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Sample records for abdominal aorta morphometric

  1. Color Doppler ultrasonography of the abdominal aorta

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, S.; Danesino, G.M.; Danesino, V.; Castellani, S.

    2010-01-01

    Alterations of the abdominal aorta are relatively common, particularly in older people. Technological advances in the fields of ultrasonography, computed tomography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging have greatly increased the imaging options for the assessment of these lesions. Because it can be done rapidly and is also non-invasive, ultrasonography plays a major role in the exploration of the abdominal aorta, from its emergence from the diaphragm to its bifurcation. It is indicated for the diagnosis and follow-up of various aortic diseases, especially aneurysms. It can be used to define the shape, size, and location of these lesions, the absence or presence of thrombi and their characteristics. It is also useful for monitoring the evolution of the lesion and for postoperative follow-up. However, its value is limited in surgical planning and in emergency situations. PMID:23396814

  2. [Surgery of abdominal aorta with horseshoe kidney].

    PubMed

    Lotina, S L; Davidovi?, L B; Kosti?, D M; Velimirovi?, D V; Petrovi?, P Lj; Perisi?-Savi?, M V; Kovacevi?N S

    1997-01-01

    Seventy one surgical procedures on abdominal aorta in patients with horseshoe kidney have been reported in literature until 1980. Bergan reviewed 30 operations of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in these patients until 1974. Of them 3 AAA were ruptured. Gutowitz noticed 57 surgically treated AAA in patients with horseshoe kidney until 1984. Over the period from 1991 to 1996 thirty nine new cases were reported , including 2 ruptured AAA. The surgery of the abdominal aorta in patients with horseshoe kidney is associated with the following major problems: -reservation of anomalous (aberrant) renal arteries; reservation of the kidney excretory system; approach to the abdominal aorta (especially in patients with AAA) and graft placement The aim of the paper is the presentation of 5 new patients operated for abdominal aorta with horseshoe kidney. Over the last 12 years (January 1, 1984 to December 31, 1996) at the Centre of Vascular Surgery of the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases of the Clinical Centre of Serbia, 5 patients with horseshoe kidney underwent surgery of the abdominal aorta. There were 4 male and one female patients whose average age was 57.8 years (50-70). Patient 1. A 50-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital for disabling claudication discomforts (Fontan stadium IlI) and with significantly decreased Ankle-Brachial indexes (ABI). The translumbal aortography showed aorto-iliac occlusive disease and horseshoe kidney with two normal and one anomalous renal artery originating from infrarenal aorta (Crawford type II). Intravenous pyelography and retrograde urography showed two separated ureters. The aorto-bifemoral (AFF) bypass with Dacron graft was done with end-to-end (TT) proximal anastomosis just under the anomalous renal artery. The graft was placed behind the isthmus. During a 12-year follow-up renal failure, renovascular hypertension and graft occlusion were not observed. Patient 2. A 53-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital for symptomatic AAA. Two years before admission the patient underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. The Duplex scan ultrasonography and translumbal aortography showed an infrarenal AAA, aneurysm of the right iliac artery and horseshoe kidney with two normal and one anomalous renal artery originating from the left iliac artery (Crawford type III). Intravenous pyelography and retrograde urography showed two separated ureters. After partial aneurysmectomy, the flow was restaured using bifurcated Dacron graft placed behind the isthmus. The right limb of the bifurcated graft was anastomosed with the common femoral artery and the left limb with left iliac artery just above the origin of the anomalous renal artery. The first day after operation thrombosis of the left common femoral artery with leg ischaemia was observed. (That artery was cannulated for ECC during coronary artery bypass grafting 2 years ago). The revascularisation of the left leg was done with femoro-femoral cross over bypass. During a 11-year follow-up period, the graft was patent and renal failure or revascular hypertension were not observed. Patient 3. A 66-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital for rest pain (Fontan stadium III) and significantly decreased ABI. The patient had diabetes mellitus and myocardial infarction two months before admission. Translumbar aortography showed an aorto-iliac occlusive disease associated with horseshoe kidney with 5 anomalous renal arteries. (Crawford type III). Due to high risk, the axillo-bifemoral (AxFF) extra-anatomic bypass graft was performed. Five years after the operation the patient died due to new myocardial infarction. During the follow-up period the graft was patent and there were no signs of renal failure and renovascular hypertension. Patient 4. A 50-year old male patient was admitted to the hospital for high asymptomatic AAA. The diagnosis was established by Duplex scan and translumbal aortography. The large infrarenal AAA (transverse diameter 7 cm) associated with horseshoe kidney with two normal renal arteries (Crawford type I) were

  3. ["Arteriosclerotic" aneurysm of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Stein, S D; Baldi, T; Uthoff, H; Jäger, K A

    2010-09-01

    We present a patient with an aortic aneurysm and the epidemiology, etiology, screening, symptoms and therapeutic options of abdominal aortic aneurysms are discussed. A widening of the abdominal aorta >3 cm is termed aortic aneurysm. As patients with aortic aneurysm are mostly oligosymptomatic until rupture occurs and an estimated 30,000 patients annually die from ruptured aortic aneurysm in the US a screening of the population at greatest risk (smokers, familial predisposition) is recommended. Screening is best done by ultrasound. Noninvasive therapy is limited to antiplatelet therapy and optimal adjustment of risk factors. For definitive treatment endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is considered an established alternative to open surgery with lower 30 days mortality but higher reintervention rate. PMID:20824610

  4. Coarctation of the abdominal aorta: pathophysiologic and therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, H W; Dean, R H; Boerth, R; Sawyers, J L; Meacham, P; Fisher, R D

    1979-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is the most frequent cause of hypertension in infants and children. Ninety-eight per cent of coarctations occur in the descending aorta near the ligamentum arteriosus. Five patients are presented with the relatively rare problem of coarctation of the abdominal aorta. The anatomic,pathophysiologic and clinical aspects in these patients cover a range of variants. Clinical and laboratory studies of the genesis of hypertension in coarctation are reviewed in chronologic outline. An experimental model of abdominal coarctation with hypertensive and renin-angiotensin II correlations suggests but does not prove a renal mechanism for the hypertension. The same conclusion must be drawn from study of the clinical cases. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:378141

  5. Computed tomography of the postoperative abdominal aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, S.; Megibow, A.J.; Naidich, D.P.; Bosniak, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was performed on 46 patients who had undergone graft replacement of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Twelve post-operative complications were found in nine patients. They included hemorrhage, infection, anastomotic pseudoaneurysms, major vessel occlusion, postoperative pancreatitis, and others. The varied apperance of the normal postoperative graft is also presented. It is concluded that CT is a rapid, sensitive, and noninvasive method for detecting or excluding postoperative complications of abdominal aortic surgery.

  6. Computed Tomographic Angiography of the Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) angiography (CTA) has become the preferred imaging test of choice for various aortic conditions because of its excellent spatial resolution, rapid image acquisition, and its wide availability. CTA provides a robust tool for planning aortic interventions and diagnosing acute and chronic vascular diseases in the abdomen. CTA is the standard for imaging aneurysms before intervention and evaluating the aorta in the acute setting to assess traumatic injury, dissection, and aneurysm rupture. Knowledge of the imaging features of these disease processes, inflammatory vasculitides, and occlusive atherosclerotic disease is essential for guiding surgical and medical management of patients. PMID:26654390

  7. An Abdominal Aorta Wall Extraction for Liver Cirrhosis Classification Using Ultrasonic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takaya; Fujita, Yusuke; Mitani, Yoshihiro; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Segawa, Makoto; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method to extract an abdominal aorta wall from an M-mode image. Furthermore, we propose the use of a Gaussian filter in order to improve image quality. The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter is effective in the abdominal aorta wall extraction.

  8. Simultaneous inflammatory pseudotumors of the coronary arteries and abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Wada, Tomoyuki; Anai, Hirofumi; Morita, Masato; Shuto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    We herein report a rare case of cardiac and abdominal aortic inflammatory pseudotumors (IPTs). A 64-year-old male presented with a loss of appetite, abdominal distension and general fatigue. A cardiac tumor was suspected on the basis of computed tomography scans. A needle biopsy was performed, but it did not lead to a definitive diagnosis. At the same time, a 70-mm abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was also detected. A full sternotomy was performed, and a huge, elastic hard tumor was found around the bilateral coronary arteries, anterior side of the right atria, ascending aorta and pulmonary artery. The pathological diagnosis was IPT, which was judged to be inoperable because of its anatomical location and the fact that the patient was a Jehovah's Witness, which precluded the administration of heterologous blood transfusions. The AAA was surgically treated, and the pathological diagnosis of the aneurysmal tissue also revealed IPT. Perioral steroid therapy was initiated, and the size of the tumor did not change for 1-2 years, but then gradually increased. The patient eventually died 8 years later, and the cause of his sudden death was considered to be heart failure caused by the pressure on the right atrium and ventricle due to the enlarged cardiac tumor. PMID:24254060

  9. Pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta diagnosed by color duplex Doppler sonography.

    PubMed

    Ertürk, H; Erden, A; Yurdakul, M; Caliko?lu, U; Olçer, T; Cumhur, T

    1999-05-01

    A pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta is rare, accounting for only 1% of all abdominal aneurysms. More than 1 imaging method may be needed to demonstrate an abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm. We report a case in which the presence of continuous bidirectional flow in the neck of a pseudoaneurysm on color duplex Doppler sonography confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:10323192

  10. Two-Stage Endovascular Repair for Concurrent Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcers of the Thoracic and Abdominal Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Kang Seok; Kwun, Woo Hyung; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Duk-Sil; Kim, Sung-Wan

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of concurrent saccular aneurysms caused by a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the thoracic and abdominal aorta that were successfully treated by staged endovascular repair. Even though surgical open repair or endovascular repair is the treatment option, use of endovascular repair is now accepted as an alternative treatment to surgery in selected patients. To prevent contrast medium-induced nephropathy and spinal cord ischemia caused by a simultaneous endovascular procedure, a saccular aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta was excluded by stent graft, followed by the placement of a bifurcated stent graft in the infrarenal abdominal aorta one month later. PMID:24175273

  11. Mechanical properties of suprarenal and infrarenal abdominal aorta: implications for mouse models of aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Collins, M J; Bersi, M; Wilson, E; Humphrey, J D

    2011-12-01

    Multiple mouse models have been developed to increase our understanding of the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysms. An advantage of such models is that one can quantify the time course of changes in geometry, histology, cell biology, and mechanics as a lesion develops. One of the most commonly used mouse models yields lesions in the suprarenal abdominal aorta whereas most other models target the infrarenal abdominal aorta, consistent with the clinical observation that nearly all abdominal aneurysms in humans occur in the infrarenal aorta. Understanding reasons for similarities and differences between diverse mouse models and human lesions may provide increased insight that would not be possible studying a single situation alone. Toward this end, however, we must first compare directly the native structure and properties of these two portions of the abdominal aorta in the mouse. In this paper, we present the first biaxial mechanical data and nonlinear constitutive descriptors for the suprarenal and infrarenal aorta in mice, which reveals only subtle mechanical differences despite marked morphological and histological differences. Such data promise to increase our ability to understand and model the natural history of these deadly lesions. PMID:21742539

  12. Diagnosis of High Bifurcation of the Abdominal Aorta with Associated Vascular Variations: Case Report with Multidedector Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Atalar, Mehmet Haydar; Salk, Ismail; Bozbiyik, Nisa; Cetin, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Variations of the branches and bifurcation of the abdominal aorta and their relations with other abdominal structures and organs are important concerning abdominal and spinal surgery. Case Report In this report, authors present a high -positioned bifurcation of the abdominal aorta at the level of the L3 vertebral body and its associations with multiple variations of other abdominal arteries during contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) examination of the abdomen. Conclusions We reported on a unique clinically and surgically significant case of variations of the abdominal aorta as related to the location and type of bifurcation. The awareness of the variations of the abdominal aorta is of great importance for surgeons in order to reduce complications during abdominal and spinal interventions, as well as for radiologists for precise interpretation of angiograms. PMID:26688701

  13. Atrial myxoma presenting as total occlusion of the abdominal aorta and its major four branches.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yang; Chang, Yu-Yao; Hsieh, Ming-Yu; Hsu, Chiao-Po

    2012-07-01

    The presentations of cardiac myxoma are diverse, from asymptomatic to a variety of symptoms due to embolization. Occlusion of abdominal aortic bifurcation by straddled myxoma is not common; however, obstructive level above renal artery is very rare. We present a patient with cardiac myxoma who presented with acute onset of paraplegia. The aorta was occluded from the level of the liver dome to the renal arteries, and catastrophic outcome (ischemia/reperfusion) following its removal. PMID:22824050

  14. An animal-specific FSI model of the abdominal aorta in anesthetized mice.

    PubMed

    Trachet, Bram; Bols, Joris; Degroote, Joris; Verhegghe, Benedict; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Vierendeels, Jan; Segers, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has revealed that angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice can be related to medial ruptures occurring in the vicinity of abdominal side branches. Nevertheless a thorough understanding of the biomechanics near abdominal side branches in mice is lacking. In the current work we present a mouse-specific fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of the abdominal aorta in ApoE(-/-) mice that incorporates in vivo stresses. The aortic geometry was based on contrast-enhanced in vivo micro-CT images, while aortic flow boundary conditions and material model parameters were based on in vivo high-frequency ultrasound. Flow waveforms predicted by FSI simulations corresponded better to in vivo measurements than those from CFD simulations. Peak-systolic principal stresses at the inner and outer aortic wall were locally increased caudal to the celiac and left lateral to the celiac and mesenteric arteries. Interestingly, these were also the locations at which a tear in the tunica media had been observed in previous work on angiotensin II-infused mice. Our preliminary results therefore suggest that local biomechanics play an important role in the pathophysiology of branch-related ruptures in angiotensin-II infused mice. More elaborate follow-up research is needed to demonstrate the role of biomechanics and mechanobiology in a longitudinal setting. PMID:25824368

  15. Effects of hindlimb unweighting on the mechanical and structure properties of the rat abdominal aorta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, Anthony; Delp, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that hindlimb unweighting of rats, a model of microgravity, reduces evoked contractile tension of peripheral conduit arteries. It has been hypothesized that this diminished contractile tension is the result of alterations in the mechanical properties of these arteries (e.g., active and passive mechanics). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the reduced contractile force of the abdominal aorta from 2-wk hindlimb-unweighted (HU) rats results from a mechanical function deficit resulting from structural vascular alterations or material property changes. Aortas were isolated from control (C) and HU rats, and vasoconstrictor responses to norepinephrine (10(-9)-10(-4) M) and AVP (10(-9)-10(-5) M) were tested in vitro. In a second series of tests, the active and passive Cauchy stress-stretch relations were determined by incrementally increasing the uniaxial displacement of the aortic rings. Maximal Cauchy stress in response to norepinephrine and AVP were less in aortic rings from HU rats. The active Cauchy stress-stretch response indicated that, although maximum stress was lower in aortas from HU rats (C, 8.1 +/- 0.2 kPa; HU, 7.0 +/- 0.4 kPa), it was achieved at a similar hoop stretch. There were also no differences in the passive Cauchy stress-stretch response or the gross vascular morphology (e.g., medial cross-sectional area: C, 0.30 +/- 0.02 mm(2); HU, 0.32 +/- 0.01 mm(2)) between groups and no differences in resting or basal vascular tone at the displacement that elicits peak developed tension between groups (resting tension: C, 1.71 +/- 0.06 g; HU, 1.78 +/- 0.14 g). These results indicate that HU does not alter the functional mechanical properties of conduit arteries. However, the significantly lower active Cauchy stress of aortas from HU rats demonstrates a true contractile deficit in these arteries.

  16. Topiramate ameliorates abdominal aorta cross-clamping induced liver injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine C.; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Aydin, Ibrahim; Kirbas, Aynur; Yilmaz, Arif; Yuce, Suleyman; Gokce, Mehmet F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the liver occurs after a prolonged period of ischemia followed by restoration of hepatic blood perfusion. During the surgery of abdominal aorta, I/R injury causes damage to lower extremities and many organs, especially liver. The antioxidant and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) suppression effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported in several studies. We evaluated the potential protective effect of TPM on cellular damage in liver tissue during I/R injury. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, I/R, and I/R plus TPM (I/R + TPM) groups. Laparotomy without I/R injury was performed in the control group. After laparotomy, cross-ligation of infrarenal abdominal aorta was applied for 2 h in I/R groups that was followed by 2 h of reperfusion. TPM (100 mg/kg/day) was orally administrated to the animals in the I/R + TPM group for seven consecutive days before I/R procedure. Results: The I/R group's TNF-? and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were significantly higher than those of the control (P = 0.010; P = 0.002) and I/R + TPM groups (P = 0.010; P = 0.002, respectively). Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) levels of I/R group were higher than the control (P = 0.015) and I/R + TPM groups. I/R caused serious histopathological damage to liver tissue; however, TPM led to very low histopathological changes. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that TPM treatment prominently decreases the severity of liver I/R injury. TPM pretreatment may have preventive effects on liver injury via I/R during intra-abdominal surgery. PMID:25253365

  17. On constitutive descriptors of the biaxial mechanical behaviour of human abdominal aorta and aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Ferruzzi, J.; Vorp, D. A.; Humphrey, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) in older individuals can develop an aneurysm, which is of increasing concern in our ageing population. The structural integrity of the ageing aortic wall, and hence aneurysm, depends primarily on effective elastin and multiple families of oriented collagen fibres. In this paper, we show that a structurally motivated phenomenological ‘four-fibre family’ constitutive relation captures the biaxial mechanical behaviour of both the human AA, from ages less than 30 to over 60, and abdominal aortic aneurysms. Moreover, combining the statistical technique known as non-parametric bootstrap with a modal clustering method provides improved confidence intervals for estimated best-fit values of the eight associated constitutive parameters. It is suggested that this constitutive relation captures the well-known loss of structural integrity of elastic fibres owing to ageing and the development of abdominal aneurysms, and that it provides important insight needed to construct growth and remodelling models for aneurysms, which in turn promise to improve our ability to predict disease progression. PMID:20659928

  18. Arterial hypertension and neurofibromatosis: renal artery stenosis and coarctation of abdominal aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Schürch, W.; Messerli, F. H.; Genest, J.; Lefebvre, R.; Roy, P.; Carter, P.; Rojo-Ortega, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl had arterial hypertension, generalized neurofibromatosis, coarctation of the abdominal aorta and multiple stenoses at the origin of each renal artery. After resection of the stenotic areas and reimplantation of the renal arteries in the aorta, her arterial pressure decreased substantially. However, hypertension recurred and radiologic follow-up 4 1/2 years later showed distinct progression of the coarctation and renewed stenosis of all renal arteries at their origin. The stenotic areas showed eccentric intimal proliferation, frequently bulging into the lumen, with small nodular aggregates of smooth muscle cells and proliferation of fibrous tissue containing spindle-shaped nuclei in a palisading pattern. Hypertension associated with neurofibromatotic vascular disease has been described in 47 other patients in the literature. These patients have been young (mean age, 14 years) and predominantly male. In contrast to fibromuscular dysplasia, in which 95% of all stenoses are found in the distal two thirds of the renal arteries, in vascular neurofibromatosis more than 50% of the stenoses are found at the origin. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:810239

  19. Paraanastomotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta: a 15-year experience review.

    PubMed

    Locati, P; Socrate, A M; Costantini, E

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the study is a retrospective review of clinical presentation and management of paraanastomotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (PAAA) surgically treated in our Department. From January 1984 to December 1998, 2183 aortic prosthetic grafts were implanted. During the same period, 24 patients were treated for PAAA, 19 false and five true aneurysms. Symptoms were present in 10 patients. Surgical management included tube grafting interposition (14), aortobifemoral bypass (2), graft removal with extraanatomic bypass (2) and with in situ revascularization by arterial homograft (4). Nine patients died during operation or in the early postoperative period, six died during follow-up. Mortality in symptomatic patients was 70%, while in asymptomatic group was 14% (P=0.01). Rupture of false PAAA was very frequent (47% of cases). PAAA are infrequent complications of proximal aortic graft revascularization and tend to be asymptomatic until rupture occurs. The incidence of mortality is very different in asymptomatic versus symptomatic group; rupture is particularly frequent in false PAAA, which must soon undergo surgery when diagnosed. Since PAAA may develop at any time after surgery, their incidence increase in relationship with the length of postoperative interval: therefore, all patients submitted to abdominal graft revascularization need a lifetime surveillance program. PMID:10840204

  20. Endovascular Repair of an Actively Hemorrhaging Stab Wound Injury to the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Qasim; Maleux, Geert Heye, Sam; Fourneau, Inge

    2008-09-15

    Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta is rare and potentially lethal (Yeh et al., J Vasc Surg 42(5):1007-1009, 2005; Chicos et al., Chirurgia (Bucur) 102(2):237-240, 2007) as it can result in major retroperitoneal hemorrhage, requiring an urgent open surgery. In case of concomitant bowel injury or other conditions of hostile abdomen, endovascular repair can be an alternative treatment. This case report deals with a 50-year-old man presenting at the emergency ward with three stab wounds: two in the abdomen and one in the chest. During explorative laparotomy, liver laceration and bowel perforation were repaired. One day later, abdominal CT-scan revealed an additional retroperitoneal hematoma associated with an aortic pseudoaneurysm, located anteriorly 3 cm above the aortic bifurcation. Because of the risk of graft infection, an endovascular repair of the aortic injury using a Gore excluder stent-graft was performed. Radiological and clinical follow-up revealed a gradual shrinkage of the pseudo-aneurysm and no sign of graft infection at two years' follow-up.

  1. Fluid wall shear stress measurements in a model of the human abdominal aorta: oscillatory behavior and relationship to atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Moore, J E; Xu, C; Glagov, S; Zarins, C K; Ku, D N

    1994-10-01

    Clinically significant atherosclerosis in the human aorta is most common in the infrarenal segment. This study was initiated to test the hypothesis that flowfield properties are closely related to the localization of plaques in this segment of the arterial system. Wall shear stress was calculated from magnetic resonance velocity measurements of pulsatile flow in an anatomically accurate model of the human abdominal aorta. The wall shear stress values were compared with intimal thickening from 15 post-mortem aortas measured by quantitative morphometry of histological cross sections obtained at standard locations. Wall shear stress oscillated in direction throughout most of the infrarenal aorta, most prominently in the distal region. The time-averaged mean wall shear stress (-1.7 to 1.4 dyn/cm2) was lowest near the posterior wall in this region. These hemodynamic parameters coincided with the locations of maximal intimal thickening. Statistical correlation between oscillatory shear and intimal thickness yielded r = 0.79, P < 0.00001. Low mean shear stresses correlated nearly as well (r = -0.75, P < 0.00005). Comparison of our data with surface maps of Sudan Red staining and early lesions as reported by others revealed similar conclusions. In contrast, pulse and maximum shear stresses did not correlate with plaque localization as has been shown for other sites of selective involvement by atherosclerosis (r < 0.345). Simulated exercise conditions markedly changed the magnitude and pattern of wall shear stress in the distal abdominal aorta. These results demonstrate that in the infrarenal aorta, regions of low mean and oscillating wall shear stresses are predisposed to the development of plaque while regions of relatively high wall shear stress tend to be spared. PMID:7848371

  2. Retroperitoneal schwannoma between the inferior vena cava and the abdominal aorta resected by laparoscopic surgery: A case report.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Nobuyuki; Kumamoto, Yusuke; Hirata, Mitsuhiro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-08-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with backache. Imaging analysis revealed a retroperitoneal tumor, 40?mm in diameter, surrounded by the abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, caudate lobe of liver, and the left renal vein. The tumor consisted of multilocular cystic parts, and a solid part showed contrast enhancement. The possibility of malignancy could not be excluded, so we planned a laparoscopic tumorectomy. After placement of a transjugular vascular sheath for an occlusion balloon catheter in the inferior vena cava, the operation was performed with six ports. There was a strong fibrotic adhesion between the tumor and the abdominal aorta, with other weak adhesions. The tumor was successfully resected by a laparoscopic operation with minimal bleeding. The histopathological diagnosis was a benign schwannoma. This case demonstrates that a retroperitoneal tumor adjacent to major vessels can be resected safely by laparoscopic surgery if the surgeon is especially careful of the possibility of accidental bleeding. PMID:26303739

  3. Adalimumab Ameliorates Abdominal Aorta Cross Clamping Which Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cure, Erkan; Cumhur Cure, Medine; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Aydin, Ibrahim; Kirbas, Aynur; Yilmaz, Arif; Yuce, Suleyman; Yücel, Ahmet Fikret

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of adalimumab (ADA) on cell damage in rat liver tissue during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of infrarenal abdominal aorta. Thirty male Wistar-albino rats were divided into three groups: control, I/R, and I/R+ADA, each group containing 10 animals. Laparotomy without I/R injury was performed in the control group animals. Laparotomy in the I/R group was followed by two hours of infrarenal abdominal aortic cross ligation and then two hours of reperfusion. ADA (50?mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally as a single dose, to the I/R+ADA group, five days before I/R. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) (pg/mg protein) and nitric oxide (NO) (µmol/g protein) levels in the I/R group (430.8 ± 70.1, 8.0 ± 1.1, resp.) were significantly higher than those in the I/R+ADA group (338.0 ± 71.6, P = 0.006; 6.3 ± 1.2, P = 0.008) and the control group (345.5 ± 53.3, P = 0.008; 6.5 ± 1.5, P = 0.010, resp.). I/R causes severe histopathological injury to the liver tissue, but ADA leads to much less histopathological changes. ADA treatment significantly decreased the severity of liver I/R injury. ADA pretreatment may have protective effects on experimental liver injury. PMID:24551855

  4. Gradient Echo MRI Characterization of Development of Atherosclerosis in the Abdominal Aorta in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J. Kuribayashi, Hideto; Wagberg, Maria; Holmes, Andrew P.; Tessier, Jean J.; Waterton, John C.

    2006-08-15

    Purpose. The Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit provides an important model of spontaneous atherosclerosis. With a strain of WHHL rabbits which do not develop abdominal aorta lumen stenosis even with advanced atherosclerosis, we studied the MRI-histology correlation, and the natural progression of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta. In addition, intra-reader segmentation repeatability and scan-rescan reproducibility were assessed. Methods. Two batches of female WHHL rabbits were used. The first batch of 6 rabbits was scanned at 20 weeks old. A second batch of 17 rabbits was scanned at 50 weeks old and then randomly divided into two subgroups: 8 were killed for histologic investigation; 9 were kept alive for follow-up, with repeat scanning a week later to assess scan-rescan reproducibility, and again at 73 weeks old to assess disease progression. MR images were acquired at 4.7 T using a chemical shift selective fat suppression gradient echo with a saturation band suppressing blood signal within the aortic lumen. Five slices per animal were acquired, centered around the renal artery region of the abdominal aorta, with in-plane resolution of 0.195 mm and slice thickness of 3 mm. Results. The coefficient of variation for intra-reader reproducibility for aortic wall thickness measurements was 2.5% for repeat segmentations of the same scans on the same day, but segmentations of these same scans made 8 months later showed a systematic change, suggesting that intra-reader bias as well as increased variability could compromise assessments made over time. Comparative analyses were therefore performed in one postprocessing session. The coefficient of variation for scan-rescan reproducibility for aortic wall thickness was 5.5% for nine pairs of scans acquired a week apart and segmented on the same day. Good MRI-histology correlation was obtained. The MRI-measured mean aortic wall thickness of animals at 20 weeks of age was 76% that of animals at 50 weeks of age (p < 0.001). There was a small increase in aortic wall thickness between 50 and 73 weeks of age, but this was not significant (p > 0.05). The corresponding differences in lumen cross-sectional areas at 20, 50, and 73 weeks of age were not significant. These results were consistent with in-house historical histology data on this strain of rabbits. Conclusions. High-resolution gradient echo MRI can follow disease progression in the WHHL rabbit spontaneous atherosclerosis disease model.

  5. Salmonella paratyphi B mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta in an HIV-infected patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Girometti, Nicolò; Giannella, Maddalena; Brocchi, Stefano; Badia, Lorenzo; Calza, Leonardo; Viale, Pierluigi

    2015-06-01

    An HIV-infected 49-year-old man was admitted with polyuria, fever, chills and a dull left lumbar pain. Laboratory tests showed increased C-reactive protein while urine analysis and abdomen ultrasound scan were negative. Blood cultures revealed a Salmonella paratyphi B, identified through MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Targeted antibiotic therapy with intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam was started and a multi-phase contrast-enhanced abdomen CT-scan was performed at 24 hours from admission showing a saccular aneurysm of the abdominal aorta with a 1 cm penetrating aortic ulcer on posterior wall. The patient underwent emergency vascular surgery at 34 hours from admission for debridement and homo-graft placement of sub-renal aorta, and surgical samples were sent for microbiological analysis. Unfortunately, the patient died on post-surgical day 7 after haemorrhagic shock due to laceration of his graft. Salmonella paratyphi infection can be responsible for sepsis in severely immunosuppressed patients with poorly controlled HIV, requiring careful work-up for cardiovascular involvement. PMID:26110299

  6. Total occlusion of the abdominal aorta in a patient with renal failure and refractory hypertension: a case report.

    PubMed

    Perrino, Cinzia; Scudiero, Laura; Petretta, Maria Piera; Schiattarella, Gabriele Giacomo; De Laurentis, Mario; Ilardi, Federica; Magliulo, Fabio; Carotenuto, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni

    2011-03-01

    Total occlusion of the abdominal aorta is unusual, and potentially catastrophic. It occurs in patients with advanced atherosclerotic occlusive disease, and can cause severe ischemic manifestations, depending on the site of obstruction. Prompt and appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are important whenever this condition is suspected, in order to avoid a fatal outcome. The development of a complex network of collaterals may prevent the manifestation of acute ischemic phenomena, and cause a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Here we report the clinical case of a 59-year-old man who was referred to our Department for evaluation of renal failure and refractory hypertension. Ultrasonography and 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy showed a shrunken, non-functioning left kidney, while CT angiography and aortography showed the complete occlusion of the aorta from below the right renal artery down to the bifurcation of both common iliac arteries, with a critical stenosis of the origin of the right renal artery, an occlusion of the left renal artery as well as of the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery. The patient was referred to the surgery department for aorto-bifemoral bypass surgery and re-implantation of the right renal artery. PMID:21751737

  7. Vasorelaxant activities of Danhong injection and their differential effects on the rat abdominal aorta and mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Su, Xianming; Zhi, Xiaowen; Cui, Ting; Zheng, Qiaowei; Wang, Shixiang; Cao, Yongxiao; Cui, Changcong; Feng, Weiyi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found that Danhong injection (DHI), an extensively used herbal extract preparation in China, might be a powerful vasodilator. The aims of this study were to determine the vascular activity of DHI and its effects on arteries of different sizes. The results showed that DHI significantly inhibited rat-hindquarters and rabbit-ear vasoconstriction elicited by norepinephrine (NE) perfusion and markedly relaxed KCl-contracted and NE-contracted rat abdominal aortic and mesenteric artery rings. The endothelium made only a minor contribution to the vasorelaxant effect of DHI on artery segments. The vasorelaxant effect of DHI varied with the artery size, with larger arteries exhibiting a more sensitive and potent vasodilator response. DHI relaxed NE-induced vasoconstriction probably through inhibition of the intracellular Ca2+ release through the inositol triphosphate receptor system in the abdominal aorta and mesenteric artery, along with blockage of extracellular Ca2+ influx through the receptor-linked Ca2+ channels in the mesenteric artery. In addition, DHI completely relaxed KCl-induced contraction in both of the arteries, suggesting that inhibition of Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is involved in the vasorelaxant effect of DHI. This elucidation of the vascular effects of DHI and the underlying mechanisms could lead to improved clinical applications. PMID:25264751

  8. Mechanical behavior of abdominal aorta aneurysm in rat model treated by cell therapy using mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zidi, Mustapha; Allaire, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative medicine to substitute conventional surgery or an endovascular stent constitutes currently a challenge to treat abdominal aneurysm artery (AAA). The present paper addresses the following question: Can a cellular therapy from mesenchymal stem cells reestablish the mechanical properties of damaged abdominal aorta? For that, the xenograft rat model that mimics arterial dilatation due to aneurysmal disease is used to study the effects of the proposed cellular therapy. To investigate the changes in the mechanical behavior of the arterial wall, the artery is assumed to be made of a hyperelastic and incompressible material characterized by a strain energy function fitted to the average data set of uniaxial tests of AAA tissue samples. In order to compute the stresses in the artery by using an analytical approach, the aneurysm is represented as a "parabolic-exponential" thin membrane. Thus, when compared to healthy, untreated and treated arteries, the obtained results demonstrate that the cellular therapy stabilizes the geometry of AAAs, improves the stiffness of the tissue and decreases stress variations in the arterial wall. PMID:24781283

  9. The Endothelium of Experimental Saccular Aneurysms of the Abdominal Aorta in Rabbits*

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, J. T.; Stehbens, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    The endothelial lining of experimental saccular aneurysms was studied by means of the Häutchen technique. The endothelial cells of aneurysmal sacs, 4-40 weeks' duration, were predominately polygonal in shape and mononuclear. Leucocytes, stigmata and stomata were frequent on the endothelium but the prevalence of multinucleated cells and mitoses was not significantly increased. Small areas of desquamated endothelium were also present. In the aorta opposite the aneurysm a well delineated and sometimes partially denuded region containing large polygonal cells with numerous stigmata and stomata was found in 8 Häutchen preparations. This study provides further evidence that haemodynamic disturbances produce endothelial injury and demonstrates that the response evoked in endothelium by intra-aneurysmal haemodynamics differs significantly from that induced in venous endothelium by arteriovenous shunts. ImagesFigs. 5-8Figs. 2-4 PMID:4689820

  10. Evidence of patent ductus arteriosus and right-to-left shunt by finger pulse oxymetry and Doppler signals of agitated saline in abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Panetta, C; Schiller, N

    1999-09-01

    The diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with right-to-left shunt in the adult by using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is difficult because of limited windows. We report a case of a 23-year-old woman who was referred for treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension but was found to have a PDA with a right-to-left shunt. On examination she had asymmetric hypoxia of the upper extremities on finger pulse oxymetry. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a large right atrium and no atrial or ventricular septal wall defects. The diagnosis of PDA with Eisenmenger's syndrome was made after evidence of a right-to-left shunt was confirmed by Doppler signals of intravenous agitated saline in the abdominal aorta. This case illustrates the utility of Doppler signals from agitated saline in the abdominal aorta and finger pulse oxymetry, in addition to physical examination, in the diagnosis of PDA with right-to-left shunt. PMID:10477422

  11. Loss of endothelium-dependent relaxation in abdominal aorta preserved in a co-storage system.

    PubMed

    Knes, Jane M; Hansen, Thomas N; Gilligan, Barbara; Woo, Heung; Mangino, Martin; Haworth, Robert A; Southard, James H

    2005-01-01

    The potentially detrimental influence of parenchymal cells on endothelial function during preservation in UW solution was examined by co-storage of rat abdominal aortic rings with isolated liver cells. Cold storage of rings in UW solution alone for up to 96 h had no effect on the response to acetylcholine, though constriction was progressively lost. Co-storage of rings with liver cells resulted in no loss of sodium nitroprusside response, but the relaxation response to acetylcholine was reduced. The loss of acetylcholine response could not be attributed to Kupffer cells, the lowering of pH, oxygen depletion, or the loss of constriction. A similar loss of endothelial function was observed in rings stored in pieces of liver, kidney or heart. We conclude that parenchymal cells exude factors during preservation by cold storage which reversibly inhibit vascular NO production. These factors could significantly impair whole organ function on reperfusion. PMID:15551051

  12. Segmental and age differences in the elastin network, collagen, and smooth muscle phenotype in the tunica media of the porcine aorta.

    PubMed

    Tonar, Zbyn?k; Kubíková, Tereza; Prior, Claudia; Demjén, Erna; Liška, Václav; Králí?ková, Milena; Witter, Kirsti

    2015-09-01

    The porcine aorta is often used in studies on morphology, pathology, transplantation surgery, vascular and endovascular surgery, and biomechanics of the large arteries. Using quantitative histology and stereology, we estimated the area fraction of elastin, collagen, alpha-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and desmin within the tunica media in 123 tissue samples collected from five segments (thoracic ascending aorta; aortic arch; thoracic descending aorta; suprarenal abdominal aorta; and infrarenal abdominal aorta) of porcine aortae from growing domestic pigs (n=25), ranging in age from 0 to 230 days. The descending thoracic aorta had the greatest elastin fraction, which decreased proximally toward the aortic arch as well as distally toward the abdominal aorta. Abdominal aortic segments had the highest fraction of actin, desmin, and vimentin positivity and all of these vascular smooth muscle markers were lower in the thoracic aortic segments. No quantitative differences were found when comparing the suprarenal abdominal segments with the infrarenal abdominal segments. The area fraction of actin within the media was comparable in all age groups and it was proportional to the postnatal growth. Thicker aortic segments had more elastin and collagen with fewer contractile cells. The collagen fraction decreased from ascending aorta and aortic arch toward the descending aorta. By revealing the variability of the quantitative composition of the porcine aorta, the results are suitable for planning experiments with the porcine aorta as a model, i.e. power test analyses and estimating the number of samples necessary to achieving a desirable level of precision. The complete primary morphometric data, in the form of continuous variables, are made publicly available for biomechanical modeling of site-dependent distensibility and compliance of the porcine aorta. PMID:26232584

  13. Intimal cell masses in the abdominal aortas of swine fed a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet for up to twelve years of age.

    PubMed

    Kim, D N; Schmee, J; Lee, K T; Thomas, W A

    1985-05-01

    The normal subendothelial intima of large arteries in man, swine and most other species is a variegated structure from birth onwards. In some regions it contains only a few scattered cells; in others there may be a continuous single layer of cells; and in still others the cells pile up to form what we have called intimal cell masses (ICM). The cells in the normal ICM are mostly smooth muscle cells although there is also a small resident population of monocyte-like cells. We have been studying the ICM in swine with emphasis on the abdominal aorta. We have found that atherosclerotic lesions in the abdominal aorta of swine induced by high-fat high-cholesterol diets begin by a hyperplastic reaction of the smooth muscle cells in the ICM and progress to form large lesions characterized by extensive regions of lipid-rich calcific necrotic debris similar to advanced lesions in man. Because of the putative key role of the ICM in atherogenesis we think that it is important to learn as much as possible about their natural history under conditions as normal as possible. In this report we present data on ICM in the abdominal aortas of 34 male and female Hormel miniature swine maintained on a low-fat low-cholesterol diet for up to 12 years of age. The ICM grow slowly with aging and in the distal portion of the aorta account for an average of 9% in the male and 15% in the female of the total cells in the aortic wall (intima + media).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4004988

  14. New approach of assessing hypovolemic shock class 1 during acute emergencies: Ultrasonographic inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta diameter ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Rashidi; Kunji, Mohamad Iqhbal; Hj Abd Kareem, Meera Mohaideen; Halim, Shamimi A.

    2013-09-01

    In a patient with hypovolemic shock class 1, the vital signs and biochemical properties are almost normal. The alteration of hemodynamic parameters and biochemical values occurs mainly in advanced hypovolemia state (neuroendocrine response). The availability of ultrasound machine at healthcare centers makes the measurement of vascular calibre feasible and possible. Inspiration and expiration inferior vena cava diameter changes predict hypovolemic shock class 1 but in acute emergencies this method is impractical. The purpose of this study is to develop a new approach in identifying hypovolemic shock at early phase by measuring the inferior vena cava and aorta diameter ratio using bedside ultrasound machine.

  15. Screening for atherosclerotic plaques in the abdominal aorta in high-risk patients with multicontrast-weighted MRI: a prospective study at 3.0 and 1.5 tesla

    PubMed Central

    Buhk, J-H; Finck-Wedel, A-K; Buchert, R; Bannas, P; Schnackenburg, B; Beil, F U; Adam, G; Weber, C

    2011-01-01

    Objective This prospective study compares MRI of atherosclerotic plaque in the abdominal aorta at 3 T with that at 1.5 T in patients suffering from hereditary hyperlipidaemia, a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. Methods MRI of the abdominal aorta at 1.5 and 3 T was performed in 21 patients (mean age 58 years). The study protocol consisted of proton density (PD), T1, T2 and fat-saturated T2 weighted black blood images of the abdominal aorta in corresponding orientation. Two independent radiologists performed image rating. First, image quality was rated on a five-point scale. Second, atherosclerotic plaques were scored according to the modified American Heart Association (AHA) classification and analysed for field strength-related differences. Weighted ? statistics were calculated to assess interobserver agreement. Results Interobserver agreement was substantial for nearly all categories. MRI at 3 T offered superior image quality in all contrast weightings, most significantly in T1 and T2 weighted techniques. Plaque burden in the study collective was unexpectedly moderate. The majority of plaques were classified as AHA III lesions; no lesions were classified above AHA V. There was no significant influence of the field strength regarding the AHA classification. Conclusion Abdominal aortal plaque screening is basically feasible at both field strengths, whereas the image quality is rated superior at 3 T. However, the role of the method in clinical practice remains uncertain, since substantial findings in the high-risk collective were scarce. PMID:21081571

  16. Exovascular application of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate-releasing electrospun poly(L-lactide glycolic acid) fiber sheets to reduce intimal hyperplasia in injured abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Hee; Kwon, Byeong-ju; Koo, Min-Ah; Jang, Eui Hwa; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Park, Jong-Chul

    2015-09-01

    Intimal hyperplasia is an excessive ingrowth of tissue resulting in chronic structural lesions commonly found at sites of atherosclerotic lesions, arterial angioplasty, vascular graft anastomoses, and other vascular abnormalities. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) was shown to elicit antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and anti-thrombogenic effects. In this study, we used an electrospinning technique to synthesize EGCG-eluting biodegradable poly(L-lactide glycolic acid) (PLGA) fiber sheets for local delivery of EGCG and investigated the effect of their exovascular application on intimal hyperplasia following balloon-induced abdominal aorta injury in a rabbit experimental model. The morphology of the composite sheets was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. EGCG was loaded and dispersed into the PLGA-based electrospun fibers. The EGCG-loaded PLGA sheets exhibited sustained EGCG release following the initial 24?h of burst release in phosphate-buffered saline. In vivo studies demonstrated significant inhibition of intimal hyperplasia following the application of the EGCG-eluting electrospun PLGA fiber sheets, compared with vehicle PLGA controls. In conclusion, our results show that exovascular application of EGCG-eluting PLGA electrospun fiber sheets may provide a useful system for the effective local delivery of drugs for the prevention of intimal hyperplasia. PMID:26391656

  17. Effect of ketorolac and diclofenac on the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by reactive oxygen species in rabbit abdominal aorta

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Yoon; Choi, Jin Hwa; Jeon, Woo Jae; Cheong, Mi Ae

    2010-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce lipid peroxidation and tissue damage in endothelium. We studied the influences of ketorolac and diclofenac on ROS effects using the endothelium of rabbit abdominal aorta. Methods Isolated rabbit aortic rings were suspended in an organ bath filled with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution bubbled with 5% CO2 and 95% O2 at 37.5?. After being stimulated to contract with phenylephrine (PE, 10-6 M), changes in arterial tension were recorded following the cumulative administration of acetylcholine (ACh, 3 × 10-8 to 10-6 M). The percentages of ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings before and after exposure to ROS, generated by electrolysis of K-H solution, were used as the control and experimental values, respectively. The aortic rings were pretreated with ketorolac or diclofenac at the same concentrations (10-5 M to 3 × 10-4 M), and the effects of these agents were compared with the effects of ROS scavengers: catalase, mannitol, sodium salicylate and deferoxamine and the catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT). Results Both ketorolac and diclofenac maintained endothlium-dependent relaxation induced by ACh in a dose-related manner inspite of ROS attack (P < 0.05 vs. control value). The 3AT pretreated ketorolac (3 × 10-3 M) group was decreased more significantly than un-pretreated ketorolac (P < 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that ketorlac and diclofenac preserve the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation against the attack of ROS, in a concentration-related manner. One of the endothelial protection mechanisms of ketorolac may be hydrogen peroxide scavenging. PMID:20877705

  18. Lifetime, untreated isolated GH deficiency due to a GH-releasing hormone receptor mutation has beneficial consequences on bone status in older individuals, and does not influence their abdominal aorta calcification.

    PubMed

    Souza, Anita H O; Farias, Maria I T; Salvatori, Roberto; Silva, Gabriella M F; Santana, João A M; Pereira, Francisco A; de Paula, Francisco J A; Valença, Eugenia H O; Melo, Enaldo V; Barbosa, Rita A A; Pereira, Rossana M C; Gois-Junior, Miburge B; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H

    2014-09-01

    The GH/IGF-I axis has essential roles in regulating bone and vascular status. The age-related decrease in GH secretion ("somatopause") may contribute to osteoporosis and atherosclerosis, commonly observed in the elderly. Adult-onset GH deficiency (GHD) has been reported to be associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD), increased risk of fractures, and premature atherosclerosis. We have shown the young adult individuals with isolated GHD (IGHD) due to a homozygous for the c.57+1G>A GHRH receptor gene mutation have normal volumetric BMD (vBMD), and not develop premature atherosclerosis, despite adverse risk factor profile. However, the bone and vascular impact of lifetime GHD on the aging process remains unknown. We studied a group of ten older IGHD subjects (?60 years) homozygous for the mutation, comparing them with 20 age- and gender-matched controls (CO). Areal BMD was measured, and vBMD was calculated at the lumbar spine and total hip. Vertebral fractures and abdominal aortic calcifications (expressed as calcium score) were also assessed. Areal BMD was lower in IGHD, but vBMD was similar in the two groups. The percent of fractured individuals was similar, but the mean number of fractures per individual was lower in IGHD than CO. Calcium score was similar in the two groups. A positive correlation was found between calcium score and number of fractures. Untreated lifetime IGHD has beneficial consequences on bone status and does not have a deleterious effect on abdominal aorta calcification. PMID:24272598

  19. Computational modelling of monocyte deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms 

    E-print Network

    Hardman, David

    2011-07-05

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease involves a dilation of the aorta below the renal arteries. If the aneurysm becomes sufficiently dilated and tissue strength is less than vascular pressure, rupture of the aorta ...

  20. Comparison of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Computed Tomography in Classifying Endoleaks After Endovascular Treatment of Abdominal Aorta Aneurysms: Preliminary Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo Lagana, Domenico; Recaldini, Chiara; Mangini, Monica; Bertolotti, Elena; Caronno, Roberto; Tozzi, Matteo; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Annibale Genovese, Eugenio; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in endoleak classification after endovascular treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to computed tomography angiography (CTA). From May 2001 to April 2003, 10 patients with endoleaks already detected by CTA underwent CEUS with Sonovue (registered) to confirm the CTA classification or to reclassify the endoleak. In three conflicting cases, the patients were also studied with conventional angiography. CEUS confirmed the CTA classification in seven cases (type II endoleaks). Two CTA type III endoleaks were classified as type II using CEUS and one CTA type II endoleak was classified as type I by CEUS. Regarding the cases with discordant classification, conventional angiography confirmed the ultrasound classification. Additionally, CEUS documented the origin of type II endoleaks in all cases. After CEUS reclassification of endoleaks, a significant change in patient management occurred in three cases. CEUS allows a better attribution of the origin of the endoleak, as it shows the flow in real time. CEUS is more specific than CTA in endoleak classification and gives more accurate information in therapeutic planning.

  1. Coarctation of the Aorta

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cases, doctors might do a procedure known as balloon dilation (also called balloon angioplasty ). For this procedure, a cardiologist inserts a ... the aorta. This specialized catheter has a deflated balloon inside. When the catheter is in the aorta, ...

  2. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tissues and organs. [ Top ] What is the abdominal cavity? The abdominal cavity is the internal area of the body between ... adhesions cause tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity to stick together. Abdominal surgery is the most ...

  3. Coarctation of the aorta

    MedlinePLUS

    ... People with aortic coarctation often have a harsh-sounding murmur that can be heard from the back. ... narrowed part of the aorta by using a balloon that is widened inside the blood vessel. This ...

  4. Skeleton Graph Matching vs. Maximum Weight Cliques aorta registration techniques.

    PubMed

    Czajkowska, Joanna; Feinen, C; Grzegorzek, M; Raspe, M; Wickenhöfer, R

    2015-12-01

    Vascular diseases are one of the most challenging health problems in developed countries. Past as well as ongoing research activities often focus on efficient, robust and fast aorta segmentation, and registration techniques. According to this needs our study targets an abdominal aorta registration method. The investigated algorithms make it possible to efficiently segment and register abdominal aorta in pre- and post-operative Computed Tomography (CT) data. In more detail, a registration technique using the Path Similarity Skeleton Graph Matching (PSSGM), as well as Maximum Weight Cliques (MWCs) are employed to realise the matching based on Computed Tomography data. The presented approaches make it possible to match characteristic voxels belonging to the aorta from different Computed Tomography (CT) series. It is particularly useful in the assessment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm treatment by visualising the correspondence between the pre- and post-operative CT data. The registration results have been tested on the database of 18 contrast-enhanced CT series, where the cross-registration analysis has been performed producing 153 matching examples. All the registration results achieved with our system have been verified by an expert. The carried out analysis has highlighted the advantage of the MWCs technique over the PSSGM method. The verification phase proves the efficiency of the MWCs approach and encourages to further develop this methods. PMID:26099640

  5. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePLUS

    Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  6. Wireless Communicative stent for follow-up of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    E-print Network

    Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

    Wireless Communicative stent for follow-up of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Johan Mazeyrat, Olivier aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilatation of the aorta at the abdominal level, which rupture is a life people in the world are nowadays subject to an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) illness. AAA illness

  7. Calcific aorta and coronary artery: two cases of calcific ascending aorta and descending aorta

    PubMed Central

    Idhrees, A Mohammed; Radhakrishnan, Bineesh K; Panicker, Vargheese T; Pillai, Vivek; Karunakaran, Jayakumar

    2015-01-01

    Calcific aorta is a disease of old age and is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Here, we present two patients with calcific aorta at different levels. One with a descending porcelain aorta, and modified Bentall's procedure was done. Second is a patient who is having a calcific ascending aorta and coronary artery. Coronary artery bypass grafting from left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending was done for the patient. The calcification and its morbidity had been discussed briefly. PMID:25678909

  8. Interactive segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysms in Marleen de Bruijne, Bram van Ginneken, Max A. Viergever, and Wiro J. Niessen

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Interactive segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysms in CTA images Marleen de Bruijne, Bram van of thrombus in abdominal aortic aneurysms from CTA data is presented. After manual segmentation of the first aneurysm (AAA) is an enlargement of the infrarenal abdominal aorta, resulting from weakened arterial walls

  9. Abdominal aortic rupture from an impaling osteophyte following blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Seth A; Murphy, William R C; Murphy, Todd W; Haan, James M

    2014-04-01

    Blunt injury of the abdominal aorta is highly fatal. We present an unusual case of an osteophyte impaling the abdominal aorta treated by endovascular repair. A 77-year-old man sustained a thoracolumbar fracture-dislocation with posterior aortic rupture between his celiac and superior mesenteric artery origins. His aortic injury was treated with a stent graft, excluding the celiac origin. He was dismissed on postoperative day 6. At 6 months, he had returned to most preinjury activities, and at 2-year follow-up, he continues to have good functional outcome. Endovascular repair may be successfully employed in select aortic injuries in hemodynamically stable patients. PMID:23810261

  10. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePLUS

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is does not always reflect the seriousness ...

  11. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... done on someone who is choking and also conscious . Most experts do not recommend abdominal thrusts for ... the airway, call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing ...

  12. Abdominal aortic aneurysm in giant cell arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyunwook; Han, Youngjin; Son, Da Hye; Cho, Yong-Pil

    2015-01-01

    Aortic complications of giant cell arteritis are a rare cause of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Here, we describe a case of a ruptured aortic aneurysm in a patient with giant call arteritis (GCA) who was preoperatively suspected of having an infectious aortic aneurysm. Intraoperative inspection revealed infectious granulation tissue on the anterior wall of the abdominal aorta. GCA was finally confirmed by pathological diagnosis. Our findings suggest that the surgical and postoperative treatment of nonatheromatous aortic aneurysm should be based on accurate diagnosis. PMID:26448922

  13. The Role of Geometric Parameters in the Prediction of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress

    E-print Network

    Papaharilaou, Yannis

    The Role of Geometric Parameters in the Prediction of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress E wall stress (PWS) and abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA) geometric parameters in the presence rights reserved. Introduction It has been postulated that aneurysm peak wall stress (PWS) may be superior

  14. Clear Depiction of Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Orta Kilickesmez, Kadriye; Kilickesmez, Ozgur

    2010-04-15

    We report the case of an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm incidentally detected clearly with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) during the examination of a patient with myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia that later converted to acute myeloid leukemia. DW-MRI revealed a hyperintense halo surrounding the abdominal aorta with aneurysmatic dilatation, establishing the diagnosis.

  15. Computed Tomography Angiography of the Thoracic Aorta.

    PubMed

    Scheske, Jonathan A; Chung, Jonathan H; Abbara, Suhny; Ghoshhajra, Brian B

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) imaging appearance of common entities that are part of the wide spectrum of diseases involving the thoracic aorta. Electrocardiogram-gated MDCT is poised to become the reference standard method in assessing the thoracic aorta. Reproducible images of the aorta can be acquired independent of operator skill. PMID:26654389

  16. Segmental differences in the orientation of smooth muscle cells in the tunica media of porcine aortae.

    PubMed

    Tonar, Zbynek; Kochova, Petra; Cimrman, Robert; Perktold, Josef; Witter, Kirsti

    2015-04-01

    The orientation of vascular smooth muscle cells of porcine aortae was assessed to test the widely accepted assumption that these smooth muscle cells are arranged in two helices. We used tangential histological sections of 82 samples of five anatomical segments of thoracic and abdominal porcine aortae and three age groups in animals ranging in age from 5 to 210 days. The distribution of the orientation of smooth muscle cell nuclei in five proximodistal segments of the porcine aortae was determined using an algorithm that fitted a mixture of one to five von Mises probability distributions of the data retrieved from histological micrographs. Automated tracking of the nuclei was confirmed by and consistent with manual histological analysis. The orientation of the vascular smooth muscle cells was successfully fitted using two von Mises distributions in most of the samples with different ages, wall thicknesses, and anatomical positions, which corresponds to two populations of vascular smooth muscle cells. A minor fraction of samples also required a tertiary von Mises distribution to describe the orientation of the smooth muscle cell nuclei. The distribution of vascular smooth muscle cells in five aortic segments ranging from the thoracic ascending aorta to the abdominal intrarenal aorta exhibited similar main directions but different shapes. These results are consistent with the widely used model of two muscular helices intermingling in the arterial wall. Furthermore, we calculated the central angles of symmetry and the mean value of angles between the two assumed smooth muscle directions. We also successfully approximated the orientation of the smooth muscle cells using a mixture of von Mises distributions and our open-source software named dist_mixtures. This method is openly available to researchers who are interested in mathematically assessing the orientation of cell nuclei in various tissues. PMID:25038625

  17. Obstruction of the superior mesenteric artery due to emboli from the thoracic aorta in a patient with thromboangiitis obliterans.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Chiaki; Deguchi, Juno; Kitaoka, Tadashi; Suzuki, Jun; Abe, Keiko; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman presented at our hospital with acute abdominal pain 3 years after being diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO). Computed tomography revealed occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and multiple kidney infarction with thrombus floating in the thoracic aorta connected with the intercostal artery. Despite emergency embolectomy, further thromboembolism eventually required massive resection of the intestine with jejunostomy and colostomy and permanent intravenous hyper-alimentation therapy. Although TAO rarely involves the large artery, the aorta could be the source of embolization in patients with TAO. PMID:25298837

  18. Obstruction of the Superior Mesenteric Artery Due to Emboli from the Thoracic Aorta in a Patient with Thromboangiitis Obliterans

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Chiaki; Kitaoka, Tadashi; Suzuki, Jun; Abe, Keiko; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman presented at our hospital with acute abdominal pain 3 years after being diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO). Computed tomography revealed occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and multiple kidney infarction with thrombus floating in the thoracic aorta connected with the intercostal artery. Despite emergency embolectomy, further thromboembolism eventually required massive resection of the intestine with jejunostomy and colostomy and permanent intravenous hyper-alimentation therapy. Although TAO rarely involves the large artery, the aorta could be the source of embolization in patients with TAO. PMID:25298837

  19. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination.

