDF (?0.98), ADF (?0.93) and ADL (?0.93). We suggest the complimentary use of LEBHP and laboratory techniques in evaluating the nutritive quality of rangeland forage species for sustainable animal production. PMID:25049799
Keba, Habtamu T.; Madakadze, I. C.; Angassa, A.; Hassen, A.
Classifying multi-temporal image data to produce thematic maps and quantify land cover changes is one of the most common applications of remote sensing. Mapping land cover changes at the regional level is essential for a wide range of applications including land use planning, decision making, land cover database generation, and as a source of information for sustainable management of natural resources. Land cover changes in Lake Hawassa Watershed, Southern Ethiopia, were investigated using Landsat MSS image data of 1973, and Landsat TM images of 1985, 1995, and 2011, covering a period of nearly four decades. Each image was partitioned in a GIS environment, and classified using an unsupervised algorithm followed by a supervised classification method. A hybrid approach was employed in order to reduce spectral confusion due to high variability of land cover. Classification of satellite image data was performed integrating field data, aerial photographs, topographical maps, medium resolution satellite image (SPOT 20 m), and visual image interpretation. The image data were classified into nine land cover types: water, built-up, cropland, woody vegetation, forest, grassland, swamp, bare land, and scrub. The overall accuracy of the LULC maps ranged from 82.5 to 85.0 %. The achieved accuracies were reasonable, and the observed classification errors were attributable to coarse spatial resolution and pixels containing a mixture of cover types. Land cover change statistics were extracted and tabulated using the ERDAS Imagine software. The results indicated an increase in built-up area, cropland, and bare land areas, and a reduction in the six other land cover classes. Predominant land cover is cropland changing from 43.6 % in 1973 to 56.4 % in 2011. A significant portion of land cover was converted into cropland. Woody vegetation and forest cover which occupied 21.0 and 10.3 % in 1973, respectively, diminished to 13.6 and 5.6 % in 2011. The change in water body was very peculiar in that the area of Lake Hawassa increased from 91.9 km(2) in 1973 to 95.2 km(2) in 2011, while that of Lake Cheleleka whose area was 11.3 km(2) in 1973 totally vanished in 2011 and transformed into mud-flat and grass dominated swamp. The "change and no change" analysis revealed that more than one third (548.0 km(2)) of the total area was exposed to change between 1973 and 2011. This study was useful in identifying the major land cover changes, and the analysis pursued provided a valuable insight into the ongoing changes in the area under investigation. PMID:24310365
Nigatu Wondrade; Dick, Øystein B; Tveite, Havard
Infants in Ethiopia are consuming food items such as maize as a complementary diet. However, this may expose infants to toxic contaminants like DDT. Maize samples were collected from the households visited during a consumption survey and from markets in Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia. The residues of total DDT and its metabolites were analyzed using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method combined with dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup (d-SPE). Deterministic and probabilistic methods of analysis were applied to determine the consumer exposure of infants to total DDT. The results from the exposure assessment were compared with the health based guidance value in this case the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI). All maize samples (n=127) were contaminated by DDT, with a mean concentration of 1.770mg/kg, which was far above the maximum residue limit (MRL). The mean and 97.5 percentile (P 97.5) estimated daily intake of total DDT for consumers were respectively 0.011 and 0.309mg/kgbw/day for deterministic and 0.011 and 0.083mg/kgbw/day for probabilistic exposure assessment. For total infant population (consumers and non-consumers), the 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake were 0.265 and 0.032mg/kgbw/day from the deterministic and probabilistic exposure assessments, respectively. Health risk estimation revealed that, the mean and 97.5 percentile for consumers, and 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake of total DDT for total population were above the PTDI. Therefore, in Ethiopia, the use of maize as complementary food for infants may pose a health risk due to DDT residue. PMID:25569581
Mekonen, Seblework; Lachat, Carl; Ambelu, Argaw; Steurbaut, Walter; Kolsteren, Patrick; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Wondafrash, Mekitie; Houbraken, Michael; Spanoghe, Pieter
Introduction Vaccination can reduce child mortality significantly and is a cost effective way to improve child health.Worldwide, more than 22 million children do not receive the basic recommended vaccinations.Vaccination coverage in Ethiopia remains low. Research on child health has focused on socio-economic factors such as maternal education and access to health care, but little attention has been given to demographic factors and women's autonomy within the household. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of demographic factors and women's autonomy on the completion of childhood vaccination in rural Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a Health and Demographic Survelliance System (HDSS) in southwestern Ethiopia. Data were drawn from a random sample of women with children aged 12-24 months (n = 889). Information on maternal socio-demographic characteristics and household variables were collected using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Vaccination data were obtained from vaccination cards or mother's recall. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of independent variables with completion of childhood vaccination. Results Of 889 children aged 12-24 months, 690 (78%) had received at least one vaccination. Only 37% (95% CI, 33.5-39.9) were fully vaccinated. Women's decision making autonomy, number of under-five children in the household, mother's education, use of antenatal care services and proximity to health facility were the main factors associated with full vaccination status. Conclusion Completion of basic vaccination series is very low in the study area. Initiatives that enhance women's autonomy within the household and that promote healthy timing and spacing of pregnancies may help in improving child health through vaccination. PMID:24624243
Wado, Yohannes Dibaba; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Hindin, Michelle J
Background Induced abortion is one of the greatest human rights dilemmas of our time. Yet, abortion is a very common experience in every culture and society. According to the World Health Organization, Ethiopia had the fifth largest number of maternal deaths in 2005 and unsafe abortion was estimated to account for 32% of all maternal deaths in Ethiopia. Youth are disproportionately affected by the consequences of unsafe abortion. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the magnitude and identify factors associated with abortion among female Wolaita Sodo University students. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita Sodo University between May and June 2011. Data were collected from 493 randomly selected female students using structured and pre-tested questionnaires. Results The rate of abortion among students was found to be 65 per 1000 women, making it three fold the national rate of abortion for Ethiopia (23/1000 women aged 15–44). Virtually all of the abortions (96.9%) were induced and only half (16) were reported to be safe. Students with history of alcohol use, who are first-year and those enrolled in faculties with no post-Grade 10 Natural Science background had higher risk of abortion than their counterparts. About 23.7% reported sexual experience. Less than half of the respondents (44%) ever heard of emergency contraception and only 35.9% of those who are sexually experienced ever used condom. Conclusions High rate of abortion was detected among female Wolaita Sodo University students and half of the abortions took place/initiated under unsafe circumstances. Knowledge of students on legal and safe abortion services was found to be considerably poor. It is imperative that improved sexual health education, with focus on safe and legal abortion services is rendered and wider availability of Youth Friendly family planning services are realized in Universities and other places where young men and women congregate. PMID:24666926
Background Rabies is a zoonotic disease that has been prevalent in humans and animals for centuries in Ethiopia and it is often dealt with using traditional practices. There is lack of accurate quantitative information on rabies both in humans and animals in Ethiopia and little is known about the awareness of the people about the disease. In this study, we estimated the incidence of rabies in humans and domestic animals, and assessed the people's awareness about the disease in North Gondar zone, Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings The incidence of rabies in humans and domestic animals was prospectively followed up for one year period based on clinical observation. A questionnaire was also administered to 120 randomly selected dog owners and 5 traditional healers to assess the knowledge and practices about the disease. We found an annual estimated rabies incidence of 2.33 cases per 100,000 in humans, 412.83 cases per 100,000 in dogs, 19.89 cases per 100,000 in cattle, 67.68 cases per 100,000 in equines, and 14.45 cases per 100,000 in goats. Dog bite was the source of infection for all fatal rabies cases. Ninety eight percent of the questionnaire respondents were familiar with rabies and mentioned dog bite as a means of transmission. But discordant with current scientific knowledge, 84% and 32% of the respondents respectively mentioned any type of contact (irrespective of skin condition) with saliva, and inhalation as a means of transmission of rabies. Eighty four percent of the respondents relied on traditional healers for management of rabies. Conclusions The study shows high canine rabies burden, and lack of sufficient awareness about the disease and high reliance on traditional treatment that interfere with timely post exposure management. Vaccination of dogs, proper post exposure management, and increasing the awareness of the community are suggested to reduce the disease burden. PMID:23675547
Jemberu, Wudu Temesgen; Molla, Wassie; Almaw, Gizat; Alemu, Sefinew
Background An up-to-date and reliable map of podoconiosis is needed to design geographically targeted and cost-effective intervention in Ethiopia. Identifying the ecological correlates of the distribution of podoconiosis is the first step for distribution and risk maps. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution and ecological correlates of podoconiosis using historical and contemporary survey data. Methods Data on the observed prevalence of podoconiosis were abstracted from published and unpublished literature into a standardized database, according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. In total, 10 studies conducted between 1969 and 2012 were included, and data were available for 401,674 individuals older than 15 years of age from 229 locations. A range of high resolution environmental factors were investigated to determine their association with podoconiosis prevalence, using logistic regression. Results The prevalence of podoconiosis in Ethiopia was estimated at 3.4% (95% CI 3.3%–3.4%) with marked regional variation. We identified significant associations between mean annual Land Surface Temperature (LST), mean annual precipitation, topography of the land and fine soil texture and high prevalence of podoconiosis. The derived maps indicate both widespread occurrence of podoconiosis and a marked variability in prevalence of podoconiosis, with prevalence typically highest at altitudes >1500 m above sea level (masl), with >1500 mm annual rainfall and mean annual LST of 19–21°C. No (or very little) podoconiosis occurred at altitudes <1225 masl, with annual rainfall <900 mm, and mean annual LST of >24°C. Conclusion Podoconiosis remains a public health problem in Ethiopia over considerable areas of the country, but exhibits marked geographical variation associated in part with key environmental factors. This is work in progress and the results presented here will be refined in future work. PMID:23874587
Deribe, Kebede; Brooker, Simon J.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Hailu, Asrat; Enquselassie, Fikre; Reithinger, Richard; Newport, Melanie; Davey, Gail
Background During 1999–2000, great parts of Ethiopia experienced a period of famine which was recognised internationally. The aim of this paper is to characterise the epidemiology of mortality of the period, making use of individual, longitudinal population-based data from the Butajira demographic surveillance site and rainfall data from a local site. Methods Vital statistics and household data were routinely collected in a cluster sample of 10 sub-communities in the Butajira district in central Ethiopia. These were supplemented by rainfall and agricultural data from the national reporting systems. Results Rainfall was high in 1998 and well below average in 1999 and 2000. In 1998, heavy rains continued from April into October, in 1999 the small rains failed and the big rains lasted into the harvesting period. For the years 1998–1999, the mortality rate was 24.5 per 1,000 person-years, compared with 10.2 in the remainder of the period 1997–2001. Mortality peaks reflect epidemics of malaria and diarrhoeal disease. During these peaks, mortality was significantly higher among the poorer. Conclusions The analyses reveal a serious humanitarian crisis with the Butajira population during 1998–1999, which met the CDC guideline crisis definition of more than one death per 10,000 per day. No substantial humanitarian relief efforts were triggered, though from the results it seems likely that the poorest in the farming communities are as vulnerable as the pastoralists in the North and East of Ethiopia. Food insecurity and reliance on subsistence agriculture continue to be major issues in this and similar rural communities. Epidemics of traditional infectious diseases can still be devastating, given opportunities in nutritionally challenged populations with little access to health care. PMID:20052373
Emmelin, Anders; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Berhane, Yemane; Wall, Stig; Byass, Peter
Sexually transmitted diseases in developing countries are causing concern to those responsible for their control and eradication. To gain a better understanding of the problems involved in a country struggling with development, the economic and psychosocial factors influencing the spread of STD in Ethiopia have been studied. Increased migration and urbanisation and the changing role of women have led to a rise in prostitution. Thus changes in the social structure--particularly in relation to the education and employment of women--and improved medical services are essential for the long-term control of STD. PMID:6895708
Plorde, D S
Background Place of delivery is a crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn. Institutional delivery helps the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, equipment, and referral transport. Even though 34% of pregnant women received at least one antenatal care from a skilled provider in Ethiopia by 2013, institutional delivery was 10%. The main objective of the study was to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective unmatched case control study design was used to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia from September to October 2013. A total of 320 respondents from six districts of East Wollega zone, West Ethiopia were included. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires. Data were entered and cleaned by Epi-info then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Results Education [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI))?=?2.754(1.510–8.911)], family size [AOR (95% CI)?=?.454(.209–.984)], residence [AOR (95% CI)?=?3.822 (1.766–8.272)] were important predictors of place of delivery. Four or more antenatal care [(ANC) (AOR (95% CI)?=?2.914(1.105–7.682)], birth order [(AOR (95% CI)?=?.136(.054–.344), age at last delivery [(AOR (95% CI)?=?9.995(2.101–47.556)], birth preparedness [AOR (95% CI)?=?6.957(2.422–19.987)], duration of labour [AOR (95% CI)?=?3.541(1.732–7.239)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Moreover service related factors such as distance from health institutions [AOR (95% CI)?=?.665(.173–.954)], respondents’ awareness of skill of health care professionals [AOR (95% CI)?=?2.454 (1.663–6.255)], mode of transportations [AOR (95% CI)?=?.258(.122–.549)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Conclusions and Recommendations Policy makers, health service organizations, community leaders and other concerned bodies have to consider the predictors of institutional delivery like education, birth order, antenatal care utilization and residence to improve institutional delivery in the area. PMID:24810609
Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Genemo, Gebi Agero
Fossils and artifacts recovered from the middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar depression sample the Middle Pleistocene transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens. Ar/Ar ages, biostratigraphy, and tephrachronology from this area indicate that the Pleistocene Bodo hominid cranium and newer specimens are approximately 0.6 million years old. Only Oldowan chopper and flake assemblages are present in the lower stratigraphic units, but Acheulean bifacial artifacts are consistently prevalent and widespread in directly overlying deposits. This technological transition is related to a shift in sedimentary regime, supporting the hypothesis that Middle Pleistocene Oldowan assemblages represent a behavioral facies of the Acheulean industrial complex. PMID:8009220
Clark, J D; de Heinzelin, J; Schick, K D; Hart, W K; White, T D; WoldeGabriel, G; Walter, R C; Suwa, G; Asfaw, B; Vrba, E
Introduction Ethiopia has achieved the fourth Millennium Development Goal by reducing under 5 mortality. Nevertheless, there are challenges in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate maternal and neonatal mortality and the socio-economic inequalities of these mortalities in rural south-west Ethiopia. Methods We visited and enumerated all households but collected data from those that reported pregnancy and birth outcomes in the last five years in 15 of the 30 rural kebeles in Bonke woreda, Gamo Gofa, south-west Ethiopia. The primary outcomes were maternal and neonatal mortality and a secondary outcome was the rate of institutional delivery. Results We found 11,762 births in 6572 households; 11,536 live and 226 stillbirths. There were 49 maternal deaths; yielding a maternal mortality ratio of 425 per 100,000 live births (95% CI:318–556). The poorest households had greater MMR compared to richest (550 vs 239 per 100,000 live births). However, the socio-economic factors examined did not have statistically significant association with maternal mortality. There were 308 neonatal deaths; resulting in a neonatal mortality ratio of 27 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 24–30). Neonatal mortality was greater in households in the poorest quartile compared to the richest; adjusted OR (AOR): 2.62 (95% CI: 1.65–4.15), headed by illiterates compared to better educated; AOR: 3.54 (95% CI: 1.11–11.30), far from road (?6 km) compared to within 5 km; AOR: 2.40 (95% CI: 1.56–3.69), that had three or more births in five years compared to two or less; AOR: 3.22 (95% CI: 2.45–4.22). Households with maternal mortality had an increased risk of stillbirths; OR: 11.6 (95% CI: 6.00–22.7), and neonatal deaths; OR: 7.2 (95% CI: 3.6–14.3). Institutional delivery was only 3.7%. Conclusion High mortality with socio-economic inequality and low institutional delivery highlight the importance of strengthening obstetric interventions in rural south-west Ethiopia. PMID:24787694
Yaya, Yaliso; Eide, Kristiane Tislevoll; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Lindtjørn, Bernt
Background The benefits of Health and Demographic Surveillance sites for local populations have been the topic of discussion as countries such as Ethiopia take efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goal targets, on which they lag behind. Ethiopia's maternal mortality ratio is very high, and in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2011 EDHS) it was estimated to be 676/100,000 live births. Recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD) and estimates based on the United Nations model reported better, but still unacceptably high, figures of 497/100,000 and 420/100,000 live births for 2013. In the 2011 EDHS, antenatal care (ANC) utilization was estimated at 34%, and delivery in health facilities was only 10%. Objectives To compare maternal health service utilization among populations in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) to non-HDSS populations in Butajira district, south central Ethiopia. Design A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in January and February 2012 among women who had delivered in the 2 years before the survey. Results A total of 2,296 women were included in the study. One thousand eight hundred and sixty two (81.1%) had attended ANC at least once, and 37% of the women had attended ANC at least four times. A quarter of the women delivered their last child in a health facility. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, 715 (75.3%) attended ANC at least once compared to 85.1% of women living in the HDSS areas [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.59; 95% CI 0.46, 0.74]. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, only 170 (17.9%) delivered in health facilities and were assisted by skilled attendants during delivery, whereas 30.0% of those living in HDSS areas delivered in health facilities (AOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91). Conclusion This paper provides possible evidence that living in an HDSS site has a positive influence on maternal health. In addition, there may be a positive influence on those living nearby or in the same district where an HDSS is located even when not included in the surveillance system. PMID:24998383
Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Gebregiorgis, Seifu Hagos; Roro, Meselech Assegid; Lemma, Alemayehu Mekonnen; Ahmed, Saifuddin
Background Hypocalcaemia, defined by serum calcium level less than 8.5 mg/dl, could be caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and diarrheal diseases. In Ethiopia, while morbidities from diarrheal diseases and HIV are serious health problems, studies assessing the interactions amongst of the three do not exist. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the level of calcium among diarrheic patients with and without HIV co-infection. Methods Consecutive diarrheic patients attending Gondar University Hospital in Ethiopia were enrolled and screened for HIV, intestinal parasites, Shigella and Salmonella. Concentration of calcium in serum was determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results A total of 206 diarrheic patients were included in the study (109?=?HIV positive, 97?=?HIV negative). Intestinal parasites and Shigella species were detected in 32.2% and 8.5% of the patients, respectively. The serum calcium levels in the patients who were found positive for Shigella species or intestinal parasites was not significantly different by the presence or absence of HIV co-infection. HIV infected diarrheic patients had significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.82?±?1.23 mg/dl) than those negative for HIV (8.38?±?1.97) (P?=?0.015). The age groups 25–35 and greater than 45 years showed significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.77?±?1.55 mg/dl) in comparison to the other age groups (7.84?±?1.41 mg/dl, P?=?0.009). On the other hand, females presented with significantly lower mean serum calcium levels (7.79?±?1.60 mg/dl, P?=?0.044) than males (8.26?±?1.65 mg/dl). Conclusion There is high prevalence of hypocalcaemia among diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia. And HIV stood out to be a major risk factor for development of hypocalcaemia among the diarrheic patients in northwest Ethiopia. Further studies are required to substantiate and characterize the mechanisms and consequences of calcium metabolism disorders among HIV infected individuals in the study area. PMID:24993127
This polar projection of Triton's southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds.
This study was undertaken to assess the potential of two types of improved cookstoves to reduce indoor air pollution in African homes. An ethanol stove, the CleanCook, was tested in three locations in Ethiopia: the city of Addis Ababa and the Bonga and Kebribeyah Refugee Camps, while a wood-burning rocket stove, the Gyapa, was evaluated in Accra, Ghana. In both
David Pennise; Simone Brant; Seth Mahu Agbeve; Wilhemina Quaye; Firehiwot Mengesha; Wubshet Tadele; Todd Wofchuck
A survey of Fusarium head blight (FHB)-contaminated wheat in Ethiopia recovered 31 isolates resembling members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex. Results of a multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay for FHB species and trichothecene chemotype determination suggested that 22 of these isolates m...
Ethiopia has a diverse agroecology and many areas are suitable for growing temperate, sub- tropical or tropical fruits. Substantial areas receive sufficient rainfall and many lakes, rivers and streams could also be used to support fruit production. Despite this potential, the total land area under fruits is very small and mainly smallholder-based. According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Kahsay Berhe; Yigzaw Dessalegn; Worku Teka; Dirk Hoekstra; Azage Tegegne
This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child…
Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry
Whether talking to local farmers or studying academic papers there is general agreement that environmental degradation is impacting upon agricultural productivity in Ethiopia. In a country, where around 90% of the population are dependent on agriculture for subsistence requirements and a similar fraction of the country's export income is generated…
Bekalo, S.; Bangay, C.