    PubMed

    Veronese, E; Tarroni, G; Visentin, S; Cosmi, E; Linguraru, M G; Grisan, E

    2014-11-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data.The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed.Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%).The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. PMID:25295390

  20. An uncommon case of abdominal pain: superior mesenteric artery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Felton, Brent M; White, Josh M; Racine, Michael A

    2012-12-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a rare cause of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting that may be undiagnosed in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). We report a 54-year-old male presenting to a community ED with abdominal pain and the subsequent radiographic findings.The patient's computed tomgraphy (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrates many of the hallmark findings consistent with SMA syndrome, including; compression of the duodenum between the abdominal aorta and superior mesenteric artery resulting in intestinal obstruction, dilation of the left renal vein, and gastric distension. Patients diagnosed with SMA syndrome have a characteristically short distance between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta (usually 2-8 mm) in contrast to healthy patients (10-34 mm). Our patient's aortomesenteric distance was measured to be approximately 4 mm. Furthermore, the measured angle between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta is reduced in patients with SMA syndrome from a normal range of 28°-65° to a measurement between 6°-22°. Our patient's aortomesenteric angle was difficult to measure secondary to poor sagittal reconstructions, but appears to be approximately 30°. Following radiographic evidence suggesting SMA syndrome together with our patient's constellation of presenting symptoms, a diagnosis of SMA syndrome was made and the patient was admitted to the general surgery service. However, our patient decided to leave against medical advice owing to improvement of his symptoms following the emptying of two liters of gastric contents via nasogastric tube evacuation. PMID:23358897

  1. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Overview What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)? The main blood vessel in your body ... educational materials I could read? Are there any web sites you recommend where I can learn more ...

  2. Post trauma abdominal cocoon

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Supreet; Doley, Rudra Prasad; Chabbhra, Mohinish; Kapoor, Rajeev; Wig, Jaidev

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane. PMID:25590647

  3. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veronese, E.; Tarroni, G.; Visentin, S.; Cosmi, E.; Linguraru, M. G.; Grisan, E.

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data. The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed. Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%). The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. Preliminary results have been presented in E Veronese, E Cosmi, S Visentin, E Grisan: 'Semiautomatic estimation of fetal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination', MICCAI Workshop on Perinatal and Paediatric Imaging: PaPI 2012.

  4. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness in ultrasound examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veronese, Elisa; Poletti, Enea; Cosmi, Erich; Grisan, Enrico

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction have been shown to be associated with an increased thickness of abdominal aorta in the fetus. Therefore the measurement of abdominal aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) has been recently considered a sensitive marker of artherosclerosis risk. To date measure of aortic diameter and of aIMT has been performed manually on US fetal images, thus being susceptible to intra- and inter- operator variability. This work introduces an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from videos recorded during routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal biometry. Firstly, in each frame, the algorithm locates and segments the region corresponding to aorta by means of an active contour driven by two different external forces: a static vector field convolution force and a dynamic pressure force. Then, in each frame, the mean diameter of the vessel is computed, to reconstruct the cardiac cycle: in fact, we expect the diameter to have a sinusoidal trend, according to the heart rate. From the obtained sinusoid, we identify the frames corresponding to the end diastole and to the end systole. Finally, in these frames we assess the aIMT. According to its definition, we consider as aIMT the distance between the leading edge of the blood-intima interface, and the leading edge of the media-adventitia interface on the far wall of the vessel. The correlation between end-diastole and end-systole aIMT automatic and manual measures is 0.90 and 0.84 respectively.

  5. Endovascular management of lap belt-related abdominal aortic injury in a 9-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Konstantinos O; Karkos, Christos D; Kalogirou, Thomas E; Giagtzidis, Ioakeim T

    2015-02-01

    Blunt abdominal aortic trauma is a rare occurrence in children with only a few patients having been reported in the literature. Most such cases have been described in the context of lap belt injuries. We report a 9-year-old boy who suffered lap belt trauma to the abdomen during a high-speed road traffic accident resulting to the well-recognized pattern of blunt abdominal injury, that is, the triad of intestinal perforation, fractures of the lumbar spine, and abdominal aortic injury. The latter presented with lower limb ischemia due to dissection of the infrarenal aorta and right common iliac artery. Revascularization was achieved by endovascular means using 2 self-expanding stents in the infrarenal aorta and the right common iliac artery. This case is one of the few reports of lap belt-related acute traumatic abdominal aortic dissection in a young child and highlights the feasibility of endovascular management in the pediatric population. PMID:25463338

  6. Ultrasonography Performed by Primary Care Residents for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Screening

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Raymond P; Ault, Mark; Greengold, Nancy L; Rosendahl, Thomas; Cossman, David

    2001-01-01

    A prospective pilot study was undertaken to assess a protocol to educate primary care residents in how to personally perform ultrasonography for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening. Resident exams were proctored by a primary care physician trained in ultrasonography and were scored on the level of competence in doing the examination. Patients had ultrasound performed by a resident, followed by repeat examination by the vascular lab. Primary care resident abdominal aortic imaging was achieved in 79 of 80 attempts. Four abdominal aortic aneurysms were identified. There were 75 normal examinations; resident ultrasonography results were consistent with the results of the vascular lab. Ten residents achieved an abdominal aortic ultrasound-independent competence level after an average of 3.4 proctored exams. The main outcome of this study is that a primary care resident, with minimal training in ultrasonography imaging, is able to rapidly learn the technique of ultrasonography imaging of the abdominal aorta. PMID:11903764

  7. Modeling Blood Flow in the Aorta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Colin J.; Carmichael, Jonathan B.; DeMont, M. Edwin

    1997-01-01

    Presents an exercise to demonstrate two fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics: the Reynolds number and the Principle of Continuity. The exercise demonstrates flow in a major blood vessel, such as the aorta, with and without a stenosis. Students observe the transition from laminar to turbulent flow as well as downstream persistence of turbulence.…

  8. Abdominal vacuum lift as an aid to diagnosing abdominal adhesions

    E-print Network

    Strauss, Julius (Julius Y.)

    2006-01-01

    The internal organs are designed to move freely and slide over one another during normal body movement. The abdominal organs, however, have a tendency to adhere to the abdominal cavity (peritoneum) and other abdominal ...

  9. Pulse Wave Imaging Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Comparison Between Control And Angiotensin II-Treated Mice In Vivo

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    Pulse Wave Imaging Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Comparison Between Control And Angiotensin II aneurysm (AAA) is a common vascular disease. AAA disease leads to changes in the mechanical properties along the AngII-treated aorta, with the lowest displacements at the aneurysmal regions. A Student's t

  10. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  11. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pain, including recurrent abdominal pain, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) was originally defined ... or constipation alternating with diarrhea) is the classic irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Causes The trigger for functional abdominal ...

  12. Mechanical behavior of human aortas: Experiments, material constants and 3-D finite element modeling including residual stress.

    PubMed

    Labrosse, Michel R; Beller, Carsten J; Mesana, Thierry; Veinot, John P

    2009-05-29

    Segments of fresh human ascending, thoracic descending and abdominal aortas from eight male sexagenarians were pressurized under closed-end and free extension conditions. The median unpressurized inner radii for the ascending, thoracic and abdominal locations were 14.21, 9.67 and 7.16mm, respectively. The median thickness was similar in the ascending and thoracic regions, at about 1.6mm, while it was 1.2mm in the abdominal region. The opening angle was not statistically different between regions, with a median of -38 degrees . Under 13.3kPa pressure, the median circumferential stretch ratio was about 1.26 in all three aortic locations; the median longitudinal stretch ratio was similar in the ascending and thoracic regions, at about 1.13, while it was 1.05 in the abdominal region. Material constants for a three-dimensional hyperelastic anisotropic constitutive model were determined. Experimental, analytical and finite element results showed excellent agreement, validating the novel experimental approach and the numerical methods used. When residual stress was not taken into account, stresses were highest on the inside of the aorta, with a gradient across the wall of about 200 and 50kPa in the circumferential and longitudinal directions, respectively. When residual stress was included as described by negative opening angles, stresses were highest on the outside of the aorta, with a gradient across the wall in excess of 400kPa for the circumferential direction, and on the order of 150kPa for the longitudinal direction. The mechanical consequences of negative opening angles had not been appreciated so far, and deserve further investigation. PMID:19345356

  13. Female gender attenuates cytokine and chemokine expression and leukocyte recruitment in experimental rodent abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Indranil; Cho, Brenda S; Roelofs, Karen J; Stanley, James C; Henke, Peter K; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2006-11-01

    Female gender appears to be protective in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). This study sought to identify gender differences in cytokine and chemokine expression in an experimental rodent AAA model. Male and female rodent aortas were perfused with either saline (control) or elastase to induce AAA formation. Aortic diameter was determined and aortic tissue was harvested on postperfusion days 4 and 7. Cytokine and chemokine gene expression was examined using focused gene arrays. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify aortic leukocyte infiltration. Data were analyzed by Student's t-tests and ANOVA. Elastase-perfused female rodents developed significantly smaller aneurysms compared to males by day 7 (93 +/- 10% vs. 201 +/- 25%, P = 0.003). Elastase-perfused female aortas exhibited a fivefold decrease in expression of the BMP family and ligands of the TNF superfamily compared to males. In addition, the expression of members of the TGF beta and VEGF families were three to fourfold lower in female elastase-perfused aortas compared to males. Multiple members of the interleukin, CC chemokine receptor, and CC ligand families were detectable in only the male elastase-perfused aortas. Female elastase-perfused aortas demonstrated a corollary twofold lower neutrophil count (females: 17.5 +/- 1.1 PMN/HPF; males: 41 +/- 5.2 neutrophils/HPF, P = 0.01) and a 1.5-fold lower macrophage count (females: 12 +/- 1.1 macrophages/HPF; males: 17.5 +/- 1.1 macrophages/HPF, P = 0.003) compared to male elastase-perfused aortas. This study documents decreased expression of multiple cytokines and chemokines and diminished leukocyte trafficking in female rat aortas compared to male aortas following elastase perfusion. These genes may contribute to the gender disparity seen in AAA formation. PMID:17182958

  14. ENDOCOM : abdominal aortic aneurysm test bench for in vitro simulation.

    PubMed

    Mazeyrat, Johan; Romain, Olivier; Garda, Patrick; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Destrade, Michel; Karouia, Mourad; Leprince, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilatation of the aorta at the abdominal level, whose rupture is a life threatening complication. Recent treatment procedures of AAA consists in endovascular treatment with covered stent grafts. Despite improving design of these devices, this treatment is still associated with close to 25% of failure, due to persisting pressure into the excluded aneurysmal sac. The follow-up becomes thus crucial and demands frequent examinations (CT-scan, IRM) which are not so liable given the complications. In order to evaluate the post-operative period of an AAA treatment, we designed a communicative stent, comprising of an integrated pressure sensor. This paper presents the conception of a communicative sensor, the elaboration of a numerical model, and the development of an experimental testbench reproducing the aortic flux across an AAA and allowing the optimization and validation of the measurement principle. PMID:18002457

  15. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... main blood vessel that supplies blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs ... dissection). Symptoms of rupture include: Pain in the abdomen or back. The pain may be severe, sudden, ...

  16. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  17. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Ultrasound examination of the aorta and arteries of the lower extremities

    PubMed Central

    Elwertowski, Micha?; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    A Doppler ultrasound examination has an advantage over other vessel imaging methods as it can be carried out by the patient's bedside and allows to make a diagnosis without exposing the patient to the inconveniency of transportation or an X-ray scan. The purpose of testing the lower extremities and the aorta is to objectively confirm a preliminary clinical diagnosis, localize lesions responsible for the symptoms of the disease, determine their severity and nature (e.g., if they are calcifications or soft lesions), and finally evaluate the hemodynamic criteria. In assessment of the aorta attention is paid not only to aortic diameter measurements, but also to the vascular lumen (dissections with the formation of two flow channels, detachments, balloting of atherosclerotic plaques, etc.) and the presence of atherosclerotic plaques with influx into them (PAU – penetrating ulcer in the plaque or lesions surrounding the aorta, such as retroperitoneal fibrosis or mycotic aneurysm). A correct diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm requires repeated measurements of the abdominal aorta diameter, and in particular its transverse dimension. When assessing the degree of peripheral arterial stenosis on the basis of hemodynamic parameters, degree of morphological stenosis must be taken into consideration. Collateral circulation may reduce the flow through the main vessel, and thus, the achieved systolic velocities are lower and may understate the degree of the assessed stenosis. Calf vessels are difficult to detect, which results both from the thickness of the muscle and the presence of calcifications. This article has been prepared on the basis of Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society (2011) and updated on the basis of the latest reports from relevant literature. PMID:26673404

  18. Penetrating injury of ascending aorta with arrow in situ.

    PubMed

    Lakhotia, Siddharth; Prakash, Shashi; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Panigrahi, Debasish

    2012-04-01

    Penetrating injuries of the aorta are rare and highly lethal; very few patients are able to reach the hospital alive. We report a case of penetrating injury into the ascending aorta with the arrow still in situ, shot by a bow in a tribal region of India. The wound of entry into the aorta was sealed by the arrow itself. The patient came to us walking and supporting the arrow with his left hand. He was operated on, and the arrow was successfully removed from the aorta. PMID:22450110

  19. Structural Modeling and Analysis of Structures in Aorta Images 

    E-print Network

    Xu, Hai

    2012-10-19

    Morphology change analysis of aorta images acquired from biological experiments plays a critical role in exploring the relationship between lamina thickness (LT), interlamellar distance (ILD) and fragmentation (furcation ...

  20. Computer-assisted diagnosis in CT angiography of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebich, Martin; Tomiak, Myrosia M.; Engelmann, Roger M.; McGill, James; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop methods for automatic 3D-segmentation and automatic quantification of vascular structures in CT angiographic studies, e.g., abdominal aortic aneurysms. Methods for segmentation were developed based on thresholding, maximum gradient, and second derivative techniques. All parameters for the segmentation are generated automatically, i.e. no user interaction is necessary for this process. Median filtering of all images is initially performed to reduce the image noise. The algorithm then automatically identifies the starting point inside the aorta for the volume growing. The segmentation of the vascular tree is achieved in two steps. First, only the aorta and small parts of branch vessels are segmented by using strong restrictions in the parameters for threshold and gradient. A description of the aorta is generated by fitting the detected outer border of the aorta with an ellipse. This description includes centerline, direction, contour, eccentricity, and area. In the second step, segmentation parameters are changed automatically for segmentation of branch vessels. A shaded surface display of the segmented structures is then generated. The segmentation of the aorta appears accurate, is fast, and the 3D display can be manipulated in real time. The quantitative description of the aorta is reliable giving reproducible information. Total CPU time for the segmentation and description is less than five minutes on a standard workstation. Time-consuming manual segmentation and parameterization of vascular structures are obviated, with 3D visualization and quantitative results available in minutes instead of hours. This technique for segmentation and description of the aorta and renal arteries shows the feasibility of computer assisted diagnosis in CT angiographic studies without user interaction. Besides the description, a rapid 3D view of the vessels is generated, often needed by the physician and normally only achievable by time consuming manual segmentation.

  1. Surgically relevant structure on the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Morrison, J J; Codispoti, M; Campanella, C

    2003-05-01

    We have examined the transverse vascularized ridge observed on the anterior surface of the intra-pericardial aorta during cardiac surgery. The ridge was a consistent feature of 20 consecutive cardiac patients and 11 cadavers no more than 2 days post-mortem. The aortic ridge was absent, however, in four of five embalmed cadavers additionally examined, probably due to the embalming process. Histological examination showed the ridge to be well vascularized, well innervated and composed of adipose tissue. This structure has surgical relevance as a possible source of post-operative hemorrhage, sometimes necessitating re-sternotomy. PMID:12673821

  2. Abdominal wall endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, P; Karak, A K; Sinha, A K; Kumar, B; Karki, S; Agarwal, C S

    2010-01-01

    Endometriosis of abdominal wall scar following operation on uterus and tubes is extremely rare. The late onset of symptoms after surgery is the usual cause of misdiagnosis. Scar endometriosis is a rare disease which is difficult to diagnose and should always be considered as a differential diagnosis of painful abdominal masses in women. The diagnosis is made only after excision and histopathology of the lesion. Preoperative differentials include hernia, lipoma, suture granuloma or abscess. Hence an awareness of the entity avoids delay in diagnosis, helps clinicians to a more tailored treatment and also avoids unnecessary referrals. We report a case of abdominal endometriosis. The definitive diagnosis of which was established by histopathological studies. PMID:21485605

  3. Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris; Pomoni, Maria; Andrikopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-07-15

    We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

  4. Effects of simulated microgravity on vasoconstrictor and mechanical properties of the rat abdominal aorta 

    E-print Network

    Papadopoulos, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    In humans and rats, microgravity induces adaptations within the cardiovascular system that appear to include modifications in peripheral vascular reactivity. Rodent hindlimb unweighting (HU) has been used to model putative adaptations that occur...

  5. Anatomical and Morphometric Variations in the Arterial System of the Domestic Cat.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, V H; Ball, S; Cramer, R; Smith, A

    2015-12-01

    We document the anatomical architecture and frequency of occurrence of variations in the branching pattern of the brachiocephalic artery and the origin of the internal iliac arteries in the domestic cat, a widely used model organism in both anatomical training and research. Based on the study of 56 preserved specimens, we observed three distinct arrangements in the branching pattern of the brachiocephalic artery. The most common pattern (52% of the examined specimens) was that in which the brachiocephalic artery was divided into two branches, the left common carotid artery and a common branch for the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery. The frequency of occurrence of each variation type was independent of the gender and body size. The internal iliac arteries originated caudal to the point at which the external iliac arteries branched off from the abdominal aorta. However, the portion of the abdominal aorta between the external and internal iliac arteries varied greatly in length and was not significantly correlated with its width, nor with body size or gender. This study is the first to report and quantify the occurrence of such variations in North American cats. Given the anatomical similarity between the cat and other felids, the results of this study can be applied to other species, including endangered species. PMID:25318975

  6. In vivo monitoring of the inflammatory response in a stented mouse aorta model.

    PubMed

    Kapnisis, Konstantinos K; Pitsillides, Costas M; Prokopi, Marianna S; Lapathitis, George; Karaiskos, Christos; Eleftheriou, Polyvios C; Brott, Brigitta C; Anderson, Peter G; Lemons, Jack E; Anayiotos, Andreas S

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of vascular stents continues to increase for a variety of applications, including coronary, lower limb, renal, carotid, and neurovascular disorders. However, their clinical effectiveness is hindered by numerous postdeployment complications, which may stimulate inflammatory and fibrotic reactions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vessel inflammatory response via in vivo imaging in a mouse stent implantation model. Corroded and noncorroded self-expanding miniature nitinol stents were implanted in mice abdominal aortas, and novel in vivo imaging techniques were used to assess trafficking and accumulation of fluorescent donor monocytes as well as cellular proliferation at the implantation site. Monocytes were quantitatively tracked in vivo and found to rapidly clear from circulation within hours after injection. Differences were found between the test groups with respect to the numbers of recruited monocytes and the intensity of the resulting fluorescent signal. Image analysis also revealed a subtle increase in matrix metalloproteinase activity in corroded compared with the normal stented aortas. In conclusion, this study has been successful in developing a murine stent inflammation model and applying novel in vivo imaging tools and methods to monitor the complex biological processes of the host vascular wall response. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 227-238, 2016. PMID:26362825

  7. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation ...

  8. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers a one-time abdominal aortic aneurysm ultrasound. You must get a referral for it ...

  9. Influence of chronic treatment with a nitric oxide donor on fatty streak development and reactivity of the rabbit aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Bult, H; De Meyer, G R; Herman, A G

    1995-01-01

    1. The influence of chronic treatment with molsidomine, pro-drug of the nitric oxide (NO) donor, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1), on fatty streak development and release of NO and prostacyclin (PGI2) was studied in the aorta of normal and cholesterol-fed rabbits. 2. Groups of 10 rabbits received standard diet (150 g day-1), or diets with 0.3% cholesterol, with 0.02% molsidomine or with the combination of cholesterol and molsidomine for 16 weeks. Lesion area and thickness, maximum change in isometric force (Emax) and sensitivity (-log EC50 or pD2) to constricting and relaxing agonists were assessed in segments of arch, thoracic and abdominal aorta. Bioassay was used to assess NO release. 3. Cholesterol-induced fatty streaks tapered off towards the abdominal aorta. Area, thickness, weight and cholesterylester content of the lesions were augmented by the NO donor, whereas the hypercholesterolaemia remained unchanged. The exacerbation was attributed to co-release of superoxide anion from the sydnonimine. 4. As fatty streaks progressed, amplitude and pD2 of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxations decreased, whereas cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP second messenger systems were not influenced, since Emax and sensitivity to SIN-1 and forskolin remained unchanged. However, extensive lesions apparently trapped some NO, as the pD2 of authentic NO decreased. 5. The fatty streaks curtailed the biosynthesis of PGI2 and the overflow of NO from the perfused thoracic aorta. The latter defect was not restored by L-arginine and appears to be consistent with a functional change of the endothelial muscarinic receptors. 6. The NO donor desensitized the aorta to cyclic GMP-mediated relaxations (ACh, SIN-1 and NO), without affecting cyclic AMP-mediated relaxation to forskolin or constrictor responses to phenylephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine. 7. The drug also suppressed the ACh-induced overflow of NO, without changing PGI2 release. This selective reduction of endothelial NO release and the desensitization of cyclic GMP-mediated relaxations occurred independently of fatty streak formation. 8. The results indicate that chronic exposure to exogenous NO downregulates endothelial NO release and cyclic GMP-mediated relaxations, and provide evidence for the existence of negative feed-back regulations of the L-arginine NO pathway under in vivo conditions. PMID:7606341

  10. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. PMID:26527261

  11. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, IA; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. Case report. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Conclusion. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated. PMID:25914739

  12. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  13. Morphometric patterns among diving beetles (Coleoptera: Noteridae,

    E-print Network

    Ribera, Ignacio

    Morphometric patterns among diving beetles (Coleoptera: Noteridae, Hygrobiidae, and Dytiscidae) I Hydradephaga, with an emphasis on Dytiscidae, was performed with nearly 1600 adult specimens belonging to the families Noteridae (2 species), Hygrobiidae (1 species), and Dytiscidae (74 species). The data were studied

  14. Morphometric and genetic identification of eggs of

    E-print Network

    Morphometric and genetic identification of eggs of spring-spawning sciaenids in lower ChesapeakeDNA was used to identify morphologi- cally similar eggs ofspring spawn- ing sciaenids in lower Chesapeake Bay seasonal egg produc- tion and population biomass of black drum, Pogonias cromis. Rearing experiments

  15. [Medullary extradural hematoma revealing a coarctation of the aorta].

    PubMed

    Dauphin, C; Lusson, J R; Legault, B; Perez, N; Motreff, P; Langlade, S; Boyer, L; Lamaison, D; de Riberolles, C; Cassagnes, J

    2001-05-01

    The authors report a spontaneous, unusual complication of coarctation of the aorta. An 11 year old child was admitted for investigation of chest pain. Cardiovascular examination revealed typical clinical signs of coarctation of the aorta. Neurological examination found neck stiffness without headache or deficit. The presumptive diagnosis of dissection of the aorta was infirmed by echocardiography and MRI. The latter investigation, with views of the spinal cord, revealed a compressive medullary extradural haematoma. Antihypertensive therapy and corticosteroids with strict bed rest resulted in complete regression of the haematoma and the coarctation was operated 6 months later. Medullary complications of coarctation of the aorta are usually postoperative. Spontaneous complications are exceedingly rare but very serious: medullary compression by the dilated anterior spinal artery or rupture of an aneurysmal collateral vessel. In this case, magnetic resonance imaging led to diagnosis and effective early treatment of this complication before the patient developed a neurological deficit and the coarctation was treated surgically thereafter. PMID:11434022

  16. Coarctation of the aorta, known yet can be missed.

    PubMed

    Al Balushi, Asim; Zacharias, Sunny; Al Senaidi, Khalfan

    2013-05-01

    The clinical presentation of coarctation of aorta (CoA) is well known; however, it is the most common congenital heart disease in the newborn period to be missed, with significant mortality and morbidity associated with missing the diagnosis. We report a 20-day-old newborn boy who presented with congestive heart failure and weak femoral pulses. Chest X-ray (CXR) showed cardiomegaly and pulmonary edema and electrocardiography (ECG) showed extreme right axis deviation and absent left ventricular forces in the left precordial leads. Based on these, clinical suspicion of coarctation of aorta was made and confirmed by echocardiography. After initial stabilization with prostaglandin E2 infusion, child underwent urgent coarctation of aorta repair with uneventful post-operative course. High index of suspicion for coarctation of aorta in a newborn with such presentation is required and urgent referral to Pediatric Cardiology and cardiac surgery center is mandatory to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with missing the diagnosis. PMID:23772288

  17. PIV and MRV Measurements in Human Thoracic Aorta Phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyengar, Ananth; Elkins, Christopher; Draney, Mary; Medina, Francisco; Wicker, Ryan

    2004-11-01

    Aortic dissection is a non-traumatic injury to the aorta in which a flap is created inside the aorta by the separation of the inner lining of the vessel wall from its outer layers. It is hypothesized that dissections start as tears in vessels' inner lining and propagate as blood impinges through the tear into the separated part of the vessel wall. No two dissections are alike, but many share common characteristics, one of which is that tear sites occur in similar places in the aorta. In an effort to understand the origins of these tear sites and the propagation of dissections, we are studying blood flow in human aortas. To begin, we are using rigid aorta phantoms based on anatomies of healthy adults extracted from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) medical scans. Clear polyurethane phantoms are created by casting around water-soluble positive molds manufactured using rapid prototyping. We study steady flows with Reynolds numbers comparable to those present in the aorta during the systolic pulse and physiologically pulsatile flows. The entire three-dimensional flow is measured using magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV), a technique based on MRI principles capable of measuring three-component mean velocities. MRV results are compared to the instantaneous and average two-component velocity fields measured in a few 2D planes with particle image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV results provide validation for the MRV and insight into the instantaneous flow structures that may possibly lead to aortic dissection through fluid structure wall interaction.

  18. Abdominal perfusion computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis. PMID:25610249

  19. Abdominal Perfusion Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis. PMID:25610249

  20. Modification of an endovascular stent graft for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moloye, Olajompo Busola

    Endovascular surgery is currently used to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). A stent graft is deployed to exclude blood flow from the aneurysm sac. It is an effective procedure used in preventing aneurysm rupture, with reduced patient morbidity and mortality compared to open surgical repair. Migration and leakage around the device ("endoleak") due to poor sealing of the stent graft to the aorta have raised concerns about the long-term durability of endovascular repair. A preliminary study of cell migration and proliferation is presented as a prelude to a more extensive in vivo testing. A method to enhance the biological seal between the stent graft and the aorta is proposed to eliminate this problem. This can be achieved by impregnating the stent graft with 50/50 poly (DL-lactide co glycolic acid) (PLGA) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), at the proximal and distal ends. It is hypothesized that as PLGA degrades it will release the growth factors that will promote proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells to the coated site, leading to a natural seal between the aorta and the stent graft. In addition, growth factor release should promote smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction that will help keep the stent graft in place at the proximal and distal ends. It is shown that a statistically significant effect of increased cell proliferation and migration is observed for CTGF release. Less of an effect is noted for bFGF or just the PLGA. The effect is estimated to be large enough to be clinically significant in a future animal study. The long term goal of this study is to reduce migration encounter after graft deployment and to reduce secondary interventions of EVAR especially for older patients who are unfit for open surgical treatment.

  1. ANGIOGRAPHIC ANATOMY OF THE MAJOR ABDOMINAL ARTERIAL BLOOD SUPPLY IN THE DOG.

    PubMed

    Culp, William T N; Mayhew, Philipp D; Pascoe, Peter J; Zwingenberger, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Vascular-based interventional radiology (IR) procedures are being more regularly performed in veterinary patients for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. A complete description of the fluoroscopic arterial anatomy of the canine abdominal cavity has not been published. This information is essential for performance of IR procedures to allow for improved preparation before and during a particular procedure. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a fluoroscopic description of the vascular branching from the abdominal aorta in a ventro-dorsal projection with a secondary goal of producing pictorial reference images of the major abdominal arterial blood vessels. Five healthy female hound type dogs were enrolled and underwent fluoroscopic arteriography. During fluoroscopy, both nonselective and selective arteriography were performed. The nonselective arteriograms were obtained in the aorta at four locations: cranial to the celiac artery, cranial to the renal arteries, cranial to the caudal mesenteric artery, and cranial to the branching of the external iliac arteries. Selective arteriography was conducted by performing injections into the following arteries: celiac, splenic, common hepatic, cranial mesenteric, left and right renal, and caudal mesenteric. Fluoroscopic arteriography allowed for excellent characterization of the aortic ostia and the location of the lower order vascular branches. Future evaluation of vascular-based treatment options will likely increase as the understanding of the normal and pathologic anatomy improves. PMID:25827164

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor protects against abdominal aortic aneurysm in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Fukuda, Yamato; Takayanagi, Takehiko; Taro, Yoshinori; Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; Elliott, Katherine J; Choi, Eric; Daugherty, Alan; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been implicated in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), Ang II activates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediating growth promotion. We hypothesized that inhibition of EGFR prevents Ang II-dependent AAA. C57BL/6 mice were co-treated with Ang II and ?-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) to induce AAA with or without treatment with EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib. Without erlotinib, 64.3% of mice were dead due to aortic rupture. All surviving mice had AAA associated with EGFR activation. Erlotinib-treated mice did not die and developed far fewer AAA. The maximum diameters of abdominal aortas were significantly shorter with erlotinib treatment. In contrast, both erlotinib-treated and non-treated mice developed hypertension. The erlotinib treatment of abdominal aorta was associated with lack of EGFR activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, interleukin-6 induction and matrix deposition. EGFR activation in AAA was also observed in humans. In conclusion, EGFR inhibition appears to protect mice from AAA formation induced by Ang II plus BAPN. The mechanism seems to involve suppression of vascular EGFR and ER stress. PMID:25531554

  3. Investigation of pulsatile flowfield in healthy thoracic aorta models.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chih-Yung; Yang, An-Shik; Tseng, Li-Yu; Chai, Jyh-Wen

    2010-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Complex hemodynamics plays a critical role in the development of aortic dissection and atherosclerosis, as well as many other diseases. Since fundamental fluid mechanics are important for the understanding of the blood flow in the cardiovascular circulatory system of the human body aspects, a joint experimental and numerical study was conducted in this study to determine the distributions of wall shear stress and pressure and oscillatory WSS index, and to examine their correlation with the aortic disorders, especially dissection. Experimentally, the Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PC-MRI) method was used to acquire the true geometry of a normal human thoracic aorta, which was readily converted into a transparent thoracic aorta model by the rapid prototyping (RP) technique. The thoracic aorta model was then used in the in vitro experiments and computations. Simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code ACE+((R)) to determine flow characteristics of the three-dimensional, pulsatile, incompressible, and Newtonian fluid in the thoracic aorta model. The unsteady boundary conditions at the inlet and the outlet of the aortic flow were specified from the measured flowrate and pressure results during in vitro experiments. For the code validation, the predicted axial velocity reasonably agrees with the PC-MRI experimental data in the oblique sagittal plane of the thoracic aorta model. The thorough analyses of the thoracic aorta flow, WSSs, WSS index (OSI), and wall pressures are presented. The predicted locations of the maxima of WSS and the wall pressure can be then correlated with that of the thoracic aorta dissection, and thereby may lead to a useful biological significance. The numerical results also suggest that the effects of low WSS and high OSI tend to cause wall thickening occurred along the inferior wall of the aortic arch and the anterior wall of the brachiocephalic artery, similar implication reported in a number of previous studies. PMID:19890715

  4. Classification of Tumor Histology via Morphometric Context *

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hang; Borowsky, Alexander; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Image-based classification of tissue histology, in terms of different components (e.g., normal signature, categories of aberrant signatures), provides a series of indices for tumor composition. Subsequently, aggregation of these indices in each whole slide image (WSI) from a large cohort can provide predictive models of clinical outcome. However, the performance of the existing techniques is hindered as a result of large technical and biological variations that are always present in a large cohort. In this paper, we propose two algorithms for classification of tissue histology based on robust representations of morphometric context, which are built upon nuclear level morphometric features at various locations and scales within the spatial pyramid matching (SPM) framework. These methods have been evaluated on two distinct datasets of different tumor types collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the experimental results indicate that our methods are (i) extensible to different tumor types; (ii) robust in the presence of wide technical and biological variations; (iii) invariant to different nuclear segmentation strategies; and (iv) scalable with varying training sample size. In addition, our experiments suggest that enforcing sparsity, during the construction of morphometric context, further improves the performance of the system. PMID:24319324

  5. Transversus Abdominal Plane (TAP) block

    E-print Network

    Peak, Derek

    !" Transversus Abdominal Plane (TAP) block Presentation developed by Dr. Ashley Meister Presented by Dr. Kevin Wong April 25, 2015 #12;Objectives ! Goals of the TAP block & effects ! Anatomy-sparing ! Good for abdominal wall pain (incisional pain) ! Does not cover visceral pain ! Field block in fascial

  6. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  7. Late diagnosis of Takayasu's arteritis with repeated attacks of heart failure and uncontrolled hypertension due to abdominal aortic thrombosis: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Lai, Baochun; Wu, Xiaoying; Han, Tao; Chen, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory disease affecting the aorta and its branches. To date, only one case involving abdominal aortic thrombosis due to TA has been reported. After bilateral artificial subclavian-iliac bypass, a case of abdominal aortic thrombosis due to TA received a delayed diagnosis in a 44-year-old Chinese male who experienced recurrent episodes of heart failure and uncontrolled hypertension with claudication of two extremities. Abdominal color Doppler sonography and computed tomography aortography (CTA) showed occlusion of the abdominal aorta and bilateral renal artery stenosis. After vascular bypass and during 1 year follow-up, his cardiac function improved and blood pressure was well controlled, with reduced serum creatinine. Postoperative CTA still showed abdominal aortic thrombosis resulting in arterial occlusion extending from the left renal artery initial segment level to the bilateral common iliac artery and the bifurcation of the renal artery, except for the vascular bypass. Abdominal aortic thrombosis due to TA is very rare and potentially life threatening, probably becoming an atherosclerosis risk factor. Doppler sonography and CTA results are important for diagnosis. Artificial vascular bypass can be used for TA in debilitated patients with diffuse aortic disease. PMID:26286888

  8. Single vessel abdominal arterial disease.

    PubMed

    van Noord, Désirée; Kuipers, Ernst J; Mensink, Peter B F

    2009-01-01

    The long-standing discussion concerning the mere existence of single vessel abdominal artery disease can be closed: chronic gastrointestinal ischaemia (CGI) due to single vessel abdominal artery stenosis exists, can be treated successfully and in a safe manner. The most common causes of single vessel CGI are the coeliac artery compression syndrome (CACS) in younger patients, and atherosclerotic disease in elderly patients. The clinical symptoms of single vessel CGI patients are postprandial and exercise-related pain, weight loss, and an abdominal bruit. The current diagnostic approach in patients suspected of single vessel CGI is gastrointestinal tonometry combined with radiological visualisation of the abdominal arteries to define possible arterial stenosis. Especially in single vessel abdominal artery stenosis, gastrointestinal tonometry plays a pivotal role in establishing the diagnosis CGI. First-choice treatment of single vessel CGI remains surgical revascularisation, especially in CACS. In elderly or selected patients endovascular stent placement therapy is an acceptable option. PMID:19258186

  9. [The abdominal drop flap].

    PubMed

    Bodin, F; Liverneaux, P; Seigle-Murandi, F; Facca, S; Bruant-Rodier, C; Dissaux, C; Chaput, B

    2015-08-01

    The skin between the mastectomy scar and the future infra-mammary fold may be managed in different ways in delayed breast reconstruction using a DIEP (deep inferior epigastric perforator). Conserving this skin and positioning the flap skin paddle in the middle of the breast usually highlights skin color disparity because of two visible transition zones. Resection of the entire skin under the scar may be more aesthetic but limits direct closure possibility in case of flap failure. In order to benefit from both aesthetic result and safe surgical method, we propose the abdominal drop flap. The inferior thoracic skin flap is detached from the thoracic wall beyond the future infra-mammary fold, preserved and pushed under the breast. PMID:25896871

  10. Frequent neurally mediated reflex syncope in a young patient with dextrocardia: Efficacy of catheter ablation of the superior vena cava–aorta ganglionated plexus

    PubMed Central

    Suenaga, Hidetaka; Murakami, Masato; Tani, Tomoyuki; Saito, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Neurally mediated reflex syncope is the most common cause of syncope in young individuals without cardiac or neurological pathology. We report a case of successful catheter ablation in a 17-year-old male with neurally mediated syncope (NMS) of the cardioinhibitory type. The patient had dextrocardia situs inversus totalis with a mirror-image reversal of the thoracic and abdominal organs. Because he experienced multiple syncope episodes despite pharmacological intervention, we performed endocardial ablation of the superior vena cava–aorta ganglionated plexus. Shortly afterwards, his heart rate increased from 40 to 76 beats per minutes. He has not experienced syncope during the 1-year follow-up. PMID:26336554

  11. Snorkel/chimney and fenestrated endografts for complex abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Ullery, B W; Lee, J T; Dalman, R L

    2015-10-01

    Complex endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) involves extension of the proximal aortic seal zone with preservation of branch vessel patency, thereby expanding the applicability of endografting from the infrarenal to the suprarenal aorta. Snorkel/chimney (Sn-EVAR) and fenestrated EVAR (f-EVAR) serve as the two most commonly utilized advanced endovascular techniques to combat hostile proximal neck anatomy. The purpose of this article is to describe the principles and evolution of these advanced endovascular strategies, technical considerations, and results of sn- and f-EVAR in the management of challenging neck anatomy in abdominal aortic aneurysm disease. PMID:25800354

  12. Helical CT angiography of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G D

    1997-04-01

    Five years after its introduction (11,36), spiral or helical CTA is being embraced as an important noninvasive tool for imaging the thoracic aorta and its branches. The high degree of accessibility and ease with which the studies are performed make it a viable alternative to aortography in the acute setting. Once the examiner is familiar with the principles of CTA, the acquisition phase of the examination can be completed in as little as 15 minutes, but it is critical that a thorough understanding of these principles guide the radiologist to maximize information gained by the technique. Several important challenges remain for CTA. First, the proliferation of image-processing workstations and software is improving our ability to exploit these CT data by allowing us to visualize them in novel ways (37) and create alternative renderings with greater ease and speed. Before relying on these alternative visualization techniques, their accuracy and pitfalls, and the incremental gain they achieve over interpretation of the primary transverse sections must be fully established. This requires that carefully designed studies with multiple blinded and independent reviewers isolate interpretative variations based on rendering technique alone, and not a combination of rendering and acquisition techniques where variables readily are confounded (38). Second, more investigators must step forward with results of the clinical utility of CTA to triage patients appropriately and direct medical and surgical therapy. Although well designed prospective comparisons of imaging examinations and measurement of patient outcomes are challenging to implement, they are critical to the rational selection of appropriate diagnostic tests. This is particularly true for the application of helical CTA to imaging of the posttraumatic aortic and aortic dissection. Finally, helical CT technology is far from static. Every year, new advances in engineering bring better image quality, improved resolution, and faster scan times. As medical imagers, we must not become complacent, but rather constantly challenge ourselves to consider how we might further improve on our use of CT equipment to maximize the collection of information relevant to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:9179826

  13. Towards a biomimetism of abdominal healthy and aneurysmal arterial tissues.

    PubMed

    Bailly, L; Geindreau, C; Orgéas, L; Deplano, V

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a new hyperelastic and anisotropic material mimicking histological and mechanical features of healthy and aneurysmal arterial tissues. The material is constituted by rhombic periodic lattices of hyperelastic fibres embedded into a soft elastomer membrane. To fit bi-axial experimental data obtained from the literature, with normal or pathologic human abdominal aortic tissues, the microstructure of the periodic lattices (fibre length, angle between fibres) together with the mechanical behaviour of the fibres (fibre tension-elongation curve) were optimised by using theoretical results arising from a multi-scale homogenisation process. It is shown that (i) a material constituted by only one periodic lattice of fibres is clearly not sufficient to describe all the experimental data set, (ii) a quantitative agreement between measurements and theoretical predictions is obtained by using a material with two fibre lattices, (iii) the optimised microstructures and mechanical properties of the fibrous lattices are strongly different for the abdominal healthy and aneurysmal arterial tissues, (iv) the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of the optimised material is described by only five parameters and (v) the optimal angles between fibres in the case of the healthy aorta are consistent with histological data. Several technical solutions of fibres can be considered as relevant candidates: this is illustrated in the particular cases of straight and wavy fibres. PMID:22520427

  14. Serial postmortem abdominal radiographic findings in canine cadavers.

    PubMed

    Heng, Hock Gan; Selvarajah, Gayathri Thevi; Lim, Hiang Tee; Ong, Jin Seng; Lim, Jiehan; Ooi, Jin Tatt

    2009-11-20

    Postmortem radiographic examinations of animals are often performed in judicial investigation to rule out gunshot and fractures due to cruelty or illegal hunting or poaching activities. Literature describing postmortem changes seen on radiographs of animals is rarely available. Serial abdominal radiography of 6 recently euthanized dogs were performed in an interval of 8h at a tropical ambient temperature of 22-33 degrees C. Severe decomposition of the cadavers prevented the study to be performed beyond 24h. Gradual increment of gas accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, kidney and blood vessels were observed. Increased amount of gas in the gastrointestinal tract was detected as early as 8h post-euthanasia and continuously increased throughout the study. Gas was seen in the portal vein and caudal vena cava of all cadavers at 16h post-euthanasia. The presence of gas in the aorta occurred at a later stage. Tubular branching gas pattern in the liver and spleen was first observed and progressed to vesicular gas pattern due to tissue decomposition. This study showed that abdominal radiographic postmortem changes occurred most rapidly between 8 and 16h post-euthanasia at the ambient temperature of 22-33 degrees C. PMID:19716666

  15. Hypoperfusion of the Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Develops an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Takaaki; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Sugiura, Yuki; Sato, Kohji; Kugo, Hirona; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Konno, Hiroyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Unno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The aortic wall is perfused by the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV). Tissue hypoxia has previously been observed as a manifestation of enlarged abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). We sought to determine whether hypoperfusion of the adventitial VV could develop AAAs. We created a novel animal model of adventitial VV hypoperfusion with a combination of a polyurethane catheter insertion and a suture ligation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta in rats. VV hypoperfusion caused tissue hypoxia and developed infrarenal AAA, which had similar morphological and pathological characteristics to human AAA. In human AAA tissue, the adventitial VV were stenotic in both small AAAs (30–49 mm in diameter) and in large AAAs (> 50 mm in diameter), with the sac tissue in these AAAs being ischemic and hypoxic. These results indicate that hypoperfusion of adventitial VV has critical effects on the development of infrarenal AAA. PMID:26308526

  16. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... functional pain. Your doctor will also follow your child to see if any changes take place which would suggest a different problem. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children NASPGHAN • PO Box 6 • Flourtown, PA 19031 • 215-233-0808 • ...

  17. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm during Transthoracic Echocardiography in Patients with Significant Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Ho; Chang, Sung-A; Jang, Shin Yi; Lee, Sang-Chol; Song, Young Bin; Park, Seung Woo; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Oh, Jae K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Coronary artery disease (CAD) shares several risk factors with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We evaluated the prevalence during transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and risk factors of AAA in patients with CAD. Materials and Methods A total of 1300 CAD patients were screened from August 2009 to May 2010, and measurement of abdominal aorta size was feasible in 920 patients (71%) at the end of routine TTE. An AAA was defined as having a maximal diameter of ?30 mm. Results Of the 920 patients, 22 (2.4% of the study population) were diagnosed with AAA; of these AAA patients, 86% were male, and 82% were over 65 years-old. Abdominal aortic size was weakly correlated with aortic root diameter (r=0.22, p<0.01). Although the proportions of male gender, hypertension, and dyslipidemia were higher in AAA patients, such differences were not statistically significant. Advanced age [odds ratio (OR)=1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.12; p<0.01], smoking (OR=3.44; 95% CI: 1.18-10.04; p=0.02), and peripheral arterial disease (OR=5.88; 95% CI: 1.38-25.05; p=0.01) were found to be associated with AAA. Conclusion Although prevalence of AAA is very low in the Asian population, the prevalence of AAA in Asian CAD patients is higher than the general population. Therefore, opportunistic examination of the abdominal aorta during routine TTE could be effective, especially for male CAD patients over 65 years with a history of smoking or peripheral arterial disease. PMID:25510745

  18. Extracellular matrix gene expression in the developing mouse aorta

    E-print Network

    Mecham, Robert

    Extracellular matrix gene expression in the developing mouse aorta Sean E. McLean,1 Brigham H., 1972; Gerrity and CliV, 1975). As the vessel wall matures, the SMCs go through multiple overlapping phenotypic transitions, character- ized broadly by cellular proliferation, matrix production

  19. Fatal dissecting aneurysm of the aorta in a diver.

    PubMed

    James, R; Hayman, J A

    1986-07-01

    A 20-yr-old trained sports diver developed severe chest pain shortly after decompressing from a 40 m repetitive freshwater sinkhole dive, and died 6 h later. An autopsy examination showed a dissecting aneurysm of the aorta with rupture into the left pleural cavity. The relationship between the fatal event and the diving is discussed. PMID:3785985

  20. Predictive Surgical Simulation of Aorta Reconstruction in Cardiac Surgery

    E-print Network

    Leow, Wee Kheng

    Predictive Surgical Simulation of Aorta Reconstruction in Cardiac Surgery Hao LI a,1 , Wee Kheng, Singapore b Dept. of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. Abstract. This paper proposes a method for performing predictive simulation of complex cardiac surgery. It computes

  1. The morphometrics of "masculinity" in human faces.

    PubMed

    Mitteroecker, Philipp; Windhager, Sonja; Müller, Gerd B; Schaefer, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    In studies of social inference and human mate preference, a wide but inconsistent array of tools for computing facial masculinity has been devised. Several of these approaches implicitly assumed that the individual expression of sexually dimorphic shape features, which we refer to as maleness, resembles facial shape features perceived as masculine. We outline a morphometric strategy for estimating separately the face shape patterns that underlie perceived masculinity and maleness, and for computing individual scores for these shape patterns. We further show how faces with different degrees of masculinity or maleness can be constructed in a geometric morphometric framework. In an application of these methods to a set of human facial photographs, we found that shape features typically perceived as masculine are wide faces with a wide inter-orbital distance, a wide nose, thin lips, and a large and massive lower face. The individual expressions of this combination of shape features--the masculinity shape scores--were the best predictor of rated masculinity among the compared methods (r = 0.5). The shape features perceived as masculine only partly resembled the average face shape difference between males and females (sexual dimorphism). Discriminant functions and Procrustes distances to the female mean shape were poor predictors of perceived masculinity. PMID:25671667

  2. A new technique for intra-abdominal arteries revascularization via extra-anatomic bypass from the brachiocephalic artery with a videoscopic retrosternal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Javerliat, Isabelle; Pichon, Audrey; Glorion, Matthieu; Coscas, Raphaël; Goëau-Brissonnière, Olivier; Coggia, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Extra-anatomic revascularizations of intra-abdominal or lower limbs arteries, or both, are indicated (1) when the aorta is unsuitable for anatomic bypasses, (2) in patients unfit for aortic surgery, (3) for graft infections, and (4) for visceral debranching during hybrid treatment of a thoracoabdominal aneurysm. We describe a new extra-anatomic bypass from the brachiocephalic artery with video-guided retrosternal tunneling. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of this technique. PMID:25936654

  3. Does Lower Limb Exercise Worsen Renal Artery Hemodynamics in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Xu, Zaipin; Deng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) and renal complications emerge in some patients after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to treat abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). The mechanisms for the causes of these problems are not clear. We hypothesized that for EVAR patients, lower limb exercise could negatively influence the physiology of the renal artery and the renal function, by decreasing the blood flow velocity and changing the hemodynamics in the renal arteries. To evaluate this hypothesis, pre- and post-operative models of the abdominal aorta were reconstructed based on CT images. The hemodynamic environment was numerically simulated under rest and lower limb exercise conditions. The results revealed that in the renal arteries, lower limb exercise decreased the wall shear stress (WSS), increased the oscillatory shear index (OSI) and increased the relative residence time (RRT). EVAR further enhanced these effects. Because these parameters are related to artery stenosis and atherosclerosis, this preliminary study concluded that lower limb exercise may increase the potential risk of inducing renal artery stenosis and renal complications for AAA patients. This finding could help elucidate the mechanism of renal artery stenosis and renal complications after EVAR and warn us to reconsider the management and nursing care of AAA patients. PMID:25946196

  4. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Wesley S.; Kashyap, Vikram S.; Vescera, Candace L.; Quiñones-Baldrich, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) will result in a significant reduction in mortality and morbidity rates and cost when compared with open transabdominal repair. Summary Background Data Since the introduction of endovascular repair of AAA this decade, multiple groups have evaluated different endovascular grafts. Despite the excellent results reported initially, there has been a paucity of well-controlled, comparative studies looking at long-term outcome. Methods From 1992 to 1998, the first 100 consecutive patients undergoing endovascular AAA repair (mean age 74.7, AAA size 5.6 cm) were compared to 100 patients undergoing transabdominal repair (mean age 72.9, AAA size 5.9 cm). All patients undergoing endovascular repair received a device manufactured by Endovascular Technologies, Inc. (Menlo Park, CA) and were prospectively followed with periodic examination, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, and duplex scanning. Of the 200 patients, 198 have been available for long-term follow-up. Results The two groups had similar preoperative risk factors. Surgical time (211 vs. 256 minutes, p < 0.005), blood loss (326 vs. 1010 ml, p < 0.005), and blood replacement (0.4 vs. 1.6 units, p < 0.005) were all decreased in the endovascular group. Median intensive care unit stay (0 vs. 2 days) and hospital stay (2 vs. 7 days) were significantly reduced in the endovascular group. Insignificant trends in lower morbidity rates (myocardial infarction 1% vs. 5%, respiratory failure 1% vs. 5%, colon ischemia 0% vs. 2%) were present in patients undergoing endovascular repair. This led to decreased hospital cost and increased hospital profit. The surgical mortality rate (2% vs. 3%) and 5-year survival rate (65% vs. 72%) have been equivalent between the two groups. Conclusions The surgical mortality rate is low for both groups and not statistically different. Endovascular repair significantly reduces resource utilization (surgical time, blood replacement, intensive care unit and hospital stay) and cost when compared to transabdominal aneurysm repair. Long-term survival is equivalent in patients undergoing AAA repair regardless of technique. Although endovascular repair appears durable for up to 6 years, longer follow-up studies are warranted. PMID:10493477

  5. Morphometric analysis of follicular center cell lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, S. H.; Pelstring, R. J.; Collins, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The Lukes/Collins classification of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas subdivides follicular center cell (FCC) lymphomas into four categories based on nuclear size, shape, and state of transformation. Because of the well-recognized difficulty in making these subdivisions in routine histologic sections, a morphometric analysis of typical small cleaved (SC), large cleaved (LC), small noncleaved (SNC), and large noncleaved (LNC) FCCs was performed to describe and compare these four categories using objective parameters. The following features, which had been previously tested on normal follicles, were measured and calculated: nuclear area (NA), nuclear contour index of ellipticity (NCIe), nuclear contour index of nuclear irregularity (NCIni), and a relative chromatin dispersal index (CDI). The presence of nucleoli also was recorded. Mean values for the NA, NCIe, NCIni, and CDI were significantly different among all four FCC lymphoma subtypes, except that the CDI, which reflects transformation, was similar for the SC and LC cell groups. Comparison using the proportion of cells with nucleoli in each case revealed significant differences between all but the SNC and LNC groups. The LC group had the highest mean nuclear ellipticity and nuclear irregularity values. Mean nuclear area was smallest for the SC group followed by the LC, SNC, and LNC groups. Despite these many differences, all parameters showed a broad spectrum of values when either mean values for individual cases of each FCC subtype or distribution curves for all cells within a certain subtype were compared. This morphometric data demonstrates that the four histologically recognized types of FCC lymphomas are distinctive using a more analytic technique. This study also provides further insight into the differences among them. Evidence of nuclear transformation (nuclear size, chromatin dispersal, and frequent nucleoli) is a more important criterion than nuclear contours in distinguishing LNC from LC lymphomas. Although LC lymphomas have some features intermediate between SC and the noncleaved FCC lymphomas, they more closely resemble SC lymphomas. Finally morphometric analyses such as these provide an objective morphologic foundation for future prospective investigations of transformation-related phenomena; these studies may facilitate comparison of morphologic data with immunophenotype and genotype in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and comparison of various other B-cell neoplasms with follicular center cell neoplasms. Images Figure 1 PMID:2221019

  6. Geometric morphometric footprint analysis of young women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most published attempts to quantify footprint shape are based on a small number of measurements. We applied geometric morphometric methods to study shape variation of the complete footprint outline in a sample of 83 adult women. Methods The outline of the footprint, including the toes, was represented by a comprehensive set of 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Shape coordinates were computed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Results The first four principal components represented the major axes of variation in foot morphology: low-arched versus high-arched feet, long and narrow versus short and wide feet, the relative length of the hallux, and the relative length of the forefoot. These shape features varied across the measured individuals without any distinct clusters or discrete types of footprint shape. A high body mass index (BMI) was associated with wide and flat feet, and a high frequency of wearing high-heeled shoes was associated with a larger forefoot area of the footprint and a relatively long hallux. Larger feet had an increased length-to-width ratio of the footprint, a lower-arched foot, and longer toes relative to the remaining foot. Footprint shape differed on average between left and right feet, and the variability of footprint asymmetry increased with BMI. Conclusions Foot shape is affected by lifestyle factors even in a sample of young women (median age 23 years). Geometric morphometrics proved to be a powerful tool for the detailed analysis of footprint shape that is applicable in various scientific disciplines, including forensics, orthopedics, and footwear design. PMID:23886074

  7. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  8. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

    1998-01-01

    A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  9. Functional abdominal bloating with distention.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Stephen Norman

    2012-01-01

    Ten to 25% of healthy persons experience bloating. It is particularly common in persons with the irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. While the cause of bloating remains unknown old explanations such as a excessive intestinal gas, exaggerated lumbar lordosis and psychiatric problems have been disproved. New suggestions include recent weight gain, weak or inappropriately relaxed abdominal muscles, an inappropriately contracted diaphragm and retained fluid in loops of distal small bowel. No treatment is of unequivocal benefit but a low FODMAPs diet, probiotics and the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin offer some hope. Treatment by weight loss, abdominal exercise, prokinetics and girdles need more study. PMID:22778978

  10. Fibrolipomas masquerading as abdominal hernias

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hannah Isabella; Saunders, Andrew John

    2013-01-01

    A 15-year-old Caucasian girl presented to her general practitioner with a tender, irreducible mass in the paraumbilical region. On examination, two small masses could be felt. She was referred to general surgery. Ultrasound imaging and MRI were unremarkable. However, clinical suspicion suggested multiple areas of abdominal wall herniation. The patient was admitted for elective surgery to exclude herniation. At operation, three subcutaneous masses were found but with no evidence of abdominal wall herniation. Histopathology results from the specimens showed mature adipose tissue mixed with fibrous deposits. There was no evidence of malignancy. A diagnosis of fibrolipoma was given. PMID:24343803

  11. MagnetoHemoDynamics in the aorta and electrocardiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Vincent; Drochon, Agnès; Fokapu, Odette; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    This paper addresses a complex multi-physical phenomenon involving cardiac electrophysiology and hemodynamics. The purpose is to model and simulate a phenomenon that has been observed in magnetic resonance imaging machines: in the presence of a strong magnetic field, the T-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) gets bigger, which may perturb ECG-gated imaging. This is due to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect occurring in the aorta. We reproduce this experimental observation through computer simulations on a realistic anatomy, and with a three-compartment model: inductionless MHD equations in the aorta, bi-domain equations in the heart and electrical diffusion in the rest of the body. These compartments are strongly coupled and solved using finite elements. Several benchmark tests are proposed to assess the numerical solutions and the validity of some modeling assumptions. Then, ECGs are simulated for a wide range of magnetic field intensities (from 0 to 20 T).

  12. MORPHOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN ENGLISH SOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present an application of the powerful thin plate spline method of morphometric analysis to demonstrate its utility for detecting environmental stress in an estuarine flatfish. Juvenile English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) were captured from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, photographed w...

  13. A Behavioral Analysis of Clovis Point Morphology Using Geometric Morphometrics 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Heather Lynn

    2012-02-14

    OF CLOVIS POINT MORPHOLOGY USING GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRICS A Thesis by HEATHER LYNN SMITH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS December 2010... Major Subject: Anthropology A BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS OF CLOVIS POINT MORPHOLOGY USING GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRICS A Thesis by HEATHER LYNN SMITH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  14. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    AAA - open - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open - discharge ... You had open aortic aneurysm surgery to repair an aneurysm (a widened part) in your aorta, the large artery that carries blood to your ...

  15. Comparative hemodynamics in an aorta with bicuspid and trileaflet valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmanov, Anvar; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-09-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital heart defect that has been associated with serious aortopathies, such as aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, infective endocarditis, aortic dissection, calcific aortic valve and dilatation of ascending aorta. There are two main hypotheses to explain the increase prevalence of aortopathies in patients with BAV: the genetic and the hemodynamic. In this study, we seek to investigate the possible role of hemodynamic factors as causes of BAV-associated aortopathy. We employ the curvilinear immersed boundary method coupled with an efficient thin-shell finite-element formulation for tissues to carry out fluid-structure interaction simulations of a healthy trileaflet aortic valve (TAV) and a BAV placed in the same anatomic aorta. The computed results reveal major differences between the TAV and BAV flow patterns. These include: the dynamics of the aortic valve vortex ring formation and break up; the large-scale flow patterns in the ascending aorta; the shear stress magnitude, directions, and dynamics on the heart valve surfaces. The computed results are in qualitative agreement with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging data and suggest that the linkages between BAV aortopathy and hemodynamics deserve further investigation.

  16. Renal autotransplant for subsequent endovascular exclusion of the thoracoabdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Gaudencio; Grochowicz, Lukasz; Pascual, Ignacio; Lavilla, Javier; Olavide, Isidro; Hernández, Miguel David; Landecho, Manuel Fortún; Lucena, Juan Felipe; Bastarrika, Gorka; Del Pozo, José Luis; Gavira, Juan José; Alegre, Félix

    2013-10-01

    In the last 20 years, endovascular procedures have radically altered the treatment of diseases of the aorta. The objective of endovascular treatment of dissections is to close the entry point to redirect blood flow toward the true lumen, thereby achieving thrombosis of the false lumen. In extensive chronic dissections that have evolved with the formation of a large aneurysm, the dissection is maintained from the end of the endoprosthesis due to multiple orifices, or reentries, that communicate with the lumens. In addition, one of the primary limitations of this technique is when the visceral arteries have disease involvement. In this report we present a case where, despite having treated the entire length of the descending thoracic aorta, the dissection was maintained distally, leading to progression of the diameter of the aneurysm. After reviewing the literature, and to the best of our knowledge, we describe the first case in which renal autotransplant was performed to allow for subsequent exclusion of the aorta at the thoracoabdominal level using a fenestrated endoprosthesis for the celiac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery. PMID:23993115

  17. Endovascular Repair of Contained Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Robert; Loosemore, Tom; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2002-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of stent-grafts for the treatment of acute rupture of the thoracic aorta. Methods: Four patients with acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta were treated by insertion of stent-grafts. The underlying aortic lesions were aneurysm, acute aortic ulcer, acute type B dissection and giant cell aortitis. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia in three patients and local anesthesia in one patient. Results: All stent-grafts were successfully deployed. All patients survived the procedure and are now alive and well at follow-up (mean 6.3 months, range 44 days-16 months). One patient underwent a second stent procedure 10 days after the first procedure because of a proximal endoleak. All hemothoraces have resolved. There were no complications. Conclusion:Treatment of acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta by the insertion of stent-grafts is feasible. The technical success rates,complication rates and patient survival compare favorably with emergency surgery.

  18. Analysis of human aorta using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira-Damiani, Gislaine; Adur, J.; Ferro, D. P.; Adam, R. L.; Pelegati, V.; Thomáz, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, K.

    2012-03-01

    The use of photonics has improved our understanding of biologic phenomena. For the study of the normal and pathologic architecture of the aorta the use of Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence (TPEF) and Second Harmonic Generation showed interesting details of morphologic changes of the elastin-collagen architecture during aging or development of hypertension in previous studies. In this investigation we tried to apply fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for the morphologic analysis of human aortas. The aim of our study was to use FLIM in non-stained formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples of the aorta ascendants in hypertensive and normotensive patients of various ages, examining two different topographical regions. The FLIM-spectra of collagen and elastic fibers were clearly distinguishable, thus permitting an exact analysis of unstained material on the microscopic level. Moreover the FLIM spectrum of elastic fibers revealed variations between individual cases, which indicate modifications on a molecular level and might be related to FLIM age or diseases states and reflect modifications on a molecular level.

  19. Hemodynamic Modeling of Surgically Repaired Coarctation of the Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Laura J; de Zélicourt, Diane A.; Haggerty, Christopher M.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Cross, Russell R; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Late morbidity of surgically repaired coarctation of the aorta includes early cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, shortened life expectancy, abnormal vasomodulator response, hypertension and exercise-induced hypertension in the absence of recurrent coarctation. Observational studies have linked patterns of arch remodeling (Gothic, Crenel, and Romanesque) to late morbidity, with Gothic arches having the highest incidence. We evaluated flow in native and surgically repaired aortic arches to correlate respective hemodynamic indices with incidence of late morbidity. METHODS Three dimensional reconstructions of each remodeled arch were created from an anatomic stack of magnetic resonance (MR) images. A structured mesh core with a boundary layer was generated. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was performed assuming peak flow conditions with a uniform velocity profile and unsteady turbulent flow. Wall shear stress (WSS), pressure and velocity data were extracted. RESULTS The region of maximum WSS was located in the mid-transverse arch for the Crenel, Romanesque and Native arches. Peak WSS was located in the isthmus of the Gothic model. Variations in descending aorta flow patterns were also observed among the models. CONCLUSION The location of peak WSS is a primary difference among the models tested, and may have clinical relevance. Specifically, the Gothic arch had a unique location of peak WSS with flow disorganization in the descending aorta. Our results suggest that varied patterns and locations of WSS resulting from abnormal arch remodeling may exhibit a primary effect on clinical vascular dysfunction. PMID:22347895

  20. "V" aortoplasty of the proximal descending aorta in the elephant trunk procedure.

    PubMed

    Kolesar, Adrian; Bily, Boris; Spak, Lubomir; Luczy, Jan; Artemiou, Panagiotis; Sabol, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Complex pathology of the aorta, especially in patients presenting an aneurysm involving the entire aortic arch and proximal descending aorta has been approached in one or two stages. Surgical management of those with an extremely wide diameter of the proximal descending aorta is not yet well defined. The patient in this case was an asymptomatic 47-year-old female with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated with aneurysm of the ascending aorta, whose aortic arch and descending aorta had presented only overall weakness (examination by inspection and palpation without histological verification). The imaging identified a giant aorta arising at the level of the sinotubular junction (STJ), ending up immediately below the diaphragm. In the first stage she underwent surgical replacement of the entire ascending aorta, aortic arch and proximal part of the descending aorta by combining the elephant trunk with a new type of aortoplasty. In the second stage an endovascular stent graft was inserted into the elephant trunk in the descending aorta. The patient continues to do well 20 months following the repair. In this manuscript type we describe a novel technique of "V" aortoplasty of the proximal descending aorta in order to facilitate the performing of anastomosis between the Dacron graft and aortic aneurysm. PMID:25637000

  1. Morphometric analysis of three-dimensional networks of karst conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Durán-Valsero, Juan J.; Rodríguez-Galiano, Victor

    2011-09-01

    The main idiosyncrasy of a typical karst system is the presence of a three-dimensional network of conduits behaving as drains in the system and being responsible of both the quick response of karst springs to rainfall events and the complex distribution of solutes in the system. A morphometric analysis of the three-dimensional geometry of conduits provides quantitative measures that can be used in a range of applications. These morphometric parameters can be used as descriptors of the underground geomorphology, they provide information on speleogenesis processes, they can be correlated with karst denudation ratios, they can be used to control the simulation of realistic stochastic karst networks of conduits, and they can be correlated with hydrogeologic behaviour of the karst system. The main purpose of this paper is to define, describe and illustrate a range of morphometric indexes and morphometric functions that can be calculated nowadays because the availability of three-dimensional topographies provided by speleological work and the availability of the computational and graphical power provided by modern computers. Some of the morphometric parameters describe the existence of preferential directions of karstification, others describe the kartification along the vertical and the possible presence of inception horizons. Other indexes describe the shape complexity of the karstic network, whilst other indexes describe spatial variability of the conduit geometry, and other parameters give account of the connectivity of the three-dimensional network. The morphometric analysis is illustrated with a three-dimensional karstic network in Southern France.

  2. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePLUS

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe it to you. Here are different kinds of pain: ...

  3. Abdominal pregnancy: Methods of hemorrhage control

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Shipra; Khan, Tamkin; Srivastava, Kumkumrani

    2015-01-01

    Summary Abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare form of ectopic pregnancy, mostly occurring secondarily after tubal rupture or abortion with secondary implantation anywhere in the peritoneal cavity. Massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage is a life threatening complication associated with secondary abdominal pregnancy. Various methods and techniques have been reported in the literature for controlling hemorrhage. Here, we report a case of massive intraperitoneal haemorrhage following placental removal controlled by abdominal packing and review the literature for diagnostic and management challenges. PMID:25984430

  4. Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:25239980

  5. [Anesthesia and recovery of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery].

    PubMed

    Beye, S A; Kane, O; Tchikangoua, T N; Ndiaye, A; Dieng, P A; Ciss, G; Ba, P S; Ndiaye, M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anaesthetic assumption of responsibility of the surgery of the aneurism of under renal abdominal aorta. It was a retrospective study over two years (April 2005 - April 2007). Seven patients were operated, the mean age was 69,4 years. An operational pre evaluation was carried out among all patients including/understanding an interrogation, a clinical examination and a clinical assessment. All the patients profited from a general anaesthesia with controlled ventilation. Arterial hypertension (5 cases) was the independent factor of risk followed by the nicotinism (2 cases) with a patient at the stage of obstructive chronic broncho-pneumonopathy (BPCO). A patient was allowed in a table of rupture with acute abdominal pain and a cardiovascular collapse. Electrocardioscopic anomalies were noted among three patients with type of: HVD+ HBAG; HVG; HAG. A patient presented a hypertrophy cardiopathy with deterioration of the function of the VG and an important pulmonary arterial hypertension. A tensionnelle fall was found among three patients after induction with the midazolam. The aortic time of clampage varied between 20 and 120 mn with an average of 57, 6 mn. The incidents at the time of the clampage were: a bradycardia, a hypertensive push and a hypotension. No incident was observed at the time of the declampage. The blood losses per operational were estimated on average at 1000 ml and the numbers of transfusion by patient was on average of 4 pockets. The post operative issue was simple among 5 patients. A surgical recovery was necessary in front of a case of thrombosis of prosthesis. An oligoanurie, an acute respiratory insufficiency was found at the patient admitted in a table of rupture. The intermediate duration of stay threw 11 days. The maintenance of a homodynamic stability per and post operational remainder a good strategy to prevent the operational complications post. PMID:19666389

  6. Effect of telmisartan on the expression of adiponectin receptors and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in the heart and aorta in type 2 diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetic cardiovascular disease is associated with decreased adiponectin and increased oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of telmisartan on the expression of adiponectin receptor 2 (adipoR2) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits in the heart and the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) in aorta in type 2 diabetic rats. Methods Type 2 diabetes was induced by high-fat and high-sugar diet and intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ). Heart function, adipoR2, p22phox, NOX4, glucose transporter 4(GLUT4), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)in the heart, and adipoR1, MCP-1 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in aorta were analyzed in controls and diabetic rats treated with or without telmisartan (5mg/kg/d) by gavage for 12 weeks. Results Heart function, plasma and myocardial adiponectin levels, the expression of myocardial adipoR2 and GLUT4 were significantly decreased in diabetic rats (P <0.05). The expression of myocardial p22phox, NOX4, MCP-1, and CTGF was significantly increased in diabetic rats (P <0.05). The expression of adipoR1 was decreased and the expression of MCP-1 and NF-?B was increased in the abdominal aorta in diabetic rats (P <0.05). Telmisartan treatment significantly attenuated these changes in diabetic rats (P <0.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that telmisartan upregulates the expression of myocardial adiponectin, its receptor 2 and GLUT4. Simultaneously, it downregulates the expression of myocardial p22phox, NOX4, MCP-1, and CTGF, contributing so to the improvement of heart function in diabetic rats. Telmisartan also induces a protective role on the vascular system by upregulating the expression of adipoR1 and downregulating the expression of MCP-1 and NF-?B in the abdominal aorta in diabetic rats. PMID:22873349

  7. A case of aorta-right atrial tunnel presented with an asymptomatic murmur.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Nyoun; Cho, Kyoung-Im; Kim, Jae-Joon; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Goo, Ja-Jun; Lee, Ja-Young; Kim, Seong-Man

    2013-09-01

    Aorta-right atrial tunnel is a rare and distinct congenital anomaly. It is a vascular channel that originates from one of the sinuses of Valsalva with a tortuous course anterior or posterior to the ascending aorta, and terminates either in the superior vena cava or in the right atrium (RA). We report a 42-year-old female briefly with aorta-right atrial tunnel in which the left coronary artery arose from the tunnel and terminated into the RA. PMID:24174967

  8. Fused Traditional and Geometric Morphometrics Demonstrate Pinniped Whisker Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ginter, Carly C.; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Fish, Frank E.; Marshall, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrissae (whiskers) are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system, and primarily function as detectors of vibrotactile information from the environment. Pinnipeds possess the largest vibrissae among mammals and their vibrissal hair shafts demonstrate a diversity of shapes. The vibrissae of most phocid seals exhibit a beaded morphology with repeating sequences of crests and troughs along their length. However, there are few detailed analyses of pinniped vibrissal morphology, and these are limited to a few species. Therefore, we comparatively characterized differences in vibrissal hair shaft morphologies among phocid species with a beaded profile, phocid species with a smooth profile, and otariids with a smooth profile using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Traditional morphometric measurements (peak-to-peak distance, crest width, trough width and total length) were collected using digital photographs. Elliptic Fourier analysis (geometric morphometrics) was used to quantify the outlines of whole vibrissae. The traditional and geometric morphometric datasets were subsequently combined by mathematically scaling each to true rank, followed by a single eigendecomposition. Quadratic discriminant function analysis demonstrated that 79.3, 97.8 and 100% of individuals could be correctly classified to their species based on vibrissal shape variables in the traditional, geometric and combined morphometric analyses, respectively. Phocids with beaded vibrissae, phocids with smooth vibrissae, and otariids each occupied distinct morphospace in the geometric morphometric and combined data analyses. Otariids split into two groups in the geometric morphometric analysis and gray seals appeared intermediate between beaded- and smooth-whiskered species in the traditional and combined analyses. Vibrissal hair shafts modulate the transduction of environmental stimuli to the mechanoreceptors in the follicle-sinus complex (F-SC), which results in vibrotactile reception, but it is currently unclear how the diversity of shapes affects environmental signal modulation. PMID:22509310

  9. Exploring Eucladoceros ecomorphology using geometric morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Curran, Sabrina C

    2015-01-01

    An increasingly common method for reconstructing paleoenvironmental parameters of hominin sites is ecological functional morphology (ecomorphology). This study provides a geometric morphometric study of cervid rearlimb morphology as it relates to phylogeny, size, and ecomorphology. These methods are then applied to an extinct Pleistocene cervid, Eucladoceros, which is found in some of the earliest hominin-occupied sites in Eurasia. Variation in cervid postcranial functional morphology associated with different habitats can be summarized as trade-offs between joint stability versus mobility and rapid movement versus power-generation. Cervids in open habitats emphasize limb stability to avoid joint dislocation during rapid flight from predators. Closed-adapted cervids require more joint mobility to rapidly switch directions in complex habitats. Two skeletal features (of the tibia and calcaneus) have significant phylogenetic signals, while two (the femur and third phalanx) do not. Additionally, morphology of two of these features (tibia and third phalanx) were correlated with body size. For the tibial analysis (but not the third phalanx) this correlation was ameliorated when phylogeny was taken into account. Eucladoceros specimens from France and Romania fall on the more open side of the habitat continuum, a result that is at odds with reconstructions of their diet as browsers, suggesting that they may have had a behavioral regime unlike any extant cervid. PMID:25338504

  10. How morphometric characteristics affect flow accumulation values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farek, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing methods (like aerial based LIDAR recording, land-use recording etc.) become continually more available and accurate. On the other hand in-situ surveying is still expensive. Above all in small, anthropogenically uninfluenced catchments, with poor, or non-existing surveying network could be remote sensing methods extremely useful. Overland flow accumulation (FA) values belong to important indicators of higher flash floods or soil erosion exposure. This value gives the number of cells of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) grid, which are drained to each point of the catchment. This contribution deals with relations between basic geomorphological and morphometric characteristics (like hypsometric integral, Melton index of subcatchment etc.) and FA values. These relations are studied in the rocky sandstone landscapes of National park Ceské Svycarsko with the particular occurrence of broken relief. All calculations are based on high-resolution LIDAR DEM named Genesis created by TU Dresden. The main computational platform is GIS GRASS . The goal of the conference paper is to submit a quick method or indicators to estimate small particular subcatchments threatened by higher flash floods or soil erosion risks, without the necessity of using sophisticated rainfall-runoff models. There is a possibility to split catchments easily to small subcatchments (or use existing disjunction), compute basic characteristics and (with knowledge of links between this characteristics and FA values) identify, which particular subcatchment is potentially threatened by flash floods or soil erosion.

  11. Distribution of Wall Stress in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasheras, Juan

    2005-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is believed to occur when the mechanical stress acting on the wall exceeds the strength of the wall tissue. Therefore, knowledge of the AAA wall stress distribution could be useful in assessing its risk of rupture. In our research, a finite element analysis was used to determine the wall stresses both in idealized models and in a real clinical model in which the aorta was considered isotropic with nonlinear material properties and was loaded with a given pressure. In the idealized models, both maximum diameter and asymmetry were found to have substantial influence on the distribution of the wall stress. The thrombus inside the AAA was also found to help protecting the walls from high stresses. Using CT scans of the AAA, the actual geometry of the aneurysm was reconstructed and we found that wall tension increases on the flatter surface (typically corresponds to the posterior surface) and at the inflection points of the bulge. In addition to the static analysis, we also performed simulations of the effect of unsteady pressure wave propagation inside the aneurysm.

  12. Possible Dual Role of Decorin in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Koshiro; Yoshimura, Koichi; Yamashita, Osamu; Harada, Takasuke; Morikage, Noriyasu; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by chronic inflammation, which leads to pathological remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Decorin, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan, has been suggested to regulate inflammation and stabilize the extracellular matrix. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of decorin in the pathogenesis of AAA. Decorin was localized in the aortic adventitia under normal conditions in both mice and humans. AAA was induced in mice using CaCl2 treatment. Initially, decorin protein levels decreased, but as AAA progressed decorin levels increased in all layers. Local administration of exogenous decorin prevented the development of CaCl2-induced AAA. However, decorin was highly expressed in the degenerative lesions of human AAA walls, and this expression positively correlated with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression. In cell culture experiments, the addition of decorin inhibited secretion of MMP-9 in vascular smooth muscle cells, but had the opposite effect in macrophages. The results suggest that decorin plays a dual role in AAA. Adventitial decorin in normal aorta may protect against the development of AAA, but macrophages expressing decorin in AAA walls may facilitate the progression of AAA by up-regulating MMP-9 secretion. PMID:25781946

  13. Pulse wave imaging in normal, hypertensive and aneurysmal human aortas in vivo: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ronny X.; Luo, Jianwen; Balaram, Sandhya K.; Chaudhry, Farooq A.; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2013-07-01

    Arterial stiffness is a well-established biomarker for cardiovascular risk, especially in the case of hypertension. The progressive stages of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) have also been associated with varying arterial stiffness. Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is a noninvasive, ultrasound imaging-based technique that uses the pulse wave-induced arterial wall motion to map the propagation of the pulse wave and measure the regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) as an index of arterial stiffness. In this study, the clinical feasibility of PWI was evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and aneurysmal human aortas. Radiofrequency-based speckle tracking was used to estimate the pulse wave-induced displacements in the abdominal aortic walls of normal (N = 15, mean age 32.5 ± 10.2 years), hypertensive (N = 13, mean age 60.8 ± 15.8 years), and aneurysmal (N = 5, mean age 71.6 ± 11.8 years) human subjects. Linear regression of the spatio-temporal variation of the displacement waveform in the anterior aortic wall over a single cardiac cycle yielded the slope as the PWV and the coefficient of determination r2 as an approximate measure of the pulse wave propagation uniformity. The aortic PWV measurements in all normal, hypertensive, and AAA subjects were 6.03 ± 1.68, 6.69 ± 2.80, and 10.54 ± 6.52 m s-1, respectively. There was no significant difference (p = 0.15) between the PWVs of the normal and hypertensive subjects while the PWVs of the AAA subjects were significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to those of the other two groups. Also, the average r2 in the AAA subjects was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than that in the normal and hypertensive subjects. These preliminary results suggest that the regional PWV and the pulse wave propagation uniformity (r2) obtained using PWI, in addition to the PWI images and spatio-temporal maps that provide qualitative visualization of the pulse wave, may potentially provide valuable information for the clinical characterization of aneurysms and other vascular pathologies that regionally alter the arterial wall mechanics.

  14. Endovascular Repair of Traumatic Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta: Single-Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Saratzis, Nikolaos A. Saratzis, Athanasios N.; Melas, Nikolaos; Ginis, Georgios; Lioupis, Athanasios; Lykopoulos, Dimitrios; Lazaridis, John; Dimitrios, Kiskinis

    2007-06-15

    Purpose. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta secondary to blunt chest trauma is a life-threatening emergency and a common cause of death, usually following violent collisions. The objective of this retrospective report was to evaluate the efficacy of endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions with a single commercially available stent-graft. Methods. Nine men (mean age 29.5 years) were admitted to our institution between January 2003 and January 2006 due to blunt aortic trauma following violent motor vehicle collisions. Plain chest radiography, spiral computed tomography, aortography, and transesophageal echocardiography were used for diagnostic purposes in all cases. All patients were diagnosed with contained extramural thoracic aortic hematomas, secondary to aortic disruption. One patient was also diagnosed with a traumatic thoracic aortic dissection, secondary to blunt trauma. All subjects were poor surgical candidates, due to major injuries such as multiple bone fractures, abdominal hematomas, and pulmonary contusions. All repairs were performed using the EndoFit (LeMaitre Vascular) stent-graft. Results. Complete exclusion of the traumatic aortic disruption and pseudoaneurysm was achieved and verified at intraoperative arteriography and on CT scans, within 10 days of the repair in all patients. In 1 case the deployment of a second cuff was necessary due to a secondary endoleak. In 2 cases the left subclavian artery was occluded to achieve adequate graft fixation. No procedure-related deaths have occurred and no cardiac or peripheral vascular complications were observed within the 12 months (range 8-16 months) follow-up. Conclusions. This is the first time the EndoFit graft has been utilized in the treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions secondary to chest trauma. The repair of such pathologies is technically feasible and early follow-up results are promising.

  15. Transperitoneal repair of a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and co-existent horseshoe kidney with division of the renal isthmus

    PubMed Central

    Hajibandeh, Shahin; Hajibandeh, Shahab; Johnpulle, Michelle; Perricone, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The co-existence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and horseshoe kidney (HSK) is rare. We report a 67-year-old man with an expanding juxtarenal AAA associated with a HSK. The aneurysm had a severely angulated neck and contained a significant amount of mural thrombus. The isthmus of HSK closely lied over the aneurysm, making its exposure extremely difficult. The aneurysm was successfully repaired using transperitoneal approach with division of the renal isthmus and without any need for the renal artery reconstruction. Despite the potential complications, particularly renal insufficiency, associated with division of the renal isthmus and suprarenal cross-clamping of the abdominal aorta, in our case, post-operative period was uneventful and the patient's recovery was satisfactory. PMID:26511935

  16. Transperitoneal repair of a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and co-existent horseshoe kidney with division of the renal isthmus.

    PubMed

    Hajibandeh, Shahin; Hajibandeh, Shahab; Johnpulle, Michelle; Perricone, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The co-existence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and horseshoe kidney (HSK) is rare. We report a 67-year-old man with an expanding juxtarenal AAA associated with a HSK. The aneurysm had a severely angulated neck and contained a significant amount of mural thrombus. The isthmus of HSK closely lied over the aneurysm, making its exposure extremely difficult. The aneurysm was successfully repaired using transperitoneal approach with division of the renal isthmus and without any need for the renal artery reconstruction. Despite the potential complications, particularly renal insufficiency, associated with division of the renal isthmus and suprarenal cross-clamping of the abdominal aorta, in our case, post-operative period was uneventful and the patient's recovery was satisfactory. PMID:26511935

  17. Human dilated ascending aorta: Mechanical characterization via uniaxial tensile tests.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Anna; Morganti, Simone; Totaro, Pasquale; Mazzola, Alessandro; Auricchio, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the ascending aorta (AsAA), i.e., a progressive and localized dilatation of the first part of the aorta, represent a severe life-threatening condition, often occurring with no symptom. AsAA formation is associated with a degeneration of the aortic wall tissue, which leads to changes in the tissue mechanical properties, and in particular to increased wall stress and/or decreased wall ultimate strength. Nowadays, the decision to surgically operate is usually based on the AsAA diameter, although such a criterion is not always predictive. The present study focuses on the mechanical characterization of the AsAA tissues. Specimens were cut from portions of dilated ascending aorta excised from 46 patients through open-heart surgery. Peak strain, peak stress, and maximum elastic modulus (i.e., tissue stiffness) were measured from uniaxial stress-strain curves. Such (ultimate) mechanical properties were collected for different regions of the aortic wall (anterior and posterior) as well as for different specimen orientations (circumferential and longitudinal). Relationships of ultimate mechanical properties with patient age and sex were also investigated. The obtained results highlighted a significant anisotropy of the AsAA tissue (as also observed for healthy aortic tissues), with higher value of strength and stiffness in the circumferential than in the longitudinal direction. Higher strength and stiffness were also found in the posterior region with respect to the anterior one for the circumferential orientation, whereas an opposite result was found for the longitudinal orientation. A decreasing trend of ultimate mechanical properties with aging was also highlighted. Finally, a significant difference in the strength between male and female was observed only in the circumferential direction. PMID:26356765

  18. Qureshi-5 Catheter for Complex Supra- and Abdominal-Aortic Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Xiao, WeiGang; Liu, HongLiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of previously described catheter technique was expanded to complex supra- and abdominal- aortic catheterizations. Methods A new (Qureshi 5) catheter with curved shape at the distal end that has two lumens was used. One of lumens can accommodate a 0.035-inch guide wire and the second lumen can accommodate a 0.018-inch guide wire and terminates at the beginning of the distal curve of the first lumen. The manipulation and engagement of the curved distal end catheter was facilitated by rotation and movement of the J-shaped 0.018-inch guide wire extended coaxial and beyond the distal end of catheter. Subsequently, either contrast was injected or a 0.035-inch guide wire advanced into the target artery. Results The catheters were used in one patient to perform diagnostic cerebral and abdominal angiography through a 6F introducer sheath placed in the right common femoral artery. The catheterization was complex because of severe tortuosity of arch and descending aorta secondary to kyphosis. The left and right internal carotid arteries and left and right vertebral arteries, left renal artery, and superior mesenteric artery were catheterized in patient (fluoroscopy time 19:46 min). No complications were observed in the patient. Conclusions The Qureshi-5 catheter was successful in complex supra- and abdominal-aortic catheterizations.

  19. Laparoscopy in Pediatric Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Rajesh R.

    1997-01-01

    Background: The use and indications for laparoscopy have been increasing. As part of this trend, a new algorithm may emerge for pediatric trauma in which laparoscopic techniques are used in hemodynamically stable patients with suspected hollow viscus perforation. Case Report: We present a case in which laparoscopy was successfully used in a pediatric trauma patient as a diagnostic and therapeutic modality. A 4-year-old boy was a back-seat passenger in a head-on collision motor vehicle accident. He was restrained by a lap seat belt. He sustained a concussion, a large forehead laceration and a seat belt abdominal injury. On admission, he complained of abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed a soft, nondistended abdomen with moderate diffuse tenderness. He was hemodynamically stable. Computerized tomography of the abdomen revealed free fluid in the pelvis. No abnormalities were detected in the liver or spleen. Because of clinical deterioration and suspected intestinal perforation, diagnostic laparoscopy was utilized instead of proceeding directly to celiotomy. At laparoscopy a jejunal perforation was found and successfully repaired laparoscopically. Large hematomas were seen in the mesentery, as well as an unsuspected splenic laceration. No active bleeding was found. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged 5 days following the surgical procedure. Conclusion: This case illustrates the efficacy of using early laparoscopy in children with abdominal trauma when diagnosis is difficult and hollow viscus injury is suspected. PMID:9876702

  20. [Perioperative management of abdominal aortic balloon occlusion in patients complicated with placenta percteta: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zeng, H; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Guo, X Y

    2015-12-18

    When placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, the exposure of operative field is difficult and the routine methods are difficult to effectively control the bleeding, even causing life-threatening results. A 31-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed with a complete type of placenta previa and placenta percreta with bladder invasion at 34 weeks gestation. Her ultrasound results showed a complete type of placenta previa and there was a loss of the decidual interface between the placenta and the myometrium on the lower part of the uterus, suggestive of placenta increta. For further evaluation of the placenta, pelvis magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which revealed findings suspicious of a placenta percreta. She underwent elective cecarean section at 36 weeks of gestation. Firstly, two ureteral stents were placed into the bilateral ureter through the cystoscope. After the infrarenal abdominal aorta catheter was inserted via the femoral artery (9 F sheath ), subarachnoid anesthesia had been established. A healthy 2 510 g infant was delivered, with Apgar scores of 10 at 1 min and 10 at 5 min. Immediately after the baby was delivered, following which there was massive haemorrhage and general anaesthesia was induced. The balloon catheter was immediately inflated until the wave of dorsal artery disappeared. With the placenta retained within the uterus, a total hysterectomy was performed. The occluding time was 30 min. The intraoperative blood loss was 2 500 mL. The occluding balloon was deflated at the end of the operation. The patient had stable vital signs and normal laboratory findings during the recovery period and the hemoglobin was 116 g/L. She was discharged six days after delivery without intervention-related complications. This case illustrates that temporary occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta using balloon might be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, who were at high risk for peripartum hemorrhage. Early removal of the endovascular catheter and close postoperative surveillance of the vascular system are required with this procedure to minimize the risk of vascular complications. However, further studies are needed to determine whether the potential benefits of temporary occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta using balloon outweigh the potential risks. PMID:26679671

  1. Testing and quantifying phylogenetic signals and homoplasy in morphometric data.

    PubMed

    Klingenberg, Christian Peter; Gidaszewski, Nelly A

    2010-05-01

    The relationship between morphometrics and phylogenetic analysis has long been controversial. Here we propose an approach that is based on mapping morphometric traits onto phylogenies derived from other data and thus avoids the pitfalls encountered by previous studies. This method treats shape as a single, multidimensional character. We propose a test for the presence of a phylogenetic signal in morphometric data, which simulates the null hypothesis of the complete absence of phylogenetic structure by permutation of the shape data among the terminal taxa. We also propose 2 measures of the fit of morphometric data to the phylogeny that are direct extensions of the consistency index and retention index used in traditional cladistics. We apply these methods to a small study of the evolution of wing shape in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, for which a very strongly supported phylogeny is available. This case study reveals a significant phylogenetic signal and a relatively low degree of homoplasy. Despite the low homoplasy, the shortest tree computed from landmark data on wing shape is inconsistent with the well-supported phylogenetic tree from molecular data, underscoring that morphometric data may not provide reliable information for inferring phylogeny. PMID:20525633

  2. Coarctation of the Aorta: Strategies for Improving Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lan; Cook, Stephen C

    2015-11-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is a common congenital heart defect through which management has rapidly evolved over the last few decades. The role of transcatheter-based therapies is expanding and seems to be an effective treatment option for coarctation, especially in adults. Patients with prior coarctation repair are at risk of long-term complications related to prior surgeries and associated congenital heart defects, in particular, the risk of restenosis and aortic aneurysm development related to the timing and mode of prior intervention. This article outlines the evaluation and management of adults with unrepaired coarctation and patients after coarctation repair. PMID:26471817

  3. Geometric morphometrics of hominoid infraspinous fossa shape.

    PubMed

    Green, David J; Serrins, Jesse D; Seitelman, Brielle; Martiny, Amy R; Gunz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Recent discoveries of early hominin scapulae from Ethiopia (Dikika, Woranso-Mille) and South Africa (Malapa) have motivated new examinations of the relationship between scapular morphology and locomotor function. In particular, infraspinous fossa shape has been shown to significantly differ among hominoids. However, this region presents relatively few homologous landmarks, such that traditional distance and angle-based methods may oversimplify this three-dimensional structure. To more thoroughly assess infraspinous fossa shape variation as it relates to function among adult hominoid representatives, we considered two geometric morphometric (GM) approaches--one employing five homologous landmarks ("wireframe") and another with 83 sliding semilandmarks along the border of the infraspinous fossa. We identified several differences in infraspinous fossa shape with traditional approaches, particularly in superoinferior fossa breadth and scapular spine orientation. The wireframe analysis reliably captured the range of shape variation in the sample, which reflects the relatively straightforward geometry of the infraspinous fossa. Building on the traditional approach, the GM results highlighted how the orientation of the medial portion of the infraspinous fossa differed relative to both the axillary border and spine. These features distinguished Pan from Gorilla in a way that traditional analyses had not been able to discern. Relative to the wireframe method, the semilandmark approach further distinguished Pongo from Homo, highlighting aspects of infraspinous fossa morphology that may be associated with climbing behaviors in hominoid taxa. These results highlight the ways that GM methods can enhance our ability to evaluate complex aspects of shape for refining and testing hypotheses about functional morphology. PMID:25339150

  4. Morphometric Analysis of Martian Valley Network Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Howard, A. D.

    2005-05-01

    Whether the Martian valley networks were formed predominantly by groundwater sapping or surface fluvial runoff continues to be debated and has profoundly different implications for the climatic history of Mars and the possible evolution of life there. This paper attempts to evaluate the relative role of groundwater sapping vs. surface runoff in valley networks generation through quantitative morphometic analysis at watershed basin scale using the highest resolution MOLA DEM data. Treating the hypsometric curve of each basin as a cumulative probability distribution, its integral, skewness, kurtosis, density skewness, and density kurtosis (collectively called hypsometric attributes) can serve as quantitative measures of the basin's morphology. The hypsometric attributes are sensitive to variations in overall basin characteristics and thus are diagnostic of possible processes. These attributes of typical terrestrial sapping basins, typical terrestrial fluvial basins, and typical lunar impact cratering basins were used as endmembers to establish discriminant functions to classify Martian basins. The posteriori probability of each class membership for each Martian basin then serves as the measure of the relative role of sapping, fluvial or cratering process in forming that basin. Initial results in Margaritifer Sinus area show that groundwater sapping played a more dominant role than surface runoff, generally consistent with previous findings based on lower resolution data and supporting a precipitation-recharged groundwater sapping origin for valley networks. Using a circularity function (a ratio of area and perimeter as a function of elevation) as the measure for basin morphology in the discriminant analysis produced similar results. Other traditional morphometric parameters such as drainage density, width function, cumulative area distribution, and slope-area relationship will also be derived for Margaritifer and other areas. The overall spatial pattern of the distribution will be examined to shed more light on past climatic conditions for generating the Martian valley networks.

  5. Dietary Ecology of Murinae (Muridae, Rodentia): A Geometric Morphometric Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Cano, Ana Rosa; Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Álvarez-Sierra, M. Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Murine rodents represent a highly diverse group, which displays great ecological versatility. In the present paper we analyse the relationship between dental morphology, on one hand, using geometric morphometrics based upon the outline of first upper molar and the dietary preference of extant murine genera, on the other. This ecomorphological study of extant murine rodents demonstrates that dietary groups can be distinguished with the use of a quantitative geometric morphometric approach based on first upper molar outline. A discriminant analysis of the geometric morphometric variables of the first upper molars enables us to infer the dietary preferences of extinct murine genera from the Iberian Peninsula. Most of the extinct genera were omnivore; only Stephanomys showed a pattern of dental morphology alike that of the herbivore genera. PMID:24236090

  6. Coarctation of the aorta: Management from infancy to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Rachel D; Campbell, Michael J; Fleming, Gregory A; Hill, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is a relatively common form of congenital heart disease, with an estimated incidence of approximately 3 cases per 10000 births. Coarctation is a heterogeneous lesion which may present across all age ranges, with varying clinical symptoms, in isolation, or in association with other cardiac defects. The first surgical repair of aortic coarctation was described in 1944, and since that time, several other surgical techniques have been developed and modified. Additionally, transcatheter balloon angioplasty and endovascular stent placement offer less invasive approaches for the treatment of coarctation of the aorta for some patients. While overall morbidity and mortality rates are low for patients undergoing intervention for coarctation, both surgical and transcatheter interventions are not free from adverse outcomes. Therefore, patients must be followed closely over their lifetime for complications such as recoarctation, aortic aneurysm, persistent hypertension, and changes in any associated cardiac defects. Considerable effort has been expended investigating the utility and outcomes of various treatment approaches for aortic coarctation, which are heavily influenced by a patient’s anatomy, size, age, and clinical course. Here we review indications for intervention, describe and compare surgical and transcatheter techniques for management of coarctation, and explore the associated outcomes in both children and adults. PMID:26635924

  7. Coarctation of the aorta: Management from infancy to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Torok, Rachel D; Campbell, Michael J; Fleming, Gregory A; Hill, Kevin D

    2015-11-26

    Coarctation of the aorta is a relatively common form of congenital heart disease, with an estimated incidence of approximately 3 cases per 10000 births. Coarctation is a heterogeneous lesion which may present across all age ranges, with varying clinical symptoms, in isolation, or in association with other cardiac defects. The first surgical repair of aortic coarctation was described in 1944, and since that time, several other surgical techniques have been developed and modified. Additionally, transcatheter balloon angioplasty and endovascular stent placement offer less invasive approaches for the treatment of coarctation of the aorta for some patients. While overall morbidity and mortality rates are low for patients undergoing intervention for coarctation, both surgical and transcatheter interventions are not free from adverse outcomes. Therefore, patients must be followed closely over their lifetime for complications such as recoarctation, aortic aneurysm, persistent hypertension, and changes in any associated cardiac defects. Considerable effort has been expended investigating the utility and outcomes of various treatment approaches for aortic coarctation, which are heavily influenced by a patient's anatomy, size, age, and clinical course. Here we review indications for intervention, describe and compare surgical and transcatheter techniques for management of coarctation, and explore the associated outcomes in both children and adults. PMID:26635924

  8. Volumetric lattice Boltzmann simulation for blood flow in aorta arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deep, Debanjan; Yu, Huidan (Whitney); Teague, Shawn

    2012-11-01

    Complicated moving boundaries pose a major challenge in computational fluid dynamics for complex flows, especially in the biomechanics of both blood flow in the cardiovascular system and air flow in the respiratory system where the compliant nature of the vessels can have significant effects on the flow rate and wall shear stress. We develop a computation approach to treat arbitrarily moving boundaries using a volumetric representation of lattice Boltzmann method, which distributes fluid particles inside lattice cells. A volumetric bounce-back procedure is applied in the streaming step while momentum exchange between the fluid and moving solid boundary are accounted for in the collision sub-step. Additional boundary-induced migration is introduced to conserve fluid mass as the boundary moves across fluid cells. The volumetric LBM (VLBM) is used to simulate blood flow in both normal and dilated aorta arteries. We first compare flow structure and pressure distribution in steady state with results from Navier-Stokes based solver and good agreements are achieved. Then we focus on wall stress within the aorta for different heart pumping condition and present quantitative measurement of wall shear and normal stress.

  9. Comparison of the strain field of abdominal aortic aneurysm measured by magnetic resonance imaging and stereovision: a feasibility study for prediction of the risk of rupture of aortic abdominal aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufei; Joannic, David; Delassus, Patrick; Lalande, Alain; Juillion, Patrick; Fontaine, Jean-François

    2015-04-13

    The prediction of the risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex problem. Currently the criteria to predict rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms are aneurysm diameter and growth rates. It is generally believed that study of the wall strain distribution could be helpful to find a better decision criterion for surgery of aortic aneurysms before their rupture. The wall strain distribution depends on many biological and biomechanical factors such as elastic properties of the aorta, turbulent blood flow, anatomy of the aorta, presence of thrombus or not and so on. Recently, numerical simulations to estimate rupture-potential have received many attentions. However, none of the medical imaging tools for screening and monitoring of AAAs were studied in terms of mechanical behavior and experimentally to demonstrate their capability to measure relevant variables. The aim of this study was to develop a metrological approach for deployment testing of the ability of techniques for measuring local in-vitro deformations based on comparison of stereovision and MRI. In this paper, we present the implementation approach and results of the study based on cylindrical phantoms with or without AAA representing, respectively, healthy and unhealthy artery. Through this study, an experimental device was developed for the behavior study of AAA during a cardiac cycle. The results show that the stereovision techniques used in laboratory is well suited and is qualitatively and quantitatively equivalent with MRI measurements. PMID:25661521

  10. Obstruction of the Aorta and Left Pulmonary Artery After Gianturco Coil Occlusion of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, H.-Cg; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Wu, Yu-Tsun; Huang, Chien-Fu; Chien, Shao-Ju; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Liang, Chi-Di

    2005-01-15

    We report an unusual case of simultaneous obstruction of the left pulmonary artery and descending thoracic aorta after Gianturco coil occlusion in a 15-month-old boy. The diagnosis was made by echocardiography and cardiac angiography. At surgery, thrombi coating on the protruded parts of the Gianturco coil in the pulmonary artery and aorta were found.

  11. Immediate post-operative balloon dilatation of neonatal long segment stenosis of the descending thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Ebeid, M R; Sarris, G E; Drummond-Webb, J J; Prieto, L; Ratliff, N B; Latson, L A

    2001-01-01

    During surgical repair of a neonatal coarctation it was recognized that this was a rare, previously undescribed form of stenosis of the entire descending thoracic aorta. A few hours after the end-to-end surgical repair, the child underwent successful balloon angioplasty, involving the entire descending thoracic aorta, and in which we intentionally avoided the surgical site. PMID:11146688

  12. Abdominal wall endometriosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Eljuga, Damir; Klari?, Petar; Bolanca, Ivan; Grbavac, Ivan; Kuna, Krunoslav

    2012-06-01

    Abdominal wall endometriosis, also known as scar endometrioma, is a rare condition, in most cases occurring after previous cesarean section or pelvic surgery. The incidence of scar endometrioma is estimated to 0.03%-1.5% of all women with previous cesarean delivery. The predominant clinical picture is cyclic pain. Due to a wide range of mimicking conditions and a relative rarity, a significant delay is often observed from the onset of symptoms to proper treatment. We report on a case of a 36-year-old patient with scar endometrioma after two previous cesarean deliveries. The possible diagnostic pitfalls and treatment options are discussed. PMID:23115952

  13. Expression and localization of macrophage elastase (matrix metalloproteinase-12) in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Curci, J A; Liao, S; Huffman, M D; Shapiro, S D; Thompson, R W

    1998-01-01

    Elastolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), a disorder characterized by chronic aortic wall inflammation and destruction of medial elastin. The purpose of this study was to determine if human macrophage elastase (HME; MMP-12) might participate in this disease. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, HME mRNA was consistently demonstrated in AAA and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (AOD) tissues (six of six), but in only one of six normal aortas. Immunoreactive proteins corresponding to proHME and two products of extracellular processing were present in seven of seven AAA tissue extracts. Total HME recovered from AAA tissue was sevenfold greater than normal aorta (P < 0.001), and the extracted enzyme exhibited activity in vitro. Production of HME was demonstrated in the media of AAA tissues by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, but HME was not detected within the media of normal or AOD specimens. Importantly, immunoreactive HME was specifically localized to residual elastin fragments within the media of AAA tissue, particularly areas adjacent to nondilated normal aorta. In vitro, the fraction of MMP-12 sequestered by insoluble elastin was two- to fivefold greater than other elastases found in AAA tissue. Therefore, HME is prominently expressed by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages within the degenerating aortic media of AAA, where it is also bound to residual elastic fiber fragments. Because elastin represents a critical component of aortic wall structure and a matrix substrate for metalloelastases, HME may have a direct and singular role in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms. PMID:9835614

  14. A large un-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm causing pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Jahangir; Ahmed, Abubakr; Coveney, Andrew; Fulton, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    A 79 years old woman presented in a peripheral hospital with dyspnea, right-sided pleuritic chest pain and cough for 3 days. On examination, she was tachycardiac and tachypneic. She had reduced air entry bilaterally on auscultation. Computed tomography-pulmonary angiogram, performed in peripheral Hospital, confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, and she was commenced on warfarin. Ultrasonography showed no evidence of deep venous thrombosis in legs; however, ultrasound of the abdomen revealed an aortic aneurysm. She was hemodynamically stable on transfer to vascular surgery department, and her complete clinical examination revealed a pulsatile mass in the central abdomen. Computed tomography angiogram of aorta showed 8.7-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm. Venogram performed during inferior vena cava (IVC) filter insertion showed that IVC was displaced and compressed due to this large aortic aneurysm, causing thromboembolism. An open repair of the aneurysm was performed with uneventful recovery. PMID:26205717

  15. Abdominal arteries recognition in x-ray using a structural model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nempont, Olivier; Florent, Raoul

    2010-03-01

    The automatic recognition of vascular trees is a challenging task, required for roadmapping or advanced visualization. For instance, during an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), the recognition of abdominal arteries in angiograms can be used to select the appropriate stent graft. This choice is based on a reduced set of arteries (aorta, renal arteries, iliac arteries) whose relative positions are quite stable. We propose in this article a recognition process based on a structural model. The centerlines of the target vessels are represented by a set of control points whose relative positions are constrained. To find their position in an angiogram, we enhance the target vessels and extract a set of possible positions for each control point. Then, a constraint propagation algorithm based on the model prunes those sets of candidates, removing inconsistent ones. We present preliminary results on 5 cases, illustrating the potential of this approach and especially its ability to handle the high variability of the target vessels.

  16. A large un-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm causing pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Sajjad, Jahangir; Ahmed, Abubakr; Coveney, Andrew; Fulton, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    A 79 years old woman presented in a peripheral hospital with dyspnea, right-sided pleuritic chest pain and cough for 3 days. On examination, she was tachycardiac and tachypneic. She had reduced air entry bilaterally on auscultation. Computed tomography-pulmonary angiogram, performed in peripheral Hospital, confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, and she was commenced on warfarin. Ultrasonography showed no evidence of deep venous thrombosis in legs; however, ultrasound of the abdomen revealed an aortic aneurysm. She was hemodynamically stable on transfer to vascular surgery department, and her complete clinical examination revealed a pulsatile mass in the central abdomen. Computed tomography angiogram of aorta showed 8.7-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm. Venogram performed during inferior vena cava (IVC) filter insertion showed that IVC was displaced and compressed due to this large aortic aneurysm, causing thromboembolism. An open repair of the aneurysm was performed with uneventful recovery. PMID:26205717

  17. Spontaneous isolated dissection at renal upper abdominal aortic: a rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Ping; Liu, Feng-En; Duan, Qing; Ye, Rong; Xiao, Jun-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Arterial dissection is defined as a cleavage of the arterial wall caused by intramural hematoma. Isolated extra-aortic arterial dissection has been reported in renal and carotid arteries in few literatures but suprarenal aorta dissection associated with retrograde formation of a giant descending thoracic aneurysm is considered very rare. We present a quite unusual case of suprarenal aorta dissection associated with retrograde formation of a giant descending thoracic aneurysm sparing both renal and mesenteric vessels, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage. Because of the patient’s persistent epigastric pain, endovascular celiac artery stent implantation was performed with 3 multiple overlapping uncovered stents. Twelve months after the procedure, computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the abdomen showed patency of both celiac stents with thrombus formation in the retrograde dissection sac, and the patient remained asymptomatic. This case and others in the medical literature suggest that endovascular treatment can be feasible in symptomatic patients with spontaneous isolated dissection at renal upper abdominal aortic. PMID:26221391

  18. Expression and Cellular Localization of 15-Hydroxy-Prostaglandin-Dehydrogenase in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Solà-Villà, David; Dilmé, Jaime-Félix; Rodríguez, Cristina; Soto, Begoña; Vila, Luis; Escudero, José-Román; Martínez-González, José; Camacho, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    PGE2 has been implicated in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) associated hypervascularization. PGE2-metabolism involves 15-hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) the expression of which in AAA is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and cell distribution of 15-PGDH in AAA. Here, we show that 15-PGDH mRNA levels were significantly higher in aorta samples from patients undergoing AAA repair than in those from healthy multiorgan donors. Consequently, the ratio of metabolized PGE2 secreted by aortic samples was significantly higher in AAA. AAA production of total PGE2 and PGE2 metabolites correlated positively with PGI2 production, while the percentage of metabolized PGE2 correlated negatively with the total amount of PGE2 and with PGI2. Transcript levels of 15-PGDH were statistically associated with leukocyte markers but did not correlate with microvascular endothelial cell markers. Immunohistochemistry revealed 15-PGDH in the areas of leukocyte infiltration in AAA samples, mainly associated with CD45-positive cells, but not in normal aorta samples. We provide new data concerning 15-PGDH expression in human AAA, showing that 15-PGDH is upregulated in AAA and mainly expressed in infiltrating leukocytes. Our data suggest that microvasculature was not involved in PGE2 catabolism, reinforcing the potential role of microvasculature derived PGE2 in AAA-associated hypervascularization. PMID:26287481

  19. An Evolving Understanding of the Genetic Causes of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Disease.

    PubMed

    Miner, Grace H; Costa, Kevin D; Hanss, Basil G; Marin, Michael L

    2015-05-01

    Aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (AAA) are relatively common - affecting as many as 8% of men and 1% of women over the age of 65. AAAs are characterized by a 50% increase in the diameter of the aneurysmal aorta compared with the normal vessel. Degeneration of structural components of the aortic wall is believed to be central in the pathogenesis of AAAs. The exact mechanism of degeneration is not well characterized, although degradation of elastin and collagen has been clearly shown. At least six genetic variants have been associated with AAA in genome-wide association studies: CDKN2BAS1, DAB2IP, LDLR, LRP1, SORT1, and IL6R. These variants reach genome-wide significance; however, they have not been replicated in multiple cohorts, nor have they been clearly shown to be disease causative. AAA is a challenging disease for investigation because it is most often asymptomatic and generally has a late disease onset, making it difficult to diagnose. Determination of the genetic mechanism behind aneurysm formation, progression, and rupture crosses disciplines requiring input from multiple fields of study, larger patient cohorts, and the evolving modalities of genetic testing. PMID:26055010

  20. Feasibility of Angioplasty and Stenting for Abdominal Aortic Lesions Adjacent to Previously Stented Visceral Artery Lesions in Patients with Takayasu Arteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, George George, Paul V.; Pati, Purendra Kumar; Chandy, Sunil Thomas

    2007-04-15

    Two young female patients with Takayasu arteritis presented with symptomatic long-segment abdominal aortic stenosis in the vicinity of previously deployed celiac and renal artery stents that projected markedly into the narrowed aortic lumen. Crushing or distortion of the visceral artery stents during aortic angioplasty was avoided by performing simultaneous or alternating balloon dilatations in the aorta and in the visceral artery stents. Consequently, the visceral artery stents remained patent and shortened longitudinally, allowing unhindered deployment of Wallstents in the adjacent aorta and abolition of a pressure gradient across the aortic lesions. Access to side branches covered by the Wallstent was obtained without difficulty, enabling the performance of balloon dilatation in multiple side branches and ostial stent deployment in a renal artery. These techniques could increase the scope of endovascular therapy in the treatment of patients with Takayasu arteritis.

  1. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Targeted by Functionalized Polysaccharide Microparticles: a new Tool for SPECT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonnard, Thomas; Yang, Gonord; Petiet, Anne; Ollivier, Véronique; Haddad, Oualid; Arnaud, Denis; Louedec, Liliane; Bachelet-Violette, Laure; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cedric; Le Visage, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysm diagnostic is nowadays limited by the lack of technology that enables early detection and rupture risk prediction. New non invasive tools for molecular imaging are still required. In the present study, we present an innovative SPECT diagnostic tool for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) produced from injectable polysaccharide microparticles radiolabeled with technetium 99m (99mTc) and functionalized with fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide with the ability to target P-Selectin. P-Selectin is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated endothelial cells and platelets which can be found in the thrombus of aneurysms, as well as in other vascular pathologies. Microparticles with a maximum hydrodynamic diameter of 4 µm were obtained by crosslinking the polysaccharides dextran and pullulan. They were functionalized with fucoidan. In vitro interactions with human activated platelets were assessed by flow cytometry that demonstrated a specific affinity of fucoidan functionalized microparticles for P-Selectin expressed by activated platelets. For in vivo AAA imaging, microparticles were radiolabeled with 99mTc and intravenously injected into healthy and AAA rats obtained by elastase perfusion through the aorta wall. Animals were scanned by SPECT imaging. A strong contrast enhancement located in the abdominal aorta of AAA rats was obtained, while no signal was obtained in healthy rats or in AAA rats after injection of non-functionalized control microparticles. Histological studies revealed that functionalized radiolabeled polysaccharide microparticles were localized in the AAA wall, in the same location where P-Selectin was expressed. These microparticles therefore constitute a promising SPECT imaging tool for AAA and potentially for other vascular diseases characterized by P-Selectin expression. Future work will focus on validating the efficiency of the microparticles to diagnose these other pathologies and the different stages of AAA. Incorporation of a therapeutic molecule is also considered. PMID:24723981

  2. Whole genome expression analysis within the angiotensin II-apolipoprotein E deficient mouse model of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Rush, Catherine; Nyara, Moses; Moxon, Joseph V; Trollope, Alexandra; Cullen, Bradford; Golledge, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Background An animal model commonly used to investigate pathways and potential therapeutic interventions relevant to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) involves subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II within the apolipoprotein E deficient mouse. The aim of this study was to investigate genes differentially expressed in aneurysms forming within this mouse model in order to assess the relevance of this model to human AAA. Results Using microarrays we identified genes relevant to aneurysm formation within apolipoprotein E deficient mice. Firstly we investigated genes differentially expressed in the aneurysm prone segment of the suprarenal aorta in these mice. Secondly we investigated genes that were differentially expressed in the aortas of mice developing aneurysms relative to those that did not develop aneurysms in response to angiotensin II infusion. Our findings suggest that a host of inflammation and extracellular matrix remodelling pathways are upregulated within the aorta in mice developing aneurysms. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome categories enriched in the aortas of mice with aneurysms included cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, leukocyte transendothelial migration, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity and hematopoietic cell lineage. Genes associated with extracellular matrix remodelling, such as a range of matrix metalloproteinases were also differentially expressed in relation to aneurysm formation. Conclusion This study is the first report describing whole genome expression arrays in the apolipoprotein E deficient mice in relation to aneurysm formation. The findings suggest that the pathways believed to be critical in human AAA are also relevant to aneurysm formation in this mouse model. The findings therefore support the value of this model to investigate interventions and mechanisms of human AAA. PMID:19580648

  3. Morphometric Grayscale Texture Analysis using Foot Patterns Dan Ashlock

    E-print Network

    Doty, David

    Morphometric Grayscale Texture Analysis using Foot Patterns Dan Ashlock Iowa State University as a foot pattern of 2-dimensional Cartesian coor- dinates, obtained via an evolutionary algorithm that minimizes pattern entropy. The pixels of the foot pattern are then assigned labels using one of two

  4. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING GUIDELINES: VARIABILITY IN MORPHOMETRIC ASSESSMENTS OF NEUROPATHOLOGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for neuropathological and morphometric assessments of rat pups on postnatal day (PND) 11 and at study termination (after PND 60). In recent discussions about conducting these studies on pesti...