Technical vocational education and training (TVET) programmes have recently received increased attention as an area of priority for stimulating growth in developed and developing countries. This paper considers the situation in Ethiopia where the promotion of micro and small-sized enterprises (MSEs) has been central to the development and…
Gondo, Tendayi; Dafuleya, Gift
1 The Pleistocene fauna (other than Primates) from Asbole, lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia, and its environmental and biochronological implications La faune plÃ©istocÃ¨ne (sauf Primates) d'Asbole, basse vallÃ©e de l fauna (excluding Primates, which are being studied separately). It is therefore a modified and expanded
Environmental degradation has been identified as a major problem in Ethiopia today. Inappropriate use of land management practices has decreased the country's arable and forest lands, drastically deteriorated soil and water quality and severely affected the biodiversity within the environment. Desertification, deforestation, and urbanization are believed to be the primary causes of the loss in biodiversity and global climate change.
T. D. Tsegaye; W. Tadesse; T. L. Coleman; M. Fikre-Mariam; M. Floyd
The rediscovery of a unique species flock of cyprinid fish, its taxonomy and its feeding-biology are described. Fourteen species of barbs (Barbus spp, Cyprinidae, Teleostei) were found in highland (1800 m) Lake Tana, in northwestern Ethiopia. Lake Tana is an isolated fresh-water system, because its only outflowing river, the Blue Nile, of which it is the source, drops over 40
L. A. J. Nagelkerke
The objectives of this study were to determine the composition, density and spatial distribution of the soil seed bank of woody species, as well as their regeneration pattern in two different land use systems, controlled (ranch) and open grazing, in an Acacia woodland of the Rift Valley in Ethiopia. We also compared the species composition of the soil seed bank
Mekuria Argaw; Demel Teketay; Mats Olsson
Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (?15N) and carbon (?13C), complemented by stomach content data, were used to assess the food web structure and trophic transfer of mercury (Hg) in four commercial fish species of Lake Ziway, Ethiopia: Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), catfish (Clarias gariepinus), Tilapia zillii, and golden carp (Carassius auratus). Total mercury (THg in mgkg?1, ww) concentrations were low,
Tariku Markos Tadiso; Reidar Borgstrøm; Bjørn Olav Rosseland
In an earlier paper in Nyame Akuma, the writer outlined the goals of a three-year archaeo- logical research project based at Aksum, Tigray, Ethiopia (Fimeran 1998). In advance of the publi- cation of more detailed excavation reports, this paper outlines one of the most distinctive motifs of later prehistoric settlement in the Aksum region: the mode 4 (or long-blade) industry
NYAME AKUMA; Niall Finneran
A study was conducted using a structured questionnaire to obtain information about the nature and extent of rodent damage to crops, farmer's perceptions of crop pests and their knowledge, attitudes and practices to their management in Tanzania and Ethiopia. The study was carried out in five localities (Makuyu -Central Tanzania; Chunya-Southwest Tanzania; Ziway and Adami Tulu (south of Addis Ababa)
Rhodes H. Makundi; Afework Bekele; Herwig Leirs; Winnie Rwamugira; Loth S. Mulungu
BACKGROUND: In countries with scarce specialized Human resource for health, patients are usually referred. The other alternative has been mobilizing specialists, clinical specialist outreach. This study examines whether clinical specialist outreach is a cost effective way of using scarce health expertise to provide specialist care as compared to provision of such services through referral system in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional
Yibeltal A Kifle; Tilahun H Nigatu
Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Dominical Republic, Ethiopia, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Laos, Liberia, Republic of Vietnam, Seychelles, and Tahiti (French Polynesia). Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Impulsivity and Niche Construction in SW Ethiopia Robert J. Quinlan1* , Samuel Jilo Dira1,2 , Mark Caudell1 on Sidama impulsivity. We argue that impulsivity is a psychological process that is differentially activated a robust psychometric model derived from Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) items we demonstrate two
Introduction The HIV prevalence rate in Ethiopia for married (or cohabiting) women is 3 times that found amongst women who have never been married. While marriage used to be seen as a protective factor against HIV, evidence suggests that this is no longer necessarily the case. This study analyses the trend and socio-demographic determinants of HIV awareness and safe sex negotiation among married women in Ethiopia between 2005 and 2011. Methods Data from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2005 and in 2011 were analysed. Socio-demographic variables as well as ‘survey year’ were selected to assess their interaction with selected HIV awareness and safe sex negotiation indicators. Multivariable regression analyses were performed. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were computed. Results A significant increase in knowledge of HIV and ability to negotiate safer sex occurred between 2005 and 2011 reflecting a positive trend in gender empowerment amongst married Ethiopian women. Some of these advancements were striking, for instance respondents were 3.6 times more likely to have “Heard of AIDS” in 2011 than in 2005. HIV awareness and safer sex negotiation were significantly associated with higher education, higher socioeconomic status, those who had heard of HIV, those of the Orthodox Christian faith, and (to some extent) those living in rural areas. Conclusion HIV awareness has increased significantly in Ethiopia over the last decade but married women are still disproportionately susceptible to HIV. Community programmes, already effective in Ethiopia, also need to target this vulnerable sub-group of women. PMID:25506823
De Coninck, Zaake; Feyissa, Ibrahim A.; Ekström, Anna Mia; Marrone, Gaetano
Twenty isolates resembling members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (Fg complex; O’Donnell et al., Fungal Genet. Biol. 41:600-623, 2004) were isolated from ground wheat samples collected in two different geographic areas in Ethiopia. Results of a multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay (Ward ...
Much research has suggested that focusing on the determinants of female enrolment and dropout tells us little about girls' experiences of schooling in developing countries and cannot explain variation in their educational trajectories. This paper draws on quantitative (n = 1177) and qualitative data (n = 15) collected by "Young Lives" in Ethiopia…
This article presents an insider's reflection on an innovative on-the-job teacher education course offered from 2003 to 2005 in Ethiopia combining distance and face-to-face modes. The text adopts a descriptive-analytic approach in reporting the insider's reflections. To analyze the course, the author used his colleagues' and his own documentations…
Tessema, Kedir Assefa
Background: Globalization in medical education often means a "brain drain" of desperately needed health professionals from low- to high-income countries. Despite the best intentions, partnerships that simply transport students to Western medical schools for training have shockingly low return rates. Ethiopia, for example, has sent hundreds of…
Alem, Atalay; Pain, Clare; Araya, Mesfin; Hodges, Brian D.
‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...
BGD 4, 4283Â4322, 2007 Southern Ocean phytoplankton and climate change P. W. Boyd et al. Title Page Climate-mediated changes to mixed-layer properties in the Southern Ocean: assessing the email@example.com) 4283 #12;BGD 4, 4283Â4322, 2007 Southern Ocean phytoplankton and climate change P. W. Boyd et al. Title
Background Modern contraceptive use persists to be low in most African countries where fertility, population growth, and unmet need for family planning are high. Though there is an evidence of increased overall contraceptive prevalence, a substantial effort remains behind in Ethiopia. This study aimed to identify factors associated with modern contraceptive use and to examine its geographical variations among 15–49 married women in Ethiopia. Methods We conducted secondary analysis of 10,204 reproductive age women included in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The survey sample was designed to provide national, urban/rural, and regional representative estimates for key health and demographic indicators. The sample was selected using a two-stage stratified sampling process. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were applied to determine the prevalence of modern contraceptive use and associated factors in Ethiopia. Results Being wealthy, more educated, being employed, higher number of living children, being in a monogamous relationship, attending community conversation, being visited by health worker at home strongly predicted use of modern contraception. While living in rural areas, older age, being in polygamous relationship, and witnessing one’s own child’s death were found negatively influence modern contraceptive use. The spatial analysis of contraceptive use revealed that the central and southwestern parts of the country had higher prevalence of modern contraceptive use than that of the eastern and western parts. Conclusion The findings indicate significant socio-economic, urban–rural and regional variation in modern contraceptive use among reproductive age women in Ethiopia. Strengthening community conversation programs and female education should be given top priority. PMID:24067083
Khat (Catha edulis, a natural stimulant), has been used in Ethiopia for centuries. Over the past few decades, however, its use has dramatically increased, with recent research linking khat use to HIV status. Using qualitative methods, we explored the individual and micro-environmental characteristics of khat use and the social and physical contexts influencing type, acceptability and consequences of khat use. Among khat chewers attending an HIV voluntary counselling and testing centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, we found that chewing typically starts at an early age (15-18 years). The majority of users are young (aged 18-35) and chew for pleasure, primarily in social settings. Over 25 types of khat, with varying effects were reported. Approximately half of the participants perceived khat to enhance sexual desire, while the rest claimed the effect on sexual desire to be the opposite. Alcohol use among chewers was high. Our findings suggest the need for culturally appropriate interventions that highlight the factors associated with khat use and the potential interplay between khat, alcohol and risky sexual behaviour. PMID:22988913
Berhanu, Della; Go, Vivian F; Ruff, Andrea; Celentano, David D; Bishaw, Tewabech
In Ethiopia, evidence is lacking about maternal care-taking and environmental risk factors that contribute to acute diarrhoea and the case management of diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors and to understand the management of acute diarrhoea. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for interviewing mothers of 440 children in a prospective, matched, case-control study at the University of Gondar Referral and Teaching Hospital in Gondar, Ethiopia. Results of multivariate analysis demonstrated that children who were breastfed and not completely weaned and mothers who were farmers were protective factors; risk factors for diarrhoea included sharing drinking-water and introducing supplemental foods. Children presented with acute diarrhoea for 3.9 days with 4.3 stools per day. Mothers usually did not increase breastmilk and other fluids during diarrhoea episodes and generally did not take children with diarrhoea to traditional healers. Incorporating messages about the prevention and treatment of acute diarrhoea into child-health interventions will help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. PMID:20635636
Mediratta, Rishi P.; Feleke, Amsalu; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Yifru, Sisay
Data on genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is important to understand its epidemiology, human adaptation, clinical phenotypes, and drug resistance. This study aimed to characterize MTBC clinical isolates circulating in a predominantly pastoralist area in Ethiopia, a country where tuberculosis is the second leading cause of mortality. Culture of sputum samples collected from a total of 325 pulmonary TB suspects was done to isolate MTBC. Spoligotyping was used to characterize 105 isolates from culture positive slopes and the result was compared with an international database. Forty-four spoligotype patterns were observed to correspond to 35 shared-types (SITs) containing 96 isolates and 9 orphan patterns; 27 SITs containing 83 isolates matched a preexisting shared-type in the database, whereas 8 SITs (n = 13 isolates) were newly created. A total of 19 SITs containing 80 isolates were clustered within this study (overall clustering of 76.19%). Three dominant lineages (T, CAS, and Manu) accounted for 76.19% of the isolates. SIT149/T3-ETH was one of the two most dominant sublineages. Unlike previous reports, we show that Manu lineage strains not only constitute a dominant lineage, but are also associated with HIV infection in Afar region of Ethiopia. The high level of clustering suggests the presence of recent transmission that should be further studied using additional genotyping markers. PMID:24734230