  5. In situ morphometric characterization of Aframomum melegueta accessions in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Amponsah, J; Adamtey, N; Elegba, W; Danso, K E

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the huge economic importance of Aframomum melegueta in the herbal and pharmaceutical industries, its production is limited by lack of planting materials (propagules). The plant also lacks scientific descriptors, which has often led to misidentification with adverse health implications. We therefore aimed at developing a descriptor list to facilitate the identification of A. melegueta using 34 morphometric traits comprising 18 quantitative and 16 qualitative characters. The morphological traits showed that A. melegueta has a characteristic stolon that produces tillers instead of rhizomes. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean using both the nearest-neighbour and complete-linkage methods based on the 34 morphometric traits clustered the eight accessions into two main groups based on ecological location. The accessions from the Eastern and Ashanti regions were separated at similarity coefficients of 0.822 and 0.644, respectively, with a highly significant discriminant function. The Eastern accessions were further clustered into red or yellow fruits at similarity indexes of 0.936 and 0.865 using the nearest-neighbour and complete-linkage methods, respectively. The present study has shown that morphometric traits of A. melegueta are greatly influenced by its ecological habitat. It is envisaged that the descriptor list developed coupled with a morphometric description would enhance its identification and utilization. PMID:23799183

  6. Ayahuasca Alters Structural Parameters of the Rat Aorta.

    PubMed

    Pitol, Dimitrius L; Siéssere, Selma; Dos Santos, Rafael G; Rosa, Maria L N M; Hallak, Jaime E C; Scalize, Priscilla H; Pereira, Bruno F; Iyomasa, Melina M; Semprini, Marisa; Riba, Jordi; Regalo, Simone C H

    2015-07-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic brew traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian indigenous groups for therapeutic purposes. It is prepared by the decoction of Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of Psychotria viridis. Banisteriopsis caapi contains ?-carbolines that are inhibitors of monoamine oxidase and P. viris is rich in dimethyltryptamine, a 5-HT(1A/2A/2C) agonist. Acute ayahuasca administration produces moderate cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers, but information regarding long-term use is lacking. This study investigated the effects of ayahuasca (2-4 mL/kg) in the rat aorta after acute and chronic (14 days) administration. Ayahuasca caused flattening and stretching of vascular smooth muscle cells and changes in the arrangement and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. Chronic treatment with the higher dose significantly increased media thickness and the ratio of media thickness to lumen diameter. More research is needed on the cardiovascular function of long-term ayahuasca consumers. PMID:25714595

  7. Mapping the Longitudinal Wall Stiffness Heterogeneities within Intact Canine Aortas using Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shahmirzadi, Danial; Narayanan, Prathyush; Li, Ronny X.; Qaqish, William W.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2014-01-01

    The aortic stiffness has been found to be a useful independent indicator of several cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and aneurysms. Existing methods to estimate the aortic stiffness are either invasive, e.g. catheterization, or yield average global measurements which could be inaccurate, e.g., tonometry. Alternatively, the aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) has been shown to be a reliable marker for estimating the wall stiffness based on the Moens–Korteweg (M–K) formulation. Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) is a relatively new, ultrasound-based imaging method for noninvasive and regional estimation of PWV. The present study aims at showing the application of PWI in obtaining localized wall mechanical properties by making PWV measurements on several adjacent locations along the ascending thoracic to the suprarenal abdominal aortic trunk in its intact vessel form. The PWV estimates were used to calculate the regional wall modulus based on the M-K relationship and were compared against conventional mechanical testing. The findings indicated that for the anisotropic aortic wall, the PWI estimates of the modulus are smaller than the circumferential modulus by an average of ?32.22% and larger than the longitudinal modulus by an average of 25.83%. Ongoing work is focused on the in vivo applications of PWI in normal and pathological aortas with future implications in the clinical applications of the technique. PMID:23764176

  8. [Ultrasound screening of abdominal aortic aneurysm: Lessons from Vesale 2013].

    PubMed

    Laroche, J P; Becker, F; Baud, J M; Miserey, G; Jaussent, A; Picot, M C; Bura-Rivière, A; Quéré, I

    2015-12-01

    Although aneurysm of the abdominal infra-renal aorta (AAA) meets criteria warranting B mode ultrasound screening, the advantages of mass screening versus selective targeted opportunistic screening remain a subject of debate. In France, the French Society of Vascular Medicine (SFMV) and the Health Authority (HAS) published recommendations for targeted opportunistic screening in 2006 and 2013 respectively. The SFMV held a mainstream communication day on November 21, 2013 in France involving participants from metropolitan France and overseas departments that led to a proposal for free AAA ultrasound screening: the Vesalius operation. Being a consumer operation, the selection criteria were limited to age (men and women between 60 and 75 years); the age limit was lowered to 50 years in case of direct family history of AAA. More than 7000 people (as many women as men) were screened in 83 centers with a 1.70% prevalence of AAA in the age-based target population (3.12% for men, 0.27% for women). The median diameter of detected AAA was 33mm (range 20 to 74mm). The prevalence of AAA was 1.7% in this population. Vesalius data are consistent with those of the literature both in terms of prevalence and for cardiovascular risk factors with the important role of smoking. Lessons from Vesalius to take into consideration are: screening is warranted in men 60 years and over, especially smokers, and in female smokers. Screening beyond 75 years should be discussed. Given the importance of screening, the SFMV set up a year of national screening for AAA (Vesalius operation 2014/2015) in order to increase public and physician awareness about AAA detection, therapeutic management, and monitoring. AAA is a serious, common, disease that kills 6000 people each year. The goal of screening is cost-effective reduction in the death toll. PMID:26371387

  9. Morphometric assessment of uplifting coral reef sequences, Sumba Island, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nexer, Maëlle; Authemayou, Christine; Schildgen, Taylor; Hantoro, Wayhoe; Molliex, Stephane; Delcaillau, Bernard; Pedoja, Kevin; Husson, Laurent; Regard, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Rates and patterns of vertical ground motions constitute a basic framework for understanding the kinematics of the deforming lithosphere. Calibrating morphometric indices with landscape maturity and tectonic deformation requires comparisons with regions of known uplift history. The ability to derive uplift histories from marine or reefal terrace analysis in coastal zones therefore makes such settings ideal for testing morpho-tectonic analysis techniques. To explore the relationships between uplift rates and landscape morphology, we studied a 300-km-long coastal stretch affected by slow to moderate uplift rates, varying laterally from ?0.02 to ?0.6 mm/yr. We exploited the systematic spatial variation in rock uplift rates recorded in well-dated sequences of coral reef terraces of Sumba Island to assess the manner and degree to which the eight morphometric indices selected for this study can be correlated with tectonic forcing. The uniform equatorial climate and lithology (most of the bedrock is composed of Quaternary reefal limestones) across the study area allow us to evaluate which morphometric indices best reflect the spatial variations in Pleistocene coastal uplift rates. Morphometric indices extracted from digital elevation models include residual relief, incision, stream length index, ksn, hypsometric integral, drainage area, mean relief, and shape factor. We calculated and extracted these indices at three scales: across the whole island, from grouped sequences of coral reef terraces undergoing comparable uplift rates and individual catchments draining mainly the coral reef zones located in the northern part of Sumba Island. We find that SL, hypsometric integral, mean relief and shape factor of catchments positively correlate with uplift rates, whereas incision, residual relief, and ksn do not. Interestingly enough, we find that only the areas that are uplifting at a rate faster than 0.3 mm/yr can yield the extreme values for these indices, implying in turn that these extreme values are powerful indicators of fast uplifting areas. However, the relationship is not bivalent, as we find that any uplift rate can be associated with low values of the same indices. For all indices, the transient conditions of the drainage influence the correlation with Pleistocene mean uplift rates, illustrating the necessity to extract morphometric indices taking into account the choice of catchment scale. This analysis identifies the morphometric indices that are most useful for tectonic analysis in areas of unknown uplift, allowing for an easy identification of short spatial variations of uplift rate and detection areas of relatively fast uplift rates in unstudied coastal zones. Our results suggest that this procedure may be applied to identify rapidly uplifting areas along any given coastal area that includes a sequence of reefal or marine terraces.

  10. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  11. Chronic Contained Rupture of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: From Diagnosis to Endovascular Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto Chiocchi, Marcello; Maresca, Luciano; Pipitone, Vincenzo; Messina, Massimo; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2008-07-15

    A male patient, 69 years old, presented with fever, leucocytosis, and persistent low back pain; he also had an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), as previously diagnosed by Doppler UltraSound (US), and was admitted to our hospital. On multislice computed tomography (msCT), a large abdominal mass having no definite border and involving the aorta and both of the psoas muscles was seen. This mass involved the forth-lumbar vertebra with lysis, thus simulating AAA rupture into a paraspinal collection; it was initially considered a paraspinal abscess. After magnetic resonance imaging examination and culture of the fluid aspirated from the mass, no infective organisms were found; therefore, a diagnosisof chronically contained AAA rupture was made, and an aortic endoprosthesis was subsequently implanted. The patient was discharged with decreased lumbar pain. At 12-month follow-up, no evidence of leakage was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of endoprosthesis implantation in a patient, who was a poor candidate for surgical intervention due to renal failure, leucocytosis and high fever, having a chronically contained AAA ruptured simulatingspodilodiscitis abscess. Appropriate diagnosis and therapy resolved potentially crippling pathology and avoided surgical graft-related complications.

  12. Update on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Research: From Clinical to Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kuivaniemi, Helena; Ryer, Evan J.; Elmore, James R.; Hinterseher, Irene; Smelser, Diane T.; Tromp, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilatation of the abdominal aorta with a diameter of at least 3.0?cm. AAAs are often asymptomatic and are discovered as incidental findings in imaging studies or when the AAA ruptures leading to a medical emergency. AAAs are more common in males than females, in individuals of European ancestry, and in those over 65 years of age. Smoking is the most important environmental risk factor. In addition, a positive family history of AAA increases the person's risk for AAA. Interestingly, diabetes has been shown to be a protective factor for AAA in many large studies. Hallmarks of AAA pathogenesis include inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, extracellular matrix degradation, and oxidative stress. Autoimmunity may also play a role in AAA development and progression. In this Outlook paper, we summarize our recent studies on AAA including clinical studies related to surgical repair of AAA and genetic risk factor and large-scale gene expression studies. We conclude with a discussion on our research projects using large data sets available through electronic medical records and biobanks. PMID:24834361

  13. Flow topology in patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms during rest and exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn

    2012-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent, localized widening of the abdominal aorta. Flow in AAA is dominated by recirculation, transitional turbulence and low wall shear stress. Image-based CFD has recently enabled high resolution flow data in patient-specific AAA. This study aims to characterize transport in different AAAs, and understand flow topology changes from rest to exercise, which has been a hypothesized therapy due to potential acute changes in flow. Velocity data in 6 patients with different AAA morphology were obtained using image-based CFD under rest and exercise conditions. Finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields were computed from integration of the velocity data to identify dominant Lagrangian coherent structures. The flow topology was compared between rest and exercise conditions. For all patients, the systolic inflow jet resulted in coherent vortex formation. The evolution of this vortex varied greatly between patients and was a major determinant of transport inside the AAA during diastole. During exercise, previously observed stagnant regions were either replaced with undisturbed flow, regions of uniform high mixing, or persisted relatively unchanged. A mix norm measure provided a quantitative assessment of mixing. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, grant number 5R21HL108272.

  14. Fluid Characteristics in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) and Its Correlation to Thrombus Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Rubing; Bar-Yoseph, Pinhas Z.; Lasheras, Juan

    2008-11-01

    It has been observed that most large Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) develop an intraluminal thrombus as they progressively enlarge. Previous studies have suggested that the build up of the thrombus may be associated with the altered hemodynamic patterns that arise inside the AAA. We have performed a parametrical computational study of the flow patterns inside enlarging AAA to investigate the possible mechanism controlling the thrombus formation. Pulsatile blood flows were simulated in idealized models of fusiform aneurysms with different dilatation ratios and the effects of shear-activated platelet accumulation and platelet/wall interaction were evaluated based on the calculated flow fields. The platelet activation level (PAL) was determined by computing the integral over time of flow shear stresses exerted over the platelets as they are transported throughout the aneurysm. Our results have shown that the values of PAL in AAAs are in fact smaller than the maximum value obtained in a healthy abdominal aorta. However, we show that the transportation of blood cells towards the wall and the formation of stagnation points on the aneurysm's wall play more significant roles in thrombus formation than PAL.

  15. The Benefits of Internal Thoracic Artery Catheterization in Patients With Chronic Abdominal Aortic Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ilic, Nikola Davidovic, Lazar; Koncar, Igor; Dragas, Marko; Markovic, Miroslav; Colic, Momcilo; Cinara, Ilijas

    2011-04-15

    Occlusion of the abdominal aorta may be caused by an embolic lesion, but more commonly by thrombotic disease at the aortoiliac area, progressing retrograde. However, the visualization of the distal run-off via internal thoracic-epigastric inferior artery collateral channel may be a very important diagnostic tool, especially in countries with poor technical equipment. This study was designed to show the benefit of the selective internal thoracic angiography in cases with complete aortic occlusion. We present 30 patients with chronic aortic abdominal occlusion who were submitted to the transaxillary aortography and selective ITA angiography with purpose of distal run off evaluation. Angiographic evaluation was performed by two independent radiologists according to previously defined classification. Good angiographic score via internal thoracic angiography by first observer was achieved in 19 (63.3%) patients and in 18 (60%) by a second observer. Transaxillary aortography showed inferior results: good angiographic score by the first observer in six (20%) patients and by the second observer in three (3%) patients. Low extremity run-off is better visualized during internal thoracic angiography than during transaxillary aortography.

  16. Lowering of lipid composition in aorta of guinea pigs by Curcuma domestica

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad-Raus, Raha R; Abdul-Latif, Elda-Surhaida ES; Mohammad, Jamaludin J

    2001-01-01

    Background A short-term study was carried out using guinea pigs to determine the effects of Curcuma domestica on lipid composition in the serum and aorta. Methods Animals were given food pellets containing 4% (w/w) powdered rhizome of C. domestica in order to determine its effect on cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid levels in the aorta and serum. The animals were fed either a cholesterol free diet or a high cholesterol diet (2% cholesterol, w/w, in food pellet) in order to induce hypercholesterolemia.. After five weeks of this diet treatment, blood and aorta were taken for biochemical analysis and histological studies. Results C. domestica in the diet showed no significant effect on the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum and aorta of the cholesterol free diet animals. However, addition of C. domestica to a high cholesterol diet counteracted increases in the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid in the aorta. Histology studies showed less cholesterol deposits in the aorta of high cholesterol diet animals given C. domestica compared to the high cholesterol diet animals not given C. domestica supplement. C. domestica also had a lowering effect on triglyceride level in the serum of high cholesterol diet animals but showed no effect on serum cholesterol and phospholipid levels. Conclusion This study has shown that dietary intake of C. domestica decreased all lipid composition levels in the aorta and also the serum triglyceride level. In addition, C. domestica also reduced cholesterol deposition in the aorta of high cholesterol diet animals. PMID:11495637

  17. Morphometric changes in boar spermatozoa induced by cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    García-Herreros, M; Barón, F J; Aparicio, I M; Santos, A J; García-Marín, L J; Gil, M C

    2008-09-01

    Computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis was used to determine the effects of cryopreservation on boar sperm head and midpiece morphometry. Sperm-rich fractions were collected from five mature boars. Three microscope slides were prepared from single extended sperm samples prior freezing and post-thawing. All slides were stained with Hemacolor, and 250 sperm images were obtained from each slide. The sperm head dimensions for length, width, area, perimeter and four shape factors and sperm-midpiece dimensions for area, width, angle and distance were determined in each spermatozoa. The effects of sperm freezing on sperm dimensions within and among boars were determined. A previous discriminant analysis of the results was able to correctly classify a 78.3 and 82% of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa respectively. Sperm heads were significantly smaller in cryopreserved spermatozoa than in the companion extended samples for length, width, area and perimeter. Sperm midpieces were also significantly smaller in cryopreserved spermatozoa for width and area. The highest changes in morphometric dimensions after the freeze-thawing process were found in the midpiece of spermatozoa. The variability of morphometric measurements only was significantly different between fresh and thawed samples for head rugosity and midpiece area. The effects of cryopreservation on morphometric parameters were similar in the boars, which allow us to conclude that cryopreservation process does not have a different effect in each individual boar. In summary, morphometric changes associated with the cryopreservation process on boar spermatozoa do not apparently depends on an effect at individual level. PMID:17651399

  18. Physical and morphometric characterization of indigenous cattle of Assam

    PubMed Central

    Kayastha, R.B.; Zaman, G.; Goswami, R.N.; Haque, A.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the physical and morphometric characteristics in indigenous cattle of Assam. The data pertain to 339 indigenous cattle of different categories. The physical characteristics included colour pattern of body coat, muzzle, tail switch, hoof and horn. Body length, height at wither, heart girth, pouch girth, length of tail, switch, neck, ear and head were taken up for morphometric characterization. The main body coat colour of indigenous cattle was brown (31.18%) followed by white (28.53%), fawn (15.29%), grey (13.53%), black (4.41%) and mixed (7.06%). The prominent colour of tail switch was black (74.53%). Most of animals had black muzzle (86.47%), black hooves (84.71%) and black horn (100%). Morphometric characteristics data obtained were classified according to location, age group and sex of the animal. The means for body length, height at wither, heart girth, pouch girth, length of tail, switch, neck, ear and head were 83.668±0.590, 91.942±0.55, 113.146±0.738, 121.181±0.761, 54.196±0.527, 26.098±0.186, 32.705±0.166, 18.131±0.111 and 35.035±0.195 cm, respectively. Age and sex had significant effect on all the morphometric characters however, location effect was non-significant. The indigenous cattle of Assam are comparatively smaller in size than most of the recognized breeds of cattle however coat colour showed sizeable variation. The data generated for indigenous cattle of Assam would be useful to characterize them.

  19. Morphometric variations as acclimation mechanisms in Zostera noltii beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, G.; Brun, F. G.; Hernández, I.; Vergara, J. J.; Pérez-Lloréns, J. L.

    2005-08-01

    The use of morphometric variations as acclimation mechanisms was tested in natural populations of the intertidal seagrass Zostera noltii in Ria Formosa (Algarve, southern Portugal). To achieve the objective, two populations of Z. noltii were studied; a bed exposed and physically impacted by the artificial opening of a new inlet, and a second bed protected from dynamic impacts. At each meadow, morphometry and other plant-key variables such as tissue composition, photosynthetic parameters and dynamic properties (i.e. modules and whole plant growth rates) were monitored. After severe physical impacts in winter 1998, the newly appeared plants in the exposed meadow showed permanent morphometric changes. This new morphotype (small-leaved morphotype, SLM) had shorter (65%) and narrower leaves (25%) with longer internodes (4 times), than the large-leaved morphotype (LLM) found in the protected meadow or in the exposed meadow prior to the large disturbance. The SLM also had a larger non-photosynthetic biomass fraction, but increased photosynthetic capacity compared with the LLM. The morphometric and physiological changes were related to the fast recovery (<6 months) exhibited in the exposed meadow. In the protected meadow, morphometric changes (minor and short term) were associated with seasonal patterns. After the recovery, exposed and protected meadows gave similar production estimates supporting the hypothesis that a new stable state had been established in the exposed meadow. From these results, it can be concluded that Z. noltii has a remarkable phenotypic plasticity supported by coordinated changes in dynamic variables (i.e. leaf and internodal elongation rates and plastochrone index). Phenotypic plasticity seems to be the main mechanism by which this species is able to cope with short and long term environmental changes.

  20. Fluid Dynamics of Coarctation of the Aorta and Effect of Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Kadem, Lyes

    2013-01-01

    Up to 80% of patients with coarctation of the aorta (COA) have a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Patients with COA and BAV have elevated risks of aortic complications despite successful surgical repair. The development of such complications involves the interplay between the mechanical forces applied on the artery and the biological processes occurring at the cellular level. The focus of this study is on hemodynamic modifications induced in the aorta in the presence of a COA and a BAV. For this purpose, numerical investigations and magnetic resonance imaging measurements were conducted with different configurations: (1) normal: normal aorta and normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: aorta with COA (75% reduction by area) and normal aortic valve; (3) complex COA: aorta with the same severity of COA (75% reduction by area) and BAV. The results show that the coexistence of COA and BAV significantly alters blood flow in the aorta with a significant increase in the maximal velocity, secondary flow, pressure loss, time-averaged wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index downstream of the COA. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of why patients with complex COA have adverse outcome even following a successful surgery. PMID:24015239

  1. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  2. Phosphoinositide metabolism and metabolism-contraction coupling in rabbit aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Coburn, R.F.; Baron, C.; Papadopoulos, M.T. )

    1988-12-01

    The authors tested a hypothesis that metabolism-contraction coupling in vascular smooth muscle is controlled by the rate of delivery of energy to ATP-dependent reactions in the inositol phospholipid transduction system that generate second messengers exerting control on smooth muscle force. Rabbit aorta was contracted by norepinephrine (NOR) under conditions of normoxia and hypoxia, and changes in inositol phospholipid pool sizes and metabolic flux rates (J{sub F}) were determined. J{sub F} was determined by labeling free cytosolic myo-inositol by incubation of unstimulated muscle with myo-({sup 3}H)inositol and then measuring rates of incorporation of this isotope into inositol phospholipids and inositol phosphates when the muscle was activated by NOR. J{sub F} measured during maintenance of NOR-induced force was markedly inhibited during hypoxia to 40-50% of that determined during normoxia; rates of increases in inositol phosphate radioactivities were similarly depressed during NOR activation under hypoxia. The hypoxia-induced decrease in J{sub F} was associated with four- to fivefold increase in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) total pool size, suggesting PIP kinase was inhibited and rate limiting. These data suggest that activation of inositol phospholipid metabolism, which generates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and diacylglycerol, is blunted under conditions where aerobic energy production is inhibited. Data are consistent with rate-limiting effects of decreased ATP delivery, or decreased phosphate potential, on PIP kinase and reactions that control resynthesis of phosphatidylinositol.

  3. Regulation of glycoprotein biosynthesis in atherosclerotic rabbit aortas

    SciTech Connect

    Kantrow, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    Aortic tissue explants from control and high-cholesterol fed rabbits were incubated with 3-H-mannose or 14-C-leucine and the synthesis of immunoprecipitable fibronectin (IMF) was studied. The synthesis of key intermediates involved in glycosylation of proteins was also followed. IMF from the incubation media of atherosclerotic aorta showed an increase in leucine incorporation (81%), but only a 30% increase in mannose incorporation was noted. Studies in the synthesis of key intermediates such as dolichol, dolichol-diphosphate mannose and dolichol-diphosphate oligosaccharides suggest that the enzymic transfer of oligosaccharides to protein could be rate limiting or that processing of these oligosaccharides could possibly be altered in atherosclerosis. These results show that there is an increased synthesis of fibronectin differing in composition in atherosclerosis. Variations in composition of fibronectin may alter binding capacity with fibrin and extracellular matrix components. As a consequence, the uptake of these complexes by cells may be altered and promotes foam cell formation during atherogenesis.

  4. Phorbol ester and spontaneous activity in SHR aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Moisey, D.M.; Cox, R.H.

    1986-03-01

    Thoracic aortas (TA) were excised from 6-week old SHR and WKY. 2mm rings were mounted isometrically at optimum preload. Spontaneous rhythmical activity developed in TA from SHR and had a frequency of 3-4/min with varying periods of quiescence between bursts of activity. The spontaneous activity often produced an increase in tension development which was associated with increased frequency of oscillations. Verapamil (10/sup -7/ M) or Ca/sup + +/-free solution added during the contractile phase resulted in an immediate loss of tension and spontaneous activity. Addition of ouabain (10/sup -4/ M) during the contractile phase of spontaneous activity, increased the frequency of oscillations which appeared to fuse into a tetanus. Spontaneous rhythmical activity was infrequently observed in TA from WKY. However, addition of phorbol 12-myristate-13 acetate (TPA), frequently induced spontaneous rhythmic oscillations associated with tension development in TA from WKY. TPA contracted the SHR TA and increased the frequency of oscillations. SHR TA were more sensitive to TPA than WKY. This study demonstrates (1) spontaneous rhythmical activity, independent of agonist stimulation in TA from 6-week old SHR and (2) TPA induced spontaneous oscillatory activity. The mechanism underlying the spontaneous oscillatory activity may involve membrane coupling events and Na-pump difference between SHR and WKY.

  5. Abdominal surgery. [Radiology, screening techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, C.E.; Malt, R.A.

    1983-03-31

    A new art of ''interventional radiology'' has been developed in the past few years. Major applications include postoperative instrumentation of the biliary tract, percutaneous biliary drainage, tumor biopsy, abscess drainage, and intestinal-intubation procedures. Intervention by angiography encompasses injection of such substances as Pitressin (vasopressin), and embolization. These procedures have been of immense value. Fortunately, complications, such as sepsis and bleeding, have been infrequent. Computerized body tomography has also proved extremely important, particularly in the diagnosis of subphrenic abscess and pancreatic and pelvic pathology. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled-erythrocyte scans can be used to detect gastrointestinal bleeding sites. Scans can also identify hepatobiliary disease and splenic injury or differentiate the cause of jaundice. /sup 111/Indium-labeled autologous leukocytes may be useful in differentiating a pancreatic abscess from a pseudocyst. The advantage of indium scans over /sup 67/Ga scans is that a shorter time is required for maximum resolution: gallium requires 48 hours, indium 4. Another advantage is that indium is cleared through the liver and spleen and is not secreted into the bowel. /sup 67/Ga is absorbed by lymphomas and hepatocarcinomas. Nuclear magnetic resonance has many possible uses in abdominal surgery, but so far little information is available. This technique has been used to detect an empyema of the gallbladder that was not diagnosed by ultrasound. Among hepatic lesions, it can easily differentiate tumors from cysts and in that regard is superior to both ultrasound and scan. (JMT)

  6. Effect of coarctation of the aorta and bicuspid aortic valve on flow dynamics and turbulence in the aorta using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Gaillard, Emmanuel; Maftoon, Nima; Di Labbio, Giuseppe; Cloutier, Guy; Kadem, Lyes

    2014-03-01

    Blood flow in the aorta has been of particular interest from both fluid dynamics and physiology perspectives. Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a congenital heart disease corresponding to a severe narrowing in the aortic arch. Up to 85 % of patients with COA have a pathological aortic valve, leading to a narrowing at the valve level. The aim of the present work was to advance the state of understanding of flow through a COA to investigate how narrowing in the aorta (COA) affects the characteristics of the velocity field and, in particular, turbulence development. For this purpose, particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted at physiological flow and pressure conditions, with three different aorta configurations: (1) normal case: normal aorta + normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + normal aortic valve and (3) complex COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + pathological aortic valve. Viscous shear stress (VSS), representing the physical shear stress, Reynolds shear stress (RSS), representing the turbulent shear stress, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), representing the intensity of fluctuations in the fluid flow environment, were calculated for all cases. Results show that, compared with a healthy aorta, the instantaneous velocity streamlines and vortices were deeply changed in the presence of the COA. The normal aorta did not display any regions of elevated VSS, RSS and TKE at any moment of the cardiac cycle. The magnitudes of these parameters were elevated for both isolated COA and complex COA, with their maximum values mainly being located inside the eccentric jet downstream of the COA. However, the presence of a pathologic aortic valve, in complex COA, amplifies VSS (e.g., average absolute peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 36 N/m2; isolated COA = 19 N/m2), RSS (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 84.6 N/m2; isolated COA = 44 N/m2) and TKE (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 215 N/m2; isolated COA = 100 N/m2). This demonstrates that the pathological aortic valve strongly interacts with the COA. Findings of this study indicate that the presence of both a COA and a pathological aortic valve significantly alters hemodynamics in the aorta and thus might contribute to the progression of the disease in this region. This study can partially explain the complications associated in patients with COA, in the presence of a pathological aortic valve and the consequent adverse outcome post-surgery.

  7. Intravenous dihydroergotamine therapy for pediatric abdominal migraines.

    PubMed

    Raina, Madiha; Chelimsky, Gisela; Chelimsky, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal migraines present with debilitating symptoms in adolescence. At our institution, the gastroenterology, neurology, and autonomic departments collaborated in treating patients with such presentations. This case series describes 6 patients who were given intravenous dihydroergotamine (DHE) for presumed abdominal migraines. DHE was only used when other agents like amitriptyline, verapamil, topiramate, or depakote had proved ineffective. DHE was started at 0.5 mg dose and on average 7 to 9 mg were given on each hospitalization. Patient ages ranged from 13 to 19 years with the majority being female. One patient did not respond to treatment. One patient was admitted 4 times for symptoms of abdominal migraines resolving with DHE. The average time between symptom relapse was about 5 to 12 months. Five of our 6 patients responded to the infusion without significant side effects. Based on these case series, DHE may be a treatment option in children with intractable abdominal migraine. PMID:23820001

  8. An Unusual Case of Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Bobby; De Portu, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Renal calyceal rupture is a usual etiology of abdominal pain in the emergency department. We present a case of unexpected renal calyx rupture in a patient with symptomatology of renal colic. A discussion and review are provided. PMID:23326726

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... size and can usually be diagnosed early in fetal development, typically between the tenth and fourteenth weeks of ... organs at the abdominal wall opening late in fetal development may also contribute to organ injury. Intestinal damage ...

  10. Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly G562 Geometric Morphometrics

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    Morphometrics PCA in R 1. Obtain Procrustes coordinates proc Procrustes residuals (Procrustes coordinates - consensus) resids Procrustes coordinates Recreate the original Procrustes landmark coordinates using all eigenvector dimensions

  11. Geometric morphometrics of corolla shape: dissecting components of symmetric and asymmetric variation in Erysimum

    E-print Network

    Klingenberg, Christian Peter

    morphometrics, Procrustes fit, symmetry. Summary Symmetry isan important feature of floral structure be considered separately and in combination. Both principal component analysis and Procrustes ANOVA indicate

  12. Management of Postoperative Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Howard T

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative incisional pain is expected after surgery. However, when a patient is complaining of pain months after surgery, this can be a source of frustration and confusion to the patient and the surgeon. Whether the pain is a result of myofascial pain, incisional hernia, or nerve injury, understanding potential sources of abdominal wall pain can simplify this diagnostic dilemma. This chapter will focus on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of postsurgical abdominal wall pain. PMID:26512441

  13. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as immunodeficiency and prolonged antibacterial exposure. Therapy should focus on the obtainment of adequate source control and adequate use of antimicrobial therapy dictated by individual patient risk factors. Other critical issues remain debated and more controversies are still open mainly because of the limited number of randomized controlled trials. PMID:20302628

  14. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  15. 6-Gingerol alleviates exaggerated vasoconstriction in diabetic rat aorta through direct vasodilation and nitric oxide generation

    PubMed Central

    Ghareib, Salah A; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Elberry, Ahmed A; Azhar, Ahmad; Watson, Malcolm L; Banjar, Zainy Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect and potential mechanism of action of 6-gingerol on alterations of vascular reactivity in the isolated aorta from diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into two experimental groups, control and diabetics. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg kg?1), and the rats were left for 10 weeks to develop vascular complications. The effect of in vitro incubation with 6-gingerol (0.3–3 ?M) on the vasoconstrictor response of the isolated diabetic aortae to phenylephrine and the vasodilator response to acetylcholine was examined. Effect of 6-gingerol was also examined on aortae incubated with methylglyoxal as an advanced glycation end product (AGE). To investigate the mechanism of action of 6-gingerol, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (100 ?M), guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (5 ?M), calcium-activated potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (10 mM), and cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (5 ?M) were added 30 minutes before assessing the direct vasorelaxant effect of 6-gingerol. Moreover, in vitro effects of 6-gingerol on NO release and the effect of 6-gingerol on AGE production were examined. Results showed that incubation of aortae with 6-gingerol (0.3–10 ?M) alleviated the exaggerated vasoconstriction of diabetic aortae to phenylephrine in a concentration-dependent manner with no significant effect on the impaired relaxatory response to acetylcholine. Similar results were seen in the aortae exposed to methylglyoxal. In addition, 6-gingerol induced a direct vasodilation effect that was significantly inhibited by N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride and methylene blue. Furthermore, 6-gingerol stimulated aortic NO generation but had no effect on AGE formation. In conclusion, 6-gingerol ameliorates enhanced vascular contraction in diabetic aortae, which may be partially attributed to its ability to increase the production of NO and stimulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate. PMID:26609223

  16. Endovascular Stenting for Unsuccessful Angioplasty of the Aorta in Aortoarteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, Sanjay; Kaul, Upkar A.; Arora, Ramesh

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: The efficacy and safety of endovascular stent implantation to correct dissection or a suboptimal result after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was evaluated in patients suffering from aortic stenosis due to aortoarteritis. Methods: Twelve children and young adults [aged (mean {+-} SD) 18.2 {+-} 8.7 years] underwent stent implantation after PTA of the aorta, seven for obstructive dissection, four for ineffective balloon dilatation, and one for recurrent restenosis. Nine patients underwent implantation of self-expandable stents and three received balloon-expandable Palmaz stents. Results: Stent implantation could be successfully performed in all 12 patients. After stent implantation, the peak systolic pressure gradient decreased from 91 {+-} 33.5 mmHg to 12.4 {+-} 12.5 mmHg (p < 0.001). The diameter of the stenosed segment increased from 4.6 {+-} 0.8 mm to 11.1 {+-} 1.9 mm (p < 0.001). The dissection was completely covered in all seven patients with dissection. Except for epigastric pain with vomiting in one patient, there was no complication. On follow-up, over 12-57 months (mean 26.8 {+-} 10.8 months), 11 patients (91.6%) had marked improvement in their blood pressure. Patients with congestive heart failure and claudication also showed improvement. Repeat catheterization in five patients, between 6-30 months (mean 16.8 {+-} 9.1 months) after stent implantation, showed sustained improvement in four and a fusiform, long segment, intrastent restenosis after 30 months in one child. The stenosis was safely redilated. Conclusion: Endovascular aortic stent implantation is safe and provides good immediate relief in patients with unsatisfactory results after balloon angioplasty. Improvement is sustained in most patients on intermediate-term follow-up.

  17. Effect of butylidenephthalide on calcium mobilization in isolated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Ko, W C; Charng, C Y; Sheu, J R; Tzeng, S H; Chen, C M

    1998-12-01

    Butylidenephthalide (Bdph), an antispasmodic compound originally isolated from the rhizome of Ligusticum chuaxiong, has a selective anti-anginal effect without changing blood pressure. Experiments have been performed to determine the mechanism of this action. Synthetic Z-butylidenephthalide concentration-dependently relaxed phenylephrine (1 microM)- or KCl (60 mM)-induced precontractions of intact and denuded rat aorta rings. The relaxation induced by Bdph was endothelium-independent. Bdph (30-300 microM) concentration-dependently reduced cumulative phenylephrine- and KCl-induced contractions of intact rat aortic rings and non-competitively inhibited their log concentration-response curves. The pD2' values of Bdph for phenylephrine- and KCl-induced contraction were 3.66+/-0.13 (n = 8) and 3.71+/-0.07 (n = 8), respectively, which were not significantly different from each other. Bdph also concentration-dependently reduced cumulative Ca2+-induced contractions of intact rat aortic rings in high-KCl (60 mM) Ca2+-free physiological salt solution and non-competitively inhibited its log concentration-response curve. The pD2' value of Bdph for the Ca2+-induced contractions was 3.21+/-0.01 (n = 7) which was significantly different from the pD2' value obtained from the cumulative KCl-induced contractions. These results suggest that Bdph inhibits calcium release from calcium stores more selectively than calcium influx from extracellular space via voltage-dependent calcium channels. The inhibition by Bdph of calcium release from KCl-sensitive calcium stores might be similar to its inhibition of calcium release from phenylephrine-sensitive calcium stores. However, because phenylephrine generates inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) whereas KCl does not, the inhibitory effect of Bdph might not be related to IP3 production. PMID:10052851

  18. Ann. soc. entomol. Fr. (n.s.), 2007, 43 (1) : 95-102 Landmark based geometric morphometric analysis

    E-print Network

    Rasmont, Pierre

    . Keywords: Sibiricobombus, Principal Component Analysis, Generalized Procrustes Analysis, Relative Warps morphometric analysis of wing shape in Sibiricobombus Vogt (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus Latreille) Summary. B Analysis, Geometric Morphometrics. A. Murat Aytekin (1) , Michaël Terzo (2) , Pierre Rasmont (2) & Nee

  19. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuehai; Lu, Huixia; Huang, Ziyang; Lin, Huili; Lei, Zhenmin; Tang, Mengxiong; Gao, Fei; Dong, Mei; Li, Rongda; Lin, Ling

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were similar in ApoE{sup ?/?} and Fas{sup ?/?} mice. • The spleen weights and glomerular areas were similar in ApoE{sup ?/?} and Fas{sup ?/?} mice. • Expressions of IgG and C3 in glomeruli were similar in ApoE{sup ?/?} and Fas{sup ?/?} mice. • IgG, C3 and macrophage infiltration in aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup ?/?} mice. - Abstract: Background: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup ?/?}) mice is a classic model of atherosclerosis. We have found that ApoE{sup ?/?} mice showed splenomegaly, higher titers of serum anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibody compared with C57B6/L (B6) mice. However, whether ApoE{sup ?/?} mice show autoimmune injury remains unclear. Methods and results: Six females and six males in each group, ApoE{sup ?/?}, Fas{sup ?/?} and B6 mice, were used in this study. The titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein were measured by ELISA after 4 months of high-fat diet. The spleen weight and the glomerular area were determined. The expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in kidney and atherosclerotic plaque were detected by immunostaining followed by morphometric analysis. Similar to the characteristics of Fas{sup ?/?} mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ApoE{sup ?/?} mice, especially female, displayed significant increases of spleen weight and glomerular area when compared to B6 mice. Also, elevated titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein. Moreover, the expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in glomeruli and aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup ?/?} mice. In addition, the IgG and C3 expressions in glomeruli and plaques significantly increased (or a trend of increase) in female ApoE{sup ?/?} mice compared with males. Conclusions: Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta.

  20. Caveolin 1 is critical for abdominal aortic aneurysm formation induced by angiotensin II and inhibition of lysyl oxidase.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Takehiko; Crawford, Kevin J; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Elliott, Katherine J; Hashimoto, Tomoki; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2014-06-01

    Although AngII (angiotensin II) and its receptor AT1R (AngII type 1 receptor) have been implicated in AAA (abdominal aortic aneurysm) formation, the proximal signalling events primarily responsible for AAA formation remain uncertain. Caveolae are cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains that serve as a signalling platform to facilitate the temporal and spatial localization of signal transduction events, including those stimulated by AngII. Cav1 (caveolin 1)-enriched caveolae in vascular smooth muscle cells mediate ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17)-dependent EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) transactivation, which is linked to vascular remodelling induced by AngII. In the present study, we have tested our hypothesis that Cav1 plays a critical role for the development of AAA at least in part via its specific alteration of AngII signalling within caveolae. Cav1-/- mice and the control wild-type mice were co-infused with AngII and ?-aminopropionitrile to induce AAA. We found that Cav1-/- mice with the co-infusion did not develop AAA compared with control mice in spite of hypertension. We found an increased expression of ADAM17 and enhanced phosphorylation of EGFR in AAA. These events were markedly attenuated in Cav1-/- aortas with the co-infusion. Furthermore, aortas from Cav1-/- mice with the co-infusion showed less endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses compared with aortas from control mice. Cav1 silencing in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells prevented AngII-induced ADAM17 induction and activation. In conclusion, Cav1 appears to play a critical role in the formation of AAA and associated endoplasmic reticulum/oxidative stress, presumably through the regulation of caveolae compartmentalized signals induced by AngII. PMID:24329494

  1. Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elba??, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This study shows that morphometric analysis of the basins in regional level are very important to understand general morphological characteristics of the basins. In this case, tectonic and lithological conditions of the basins have greatly affected the morphometric characteristics of the north and south basins of the Marmara Sea. References Abrahams, AD. 1984. Channel Networks: A Geomorphological Perspective. Water Resources Research, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 161-188. Horton, R.E. 1932. Drainage basin characteristics. Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361. Keller, E.A., Pinter, N. 2002. Active Tectonics Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Ozdemir H., Bird D. 2009. Evaluation of morphometric parameters of drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in point of floods, Environmental Geology, vol.56, pp.1405-1415. Schumm, S.A. 1956. Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geol Soc Am Bull 67:597-646. Strahler, A.N. 1957. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage and channel networks. In: Chow YT (ed) Handbook of appliecl hydrology. Me Graw Hill Book Company, New York. Verstappen, H.Th. 1983. Applied geomorphology. ITC, Enschede.

  2. Debate: Whether evidence supports reducing the threshold diameter to 5 cm for elective interventions in women with abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Vavra, Ashley K; Kibbe, Melina R; Bown, Matthew J; Powell, Janet T

    2014-12-01

    Current practice guidelines recommend repair of asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms once they reach the 5.5-cm-diameter threshold and are based on information from randomized controlled trials. However, because aneurysms are more common in men, women are under-represented in these trials, and questions persist about whether this repair threshold should apply to them. In addition, women have smaller aortas to begin with and in most aneurysm cohorts are older, have more atherosclerotic risk factors, are less likely to be anatomic candidates for endovascular repair, and do poorer after emergency or elective repair of their aneurysm. These are just some of the issues that our discussants address in determining whether the repair threshold should be at a smaller diameter for women. PMID:25454111

  3. Morphometrics of the Avian Small Intestine Compared with That of Nonflying Mammals: A Phylogenetic Approach

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    526 Morphometrics of the Avian Small Intestine Compared with That of Nonflying Mammals to compare small intestine morphometric measurements of birds with those of nonflying mammals and to test in comparative studies. As compared with nonflying mammals, birds had 51% less nominal small intestine surface

  4. Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly G562 Geometric Morphometrics

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    Morphometrics Euclid Procrustes analysis #12;Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly G562 Geometric Morphometrics Today's Session 9:30 AM - 10:30 am Details about Procrustes 10 University (c) 2012, P. David Polly Procrustes superimposition also known as... Procrustes analysis

  5. Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly G562 Geometric Morphometrics

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    ­ Introduction to Geometric Morphometrics in R Friday, 21 June, 2013 Day 3 ­ Procrustes Analysis, Shape Space and analysis of geometric morphometric shape data. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 4: 393-399. · Mitteroecker 3 · Rohlf, F. J. 1993. Relative Warp analysis and an example of its application to mosquito wings

  6. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Ba?ara, I??l; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%-70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  7. Segmentation of images of abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Kamath, Markad V; Noseworthy, Michael D; Boylan, Colm; Poehlman, Skip

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal organ segmentation, which is, the delineation of organ areas in the abdomen, plays an important role in the process of radiological evaluation. Attempts to automate segmentation of abdominal organs will aid radiologists who are required to view thousands of images daily. This review outlines the current state-of-the-art semi-automated and automated methods used to segment abdominal organ regions from computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MEI), and ultrasound images. Segmentation methods generally fall into three categories: pixel based, region based and boundary tracing. While pixel-based methods classify each individual pixel, region-based methods identify regions with similar properties. Boundary tracing is accomplished by a model of the image boundary. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the above algorithms with an emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages for abdominal organ segmentation. Several evaluation metrics that compare machine-based segmentation with that of an expert (radiologist) are identified and examined. Finally, features based on intensity as well as the texture of a small region around a pixel are explored. This review concludes with a discussion of possible future trends for abdominal organ segmentation. PMID:20092428

  8. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Ba?ara, I??l; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  9. Abdominal Sarcoidosis May Mimic Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Gorkem, Umit; Gungor, Tayfun; Bas, Y?lmaz; Togrul, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. It shows a great variety of clinical presentation, organ involvement, and disease progression. Lungs and lymphoid system are the most common sites involved with a frequency of 90% and 30%, respectively. Extrapulmonary involvement of sarcoidosis is reported in 30% of patients and abdomen is the most frequent site. Furthermore, peritoneal involvement is extremely rare in sarcoidosis. The case presented here described peritoneal manifestations of sarcoidosis without involvement of lungs. A 78-year-old woman possessing signs of malignancy on blood test and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging underwent laparatomy with a suspicion of ovarian malignancy. The macroscopic interpretation during surgery was peritoneal carcinomatosis. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, peritoneal biopsies, total omentectomy, and appendectomy were performed. Final histopathological result revealed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Clinicians must keep in mind that peritoneal sarcoidosis can mimic intra-abdominal malignancies. PMID:26558122

  10. Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in aneurysmatic thoracic aortas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, Eusebio; Eguizabal, Alma; Pontón, Alejandro; Val-Bernal, J. Fernando; Mayorga, Marta; Revuelta, José M.; López-Higuera, José; Conde, Olga M.

    2013-06-01

    Optical coherence tomographic images of ascending thoracic human aortas from aneurysms exhibit disorders on the smooth muscle cell structure of the media layer of the aortic vessel as well as elastin degradation. Ex-vivo measurements of human samples provide results that correlate with pathologist diagnosis in aneurysmatic and control aortas. The observed disorders are studied as possible hallmarks for aneurysm diagnosis. To this end, the backscattering profile along the vessel thickness has been evaluated by fitting its decay against two different models, a third order polynomial fitting and an exponential fitting. The discontinuities present on the vessel wall on aneurysmatic aortas are slightly better identified with the exponential approach. Aneurysmatic aortic walls present uneven reflectivity decay when compared with healthy vessels. The fitting error has revealed as the most favorable indicator for aneurysm diagnosis as it provides a measure of how uniform is the decay along the vessel thickness.

  11. FSI analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suito, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Kenji; Huynh, Viet Q. H.; Sze, Daniel; Ueda, Takuya

    2014-10-01

    We present a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta. The FSI is handled with the sequentially-coupled arterial FSI technique. The fluid mechanics equations are solved with the ST-VMS method, which is the variational multiscale version of the deforming-spatial-domain/stabilized space-time (DSD/SST) method. We focus on the relationship between the centerline geometry of the aorta and the flow field, which influences the wall shear stress distribution. The centerlines of the aorta models we use in our analysis are extracted from the CT scans, and we assume a constant diameter. Torsion-free model geometries are generated by projecting the original centerline to its averaged plane of curvature. The flow fields for the original and projected geometries are compared to examine the influence of the torsion.

  12. Aortopulmonary Window Associated with an Ascending Aorta Aneurysm in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    El Haouati, Rachid; Boukaidi, Yassine; Zouizra, Zahira; Boumzebra, Drissi

    2015-01-01

    Aortopulmonary window (APW) is a rare congenital malformation. It results from an incomplete division between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery. We describe a 26-year-old male, who presented with a grade II exertional dyspnea and palpitations. Echocardiography revealed an APW with an ascending aorta aneurysm. He underwent surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass without aortic cross-clamping. The APW was closed via the pulmonary artery flap technique using an autologous pericardial patch, and the aneurysm was repaired through the reduction aortoplasty technique. The patient was discharged on the 4th postoperative day. At 2 years' follow-up, he had remained asymptomatic and echocardiography showed aortic valve competence, ascending aorta diameter of 38 mm, and no residual shunt.

  13. Imaging for chronic abdominal pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mendelson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Summary Diagnostic imaging is often not indicated in chronic abdominal pain. In particular, undifferentiated abdominal pain is rarely an indication for a CT scan. CT scanning is overused even when imaging is required. Other modalities may be preferable. A normal CT scan does not rule out cancer. Alarm symptoms, including anaemia, blood in the stool, waking at night with gastrointestinal symptoms, and weight loss, should be investigated. The most appropriate modality depends on the symptoms. Clinical information on request forms for CT scans should be specific and include the suspected condition as this helps the radiologist to determine an appropriate imaging protocol. PMID:26648616

  14. Suture granuloma of the abdominal wall with intra-abdominal extension 12 years after open appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Goran; Korolija, Dragan; Skegro, Mate; Jakic-Razumovic, Jasminka

    2009-01-01

    Most complications after appendectomy occur within ten days; however, we report the unusual case of a suture granuloma 12 years after open appendectomy. The afebrile 75-year-old woman presented with a slightly painful palpable mass in the right lower abdomen. There was no nausea or vomiting and bowel movements were normal. She lost 10 kg during the 3 mo before presentation. The patient had undergone an appendectomy 12 years previously. Physical examination revealed a tender mass, 10 cm in diameter, under the appendectomy scar. The preoperative laboratory findings, tumor markers and plain abdominal radiographs were normal. Multi-slice computed tomography scanning showed an inhomogenous abdominal mass with minimal vascularization in the right lower abdomen 8.6 cm × 8 cm × 9 cm in size which communicated with the abdominal wall. The abdominal wall was thickened, weak and bulging. The abdominal wall mass did not communicate with the cecum or the ascending colon. Complete excision of the abdominal wall mass was performed via median laparotomy. Histopathological examination revealed a granuloma with a central abscess. This case report demonstrates that a preoperative diagnosis of abdominal wall mass after open appendectomy warrants the use of a wide spectrum of diagnostic modalities and consequently different treatment options. PMID:19705509

  15. Automated anatomical labeling method for abdominal arteries extracted from 3D abdominal CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masahiro; Hoang, Bui Huy; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Mori, Kensaku

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents an automated anatomical labeling method of abdominal arteries. In abdominal surgery, understanding of blood vessel structure concerning with a target organ is very important. Branching pattern of blood vessels differs among individuals. It is required to develop a system that can assist understanding of a blood vessel structure and anatomical names of blood vessels of a patient. Previous anatomical labbeling methods for abdominal arteries deal with either of the upper or lower abdominal arteries. In this paper, we present an automated anatomical labeling method of both of the upper and lower abdominal arteries extracted from CT images. We obtain a tree structure of artery regions and calculate feature values for each branch. These feature values include the diameter, curvature, direction, and running vectors of a branch. Target arteries of this method are grouped based on branching conditions. The following processes are separately applied for each group. We compute candidate artery names by using classifiers that are trained to output artery names. A correction process of the candidate anatomical names based on the rule of majority is applied to determine final names. We applied the proposed method to 23 cases of 3D abdominal CT images. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is able to perform nomenclature of entire major abdominal arteries. The recall and the precision rates of labeling are 79.01% and 80.41%, respectively.