Ameni, Gobena; Bjune, Gunnar
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), for which we have no cure or vaccination, is the major health problem in Ethiopia. This epidemic generally has affected poor communities and women. To contain this epidemic, the empowerment of women is essential. In fact, the current working definition of health by the World Health Organization (WHO) makes social well-being a part of everyday living, which is an essential dimension of the quality of life. The concept of quality of life means an opportunity to make choices and even change the situation one is in. Here, the concepts of health and human rights intersect, because of the quality of life requires freedom of choice, dignity and respect. Dignity, the right to access basic education and information, as well as the right to life are the major elements of human rights. It is for that purpose that health promotion is intended to enable people to increase their control over determinants of health and thereby improve their health. Women's involvement in outlining the agendas of health promotion is vital to achieve the desired goals. In this article I examine human rights violations in Ethiopia and the lost opportunities for Oromo women to make choices in life within the framework of the Universal Declarations of Human Rights (UDHR). PMID:15804914
Dugassa, Begna Fufa
This article describes the traditional concepts and treatment of mental disorders in the Oromo areas in western Ethiopia before the revolution in 1974. There are three traditional cultural influences operating: traditional Oromo thinking, the Coptic church and the Islamic culture. One important element in traditional Oromo thinking is that each person is believed to possess an ayana, which is a special divine agent that can descend upon people, but also means a person's character and personality. In the traditional Oromo society, the Kallu is the religious leader who, through an ecstatic ritual technique, can investigate the causes of the disorder and advise what to do. Mental disorders are generally explained as resulting from disturbances in the relationship between people and divinity. The second important cultural element in western Ethiopia is the orthodox Coptic church, which usually looks upon mental disorders as possession by evil spirits, which are thus treated by specially gifted priests and monks by praying and giving holy water or eventually exhortation. According to Islamic teaching in the area, mental disorders are caused by evil spirits sent by God to punish the unfaithful people. Some Muslim sheiks treat mental cases with prayers, but herbal remedies are also used. There is a great intermingling of these different cultural and religious elements and people attend different healers and religious leaders more depending on the reputation of the person than on cultural and religious affiliation. PMID:1776501
Jacobsson, L; Merdasa, F
Background Unsafe abortion in the developing world accounts for 13% of all maternal deaths. Ethiopia is one of the developing countries with the highest maternal mortality ratio (673 per 100,000 live births) in the world. Unsafe abortion was estimated to account for 32% of all maternal deaths in Ethiopia. Objective To assess post abortion care quality status in health facilities of Guraghe zone. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study design with both quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted. Patient interview, direct service observation, provider self administered questionnaire and inventory of equipment and supplies were used for the assessment. Six health centers, two hospitals and 422 post-abortion patients were included in the study. Results Patient-provider interaction was generally satisfactory from the patient’s perspective. The majority of the respondents (93.5%) said that they were treated with politeness and respect. More than half 226(56.5%) of the clients have received post abortion family planning. Overall, 83.5% of the patients were satisfied with the services. Those who said waiting time was long were less satisfied and unemployed women were more satisfied than others. Conclusion The study has revealed several improvements as well as problems in the provision of post-abortion care service in the studied health facilities. PMID:23875945
Humanitarian agencies regularly carry out nutrition surveys to estimate the prevalence of acute malnutrition (wasting) and mortality as well as to collect data on a wide range of contributory or aggravating factors in order to identify interventions and to direct aid where it is most needed. In this study, the case of Ethiopia was used (i) to assess the proportion of 291 nutrition surveys conducted between 2003 and 2008 that used the recommended sampling method to estimate the prevalence of wasting, (ii) to assess how and what data on indicators of aggravating factors were collected, (iii) to examine whether data on such factors can be used to establish priorities for emergency assistance based on Ethiopian Government guidelines and (iv) to discuss the general value of such data. All but one survey used the recommended methods to estimate the prevalence of wasting. Data were collected on more than 40 indicators of aggravating factors related to health, caring practices, food security and coping strategies, but no consistent methods or indicators were used, resulting in inconsistent data. This illustrates the need to develop and agree upon a set of core indicators of aggravating factors and then thresholds to describe the humanitarian situation in Ethiopia and elsewhere and to indicate priorities for interventions. PMID:24038180
Watson, Fiona; Negussie, Bekele; Dolan, Carmel; Shoham, Jeremy; Hall, Andrew
Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia). Data on the study subjects' background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/obstetric histories were collected via a structured questionnaire. UIC of <150??g/L defined subclinical iodine deficiency. Data were analyzed by Stata 11. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency. Results. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC) was 58.1??g/L and 82.8% of the women who had subclinical iodine deficiency. The risk of subclinical iodine deficiency was reduced by the use of iodized salt (AOR = 0.13) and by intake of milk twice a month or more (AOR = 0.50), but it was increased by maternal illiteracy (AOR = 3.52). Conclusion. Iodine nutritional status of the pregnant women was poor. This shows that women and their children are exposed to iodine deficiency and its adverse effects. Thus, they need urgent supplementation with iodine and improved access to and intake of iodized salt and milk during pregnancy. PMID:25132987
Kedir, Haji; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu
A cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the distribution of lumpy skin disease (LSD) and associated risk factors in three main agro-climatic zones of Ethiopia. A total of 330 questionnaire surveys were collected from 44 peasant associations (PA) distributed in 15 districts. Across agro-climate zones, herd-level LSD prevalence in the midland agro-climate was significantly higher 55.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 47.5-62.6] than in highland and lowland agro-climate zones. Overall observed LSD prevalence at animal-level was 8.1% (95% CI 7.3-8.9) and observed mortality was 2.12% (95% CI 1.73-2.6). The odds ratio (OR) of LSD occurrence in midland vs. highland and lowland vs. highland zones was 3.86 (95% CI 2.61-5.11) and 4.85 (95% CI 2.59-7.1), respectively. Significantly high risk of LSD occurrence was associated with communal grazing and watering management (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.02-6.18) and introduction of new cattle (OR 8.5, 95% CI 6.0-11.0). Our findings describe the distribution of LSD in different agro-climates in Ethiopia along with associated risk factors, and can help shed light on the epidemiology of LSD in other African countries suffering from the disease. PMID:20233495
Gari, G; Waret-Szkuta, A; Grosbois, V; Jacquiet, P; Roger, F
Metacognition is increasingly recognized as an important component in successful learning. In science, metacognitive instructional interventions have been successfully incorporated to promote conceptual change learning, facilitate negotiating and constructing of meanings, and foster reading and problem solving abilities of learners. The present study investigated the contribution of three metacognitive instructional methods, namely graphic organizers, metacognitive reflection, and metacognitive reading in learning science among primary school students (age 10-14 years) in Mekelle, Ethiopia. The metacognitive instructional methods were believed to be efficient to introduce and transform learner-centeredness in science instruction under Ethiopia's primary school settings by allowing students to think productively and regulate their own learning. Qualitative study indicated that the metacognitive instructional methods fostered student conceptual understanding of science topics and enhanced active student participation. Quantitative study of post-scores of Immediate test-groups revealed that graphic organizers had some contribution in helping students perform better in 'application' type tests. Metacognitive reflection activities enabled students to perform better in 'application' and 'transfer' type tests as well as enhancing mean post-test scores. Metacognitive reading activities did not yield any apparent effects on post-intervention tests. The effects of the metacognitive methods were diminished among Delayed post-test groups.
Sbhatu, Desta Berhe
Background A number of studies indicated that prescribing errors in the intensive care unit (ICU) are frequent and lead to patient morbidity and mortality, increased length of stay, and substantial extra costs. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication prescribing errors in the ICU has not previously been studied. Objective To assess medication prescribing errors in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital from February 7 to April 15, 2011. All medication-prescribing interventions by physicians during the study period were included in the study. Data regarding prescribing interventions were collected from patient cards and medication charts. Prescribing errors were determined by comparing prescribed drugs with standard treatment guidelines, textbooks, handbooks, and software. Descriptive statistics were generated to meet the study objective. Results The prevalence of medication prescribing errors in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital was 209/398 (52.5%). Common prescribing errors were using the wrong combinations of drugs (25.7%), wrong frequency (15.5%), and wrong dose (15.1%). Errors associated with antibiotics represented a major part of the medication prescribing errors (32.5%). Conclusion Medication errors at the prescribing phase were highly prevalent in the ICU of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Health care providers need to establish a system which can support the prescribing physicians to ensure appropriate medication prescribing practices. PMID:22135494
Agalu, Asrat; Ayele, Yemane; Bedada, Worku; Woldie, Mirkuzie
Objective To assess the prevalence and intensity of intestinal schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminthiasis among primary school children in Gorgora, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out in Gorgora primary school in Northwest Ethiopia from November to December 2010. Stool sample was collected from 326 children (170 male and 156 female) and examined by Kato-Katz technique for intestinal schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminth infection. Results A total of 120 children (56 males and 64 females) were positive for single or multiple parasitic infection. Four helminth parasite species were identified and the most prevalent was Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) (16.60%), followed by Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) (10.10%), hookworm (5.50%) and Trichuris trichiura (T. trichiura) (4.60%). Furthermore, 1.84%, 2.76% and 2.45% of the study participants were co-infected with Hookworm & A. lumbricoides, A. lumbricoides & S. mansoni and A. lumbricoides & T. trichiura, respectively. Conclusions The high prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis observed in the study area shows the need of integrated control programme including periodic deworming, improving sanitation and access to clean water, appropriate health education and environmental measures to have a lasting impact on transmission.
Tekeste, Zinaye; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Gebrehiwot, Amare; Moges, Beyene; Workineh, Meseret; Ayalew, Getnet; Mandefro, Misganaw; Kassu, Afework
In autumn 2009 the Almaqah Temple of Yeha in Ethiopia has been recorded by terrestrial laser scanning and digital photogrammetry in cooperation between the Sana'a Branch of the Orient Department of the German Archaeological Institute and the HafenCity University Hamburg. The temple dates from the 7th Century BC and is one of the best preserved buildings of Sabaean architecture in Africa. As a basis for all future project works a geodetic network was established in UTM-coordinates by GPS measurements. The geodata collected will form the basis for all future work on the temple. The deformations of the facades were determined for restoration issues and the existing parts of the temple were modelled by meshing (3D triangulation). Using the scanned point cloud and a technical analysis of the building the Propylon, which is no longer existent today, was virtually reconstructed. In future, the data will also be included in the master plan for touristic development of the region of Axum and Yeha in northern Ethiopia.
Lindstaedt, M.; Mechelke, K.; Schnelle, M.; Kersten, Th.
Land use/land cover (LULC) change assessment explores a terrestrial ecosystem in relation to the impact of natural processes and anthropogenic activities towards temporal and spatial change. This study explores spatial and quantitative dynamics of land use change in the semi-arid regions of northwestern Ethiopia using Landsat-5 (1984) and Landsat-8 (2014) which provided recent and historical LULC conditions of the region. Supervised classification algorithm using support vector machines (SVM) was used to map and monitor land use transformations. A post-classification change detection assessment was applied to individual image classification outputs of the best performing SVM model in order to identify respective two-date change trajectories. The change detection analysis with an extended transition matrix showed a net quantity change of 44.0% and total change of 53.7% of the study area, with the latter change is due to swap changes. Post-classification comparisons of the classified imagery identified a major woodland transformation to cropland which is attributed to population size and economic activity. The area of cropland has increased significantly (52.8%) in 2014 contributing to the reduction in native vegetation cover. In the study period, 55.6% of woodland lost signifying a significant change in ecosystems. This significant land use transformation is due to accelerated human impact and subsequent agricultural land expansion. The loss in vegetation cover has exposed the surface and it is common to see a haze of cloud in a most semiarid region of NW Ethiopia.
Zewdie, Worku; Csaplovics, E.
After surveying various regions of Ethiopia using clinical examinations, filter paper indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, and hydatid skin test, a hyperendemic focus of hydatid disease (Echinococcus granulosus) was found in southwestern Ethiopia. Two tribes, the Dassanetch and Nyangatom, in the lower Omo River Valley were found to have a particularly high prevalence of the disease. Of 1,342 individuals from these two tribes 4.8% had palpable abdominal cysts and 15% had hepatomegaly. This contrasts with 0.2% and 5.6%, respectively, for all other groups combined. Among the Dassanetch and Nyangatom, 6.4% had filter paper indirect hemagglutination titers 1:128 or greater versus only 0.3% for the combined results of other tested Ethiopian groups. Of 366 Dassanetch and Nyangatom, 31.7% were positive by the hydatid skin test versus 5.9% for all other southwestern Ethiopian tribes tested. Marked sex differences in hydatid skin test positivity, not reflected in the clinical findings or the IHA results, limit the use of this test for hydatid disease and suggest that possibility that men be exposed more frequently than women to other antigens cross-reacting with the hydatid skin test antigen. PMID:7258484
Fuller, G K; Fuller, D C
Background Habitat loss and fragmentation may have detrimental impacts on genetic diversity, population structure and overall viability of tropical trees. The response of tropical trees to fragmentation processes may, however, be species, cohort or region-specific. Here we test the hypothesis that forest fragmentation is associated with lower genetic variability and higher genetic differentiation in adult and seedling populations of Prunus africana in North-western Ethiopia. This is a floristically impoverished region where all but a few remnant forest patches have been destroyed, mostly by anthropogenic means. Results Genetic diversity (based on allelic richness) was significantly greater in large and less-isolated forest patches as well as in adults than seedlings. Nearly all pairwise FST comparisons showed evidence for significant population genetic differentiation. Mean FST values were significantly greater in seedlings than adults, even after correction for within population diversity, but varied little with patch size or isolation. Conclusions Analysis of long-lived adult trees suggests the formerly contiguous forest in North-western Ethiopia probably exhibited strong spatial patterns of genetic structure. This means that protecting a range of patches including small and isolated ones is needed to conserve the extant genetic resources of the valuable forests in this region. However, given the high livelihood dependence of the local community and the high impact of foreign investors on forest resources of this region, in situ conservation efforts alone may not be helpful. Therefore, these efforts should be supported with ex situ gene conservation actions. PMID:24602239
Background Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease resulting in progressive bilateral swelling of the lower legs in barefoot individuals exposed to red-clay soil derived from volcanic rocks. It is a considerable public health problem in countries across tropical Africa, Central America and northern India. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and clinical features of podoconiosis, and patients' experience of disease prevention and treatment, in Bedele Zuria woreda (district), west Ethiopia. Methods The study was conducted during 2011 and involved a house-to-house survey in all 2285 households of five randomly selected rural kebeles (villages). Results The prevalence of podoconiosis was 5.6% (379/6710) (95% CI 5.1–6.2%) and was significantly greater among women than men (6.6% vs 4.7%; p = 0.001). A total of 311 (16.9%) households had at least one member with podoconiosis, and 128 (33.8%) study participants reported having a blood relative with podoconiosis. Two hundred and forty-three (76.4%) podoconiosis patients were in the economically productive age group of 15–64 years. On average, a patient experienced at least six episodes of adenolymphangitis per year resulting in a loss of 25 working days per year. Conclusion This study has revealed a high burden of podoconiosis in west Ethiopia, and suggests that disease prevention and treatment programmes are needed. PMID:24030111
Tekola Ayele, Fasil; Alemu, Getahun; Davey, Gail; Ahrens, Christel
Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national guidelines for ANC in Ethiopia. Within the health system, the teaching of health professional students was given high priority, and that contributed to a lack of continuity and privacy. To the women, poor user-provider interaction was a serious concern hindering the trust in the health care providers. Further, the care provision was compromised by the inadequate laboratory facilities, unstructured health education, and lack of training of health professionals. Conclusions. Health system trials are needed to study the feasibility of ANC strengthening in the study area. Nationally and internationally, the leadership needs to be strengthened with supportive supervision geared towards building trust and mutual respect to protect maternal and infant health. PMID:25258631
Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje; GebreMariam, Abebe; Tilahun, Abebech; Friis, Henrik; Rasch, Vibeke
Background. Zinc deficiency occurs in infants when its demand exceeds its supply. It presents with cutaneous signs which, in severe cases, are associated with diarrhea, alopecia, and irritability. Genetic and acquired forms of zinc deficiency have been reported and often overlap clinical features. Malnutrition, prematurity, malabsorption syndromes, and burns may cause an increased demand for zinc. Methods. Cases of acquired transient infantile zinc deficiency (TIZD) observed during a period of 3 years at Ayder Referral Hospital of Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia, are reported here. Since no sophisticated tests were available at our center, the diagnosis was based on the clinical signs and prompt response to oral zinc supplementation. Results. We observed 18 cases of TIZD at our center. All patients were full-term and breastfeeding infants with no relevant associated diseases. Conclusions. In this region, a high incidence of this condition is observed. We could not rule out whether heterozygosity for the genetic mutation was present or that the disease was caused by a nutritional deficiency in the mothers or more probably because both the factors coexisted together. However, further studies are necessary to better understand the causes of the increased incidence of this disease in Northern Ethiopia.
Dassoni, Federica; Abebe, Zerihun; Ricceri, Federica; Morrone, Aldo
A study was undertaken with the objective to identify some intrinsic (genotype of the cow, estrus time and parity) and extrinsic factors (service type, service time and estrus seasons) that affect calf sex ratio in naturally and artificially bred cattle in the central highlands of Ethiopia. A total of 4657 calving events were extracted from the long-term dairy cattle genetic improvement experiment at Holetta Agricultural Research Center. Factors that affect the logit of the probability of a female calf being born were obtained by using PROC GENMODE in Statistical Analysis System. Moreover, multivariate analysis was performed using PROC LOGISTIC procedure using forward selection procedure. Accordingly, genotype of the cow, parity, estrus season, and service type had considerable influences on calf sex ratio. However, estrus time and service time did not affect calf sex ratio (?(2) = 0.83 and 0.79, respectively). In Ethiopia, smallholder dairy farmers often complain that artificial insemination (AI) skewed to producing more male calves. However, our study showed that AI did not alter female-to-male calf sex ratio. On the contrary, natural mating increases the probability of female calves born (odds ratio 1.38) over AI. Heifer/cows that showed estrus and bred during the harsh seasons of the years produced more female calves than those that bred during the good seasons of the year. This strongly agreed with Trivers and Willard sex allocation theory. PMID:24908336
Delesa, Effa Kefena; Yohannes, Aster; Alemayehu, Mengistu; Samuel, Temesgen; Yehualaeshet, Teshome
BackgroundEvidence for policy- and decision-making related to the cost of delivering tuberculosis (TB) control is lacking in Ethiopia. We aimed to determine the cost and cost-effectiveness of involving health extension workers (HEWs) in TB treatment under a community-based initiative in Ethiopia. This paper presents an ancillary cost-effectiveness analysis of data from a RCT, from which the main outcomes have already
Daniel G. Datiko; Bernt Lindtjørn; J. Jaime Miranda
Background Despite the importance of male circumcision (MC) prevalence to HIV prevention efforts in Eastern and Southern Africa, there has been no systematic analysis on the correlates of male circumcision. This analysis identifies correlates of MC in 12 countries in the region with available data. Methods Data from the male questionnaire of DHS surveys collected between 2006–2011 in Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed. The dependent variable was self-reported male circumcision status. Independent variables included age, education, wealth quintile, place of residence, ethnicity, religion and region. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted separately for each country. Results MC prevalence ranged from 8.2 percent in Swaziland to 92.2 percent in Ethiopia. Bivariate analyses showed a consistent positive association between age (being older) and male circumcision. Education, wealth quintile, and place of residence were either not significantly related or differed in the direction of the relationship by country. Multivariate logistic regression showed three variables consistently associated with MC status: age (being older), religion (being Muslim) and ethnicity. Discussion These data were collected prior to the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs in 11 of the 12 countries. As the VMMC scale-up intensifies in countries across Eastern and Southern Africa, the correlates of VMMC are likely to change, with (younger) age and education emerging as key correlates of VMMC performed in medical settings. The centuries-long tradition among Muslims to circumcise should continue to favor MC among this group. Non-circumcising ethnicities may become more open to MC if promoted as a health practice for decreasing HIV risk. PMID:24955963
Tram, Khai Hoan; Bertrand, Jane T.