  16. Lipid Emulsion Attenuates Acetylcholine-Induced Relaxation in Isolated Rat Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Seong-Ho; Lee, Soo Hee; Yu, Jongsun; Park, Jungchul; Shin, Il-Woo; Lee, Youngju; Cho, Hyunhoo; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Baik, Jiseok; Hong, Jeong-Min; Han, Jeong Yeol; Lee, Heon Keun; Chung, Young-Kyun; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Lipofundin MCT/LCT and Intralipid on acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide- (NO-) mediated relaxation in rat aorta to determine which lipid emulsion (LE) is more potent in terms of inhibition of NO-induced relaxation. Dose-response curves of responses induced by acetylcholine, the calcium ionophore A23187, and sodium nitroprusside were generated using isolated rat aorta with or without LE. The effect of Lipofundin MCT/LCT on acetylcholine-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated using western blotting. Lipofundin MCT/LCT (0.1 and 0.2%) attenuated acetylcholine-induced relaxation in endothelium-intact aorta with or without tiron, whereas 0.2% Intralipid only inhibited relaxation. Lipofundin MCT/LCT inhibited relaxation induced by the calcium ionophore A23187 and sodium nitroprusside in endothelium-intact aorta, but Lipofundin MCT/LCT had no effect on sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation in the endothelium-denuded aorta. Combined pretreatment with l-arginine plus Lipofundin MCT/LCT increased acetylcholine-induced maximal relaxation in endothelium-intact aorta compared with Lipofundin MCT/LCT alone. l-Arginine attenuated Lipofundin MCT/LCT-mediated inhibition of acetylcholine-induced eNOS phosphorylation in HUVECs. Taken together, Lipofundin MCT/LCT attenuated acetylcholine-induced NO-mediated relaxation via an inhibitory effect on the endothelium including eNOS, which is proximal to activation of guanylyl cyclase. PMID:26273653

  17. Experimental investigation of the influence of the aortic stiffness on hemodynamics in the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Gülan, Utku; Lüthi, Beat; Holzner, Markus; Liberzon, Alex; Tsinober, Arkady; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) pulsatile aortic flow in a human ascending aorta is studied to investigate the effect of the aortic stiffness on the flow field and turbulent fluctuating velocities in the ascending aorta. A nonintrusive optical measurement technique, 3-D particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV), has been applied to anatomically accurate phantoms under clinically realistic conditions. A compliant silicon phantom was used to mimic the healthy aorta, and a rigid model was used to imitate the pathological case that appears in aortas for example as a result of aging. The realistic models are transparent which allows optical access to the investigation domain, and the index of refraction was matched to avoid optical distortions. Our results revealed that the aortic stiffness leads to an increase in systolic velocity and a decrease in the Windkessel effect, which is associated with the diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, we found that the turbulent kinetic energy is about an order of magnitude higher for the rigid aorta, that is, an increase in aortic stiffness increases the magnitude of turbulent fluctuating velocities. The spatial distribution of the flow velocity showed that the flow is more organized and coherent spiraling patterns develop for the compliant aorta which helps to dampen the influence of disturbed flow. Finally, we observed higher Lagrangian acceleration and hence higher instantaneous forces acting on blood particles in the stiff case which implies that aging and hence arterial stiffening provokes distinctive alterations in blood flow, and these alterations may cause pathological symptoms in the cardiovascular system. PMID:24833608

  18. Morphometric Approach to Pulp Fibroblast Development in Tooth Germ

    PubMed Central

    C?runtu, Irina-Draga; S?vinescu, Sergiu Daniel; Am?linei, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    This paper builds a morphometric framework for the analysis of dental pulp fibroblast evolution during tooth development. We investigated 15 tooth germs (cases) organized, by histological criteria, in three groups corresponding to cap, early bell, and late bell stages, respectively. Each group comprised five cases. The morphometric description used the following parameters: area (A), perimeter (P)—automatically extracted by a color segmentation technique, and form factor (FF)—calculated as 4?A/P2. The designed framework operated at inter- and intragroup levels. The intergroup analysis quantified the differences between groups, in the sense of a relative distance (RD) adequately defined by mean-value scaling. We showed that the stage of early bell is approximately 5 times closer to late bell than to cap. The quantification procedure required concomitant information about A, P parameters (as P versus A dependences, or FF values), whereas the procedure failed for A or P separately used. The intragroup analysis quantified the similarity of the cases belonging to the same stage. We proved that, unlike the intergroup tests, the individual exploitation of all three descriptors A, P, and FF is effective, yielding highly compatible results. Within any group, most cases presented RDs less than 10% from the group mean value, regardless of the descriptor type. PMID:25057501

  19. Successful Management of Thrombosis of the Proximal Aorta after Implantation with a Biventricular Assist Device

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Mark J.; Gidea, Claudia; Karanam, Ravi; Baran, David; Saunders, Craig R.; Zucker, Mark J.; Camacho, Margarita T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Continuous-flow ventricular assist devices (CVADs) are associated with a significant complication profile that includes thrombosis of the ascending aorta and aortic valve, thromboembolism, and stroke. Despite an increasing number of reports of thromboembolic complications related to CVADs, there is little in the literature to guide their management. This report describes successful management strategies used during two cases of thrombosis of the ascending aorta during biventricular CentriMag (Levitronix LLC, Waltham, MA) support, including using pre-existing cannulas to initiate cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:26357801

  20. Mapping the longitudinal wall stiffness heterogeneities within intact canine aortas using Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) ex vivo

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    Mapping the longitudinal wall stiffness heterogeneities within intact canine aortas using Pulse Article history: Accepted 26 April 2013 Keywords: Canine Aorta In Situ Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) Pulse Wave­Korteweg (M­K) formulation. Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) is a relatively new, ultrasound-based imaging method

  1. New parameters to represent the position of the aorta relative to the spine for pedicle screw placement

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Toru; Ono, Takashi; Ogihara, Satoshi; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Shoda, Naoki; Nakao, Yusuke; Matsudaira, Ko; Seichi, Atsushi; Nakamura, Kozo

    2010-01-01

    Parameters of the position of the aorta in previous reports were determined for anterior surgery. This study evaluated the relative position of the aorta to the spine by new parameters, which could enhance the safety of pedicle screw placement. Three parameters were defined in a new Cartesian coordinate system. We selected an entry point of a left pedicle screw as the origin. The transverse plane was determined to include both the bases of the superior facet and to be parallel to the upper endplate of the vertebral body. A line connecting the entry points of both sides was defined as the X-axis. The angle formed by the Y-axis and a line connecting the origin and the center of the aorta was defined as the left pedicle–aorta angle. The length of a line connecting the origin and the aorta edge was defined as the left pedicle–aorta distance. Distance from the edge of the aorta to the X-axis was defined as the pedicular line–aorta distance. These parameters were measured preoperatively in 293 vertebral bodies of 24 patients with a right thoracic curve. We simulated the placement of the pedicle screw with variable length and with some direction error. We defined a warning pedicle as that when the aorta enters the expected area of the screw. Sensitivity analysis was performed to find the warning pedicle ratio in 12 scenarios. The left pedicle–aorta angle averaged 29.7° at the thoracic spine and ?16.3° at the lumbar spine; the left pedicle–aorta distance averaged 23.7 and 55.2 mm; the pedicular line–aorta distance averaged 18.3 and 51.0 mm, respectively. The ratio of warning pedicles was consistently high at T4–5 and T10–12. When a left pedicle screw perforates an anterior/lateral wall of the vertebral body, the aorta may be at risk. These new parameters enable surgeons to intuitively understand the position of the aorta in surgical planning or in placement of a pedicle screw. PMID:20127493

  2. ABDOMINAL OBESITY, MUSCLE COMPOSITION, AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed to...

  3. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  4. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  5. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  6. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  7. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  8. Abdominal cocoon: a unique presentation in an immunodeficient infant.

    PubMed

    Browne, Lorna P; Patel, Jigar; Guillerman, R Paul; Hanson, Imelda C; Cass, Darrell L

    2012-02-01

    Abdominal cocoon is a rare disorder that may pose a diagnostic conundrum in patients presenting with intermittent symptoms of small bowel obstruction. We describe the imaging findings of a unique case of abdominal cocoon that presented in infancy. PMID:21713442

  9. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of the abdominal muscles.

    PubMed

    Teyhen, Deydre S; Gill, Norman W; Whittaker, Jackie L; Henry, Sharon M; Hides, Julie A; Hodges, Paul

    2007-08-01

    Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) of the abdominal muscles is increasingly being used in the management of conditions involving musculoskeletal dysfunctions associated with the abdominal muscles, including certain types of low back and pelvic pain. This commentary provides an overview of current concepts and evidence related to RUSI of the abdominal musculature, including issues addressing the potential role of ultrasound imaging in the assessment and training of these muscles. Both quantitative and qualitative aspects associated with clinical and research applications are considered, as are the possible limitations related to the interpretation of measurements made with RUSI. Research to date has utilized a range of methodological approaches, including different transducer placements and imaging techniques. The pros and cons of the various methods are discussed, and guidelines for future investigations are presented. Potential implications and opportunities for clinical use of RUSI to enhance evidence-based practice are outlined, as are suggestions for future research to further clarify the possible role of RUSI in the evaluation and treatment of abdominal muscular morphology and function. PMID:17877281

  10. Accumulation of 3H-adrenaline by rabbit aorta.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, J; Nedergaard, O A

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation of (-)-3H-adrenaline (3H-A) by rabbit isolated aorta was studied. In all experiments, monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase were inhibited by treatment with pargyline and 3',4'-dihydroxy-2-methyl-propiophenone (U-0521), respectively. The relationship between the accumulation of 3H derived from 3H-A (10(-8) M) and the duration of incubation (0-3 h) was linear. The 3H-accumulation after 3 h incubation was 22.5 ml X g-1. In reserpine-treated tissue, the 3H-accumulation levelled off after 30 min and was 8.5 ml X g-1 after 3 h. The concentration of 3H-A or (-)-3H-noradrenaline (3H-NA) and the 3H-accumulation (ml X g-1) were inversely related. At 10(-8) M, the 1-hour accumulation of 3H derived from 3H-A and 3H-NA was 7.8 and 15.2 ml X g-1, respectively. With increasing concentrations (3 X 10(-8)-10(-4) M), the accumulation values approached each other. At 10(-4) M, the accumulation was 2.3 and 2.8 ml X g-1 for 3H-A and 3H-NA, respectively. The accumulation of 3H derived from 3H-A (10(-8)-10(-4) M) by reserpine-treated tissue also showed an inverse relationship with concentration: 5.4 ml X g-1 (10(-8) M) and 2.6 ml X g-1 (10(-4) M). The accumulation of 3H derived from 3H-A (10(-8) M; 1 h) was dependent on the bath temperature (1-37 degrees C). The accumulation increased continuously from 1.1 ml X g-1 (1 degree C) to 11.1 ml X g-1 (37 degrees C). Storage of tissue (0-5 days in salt solution without equilibration with 95% O2/5% CO2; 4 degrees C) did not affect the accumulation of 3H derived from 3H-A (10(-8) M; 1 h). Thereafter (7-14 days), the accumulation decreased. The inhibitory potency (IC50;-log M) of desimipramine, cocaine, (-)-propranolol, (-)-isoprenaline, and (+/-)-normetanephrine on accumulation of 3H derived from 3H-A (10(-8) M; 1 h) was found to be 8.26; 6.50; 5.48, 4.88, and 4.02, respectively. The maximal degree of inhibition was almost the same for these drugs, while that of clonidine and corticosterone was 50 and 20%, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3967097

  11. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H.; Ferramola, Mariana L.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gimenez, María S.

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+} did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta.

  12. Effects of freezing on white perch Morone americana (Gmelin, 1789): Implications for multivariate morphometrics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that duration of freezing differentially affects whole-body morphometrics of a derived teleost. Whole-body morphometrics are frequently analyzed to test hypotheses of different species, or stocks within a species, of fishes. Specimens used for morphometric analyses are typically fixed or preserved prior to analysis, yet little research has been done on how fixation or preservation methods or duration of preservation of specimens might affect outcomes of multivariate statistical analyses of differences in shape. To determine whether whole-body morphometrics changed as a result of freezing, 23 whole-body morphometrics of age-1 white perch (Morone americana) from western Lake Erie (n = 211) were analyzed immediately after capture, after being held on ice overnight, and after freezing for 100 or 200 days. Discriminant function analysis revealed that all four groups differed significantly from one another (P < 0.0001). The first canonical axis reflected long-axis morphometrics, where there was a clear pattern of positive translation along this axis with duration of preservation. Re-classification analysis demonstrated fish were typically assigned to their original preservation class except for fish frozen 100 days, which assigned mostly to frozen 200 days. Morphometric comparisons using frozen fish must be done on fish frozen for identical periods of time to avoid biases related to the length of time they were frozen. Similar experiments should be conducted on other species and also using formalin- and alcohol-preserved specimens.

  13. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; My?liwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Miros?aw

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents. PMID:25088309

  14. Sand mining and morphometric dynamics along Ologe Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaddeus, D.; Odunuga, S.

    2015-04-01

    The study focuses on the sand mining activities and morphometric dynamics of Ologe Lagoon, in Lagos, Nigeria. It determines the sand mining activities and morphometric dynamics of Ologe Lagoon catchment area, the quantity of sand mined per unit time, and the extent of environmental degradation due to the continuous sand mining activities. Topographic maps of the 1985 and 2013 Ikonos satellite imagery were used to identify the morphometric dynamics of the area. Two hypotheses were generated to determine if there are significant differences between the means of the sampled population that lost properties due to flooding, and to determine if there was a correlation between building subsidence and loss of property; it was tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with a correlation coefficient at 0.05 ? significance level. The results of geometric measurement of the Ologe Lagoon between the two years interval show that perimeter width and circularity of the basin had reduced and shrunk, while the form factor remains the same at 0.15 km2. The basin elongation increased significantly by 0.01 km2, thus, increasing the rate at which water will be supplied to the lagoon. The ration of the form factor of 0.69/0.5 is close to the unity value R1, which shows a higher peak runoff; the values of the circularity ratio of 3.94/3.13 indicates circularity. This shows that the basin is circular time. The impact of the geometry indicates the development of mud flats and sandy bars, particularly at the lower portion of the lagoon; there is also modification of sediment deposition. The anthropogenic activity of sand mining causes destruction of the riparian forest around the lagoon. There is no significant difference in the means of sampled respondents regarding loss properties due to flooding, while there is a correlation between building subsidence and loss of life. It is recommended that a road map should be developed and implemented by the relevant agency of the government to guide anthropogenic activities around the lagoon to enhance sustainable development.

  15. 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections. PMID:23294512

  16. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  17. Diagnostic yield of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in children with abdominal pain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abdominal pain is the most common indication for OGD in children. However, existing studies examining the diagnostic outcomes of OGD in children with abdominal pain are limited. We conducted the current study to examine the diagnostic yield of OGD with biopsy in the evaluation of abdominal pain and ...

  18. Multiatlas segmentation of thoracic and abdominal anatomy with level set-based local search.

    PubMed

    Schreibmann, Eduard; Marcus, David M; Fox, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of organs at risk (OARs) remains one of the most time-consuming tasks in radiotherapy treatment planning. Atlas-based segmentation methods using single templates have emerged as a practical approach to automate the process for brain or head and neck anatomy, but pose significant challenges in regions where large interpatient variations are present. We show that significant changes are needed to autosegment thoracic and abdominal datasets by combining multi-atlas deformable registration with a level set-based local search. Segmentation is hierarchical, with a first stage detecting bulk organ location, and a second step adapting the segmentation to fine details present in the patient scan. The first stage is based on warping multiple presegmented templates to the new patient anatomy using a multimodality deformable registration algorithm able to cope with changes in scanning conditions and artifacts. These segmentations are compacted in a probabilistic map of organ shape using the STAPLE algorithm. Final segmentation is obtained by adjusting the probability map for each organ type, using customized combinations of delineation filters exploiting prior knowledge of organ characteristics. Validation is performed by comparing automated and manual segmentation using the Dice coefficient, measured at an average of 0.971 for the aorta, 0.869 for the trachea, 0.958 for the lungs, 0.788 for the heart, 0.912 for the liver, 0.884 for the kidneys, 0.888 for the vertebrae, 0.863 for the spleen, and 0.740 for the spinal cord. Accurate atlas segmentation for abdominal and thoracic regions can be achieved with the usage of a multi-atlas and perstructure refinement strategy. To improve clinical workflow and efficiency, the algorithm was embedded in a software service, applying the algorithm automatically on acquired scans without any user interaction. PMID:25207393

  19. Heart and aorta morphology of the deep-diving hooded seal (Cystophora cristata)

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jennifer M.

    Heart and aorta morphology of the deep-diving hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) Charles M. Drabek and Jennifer M. Burns Abstract: An investigation of the heart morphology of 8 male and 15 female hooded seals that reported for most seals. Hooded seals of all ages have large hearts (0.64% of the body mass) and the right

  20. Journal of Lipid Research Volume 43, 2002 205 Increased glycosphingolipid levels in serum and aortae

    E-print Network

    not been studied in the apoE / mouse. Here we used HPLC methods to analyze serum and aortic GSL levels accumulate in the aortic sinus and fatty streaks are present in the proximal aorta (3­6). After 9 months oxidation of plasma lipo- proteins and artery wall components (8­10). Inter-crossing of apoE / mice with P

  1. Interleukin-I@ alters actin expression and inhibits contraction of rat thoracic aorta

    E-print Network

    Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura

    expression and inhibits contraction of rat thoracic aorta. Am. J. Physiol. 262 (Cell Physiol. 31): C828-C833 by activating nitric oxide production in vascular smooth muscle cells, with subsequent increases in guanosine 3- atory prostanoids in cultured human vascular smooth muscle cells (22), causes prostanoid

  2. Layer-specific residual deformations and uniaxial and biaxial mechanical properties of thoracic porcine aorta.

    PubMed

    Peña, Juan A; Martínez, Miguel A; Peña, Estefanía

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we hypothesize that the layer-separated residual stresses and mechanical properties of layer-separated thoracic aorta arteries may be dependent on arterial location of the vessel. To demonstrate any possible position differences, we measured the axial pre-stretch and opening angle and performed uniaxial and biaxial tests under physiological loads to study the mechanical behavior of both intact and layer-separated porcine aortic samples taken from thoracic region. In addition, we also provided constitutive parameters for each layer that can be used by biomedical engineers for investigating better therapies and developing artery-specific devices. We found that the opening angle for whole artery and adventitia layer are smaller and intima greater for proximal segments than for the distal thoracic ones. For the axial pre-stretch, our results showed significant increased values of the stretch ratios with location. We found that lower thoracic samples are stiffer than upper ones with the most important differences corresponding to those between the proximal and distal behaviors in the circumferential direction. The anisotropy represented by the different circumferential and longitudinal response is more remarkable in lower thoracic aorta. Finally, adventitia and intima samples present a tendency to be stiffer and more isotropic than the corresponding media samples in both directions for upper thoracic aorta and to be more anisotropic for lower thoracic aorta. PMID:26103440

  3. The effect of oxidation on the mechanical response and microstructure of porcine aortas.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Elizabeth A; Venkatasubramaniam, Arundhathi; Good, Theresa A; Topoleski, L D Timmie

    2014-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a product of many cellular functions, has been implicated in many age-related pathophysiological processes, including cardiovascular disease. The arterial proteins collagen and elastin may also undergo structural and functional changes due to damage caused by ROS. This study examined the effect of oxidation on the mechanical response of porcine aortas and aorta elastin and the associated changes in structural protein ultrastructure as a step in exploring the role of molecular changes in structural proteins with aging on elastic artery function. We examined the change in mechanical properties of aorta samples after various oxidation times as a first step in understanding how the oxidative environment associated with aging could impact mechanical properties of arterial structural proteins. We used confocal microscopy to visualize how the microstructure of isolated elastin changed with oxidation. We find that short term oxidation of elastin isolated from aortas leads to an increase in material stiffness, but also an increase in the fiber diameter, increase in void space in the matrix, and a decrease in the fiber orientation, possibly due to fiber cross-linking. The short term effects of oxidation on arterial collagen is more complex, with increase in material stiffness seen in the collagen region of the stress stretch curve at low extents of oxidation, but not at high levels of oxidation. These results may provide insight into the relationship between oxidative damage to tissue associated with aging and disease, structure of the arterial proteins elastin and collagen, and arterial mechanical properties and function. PMID:24123723

  4. AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS R enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) scans. This CT scan is generally followed by a contrast enhanced of calcified lesions on CTA scans. Calcium lesion detection is straightforward on a CT scan, however performing

  5. Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic evaluation of NIR laser-welded human and porcine aorta tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Alvin; Alimova, Alexandra; Minko, Glenn; Liu, C. H.; Gayen, Tapan K.; Savage, Howard E.; Halder, Rabindra K.; McCormick, Steven A.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2003-06-01

    Laser tissue welding involves the partial denaturing and renaturing of the collagen triple helical structure. Although the mechanisms of laser tissue welding are not well understood, water in tissues plays an important role in the process. High quality welding of human and porcine aorta tissue have been achieved using NIR lasers tuned to the water absorption band around 1450 nm. Fluorescence and Raman spectra from welded and non-welded regions are compared for ex vivo human and porcine aorta tissues. The fluorescence from the outer surface of welded aorta was substantially weaker than the fluorescence from the non-welded region. The Raman spectra from the welded and non-welded tissue regions appeared similar in the energies of the observed vibrational levels but the intensity of the fluorescence wing was considerably greater from the outer surface of the welded region as compared to the non-welded region. For the outer surface of the aorta, the emission intensity from the welded region was larger than for the non-welded region.

  6. Nitric Oxide Transport in Normal Human Thoracic Aorta: Effects of Hemodynamics and Nitric Oxide Scavengers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Zhenze; Zhao, Ping; Fan, Zhanming; Sun, Anqiang; Zhan, Fan; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of nitric oxide (NO) in the homeostasis of the vasculature, little quantitative information exists concerning NO transport and distribution in medium and large-sized arteries where atherosclerosis and aneurysm occur and hemodynamics is complex. We hypothesized that local hemodynamics in arteries may govern NO transport and affect the distribution of NO in the arteries, hence playing an important role in the localization of vascular diseases. To substantiate this hypothesis, we presented a lumen/wall model of the human aorta based on its MRI images to simulate the production, transport and consumption of NO in the arterial lumen and within the aortic wall. The results demonstrated that the distribution of NO in the aorta was quite uneven with remarkably reduced NO bioavailability in regions of disturbed flow, and local hemodynamics could affect NO distribution mainly via flow dependent NO production rate of endothelium. In addition, erythrocytes in the blood could moderately modulate NO concentration in the aorta, especially at the endothelial surface. However, the reaction of NO within the wall could only slightly affect NO concentration on the luminal surface, but strongly reduce NO concentration within the aortic wall. A strong positive correlation was revealed between wall shear stress and NO concentration, which was affected by local hemodynamics and NO reaction rate. In conclusion, the distribution of NO in the aorta may be determined by local hemodynamics and modulated differently by NO scavengers in the lumen and within the wall. PMID:25405341

  7. Blood Vessel Matrix Seeded with Cells: A Better Alternative for Abdominal Wall Reconstruction—A Long-Term Study

    PubMed Central

    Jundzi??, Arkadiusz; Nazarewski, ?ukasz; Kotela, Andrzej; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Skopi?ska-Wisniewska, Joanna; ?ukasiewicz, Aleksander; Nazarewski, S?awomir; Kotela, Ireneusz; Pokrywczy?ska, Marta; Marsza?ek, Andrzej; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to present abdominal wall reconstruction using a porcine vascular graft seeded with MSC (mesenchymal stem cells) on rat model. Material and Methods. Abdominal wall defect was prepared in 21 Wistar rats. Acellular porcine-vascular grafts taken from aorta and prepared with Triton X were used. 14 aortic grafts were implanted in place, of which 7 grafts were seeded with rat MSC cells (Group I), and 7 were acellular grafts (Group II). As a control, 7 standard polypropylene meshes were used for defect augmentation (Group III). The assessment method was performed by HE and CD31 staining after 6 months. The mechanical properties have been investigated by Zwick&Roell Z0.5. Results. The strongest angiogenesis and lowest inflammatory response were observed in Group I. Average capillaries density was 2.75, 0.75, and 1.53 and inflammatory effect was 0.29, 1.39, and 2.72 for Groups I, II, and III, respectively. The means of mechanical properties were 12.74 ± 1.48, 7.27 ± 1.56, and 14.4 ± 3.7?N/cm in Groups I and II and control, respectively. Conclusions. Cell-seeded grafts have better mechanical properties than acellular grafts but worse than polypropylene mesh. Cells improved mechanical and physiological properties of decellularized natural scaffolds. PMID:25705696

  8. Statistical, Morphometric, Anatomical Shape Model (Atlas) of Calcaneus

    PubMed Central

    Melinska, Aleksandra U.; Romaszkiewicz, Patryk; Wagel, Justyna; Sasiadek, Marek; Iskander, D. Robert

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to develop a morphometric and anatomically accurate atlas (statistical shape model) of calcaneus. The model is based on 18 left foot and 18 right foot computed tomography studies of 28 male individuals aged from 17 to 62 years, with no known foot pathology. A procedure for automatic atlas included extraction and identification of common features, averaging feature position, obtaining mean geometry, mathematical shape description and variability analysis. Expert manual assistance was included for the model to fulfil the accuracy sought by medical professionals. The proposed for the first time statistical shape model of the calcaneus could be of value in many orthopaedic applications including providing support in diagnosing pathological lesions, pre-operative planning, classification and treatment of calcaneus fractures as well as for the development of future implant procedures. PMID:26270812

  9. Postnatal regulation of fibroblast growth factor ligand and receptor gene expression in rat thoracic aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Winkles, J. A.; Alberts, G. F.; Peifley, K. A.; Nomoto, K.; Liau, G.; Majesky, M. W.

    1996-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 and FGF-2 are potent angiogenic factors and vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) mitogens in vivo. They function via binding to a family of structurally related cell surface receptors that possess intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Several studies have indicated that increased FGF and/or FGF receptor (FGFR) expression may correlate with adult SMC proliferation in vivo. In this study, we used Northern blot hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays to compare the FGF and FGFR mRNA levels in newborn rat aorta, where SMCs have a high replication index, to those in adult rat aorta, where SMCs are relatively quiescent. We found that FGF-2 and FGFR-2 mRNA expression was elevated 8.2- and 5.6-fold, respectively, in adult aorta. Increased FGF-2 protein expression in the adult aorta was confirmed by Western blot analysis. We also examined FGF and FGFR mRNA expression levels in SMC cultures derived from newborn or adult rat aorta. FGF-1 transcripts were more abundant in newborn SMCs whereas FGF-2 and FGFR-1 mRNA expression was higher in adult SMCs. Furthermore, FGF-1 and FGF-2 mRNA expression levels were altered by cell culture density and by serum treatment. We conclude that elevated FGF ligand and receptor expression does not always correlate with a high SMC proliferative index, that FGF-1 or FGF-2 may not be the primary mitogens responsible for newborn SMC growth in vivo, and that FGF-1 and FGF-2 may serve nonmitogenic functions within the mature, adult vessel wall. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8952544

  10. Thoracic Aorta 3D Hemodynamics in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients With Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Bradley D.; van Ooij, Pim; Barker, Alex J.; Carr, Maria; Gabbour, Maya; Schnell, Susanne; Jarvis, Kelly B.; Carr, James C.; Markl, Michael; Rigsby, Cynthia; Robinson, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate the 3D hemodynamics in the thoracic aorta of pediatric and young adult bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients. Methods 4D flow MRI was performed in 30 pediatric and young adult BAV patients (age: 13.9 ± 4.4 (range: [3.4, 20.7]) years old, M:F = 17:13) as part of this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Nomogram-based aortic root Z-scores were calculated to assess aortic dilatation and degree of aortic stenosis (AS) severity was assessed on MRI. Data analysis included calculation of time-averaged systolic 3D wall shear stress (WSSsys) along the entire aorta wall, and regional quantification of maximum and mean WSSsys and peak systolic velocity (velsys) in the ascending aorta (AAo), arch, and descending aorta (DAo). The 4D flow MRI AAo velsys was also compared with echocardiography peak velocity measurements. Results There was a positive correlation with both mean and max AAo WSSsys and peak AAo velsys (mean: r = 0.84, P < 0.001, max: r = 0.94, P < 0.001) and AS (mean: rS = 0.43, P = 0.02, max: rS = 0.70, P < 0.001). AAo peak velocity was significantly higher when measured with echo compared with 4D flow MRI (2.1 ± 0.98 m/s versus 1.27 ± 0.49 m/s, P < 0.001). Conclusion In pediatric and young adult patients with BAV, AS and peak ascending aorta velocity are associated with increased AAo WSS, while aortic dilation, age, and body surface area do not significantly impact AAo hemodynamics. Prospective studies are required to establish the role of WSS as a risk-stratification tool in these patients. PMID:25644073

  11. Outline-based morphometrics, an overlooked method in arthropod studies?

    PubMed

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kaba, D; Solano, P; Dupraz, M; McCoy, K D; Jaramillo-O, N

    2014-12-01

    Modern methods allow a geometric representation of forms, separating size and shape. In entomology, as well as in many other fields involving arthropod studies, shape variation has proved useful for species identification and population characterization. In medical entomology, it has been applied to very specific questions such as population structure, reinfestation of insecticide-treated areas and cryptic species recognition. For shape comparisons, great importance is given to the quality of landmarks in terms of comparability. Two conceptually and statistically separate approaches are: (i) landmark-based morphometrics, based on the relative position of a few anatomical "true" or "traditional" landmarks, and (ii) outline-based morphometrics, which captures the contour of forms through a sequence of close "pseudo-landmarks". Most of the studies on insects of medical, veterinary or economic importance make use of the landmark approach. The present survey makes a case for the outline method, here based on elliptic Fourier analysis. The collection of pseudo-landmarks may require the manual digitization of many points and, for this reason, might appear less attractive. It, however, has the ability to compare homologous organs or structures having no landmarks at all. This strength offers the possibility to study a wider range of anatomical structures and thus, a larger range of arthropods. We present a few examples highlighting its interest for separating close or cryptic species, or characterizing conspecific geographic populations, in a series of different vector organisms. In this simple application, i.e. the recognition of close or cryptic forms, the outline approach provided similar scores as those obtained by the landmark-based approach. PMID:25111609

  12. Ancestry estimation in South Africa using craniometrics and geometric morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Stull, Kyra E; Kenyhercz, Michael W; L'Abbé, Ericka N

    2014-10-16

    Population history and positive assortative mating directs gene flow in such a way that biological differences are recognized among groups. In turn, forensic anthropologists quantify biological differences to estimate ancestry. Some anthropologists argue that highly admixed population groups, such as South African coloureds, cannot achieve acceptable accuracies because within group variance is too large. Whereas ancestry estimation in South Africa has been limited to craniometric data from South African blacks and whites, the current study integrates craniometric and geometric morphometric data from the three largest South African groups. Crania from 377 South African individuals (black=158, white=112, and coloured=107) comprised the sample. Standard measurements were collected and the coordinate data were subjected to Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA), which resulted in size-free shape variables (ProCoords). A principal component analysis was used to combine the shape variation captured in the ProCoords (ProCoords PC). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), using equal priors, stepwise variable selection and leave-one-out cross-validation, was conducted on the ProCoords, the ProCoords PCs, and the traditional craniometric data. The LDA using 18 stepwise selected ProCoords resulted in the highest cross-validated accuracy (89%). Utilization of geometric morphometric data emphasized that the relative location of cranial landmarks was more discriminating than simple linear distances. Regardless of high levels of genetic admixture, South African coloureds are a homogeneous group and morphologically distinct from other contemporaneous South African populations. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated a correspondence between peer-reported race and morphological differences in the crania of black, white, and coloured South Africans. PMID:25459274

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with systemic fungal infection in a German shepherd dog.

    PubMed

    Gershenson, Ryan T; Melidone, Raffaele; Sutherland-Smith, James; Rogers, Catherine L

    2011-01-01

    A 2 yr old spayed female German shepherd presented with a chief complaint of acute onset paraparesis and weight loss. At presentation, the dog was pyrexic, nonambulatory, and had generalized muscle wasting. Neurolocalization was consistent with a thoracolumbar spinal cord lesion. An abdominal ultrasound was performed and revealed a focal dilation (4 cm) of the terminal aorta with evidence of blood stasis consistent with an aortic aneurysm. The dog was euthanized shortly after admission to the hospital and a post mortem examination was performed. Fungal organisms were identified in the aortic aneurysm as well as from the thoracic vertebrae, mesenteric lymph nodes, axillary lymph nodes, spleen, kidneys, liver, lungs, and heart. Although the morphology was consistent with Candida spp., immunohistochemistry and PCR could not definitively identify the causative organism. Mycotic aortic aneurysms are a rare finding in humans and have not been previously reported in the dog. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first known report of an aortic aneurysm associated with systemic fungal infection in a dog. PMID:21164161

  14. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms: vascular anatomy, device selection, procedure, and procedure-specific complications.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Yolanda; Rogoff, Philip; Romanelli, Donald; Reichle, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is abnormal dilatation of the aorta, carrying a substantial risk of rupture and thereby marked risk of death. Open repair of AAA involves lengthy surgery time, anesthesia, and substantial recovery time. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) provides a safer option for patients with advanced age and pulmonary, cardiac, and renal dysfunction. Successful endovascular repair of AAA depends on correct selection of patients (on the basis of their vascular anatomy), choice of the correct endoprosthesis, and familiarity with the technique and procedure-specific complications. The type of aneurysm is defined by its location with respect to the renal arteries, whether it is a true or false aneurysm, and whether the common iliac arteries are involved. Vascular anatomy can be divided more technically into aortic neck, aortic aneurysm, pelvic perfusion, and iliac morphology, with grades of difficulty with respect to EVAR, aortic neck morphology being the most common factor to affect EVAR appropriateness. When choosing among the devices available on the market, one must consider the patient's vascular anatomy and choose between devices that provide suprarenal fixation versus those that provide infrarenal fixation. A successful technique can be divided into preprocedural imaging, ancillary procedures before AAA stent-graft placement, the procedure itself, postprocedural medical therapy, and postprocedural imaging surveillance. Imaging surveillance is important in assessing complications such as limb thrombosis, endoleaks, graft migration, enlargement of the aneurysm sac, and rupture. Last, one must consider the issue of radiation safety with regard to EVAR. PMID:25763741

  15. A Literature Review of the Numerical Analysis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Treated with Endovascular Stent Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Roy, David; Kauffmann, Claude; Delorme, Sébastien; Lerouge, Sophie; Cloutier, Guy; Soulez, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the basic principles and relevant advances in the computational modeling of abdominal aortic aneurysms and endovascular aneurysm repair, providing the community with up-to-date state of the art in terms of numerical analysis and biomechanics. Frameworks describing the mechanical behavior of the aortic wall already exist. However, intraluminal thrombus nonhomogeneous structure and porosity still need to be well characterized. Also, although the morphology and mechanical properties of calcifications have been investigated, their effects on wall stresses remain controversial. Computational fluid dynamics usually assumes a rigid artery wall, whereas fluid-structure interaction accounts for artery compliance but is still challenging since arteries and blood have similar densities. We discuss alternatives to fluid-structure interaction based on dynamic medical images that address patient-specific hemodynamics and geometries. We describe initial stresses, elastic boundary conditions, and statistical strength for rupture risk assessment. Special emphasis is accorded to workflow development, from the conversion of medical images into finite element models, to the simulation of catheter-aorta interactions and stent-graft deployment. Our purpose is also to elaborate the key ingredients leading to virtual stenting and endovascular repair planning that could improve the procedure and stent-grafts. PMID:22997538

  16. Effects of Thoratec pulsatile ventricular assist device timing on the abdominal aortic wave intensity pattern.

    PubMed

    Jahren, Silje Ekroll; Amacher, Raffael; Weber, Alberto; Most, Henriette; Flammer, Shannon Axiak; Traupe, Tobias; Stoller, Michael; de Marchi, Stefano; Vandenberghe, Stijn

    2014-10-15

    Arterial waves are seen as possible independent mediators of cardiovascular risks, and the wave intensity analysis (WIA) has therefore been proposed as a method for patient selection for ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation. Interpreting measured wave intensity (WI) is challenging, and complexity is increased by the implantation of a VAD. The waves generated by the VAD interact with the waves generated by the native heart, and this interaction varies with changing VAD settings. Eight sheep were implanted with a pulsatile VAD (PVAD) through ventriculoaortic cannulation. The start of PVAD ejection was synchronized to the native R wave and delayed between 0 and 90% of the cardiac cycle in 10% steps or phase shifts (PS). Pressure and velocity signals were registered, with the use of a combined Doppler and pressure wire positioned in the abdominal aorta, and used to calculate the WI. Depending on the PS, different wave interference phenomena occurred. Maximum unloading of the left ventricle (LV) coincided with constructive interference and maximum blood flow pulsatility, and maximum loading of the LV coincided with destructive interference and minimum blood flow pulsatility. We believe that noninvasive WIA could potentially be used clinically to assess the mechanical load of the LV and to monitor the peripheral hemodynamics such as blood flow pulsatility and risk of intestinal bleeding. PMID:25320334

  17. Protease inhibitor 15, a candidate gene for abdominal aortic internal elastic lamina ruptures in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Falak, Samreen; Schafer, Sebastian; Baud, Amelie; Hummel, Oliver; Schulz, Herbert; Gauguier, Dominique; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The inbred Brown Norway (BN) rat develops spontaneous ruptures of the internal elastic lamina (RIEL) of the abdominal aorta (AA) and iliac arteries. Prior studies with crosses of the BN/Orl RJ (susceptible) and LOU/M (resistant) showed the presence of a significant QTL on chromosome 5 and the production of congenic rats proved the involvement of this locus. In this study, we further dissected the above-mentioned QTL by creating a new panel of LOU.BN(chr5) congenic and subcongenic lines and reduced the locus to 5.2 Mb. Then we studied 1,002 heterogeneous stock (HS) rats, whose phenotyping revealed a low prevalence and high variability for RIEL. High-resolution mapping in the HS panel detected the major locus on chromosome 5 (log P > 35) and refined it to 1.4 Mb. Subsequently, RNA-seq analysis on AA of BN, congenics, and LOU revealed expression differences for only protease inhibitor 15 (Pi15) gene and a putative long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) within the linkage region. The high abundance of lincRNA with respect to reduced Pi15 expression, in conjunction with exertion of longitudinal strain, may be related to RIEL, indicating the potential importance of proteases in biological processes related to defective aortic internal elastic lamina structure. Similar mechanisms may be involved in aneurysm initiation in the human AA. PMID:24790086

  18. Endovascular Treatment of Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Lesions With or Without Common Iliac Artery Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Oender, Hakan; Oguzkurt, Levent; Guer, Serkan; Tekbas, Gueven; Guerel, Kamil; Coskun, Isa; Oezkan, Ugur

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the results of stent placement for obstructive atherosclerotic aortic disease with or without involvement of the common iliac artery. Forty patients had self-expanding stents primarily or after balloon dilatation in the abdominal aorta between January 2005 and May 2011. All patients had trouble walking. Follow-up examinations were performed with clinical visits; these included color Doppler ultrasonography and computed tomographic angiography. Technical, clinical, and hemodynamic success was achieved in all patients. None of the patients underwent reintervention during the follow-up period, which ranged from 3 months to 6 years (median 24 months). Nine complications occurred in six patients. Of the nine complications, four were distal thromboembolisms, which were successfully treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis or anticoagulation therapy. Endovascular treatment of the obstructive aortic disease using self-expanding stents was safe and effective, with high technical success and long-term patency. Thromboembolic complications were high even though direct stenting was considered protective for thromboembolism formation. Particularly for infrarenal aortic stenosis, it can be recommended as the first-line treatment option for patients with obstructive atherosclerotic aortic disease.

  19. [Abdominal angina due to fibromuscular dysplasia of the celiac axis. Surgical management].

    PubMed

    Cunha E Sá, Diogo; Rosa, António; Carmo, Germano Do; Costa, Tiago; Pestana, Cristina; Horta, Alexandra; Catarino, Ana; Da Gama, A D

    2013-01-01

    The clinical case of a 27-year old man with the diagnosis of chronic mesenteric ischemia ("abdominal angina") is reported, whose chief complaints were severe postprandial pain and remarkable weight loss, for the last 4 months. Following na inconclusive observation in gastroenterology, he underwent an angiographic-CT examination, that disclosed a critical stenosis at the origin of the celiac axis. The remaining digestive vessels, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, were found free of lesions. The patient was submitted to a revascularization procedure, consisting in the celiac axis resection and its replacement by a prosthetic graft, arising from the supraceliac aorta. The post-operative course was uneventfull, followed by a complete remission of the pain and a progressive weight gain. The histopathological study of the removed artery revealed the diagnosis of arterial fibrodysplasia, a very rare entity in clinical practice, of unknown etiology, affecting predominantely young people and in a decreasing order of frequency the renals, the internal carotids and the external iliac arteries. The localization of the fibrodysplastic disease to the celiac áxis seems to be a unique case, never reported before in the literature, thus justifying its publication and dissemination. PMID:24511583

  20. DENTICLE MORPHOMETRICS AND A POSSIBLY OMNIVOROUS FEEDING HABIT FOR THE THEROPOD

    E-print Network

    Holtz Jr., Thomas R.

    DENTICLE MORPHOMETRICS AND A POSSIBLY OMNIVOROUS FEEDING HABIT FOR THE THEROPOD DINOSAUR TROODON as predatory adaptations. However, this same suite of characters is found in some herbivorous or omnivorous

  1. A morphometric analysis of auditory brain regions in congenitally deaf adults

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    A morphometric analysis of auditory brain regions in congenitally deaf adults Karen Emmorey* , John Neuroscience, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037

  2. Abdominal compartment syndrome after hip arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Justin; Owens, Brett D

    2010-01-01

    As hip arthroscopy becomes a more common procedure, more complications may occur. We present a case of abdominal compartment syndrome resulting from fluid extravasation in a 42-year-old man who underwent routine hip arthroscopy for femoral acetabular impingement. He had not had previous surgeries to that hip, and arthroscopy was performed in the supine position. After adequate distraction, arthroscopy was performed with an automated pressure- and flow-controlled pump with the pressure maintained between 40 and 60 mm Hg. We performed debridement of a degenerative tear of the anterosuperior labrum, removal of a pincer lesion, and a psoas tenotomy through a capsular window. A distended abdomen was noted on drape removal, and the patient required decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. Extravasation of arthroscopy fluid is a potentially devastating complication during hip arthroscopy, and there should be careful monitoring by the surgeons, anesthesiologists, and operating room staff. PMID:20117637

  3. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: abdominal cocoon.

    PubMed

    Tannoury, Jenny N; Abboud, Bassam N

    2012-05-01

    Abdominal cocoon, the idiopathic form of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, is a rare condition of unknown etiology that results in an intestinal obstruction due to total or partial encapsulation of the small bowel by a fibrocollagenous membrane. Preoperative diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion. The early clinical features are nonspecific, are often not recognized and it is difficult to make a definite pre-operative diagnosis. Clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent episodes of small intestinal obstruction combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. The radiological diagnosis of abdominal cocoon may now be confidently made on computed tomography scan. Surgery is important in the management of this disease. Careful dissection and excision of the thick sac with the release of the small intestine leads to complete recovery in the vast majority of cases. PMID:22563185

  4. Endografts, Pressure, and the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm 

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Clark A.

    2010-07-14

    Quick Head of Department, Gerard Cot? May 2009 Major Subject: Biomedical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Endografts, Pressure, and the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. (May 2009) Clark Andrew Meyer, B.S., Texas A&M University Chair.... .......................................................................... 68? Figure 16. Hydraulic diameters (calculated normal to the centerline and normal to axial direction) as functions of axial distance from top of neck. ................ 69? Figure 17. Endograft, with nodes used in hydraulic diameter normal...

  5. Abdominal compartment syndrome from bleeding duodenal diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Groth, Shawn S; Leon, Jorge A; Mohr, William J

    2012-04-01

    Duodenal diverticuli are acquired false diverticuli of unknown etiology. Although mostly asymptomatic, they can occasionally cause upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, rarely with massive bleeding. In this report, we present (to the best of our knowledge) the first reported case of duodenal diverticular bleeding, causing abdominal compartment syndrome. Albeit a rare event, duodenal diverticular bleeding should be included in the differential diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. As with our case, a multidisciplinary approach to managing such patients is crucial. PMID:22787350

  6. Abdominal wall reconstruction using biological tissue grafts.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patricia

    2009-10-01

    Synthetic mesh products have been used to repair abdominal wall defects (eg, hernias) for many years. Biological mesh products are now available as an option when synthetic mesh products are not appropriate. To correctly prepare biological tissue grafts for use in the OR, perioperative nurses must understand the types of grafts available. Biological tissue grafts may be harvested from human, porcine, bovine, or equine hosts and from skin, pericardium, or small intestine submucosa. PMID:19860033

  7. [An unusual cause of severe abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Egger, M; Binder, M; Wewalka, F; Dieplinger, B; Kastler, M; Lenz, K

    2008-09-01

    A 33-year-old previously healthy man was admitted to the hospital with a 6-day history of diffuse abdominal pain and constipation. He was afebrile, looked unwell with a pale skin and displayed an elevated blood pressure. He had no peritoneal sign, and bowel sounds were normal. Blood tests were remarkable for a hematocrit of 26 % and mean cell volume of 83 fl, bilirubin levels were slightly elevated. Abdominal radiographs, abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography showed stool throughout the colon with a non-specific bowel gas pattern. Moreover, colonoscopy and gastroscopy provided no information on the underlying cause of the patient's severe pain. He was treated with fluids and spasmolytic drugs until the result of the urinary porphyrin level was received, which showed an elevated concentration of 1608 microg/d. Consequently, the plasma lead concentration was determined showing an elevated level of 92.3 microg/d. The examination of blood slides revealed erythrocytes with basophile stippling. On physical examination, a bluish discoloration could be seen along the gums. After starting the detoxication therapy with DMPS - 1800 mg p. o. for the first two days followed by 600 mg DMPS daily - the complaints disappeared. In spite of an extensive anamnestic exploration the source of the lead intoxication could not be found until now. PMID:18810673

  8. Abdominal tuberculosis--a disease revived.

    PubMed Central

    Addison, N. V.

    1983-01-01

    Abdominal tuberculosis was common in the United Kingdom in the 18th and 19th centuries and in the first half of the 20th century. During the 1950's the recognition of Crohn's disease, the use of streptomycin and other drugs, and the pasteurisation of milk led to the virtual disappearance of abdominal tuberculosis in the western world. During the last two decades a new type, mycobacterium tuberculosis hominis, has appeared mainly in the immigrant population, especially in those from the Indian subcontinent. A retrospective review of 68 patients with abdominal tuberculosis is presented. The pathology, diagnosis and management of these cases is discussed, together with the differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease. It is suggested that the immigrant brings the disease into the United Kingdom in his mesenteric glands and that the disease is reactivated or 'revived' at some later date due to some modification of the immune process. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6338801

  9. Management of the tense abdomen or difficult abdominal closure after operation for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Björck, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are important clinical problems after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms and are reviewed here. IAP >20 mm Hg occurs in approximately 50% of patients treated with open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair after rupture, and approximately 20% develop organ failure or dysfunction, fulfilling the criteria for ACS. Patients selected for endovascular aneurysm repair are often more hemodynamically stable, perhaps related to not handling the viscera or more favorable anatomy, resulting in less bleeding and, consequently, decreased risk of developing ACS. Centers that treat most patients with endovascular aneurysm repair tend to have the same proportion of ACS as after open repair. There are no randomized data on these aspects. Early nonsurgical therapy can prevent development of ACS. Medical therapy includes neuromuscular blockade and the combination of positive end-expiratory pressure, albumin, and furosemide. This proactive strategy can reduce the number of decompressive laparotomies, an important detail because treatment of ACS with open abdomen is a morbid procedure. When treatment with an open abdomen is necessary, it is important to choose a temporary abdominal closure that maintains sterile conditions during often prolonged treatment. In addition, it should prevent lateralization of the bowel wall and adhesions between the intestines and the bowel wall. Enteroatmospheric fistulae must be prevented. Many alternative methods have been suggested, but we prefer the combination of vacuum-assisted wound closure with mesh-mediated traction, which will be described. PMID:22595480

  10. Morphometric Identification of Queens, Workers and Intermediates in In Vitro Reared Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    A. De Souza, Daiana; Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; De Jong, David; V. Amdam, Gro; S. Gonçalves, Lionel; M. Francoy, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    In vitro rearing is an important and useful tool for honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) studies. However, it often results in intercastes between queens and workers, which are normally are not seen in hive-reared bees, except when larvae older than three days are grafted for queen rearing. Morphological classification (queen versus worker or intercastes) of bees produced by this method can be subjective and generally depends on size differences. Here, we propose an alternative method for caste classification of female honey bees reared in vitro, based on weight at emergence, ovariole number, spermatheca size and size and shape, and features of the head, mandible and basitarsus. Morphological measurements were made with both traditional morphometric and geometric morphometrics techniques. The classifications were performed by principal component analysis, using naturally developed queens and workers as controls. First, the analysis included all the characters. Subsequently, a new analysis was made without the information about ovariole number and spermatheca size. Geometric morphometrics was less dependent on ovariole number and spermatheca information for caste and intercaste identification. This is useful, since acquiring information concerning these reproductive structures requires time-consuming dissection and they are not accessible when abdomens have been removed for molecular assays or in dried specimens. Additionally, geometric morphometrics divided intercastes into more discrete phenotype subsets. We conclude that morphometric geometrics are superior to traditional morphometrics techniques for identification and classification of honey bee castes and intermediates. PMID:25894528

  11. Layer- and direction-specific material properties, extreme extensibility and ultimate material strength of human abdominal aorta and aneurysm: a uniaxial extension study

    E-print Network

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Feng, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Yongxue; Huang, Yuan; Sutcliffe, Michael P. F.; Brown, Adam J.; Jing, Zaiping; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Lu, Qingsheng

    2015-04-24

    of extreme extensibility and ultimate material strength of the tissue are important if rupture is to be modelled. Tissue pieces from 11 abdomen aortic aneurysm (AAA) from patients scheduled for elective surgery and from 8 normal aortic artery (NAA) from...

  12. Layer- and Direction-Specific Material Properties, Extreme Extensibility and Ultimate Material Strength of Human Abdominal Aorta and Aneurysm: A Uniaxial Extension Study.

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Feng, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Yongxue; Huang, Yuan; Sutcliffe, Michael P F; Brown, Adam J; Jing, Zaiping; Gillard, Jonathan H; Lu, Qingsheng

    2015-11-01

    Mechanical analysis has the potential to provide complementary information to aneurysm morphology in assessing its vulnerability. Reliable calculations require accurate material properties of individual aneurysmal components. Quantification of extreme extensibility and ultimate material strength of the tissue are important if rupture is to be modelled. Tissue pieces from 11 abdomen aortic aneurysm (AAA) from patients scheduled for elective surgery and from 8 normal aortic artery (NAA) from patients who scheduled for kidney/liver transplant were collected at surgery and banked in liquid nitrogen with the use of Cryoprotectant solution to minimize frozen damage. Prior to testing, specimen were thawed and longitudinal and circumferential tissue strips were cut from each piece and adventitia, media and thrombus if presented were isolated for the material test. The incremental Young's modulus of adventitia of NAA was direction-dependent at low stretch levels, but not the media. Both adventitia and media had a similar extreme extensibility in the circumferential direction, but the adventitia was much stronger. For aneurysmal tissues, no significant differences were found when the incremental moduli of adventitia, media or thrombus in both directions were compared. Adventitia and media from AAA had similar extreme extensibility and ultimate strength in both directions and thrombus was the weakest material. Adventitia and media from AAA were less extensible compared with those of NAA, but the ultimate strength remained similar. The material properties, including extreme extensibility and ultimate strength, of both healthy aortic and aneurysmal tissues were layer-dependent, but not direction-dependent. PMID:25905688

  13. [Dissecting aneurysm of the thoracic aorta--the value of computed tomography].

    PubMed

    Schurawitzki, H; Imhof, H; Gritzmann, N

    1986-06-01

    For the detection and classification of dissection of the thoracic aorta, in cases where a corresponding tentative diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical and plain thorax radiographs with intravenous contrast medium, computed tomography is the method of choice. In cases in which, primarily, a Type A dissection is suspected, catheter angiography is to be preferred to CT, in spite of being the more invasive method, because it is the only method capable of supplying the information necessary for surgery. In all other cases of dissection of the thoracic aorta computed tomography has the highest clinical-diagnostic value. It furnishes an initial finding on the basis of which the course may be monitored without difficulty where there is a corresponding clinical indication. It is as yet impossible to judge how far routine magnetic resonance imaging will supplant or complement CT in making the initial clinical diagnosis. PMID:3731694

  14. Noninvasive fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic analysis of laser welded aorta and skin tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Alvin; Gayen, Tapan K.; Minko, Glenn; Alimova, Alexandra; Savage, Howard E.; McCormick, Steven A.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2002-05-01

    Laser tissue welding involves the denaturing and partial renaturing of collagen and elastin. Tissues welded with NIR lasers tuned to the 1455 nm water absorption band have demonstrated high tensile strength with minimal collateral damage. To better understand the welding process, welded tissue samples were investigated using fluorescence imaging and Raman spectroscopy. As part of this study, human aorta, and porcine aorta and skin, specimens were investigated. Emission and excitation/emission wavelengths corresponding to tryptophan and collagen emission and slightly weaker emission for wavelengths corresponding to elastin emission. The inner surface an cross-section images of the aortic specimens exhibited a very high degree of uniformity with no indication of the presence of a weld. The Raman spectra from the aortic specimens at the weld site and a few mm away form the weld were very similar. This work indicates the emission and Raman properties of the collagen helix after welding are very similar to native collagen tissue.

  15. An unusual case of retroperitoneal accessory spleen with vascular supply directly from the aorta.

    PubMed

    Souparis, A; Papaziogas, B; Alexandrakis, A; Koutelidakis, J; Paraskevas, G; Papaziogas, T

    2002-08-01

    We report on a case of a retroperitoneal accessory spleen with vascular supply directly from the aorta. A 47-year old woman presented with a six-month history of epigastric pain, intermittent nausea and vomiting. The CT scan of the abdomen revealed the presence of a retroperitoneal tumor between the spleen, left kidney and pancreas. The MR-tomography confirmed the presence of a solid tumor, with vascular supply directly from the aorta. The exploratory laparotomy showed the presence of a well-shaped accessory spleen, which was confirmed by the histological examination of the specimen. The surgeon should be aware of the possible existence of accessory spleens for the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumors. PMID:12145585

  16. Bowel ischemia caused by a giant thrombus in the ascending aorta. A case report.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Dong; Sun, Tu-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Although an ascending aortic thrombus is a rare condition, it can cause serious complications of thromboembolism. Here we present a rare case of a patient who was hospitalized due to ileal arteries embolization caused by emboli from a giant thrombus in the ascending aorta. After 10 days anti-coagulation therapy, we performed a surgery to replace the ascending aorta containing the strip organized thrombus with a synthetic graft. During two years of postoperative follow-up, no recurrence of aortic thrombosis was found. Although the exact cause of this thrombus remains unclear, we believe that it is important to perform a surgery as soon as the presence of an ascending aortic thrombus is confirmed, which could help preventing the major recurrent embolic events. PMID:25298138

  17. ATTENUATION OF REFLECTED WAVES IN MAN DURING RETROGRADE PROPAGATION FROM FEMORAL ARTERY TO PROXIMAL AORTA

    PubMed Central

    Baksi, A John; Davies, Justin E; Hadjiloizou, Nearchos; Baruah, Resham; Unsworth, Beth; Foale, Rodney A; Korolkova, Olga; Siggers, Jennifer H; Francis, Darrel P; Mayet, Jamil; Parker, Kim H; Hughes, Alun D

    2015-01-01

    Background Wave reflection may be an important influence on blood pressure, but the extent to which reflections undergo attenuation during retrograde propagation has not been studied. We quantified retrograde transmission of a reflected wave created by occlusion of the left femoral artery in man. Methods 20 subjects (age 31-83 y; 14 male) underwent invasive measurement of pressure and flow velocity with a sensor-tipped intra-arterial wire at multiple locations distal to the proximal aorta before, during and following occlusion of the left femoral artery by thigh cuff inflation. A numerical model of the circulation was also used to predict reflected wave transmission. Wave reflection was measured as the ratio of backward to forward wave energy (WRI) and the ratio of peak backward to forward pressure (Pb/Pf). Results Cuff inflation caused a marked reflection which was largest 5-10cm from the cuff (change (?) in WRI = 0.50 (95% CI 0.38, 0.62); p<0.001, ?Pb/Pf = 0.23 (0.18 - 0.29); p<0.001). The magnitude of the cuff-induced reflection decreased progressively at more proximal locations and was barely discernible at sites >40cm from the cuff including in the proximal aorta. Numerical modelling gave similar predictions to those observed experimentally. Conclusions Reflections due to femoral artery occlusion are markedly attenuated by the time they reach the proximal aorta. This is due to impedance mismatches of bifurcations traversed in the backward direction. This degree of attenuation is inconsistent with the idea of a large discrete reflected wave arising from the lower limb and propagating back into the aorta. PMID:26436672

  18. Three-dimensional display of the heart, aorta, lungs, and airway using CT

    SciTech Connect

    Fram, E.K.; Godwin, J.D.; Putman, C.E.

    1982-12-01

    In previous studies of human anatomy, three-dimensional display of CT data has required laborious manual boundary tracking, except for high-contrast structures such as the spine. Automated boundary tracking techniques have been extended so that they can function well for both high-contrast and soft-tissue interfaces. These methods have been applied to the in vivo study of human lungs, heart, aorta, and larynx in this paper.

  19. Anatomy of the bovine ascending aorta and brachiocephalic artery found unfavorable for total artificial heart implant.

    PubMed

    Karimov, Jamshid H; Sunagawa, Gengo; Such, Kimberly A; Sale, Shiva; Golding, Leonard A R; Moazami, Nader; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2015-12-01

    The biocompatibility assessment of the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart is an important part of the device developmental program. Surgical and postoperative management are key factors in achieving optimal outcomes. However, the presence of vascular anatomical abnormalities in experimental animal models is often unpredictable and may worsen the expected outcomes. We report a technical impediment encountered during total artificial heart implantation complicated by unfavorable bovine anatomy of the ascending aorta and brachiocephalic arterial trunk. PMID:26105105

  20. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return associated with vascular anomalies of the aorta: multidetector computed tomography findings.

    PubMed

    Bayraktutan, U; Kantarci, M; Olgun, H; Kizrak, Y; Pirimoglu, B

    2012-05-01

    Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is a congenital anomaly that involves drainage of one to three pulmonary veins directly into the right heart or systemic venous system, creating a partial left-to-right shunt. This drainage is associated with cardiac abnormalities such as mitral stenosis and pulmonary stenosis, patent ductus arteriosus, and atrial septal defects. We report a case of PAPVR associated with vascular anomalies of the aorta by multidetector computed tomography in an adult female patient. PMID:22648591

  1. Balloon expandable stents for coarctation of the aorta: review of current status and technical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ebeid, MR

    2003-01-01

    Balloon expandable stents have been used to manage coarctation of the aorta in selected patients with very encouraging results. After the successful use of the Palmaz stents in these lesions newer stents as well as modifications of the Palmaz stents have been introduced to achieve optimal results in these patients. In this review, the older as well as the newer type stents used in coarctation are discussed. Technical considerations to achieve successful stent implantation and choice is outlined. PMID:22368626

  2. Balloon expandable stents for coarctation of the aorta: review of current status and technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Ebeid, Mr

    2003-04-01

    Balloon expandable stents have been used to manage coarctation of the aorta in selected patients with very encouraging results. After the successful use of the Palmaz stents in these lesions newer stents as well as modifications of the Palmaz stents have been introduced to achieve optimal results in these patients. In this review, the older as well as the newer type stents used in coarctation are discussed. Technical considerations to achieve successful stent implantation and choice is outlined. PMID:22368626

  3. Computer-aided patch planning for treatment of complex coarctation of the aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietdorf, Urte; Riesenkampff, Eugénie; Kuehne, Titus; Huebler, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo

    2009-02-01

    Between five and eight percent of all children born with congenitally malformed hearts suffer from coarctations of the aorta. Some severe coarctations can only be treated by surgical repair. Untreated, this defect can cause serious damage to organ development or even lead to death. Patch repair requires open surgery. It can affect patients of any age: newborns with severe coarctation and/or hypoplastic aortic arch as well as older patients with late diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta. Another patient group are patients of varying age with re-coarctation of the aorta or hypoplastic aortic arch after surgical and/or interventional repair. If anatomy is complex and interventional treatment by catheterization, balloon angioplasty or stent placement is not possible, surgery is indicated. The choice of type of surgery depends not only on the given anatomy but also on the experience the surgical team has with each method. One surgical approach is patch repair. A patch of a suitable shape and size is sewed into the aorta to expand the aortic lumen at the site of coarctation. At present, the shape and size of the patch are estimated intra-operatively by the surgeon. We have developed a software application that allows planning of the patch pre-operatively on the basis of magnetic resonance angiographic data. The application determines the diameter of the coarctation and/or hypoplastic segment and constructs a patch proposal by calculating the difference to the normal vessel diameter pre-operatively. Evaluation of MR angiographic datasets from 12 test patients with different kinds of aortic arch stenosis shows a divergence of only (1.5+/-1.2) mm in coarctation diameters between manual segmentations and our approach, with comparable time expenditure. Following this proposal the patch can be prepared and adapted to the patient's anatomy pre-operatively. Ideally, this leads to shorter operation times and a better long-term outcome with a reduced rate of residual stenosis and re-stenosis and aneurysm formation.

  4. Basic fibroblast growth factor increases nitric oxide and endothelin production in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z S; Yang, Y Z; Zhao, W; Pang, Y Z; Liu, N K; Tang, C S

    2000-06-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on aortic production of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin of aorta in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and WKY rats. Rat aortas were cut into vessel slices and incubated with 10 or 100 ng/ml bFGF for 6 hours. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in aortic slices and contents of NO(-)(2) and endothelin in the medium were determined. The results showed that NOS activity in aortic slices of SHR was 17.6% lower than that of WKY (P<0.01). NO(-)(2) and endothelin contents in the medium of SHR aortic slices were 59.7% lower and 37.4% higher than those of WKY aortic slices. Upon the exposure of low and high doses of bFGF, NOS activity in the aorta of SHR was increased by 29.7% and 59.6% (both P<0.01),respectively, while the NO(-)(2) contents in the medium were increased respectively by 28.2% (P<0.05) and 70.5% (P<0.01). Aortic endothelin production was increased by 24.1% and 44.5% (both P<0.01) respectively while the NOS activity in the aorta of WKY was increased by 24.4% and 53.7% (both P<0.01). NO(-)(2) contents in the medium were augmented by 18.8% (P<0.05)and 25.9% (P<0.01), respectively. Aortic endothelin production was increased by 84.1% and 93.1% (both P<0.01). It is concluded that bFGF may modulate the production of NO and endothelin in both SHR and WKY rats. PMID:11956566

  5. Biomechanics of the cardiovascular system: the aorta as an illustratory example

    PubMed Central

    Kassab, Ghassan S

    2006-01-01

    Biomechanics relates the function of a physiological system to its structure. The objective of biomechanics is to deduce the function of a system from its geometry, material properties and boundary conditions based on the balance laws of mechanics (e.g. conservation of mass, momentum and energy). In the present review, we shall outline the general approach of biomechanics. As this is an enormously broad field, we shall consider a detailed biomechanical analysis of the aorta as an illustration. Specifically, we will consider the geometry and material properties of the aorta in conjunction with appropriate boundary conditions to formulate and solve several well-posed boundary value problems. Among other issues, we shall consider the effect of longitudinal pre-stretch and surrounding tissue on the mechanical status of the vessel wall. The solutions of the boundary value problems predict the presence of mechanical homeostasis in the vessel wall. The implications of mechanical homeostasis on growth, remodelling and postnatal development of the aorta are considered. PMID:17015300

  6. Biomechanics of the Ascending Thoracic Aorta: A Clinical Perspective on Engineering Data.

    PubMed

    Emmott, Alexander; Garcia, Justine; Chung, Jennifer; Lachapelle, Kevin; El-Hamamsy, Ismaïl; Mongrain, Rosaire; Cartier, Raymond; Leask, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the ascending thoracic aorta often require prophylactic surgical intervention to resect and replace the aortic wall with a synthetic graft to avoid the risk of dissection or rupture. The main criterion for surgical intervention is the size of the aneurysm, with elective surgery recommended with a maximal aortic diameter of 4.2-5.5 cm depending on valve type and other patient risk factors. Although the risk of dissection and rupture increases with the size of aneurysm, different pathologies, including aortic valve phenotype and connective tissue disorders uniquely influence the mechanical dysfunction of the aortic wall. Dissection and rupture are mechanical modes of failure caused by an inability of the tissue to withstand local tissue stresses. Tensile testing of aortic tissues, therefore, has been used to reveal the mechanical parameters of diseased and healthy tissues to better characterize the mechanical function of aortic tissues in different patient groups. In this review, we highlight the principles and methods of ex vivo tensile analysis as well as the composition and structural properties that contribute to the mechanical behaviour of the ascending aorta. We also present a clinically oriented description of mechanical testing along with insight into the characterization of aneurysm. Finally, we highlight recent advances in echocardiography, computer tomographic angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography that have the potential to measure biomechanical properties noninvasively and therefore help select aortas at risk. PMID:26724509

  7. Increased albumin permeation in eyes, aorta, and kidney of hypertensive rats fed galactose

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, R.G.; LaRose, L.; Chang, K.; Weigel, C.J.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-03-01

    These experiments were undertaken to determine whether ingestion of galactose increases albumin permeation in the vasculature of hypertensive rats. 50% dextrin (control) or 50% galactose diets were fed to unilaterally nephrectomized, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g. Hypertension (systolic pressure >175 mmHg) was induced by weekly IM injections of 25 mg/kg DOCA and 1% saline drinking water; 3 months later /sup 125/I-albumin permeation was assessed in whole eyes, aorta and kidneys. /sup 125/I-albumin permeation was significantly increased in all 3 tissues of hypertensive rats (n = 9) vs controls (n = 9): aorta (3.30 +/- 0.19 (SD) vs 2.87 +/- 0.14), eye (3.15 +/- 0.14 vs 2.59 +/- 0.11), and kidney (6.58 +/- 0.63 vs 3.85 +/- 0.50). Albumin permeation was increased still further in hypertensive rats fed the galactose diet (n = 8): aorta (3.75 +/- 0.38), eye (3.82 +/- 0.17), and kidney (10.74 +/- 3.13). Hypertension +/- galactose feeding had no effect on albumin permeation in lung, skin, or brain. These findings indicate that: (1) hypertension increases albumin permeation in vessels affected by diabetic vascular diseases, and 2) hypertension-induced increases in albumin permeation are increased still further by galactose ingestion, presumably mediated by imbalances in polyol/insitol metabolism (analogous to those induced by diabetes) independent of hyperglycemia and/or insulinopenia.

  8. Pharmacological Studies of Tentacle Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata in Isolated Rat Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beilei; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Zhi; Nie, Fei; Liu, Guoyan; Zheng, Jiemin; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Liming

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish, Cyanea capillata, could cause a dose-dependent increase of systolic blood pressure, which seemed to be the result of direct constriction of vascular smooth muscle (VSM). The aim of this study is to investigate whether TE could induce vasoconstriction in vitro and to explore its potential mechanism. Using isolated aorta rings, a direct contractile response of TE was verified, which showed that TE could induce concentration-dependent contractile responses in both endothelium-intact and -denuded aortas. Interestingly, the amplitude of contraction in the endothelium-denuded aorta was much stronger than that in the endothelium-intact one, implying that TE might also bring a weak functional relaxation in addition to vasoconstriction. Further drug intervention experiments indicated that the functional vasodilation might be mediated by nitric oxide, and that TE-induced vasoconstriction could be attributed to calcium influx via voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs) from the extracellular space, as well as sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), leading to an increase in [Ca2+]c, instead of activation of the PLC/DAG/PKC pathway or the sympathetic nerve system. PMID:23999662

  9. Retained guidewire penetrating through the aorta into the thorax: an unusual cause of recurrent bilateral pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Kim, YongHun; Yu, JunSik; Kim, YoHan; Lee, WooSurng

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous complications of the Seldinger technique have been reported in the literature, only a few complications are related to guidewires. We here report a case of a patient with a guidewire lost and retained in the aorta during vertebral artery stenting. Unfortunately, the guidewire in the aorta was not detected for 5 years, and it penetrated through the aorta into the left thorax, leading to recurrent left pneumothorax. No physician identified the wandering guidewire in the left thorax, and the recurrent left pneumothorax was only managed with closed thoracostomy drainage several times. After 4 months, the patient presented to our hospital with repeated severe chest pain, and newly developed right pneumothorax was diagnosed on chest X-rays. We meticulously evaluated the radiological findings of the other hospitals to identify the cause of the recurrent pneumothorax and discovered that the lost and wandering guidewire had crossed over from the left to the right thorax through the anterior mediastinum. The guidewire was identified as the cause of the recurrent bilateral pneumothorax, and the patient was successfully treated with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery without any events. PMID:26464452

  10. Numerical simulation of left ventricular assist device implantations: comparing the ascending and the descending aorta cannulations.

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, Jean; Malossi, A Cristiano I; Lesinigo, Matteo; Deparis, Simone; Quarteroni, Alfio; von Segesser, Ludwig K

    2013-10-01

    In this work we present numerical simulations of continuous flow left ventricle assist device implantation with the aim of comparing difference in flow rates and pressure patterns depending on the location of the anastomosis and the rotational speed of the device. Despite the fact that the descending aorta anastomosis approach is less invasive, since it does not require a sternotomy and a cardiopulmonary bypass, its benefits are still controversial. Moreover, the device rotational speed should be correctly chosen to avoid anomalous flow rates and pressure distribution in specific location of the cardiovascular tree. With the aim of assessing the differences between these two approaches and device rotational speed in terms of flow rate and pressure waveforms, we set up numerical simulations of network of one-dimensional models where we account for the presence of an outflow cannula anastomosed to different locations of the aorta. Then, we use the resulting network to compare the results of the two different cannulations for several stages of heart failure and different rotational speed of the device. The inflow boundary data for the heart and the cannulas are obtained from a lumped parameters model of the entire circulatory system with an assist device, which is validated with clinical data. The results show that ascending and descending aorta cannulations lead to similar waveforms and mean flow rate in all the considered cases. Moreover, regardless of the anastomosis region, the rotational speed of the device has an important impact on wave profiles; this effect is more pronounced at high RPM. PMID:23701842

  11. Respiratory Displacement of the Thoracic Aorta: Physiological Phenomenon With Potential Implications for Thoracic Endovascular Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Tim Frederik; Tetzlaff, Ralf; Rengier, Fabian; Geisbuesch, Philipp; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Boeckler, Dittmar; Eichinger, Monika; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude and direction of respiratory displacement of the ascending and descending thoracic aorta during breathing maneuvers. In 11 healthy nonsmokers, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging was performed in transverse orientation at the tracheal bifurcation during maximum expiration and inspiration as well as tidal breathing. The magnitude and direction of aortic displacement was determined relatively to resting respiratory position for the ascending (AA) and descending (DA) aorta. To estimate a respiratory threshold for occurrence of distinct respiratory aortic motion, the latter was related to the underlying change in anterior-posterior thorax diameter. Compound displacement between maximum expiration and inspiration was 24.3 {+-} 6.0 mm for the AA in the left anterior direction and 18.2 {+-} 5.5 mm for the DA in the right anterior direction. The mean respiratory thorax excursion during tidal breathing was 8.9 {+-} 2.8 mm. The respiratory threshold, i.e., the increase in thorax diameter necessary to result in respiratory aortic displacement, was estimated to be 15.7 mm. The data suggest that after a threshold of respiratory thorax excursion is exceeded, respiration is accompanied by significant displacement of the thoracic aorta. Although this threshold may not be reached during tidal breathing in the majority of individuals, segmental differences during forced respiration impact on aortic geometry, may result in additional extrinsic forces on the aortic wall, and may be of significance for aortic prostheses designed for thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

  12. [Intra- and inter-specific morphometric variation between Odontophrynus populations (Anura: Cycloramphidae) of central Argentina].

    PubMed

    Grenat, Pablo Raúl; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2012-12-01

    Intra- and inter-specific morphometric variation between Odontophrynus populations (Anura: Cycloramphidae) of central Argentina. Morphometric analyses are particularly important, and for many years they have supported evolutionary and ecological phenomena, and have been useful for the classification of new species, mainly to the lowest taxonomic levels. In order to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism, the intra-specific morphometric variation and the inter-specific morphological differences, we performed morphometric analyses of two morphologically cryptic species, Odontophrynus cordobae (diploid) and O. americanus (tetraploid). For this, we measured 15 morphometric variables on 211 individuals from 18 localities of Córdoba province. We found sexual dimorphism in six and three parameters in O. cordobae and O. americanus, respectively. Diploid and tetraploid males significantly differed in six morphometric variables. Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) including all populations correctly classified a 76.37% of individuals within their respective species. DFA based on four groups (1- allopatric O. cordobae, 2-syntopic O. cordobae; 3- allopatric O. americanus; 4- syntopic O. americanus) accurately classified a 73.45% of individuals within their respective groups. Allopatric individuals of each species and, allopatric and syntopic individuals within each species were clearly segregated. Syntopic individuals of O. cordobae and O. americanus showed the lowest percentages of correct classification. Morphometric differences between sympatric diploids and tetraploids were not greater than those observed in allopatry. These findings deviate from the expected results under the hypothesis of character displacement, and they suggest that external morphological characters would not have a major influence on the recognition and choice of conspecific males by females. PMID:23342513

  13. Protocol for Three-dimensional Confocal Morphometric Analysis of Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Maryam; Rezakhani, Arjang; Roghani, Mehrdad; Joghataei, Mohammad T; Mohseni, Simin

    2015-01-01

    As glial cells in the brain, astrocytes have diverse functional roles in the central nervous system. In the presence of harmful stimuli, astrocytes modify their functional and structural properties, a condition called reactive astrogliosis. Here, a protocol for assessment of the morphological properties of astrocytes is presented. This protocol includes quantification of 12 different parameters i.e. the surface area and volume of the tissue covered by an astrocyte (astrocyte territory), the entire astrocyte including branches, cell body, and nucleus, as well as total length and number of branches, the intensity of fluorescence immunoreactivity of antibodies used for astrocyte detection, and astrocyte density (number/1,000 µm(2)). For this purpose three-dimensional (3D) confocal microscopic images were created, and 3D image analysis software such as Volocity 6.3 was used for measurements. Rat brain tissue exposed to amyloid beta1-40 (A?1-40) with or without a therapeutic intervention was used to present the method. This protocol can also be used for 3D morphometric analysis of other cells from either in vivo or in vitro conditions. PMID:26709729

  14. Morphometrical structure evaluation of long-term manured Ukrainian chernozem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryk, M.; S?owi?ska-Jurkiewicz, A.; Medvedev, V. V.

    2012-04-01

    There was performed an image analysis of the structure of Ukrainian chernozem, which (I) by standard crop rotation was fertilized for 78 years with farm yard manure and (II) by continuous cultivation of sugar beet was not organically fertilized. For the both soils the largest differences were stated in the values of morphometrical parameters related to the soil solid phase element cross-sections. The differences in the parameters for pore cross-sections were much smaller. The soil I was characterized on average with larger macroporosity, larger relative and absolute number of solid phase element cross-sections, and larger relative length of border line between pore and solid phase element cross-sections than the soil II. For the both pedons the pore and solid phase element cross-sections were in general randomly oriented in the soil body. Due to the kneading the pore cross-sections in the superficial layer of the soil after monoculture of sugar beet were oriented horizontally. The soil structure in the corresponding layers of both pedons was to a high degree dissimilar. The largest differences in the arrangement of the soil solid phase and void space occurred in the upper layers.

  15. Reduced cortical thickness in gambling disorder: a morphometric MRI study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2015-12-01

    Gambling disorder has recently been recognized as a prototype 'behavioral addiction' by virtue of its inclusion in the DSM-5 category of 'Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders.' Despite its newly acquired status and prevalence rate of 1-3 % globally, relatively little is known regarding the neurobiology of this disorder. The aim of this study was to explore cortical morphometry in untreated gambling disorder, for the first time. Subjects with gambling disorder (N = 16) free from current psychotropic medication or psychiatric comorbidities, and healthy controls (N = 17), were entered into the study and undertook magnetic resonance imaging (3T MRI). Cortical thickness was quantified using automated segmentation techniques (FreeSurfer), and group differences were identified using permutation cluster analysis, with stringent correction for multiple comparisons. Gambling disorder was associated with significant reductions (average 15.8-19.9 %) in cortical thickness, versus controls, predominantly in right frontal cortical regions. Pronounced right frontal morphometric brain abnormalities occur in gambling disorder, supporting neurobiological overlap with substance disorders and its recent reclassification as a behavioral addiction. Future work should explore the trait versus state nature of the findings and whether similarities exist with other not-yet-reclassified putative behavioral addictions. PMID:25814469

  16. Morphometric Changes of the Corpus Callosum in Congenital Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D. Louis; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Sartori, Giuseppe; Pietrini, Pietro; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender. There was no overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus callosum are in line with the well-described cross-modal functional and structural neuroplastic changes in congenital blindness. PMID:25255324

  17. Functional Morphometric Analysis of the Furcula in Mesozoic Birds

    PubMed Central

    Close, Roger A.; Rayfield, Emily J.

    2012-01-01

    The furcula displays enormous morphological and structural diversity. Acting as an important origin for flight muscles involved in the downstroke, the form of this element has been shown to vary with flight mode. This study seeks to clarify the strength of this form-function relationship through the use of eigenshape morphometric analysis coupled with recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs), including phylogenetic Flexible Discriminant Analysis (pFDA). Additionally, the morphospace derived from the furculae of extant birds is used to shed light on possible flight adaptations of Mesozoic fossil taxa. While broad conclusions of earlier work are supported (U-shaped furculae are associated with soaring, strong anteroposterior curvature with wing-propelled diving), correlations between form and function do not appear to be so clear-cut, likely due to the significantly larger dataset and wider spectrum of flight modes sampled here. Interclavicular angle is an even more powerful discriminator of flight mode than curvature, and is positively correlated with body size. With the exception of the close relatives of modern birds, the ornithuromorphs, Mesozoic taxa tend to occupy unique regions of morphospace, and thus may have either evolved unfamiliar flight styles or have arrived at similar styles through divergent musculoskeletal configurations. PMID:22666324

  18. Morphometric analysis of the Rio Apaporis Caiman (Reptilia, Crocodylia, Alligatoridae).

    PubMed

    Escobedo-Galván, Armando H; Velasco, Julián A; González-Maya, José F; Resetar, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis has been considered by several authors as an extreme of morphological variation within the Caiman crocodilus complex. Here, we evaluate its position in the Caiman crocodilus complex morphospace using morphological traits from head shape. We examined the holotype and seventeen paratypes of Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis Medem 1955 deposited at the Field Museum of Natural History. We performed multivariate morphometric analyses: principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA), based on 21 cranial traits of of C. c. apaporiensis, C. yacare and the C. crocodilus complex (C. c. chiapasius, C. c. fuscus andC. c. crocodilus). We find a notable separation of C.c. apaporiensis from C. yacare and C. crocodilus complex in the morphospace. We suggest that geographic isolation might have driven this morphological separation from the C. crocodilus complex, but further analysis are necessary to confirm whether these differences are related with genetic differentiation within the complex. In addition, we suggest that environmental heterogeneity might drive the evolution of independent lineages within the C. crocodilus complex. PMID:26701577

  19. Morphometric techniques for orientation analysis of karst in northern Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, D.T.; Beck, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    Morphometric techniques for the analysis of karst landscape orientation data based on swallet catchment areas can be highly inadequate. The long axes of catchment areas may not coincide with structural control, especially in regions having very low relief. Better structural correlation was observed using multiply linear trend measurements of closed depressions rather than drainage basins. Trend analysis was performed on four areas, approximately 25 km/sup 2/ each, forming a sequence from the Suwannee River to the Cody Escarpment in northern Florida. This area is a karst plain, mantled by 12 to 25 meters of unconsolidated sands and clays. Structural control was examined by tabulating the azimuths of distinct linear trends as determined from depression shape based on 1:24,000 topographic maps. The topography was characterized by 1872 individual swallet catchment areas or 1457 closed depressions. The common geomorphic technique of analyzing orientation data in 10/sup 0/ increments beginning with O/sup 0/ may yield incorrect peak width and placement. To correctly detect all significant orientation peaks all possible combinations of peak width and placement must be tested. Fifty-five different plots were reviewed and tested for each area.

  20. Morphometric study of cardiac muscle: the problem of tissue shrinkage

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, A.M.; Kriseman, J.; Bishop, S.P.

    1982-03-01

    Comparison of data from morphometric studies dealing with the heart is complicated by the fact that little information dealing with cell size changes during tissue processing is available. To investigate these changes, isolated cardiac myocytes were adhered to glass cover slips of Sykes Moore chambers and photographed after each step of processing for transmission electron microscopy. Six different experiments with a minimum of 10 cells each were followed through the entire procedure after fixation with isoosmolar glutaraldehyde. Cellular dimension changes were determined by tracing individual isolated myocytes after each step of the procedure with a sonic digitizer. Significant cell volume changes occurred after osmium (16 per cent swelling), postosmium wash (10 per cent swelling), and uranyl acetate (25 per cent shrinkage). Hypertonic aldehyde solutions resulted in cellular shrinkage during fixation not found with isotonic solutions. Changes in cell cross-sectional area rather than length were largely responsible for altered cell volumes during any given phase of processing. The results indicate that, although cell volume changes occur during processing, final cell dimensions of embedded cells were not different from unfixed cells. In whole tissue blocks, inclusion of propylene oxide in the procedure resulted in tissue shrinkage which was not observed in isolated myocytes, suggesting that different tissue components react in a variable manner to propylene oxide. After each of the other steps in processing, tissue blocks reacted in a similar manner to the isolated myocytes.

  1. Lupus nephropathy: clinical, immunohistochemistry and quantitative morphometric analysis studies.

    PubMed

    Mangoud, Amal M; Abd, Elbary Eman H; Francis, Magdy R; Zanaty, Mohamed A; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2010-08-01

    Lupus nephritis includes a wide range of parenchymal injuries and severity. Better predictors to outcome are needed for patients newly diagnosed with lupus nephritis, so that an appropriate management strategy may be selected. This study aimed to determine whether the ratio of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) to transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta1) in lupus nephritis could be a prognostic factor for response to therapy with cyclophosphamide and steroids at six months. Also, to determine whether a simple automated system for objective scoring of biopsies of lupus nephritis could be a prognostic factor for response to therapy with cyclophosphamide and steroids at 6 months. Consequently, renal biopsy findings and clinical parameters of thirty parasites-free patients with new onset lupus nephritis were recorded. Histopathologic, clinical, immune-histochemical and morphometric data at baseline served to define the predictive value for outcome after 6 months of therapy. The results showed a significant positive relationship between response to therapy and HGF IS (P= 0.007), HGF ES (P= 0.026), HGF IS/ TGFbeta1 IS ratio (P= 0.022) and HGF ES/ TGFbeta1 ES ratio (P= 0.001). A significant inverse relationship was proved between response to therapy and TGFbeta1 IS (P= 0.025) as well as TGFbeta1 ES (P= 0.017). Also, a significant inverse relationship was present between response to therapy and nuclear index, tubular index and matrix index (P = 0.03, 0.03 and 0.029 respectively). PMID:21246940

  2. Studying Developmental Variation with Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis (GMIA)

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Christine; Metscher, Brian D.; Müller, Gerd B.; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    The ways in which embryo development can vary across individuals of a population determine how genetic variation translates into adult phenotypic variation. The study of developmental variation has been hampered by the lack of quantitative methods for the joint analysis of embryo shape and the spatial distribution of cellular activity within the developing embryo geometry. By drawing from the strength of geometric morphometrics and pixel/voxel-based image analysis, we present a new approach for the biometric analysis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional embryonic images. Well-differentiated structures are described in terms of their shape, whereas structures with diffuse boundaries, such as emerging cell condensations or molecular gradients, are described as spatial patterns of intensities. We applied this approach to microscopic images of the tail fins of larval and juvenile rainbow trout. Inter-individual variation of shape and cell density was found highly spatially structured across the tail fin and temporally dynamic throughout the investigated period. PMID:25500820

  3. The lung of shrews: morphometric estimation of diffusion capacity.

    PubMed

    Gehr, P; Sehovic, S; Burri, P H; Claassen, H; Weibel, E R

    1980-04-01

    The lungs of 16 shrews from 8 species (Sorex minutus, Neomys fodiens, Suncus etruscus, Crocidura russula, C. juvenetae, C. poensis, C. flavescens, C. giffardi) ranging in body weight from 2.2 to 100 g were studied by morphometry in order to compare the structural diffusion capacity for oxygen. DL02, with the oxygen consumption, VO2, measured on the same animals. VO2 was determined by short term measurements using a respirometer. DLO2 was estimated morphometrically. Both parameters demonstrated good coincidence in their allometric behaviour, establishing further progress in structure-function relationship in the respiratory apparatus. Whereas VO2 as well as DLO2 of shrews with a body weight W greater than 5 g follow the same allometric function established for mammals in general, the values for shrews with W less than 5 g exhibit significantly higher values. It appears that the pulmonary gas exchange parenchyma of these smallest mammals is well suited to supply the organism with the comparatively high levels of O2 required by the high metabolic rates, exhibiting a structural adaptation of the lung to higher VO2. PMID:7394364

  4. Abdominal cocoon: idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Frost, Jason H; Price, Elizabeth E

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon, or idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, is a rare condition characterised by the presence of a dense fibrocollagenous membrane partially or totally encapsulating the small bowel leading to recurrent intestinal obstructions. We present the case of a patient who has presented for the fourth time with a small bowel obstruction. Previous laparoscopy revealed a plaque-like reactive process encapsulating much of the small bowel and the liver. After initial adhesiolysis, the patient's obstructions continued to reoccur. Further laparotomy was performed in order to excise the entirety of the cocoon membrane and free up loops of small bowel encapsulated by the process, hopefully preventing future obstructions. PMID:25612756

  5. Standing diagnostic and therapeutic equine abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sarah; Freeman, David

    2014-04-01

    The widespread use of laparoscopy in equine surgery has increased interest in the standing approach to a wide range of procedures typically regarded as feasible only through a ventral midline incision. Although a commonly cited benefit of standing surgery relates to avoiding costs of general anesthesia and risks associated with it, some procedures and horses are not suitable candidates for standing abdominal procedures. Some procedures, such as nephrectomy, colostomy, and closure of the nephrosplenic space, are not only suitable for standing surgery but are performed more easily and more safely through this approach than with general anesthesia. PMID:24680210

  6. Large posterior abdominal masses: computed tomographic localization

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, I.A.; Auh, Y.H.; Rubenstein, W.A.; Whalen, J.P.; Kazam, E.

    1983-10-01

    Large posterior abdominal masses, particularly those in the right upper abdomen, may be difficult to localize correctly into the peritoneal or retroperitoneal compartments. The following signs were found to be reliable CT indicators of retroperitoneal location: obliteration of the perinephric fat outlining the psoas muscle; lateral displacement of the fat outlining the posterior right lobe of the liver; rotation of the intrahepatic portal veins to the left; anterior displacement of the inferior vena cava and renal veins; and anterior displacement of the ascending colon, descending duodenum, or pancreatic head.

  7. [An abdominal aortic aneurysm revealing Behçet's disease].

    PubMed

    Naouli, H; Zrihni, Y; Jiber, H; Bouarhroum, A

    2014-12-01

    Behçet's disease is a vasculitis of unknown origin. Vascular lesions predominantly affect veins. Arterial involvement is rare but usually associated with poor prognosis. Aortic syndromes are usually aneurysmal and occasionally reveal Behçet's disease. We report the case of a 46-year-old man whose Behçet's disease was revealed by a sub-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm in pre-rupture state. The diagnosis of this disease was retained based on clinical, biological and radiological criteria. The surgical procedure consisted in the resection of the aneurysmal sac and the interposition of a prosthetic PTFE tube. PMID:25457357

  8. Pleural ascites without abdominal fluid: surgical considerations.

    PubMed

    Hartz, R S; Bomalaski, J; LoCicero, J; Murphy, R L

    1984-01-01

    The presence of ascitic fluid in the pleural cavity in the absence of peritoneal fluid is rare. We have recently encountered two patients who presented with red-sided pleural effusions and no abdominal ascites. Both patients had diaphragmatic defects: One was an old traumatic diaphragmatic tear and the other a pinpoint spontaneous perforation. These cases are unique because the diagnosis of total ascitic fluid movement across the diaphragm was made during life, and the condition was surgically corrected. The literature concerning transdiaphragmatic movement of fluid is reviewed, and an operative approach is outlined. PMID:6690852

  9. Abdominal integument atrophy after operative procedures

    PubMed Central

    Ko?aczyk, Katarzyna; Lubi?ski, Jan; Bojko, Stefania; Ga?dy?ska, Maria; Bernatowicz, El?bieta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze clinical material concerning postoperative atrophy of abdominal integument. Material and methods The evaluated group consisted of 29 patients with sonographically revealed atrophy of the abdominal wall. Those changes were observed after various surgical procedures: mainly after long, anterolateral laparotomies or several classical operations. Ultrasound examinations up to the year 2000 were performed with analog apparatus, in the latter years only with digital apparatus with linear transducers (7–12 MHz) and sometimes convex type conducers (3–5 MHz). The location, size and intestine stratified wall structure were evaluated. In each case the integument thickness was measured in millimeters in the site of the greatest atrophy and it was compared with the integument thickness from the side that had not been operated which enabled the calculation of the percentage reduction of integument in the area of the scar. Results In 3 patients who underwent several laparotomies there was a total reduction of muscular mass in the operated area. In these cases we stated only skin and slightly echogenic subcutaneous strand; probably corresponding to fibrous tissue – the thickness of integument in this area was in the range from 3 to 8 mm. In the remaining 26 patients the integument atrophy on the scar level included muscles in a greater extent and covered an extensive area after classical urological procedures on the upper urinary tract: after nephrectomy and even ureter stone evacuation or kidney cyst excision by means of classical anterolateral approach with the integument incision on the length of almost 20 cm. Reduction in the integument thickness was observed on the smaller area after classical cholecystectomies, appendectomies and other surgical procedures with the incision across the integument. The integument atrophy in the operated sites expressed in absolute numbers was in the range of 7–20 mm (average 14 mm). These values are markedly lower than the comparative integument thickness on the not operated side: 17–52 mm (average 25.4 mm). The percentage value of the integument thickness reduction oscillated in the range of 32–67% (average 44.2%). In most cases the atrophy involved all layers of the abdominal wall, what demonstrated as regional prominence of the integument, mimicking the presence of hernia. Conclusions Ultrasonography allows precise evaluation of the size and extent of atrophy as well as depiction of other lesions simulating that effect. Establishing the correct diagnosis should prevent the unnecessary reconstructions of the abdominal integument. PMID:26675040

  10. Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP).

    PubMed

    Morton, Darren; Callister, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP), commonly referred to as 'stitch', is an ailment well known in many sporting activities. It is especially prevalent in activities that involve repetitive torso movement with the torso in an extended position, such as running and horse riding. Approximately 70% of runners report experiencing the pain in the past year and in a single running event approximately one in five participants can be expected to suffer the condition. ETAP is a localized pain that is most common in the lateral aspects of the mid abdomen along the costal border, although it may occur in any region of the abdomen. It may also be related to shoulder tip pain, which is the referred site from tissue innervated by the phrenic nerve. ETAP tends to be sharp or stabbing when severe, and cramping, aching, or pulling when less intense. The condition is exacerbated by the postprandial state, with hypertonic beverages being particularly provocative. ETAP is most common in the young but is unrelated to sex or body type. Well trained athletes are not immune from the condition, although they may experience it less frequently. Several theories have been presented to explain the mechanism responsible for the pain, including ischemia of the diaphragm; stress on the supportive visceral ligaments that attach the abdominal organs to the diaphragm; gastrointestinal ischemia or distension; cramping of the abdominal musculature; ischemic pain resulting from compression of the celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament; aggravation of the spinal nerves; and irritation of the parietal peritoneum. Of these theories, irritation of the parietal peritoneum best explains the features of ETAP; however, further investigations are required. Strategies for managing the pain are largely anecdotal, especially given that its etiology remains to be fully elucidated. Commonly purported prevention strategies include avoiding large volumes of food and beverages for at least 2 hours prior to exercise, especially hypertonic compounds; improving posture, especially in the thoracic region; and supporting the abdominal organs by improving core strength or wearing a supportive broad belt. Techniques for gaining relief from the pain during an episode are equivocal. This article presents a contemporary understanding of ETAP, which historically has received little research attention but over the past 15 years has been more carefully studied. PMID:25178498

  11. An extensive DeBakey type IIIb aortic dissection with massive right pleural effusion presenting as abdominal pain and acute anemia: particular case report

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hui-Chun; Wang, Zhen-Qing; Hao, Yuan-Yuan; An, Feng-Ping; Hu, Yu-Chuan; Deng, Rui-Bing; Yu, Peng; Cui, Guang-Bin; Li, He

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 79-year-old male presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain and mild breathlessness, and complicated acute progressive anemia with haemoglobin which declined from 120 g/L to 70 g/L within five days. An urgent computed tomography angiography showed acute thoracic aortic dissection, DeBakey type IIIb, a dissecting aneurysm in the proximal descending thoracic aorta starting immediately after the origin of the left subclavian artery and extending distally below the renal arteries with evidence of rupture into the right pleural cavity for massive pleural effusion. Plasma D-dimer, brain natriuretic peptide and C reactive protein level were elevated. Our case showed that D-dimer can be used as a ‘rule-out’ test in patients with suspected aortic dissection. A raised BNP may exert a protective role through anti-inflammatory endothelial actions in the systemic circulation. PMID:26089858

  12. Serial bedside emergency ultrasound in a case of pediatric blunt abdominal trauma with severe abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Pershad, J; Gilmore, B

    2000-10-01

    We present a case of a teenager with isolated left renal laceration with perirenal hematoma. The patient had presented with severe left upper quadrant (LUQ) pain following blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) sustained during a sledding accident. A screening bedside focused abdominal sonogram for trauma (FAST) rapidly excluded free fluid on two serial examinations, 30 minutes apart. It provided the pediatric emergency physician with a measure of diagnostic confidence that the patient could be safely transported to the CT suite for detailed delineation of his injury. Moreover, narcotic analgesia was liberally administered early in his illness course, without the fear of unmasking potential hypovolemia when it was known that he did not have gross intra-abdominal bleeding on his bedside ultrasound (US). It also provided a working diagnosis of the primary organ of injury. Our hospital, like many pediatric hospitals around the nation, does not have in-house 24-hour radiology support. We suggest that the use of the bedside US be extended to the stable pediatric patient in severe abdominal pain following BAT. It can serve as a valuable, rapid, noninvasive, bedside, easily repeated, fairly accurate triage tool to evaluate pediatric BAT with severe pain. PMID:11063373

  13. Abdominal Pain Associated with an Intra-Abdominal Gonad in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Twiss, Christian; Grasso, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Controversy still surrounds management of cryptorchidism in adults. Options include orchiectomy, orchiopexy, and close observation. What about fertility if orchiectomy is chosen? How is the risk of cancer affected when observation is the choice? Follow the reasoning for the management strategy for this adult presenting with abdominal pain. PMID:16985771

  14. Cost and Reimbursement for Three Fibroid Treatments: Abdominal Hysterectomy, Abdominal Myomectomy, and Uterine Fibroid Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Jay Bussard, Anne; McNeil, Jean; Diamond, James

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. To compare costs and reimbursements for three different treatments for uterine fibroids. Methods. Costs and reimbursements were collected and analyzed from the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital decision support database from 540 women who underwent abdominal hysterectomy (n 299), abdominal myomectomy (n = 105), or uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) (n = 136) for uterine fibroids during 2000-2002. We used the chi-square test and ANOVA, followed by Fisher's Least Significant Difference test, for statistical analysis. Results. The mean total hospital cost (US$) for UFE was $2,707, which was significantly less than for hysterectomy ($5,707) or myomectomy ($5,676) (p < 0.05). The mean hospital net income (hospital net reimbursement minus total hospital cost) for UFE was $57, which was significantly greater than for hysterectomy (-$572) or myomectomy (-$715) (p < 0.05). The mean professional (physician) reimbursements for UFE, hysterectomy, and myomectomy were $1,306, $979, and $1,078, respectively. Conclusion. UFE has lower hospital costs and greater hospital net income than abdominal hysterectomy or abdominal myomectomy for treating uterine fibroids. UFE may be more financially advantageous than hysterectomy or myomectomy for the insurer, hospital, and health care system. Costs and reimbursements may vary amongst different hospitals and regions.

  15. Andrographolide Ameliorates Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression by Inhibiting Inflammatory Cell Infiltration through Downregulation of Cytokine and Integrin Expression.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun; Liu, Zhenjie; Wang, Qiwei; Giles, Jasmine; Greenberg, Jason; Sheibani, Nader; Kent, K Craig; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), characterized by exuberant inflammation and tissue deterioration, is a common aortic disease associated with a high mortality rate. There is currently no established pharmacological therapy to treat this progressive disease. Andrographolide (Andro), a major bioactive component of the herbaceous plant Andrographis paniculata, has been found to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) activity in several disease models. In this study, we investigated the ability of Andro to suppress inflammation associated with aneurysms, and whether it may be used to block the progression of AAA. Whereas diseased aortae continued to expand in the solvent-treated group, daily administration of Andro to mice with small aneurysms significantly attenuated aneurysm growth, as measured by the diminished expansion of aortic diameter (165.68 ± 15.85% vs. 90.62 ± 22.91%, P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that Andro decreased infiltration of monocytes/macrophages and T cells. Mechanistically, Andro inhibited arterial NF-?B activation and reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines [CCL2, CXCL10, tumor necrosis factor ?, and interferon-?] in the treated aortae. Furthermore, Andro suppressed ?4 integrin expression and attenuated the ability of monocytes/macrophages to adhere to activated endothelial cells. These results indicate that Andro suppresses progression of AAA, likely through inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration via downregulation of NF-?B-mediated cytokine production and ?4 integrin expression. Thus, Andro may offer a pharmacological therapy to slow disease progression in patients with small aneurysms. PMID:26483397

  16. Tissue Responses to Stent Grafts with Endo-Exo-Skeleton for Saccular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Il; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; So, Young Ho; Kim, Hyun Beom; Min, Seung-Kee; Park, Jae Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effect of close contact between the stent and the graft on the induction of endothelial covering on the stent graft placed over an aneurysm. Materials and Methods Saccular abdominal aortic aneurysms were made with Dacron patch in eight dogs. The stent graft consisted of an inner stent, a expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft, and an outer stent. After sacrificing the animals, the aortas with an embedded stent graft were excised. The aortas were inspected grossly and evaluated microscopically. Results The animals were sacrificed at two (n = 3), six (n = 3), and eight months (n = 2) after endovascular repair. In two dogs, the aortic lumen was occluded at two months after the placement. On gross inspection of specimens from the other six dogs with a patent aortic lumen, stent grafts placed over the normal aortic wall were covered by glossy white neointima, whereas, stent grafts placed over the aneurysmal aortic wall were covered by brownish neointima. On microscopic inspection, stent grafts placed over the normal aortic wall were covered by thin neointima (0.27 ± 0.05 mm, mean ± standard deviation) with an endothelial layer, and stent grafts placed over the aneurysmal aortic wall were covered by thick neointima (0.62 ± 0.17 mm) without any endothelial lining. Transgraft cell migration at the normal aortic wall was more active than that at the aneurysmal aortic wall. Conclusion Close contact between the stent and the graft, which was achieved with stent grafts with endo-exo-skeleton, could not enhance endothelial covering on the stent graft placed over the aneurysms. PMID:25246823

  17. Early Postoperative Pain After Keyless Abdominal Rope-Lifting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hüsey?no?lu, Ürfettin; Ç?çek, Melek

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery is a novel, gasless, single-incision laparoscopic surgical technique. In this study we aimed to compare the postoperative pain from keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery with carbon dioxide laparoscopy performed for benign ovarian cysts. Methods: During a 20-month period, 77 women underwent surgery for a benign ovarian cyst. Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery and conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy techniques were used for the operations in 32 women and 45 women, respectively. The 2 operative techniques were compared with regard to demographic characteristics; preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data including early postoperative pain scores; and frequency of shoulder pain and analgesic requirements. Results: Data regarding demographic characteristics, preoperative findings, cyst diameters and rupture rates, intra-abdominal adhesions, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay did not differ between groups (P > .05). However, the mean operative and abdominal access times were significantly longer in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Visual analog scale pain scores at initially and at the second, fourth, and 24th hours of the postoperative period were significantly lower in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Similarly, keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery caused significantly less shoulder pain and additional analgesic use (P < .05). Conclusion: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery seems to cause less pain in the management of benign ovarian cysts in comparison with conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy. PMID:25848177

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Vortical Blood Flow in the Thoracic Aorta Using 4D Phase Contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    von Spiczak, Jochen; Crelier, Gerard; Giese, Daniel; Kozerke, Sebastian; Maintz, David; Bunck, Alexander Christian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Phase contrast MRI allows for the examination of complex hemodynamics in the heart and adjacent great vessels. Vortex flow patterns seem to play an important role in certain vascular pathologies. We propose two- and three-dimensional metrics for the objective quantification of aortic vortex blood flow in 4D phase contrast MRI. Materials and Methods For two-dimensional vorticity assessment, a standardized set of 6 regions-of-interest (ROIs) was defined throughout the course of the aorta. For each ROI, a heatmap of time-resolved vorticity values ??=?v? was computed. Evolution of minimum, maximum, and average values as well as opposing rotational flow components were analyzed. For three-dimensional analysis, vortex core detection was implemented combining the predictor-corrector method with ?2 correction. Strength, elongation, and radial expansion of the detected vortex core were recorded over time. All methods were applied to 4D flow MRI datasets of 9 healthy subjects, 2 patients with mildly dilated aorta, and 1 patient with aortic aneurysm. Results Vorticity quantification in the 6 standardized ROIs enabled the description of physiological vortex flow in the healthy aorta. Helical flow developed early in the ascending aorta (absolute vorticity = 166.4±86.4 s-1 at 12% of cardiac cycle) followed by maximum values in mid-systole in the aortic arch (240.1±45.2 s-1 at 16%). Strength, elongation, and radial expansion of 3D vortex cores escalated in early systole, reaching a peak in mid systole (strength = 241.2±30.7 s-1 at 17%, elongation = 65.1±34.6 mm at 18%, expansion = 80.1±48.8 mm2 at 20%), before all three parameters similarly decreased to overall low values in diastole. Flow patterns were considerably altered in patient data: Vortex flow developed late in mid/end-systole close to the aortic bulb and no physiological helix was found in the aortic arch. Conclusions We have introduced objective measures for quantification of vortical flow in 4D phase contrast MRI. Vortex blood flow in the thoracic aorta could be consistently described in all healthy volunteers. In patient data, pathologically altered vortex flow was observed. PMID:26418327

  19. Mesenteric calcification following abdominal stab wound

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Caitlin W.; Velopulos, Catherine G.; Sacks, Justin M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Heterotopic ossification (HO) refers to the formation of bone in non-ossifying tissue. Heterotopic mesenteric ossification is a rare form of HO that is characterized by the formation of an ossifying pseudotumour at the base of the mesentery, usually following abdominal surgery. PRESENTATION OF CASE We describe a case of mesenteric HO in a young male who presented for elective ventral incisional hernia repair following a stab wound to the abdomen requiring exploratory laparotomy 21 months earlier. Preoperative workup was unremarkable, but a hard, bone-like lesion was noted to encircle the base of the mesentery upon entering the abdomen, consistent with HO. The lesion was excised with close margins, and his hernia was repaired without incident. DISCUSSION Traumatic HO describes the ossification of extra-skeletal tissue that specifically follows a traumatic event. It usually occurs adjacent to skeletal tissue, but has been occasionally described in the abdomen as well, usually in patients who suffer abdominal trauma. Overall the prognosis of HO is good, as it is considered a benign lesion with no malignant potential. However, the major morbidity associated with mesenteric HO is bowel obstruction. CONCLUSION The size, location, and symptoms related to our patient's mesenteric HO put him risk for obstruction in the future. As a result, the mass was surgically excised during his ventral hernia repair with good outcomes. PMID:24981165

  20. Abdominal aneurysm and horseshoe kidney: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Bietz, D S; Merendino, K A

    1975-01-01

    Two patients with aortic abdominal aneurysms in association with horseshoe kidney are presented, making a total of 34 cases recorded in the literature. In 29 patients, the aneurysm was resected and five patients were non-resectable. Because of the abnormalities in vascular supply to the abnormal kidney, it is important to diagnose the combination of aneurysm and horseshoe kidney preoperatively. An error in diagnosis should be unusual if an intravenous pyelogram is routinely obtained on all patients. This study may reveal abnormalities which will allow the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney to be made or suspected. If the intravenous pyelogram is abnormal, it should be followed by an aortogram. This may substantiate the diagnosis of aneurysm and horseshoe kidney and provide the necessary detailed information regarding the pattern of blood supply and its relationship to functioning tissue. The amount and disposition of functioning renal parenchyma may be further amplified by renal scan. If this sequence is followed, the unanticipated combination of abdominal aneurysm and horseshoe kidney should be rare. PMID:1130850

  1. Abdominal vascular emergencies: US and CT assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acute vascular emergencies can arise from direct traumatic injury to the vessel or be spontaneous (non-traumatic). The vascular injuries can also be divided into two categories: arteial injury and venous injury. Most of them are life-treatening emergencies, sice they may cause an important ipovolemic shock or severe ischemia in their end organ and require prompt diagnosis and treatment. In the different clinical scenarios, the correct diagnostic approach to vascular injuries isn’t firmly established and advantages of one imaging technique over the other are not obvious. Ultrasound (US) is an easy accessible, safe and non-invasive diagnostic modality but Computed Tomography (CT) with multiphasic imaging study is an accurate modality to evaluate the abdominal vascular injuries therefore can be considered the primary imaging modality in vascular emergencies. The aim of this review article is to illustrate the different imaging options for the diagnosis of abdominal vascular emergencies, including traumatic and non traumatic vessel injuries, focusing of US and CT modalities. PMID:23902665

  2. Constipation Risk in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Sevim; Atar, Nurdan Yalcin; Ozturk, Nilgun; Mendes, Guler; Kuytak, Figen; Bakar, Esra; Dalgiran, Duygu; Ergin, Sumeyra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Problems regarding bowel elimination are quite common in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Objectives: To determine constipation risk before the surgery, bowel elimination during postoperative period, and the factors affecting bowel elimination. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a general surgery ward of a university hospital in Zonguldak, Turkey between January 2013 and May 2013. A total of 107 patients were included in the study, who were selected by convenience sampling. Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS), patient information form, medical and nursing records were used in the study. Results: The mean age of the patients was found to be 55.97 ± 15.74 (year). Most of the patients have undergone colon (37.4%) and stomach surgeries (21.5%). Open surgical intervention (83.2%) was performed on almost all patients (96.3%) under general anesthesia. Patients were at moderate risk for constipation with average scores of 11.71 before the surgery. A total of 77 patients (72%) did not have bowel elimination problem during postoperative period. The type of the surgery (P < 0.05), starting time for oral feeding after the surgery (P < 0.05), and mobilization (P < 0.05) were effective on postoperative bowel elimination. Conclusions: There is a risk for constipation after abdominal surgery. Postoperative practices are effective on the risk of constipation. PMID:26380107

  3. Bat Species Comparisons Based on External Morphology: A Test of Traditional versus Geometric Morphometric Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Schmieder, Daniela A.; Benítez, Hugo A.; Borissov, Ivailo M.; Fruciano, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species – in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) – based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern. PMID:25965335

  4. Morphometric Characterization and Classification of Alluvial Fans in Eastern Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuschner, Annette; Mattern, Frank; van Gasselt, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Morphologic characteristics of alluvial fans are a product of fluvial erosion, transportation and deposition. Consequently, fans have been described and defined on the basis of their shape, their composition, conditions and processes under which they from, their so-called "controlling factors", and their geomorphic and tectonic settings. The aim of our study is to reconstruct the morphologic evolution and to relate it to past and present climate conditions. In order to achieve this, we first characterize alluvial fans based on their climatic settings and conditions and classify them accordingly using satellite image data and digital elevation models. For mapping of different alluvial fan bodies multispectral images of the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) with a scale of 15-30 m/px were utilized. For the detection of morphometric parameters as input data for subsequent hydrological studies digital terrain model data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the ASTER GDEM with a scale of 90 m/px and 30m, respectively, were used. Using these datasets morphological characteristics, such as sizes of drainage basins, transport areas and areas of deposition derived from spatial semi-automatic analysis, have been computed. The area of Muscat at the Oman Mountains has been selected as a study area because of its size, accessibility and climate conditions and it is considered well-suited for studying the development of alluvial fans and their controlling factors. The Oman Mountains are well-known for the world's largest intact and best exposed obducted ophiolite complex, the Semail Ophiolite. They are today subjected to a mild desert climate (Bwh), influenced by the Indian Ocean but they have experienced extensive pluvial periods in the geologic past. Formation of alluvial fans was, therefore, likely triggered by the interplay of increased sediment production caused by high rainfalls with enhanced erosion of hillslopes and transport rates during pluvial periods. Typical morphometric parameters controlled by hydrological conditions are sizes of catchment areas, the morphometry of associated rivers and slope angles as well as sizes of alluvial fans. In order to distinguish the catchment areas, semi-automatized spatial analyses based on DEM data were carried out within a commercial GIS environment. Our analyses generally verify that there is a positive correlation between, e.g., fan areas and sizes of catchment areas as well as between fan areas and lengths of valley lines of associated rivers. Furthermore, our analyses show a negative correlation between average fan slopes and sizes of catchment areas. The observations are in good agreement with previous analyses from other areas we conducted. The applied methodology has shown to be adequate to be compared to and combined with future field investigations. Flow events are dominant in fan evolution, but the way in which alluvial fan systems responded to fluvial environmental conditions differs between systems under different climate conditions. We compared our results with data from other places located in different climate zones around the world. This allows us to constrain boundary conditions and their potential influence on shapes in a more efficient way.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 augments angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms in male apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Arsenescu, Violeta; Arsenescu, Razvan; Parulkar, Madhura; Karounos, Michael; Zhang, Xuan; Baker, Nicki; Cassis, Lisa A.

    2011-11-15

    Infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) to hyperlipidemic mice augments atherosclerosis and causes formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Each of these AngII-induced vascular pathologies exhibit pronounced inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated that coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote inflammation in endothelial cells and adipocytes, two cell types implicated in AngII-induced vascular pathologies. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that administration of PCB77 to male apolipoprotein E (ApoE) -/- mice promotes AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. Male ApoE-/- mice were administered vehicle or PCB77 (49 mg/kg, i.p.) during week 1 and 4 (2 divided doses/week) of AngII infusion. Body weights and total serum cholesterol concentrations were not influenced by administration of PCB77. Systolic blood pressure was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (156 {+-} 6 vs 137 {+-} 5 mmHg, respectively). The percentage of aortic arch covered by atherosclerotic lesions was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (2.0 {+-} 0.4 vs 0.9 {+-} 0.1%, respectively). Lumen diameters of abdominal aortas determined by in vivo ultrasound and external diameters of excised suprarenal aortas were increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle. In addition, AAA incidence increased from 47 to 85% in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77. Adipose tissue in close proximity to AAAs from mice administered PCB77 exhibited increased mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines and elevated expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen, angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1aR)). These results demonstrate that PCB77 augments AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB77) promotes AngII-induced hypertension. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCB77 augments AngII-induced atherosclerosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCB77 promotes AngII-induced AAA formation and rupture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCB77 promotes inflammation in periaorticadipose tissue surrounding AAAs.

  6. Stereological and Morphometric Analysis of MRI Chiari Malformation Type-1

    PubMed Central

    Alkoç, Ozan Alper; Songur, Ahmet; Eser, Olcay; Toktas, Muhsin; Esi, Ertap; Haktanir, Alpay

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aimed to investigate the underlying ethiological factors in chiari malformation (CM) type-I (CMI) via performing volumetric and morphometric length-angle measurements. Methods A total of 66 individuals [33 patients (20-65 years) with CMI and 33 control subjects] were included in this study. In sagittal MR images, tonsillar herniation length and concurrent anomalies were evaluated. Supratentorial, infratentorial, and total intracranial volumes were measured using Cavalieri method. Various cranial distances and angles were used to evaluate the platybasia and posterior cranial fossa (PCF) development. Results Tonsillar herniation length was measured 9.09±3.39 mm below foramen magnum in CM group. Tonsillar herniation/concurrent syringomyelia, concavity/defect of clivus, herniation of bulbus and fourth ventricle, basilar invagination and craniovertebral junction abnormality rates were 30.3, 27, 18, 2, 3, and 3 percent, respectively. Absence of cisterna magna was encountered in 87.9% of the patients. Total, IT and ST volumes and distance between Chamberlain line and tip of dens axis, Klaus index, clivus length, distance between internal occipital protuberance and opisthion were significantly decreased in patient group. Also in patient group, it was found that Welcher basal angle/Boogard angle increased and tentorial slope angle decreased. Conclusion Mean cranial volume and length-angle measurement values significantly decreased and there was a congenital abnormality association in nearly 81.5 percent of the CM cases. As a result, it was concluded that CM ethiology can be attributed to multifactorial causes. Moreover, congenital defects can also give rise to this condition. PMID:26713146

  7. A comparative analysis of spindle morphometrics across metazoans.

    PubMed

    Crowder, Marina E; Strzelecka, Magdalena; Wilbur, Jeremy D; Good, Matthew C; von Dassow, George; Heald, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Cell division in all eukaryotes depends on function of the spindle, a microtubule-based structure that segregates chromosomes to generate daughter cells in mitosis or haploid gametes in meiosis. Spindle size adapts to changes in cell size and shape, which vary dramatically across species and within a multicellular organism, but the nature of scaling events and their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Cell size variations are most pronounced in early animal development, as egg diameters range from tens of microns up to millimeters across animal phyla, and decrease several orders of magnitude during rapid reductive divisions. During early embryogenesis in the model organisms X. laevis and C. elegans, the spindle scales with cell size [1, 2], a phenomenon regulated by molecules that modulate microtubule dynamics [3-6], as well as by limiting cytoplasmic volume [7, 8]. However, it is not known to what extent spindle scaling is conserved across organisms and among different cell types. Here we show that in a range of metazoan phyla, mitotic spindle length decreased with cell size across an ?30-fold difference in zygote size. Maximum spindle length varied, but linear spindle scaling occurred similarly in all species once embryonic cell diameter reduced to 140 ?m. In contrast, we find that the female meiotic spindle does not scale as closely to egg size, adopting a more uniform size across species that most likely reflects its specialized function. Our analysis reveals that spindle morphometrics change abruptly, within one cell cycle, at the transition from meiosis to mitosis in most animals. PMID:26004761

  8. Morphometric analysis of immunoselection against hyperploid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bloy, Norma; Sauvat, Allan; Chaba, Kariman; Buqué, Aitziber; Humeau, Juliette; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Bui, Jack; Kepp, Oliver; Kroemer, Guido; Senovilla, Laura

    2015-12-01

    An at least transient increase of ploidy, usually by whole genome duplication, is a frequent event in oncogenesis, explaining the cytogenetic features of at least 40% of solid cancers. Here, we show that fibrosarcomas induced by the carcinogen methylcholanthrene (MCA) are distinct with respect to their ploidy status when they arise in immunocompetent wild type versus severely immunodeficient Rag2-/-?c-/- mice. MCA-induced fibrosarcomas are particularly hyperploid if they develop in an immunodeficient setting, correlating with higher DNA content, increased nuclear surface, as well as hyperphosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?), a biomarker indicating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Upon transfer of such cells into wild type mice, such hyperploid, ER-stressed cells (that originated in Rag2-/-?c-/- mice) fail to proliferate and actually induce a protective anticancer immune response. In contrast, such cells do form tumors in Rag2-/-?c-/- recipients (which lack T, B and NK cells) as well as in Rag2-/- recipients (which only lack T and B lymphocytes) and conserve their hyperploidy as well as eIF2? hyperphosphorylation. To measure these parameters, we developed a morphometric analysis tool that is applicable to immunohistochemistry of formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. This software automatically identifies and quantifies the surface of nuclei and determines the intensity of eIF2? phosphorylation within a perinuclear region of interest. Comparative analyses performed on cultured cells and tissue sections validated the accuracy of this method, which can be used to investigate ploidy and ER stress in cancers in situ. PMID:26517677

  9. Distinguishing Morphotypes of Foraminifera Orbulina Universa Using Shell Morphometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, B. J.; Thunell, R.