Residents of the American South love food and various culinary delights, and have performed Epicurean wonders with everything from okra all the way to the legendary barbecue pits that can be found along just about every highway and byway in the region. Working with the Center for the Study of Southern Culture at the University of Mississippi, the Southern Foodways Alliance is dedicated to preserving and cultivating the various food cultures of the American South. These programs include an ongoing oral history project, recipe books, a series of field trips, and the annual Keeper of the Flame award, which is given to a foodways tradition "bearer of note." The site's features section includes tributes to jambalaya, South Georgia cheese, and some fine essays on legendary BBQ locales. The oral history initiative area is truly a wonder, as visitors can browse through two sections, one devoted to barbecue, and the other to the foodways traditions of the Mississippi Delta region.
Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.
The well known Documenting the American South Project (discussed in the April 18, 1997 Scout Report) has recently added this section, highlighted by twenty-five full texts, available in SGML (standard generalized markup language) and HTML formats. Included are A Diary From Dixie, by Mary Boykin Miller Chesnut, five works by the African American writer Charles Waddell Chesnutt, two works by Ellen Anderson Gholson Glasgow, Tales, by Edgar Allen Poe, and Up From Slavery, by Booker T. Washington. Images of covers, title pages, frontispieces, and illustrations may be available, depending on the work. In addition, there are explanatory introductions for selected authors. The site also includes a list of "the one hundred most important Southern literary texts" compiled by the late Professor Robert Bain, and an article from the Encyclopedia of Southern Culture.
This view of brushfires in Southern Africa, exact location unknown, raises questions concerning the overall global environmental effect of large scale biomass burning as an indicator of large scale conversion of tropical, closed canopy forests to pastoral and agricultural uses. Other concerns relate to the reduction of the biotic and genetic diversity in the global tropics and the relationship of biomass burning to atmospheric chemistries.
Landsat satellite images of Southern Vancouver Island are among the collection of the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's Images of Canada series (reviewed in the June 7, 2000 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). Below the full-color .jpeg images are tables documenting the satellites and sensors used, date of acquisition, image resolution, area (km), and links to a reference map. Educational, hyperlinked text about the featured region and close-ups of important topographic features accompany the images.
This intriguing resource on the Crustaceans of Southern Australia is provided by Dr. Gary Poore of the Museum of Victoria. Hundreds of images offer a peak into the diverse and colorful underwaters of Australia; images are accompanied by concise text, offering solid introductory information on the biology of marine crustaceans. Users will find this a worthy educational tool to learn more about Australian crustaceans from barnacles to crabs, ghost shrimps to lobsters.
This SeaWiFS true-color image acquired over Southern Africa on Sept. 4, 2000, shows a thick shroud of smoke and haze blanketing much of the southern half of the continent. The smoke in this scene is being generated by a tremendous number of fires burning over a large area across the countries of Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and the Northern Province of South Africa. In this image, the smoke (grey pixels) is easily distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels). Refer to the Images and Data section for a larger scale view of the fires in Southern Africa. Data from both the SeaWiFS and Terra satellites are being used by an international team of scientists participating in the SAFARI field experiment. The objective of SAFARI is to measure the effects of windblown smoke and dust on air quality and the Earth's radiant energy budget. This image was produced using SeaWiFS channels 6, 5, and 1 (centered at 670 nm, 555 nm , and 412 nm, respectively). The data were acquired and provided by the Satellite Applications Center in Pretoria, South Africa. Image courtesy Gene Feldman, SeaWiFS Project and Orbital Sciences
BackgroundTuberculosis (TB) is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, making the risk of infection transmission high in these countries. Despite high prevalence of TB and expected high probability of nosocomial transmission in Ethiopia, a rapid assessment done in 2008 revealed that most health facilities in Ethiopia do not use tuberculosis infection control (TBIC) practices. Patients and providers are therefore at risk of exposure to TB, especially at high case load facilities. The purpose of this study was to assess TBIC knowledge and practices among health professionals working in hospitals in the Amhara region of Northwest Ethiopia.MethodsAn institution-based hybrid study was implemented form August 2010 to January 2011. The subjects were health professionals who were proportionally selected from each hospital. Subjects self-administered a questionnaire that contained sections on socio-demographics and on TBIC knowledge and practice. Those answering ¿60% of knowledge questions correctly and ¿50% of practice questions correctly were considered to have good knowledge and practice, respectively.ResultsA total of 313 healthcare professionals were enrolled from four healthcare facilities. The response rate was 96%. Only 18.8% received in-service training. Among those who were trained, 74.4%, 95% CI (69.6, 79.3%) were found to have good knowledge and 63.2%, 95% CI (57.9, 68.6%) good practice on TBIC. Training was found to be a predictor of TBIC knowledge, AOR* 3.386 and 95% CI (1.377, 8.330) while knowledge of TBIC was a strong predictor of good TBIC practice, AOR* 10.667 and 95% CI (5.769, 19.721).ConclusionsThough the majority of the respondents had good TBIC knowledge and practice, a considerable proportion of healthcare professionals were not trained on TBIC. Respondents trained on TBIC were found to be more knowledgeable than those not trained. Similarly, respondents with good TBIC knowledge were 10 times more likely to have good TBIC practice compared to those with poor TBIC knowledge. Training was not found to have an effect on TBIC practice.* Adjusted Odds Ratio. PMID:25406598
Temesgen, Chanie; Demissie, Meaza
Background Development strategies in Ethiopia have largely focused on the expansion of irrigated agriculture in the last decade to reduce poverty and promote economic growth. However, such irrigation schemes can worsen the socio-economic state by aggravating the problem of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study, the effect of agro-ecosystem practices on malaria prevalence and the risk of malaria transmission by the primary vector mosquito, Anopheles arabiensis, in Ethiopia were investigated. Methods In three villages in western Ethiopia practising large-scale sugarcane irrigation, traditional smallholder irrigation and non-irrigated farming, cross-sectional parasitological surveys were conducted during the short rains, after the long rains and during the dry season. Entomological surveys were undertaken monthly (February 2010-January 2011) in each village using light traps, pyrethrum spray collections and artificial pit shelters. Results Malaria prevalence and the risk of transmission by An. arabiensis assessed by the average human biting rate, mean sporozoite rate and estimated annual entomological inoculation rate were significantly higher in the irrigated sugarcane agro-ecosystem compared to the traditionally irrigated and non-irrigated agro-ecosystems. The average human biting rate was significantly elevated by two-fold, while the mean sporozoite rate was 2.5-fold higher, and the annual entomological inoculation rate was 4.6 to 5.7-fold higher in the irrigated sugarcane compared to the traditional and non-irrigated agro-ecosystems. Active irrigation clearly affected malaria prevalence by increasing the abundance of host seeking Anopheles mosquitoes year-round and thus increasing the risk of infective bites. The year-round presence of sporozoite-infected vectors due to irrigation practices was found to strengthen the coupling between rainfall and risk of malaria transmission, both on- and off-season. Conclusion This study demonstrates the negative impact of large-scale irrigation expansion on malaria transmission by increasing the abundance of mosquito vectors and indicates the need for effective vector monitoring and control strategies in the implementation of irrigation projects. PMID:24083353
Background In the context of the massive scale up of malaria interventions, there is increasing recognition that the current capacity of routine malaria surveillance conducted in most African countries through integrated health management information systems is inadequate. The timeliness of reporting to higher levels of the health system through health management information systems is often too slow for rapid action on focal infectious diseases such as malaria. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) describe the implementation of a malaria sentinel surveillance system in Ethiopia to help fill this gap; 2) describe data use for epidemic detection and response as well as programmatic decision making; and 3) discuss lessons learned in the context of creating and running this system. Case description As part of a comprehensive strategy to monitor malaria trends in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia, a system of ten malaria sentinel sites was established to collect data on key malaria morbidity and mortality indicators. To ensure the sentinel surveillance system provides timely, actionable data, the sentinel facilities send aggregate data weekly through short message service (SMS) to a central database server. Bland-Altman plots and Poisson regression models were used to investigate concordance of malaria indicator reports and malaria trends over time, respectively. Discussion This paper describes three implementation challenges that impacted system performance in terms of: 1) ensuring a timely and accurate data reporting process; 2) capturing complete and accurate patient-level data; and 3) expanding the usefulness and generalizability of the system’s data to monitor progress towards the national malaria control goals of reducing malaria deaths and eventual elimination of transmission. Conclusions The use of SMS for reporting surveillance data was identified as a promising practice for accurately tracking malaria trends in Oromia. The rapid spread of this technology across Africa offers promising opportunities to collect and disseminate surveillance data in a timely way. High quality malaria surveillance in Ethiopia remains a resource intensive activity and extending the generalizability of sentinel surveillance findings to other contexts remains a major limitation of these strategies. PMID:24618105
The Late Palaeozoic sediments in northern Ethiopia record a series of depositional environments during and after the Late Paleozoic ice age (LPIA). These sediments are up to 200 m thick and exceptionally heterogeneous in lithofacies composition. A differentiation of numerous types of lithofacies associations forms the basis for the interpretation of a large range of depositional processes. Major glacigenic lithofacies associations include: (1) sheets of diamictite, either overlying glacially eroded basement surfaces or intercalated into the sediment successions, and representing subglacial tillites, (2) thick massive to weakly stratified muddy clast-poor diamictites to lonestone-bearing laminated mudstones originating from a combination of suspension settling of fines and iceberg rainout, (3) lensoidal or thin-bedded diamictites deposited from debris flows, (4) wedges of traction and gravity transported coarse-grained sediments deposited in outwash fans, (5) irregular wedges or sheets of mudstones deformed primarily by extension and incorporating deformed beds or rafts of other lithofacies formed by slumping, and (6) irregular bodies of sandstone, conglomerate and diamictite deformed by glacial pushing. The dominance of laminated or massive clast-bearing mudstones in most successions indicates ice-contact water bodies as the major depositional environment. Into this environment, coarse-grained sediments were transported by various gravity driven transport processes, including dropstone activity of ice-bergs, slumping, cohesive debris flow, hyperconcentrated to concentrated flow, hyperpycnal flow, and by turbidity flow. Close to glacier termini, wedge-shaped bodies of conglomerate, sandstone, diamictite and mudstone were deposited primarily in subaqueous outwash-fans. Soft-sediment deformation of these sediments either records ice push during glacier advance or re-sedimentation by slumping. Apart from an initial glacier advance when thick ice of temperate or polythermal glaciers covered the whole basin, many sections document at least a second major phase of ice advance and retreat, and some sections additional minor advance-retreat cycles. Whether most of the LPIA sediments in northern Ethiopia were deposited in lakes or in fjords is not yet clear. Although univocal evidence of marine conditions is missing, the presence of carbonate-rich beds and the trace fossil assemblage are compatible with a restricted marine environment such as broad palaeofjords affected by strong freshwater discharge during deglaciation. A restricted marine environment for most of the sediments in northern Ethiopia could challenge models of the LPIA sediments in Arabia as primarily glaciolacustrine and glaciofluviatile deposits.