    2014-12-01

    Several recent genetic studies have revealed that many morphologically defined planktonic foraminiferal species contain multiple distinct cryptic or pseudocryptic genetic variants. In some cases, such as with the genetic variants of Globigerinoides ruber, past taxonomic "lumping" may be easily revised within the framework of the morphospecies concept. However, some planktonic foraminiferal cryptic species are not easily differentiated from one another based on identifiable morphological differences, as is the case with Orbulina universa cryptic species (Morard et al., 2009). Based on recent findings, it is believed that several of these O. universa cryptic species differ in their habitat preferences (Darling et al., 1999,2000; de Vargas et al., 1999, 2001), and the lumping of these cryptic species could possibly account for a significant amount of the noise observed in various paleoclimate records derived from this species (Kucera and Darling, 2002). The current study uses foraminiferal morphometrics (area density, Marshall et al., 2013, thickness and weight-diameter realtionships) to identify distinct groupings of individual Orbulina universa specimens collected from sediment trap samples in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela. The study reveals three distinct groups of individuals, varying in their test thicknesses and pore space distribution, which likely correspond to the previously identified cryptic species of O. universa. We find significant differences in the isotopic compositions of these groupings - suggesting that the identified morphotypes differ in their habitat preferences. These morphotypes also exhibit different relationships with the measured hydrographic parameters and their relative distribution can be linked to changes in upwelling and non-upwelling hydrographic regimes. We agree with the results of previous studies that suggest different cryptic species should not be treated as ecophenotypic variants and need to be distinguished from one another during proxy development and application.

  10. Missing data estimation in morphometrics: how much is too much?

    PubMed

    Clavel, Julien; Merceron, Gildas; Escarguel, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    Fossil-based estimates of diversity and evolutionary dynamics mainly rely on the study of morphological variation. Unfortunately, organism remains are often altered by post-mortem taphonomic processes such as weathering or distortion. Such a loss of information often prevents quantitative multivariate description and statistically-controlled comparisons of extinct species based on morphometric data. A common way to deal with missing data involves imputation methods that directly fill the missing cases with model estimates. Over the last years, several empirically-determined thresholds for the maximum acceptable proportion of missing values have been proposed in the literature, whereas other studies showed that this limit actually depends on various properties of the study data set and of the selected imputation method, and is by no way generalizable. We evaluate the relative performances of seven multiple imputation (MI) techniques through a simulation-based analysis under three distinct patterns of missing data distribution. Overall, Fully Conditional Specification and Expectation-Maximization algorithms provide the best compromises between imputation accuracy and coverage probability. MI techniques appear remarkably robust to the violation of basic assumptions such as the occurrence of taxonomically or anatomically biased patterns of missing data distribution, making differences in simulation results between the three patterns of missing data distribution much smaller than differences between the individual MI techniques. Based on these results, rather than proposing a new (set of) threshold value(s), we develop an approach combining the use of MIs with procrustean superimposition of principal component analysis results, in order to directly visualize the effect of individual missing data imputation on an ordinated space. We provide an R function for users to implement the proposed procedure. PMID:24335428

  11. Tensor fascia lata musculocutaneous flap for abdominal wall reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Peled, I.J.; Kaplan, H.Y.; Herson, M.; Wexler, M.R.

    1983-08-01

    We report a case of abdominal wall reconstruction following excision of irradiated skin and a ventral hernia. A very large tensor fascia lata musculocutaneous flap was used with good results. The anatomical features of this flap make it an excellent method of abdominal wall reconstruction.

  12. Particle Image Velocimetry measurements in an abdominal aortic aneurysm model

    E-print Network

    Papaharilaou, Yannis

    Particle Image Velocimetry measurements in an abdominal aortic aneurysm model Ch. Stamatopoulos1 School, Univ. of Crete, Greece Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an abnormal dilatation of the aortic by the flow rate ratio during the cycle. a b c Fig.2 Measured intra-aneurysmal flow patterns with: zero flow

  13. Simulation of ultrasonic pulse propagation through the abdominal wall

    E-print Network

    Mast, T. Douglas

    Simulation of ultrasonic pulse propagation through the abdominal wall T. Douglas Mast,a) Laura M 1997 Ultrasonic pulse propagation through the human abdominal wall has been simulated using a model characteristics of ultrasonic wavefront distortion in vivo. However, quantitative agreement was limited by the two

  14. Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion.

    PubMed

    Lo, Samuel T W; Leung, Siu Lan; Tang, Chung Ngai

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion is extremely rare. We present a case of ingested fish bone complicated with self-sealing small bowel perforation and abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis. Following principles of necrotising fasciitis, a high index of suspicion led to early diagnosis and early treatment. The patient enjoyed a good recovery. PMID:26163558

  15. 77 FR 59928 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...Industry on Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability...entitled ``Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment...treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs). Specifically, this...

  16. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient

    PubMed Central

    kollias, S.; Stampolidis, N.; kourakos, P.; Mantzari, E.; Koupidis, S.; Tsaousi, S.; Dimitrouli, A.; Atiyeh, B.; Castana, O.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  17. Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in a severely burned patient.

    PubMed

    Kollias, S; Stampolidis, N; Kourakos, P; Mantzari, E; Koupidis, S; Tsaousi, S; Dimitrouli, A; Atiyeh, B; Castana, O

    2015-03-31

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when increasing intra abdominal-pressure (IAP) reduces blood flow to abdominal organs. This results in impairment of pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, central nervous system and gastro-intestinal (gi) function, causing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. ACS generally occurs in patients who are critically ill due to any of a wide variety of medical and surgical conditions. it has been recently described as a rare complication of burn injury. it is fundamental to: 1) recognize IAP and ACS; 2) resuscitate effectively; and 3) prevent the development IAP-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. We present our recent experience with one patient suffering from ACS secondary to burn injury and the physiologic results of abdominal wall escharotomy. PMID:26668555

  18. Abdominal aortic aneurysms and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pafili, Kalliopi; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Papanas, Nikolaos; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that risk profiles differ between coronary artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, diabetes mellitus (DM) appears to be negatively associated with AAA formation. The underlying mechanisms for this negative relationship are far from defined, but may include: increased arterial wall matrix formation via advanced glycation end products; suppression of plasmin and reduction of levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and 9; diminished aortic wall macrophage infiltration, elastolysis and neovascularization. In addition, the effect of pharmacological agents used for the treatment of patients with DM on AAA formation has been studied with rather controversial results. Statins, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, fenofibrate, antibiotics and some hypoglycemic agents are beginning to be appreciated for a potential modest protection from AAAs, but further studies are needed. PMID:26440573

  19. Endovascular grafts for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Johnny; Lachat, Mario; Veith, Frank J; Wanhainen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    During the last two decades, endovascular technology has revolutionized the management of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Today, endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is the treatment of choice for the majority of patients with an AAA. Randomized controlled trials provide robust evidence for the indication of AAA repair and the rationale for the use of EVAR in selected patients. However, despite that, practice varies and several areas need further elucidation. Important future challenges and areas of research include the role of medical therapy in AAA, whether the indication for repair should be any different in women and in the elderly, and long-term follow-up of patients undergoing complex EVAR with adjuncts, both for elective treatment and for ruptured AAA. Continuous rapid technical and clinical development is to be expected. In this paper, we review the current practice and evidence of stenting in AAA. PMID:26543044

  20. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: an autoimmune disease?

    PubMed

    Jagadesham, Vamshi P; Scott, D Julian A; Carding, Simon R

    2008-12-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a multifactorial degenerative vascular disorder. One of the defining features of the pathophysiology of aneurysmal disease is inflammation. Recent developments in vascular and molecular cell biology have increased our knowledge on the role of the adaptive and innate immune systems in the initiation and propagation of the inflammatory response in aortic tissue. AAAs share many features of autoimmune disease, including genetic predisposition, organ specificity and chronic inflammation. Here, this evidence is used to propose that the chronic inflammation observed in AAAs is a consequence of a dysregulated autoimmune response against autologous components of the aortic wall that persists inappropriately. Identification of the molecular and cellular targets involved in AAA formation will allow the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of AAA. PMID:18980864

  1. Scaffold-Free Tubular Tissues Created by a Bio-3D Printer Undergo Remodeling and Endothelialization when Implanted in Rat Aortae

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Manabu; Nakayama, Koichi; Noguchi, Ryo; Kamohara, Keiji; Furukawa, Kojirou; Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Toda, Shuji; Oyama, Jun-ichi; Node, Koichi; Morita, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Background Small caliber vascular prostheses are not clinically available because synthetic vascular prostheses lack endothelial cells which modulate platelet activation, leukocyte adhesion, thrombosis, and the regulation of vasomotor tone by the production of vasoactive substances. We developed a novel method to create scaffold-free tubular tissue from multicellular spheroids (MCS) using a “Bio-3D printer”-based system. This system enables the creation of pre-designed three-dimensional structures using a computer controlled robotics system. With this system, we created a tubular structure and studied its biological features. Methods and Results Using a “Bio-3D printer,” we made scaffold-free tubular tissues (inner diameter of 1.5 mm) from a total of 500 MCSs (2.5× 104 cells per one MCS) composed of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (40%), human aortic smooth muscle cells (10%), and normal human dermal fibroblasts (50%). The tubular tissues were cultured in a perfusion system and implanted into the abdominal aortas of F344 nude rats. We assessed the flow by ultrasonography and performed histological examinations on the second (n = 5) and fifth (n = 5) day after implantation. All grafts were patent and remodeling of the tubular tissues (enlargement of the lumen area and thinning of the wall) was observed. A layer of endothelial cells was confirmed five days after implantation. Conclusions The scaffold-free tubular tissues made of MCS using a Bio-3D printer underwent remodeling and endothelialization. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanism of endothelialization and its function, as well as the long-term results. PMID:26325298

  2. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  3. Passive mechanical properties of the guinea pig aorta and portal vein: a comparison in the low-frequency range.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, N

    1997-06-01

    The study was carried out to determine the differences in the low-frequency dynamic mechanical properties of the guinea pig aorta and portal vein. Experiments were performed at five passive load levels in the aorta and at four levels in the portal vein. Sudden stretches 65 s in duration were imposed on the muscles, and the resulting force responses were recorded. After the experiments, the Fourier transformations of the force responses and the length perturbations were calculated. The results of the transformation were used to find the dynamic stiffness values in the range of 0-3 Hz. The quotient of the dynamic to the static stiffness (Ed/Es) obtained for the aorta and portal vein was the higher the higher was the frequency. At a given frequency and load level, the quotient Ed/Es was significantly greater for the portal vein than that for the aorta. Furthermore, the quotient value obtained for the portal vein varied with the passive load, whereas the same quotient obtained for the aorta did not vary significantly with the load levels. The phase difference between force and length was small and constant over the frequency range of 0-3 Hz, in both vessels. The differences in the dynamic characteristics are discussed in relation to the shortening capacity of the muscle cells in the two vessels. PMID:9437255

  4. Vascular Mechanics in Decellularized Aortas and Coronary Resistance Microvessels in Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice.

    PubMed

    Anghelescu, Mircea; Tonniges, Jeffrey R; Calomeni, Ed; Shamhart, Patricia E; Agarwal, Gunjan; Gooch, Keith J; Trask, Aaron J

    2015-11-01

    We previously reported differences in stiffness between macro- and micro-vessels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this study was to define the mechanical properties of the ECM independent of vascular cells in coronary resistance micro-vessels (CRMs) and macro-vessels (aorta) in control Db/db and T2DM db/db mice. Passive vascular remodeling and mechanics were measured in both intact and decellularized CRMs and aortas from 0 to 125 mmHg. We observed no differences in intact control and diabetic aortic diameters, wall thicknesses, or stiffnesses (p > 0.05). Aortic decellularization caused a significant increase in internal and external diameters and incremental modulus over a range of pressures that occurred to a similar degree in T2DM. Differences in aortic diameters due to decellularization occurred at lower pressures (0-75 mmHg) and converged with intact aortas at higher, physiological pressures (100-125 mmHg). In contrast, CRM decellularization caused increased internal diameter and incremental modulus only in the db/db mice, but unlike the aorta, the intact and decellularized CRM curves were more parallel. These data suggest that (1) micro-vessels may be more sensitive to early adverse consequences of diabetes than macro-vessels and (2) the ECM is a structural limit in aortas, but not CRMs. PMID:25986954

  5. Endovascular retrieval of an irrigation cannula from the thoracic aorta following cardiac surgery: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Biju K.; Elmore, James R.; Garvin, Robert P.; Ryer, Evan J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endovascular techniques to retrieve intravascular foreign bodies are a necessary component of the Vascular surgeon's skill set. We report the successful retrieval of an embolized irrigation cannula from the thoracic aorta following aortic valve replacement. Presentation of case The patient is an 81 year old male who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and aortic valve replacement. Prior to closure, the aortotomy was irrigated with heparinized saline using a syringe with an olive tip irrigation cannula. When the syringe was handed back to the nursing staff, the tip was noted to be missing but could not be found. Prior to closure of the sternum, the field was searched again for the tip and thus the chest was closed. The missing instrument then prompted an intraoperative chest radiograph that demonstrated a metal irrigation cannula superimposed on the cardiac silhouette. Additionally, a transesophageal echocardiogram was performed, which demonstrated the irrigation cannula within the descending thoracic aorta. Right common femoral artery was accessed and a thoracic aortogram was performed demonstrating the cannula to be lodged in the descending thoracic aorta. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was performed to exclude an aortic abnormality preventing the caudad migration of the cannula. No aortic pathology was identified. A tri-lobed snare was used to grasp the cannula at its tip and withdrawn into the right external iliac artery. The cannula was successfully removed through a transverse arteriotomy in the distal right external iliac artery. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion Endovascular retrieval of intravascular foreign bodies is minimally invasive, relatively simple, and carries minimal morbidity compared to conventional open surgical techniques. This unusual case demonstrates the importance of a working knowledge of techniques and instruments requisite for retrieval of intravascular foreign bodies PMID:26521199

  6. Relaxation of rat aorta by farrerol correlates with potency to reduce intracellular calcium of VSMCs.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaojiang; Hou, Xiaomin; Zhang, Mingsheng; Liang, Taigang; Zhi, Jianmin; Han, Lingge; Li, Qingshan

    2014-01-01

    Farrerol, isolated from Rhododendron dauricum L., has been proven to be an important multifunctional physiologically active component, but its vasoactive mechanism is not clear. The present study was performed to observe the vasoactive effects of farrerol on rat aorta and to investigate the possible underlying mechanisms. Isolated aortic rings of rat were mounted in an organ bath system and the myogenic effects stimulated by farrerol were studied. Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]in) was measured by molecular probe fluo-4-AM and the activities of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (LVGC) were studied with whole-cell patch clamp in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The results showed that farrerol significantly induced dose-dependent relaxation on aortic rings, while this vasorelaxation was not affected by NG-nitro-l-arginine methylester ester or endothelium denudation. In endothelium-denuded aortas, farrerol also reduced Ca2+-induced contraction on the basis of the stable contraction induced by KCl or phenylephrine (PE) in Ca2+-free solution. Moreover, after incubation with verapamil, farrerol can induce relaxation in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted by PE, and this effect can be enhanced by ruthenium red, but not by heparin. With laser scanning confocal microscopy method, the farrerol-induced decline of [Ca2+]in in cultured VSMCs was observed. Furthermore, we found that farrerol could suppress Ca2+ influx via LVGC by patch clamp technology. These findings suggested that farrerol can regulate the vascular tension and could be developed as a practicable vasorelaxation drug. PMID:24747597

  7. Iterative Otsu's method for OCT improved delineation in the aorta wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Daniel; Real, Eusebio; Val-Bernal, José F.; Revuelta, José M.; Pontón, Alejandro; Calvo Díez, Marta; Mayorga, Marta; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2015-07-01

    Degradation of human ascending thoracic aorta has been visualized with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT images of the vessel wall exhibit structural degradation in the media layer of the artery, being this disorder the final trigger of the pathology. The degeneration in the vessel wall appears as low-reflectivity areas due to different optical properties of acidic polysaccharides and mucopolysaccharides in contrast with typical ordered structure of smooth muscle cells, elastin and collagen fibers. An OCT dimension indicator of wall degradation can be generated upon the spatial quantification of the extension of degraded areas in a similar way as conventional histopathology. This proposed OCT marker can offer in the future a real-time clinical perception of the vessel status to help cardiovascular surgeons in vessel repair interventions. However, the delineation of degraded areas on the B-scan image from OCT is sometimes difficult due to presence of speckle noise, variable signal to noise ratio (SNR) conditions on the measurement process, etc. Degraded areas can be delimited by basic thresholding techniques taking advantage of disorders evidences in B-scan images, but this delineation is not optimum in the aorta samples and requires complex additional processing stages. This work proposes an optimized delineation of degraded areas within the aorta wall, robust to noisy environments, based on the iterative application of Otsu's thresholding method. Results improve the delineation of wall anomalies compared with the simple application of the algorithm. Achievements could be also transferred to other clinical scenarios: carotid arteries, aorto-iliac or ilio-femoral sections, intracranial, etc.

  8. An abdominal aortic aneurysm segmentation method: Level set with region and statistical information

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuge Feng; Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Sun Shaohua; Napel, Sandy

    2006-05-15

    We present a system for segmenting the human aortic aneurysm in CT angiograms (CTA), which, in turn, allows measurements of volume and morphological aspects useful for treatment planning. The system estimates a rough 'initial surface', and then refines it using a level set segmentation scheme augmented with two external analyzers: The global region analyzer, which incorporates a priori knowledge of the intensity, volume, and shape of the aorta and other structures, and the local feature analyzer, which uses voxel location, intensity, and texture features to train and drive a support vector machine classifier. Each analyzer outputs a value that corresponds to the likelihood that a given voxel is part of the aneurysm, which is used during level set iteration to control the evolution of the surface. We tested our system using a database of 20 CTA scans of patients with aortic aneurysms. The mean and worst case values of volume overlap, volume error, mean distance error, and maximum distance error relative to human tracing were 95.3%{+-}1.4% (s.d.); worst case=92.9%, 3.5%{+-}2.5% (s.d.); worst case=7.0%, 0.6{+-}0.2 mm (s.d.); worst case=1.0 mm, and 5.2{+-}2.3mm (s.d.); worstcase=9.6 mm, respectively. When implemented on a 2.8 GHz Pentium IV personal computer, the mean time required for segmentation was 7.4{+-}3.6min (s.d.). We also performed experiments that suggest that our method is insensitive to parameter changes within 10% of their experimentally determined values. This preliminary study proves feasibility for an accurate, precise, and robust system for segmentation of the abdominal aneurysm from CTA data, and may be of benefit to patients with aortic aneurysms.

  9. Computational Growth and Remodeling of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Constrained by the Spine.

    PubMed

    Farsad, Mehdi; Zeinali-Davarani, Shahrokh; Choi, Jongeun; Baek, Seungik

    2015-09-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) evolve over time, and the vertebral column, which acts as an external barrier, affects their biomechanical properties. Mechanical interaction between AAAs and the spine is believed to alter the geometry, wall stress distribution, and blood flow, although the degree of this interaction may depend on AAAs specific configurations. In this study, we use a growth and remodeling (G&R) model, which is able to trace alterations of the geometry, thus allowing us to computationally investigate the effect of the spine for progression of the AAA. Medical image-based geometry of an aorta is constructed along with the spine surface, which is incorporated into the computational model as a cloud of points. The G&R simulation is initiated by local elastin degradation with different spatial distributions. The AAA-spine interaction is accounted for using a penalty method when the AAA surface meets the spine surface. The simulation results show that, while the radial growth of the AAA wall is prevented on the posterior side due to the spine acting as a constraint, the AAA expands faster on the anterior side, leading to higher curvature and asymmetry in the AAA configuration compared to the simulation excluding the spine. Accordingly, the AAA wall stress increases on the lateral, posterolateral, and the shoulder regions of the anterior side due to the AAA-spine contact. In addition, more collagen is deposited on the regions with a maximum diameter. We show that an image-based computational G&R model not only enhances the prediction of the geometry, wall stress, and strength distributions of AAAs but also provides a framework to account for the interactions between an enlarging AAA and the spine for a better rupture potential assessment and management of AAA patients. PMID:26158885

  10. Proteolytically active ADAM10 and ADAM17 carried on membrane microvesicles in human abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Folkesson, Maggie; Li, Chunjun; Frebelius, Siw; Swedenborg, Jesper; Wågsäter, Dick; Williams, Kevin Jon; Eriksson, Per; Roy, Joy; Liu, Ming-Ling

    2015-11-25

    The intraluminal thrombus (ILT) of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has been suggested to damage the underlying aortic wall, but previous work found scant activity of soluble proteases in the abluminal layer of the ILT, adjacent to the aneurysm. We hypothesised that transmembrane proteases carried by membrane microvesicles (MV) from dying cells remain active in the abluminal ILT. ILTs and AAA segments collected from 21 patients during surgical repair were assayed for two major transmembrane proteases, ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease-10) and ADAM17. We also exposed cultured cells to tobacco smoke and assessed ADAM10 and ADAM17 expression and release on MVs. Immunohistochemistry showed abundant ADAM10 and ADAM17 protein in the ILT and underlying aneurysmal aorta. Domain-specific antibodies indicated both transmembrane and shed ADAM17. Importantly, ADAM10 and ADAM 17 in the abluminal ILT were enzymatically active. Electron microscopy of abluminal ILT and aortic wall showed MVs with ADAM10 and ADAM17. By flow cytometry, ADAM-positive microvesicles from abluminal ILT carried the neutrophil marker CD66, but not the platelet marker CD61. Cultured HL60 neutrophils exposed to tobacco smoke extract showed increased ADAM10 and ADAM17 content, cleavage of these molecules into active forms, and release of MVs carrying mature ADAM10 and detectable ADAM17. In conclusion, our results implicate persistent, enzymatically active ADAMs on MVs in the abluminal ILT, adjacent to the aneurysmal wall. The production of ADAM10- and ADAM17-positive MVs from smoke-exposed neutrophils provides a novel molecular mechanism for the vastly accelerated risk of AAA in smokers. PMID:26422658

  11. Pulsatile flow in the aorta of the LVAD supported heart studied using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyedi, Zahra

    Currently many patients die because of the end-stage heart failure, mainly due to the reduced number of donor heart transplant organs. Studies show that a permanent left ventricular assist device (LVAD), a battery driven pump which is surgically implanted, increased the survival rate of patients with end-stage heart failure and improved considerably their quality of life. The inlet conduit of the LVAD is attached to the left ventricle and the outflow conduit anastomosed to the ascending aorta. The purpose of LVAD support is to help a weakened heart to pump blood to the rest of the body. However LVAD can cause some alterations of the natural blood flow. When your blood comes in contact with something that isn't a natural part of your body blood clots can occur and disrupt blood flow. Aortic valve integrity is vital for optimal support of left ventricular assist LVAD. Due to the existence of high continuous transvalvular pressure on the aortic valve, the opening frequency of the valve is reduced. To prevent the development of aortic insufficiency, aortic valve closure during LVAD implantation has been performed. However, the closed aortic valve reduces wash out of the aortic root, which causes blood stagnation and potential thrombus formation. So for this reason, there is a need to minimize the risks of occurring blood clot, by having more knowledge about the flow structure in the aorta during LVAD use. The current study focuses on measuring the flow field in the aorta of the LVAD assisted heart with two different types of aortic valve (Flat and Finned) using the SDSU cardiac simulator. The pulsatile pump that mimics the natural pulsing action of the heart also added to the system. The flow field is visualized using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Furthermore, The fluid mechanics of aorta has been studied when LVAD conduit attached to two different locations (proximal and distal to the aortic valve) with pump speeds of 8,000 to 10,000 revolutions per minute (RPM). As LVAD speed increases, the velocity of the defined area (close to the proximal anastomosis) increases linearly but inversely the stagnation index decreases. We observed that with Finned valve attachment, the stagnation value is lower than the flat valve so the results suggest that D1 valve has lower risk of thrombosis close to the aortic valve.

  12. In vitro fructose exposure overactivates NADPH oxidase and causes oxidative stress in the isolated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Almenara, Camila C P; Mill, José G; Vassallo, Dalton V; Baldo, Marcelo P; Padilha, Alessandra S

    2015-12-01

    Fructose acutely interferes with cardiovascular function in humans and in animals, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we tested whether fructose can affect endothelial function without the interference of its metabolic effect by exposing the rat aorta to a high fructose concentration and then evaluate the vascular responses to vasoactive agents. We observed that fructose exposure causes overactivation of NADPH oxidase, which enhances superoxide anion production and increases NO degradation. Additionally, the enhanced vasoconstrictor action of hydrogen peroxide might exacerbate contractile responses. This vasoactive imbalance might be the key role by which fructose induces vascular dysfunction. PMID:26320835

  13. An Aberrant Left Bronchial Artery Originating from the Proximal Ascending Aorta.

    PubMed

    Jie, Bing; Sun, Xi-Wen; Yu, Dong; Jiang, Sen

    2015-12-01

    The origin of the bronchial arteries (BAs) has numerous anatomical variations. It is important to recognize these variations when performing interventional radiologic procedures in the thorax. We report the case of a 71-year-old man who underwent transarterial infusion chemotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper lobe of the left lung via a feeding left BA that originated from the proximal ascending aorta. After two cycles of transarterial infusion chemotherapy, the tumor significantly decreased in size. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an aberrant BA originating from this site. PMID:25737454

  14. The chicken aorta as a simulation-training model for microvascular surgery training.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Savitha; Chui, Christopher Hoe-Kong; Tan, Bien-Keem

    2013-07-01

    As a technically demanding skill, microsurgery is taught in the lab, in the form of a course of variable length (depending on the centre). Microsurgical training courses usually use a mixture of non-living and live animal simulation models. In the literature, a plethora of microsurgical training models have been described, ranging from low to high fidelity models. Given the high costs associated with live animal models, cheaper alternatives are coming into vogue. In this paper we describe the use of the chicken aorta as a simple and cost effective low fidelity microsurgical simulation model for training. PMID:23898426

  15. Resistance training suppresses intra-abdominal fatty acid synthesis in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Stotzer, U S; Rodrigues, M F C; Domingos, M M; Silva, G H G; Duarte, F O; Gatto, C V G; Duarte, A C G O; Shiguemoto, G E; Perez, S E A; Selistre-de-Araujo, H S

    2015-03-01

    Ovarian hormone loss is associated with a shift in fat distribution to intra-abdomin al adipose tissue (intra-AAT) depots and with lipid metabolism disorders, which predisposes individuals to developing insulin resistance. Resistance training (RT) prevents increases in intra-AAT after ovarian hormone loss. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes remain unclear. We investigated the effects of ovariectomy and RT on gene expression related to lipogenesis and fat oxidation in the intra-AAT of ovariectomized rats. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6/group) were divided into the groups: sham-sedentary, ovariectomized-sedentary, sham-RT and ovariectomized-RT. RT groups performed a 10-week climbing program on a ladder with progressive overload. Intra-AAT was subjected to morphometric and mRNA analysis. Ovariectomized-sedentary group had larger adipocytes and higher expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and lower expression of the oxidative carnitinepalmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-1). RT counteracted OVX-induced increases in PPAR-? and SCD-1 and decreased SREBP-1c. ACC and HSL were downregulated in ovariectomized-RT compared with the ovariectomized-sedentary group. Ovariectomized-RT group had the highest CPT-1 gene expression. Adipocyte size decreased in ovariectomized-RT group. Results suggest that RT reduces intra-AAT adipocyte size in ovariectomized rats by suppressing intra-AAT fatty acid synthesis and enhancing fatty acid ?-oxidation. PMID:25415388

  16. A kinematic comparison of four abdominal training devices and a traditional abdominal crunch.

    PubMed

    Sands, William A; McNeal, Jeni R

    2002-02-01

    Abdominal exercises are often performed on roller or rocker mechanisms, which have been aggressively promoted through the television and print media. However, justifications are lacking as to why these devices are superior to traditional abdominal exercises such as crunches. This study sought to describe and compare the range of motion (ROM) of several joints during crunches performed on 4 different abdominal conditioning devices (2 roller and 2 pivot types) and a traditional crunch exercise. Ten men (29 +/- 5.87 years, 177.5 +/- 6.46 cm, 80.96 +/- 11.72 kg) and 10 women (33.4 +/- 10.16 years, 162.23 +/- 3.83 cm, 56.99 +/- 7.36 kg) subjects agreed to participate in the study. Subjects were videotaped in the sagittal plane (60 Hz) using standard kinematic methods. Reflective markers were placed on the right temple, auditory meatus, shoulder, hip, knee, ankle, heel, toe, and 2 sternum markers placed on a foam piece strapped to the subject's chest. The videotaped movements were automatically digitized (PEAK5 2-D) and the data smoothed using a Butterworth filter. Relative angular ROMs of the head (temple, auditory meatus, shoulder); neck (auditory meatus, shoulder, hip); trunk (near sternum, shoulder, hip); hip (shoulder, hip, knee); sternum/head (sternum near and sternum far with temple and auditory meatus); sternum/trunk (sternum near and sternum far with shoulder and hip); and a sum of 4 angles (head, neck, trunk, hip) were calculated. Sex by equipment repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were calculated on the angles of the 5 exercises. When no main effect for sex was found, the data were collapsed across sex and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was calculated on the resulting data. Post hoc analyses of pairwise differences were calculated using Tukey's honestly significant difference statistic. Results showed that crunches performed with the abdominal devices resulted in less ROM in all angles measured when compared with a traditional crunch. The traditional crunch exercise was most closely simulated by the pivot-type devices. The results indicated that prescription of abdominal conditioning exercises via these devices results in training through smaller ROMs compared with a traditional crunch. The specific angle changes may require careful judgment as to appropriate application for exercisers with specific back and neck motion limitations. PMID:11834119

  17. Acute Left Arm Ischemia Associated with Floating Thrombus in the Proximal Descending Aorta: Combined Endovascular and Surgical Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, F.; Gazzetti, M.; Boatta, E.; Ruggiero, M.; Lucatelli, P.; Speziale, F.

    2011-02-15

    Free floating thrombus in the proximal descending aorta is an uncommon and dangerous condition that can be associated with acute peripheral embolization. The few cases described were solved with surgical and/or medical therapy. We report the case of a patient with acute left arm ischemia secondary to the presence of floating thrombus in the proximal descending aorta extending into the left subclavian artery, solved with combined endovascular and surgical therapy. Treatment was successfully performed with thrombembolectomy combined with temporary deployment, into the descending aorta, of a Wallstent in a 'basket-fashion' to avoid distal embolization secondary to thrombus fragmentation. At 1 year follow-up the patient remained symptom-free.

  18. Effect of laparoscopic abdominal surgery on splanchnic circulation: Historical developments

    PubMed Central

    Hatipoglu, Sinan; Akbulut, Sami; Hatipoglu, Filiz; Abdullayev, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    With the developments in medical technology and increased surgical experience, advanced laparoscopic surgical procedures are performed successfully. Laparoscopic abdominal surgery is one of the best examples of advanced laparoscopic surgery (LS). Today, laparoscopic abdominal surgery in general surgery clinics is the basis of all abdominal surgical interventions. Laparoscopic abdominal surgery is associated with systemic and splanchnic hemodynamic alterations. Inadequate splanchnic perfusion in critically ill patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are still not well understood. With experience and with an increase in the number and diversity of the resulting data, the pathophysiology of laparoscopic abdominal surgery is now better understood. The normal physiology and pathophysiology of local and systemic effects of laparoscopic abdominal surgery is extremely important for safe and effective LS. Future research projects should focus on the interplay between the physiological regulatory mechanisms in the splanchnic circulation (SC), organs, and diseases. In this review, we discuss the effects of laparoscopic abdominal surgery on the SC. PMID:25561784

  19. Delayed dynamic abdominal wall closure following multi-visceral transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iype, Satheesh; Butler, Andrew; Jamieson, Neville; Middleton, Stephen; Jah, Asif

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Primary closure of the abdominal wall following intestinal transplantation or multivisceral transplantation could become a challenging problem in a significant number of patients. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 38-year-old woman with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) underwent a multi-visceral transplantation for short gut syndrome. She subsequently developed acute graft rejection that proved resistant to conventional treatment. She was relisted and underwent re-transplantation along with kidney transplantation. Abdominal wall closure could not be achieved because of the large size of the graft and bowel oedema. The wound was initially managed with laparostomy followed by insertion of the delayed dynamic abdominal closure (DDAC) device (Abdominal Retraction Anchor – ABRA® system). Continuous dynamic traction to the wound edges resulted in gradual approximation and complete closure of the abdominal wound was achieved within 3 weeks. DISCUSSION Successful abdominal closure after multivisceral transplantation or isolated intestinal transplantation often requires biological mesh, vascularised flaps or abdominal wall transplantation. DDAC eliminated the need for a prosthetic mesh or skin graft and provided an excellent cosmetic result. Adjustment of the dynamic traction at the bedside minimised the need for multiple returns to the operating theatre. It resulted in a well-healed linear scar without a hernia. CONCLUSION Dynamic traction allows delayed closure of laparotomy resulting in strong and cosmetically sound wound healing with native tissue. PMID:25460454

  20. Inhibition of development of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm by c-jun N-terminal protein kinase inhibitor combined with lysyl oxidase gene modified smooth muscle progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, ZhenDong; Zhu, XianHua

    2015-11-01

    Chronic inflammation, imbalance between the extracellular matrix synthesis and degradation, and loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) contribute to the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the therapy with periaortic incubation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase inhibitor SP600125 infused from an osmotic pump and subadventitial injection of lysyl oxidase (LOX) gene modified autologous smooth muscle progenitor cells (SPCs) on treatment of AAA in a rabbit model. Obvious dilation of the abdominal aorta in the control group was caused by periaortic incubation of calcium chloride and elastase. But the progression of aortic dilation was significantly decreased after the treatment with SP600125 and LOX gene modified SPCs compared to the treatment with phosphate-buffered saline. This therapy could inhibit matrix metalloproteinases expression, enhance elastin synthesis, improve preservation of elastic laminar integrity, benefit SPCs survival and restore SMCs population. It seemed that this method might provide a novel therapeutic strategy to treat AAA. PMID:26435026

  1. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Detection and Follow-Up of an Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Aorto-Caval Fistula and Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Clevert, D.-A. Stickel, M.; Flach, P.; Strautz, T.; Horng, A.; Jauch, K. W.; Reiser, M.

    2007-06-15

    An aorto-caval fistula is a rare complication of a symptomatic or ruptured infrarenal aortic aneurysm having a frequency of 3-6%. Patients typically present with clinical signs of diffuse abdominal pain associated with increasing venous congestion and tachycardia, rapid cardiopulmonary decompensation with acute dyspnea, and an audible machinerylike bruit. Perioperative mortality is high, ranging from 20% to 60%. We report a case of an endovascular aortic repair in a patient with a symptomatic infrarenal aortic aneurysm and an aorto-caval fistula. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound seems to be a promising new diagnostic option for the diagnosis and preoperative treatment planning for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms with rupture into the inferior vena cava. It is in addition to computed tomography angiography. It might allow a more rapid and noninvasive diagnosis, especially for patients in intensive care because of its bedside availability. Because the examination is dynamic, additional information about blood flow between the aorta and inferior cava vein can be evaluated.

  2. SMAD3 deficiency promotes vessel wall remodeling, collagen fiber reorganization and leukocyte infiltration in an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaohua; Shen, Jianbin; Priyanka Annam, Neeraja; Jiang, Hong; Levi, Edi; Schworer, Charles M.; Tromp, Gerard; Arora, Anandita; Higgins, Mary; Wang, Xiao-Fan; Yang, Maozhou; Li, Hui J.; Zhang, Kezhong; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    TGF-? signaling plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of aneurysms; however, it is still unclear whether its role is protective or destructive. In this study, we investigate the role of SMAD3 in the pathogenesis of calcium chloride (CaCl2)-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in Smad3?/?, Smad3+/? and Smad3+/+ mice. We find that loss of SMAD3 drastically increases wall thickening of the abdominal aorta. Histological analyses show significant vessel wall remodeling with elastic fiber fragmentation. Remarkably, under polarized light, collagen fibers in the hyperplastic adventitia of Smad3?/? mice show extensive reorganization accompanied by loosely packed thin and radial collagen fibers. The expressions of matrix metalloproteinases including MMP2, MMP9, and MMP12 and infiltration of macrophage/T cells are drastically enhanced in the vascular wall of Smad3?/? mice. We also observe marked increase of NF-?B and ERK1/2 signaling as well as the expression of nuclear Smad2, Smad4 and TGF-?1 in the vessel wall of Smad3?/? mice. In addition, we find that SMAD3 expression is reduced in the dedifferentiated medial smooth muscle-like cells of human AAA patients. These findings provide direct in vivo evidence to support the essential roles of SMAD3 in protecting vessel wall integrity and suppressing inflammation in the pathogenesis of AAAs. PMID:25985281

  3. Measurement of streaming potentials of mammalian blood vessels, aorta and vena cava, in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, P N; Himmelfarb, E; Lustrin, I; Ziskind, H

    1966-09-01

    Attempts to measure streaming potentials in large rabbit blood vessels in vivo have been carried out. Streaming potentials, V(89), were measured by the introduction of microelectrodes through the wall of the blood vessel at separations greater than 1 cm. The outputs from these electrodes fed through calomel cells were amplified and recorded directly by using an Electronics for Medicine photorecorder (White Plains, N. Y.). "Effective streaming currents" were determined by running the output through a low impedence galvanometer while simultaneously measuring the resistance of the circuit V(8) were, therefore, calculated from two measurements and compared. Flow through vessels studied was measured using two different electromagnetic flowmeters. The results indicate that V(8) present in both aorta and vena cava are of the order of 5 to 10 mv. By using the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski equation into which flow was reintegrated, the numbers yield zeta potentials approximating 0.1 to 0.4 v in both aorta and vena cava. This number approaches the apparent upper limit for zeta (actually "interfacial potentials") potentials in biological systems. The measured "i.f." potential is considered as the interreaction of several physical and metabolic factors operating at the blood intimal interface. The polarity of the potential suggests that the interface is negative with respect to the blood flowing through the vessel. Interfacial potential and related V(8) are discussed in terms of their possible importance as a mechanism for maintaining vascular homeostasis in the living animal. PMID:5970567

  4. Contraction of rat thoracic aorta strips induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, H.; Lederis, K.

    1987-02-01

    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced a slow and progressive increase in tension of rat thoracic aorta strips in the presence of extracellular CaS . Complete relaxation could not be obtained in CaS -free buffer containing 1 mM ethyleneglycol-bis(US -aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 10 X M PMA. In the absence of extracellular CaS , PMA (10 X M) induced a small but sustained contraction which was not altered by the addition of another 2 mM EGTA and 3 x 10 V M verapamil. Papaverine (10 U M) relaxed the PMA-induced contraction to the base line, but phentolamine (10 V M), cyproheptadine (10 V M), atropine (10 V M) and tetrodotoxine (10 W M) did not change the contraction. CaS -depleted muscle strips, prepared by four repeated applications of 10 X M norepinephrine in CaS -free buffer, were contracted by 10 X M PMA, but at a lower maximum tension than nontreated strips. The action of PMA on rat aorta strips in CaS -free buffer did not require the presence of the adventitial layer or endothelial cells. These results suggest that PMA may induce activation of protein kinase C and smooth muscle contraction in the absence of extracellular CaS , without an increase in myoplasmic CaS .

  5. Noradrenaline-induced contraction of mice aorta is enhanced in schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Silva, C L M; Gontijo, L S; Noël, F

    2007-02-01

    Schistosomiasis, an intravascular parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma mansoni, is related to alterations of murine vascular reactivity in the mesenteric bed, characterized by an impairment of the l-arginine/NO pathway and an increased potency of 5-hydroxytryptamine. The current study was performed to test the hypothesis that a similar alteration of reactivity also occurs in the aorta and to identify the mechanism behind such an increase. We found that aorta from mice infected with male S. mansoni exhibited an enhanced contraction in response to noradrenaline and 100 mM KCl. The inhibition of nitric oxide synthase increased aortic maximal contraction in response to noradrenaline in both groups, but the effect was less pronounced in infected mice than in control mice. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine was also smaller in infected mice compared to control mice, while endothelial-independent relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside and forskolin was similar in both groups. The inhibition of voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channels reduced the maximal contraction in response to noradrenaline more effectively in infected than in control mice. Conversely the inhibition of K(ATP) channels had a smaller effect in the infected group. As a conclusion, our data indicate that schistosomiasis also alters murine vascular reactivity outside the mesenteric bed, due to a partial impairment of NO signaling, a reduced contribution of K(ATP) channels and an increased Ca(2+) influx through L-type Ca(2+) channels. PMID:17049461

  6. Combined MR imaging and CFD simulation of flow in the human descending aorta.

    PubMed

    Wood, N B; Weston, S J; Kilner, P J; Gosman, A D; Firmin, D N

    2001-05-01

    A combined MR and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study is made of flow in the upper descending thoracic aorta. The aim was to investigate further the potential of CFD simulations linked to in vivo MRI scans. The three-dimensional (3D) geometrical images of the aorta and the 3D time-resolved velocity images at the entry to the domain studied were used as boundary conditions for the CFD simulations of the flow. Despite some measurement uncertainties, comparisons between simulated and measured flow structures at the exit from the domain demonstrated encouraging levels of agreement. Moreover, the CFD simulation allowed the flow structure throughout the domain to be examined in more detail, in particular the flow separation region in the distal aortic arch and its influence on the downstream flow during late systole. Additional information such as relative pressure and wall shear stress, which could not be measured via MRI, were also extracted from the simulation. The results have encouraged further applications of the methods described. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2001;13:699-713. PMID:11329191

  7. Dilation of the ascending aorta in Turner syndrome - a prospective cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The risk of aortic dissection is 100-fold increased in Turner syndrome (TS). Unfortunately, risk stratification is inadequate due to a lack of insight into the natural course of the syndrome-associated aortopathy. Therefore, this study aimed to prospectively assess aortic dimensions in TS. Methods Eighty adult TS patients were examined twice with a mean follow-up of 2.4 ± 0.4 years, and 67 healthy age and gender-matched controls were examined once. Aortic dimensions were measured at nine predefined positions using 3D, non-contrast and free-breathing cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Transthoracic echocardiography and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure were also performed. Results At baseline, aortic diameters (body surface area indexed) were larger at all positions in TS. Aortic dilation was more prevalent at all positions excluding the distal transverse aortic arch. Aortic diameter increased in the aortic sinus, at the sinotubular junction and in the mid-ascending aorta with growth rates of 0.1 - 0.4 mm/year. Aortic diameters at all other positions were unchanged. The bicuspid aortic valve conferred higher aortic sinus growth rates (p < 0.05). No other predictors of aortic growth were identified. Conclusion A general aortopathy is present in TS with enlargement of the ascending aorta, which is accelerated in the presence of a bicuspid aortic valve. PMID:21527014

  8. Effect of Huanglian Jiedu Decoction on Thoracic Aorta Gene Expression in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Gui-Hua; Zhuo, Shao-Yuan; Zhang, Zhuo; Gao, Yi-Wen; Luo, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Hypertension is one of the most common cardiovascular disorders with high mortality. Here we explored the antihypertension effects of Huanglian Jiedu Decoction (HJD) on thoracic aorta gene expression in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Methods. A rat model of spontaneous hypertension was used. The gene change profile of thoracic aorta after JHD treatment was assessed by GeneChip(GC) analysis using the Agilent Whole Rat Genome Oligo Microarray. Results. Hypertension induced 441 genes upregulated and 417 genes downregulated compared with the normal control group. Treatment of HJD resulted in 76 genes downregulated and 20 genes upregulated. GC data analysis showed that the majority of change genes were involved in immune system process, developmental process, and cell death. Conclusion. Hypertension altered expression of many genes that regulate various biological functions. HJD significantly reduced hypertension and altered the gene expression profiles of SHR rats. These changing genes were involved in many cellular functions such as regulating smooth muscle contraction, Ca(2+) homeostasis, and NO pathway. This study provides the potential novel insights into hypertension and antihypertension effects of HJD. PMID:24744811

  9. Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer of the Descending Thoracic Aorta: Treatment by Endovascular Stent-Graft

    SciTech Connect

    Murgo, Salvatore; Dussaussois, Luc; Golzarian, Jafar; Cavenaile, Jean Christophe; Abada, Hicham Tarik; Ferreira, Jose; Struyven, Julien

    1998-11-15

    Purpose: To present four cases of penetrating ulcer of the descending thoracic aorta treated by transfemoral insertion of an endoluminal stent-graft. Methods: Four patients with penetrating aortic ulcers were reviewed. Three cases were complicated by rupture, false aneurysm, or retrograde dissection. All patients were treated by endovascular stent-graft and were followed by helical computed tomography (CT). Results: Endovascular stent-graft deployment was successful in all patients. However, in one case we observed a perigraft leak that spontaneously disappeared within the first month, and two interventions were needed for another patient. Following treatment, one episode of transient spinal ischemia was observed. The 30-day survival rate was 100%, but one patient died from pneumonia with cardiac failure 34 days after the procedure. In one patient, helical CT performed at 3 months showed a false aneurysm independent of the first ulcer. This patient refused any further treatment and suddenly died at home (unknown cause) after a 6-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Transluminal placement of endovascular stent-grafts for treatment of penetrating ulcers of the descending thoracic aorta appears to be a possible alternative to classical surgery. After treatment, follow-up by CT is essential to detect possible complications of the disease.

  10. Aorta-associated CD34+ hematopoietic cells in the early human embryo.

    PubMed

    Tavian, M; Coulombel, L; Luton, D; Clemente, H S; Dieterlen-Lièvre, F; Péault, B

    1996-01-01

    Hematopoiesis is established from circulating blood stem cells that seed the embryonic rudiments of blood-forming tissues, a basic notion in developmental hematology. However, the assumption that these stem cells originate from the extraembryonic mesoderm, where primitive hematopoiesis is initiated by intrinsic precursors, has been reconsidered after analysis of blood cell development in avian embryo chimeras: yolk-sac-derived stem cells do not contribute significantly to the definitive blood system, whose first forerunners develop independently along the ventral aspect of the embryonic aorta. Recently, the homologous intraembryonic tissues of the mouse have been submitted to sensitive in vivo and in vitro assays, which showed that they also harbor multipotential hematopoietic stem cells. We have now identified a dense population of hematogenous cells, marked by the surface expression of the CD34 glycoprotein, associated with the ventral endothelium of the aorta in the 5-week human embryo. Therefore, we extend to the human species the growing evidence that intraembryonic hematopoietic cells developing independently of the yolk sac might be the real stem of the whole blood system. PMID:8547678

  11. Aorta: a management layer for mobile peer-to-peer massive multiplayer games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edlich, Stefan; Hoerning, Henrik; Brunnert, Andreas; Hoerning, Reidar

    2005-03-01

    The development of massive multiplayer games (MMPGs) for personal computers is based on a wide range of frameworks and technologies. In contrast, MMPG development for cell phones lacks the availability of framework support. We present Aorta as a multi-purpose lightweight MIDP 2.0 framework to support the transparent and equal API usage of peer-to-peer communication via http, IP and Bluetooth. Special experiments, such as load-tests on Nokia 6600s, have been carried out with Bluetooth support in using a server-as-client architecture to create ad-hoc networks by using piconet functionalities. Additionally, scatternet functionalities, which will be supported in upcoming devices, have been tested in a simulated environment on more than 12 cell phones. The core of the Aorta framework is the Etherlobby, which manages connections, peers, the game lobby, game policies and much more. The framework itself was developed to enable the fast development of mobile games, regardless of the distance between users, which might be within the schoolyard or much further away. The earliest market-ready application shown here is a multimedia game for cell phones utilizing all of the frameworks features. This game, called Micromonster, acts as platform for developer tests, as well as providing valuable information about interface usability and user acceptance.

  12. The Vasorelaxant Effect of p-Cymene in Rat Aorta Involves Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Martapolyana T. M.; Ribeiro, Fernanda P. R. A.; Medeiros, Maria Alice M. B.; Sampaio, Pedrita A.; Silva, Yonara M. S.; Silva, Morganna T. A.; Quintans, Jullyana S. S.; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.; Ribeiro, Luciano A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The monoterpenes are the main constituents of most essential oils and p-cymene is a monoterpene commonly found in various species of aromatic herbs, which has been reported for anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antimicrobial activities. However, there is no report concerning its pharmacological activity on the vascular smooth muscle. The aim of current work was to investigate the effects of p-cymene in isolated rat aorta and also study its mechanism of action. In this work, we show that p-cymene has a relaxant effect, in a dose-dependent way, on the vascular smooth muscle, regardless of the presence of the endothelium. Using a nonselective potassium channel blocker, the CsCl, the relaxant effect of p-cymene was attenuated. In the presence of more selective potassium channels blockers, such as TEA or 4-AP, no change in the relaxant effect of p-cymene was evidenced, indicating that BKCa and KV channels are not involved in that relaxant effect. However, in the presence of glibenclamide or BaCl2, KATP and Kir blockers, respectively, the relaxant effect of p-cymene was attenuated. The data presented indicate that p-cymene has a relaxing effect on rat aorta, regardless of the endothelium, but with the participation of the KATP and Kir channels. PMID:25667938

  13. Intimal permeability evaluated in a short-term organ culture of diabetic guinea pig aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, M.J.; Verlangieri, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A novel short-term organ culture system was used to evaluate intimal permeability changes by measuring aortic (/sup 14/C)methylated albumin accumulation. Aortic plugs were removed from the upper thoracic aorta of male guinea pigs and maintained in serum-free media. The accumulation of (/sup 14/C)albumin in the intimal-medial layer was determined after a 5 h incubation. In preliminary studies, albumin recovered from intimal-injured aortic plugs was significantly greater than those from non-injured plugs. Aortic plugs from streptozotocin-treated guinea pigs, diabetic for 3 weeks, also accumulated significantly more (/sup 14/C)albumin than plugs from nondiabetic controls. Histological changes were not observed in the aorta of either the diabetic or control group. A strong significant inverse correlation was found between plasma ascorbic acid levels and (/sup 14/C)-activity recovered from aortic plugs. This study demonstrates a simple and rapid method for assessing aortic permeability changes under a well-defined in vitro system, and suggests that vascular permeability changes in the streptozotocin-diabetic guinea pig may be associated with an ascorbic acid deficit.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF FRESHWATER RUNOFF ON BIOMASS, MORPHOMETRICS, AND PRODUCTION OF THALASSIA TESTUDINUM. (R827453)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts to restore more natural freshwater flows in South Florida will impact Biscayne Bay. In order to evaluate possible effects of decreased freshwater discharge on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum, we determined the biomass, density, morphometrics (width, length, nu...

  15. A Morphometric Comparison of Island and Mainland Boas (Boa constrictor) in Belize

    E-print Network

    Boback, Scott

    A Morphometric Comparison of Island and Mainland Boas (Boa constrictor) in Belize SCOTT M. BOBACK Relative to mainland Boa constrictor, boas from islands off the coast of Belize are described as being the body size and head shape variation between island and mainland boas in Belize. One hundred twenty- nine

  16. Lagrangian frame diffeomorphic image registration: Morphometric comparison of human and chimpanzee cortex

    E-print Network

    Schoenemann, P. Thomas

    to connecting human and animal research. Chimpanzee language, dis- ease and behavioral studies are often usedLagrangian frame diffeomorphic image registration: Morphometric comparison of human and chimpanzee a putative evolutionary change of coordinates between a population of chimpanzee and human cortices. Inter

  17. Human Body Mass Estimation: A Comparison of "Morphometric" and "Mechanical" Methods

    E-print Network

    Auerbach, Benjamin M.

    Human Body Mass Estimation: A Comparison of "Morphometric" and "Mechanical" Methods Benjamin M compared across a large group of modern humans of diverse body form. This study incorporates skeletal limitations (Smith, 1996), body mass estimation from human skeletal remains will continue to play an important

  18. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CELLS IN THE ALVEOLAR REGION OF MAMMALIAN LUNGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphometric procedures have been used to study the characteristics of cells in the alveolar region of the lungs of rats, dogs, baboons, and humans. Compared with the other species, human lungs were found to contain greater numbers of macrophages and to have larger alveolar type ...

  19. A morphometric comparison of the Namib and southwest Kalahari dunefields using ASTER GDEM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Kevin; Bullard, Joanna; Livingstone, Ian; Moran, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    The increased availability of digital elevation models and satellite image data enable testing of morphometric relationships between sand dune variables (dune height, spacing and equivalent sand thickness), which were originally established using limited field survey data. These long-established geomorphological hypotheses can now be tested against very much larger samples than were possible when available data were limited to what could be collected by field surveys alone. This project uses ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM) data to compare morphometric relationships between sand dune variables in the southwest Kalahari dunefield to those of the Namib sand sea, to test whether the relationships found in an active sand sea (Namib) also hold for the fixed dune system of the nearby southwest Kalahari. The data show significant morphometric differences between the simple linear dunes of the Namib sand sea and the southwest Kalahari; the latter do not show the expected positive relationship between dune height and spacing. The southwest Kalahari dunes show a similar range of dune spacings, but they are less tall, on average, than the Namib sand sea dunes. There is a clear spatial pattern to these morphometric data; the tallest and most closely spaced dunes are towards the southeast of the Kalahari dunefield; and this is where the highest values of equivalent sand thickness result. We consider the possible reasons for the observed differences and highlight the need for more studies comparing sand seas and dunefields from different environmental settings.