Background Ethiopia is one of the ten countries with the highest number of neonatal deaths globally, and only 1 in 10 women deliver with a skilled attendant. Promotion of essential newborn care practices is one strategy for improving newborn health outcomes that can be delivered in communities as well as facilities. This article describes newborn care practices reported by recently-delivered women (RDWs) in four regions of Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a household survey with two-stage cluster sampling to assess newborn care practices among women who delivered a live baby in the period 1 to 7 months prior to data collection. Results The majority of women made one antenatal care (ANC) visit to a health facility, although less than half made four or more visits and women were most likely to deliver their babies at home. About one-fifth of RDWs in this survey had contact with Health Extension Workers (HEWS) during ANC, but nurse/midwives were the most common providers, and few women had postnatal contact with any health provider. Common beneficial newborn care practices included exclusive breastfeeding (87.6%), wrapping the baby before delivery of the placenta (82.3%), and dry cord care (65.2%). Practices contrary to WHO recommendations that were reported in this population of recent mothers include bathing during the first 24 hours of life (74.7%), application of butter and other substances to the cord (19.9%), and discarding of colostrum milk (44.5%). The results suggest that there are not large differences for most essential newborn care indicators between facility and home deliveries, with the exception of delayed bathing and skin-to-skin care. Conclusions Improving newborn care and newborn health outcomes in Ethiopia will likely require a multifaceted approach. Given low facility delivery rates, community-based promotion of preventive newborn care practices, which has been effective in other settings, is an important strategy. For this strategy to be successful, the coverage of counseling delivered by HEWs and other community volunteers should be increased. PMID:24289501
Background The highlands of Ethiopia, situated between 1,500 and 2,500 m above sea level, experienced severe malaria epidemics. Despite the intensive control attempts, underway since 2005 and followed by an initial decline, the disease remained a major public health concern. The aim of this study was to identify malaria risk factors in highland-fringe south-central Ethiopia. Methods This study was conducted in six rural kebeles of Butajira area located 130 km south of Addis Ababa, which are part of demographic surveillance site in Meskan and Mareko Districts, Ethiopia. Using a multistage sampling technique 750 households was sampled to obtain the 3,398 people, the estimated sample size for this study. Six repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted from October 2008 to June 2010. Multilevel, mixed-effects logistic regression models fitted to Plasmodium infection status (positive or negative) and six variables. Both fixed- and random-effects differences in malaria infection were estimated using median odds ratio and interval odds ratio 80%. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the strength of association. Results Overall, 19,207 individuals were sampled in six surveys (median and inter-quartile range value three). Six of the five variables had about two-fold to eight-fold increase in prevalence of malaria. Furthermore, among these variables, October-November survey seasons of both during 2008 and 2009 were strongly associated with increased prevalence of malaria infection. Children aged below five years (adjusted OR= 3.62) and children aged five to nine years (adj. OR= 3.39), low altitude (adj. OR= 5.22), mid-level altitude (adj. OR= 3.80), houses with holes (adj. OR= 1.59), survey seasons such as October-November 2008 (adj. OR= 7.84), January-February 2009 (adj. OR= 2.33), June-July 2009 (adj. OR=3.83), October-November 2009 (adj. OR= 7.71), and January-February 2010 (adj. OR= 3.05) were associated with increased malaria infection. The estimates of cluster variances revealed differences in malaria infection. The village-level intercept variance for the individual-level predictor (0.71 [95% CI: 0.28-1.82]; SE=0.34) and final (0.034, [95% CI: 0.002-0.615]; SE=0.05) were lower than that of empty (0.80, [95% CI: 0.32-2.01]; SE=0.21). Conclusion Malaria control efforts in highland fringes must prioritize children below ten years in designing transmission reduction of malaria elimination strategy. PMID:23914971
Background: Natural and man-made disasters are prevailing in Ethiopia mainly due to drought, floods, landslides, earthquake, volcanic eruptions, and disease epidemics. Few studies so far have critically reviewed about medical responses to disasters and little information exists pertaining to the initiatives being undertaken by health sector from the perspective of basic disaster management cycle. This article aimed to review emergency health responses to disasters and other related interventions which have been undertaken in the health sector. Methods: Relevant documents were identified by searches in the websites of different sectors in Ethiopian and international non-governmental organizations and United Nations agencies. Using selected keywords, articles were also searched in the data bases of Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google Scholar. In addition, pertinent articles from non-indexed journals were referred to. Results: Disaster management system in Ethiopia focused on response, recovery, and rehabilitation from 1974 to 1988; while the period between 1988 and 1993 marked the transition phase towards a more comprehensive approach. Theoretically, from 1993 onwards, the disaster management system has fully integrated the mitigation, prevention, and preparedness phases into already existing response and recovery approach, particularly for drought. This policy has changed the emergency response practices and the health sector has taken some initiatives in the area of emergency health care. Hence, drought early warning system, therapeutic feeding program in hospitals, health centers and posts in drought prone areas to manage promptly acute malnutrition cases have all been put in place. In addition, public health disease emergencies have been responded to at all levels of health care system. Conclusions: Emergency health responses to drought and its ramifications such as acute malnutrition and epidemics have become more comprehensive in the context of basic disaster management phases; and impacts of drought and epidemics seem to be declining. However, the remaining challenge is to address disasters arising from other hazards such as flooding in terms of mitigation, prevention, preparedness and integrating them in the health care system. Key Words: Disaster, Emergency Health, Health System, Ethiopia PMID:24707445
Tadesse, Luche; Ardalan, Ali
18 Secrets of the Southern Ocean 28 Inventions Bridge the Gap 32 Activism Shapes Africa Scholar D I by Elle Stark) #12;18 Secrets of the Southern Ocean C O N T E N T S D I S C O V E R Y : R E S E A R C H glimpse into the wintertime conditions of the Southern Ocean south of Africa. Princeton researchers
The cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples has been a subject of many studies spanning atleast over a century. Some of the studies were biased against the notion that Southern African could have any interest in studying the natural environment to benefit their societies. In this chapter, I summarize the current knowledge about cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples and highlight points of further research.
Medupe, Thebe Rodney
This is a descriptive prospective study on abortion patients admitted to Jimma Hospital, south west Ethiopia from September 1992 to August 1993. Forty four Percent (N = 285) of the patients admitted were interviewed using a questionnaire. Fifty three percent (N = 151) had induced while the remaining had spontaneous abortion. Patients with induced abortion were younger (P = 0.0000) and had smaller family size (P = 0.06283) than patients with spontaneous abortion. Induced abortion was more common among students (30.9%) and those with secondary education (71.8%) whereas spontaneous abortion was most common among housewives (64.4%). Almost 50% of the patients with induced abortion were married. Eighty two percent of all interviewed had unwanted pregnancies. The contraceptive methods most commonly used were the pill and abstinence. Fifty patients got pregnant while on the pill. The most common reason for not using contraceptives or discontinuation was the side effects associated with the pill. PMID:8997846
Background Ethiopia plans to increase its electricity power supply by five-fold over the next five years to fulfill the needs of its people and support the economic growth based on large hydropower dams. Building large dams for hydropower generation may increase the transmission of malaria since they transform ecosystems and create new vector breeding habitats. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Gilgel-Gibe hydroelectric dam in Ethiopia on malaria transmission and changing levels of prevalence in children. Methods A cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out between October and December 2005 in Jimma Zone, south-western Ethiopia, among children under 10 years of age living in three 'at-risk' villages (within 3 km from dam) and three 'control' villages (5 to 8 km from dam). The man-made Gilgel-Gibe dam is operating since 2004. Households with children less than 10 years of age were selected and children from the selected households were sampled from all the six villages. This included 1,081 children from 'at-risk' villages and 774 children from 'control' villages. Blood samples collected from children using finger prick were examined microscopically to determine malaria prevalence, density of parasitaemia and identify malarial parasite species. Results Overall 1,855 children (905 girls and 950 boys) were surveyed. A total of 194 (10.5%) children were positive for malaria, of which, 117 (60.3%) for Plasmodium vivax, 76 (39.2%) for Plasmodium falciparum and one (0.5%) for both P. vivax and P. falciparum. A multivariate design-based analysis indicated that, while controlling for age, sex and time of data collection, children who resided in 'at-risk' villages close to the dam were more likely to have P. vivax infection than children who resided farther away (odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15, 2.32) and showed a higher OR to have P. falciparum infection than children who resided in 'control' villages, but this was not significant (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 0.84, 6.88). A classification tree revealed insights in the importance of the dam as a risk factor for malaria. Assuming that the relationship between the dam and malaria is causal, 43% of the malaria occurring in children was due to living in close proximity to the dam. Conclusion This study indicates that children living in close proximity to a man-made reservoir in Ethiopia are at higher risk of malaria compared to those living farther away. It is recommended that sound prevention and control programme be designed and implemented around the reservoir to reduce the prevalence of malaria. In this respect, in localities near large dams, health impact assessment through periodic survey of potential vectors and periodic medical screening is warranted. Moreover, strategies to mitigate predicted negative health outcomes should be integral parts in the preparation, construction and operational phases of future water resource development and management projects. PMID:19178727
Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Legesse, Worku; Van Bortel, Wim; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Kloos, Helmut; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko
Based on data generated from 180 randomly selected households with children age under five years old in Aysaita district of Afar region of Ethiopia, this study explored prevalence of malnutrition and scrutinized household characteristics, maternal characteristics, specifics of the child and economic variables associated with child malnutrition. The height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-height Z-scores (WHZ) and weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ) were used to measure the extent of stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively. The results revealed that prevalence of long term nutritional imbalance and malnutrition status indicator (i.e. stunting) was 67.8%. The short term measure (wasting) was found to be 12.8% and underweight was found to be 46.1%. Moreover, children in households which are headed by women, and characterized by more dependency ratio, less access to assets, health services and institutions are more likely to be undernourished. PMID:23610605
Fentaw, Rabia; Abebaw, Degnet
A total of 147 children, aged from six months to six years were examined for signs of xerophthalmia in a village in Arsi zone of Ethiopia. Night blindness, Bitot's spots, corneal ulceration and corneal scars were observed in 17.0%, 26.5%, 2.7% and 0.7% of the children respectively. The concentration of serum retinol was measured in all children with xerophthalmia and every twentieth of the remaining children. Serum retinol levels were in the deficient range (< 0.35 mumol/I) in 31.9% and low (0.35-0.69 mumol/I) in 48.9% of the children. There was a higher prevalence of stunting (24.5%) than wasting (18.4%) with an additional 10.2% of children being both stunted and wasted. The prevalence of diarrhoea was twice as high in children with xerophthalmia than children without (p < 0.01). PMID:8756032
Tafesse, Y; Fisseha, T; Umeta, M; Hidar, J; Teka, W
In 2008, Ethiopia implemented tuberculosis (TB) treatment registers that included columns for recording human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test results (integrated registers) to replace the previous system of separate TB and HIV registers (pre-integration registers). We compared the proportion of children with documented HIV rapid test results at eight hospitals before and after adopting the integrated registers. HIV status was more consistently documented in the integrated registers; however, HIV status for infants aged <18 months could not be assessed, as the registers did not capture results from polymerase chain reaction-based testing. Recording procedures should be revised to document age-appropriate HIV diagnostic results and ensure referral for appropriate care. PMID:22417732
Click, E S; Feleke, B; Pevzner, E; Fantu, R; Gadisa, T; Assefa, D; Melaku, Z; Cain, K; Menzies, H
THE potassium-argon ages presented here were obtained during 1966 to 1969 in order to provide an absolute time scale for the stratigraphic work by the international Omo Research Expedition in the Pliocene/Pleistocene formations (unpublished work of F. H. B., J. de Heinzelin and F. C. Howell) in south-west Ethiopia. Although some of these dates are not new1-3, most of the analytical procedures and data have not been presented. We also present a list of fossil localities recorded by the University of Chicago contingent of the expedition within the Shungura Formation. Preliminary descriptions of the Hominidae have been published already3,4. ?? 1971 Nature Publishing Group.
Brown, F.H.; Lajoie, K.R.
Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.
Poverty, hunger and demand for agricultural land have driven local communities to overexploit forest resources throughout Ethiopia. Forests surrounding the township of Humbo were largely destroyed by the late 1960s. In 2004, World Vision Australia and World Vision Ethiopia identified forestry-based carbon sequestration as a potential means to stimulate community development while engaging in environmental restoration. After two years of consultation, planning and negotiations, the Humbo Community-based Natural Regeneration Project began implementation--the Ethiopian organization's first carbon sequestration initiative. The Humbo Project assists communities affected by environmental degradation including loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and flooding with an opportunity to benefit from carbon markets while reducing poverty and restoring the local agroecosystem. Involving the regeneration of 2,728 ha of degraded native forests, it brings social, economic and ecological benefits--facilitating adaptation to a changing climate and generating temporary certified emissions reductions (tCERs) under the Clean Development Mechanism. A key feature of the project has been facilitating communities to embrace new techniques and take responsibility for large-scale environmental change, most importantly involving Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR). This technique is low-cost, replicable, and provides direct benefits within a short time. Communities were able to harvest fodder and firewood within a year of project initiation and wild fruits and other non-timber forest products within three years. Farmers are using agroforestry for both environmental restoration and income generation. Establishment of user rights and local cooperatives has generated community ownership and enthusiasm for this project--empowering the community to more sustainably manage their communal lands. PMID:21132292
Brown, Douglas R; Dettmann, Paul; Rinaudo, Tony; Tefera, Hailu; Tofu, Assefa
Formalized task shifting structures have been used to rapidly scale up antiretroviral service delivery to underserved populations in several countries, and may be a promising mechanism for accomplishing universal health coverage. However, studies evaluating the quality of service delivery through task shifting have largely ignored the patient perspective, focusing on health outcomes and acceptability to health care providers and regulatory bodies, despite studies worldwide that have shown the significance of patient satisfaction as an indicator of quality. This study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in hospitals and health centres in four regions of Ethiopia. This cross-sectional study used data collected from a time-motion study of patient services paired with 665 patient exit interviews in a stratified random sample of antiretroviral therapy clinics in 21 hospitals and 40 health centres in 2012. Data were analyzed using f-tests across provider types, and multivariate logistic regression to identify determinants of patient satisfaction. Most (528 of 665) patients were satisfied or somewhat satisfied with the services received, but patients who received services from nurses and health officers were significantly more likely to report satisfaction than those who received services from doctors [odds ratio (OR) 0.26, P < 0.01]. Investments in the health facility were associated with higher satisfaction (OR 1.07, P < 0.01), while costs to patients of over 120 birr were associated with lower satisfaction (OR 0.14, P < 0.05). This study showed high levels of patient satisfaction with task shifting in Ethiopia. The evidence generated by this study complements previous biomedical and health care provider/regulatory acceptability studies to support the inclusion of task shifting as a mechanism for scaling-up health services to achieve universal health coverage, particularly for underserved areas facing severe health worker shortages. PMID:25274640
Asfaw, Elias; Dominis, Sarah; Palen, John G H; Wong, Wendy; Bekele, Abebe; Kebede, Amha; Johns, Benjamin
Introduction The role of microbial translocation (MT) in HIV patients living with HIV from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is not fully known. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the patterns of MT in patients from Vietnam, Ethiopia and Sweden. Methods Cross-sectional samples were obtained from treatment-naïve patients living with HIV-1 and healthy controls from Vietnam (n=83; n=46), Ethiopia (n=9492; n=50) and Sweden (n=51; n=19). Longitudinal samples were obtained from a subset of the Vietnamese (n=24) in whom antiretroviral therapy (ART) and tuberculostatics were given. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sCD14 and anti-flagellin IgG were determined by the endpoint chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results All three biomarkers were significantly increased in patients living with HIV-1 from all countries as compared to controls. No differences were found between males and females. Vietnamese and Ethiopian patients had significantly higher levels of anti-flagellin IgG and LPS, as compared to Swedes. ART reduced these levels for the Vietnamese. Vietnamese patients given tuberculostatics at initiation of ART had significantly lower levels of anti-flagellin IgG and higher sCD14. The biomarkers were lower in Vietnamese who did not develop opportunistic infection. Conclusions Higher MT is common in patients living with HIV compared to healthy individuals, and in patients from LMICs compared to patients from a high-income country. Treatment with tuberculostatics decreased MT while higher levels of MT are associated with a poorer clinical outcome. PMID:24461466
Abdurahman, Samir; Barqasho, Babilonia; Nowak, Piotr; Cuong, Do Duy; Amogne, Wondwossen; Larsson, Mattias; Lindquist, Lars; Marrone, Gaetano; Sönnerborg, Anders
A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in the different agro-climatic zones prevailing in Ethiopia. A total of 2368 serum samples were collected from 42 kebeles located in 15 districts and tested using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and virus neutralization test (VNT). The herd and animal true LSD serological prevalence were estimated in each agro-climate zone using a Bayesian model. The intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) was evaluated using a random-effect model. According to the serological prevalence estimations, LSD affected differently the three agro-climatic zones considered. Herd level seroprevalence was higher in the midland agro-climate zone 64% (95% CI: 53-74) as compared to the highland 26% (95% CI: 17-36) and the lowland 50% (95% CI: 40-60) agro-climates. Animal level seroprevalence in infected herds was also higher in the midland agro-climate zone 31% (95% CI: 24-40) than in the highland and lowland zones (24% (95% CI: 18-31) and 23% (95% CI: 18-29), respectively). Higher ICC value in the highland agro-climate zone implies that increased sample sizes should be particularly required for this zone in future studies to estimate LSD prevalence or incidence with a desired precision level. This seroprevalence study also suggests that the prevalence of LSD infection in Ethiopia is higher than what has been previously reported. In the light of these updated estimations, we discuss options to trigger appropriate control measures in the future. PMID:22569562
Gari, G; Grosbois, V; Waret-Szkuta, A; Babiuk, S; Jacquiet, P; Roger, F
Many global health practitioners are currently reaffirming the importance of recruiting and retaining effective community health workers (CHWs) in order to achieve major public health goals. This raises policy-relevant questions about why people become and remain CHWs. This paper addresses these questions, drawing on ethnographic work in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, between 2006 and 2009, and in Chimoio, a provincial town in central Mozambique, between 2003 and 2010. Participant observation and in-depth interviews were used to understand the life histories that lead people to become CHWs, their relationships with intended beneficiaries after becoming CHWs, and their social and economic aspirations. People in Ethiopia and Mozambique have faced similar political and economic challenges in the last few decades, involving war, structural adjustment, and food price inflation. Results suggest that these challenges, as well as the socio-moral values that people come to uphold through the example of parents and religious communities, influence why and how men and women become CHWs. Relationships with intended beneficiaries strongly influence why people remain CHWs, and why some may come to experience frustration and distress. There are complex reasons why CHWs come to seek greater compensation, including desires to escape poverty and to materially support families and other community members, a sense of deservingness given the emotional and social work involved in maintaining relationships with beneficiaries, and inequity vis-à-vis higher-salaried elites. Ethnographic work is needed to engage CHWs in the policy process, help shape new standards for CHW programs based on rooting out social and economic inequities, and develop appropriate solutions to complex CHW policy problems. PMID:23631778
Maes, Kenneth; Kalofonos, Ippolytos
Background The actual burden and causative agent of tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) cases is not well known due to lack of strong surveillance system and diagnostic facilities in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of TBLN, its causative agent and risk factors for acquiring this infection. Me