  20. Traditional and geometric morphometrics supporting the differentiation of two new Retracrus (Phytoptidae) species associated with heliconias.

    PubMed

    Navia, Denise; Ferreira, Cecília B S; Reis, Aleuny C; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2015-09-01

    Cryptic diversity has been confirmed for several phytophagous mites in the Eriophyoidea superfamily previously considered as presenting low host specificity. Among generalist eriophyoids is the phytoptid Retracrus johnstoni Keifer, which has been reported in 19 palm species belonging to 11 genera, causing severe damage on some of them. Surprisingly this species was recently reported on another monocot family, Heliconiaceae, infesting Heliconia plants in Costa Rica and Brazil, being the only in the tribe Mackiellini to not be associated with palm trees. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of cryptic species in R. johnstoni and to clarify the taxonomic status of populations associated with heliconias in the Americas. With this purpose traditional and geometric morphometric analyses were conducted as well as a detailed morphological study. Measurable trait data were analysed via univariate and multivariate analyses. Shapes of specimens from different populations were compared via geometric morphometric landmark methods. Morphometric analysis supported occurrence of at least two cryptic species previously identified as R. johsntoni and suggested occurrence of cryptic species among populations associated with different palm trees. Taxonomic descriptions of two new taxa associated with heliconias, namely Retracrus costaricensis n. sp. Ferreira and Navia and Retracrus heliconiae n. sp. Ferreira and Navia are presented. Morphometric traits that can be useful in the taxonomic identification are noted and their value is discussed. Results of the traditional morphometry and geometric methods were compared and the advantages of their joint use for Eriophyoidea systematics are discussed. PMID:26089124

  1. Morphometric analysis in geographic information systems: applications of free software GRASS and R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohmann, Carlos Henrique

    2004-11-01

    Development and interpretation of morphometric maps are important tools in studies related to neotectonics and geomorphology; Geographic Information Systems (GIS) allows speed and precision to this process, but applied methodology will vary according to available tools and degree of knowledge of each researcher about involved software. A methodology to integrate GIS and statistics in morphometric analysis is presented for the most usual morphometric parameters—hypsometry, slope, aspect, swath profiles, lineaments and drainage density, surface roughness, isobase and hydraulic gradient. The GIS used was the Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS-GIS), an open-source project that offers an integrated environment for raster and vector analysis, image processing and maps/graphics creation. Statistical analysis of parameters can be carried out on R, a system for statistical computation and graphics, through an interface with GRASS that allows raster maps and points files to be treated as variables for analysis. The basic element for deriving morphometric maps is the digital elevation model (DEM). It can be interpolated from scattered points or contours, either in raster or vector format; it is also possible to use DEMs from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission, with 30 m of ground resolution for the USA and 90 m for other countries. Proposed methodology can be adapted according to necessities and available tools. The use of free and open-source tools guarantees access to everyone, and its increasing popularization opens new development perspectives in this research field.

  2. RELATIVE TRIACYLGLYCEROL AND MORPHOMETRIC MEASURES OF CONDITION IN SUNSHINE BASS FRY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Condition measures are assessed for wild populations of fish fry to examine production and the implications for recruitment variability. These condition measures might guide management decisions in fish culture. We developed two condition measures, one based on morphometric measurements and one ba...

  3. MORPHOMETRIC VARIATION OF PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH, SEBASTES ALUTUS, OFF WESTERN NORTH AMERICA

    E-print Network

    MORPHOMETRIC VARIATION OF PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH, SEBASTES ALUTUS, OFF WESTERN NORTH AMERICA JAY C. QUAST' ABSTRACT Pacific ocean perch. Sebastes alufus, vary in body form over the eastern Pacific Ocean be phenotypic. Pacific ocean perch, Sebastes alutus, a commer- cially important rockfish IScorpaenidae

  4. Morphometric and genetic analyses of two sympatric morphs of Arctic char

    E-print Network

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    ) in the Canadian High Arctic J.H. Arbour, D.C. Hardie, and J.A. Hutchings Abstract: Multivariate morphometric- photypes diffe`rent aussi par leurs patrons de croissance allome´trique. Les morphotypes petit et grand ne les proies benthiques. L'ab- sence apparente de diffe´renciation ge´ne´tique entre les morphotypes

  5. Inversion of Crater Morphometric Data to Gain Insight on the Cratering Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrick, Robert R.; Lyons, Suzane N.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, morphometric data for Venus and several outer planet satellites have been collected, so we now have observational data of complex Craters formed in a large range of target properties. We present general inversion techniques that can utilize the morphometric data to quantitatively test various models of complex crater formation. The morphometric data we use in this paper are depth of a complex crater, the diameter at which the depth-diameter ratio changes, and onset diameters for central peaks, terraces, and peak rings. We tested the roles of impactor velocities and hydrostatic pressure vs. crustal strength, and we tested the specific models of acoustic fluidization (Melosh, 1982) and nonproportional growth (Schultz, 1988). Neither the acoustic fluidization model nor the nonproportional growth in their published formulations are able to successfully reproduce the data. No dependence on impactor velocity is evident from our inversions. Most of the morphometric data is consistent with a linear dependence on the ratio of crustal strength to hydrostatic pressure on a planet, or the factor c/pg.

  6. Evaluation of abdominal pain in the AIDS patient.

    PubMed Central

    Potter, D A; Danforth, D N; Macher, A M; Longo, D L; Stewart, L; Masur, H

    1984-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a recently recognized entity characterized by a deficiency in cell mediated immune response. The syndrome is manifested by the development of otherwise rare malignant neoplasms and severe life-threatening opportunistic infections. Case histories of five AIDS patients evaluated for abdominal pain are presented to demonstrate the unusual spectrum of intra-abdominal pathology that may be encountered in the AIDS patient. As the number of patients with AIDS continues to escalate, surgical evaluation and intervention will be required more frequently. An understanding of this syndrome and its complications is mandatory for the surgeon to adequately evaluate AIDS patients with abdominal pain. PMID:6322708

  7. [Chemiluminescence and triboluminescence of the endothelium of the thoracic aorta in gamma-irradiated rabbits with experimental hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Orel, V E; Voronkov, G S; Dziatkovskaia, N N; Pliushch, G I; Kadiuk, I N; Mel'nik, Iu I

    1996-01-01

    A comparative study of chemiluminescence and triboluminescence of endothelium of the thoracic aorta in the intact rabbits and in ones with experimental hypercholesterolemia 3, 6, 24 hours after single total influence of low doses of ionizing radiation allowed us to conclude that higher fluctuation of the examined parameters is characteristic feature of the rabbits with hypercholesterolemia. At the same time it was found that the changes in chemiluminescence and triboluminescence of endothelium of the thoracic aorta three hours after irradiation with a dose of 0.25 Gy were different in the experiments in vitro and in vivo. PMID:8696490

  8. Right Cervical Aortic Arch and Pseudocoarctation of the Aorta Associated with Aneurysms and Steal Phenomena: US, CTA, and MRA Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Tanju, Sumru Ustuner, Evren; Erden, Ilhan; Aytac, Suat Kemal

    2007-02-15

    A 55-year-old woman presented with right cervical aortic arch with pseudocoarctation of the aorta further complicated by the presence of multiple aneurysms and a high-grade stenosis at the origin of the left subclavian trunk from the aorta causing a discrepancy in blood pressure between the right and left arms. The branching pattern and the resulting complex steal syndromes involving the left carotid and the subclavian system are unique. The computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and Doppler ultrasound findings are described.

  9. Characterization of Biaxial Mechanical Behavior of Porcine Aorta under Gradual Elastin Degradation

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Katherine Yanhang

    . Keywords--Aneurysms, Elastin degradation, Vascular mechanics, Recruitment distribution function features of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs). These structural changes are associated with a remarkable of aneurysms early on, whereas rupture of the lesion is attributed to the loss of collagen integrity.11 Changes

  10. Calpain Inhibition Attenuates Angiotensin II-induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms and Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Venkateswaran; Uchida, Haruhito Adam; Ijaz, Talha; Moorleghen, Jessica J.; Howatt, Deborah A.; Balakrishnan, Anju

    2011-01-01

    Chronic infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) augments atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAAs) formation in hypercholesterolemic mice. AngII-induced AAAs are associated with medial macrophage accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation. Inhibition of calpain, a calcium-activated neutral cysteine protease, by overexpression of its endogenous inhibitor, calpastatin, attenuates AngII-induced leukocyte infiltration, perivascular inflammation, and MMP activation in mice. The purpose of this study was to define whether pharmacological inhibition of calpain influences AngII-induced AAAs in hypercholesterolemic mice. Male LDL receptor ?/? mice were fed a fat-enriched diet and administered with either vehicle or a calpain-specific inhibitor, BDA-410 (30 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. After 1 week of feeding, mice were infused with AngII (1,000 ng/kg/min) for 4 weeks. AngII-infusion profoundly increased aortic calpain protein and activity. BDA-410 administration had no effect on plasma cholesterol concentrations or AngII-increased systolic blood pressure. Calpain inhibition significantly attenuated AngII-induced AAA formation and atherosclerosis development. BDA-410 administration attenuated activation of MMP12, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, MCP-1) and macrophage infiltration into the aorta. BDA-410 administration significantly attenuated thioglycollate-elicited macrophage accumulation in the peritoneal cavity. We conclude that calpain inhibition using BDA-410 attenuated AngII-induced AAA formation and atherosclerosis development in LDL receptor ?/? mice. PMID:21964156

  11. Collagen Degradation in the Abdominal Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Hussien, Hazem; Soekhoe, Ratna G.V.; Weber, Ekkehard; von der Thüsen, Jan H.; Kleemann, Robert; Mulder, Adri; van Bockel, J. Hajo; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Lindeman, Jan H.N.

    2007-01-01

    Growth and rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) result from increased collagen turnover. Collagen turnover critically depends on specific collagenases that cleave the triple helical region of fibrillar collagen. As yet, the collagenases responsible for collagen degradation in AAAs have not been identified. Increased type I collagen degradation products confirmed collagen turnover in AAAs (median values: <1, 43, and 108 ng/mg protein in control, growing, and ruptured AAAs, respectively). mRNA and protein analysis identified neutrophil collagenase [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8] and cysteine collagenases cathepsin K, L, and S as the principle collagenases in growing and ruptured AAAs. Except for modestly increased MMP-14 mRNA levels, collagenase expression was similar in growing and ruptured AAAs (anterior-lateral wall). Evaluation of posttranslational regulation of protease activity showed a threefold increase in MMP-8, a fivefold increase in cathepsins K and L, and a 30-fold increase in cathepsin S activation in growing and ruptured AAAs. The presence of the osteoclastic proton pump indicated optimal conditions for extracellular cysteine protease activity. Protease inhibitor mRNA expression was similar in AAAs and controls, but AAA protein levels of cystatin C, the principle cysteine protease inhibitor, were profoundly reduced (>80%). We found indications that this secondary deficiency relates to cystatin C degradation by (neutrophil-derived) proteases. PMID:17322367

  12. Anal avulsion caused by abdominal crush injury.

    PubMed

    Terrosu, G; Rossetto, A; Kocjancic, E; Rossitti, P; Bresadola, V

    2011-12-01

    We report the case of a pelvic and lower abdomen crushing trauma in 37-year-old male patient. The patient had an open lumbar wound, laceration of the psoas muscle, pelvic fracture, a ruptured urogenital diaphragm, and extensive urogenital lacerations. An emergency laparotomy was performed with debridment, urethral reconstruction, and osteosynthesis of the pubic bone. The mobilization of the patient revealed a deep gap, about 8 × 8 cm, in the perineum, with the anus and rectum displaced from their original site. Anal reimplantation was performed, suturing the median raphe, inserting two pelvic drainage tubes, and fashioning a loop transverse colostomy. Closed rectal traumas account for only 4-11% of all rectal traumas. Crushing of the pelvis causes a sudden reduction in its anteroposterior diameter and a corresponding increase in its latero-lateral diameter, together with an abrupt rise in intra-abdominal pressure. The anus is pushed out of the perineal plane due to the divarication of the levator muscles. As suggested in the literature, the standard treatment is wound debridement with immediate or deferred repair, fashioning a diversion colostomy, and repair of the rectum, wherever possible. PMID:21556880

  13. [Abdominal pain with a microvascular cause].

    PubMed

    Slegers, Claire A D; Bloemsma, Gijsbert C; Horjus, Carmen S; Visser, Henk; Robijn, Rob J; Spillenaar Bilgen, Ernst Jan

    2012-01-01

    A 50-year-old Caucasian man was admitted with unexplained abdominal pain. Based on CT scan results, a perforation resulting from colitis of the transverse colon was suspected. Additional colonoscopy showed ulcerative stenosis of the transverse colon. Initially, the patient recovered on conservative treatment; however, because of persistent stenosis, an elective resection of the transverse colon was performed. A CT scan revealed free gas around the anastomosis on the fourth postoperative day. Relaparotomy revealed leakage and diffuse ischaemic changes around the anastomosis as well as perforations at different sites on the small bowel. Postoperative CT angiography showed stenosis of the proximal celiac trunk, which was successfully stented. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed luminal irregularities of the superior mesenteric, the middle colic as well as the main hepatic and splenic arteries. Eventually, the clinical presentation and surgical, radiologic and histopathological findings together led to the diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). Aggressive treatment with glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide resulted in the resolution of symptoms and the disappearance of radiologic abnormalities. PMID:22414672

  14. Loeffler's endocarditis presenting with acute abdominal aortic obstruction.

    PubMed

    Seol, Sang-Hoon; Song, Pil-Sang; Kim, Dong-Kie; Kim, Ki-Hun; Kim, Doo-Il; Han, Yang-Chun

    2013-11-01

    Loeffler's endocarditis is a complication of diseases associated with the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, which is characterised by persistently elevated blood eosinophil counts with symptoms and signs of organ involvement especially in the heart, vascular system, nervous system and bone marrow. We report the involvements of the endocardium and aorta, without endomyocardial fibrosis and the complete resolution of the endocardial eosinophilic infiltration with steroids and anticoagulation therapy. PMID:23548334

  15. Intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal perfusion pressure in cirrhotic patients with septic shock

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The importance of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal perfusion pressure (APP) in cirrhotic patients with septic shock is not well studied. We evaluated the relationship between IAP and APP and outcomes of cirrhotic septic patients, and assessed the ability of these measures compared to other common resuscitative endpoints to differentiate survivors from nonsurvivors. Methods This study was a post hoc analysis of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in which mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and IAP were measured every 6 h in 61 cirrhotic septic patients admitted to the intensive care unit. APP was calculated as MAP - IAP. Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) was defined as mean IAP ? 12 mmHg, and abdominal hypoperfusion as mean APP < 60 mmHg. Measured outcomes included ICU and hospital mortality, need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) and ventilator- and vasopressor-free days. Results IAH prevalence on the first ICU day was 82%, and incidence in the first 7 days was 97%. Compared to patients with normal IAP, IAH patients had significantly higher ICU mortality (74.0% vs. 27.3%, p = 0.005), required more RRT (78.0% vs. 45.5%, p = 0.06) and had lower ventilator- and vasopressor-free days. On a multivariate logistic regression analysis, IAH was an independent predictor of both ICU mortality (odds ratio (OR), 12.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.92 to 77.31, p = 0.008) and need for RRT (OR, 6.78; 95% CI, 1.29 to 35.70, p = 0.02). Using receiver operating characteristic curves, IAP (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.74, p = 0.004), APP (AUC = 0.71, p = 0.01), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (AUC = 0.71, p = 0.02), but not MAP, differentiated survivors from nonsurvivors. Conclusions IAH is highly prevalent in cirrhotic patients with septic shock and is associated with increased ICU morbidity and mortality. PMID:22873420

  16. Functional abdominal pain causing Scurvy, Pellagra, and Hypovitaminosis A.

    PubMed

    Ho, Edith Y; Mathy, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Severe vitamin deficiency disease is rarely seen in developed countries. We present an atypical case of a young man with scurvy, pellagra, and hypovitaminosis A, caused by longstanding functional abdominal pain that severely limited his ability to eat. PMID:24715978

  17. Raised intracranial pressure following abdominal closure in a polytrauma patient

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Liza; Wilson, Mark H

    2015-01-01

    Lesson We report a polytrauma case requiring simultaneous neurosurgery and laparotomy. Upon abdominal closure, raised intracranial pressure occurred. This illustrates the important physiological interplay between body compartments in critical care patients. PMID:25852954

  18. 38 CFR 4.113 - Coexisting abdominal conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...113 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE...varying degrees of abdominal distress or pain, anemia and disturbances in...

  19. 38 CFR 4.113 - Coexisting abdominal conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01...113 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE...varying degrees of abdominal distress or pain, anemia and disturbances in...

  20. 38 CFR 4.113 - Coexisting abdominal conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01...113 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE...varying degrees of abdominal distress or pain, anemia and disturbances in...

  1. 38 CFR 4.113 - Coexisting abdominal conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...113 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE...varying degrees of abdominal distress or pain, anemia and disturbances in...

  2. 38 CFR 4.113 - Coexisting abdominal conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01...113 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE...varying degrees of abdominal distress or pain, anemia and disturbances in...

  3. Diagnostic ultrasonography in cattle with abdominal fat necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the ultrasonographic findings in 14 cows with abdominal fat necrosis. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed the presence of heterogeneous hyperechoic masses and hyperechoic omentum with localized masses floating in a hypoechoic peritoneal fluid. A hyperechogenic rim was imaged around both kidneys. The intestines were coated with hyperechoic capsules and the intestinal lumens were constricted. Ultrasonographic examination of the pancreatic parenchyma showed an overall increased echogenicity which was homogenously distributed in 3 cases. A diagnosis of abdominal fat necrosis was made with ultrasound-guided biopsy of the echogenic masses, and thereafter at postmortem examination. Results from this study demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasonography as an imaging modality for antemortem diagnosis of abdominal lipomatosis in cattle. To the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first that illustrates ultrasonographic findings in cattle affected with abdominal lipomatosis. PMID:22753961

  4. Radiographic Marker for Portable Chest and Abdominal X-Rays

    Cancer.gov

    The NIH Clinical Center seeks parties interested in collaborative research to co-develop a method and apparatus that can significantly improve the diagnostic performance of portable chest (CXR) and abdominal x-rays.

  5. Chiropractic management of abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Weston, JP

    1995-01-01

    Aortic dilatation is a common and potentially life-threatening condition with which a patient may present to the chiropractor. It is most often detected in males over 50, particularly in association with hypertensive disease. This case illustrates the classic clinical and radiologic features of a large (13cms) abdominal aortic aneurysm. The manipulative management of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm is discussed. ImagesFigure 1(a)Figure 1(b)

  6. [Optimization of infusion therapy in large abdominal operations].

    PubMed

    Pasechnik, I N; Smeshnoi, I A; Gubaidullin, R R; Sal'nikov, P S

    2015-01-01

    Volume and consist of infusion therapy determine in many respects postoperative period in patients who underwent large abdominal operations. Purposeful infusion therapy controlled according to monitoring of stroke volume variability is perspective. It was proved that evaluation of this parameter allows to optimize consist and volume of transfused solutions intraoperatively. Use of purposeful infusion therapy was accompanied by decreasing of number of postoperative complications and duration of intensive care unit stay after large abdominal operations. PMID:26031816

  7. Extra-Abdominal Desmoid Tumors Associated with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, George T.; Monument, Michael J.; Burt, Randall W.; Jones, Kevin B.; Randall, R. Lor

    2012-01-01

    Extra-abdominal desmoid tumors are a significant cause of morbidity in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome. Understanding of the basic biology and natural history of these tumors has increased substantially over the past decade. Accordingly, medical and surgical management of desmoid tumors has also evolved. This paper analyzes recent evidence pertaining to the epidemiology, molecular biology, histopathology, screening, and treatment of extra-abdominal desmoid tumors associated with familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome. PMID:22701333

  8. Abdominal injuries in belt-positioning booster seats.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Jermakian, Jessica S; Ghati, Yoganand

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that booster seats reduce the risk of abdominal injuries by improving the fit of the seat belt on young children and encouraging better posture and compatibility with the vehicle seat. Recently, several studies have reported cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children questioning the protective effects of these restraints. The objective of this study was to examine cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children through parametric modeling to gain a thorough understanding of the injury causation scenarios. The Partners for Child Passenger Safety and CIREN in-depth crash investigation databases were queried to identify children in belt-positioning booster seats with abdominal injuries. The injury causation scenarios for these injuries were delineated using the CIREN Biotab method. The cases were modeled, using MADYMO with variations in key parameters, to determine the ranges of loads and loading rates for the abdomen and thorax. A parametric study was completed examining the influence of pretensioners and load limiters on the injury metrics obtained. Query of the two databases revealed three cases involving abdominal injuries to booster seated children. Children in two of the cases sustained a thoracic injury (AIS 3/AIS 4) in addition to their abdominal injuries (AIS 2) and review of these cases pointed to the role of shoulder belt loading in the injury causation. Modeling of these cases revealed chest compressions and accelerations of 30-53 mm and 41-89 g, respectively and abdominal deflection and velocity of 7.0-13.3 mm and 1.2-2.2 m/s, respectively. Parametric study suggested that coupling shoulder belt load limiting and lap belt buckle pretensioning resulted in improved chest and abdominal metrics while reducing head excursion, indicating that these technologies may provide injury reduction potential to pediatric rear seat occupants. PMID:20184845

  9. Abdominal cocoon with small bowel obstruction: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravinder; Chauhan, Dinesh; Dalal, Usha; Khurana, Ujjawal

    2012-04-01

    Abdominal cocoon is a rare condition that results in an intestinal obstruction due to total or partial encapsulation of the small bowel by a fibrocollagenous membrane. Treatment is surgical resection of the membrane and free the bowel. Preoperative diagnosis is possible with combination of sonography and CT scan. We report two cases where the diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was suggested preoperatively based on the sonography and CT scan of abdomen. PMID:21643736

  10. Abdominal cocoon: an unusual cause of subacute intestinal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Shah, Md Yunus S; Gedam, B S; Sonarkar, R; Gopinath, K S S

    2013-06-01

    We report an unusual cause of subacute intestinal obstruction in a young adolescent girl, which is a nontubercular abdominal cocoon. Barium meal follow-through revealed "cauliflower"-like appearance of small bowel. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy showing thick fibrous-like coverings which were encasing the small bowel loops to form an abdominal cocoon. Fibrocollagenous membrane was excised after adhesiolysis. Histopathological examination of membrane revealed fibrocollagenous membrane with hyaline deposition of nontubercular origin. PMID:24426626

  11. [Efficiency of preemptive intravenous paracetamol analgesia in abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Borisov, D B; Levin, A V; Vyl'iurov, I V; Sokolov, A V; Nedashkovski?, E V

    2007-01-01

    In a randomized, controlled study, 50 patients underwent elective surgery for abdominal cancer lesions under perioperative epidural analgesia. All the patients were randomized to receive paracetamol in a single intravenous dose of 1 g or placebo 30 minutes prior to the start of surgery. The use of 1 g of paracetamol as a single intravenous preemptive dose in abdominal surgery with perioperative epidural analgesia does not reduce the consumption of the analgesic and the intensity of pain in the postoperative period. PMID:18051491

  12. DIEP breast reconstruction following multiple abdominal liposuction procedures

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Simon; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Akali, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Previous abdominal wall surgery is viewed as a contraindication to abdominal free tissue transfer. We present two patients who underwent multiple abdominal liposuction procedures, followed by successful free deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. We review the literature pertaining to reliability of abdominal free flaps in those with previous abdominal surgery. Methods: Review of case notes and radiological investigations of two patients, and a PubMed search using the terms “DIEP”, “deep inferior epigastric”, “TRAM”, “transverse rectus abdominis”, “perforator” and “laparotomy”, “abdominal wall”, “liposuction”, “liposculpture”, “fat graft”, “pfannenstiel”, with subsequent appraisal of relevant papers by the first and second authors. Results: Patient 1 had 3 episodes of liposuction from the abdomen for fat grafting to a reconstructed breast. Subsequent revision reconstruction of the same breast with DIEP flap was preceded by CT angiography, which demonstrated normal perforator anatomy. The reconstruction healed well with no ischaemic complications. Patient 2 had 5 liposuction procedures from the abdomen to graft fat to a wide local excision defect. Recurrence of cancer led to mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with free DIEP flap. Preoperative MR angiography demonstrated a large perforator right of the umbilicus, with which the intraoperative findings were consistent. The patient had an uneventful recovery and good healing with no fat necrosis or wound dehiscence. Conclusions: We demonstrate that DIEP flaps can safely be raised without perfusion-related complications following multiple liposuction procedures to the abdomen. The safe interval between procedures is difficult to quantify, but we demonstrate successful free flap after 16 months. PMID:25671046

  13. A Coarctation of the Distal Thoracic Aorta with a Supradiaphragmatic Origin of the Celiacomesenteric Trunk: An Anatomic and Etiologic Description

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Youkyung; Lee, Whal Park, Jae Hyung; Ahn, Hyuk

    2010-10-15

    Stenosis of the distal thoracic aorta was found during an evaluation for incidentally detected hypertension in a 21-year-old male patient. A celiacomesenteric trunk originated from just above the coarctation site in the thorax, and the lower posterior intercostal arteries showed unusual low origins. Consideration of these anatomies suggests that the etiology of this case is congenital.

  14. Use of thallium 201 myocardial imaging to exclude myocardial infarction after dissection in congenital coarctation of the aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Halon, D.A.; Weiss, A.T.; Tzivoni, D.; Atlan, H.; Gotsman, M.S.

    1981-10-01

    The use of a mobile gamma camera with thallium 201 myocardial imaging is described to exclude myocardial infarction in a patient admitted to the coronary care unit in shock and with clinical, enzyme, and ECG changes consistent with infarction. The patient suffered from acute aortic dissection associated with congenital coarctation of the aorta. The myocardial scan excluded transmural myocardial injury.

  15. Phenotypic and Functional Heterogeneity of Macrophages and Dendritic Cell Subsets in the Healthy and Atherosclerosis-Prone Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Matthew J.; Galkina, Elena V.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis continues to be the leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Development of atherosclerosis depends on chronic inflammation in the aorta and multiple immune cells are involved in this process. Importantly, resident macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are present within the healthy aorta, but the functions of these cells remain poorly characterized. Local inflammation within the aortic wall promotes the recruitment of monocytes and DC precursors to the aorta and micro-environmental factors direct the differentiation of these emigrated cells into multiple subsets of macrophages and DCs. Recent data suggest that several populations of macrophages and DCs can co-exist within the aorta. Although the functions of M1, M2, Mox, and M4 macrophages are well characterized in vitro, there is a limited set of data on the role of these populations in atherogenesis in vivo. Recent studies on the origin and the potential role of aortic DCs provide novel insights into the biology of aortic DC subsets and prospective mechanisms of the immune response in atherosclerosis. This review integrates the results of experiments analyzing heterogeneity of DCs and macrophage subsets in healthy and diseased vessels and briefly discusses the known and potential functions of these cells in atherogenesis. PMID:22457649

  16. PREVALENCE AND EFFECTS OF INFECTION OF TIlE DORSAL AORTA IN YELLOWFIN TUNA, THUNNUS ALBACARES, BY THE

    E-print Network

    remain apparently unaffected by the parasitic occlusion oftheir dorsal aorta remains to be demonstrated and swimming muscles must flow past this occlusion, we assumed the parasite could be a major factor described intravascular parasites from the branchial vessels and arteries serving the stomach, liver, spleen

  17. Inactivity induces increases in abdominal fat.

    PubMed

    Laye, Matthew J; Thyfault, John P; Stump, Craig S; Booth, Frank W

    2007-04-01

    Previously, inducing inactivity for 53 h after 21 days of voluntary running resulted in a 25 and 48% increase in epididymal and omental fat pad weights, respectively, while rats continued to eat more than a group that never had access to a running wheel (J Physiol 565: 911-925, 2005). We wanted to test the hypothesis that inactivity, independent of excessive caloric intake, could induce an increase in fat pad mass. Twenty-one-day-old rats were given access to voluntary running wheels for 42-43 days so that they were running approximately 9 km/day in the last week of running, after which wheels were locked for 5, 53, or 173 h (WL5, WL53, WL173) before the rats were killed. During the 53 and 173 h of inactivity, one group of animals was pair fed (PF) to match sedentary controls, whereas the other continued to eat ad libitum (AL). Epididymal and retroperitoneal fat masses were significantly increased in the WL173-PF vs. the WL5 group, whereas epididymal, perirenal, and retroperitoneal fat masses were all significantly increased in the WL173-AL group compared with the WL5 group. Additionally, hyperplasia, and not hypertrophy, of the epididymal fat mass was responsible for the increase at WL173-AL as demonstrated by a significant increase in cell number vs. WL5, with no change in cell diameter or volume. Thus two important findings have been elucidated: 1) increases in measured abdominal fat masses occur in both AL and PF groups at WL173, and 2) adipocyte expansion via hyperplasia occurred with an ad libitum diet following cessation of voluntary running. PMID:17122374

  18. Anatomical prognostic factors after abdominal perineal resection

    SciTech Connect

    Walz, B.J.; Green, M.R.; Lindstrom, E.R.; Butcher, H.R. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    The natural history of 153 patients with rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma treated by abdominal perineal resection was retrospectively studied with emphasis on survival, clinical signs and symptoms of recurrence distantly and in the pelvis. We analyzed diagnostic factors that might predict tumor stage preoperatively and anatomical factors of the tumor itself that might predict behaviour of the lesion. Age, sex, tumor size, and distance from the anal verge were not useful in predicting stage. Constriction of the lesion tended to occur with high stage, but was not a reliable predictor. The grade or differentiation of the biopsy (when noted) did not correlate with either the grade of the resected specimen or the stage. The highest grade of the resected specimen was quite predictive of subsequent outcome. Seventy-three percent of the poorly differentiated tumors were Stage C or D, though a lower grade specimen did not rule out high stage. The Astler-Coller stage was reliable in predicting the likelihood of survival, pelvic recurrence, and distant metastases. In Stage C patients, the number of positive lymph node metastases strongly affected prognosis: if only one node was positive, survival was intermediate between Stages B and C; if more than seven nodes were positive, no patient survived. Of the evaluable cases, 48% survived clinically free of disease five or more years; 43% failed (died of the rectosigmoid tumor); 22% developed pelvic recurrence (6% pelvis only, 16% pelvis plus distant metastases). Fifty-two percent of the patients failing had tumor in the pelvis. Seven of the 56 failures (13%) occurred at or after five years; six of these seven failed locally, usually with metastases. Patients under age 40 or over age 80 and the same results as the group in general. Sixteen percent of the entire group had major complications, 52% minor. There were eight postoperative deaths (5%); 18 patients (12%) required reoperation.

  19. Three-dimensional photogrammetry as a tool for assessing morphometrics and estimating body mass of Steller sea lions 

    E-print Network

    Waite, Jason Neil

    2000-01-01

    A technique was developed to indirectly assess morphometrics and to estimate body mass of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus using three- dimensional (3D) photogrammetry. 3D computer wireframes of thirty-five Steller sea lions of various age...

  20. MRI Artifacts of a Metallic Stent Derived From a Human Aorta Specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, M. E.; Flores, P.; Marrufo, O.; Hidalgo, S. S.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2010-12-07

    Magnetic resonance imaging has proved to be a useful technique to get images of the whole body. However, the presence of ferromagnetic material can cause susceptibility artifacts, which result from microscopic gradients that occur near the boundaries between areas displaying different magnetic susceptibility. These gradients cause dephasing of spins and frequency shifts in the surrounding tissues. Intravoxel dephasing and spatial mis-registration can degrade image quality. An aorta with a metallic stent was preserved in formaldehyde at 10% inside acrylic cylinders and used to obtain MR images. We tested pulsed spin echo and gradient echo sequences to improve image quality. All experiments were performed on a 7T/21 cm Varian system (Varian, Inc, Palo Alto, CA) equipped with Direct Drive technology and a 16-rung birdcage coil transceiver. The presence of metallic stents produces a lack of signal that might give falsely reassuring appearances within the vessel lumen.

  1. Promotion of haematopoietic activity in embryonic stem cells by the aorta-gonad-mesonephros microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Krassowska, Anna; Gordon-Keylock, Sabrina; Samuel, Kay; Gilchrist, Derek; Dzierzak, Elaine; Oostendorp, Robert; Forrester, Lesley M. . E-mail: l.forrester@ed.ac.uk; Ansell, John D.

    2006-11-01

    We investigated whether the in vitro differentiation of ES cells into haematopoietic progenitors could be enhanced by exposure to the aorta-gonadal-mesonephros (AGM) microenvironment that is involved in the generation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) during embryonic development. We established a co-culture system that combines the requirements for primary organ culture and differentiating ES cells and showed that exposure of differentiating ES cells to the primary AGM region results in a significant increase in the number of ES-derived haematopoietic progenitors. Co-culture of ES cells on the AM20-1B4 stromal cell line derived from the AGM region also increases haematopoietic activity. We conclude that factors promoting the haematopoietic activity of differentiating ES cells present in primary AGM explants are partially retained in the AM20.1B4 stromal cell line and that these factors are likely to be different to those required for adult HSC maintenance.

  2. Contractile force is enhanced in Aortas from pendrin null mice due to stimulation of angiotensin II-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Sutliff, Roy L; Walp, Erik R; Kim, Young Hee; Walker, Lori A; El-Ali, Alexander M; Ma, Jing; Bonsall, Robert; Ramosevac, Semra; Eaton, Douglas C; Verlander, Jill W; Hansen, Laura; Gleason, Rudolph L; Pham, Truyen D; Hong, Seongun; Pech, Vladimir; Wall, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Pendrin is a Cl-/HCO3- exchanger expressed in the apical regions of renal intercalated cells. Following pendrin gene ablation, blood pressure falls, in part, from reduced renal NaCl absorption. We asked if pendrin is expressed in vascular tissue and if the lower blood pressure observed in pendrin null mice is accompanied by reduced vascular reactivity. Thus, the contractile responses to KCl and phenylephrine (PE) were examined in isometrically mounted thoracic aortas from wild-type and pendrin null mice. Although pendrin expression was not detected in the aorta, pendrin gene ablation changed contractile protein abundance and increased the maximal contractile response to PE when normalized to cross sectional area (CSA). However, the contractile sensitivity to this agent was unchanged. The increase in contractile force/cross sectional area observed in pendrin null mice was due to reduced cross sectional area of the aorta and not from increased contractile force per vessel. The pendrin-dependent increase in maximal contractile response was endothelium- and nitric oxide-independent and did not occur from changes in Ca2+ sensitivity or chronic changes in catecholamine production. However, application of 100 nM angiotensin II increased force/CSA more in aortas from pendrin null than from wild type mice. Moreover, angiotensin type 1 receptor inhibitor (candesartan) treatment in vivo eliminated the pendrin-dependent changes contractile protein abundance and changes in the contractile force/cross sectional area in response to PE. In conclusion, pendrin gene ablation increases aorta contractile force per cross sectional area in response to angiotensin II and PE due to stimulation of angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent signaling. The angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent increase in vascular reactivity may mitigate the fall in blood pressure observed with pendrin gene ablation. PMID:25148130

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF AORTIC TISSUE CUTTING PROCESS: EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION USING PORCINE ASCENDING AORTA

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhongwei; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Bi

    2012-01-01

    Understanding biomechanical responses during soft tissue cutting is important for developing surgical simulators and robot-assisted surgery with haptic feedback. The biomechanics involved in the aortic tissue cutting process is largely unknown. In this study, porcine ascending aorta was selected as a representative aortic tissue, and tissue cutting experiments were performed using a novel tissue cutting apparatus. The tissue cutting responses under various cutting conditions were investigated, including differing initial tissue lateral holding force and distance, cutting speed, cutter inclination angle, tissue anatomical orientation and thickness. The results from this study suggest that a “break-in” cutting force of about 4 – 12 N, a cutter “break-in” distance of 5 – 15 mm, and a continuous cutting force of 2 – 4 N were needed to cut through the porcine ascending aorta tissue. For all testing conditions investigated in this study, the cutting force vs. the cutter displacement curves exhibited similar characteristics. More importantly, this study demonstrated that tissue cutting involving one or more of the following conditions: a larger lateral holding force, a smaller lateral hold distance, a higher cutting speed or a larger inclination angle, could result in a smaller “break in” cutting force and a smaller “break-in” distance. In addition, it was found that the cutting force in the vessel longitudinal direction was larger than that in the circumferential direction. There was a strong correlation between the tissue thickness and the cutting force. The experimental results reported in this study could provide a basis for understanding the characteristic response of aortic tissue to scalpel cutting, and offer insight into the development of surgical simulators. PMID:23262306

  4. Levobupivacaine-induced contraction of isolated rat aorta is calcium dependent.

    PubMed

    Baik, Ji Seok; Sohn, Ju-Tae; Ok, Seong-Ho; Kim, Jae-Gak; Sung, Hui-Jin; Park, Sang-Seung; Park, Jae-Yong; Hwang, Eun Mi; Chung, Young-Kyun

    2011-07-01

    Levobupivacaine is a long-acting local anesthetic that intrinsically produces vasoconstriction in isolated vessels. The goals of this study were to investigate the calcium-dependent mechanism underlying levobupivacaine-induced contraction of isolated rat aorta in vitro and to elucidate the pathway responsible for the endothelium-dependent attenuation of levobupivacaine-induced contraction. Isolated rat aortic rings were suspended to record isometric tension. Cumulative levobupivacaine concentration-response curves were generated in either the presence or absence of the antagonists verapamil, nifedipine, SKF-96365, 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate, Gd(3+), N(W)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), and methylene blue, either alone or in combination. Verapamil, nifedipine, SKF-96365, 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate, low calcium concentrations, and calcium-free Krebs solution attenuated levobupivacaine-induced contraction. Gd(3+) had no effect on levobupivacaine-induced contraction. Levobupivacaine increased intracellular calcium levels in vascular smooth muscle cells. L-NAME, ODQ, and methylene blue increased levobupivacaine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aorta. SKF-96365 attenuated calcium-induced contraction in a previously calcium-free isotonic depolarizing solution containing 100 mmol/L KCl. Levobupivacaine-induced contraction of rat aortic smooth muscle is mediated primarily by calcium influx from the extracellular space mainly via voltage-operated calcium channels and, in part, by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The nitric oxide - cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway is involved in the endothelium-dependent attenuation of levobupivacaine-induced contraction. PMID:21812525

  5. Mepivacaine-induced contraction is attenuated by endothelial nitric oxide release in isolated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Sung, Hui-Jin; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Ok, Seong-Ho; Lee, Soo Hee; Hwang, Il Jeong; Kim, Hee Sook; Chang, Ki Churl; Shin, Il-Woo; Lee, Heon-Keun; Park, Kyeong-Eon; Chung, Young-Kyun; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2012-07-01

    Mepivacaine is an aminoamide-linked local anesthetic with an intermediate duration that intrinsically produces vasoconstriction both in vivo and in vitro. The aims of this in-vitro study were to examine the direct effect of mepivacaine in isolated rat aortic rings and to determine the associated cellular mechanism with a particular focus on endothelium-derived vasodilators, which modulate vascular tone. In the aortic rings with or without endothelium, cumulative mepivacaine concentration-response curves were generated in the presence or absence of the following antagonists: N(?)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME], indomethacin, fluconazole, methylene blue, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one [ODQ], verapamil, and calcium-free Krebs solution. Mepivacaine produced vasoconstriction at low concentrations (1 × 10(-3) and 3 × 10(-3) mol/L) followed by vasodilation at a high concentration (1 × 10(-2) mol/L). The mepivacaine-induced contraction was higher in endothelium-denuded aortae than in endothelium-intact aortae. Pretreatment with L-NAME, ODQ, and methylene blue enhanced mepivacaine-induced contraction in the endothelium-intact rings, whereas fluconazole had no effect. Indomethacin slightly attenuated mepivacaine-induced contraction, whereas verapamil and calcium-free Krebs solution more strongly attenuated this contraction. The vasoconstriction induced by mepivacaine is attenuated mainly by the endothelial nitric oxide - cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway. In addition, mepivacaine-induced contraction involves cyclooxygenase pathway activation and extracellular calcium influx via voltage-operated calcium channels. PMID:22702717

  6. Application of GIS and RS for Morphometric Analysis of Upper Bhima Basin: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Amol D.; Sarup, Jyoti; Mittal, Sushil Kumar

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a morphometric analysis of Upper Bhima Basin (UBB), located in state of Maharahstra, India. Study area is in western part of Maharashtra State, which has a huge socio—economic impact as many towns and metros are emerged as important centres for employment, industrial hubs, and Information Technology (IT) parks. The study focuses only on the morphometric analysis of UBB. Analysis done using ArcGIS software, by digitizing the toposheets, georeferencing them and then analyzing in the GIS environment. The analysis revealed that the basin was of seventh order with dendritic type of drainage pattern. Results revealed that the value of bifurcation ratio Rb lies between 3 and 5. Values of drainage density range from 1.60 to 0.01 km/km2, indicating low drainage density. Average value of drainage density is 0.374 km/km2 for entire basin, so classifying the basin as coarse.

  7. Prioritization of watershed through morphometric parameters: a PCA-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshram, Sarita Gajbhiye; Sharma, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques have become very important these days as they aid planners and decision makers to make effective and correct decisions and designs. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) involves a mathematical procedure that transforms a number of (possibly) correlated variables into a (smaller) number of uncorrelated variables. It reduces the dimensionality of the data set and identifies a new meaningful underlying variable. Morphometric analysis and prioritization of the sub-watersheds of Shakkar River Catchment, Narsinghpur district in Madhya Pradesh State, India, is carried out using RS and GIS techniques as discussed in Gajbhiye et al. (Appl Water Sci 4(1):51-61, 2013b). In this study we apply PCA technique in Shakkar River Catchment for redundancy of morphometric parameters and find the more effective parameters for prioritization of the watershed and discuss the comparison between Gajbhiye et al. (Appl Water Sci 4(1):51-61, 2013b) and the present prioritization scheme.

  8. Genetic and morphometric differentiation between island and mainland southern elephant seal populations.

    PubMed Central

    Hoelzel, A. R.; Campagna, C.; Arnbom, T.

    2001-01-01

    We compare genetic (both nuclear and mitochondrial) and morphometric measures between two putative populations of southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina), and interpret the results in the context of data from mark-recapture and satellite-telemetric studies. One population is on the Argentine mainland, while the other is 2,400 km away on South Georgia island. We found pronounced differentiation at the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region that was distinct from the pattern of variation seen among island rookeries. Some morphometric characters and seven out of ten nuclear-DNA markers also showed differentiation between the island and mainland sites. Diversity at nuclear markers was high in both populations but mtDNA diversity was low in the mainland population, suggesting a founder event and little subsequent immigration of females. Morphological differences may suggest different selective environments at the two sites. PMID:11217905

  9. Small impact craters in the polar regions of the Moon: Peculiarities of morphometric characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhanov, A. A.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Karachevtseva, I. P.

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes a computer-aided algorithm for determining the morphometric parameters of simple (bowl-shaped) impact craters by digital terrain models (DTMs). The original algorithm was tested on the mass morphometric measurements of small impact craters (from 100 m to 1 km in diameter) on several highlands of the Moon including the polar regions. Analysis of the results showed that the craters in the polar regions differ from those on the other highlands; in particular, fresh craters are systematically less deep. Moreover, near the poles, a typical shape of the inner part of the craters is somewhat closer to a bowl, while it is more conical on the typical highlands. These peculiarities may be connected with low temperatures and the presence of volatiles in the near-surface layer in the polar regions of the Moon.

  10. Comparative morphometrics of two populations of giant river catfish (Mystus seenghala) from the Indus river system.

    PubMed

    Saini, Archana; Dua, Anish; Mohindra, Vindhya

    2008-09-01

    Giant river catfish (Mystus seenghala) from the Beas river were compared with a population in the Sutlej river of the Indus river system using 28 morphometric characters. Discriminant analyses and a univariate anova were used to explore these data. Allometric transformation of each measurement was done to eliminate correlations with size. The stepwise discriminant analysis retained nine variables that significantly discriminated the Beas samples from the Sutlej samples. Using these variables, 91.2% (original) and 89.0% (cross validated) of fish were classified into their correct samples. Misclassification was higher for the Sutlej samples (12.5%) than for the Beas samples (6.3%). The results of the discriminant analyses showed that variability in the Beas samples was more homogeneous and provided a more characteristic picture of the group than the Sutlej samples. The univariate ANOVA revealed significant differences between the means of the two populations for 12 of the 28 transformed morphometric measurements. PMID:21396072

  11. The spinning apparatus of webspinners – functional-morphology, morphometrics and spinning behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Büsse, Sebastian; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas; Hohu, Kyle; McMillan, David; Edgerly, Janice S.

    2015-01-01

    Webspinners (Insecta: Embioptera) have a distinctly unique behaviour with related morphological characteristics. Producing silk with the basitarsomeres of their forelegs plays a crucial role in the lives of these insects – providing shelter and protection. The correlation between body size, morphology and morphometrics of the spinning apparatus and the spinning behaviour of Embioptera was investigated for seven species using state-of-the-art methodology for behavioural as well as for morphological approaches. Independent contrast analysis revealed correlations between morphometric characters and body size. Larger webspinners in this study have glands with greater reservoir volume, but in proportionally smaller tarsi relative to body size than in the smaller species. Furthermore, we present a detailed description and review of the spinning apparatus in Embioptera in comparison to other arthropods and substantiate the possible homology of the embiopteran silk glands to class III dermal silk glands of insects. PMID:25950122

  12. Cranial morphometric study of four giant flying squirrels (Petaurista) (Rodentia: Sciuridae) from China.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Yu, Fa-Hong; Lv, Xue-Fei

    2012-04-01

    The present study revisited the controversial taxonomic status of Petaurista yunanensis, P. philippensis, P. hainana, and P. petaurista by using a considerably extended set of morphometrical characters (26 cranial variables from 60 adult specimen skulls). The results revealed no sexual dimorphism in any of the four species but confirmed significant craniometric differences among the four species in both the principal components analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA), with the greatest distinction observed between P. petaurista and other Petaurista species. Both univariate and multivariate analysis indicated that the morphological differences between P. yunanensis and P. philippensis were less than that between P. philippensis and P. hainana. The morphometric results were concordant in geographic patterns with mtDNA data from previous studies and indicated that P. petaurista, P. hainana, P. philippensis, and P. yunanensis could be recognized as valid species. PMID:22467385

  13. Lujiatun Psittacosaurids: Understanding Individual and Taphonomic Variation Using 3D Geometric Morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Brandon P.; Dodson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Psittacosaurus is one of the most abundant and speciose genera in the Dinosauria, with fifteen named species. The genus is geographically and temporally widespread with large sample sizes of several of the nominal species allowing detailed analysis of intra- and interspecific variation. We present a reanalysis of three separate, coeval species within the Psittacosauridae; P. lujiatunensis, P. major, and Hongshanosaurus houi from the Lujiatun beds of the Yixian Formation, northeastern China, using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics on a sample set of thirty skulls in combination with a reevaluation of the proposed character states for each species. Using these complementary methods, we show that individual and taphonomic variation are the joint causes of a large range of variation among the skulls when they are plotted in a morphospace. Our results demonstrate that there is only one species of Psittacosaurus within the Lujiatun beds and that the three nominal species represent different taphomorphotypes of P. lujiatunensis. The wide range of geometric morphometric variation in a single species of Psittacosaurus implies that the range of variation found in other dinosaurian groups may also be related to taphonomic distortion rather than interspecific variation. As the morphospace is driven primarily by variation resulting from taphonomic distortion, this study demonstrates that the geometric morphometric approach can only be used with great caution to delineate interspecific variation in Psittacosaurus and likely other dinosaur groups without a complementary evaluation of character states. This study presents the first application of 3D geometric morphometrics to the dinosaurian morphospace and the first attempt to quantify taphonomic variation in dinosaur skulls. PMID:23950887

  14. 3D Morphometric and Posture Study of Felid Scapulae Using Statistical Shape Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai Yu; Wiktorowicz-Conroy, Alexis; Hutchinson, John R.; Doube, Michael; Klosowski, Michal; Shefelbine, Sandra J.; Bull, Anthony M. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a three dimensional (3D) morphometric modelling study of the scapulae of Felidae, with a focus on the correlations between forelimb postures and extracted scapular shape variations. Our shape modelling results indicate that the scapular infraspinous fossa becomes larger and relatively broader along the craniocaudal axis in larger felids. We infer that this enlargement of the scapular fossa may be a size-related specialization for postural support of the shoulder joint. PMID:22509335

  15. Morphometric and geomorphic approaches for assessment of tectonic activity, Dead Sea Rift (Israel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtober-Zisu, Nurit; Greenbaum, Noam; Inbar, Moshe; Flexer, Akiva

    2008-11-01

    A series of 31 short, parallel, steep channels, mostly of first or second order, occur at intervals of 300-500 m along 16 km of the western margin of the northern Dead Sea Rift (Israel). The analysis of tectonic and geometric activity along the marginal faults between the various segments is based on morphometric parameters, such as sinuosity of the mountain front, channel gradients, drainage basin elongation ratio, planimetric ratio, facet areas, hypsometric curves, and integrals. Longitudinal profiles of the channels were studied in relation to the underlying lithology and the presence of marginal faults. Despite the great differences in climatic and geomorphologic settings, comparison with other studies worldwide showed morphometric values similar to other tectonically active regions. The southern segments of the study area, which face the Hula deep depression, indicate enhanced geomorphic and tectonic activity. The northern segment proved dissimilar to the others, and is explained by its different tectonic setting. Six sedimentary, fan-like units composed of polymictic conglomerates were deposited along the mountain piedmont at the channel mouths. The units were dated by OSL, K-Ar, and archaeology to < 1.1 Ma (Q 1 and Q 1-1), < 0.56 Ma (Unit Q 2), ~ 120 ka (Unit Q 3), and < 10 ka (Units Q 4 and Q 5). The morphology and structure of the sedimentary units indicate pulses of depositional activity, followed by periods of quiescence and calcic-soil development. No major faulting occurred along the Naftali escarpment during the Upper Pleistocene, despite the high tectonic morphometric values obtained for the study area. The marginal faults displaced Unit Q 2 during the Mid-Pleistocene, and since then tectonic activity has shifted from the western marginal faults eastward to younger faults deeply buried in the center of the graben. The field data calibrate the morphometric analysis: carbonate (limestone and dolomite) hillslopes developed in the Mediterranean climate have maintained 'active tectonic class' morphology since the last major faulting events during the Mid-Pleistocene.

  16. Morphometric magnetic resonance imaging and genetic testing in cerebellar abiotrophy in Arabian horses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cerebellar abiotrophy (CA) is a rare but significant disease in Arabian horses caused by progressive death of the Purkinje cells resulting in cerebellar ataxia characterized by a typical head tremor, jerky head movements and lack of menace response. The specific role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to support clinical diagnosis has been discussed. However, as yet MR imaging has only been described in one equine CA case. The role of MR morphometry in this regard is currently unknown. Due to the hereditary nature of the disease, genetic testing can support the diagnosis of CA. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform MR morphometric analysis and genetic testing in four CA-affected Arabian horses and one German Riding Pony with purebred Arabian bloodlines in the third generation. Results CA was diagnosed pathohistologically in the five affected horses (2 months - 3 years) supported by clinical signs, necropsy, and genetic testing which confirmed the TOE1:g.2171G>A SNP genotype A/A in all CA-affected horses. On MR images morphometric analysis of the relative cerebellar size and relative cerebellar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space were compared to control images of 15 unaffected horses. It was demonstrated that in MR morphometric analyses, CA affected horses displayed a relatively smaller cerebellum compared to the entire brain mass than control animals (P = 0.0088). The relative cerebellar CSF space was larger in affected horses (P = 0.0017). Using a cut off value of 11.0% for relative cerebellar CSF space, the parameter differentiated between CA-affected horses and controls with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 93.3%. Conclusions In conclusion, morphometric MRI and genetic analysis could be helpful to support the diagnosis of CA in vivo. PMID:23702154

  17. Noninvasive monitoring of intra-abdominal pressure by measuring abdominal wall tension

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan-zhuo; Yan, Shu-ying; Chen, Yan-qing; Zhuang, Yu-gang; Wei, Zhao; Zhou, Shu-qin; Peng, Hu

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noninvasive monitoring of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) by measuring abdominal wall tension (AWT) was effective and feasible in previous postmortem and animal studies. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of the AWT method for noninvasively monitoring IAP in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: In this prospective study, we observed patients with detained urethral catheters in the ICU of Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital between April 2011 and March 2013. The correlation between AWT and urinary bladder pressure (UBP) was analyzed by linear regression analysis. The effects of respiratory and body position on AWT were evaluated using the paired samples t test, whereas the effects of gender and body mass index (BMI) on baseline AWT (IAP<12 mmHg) were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were studied. A significant linear correlation was observed between AWT and UBP (R=0.986, P<0.01); the regression equation was Y=–1.369+9.57X (P<0.01). There were significant differences among the different respiratory phases and body positions (P<0.01). However, gender and BMI had no significant effects on baseline AWT (P=0.457 and 0.313, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant linear correlation between AWT and UBP and respiratory phase, whereas body position had significant effects on AWT but gender and BMI did not. Therefore, AWT could serve as a simple, rapid, accurate, and important method to monitor IAP in critically ill patients. PMID:26056545

  18. Dietary Energy Density: A Mediator of Depressive Symptoms and Abdominal Obesity or Independent Predictor of Abdominal Obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Gary, Rebecca; Tohill, Beth C.; Frediani, Jennifer K.; Higgins, Melinda K.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the U.S., Europe, and throughout the world, abdominal obesity prevalence is increasing. Depressive symptoms may contribute to abdominal obesity through the consumption of diets high in energy density. Purpose To test dietary energy density ([DED]; kilocalories/gram of food and beverages consumed) for an independent relationship with abdominal obesity or as a mediator between depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity. Methods This cross-sectional study included 87 mid-life, overweight adults; 73.6% women; 50.6% African-American. Variables and measures: Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) to measure depressive symptoms; 3-day weighed food records to calculate DED; waist circumference, an indicator of abdominal obesity. Hierarchical regression tested if DED explained waist circumference variance while controlling for depressive symptoms and consumed food and beverage weight. Three approaches tested DED as a mediator. Results Nearly three-quarters of participants had abdominal obesity, and the mean waist circumference was 103.2 (SD 14.3) cm. Mean values: BDI-II was 8.67 (SD 8.34) which indicates most participants experienced minimal depressive symptoms, and 21.8% reported mild to severe depressive symptoms (BDI-II ? 14); DED was 0.75 (SD 0.22) kilocalories/gram. Hierarchical regression showed an independent association between DED and waist circumference with DED explaining 7.0% of variance above that accounted for by BDI-II and food and beverage weight. DED did not mediate between depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity. Conclusions Depressive symptoms and DED were associated with elevated waist circumference, thus a comprehensive intervention aimed at improving depressive symptoms and decreasing DED to reduce waist circumference is warranted. PMID:21530408

  19. Advanced abdominal pregnancy: an increasingly challenging clinical concern for obstetricians

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ke; Song, Lei; Wang, Longxia; Gao, Zhiying; Meng, Yuanguang; Lu, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    Advanced abdominal pregnancy is rare. The low incidence, high misdiagnosis rate, and lack of specific clinical signs and symptoms explain the fact that there are no standard diagnostic and treatment options available for advanced abdominal pregnancy. We managed a case of abdominal pregnancy in a woman who was pregnant for the first time. This case was further complicated by a concurrent singleton intrauterine pregnancy; the twin pregnancy was not detected until 20 weeks of pregnancy. The case was confirmed at 26 weeks gestational age using MRI to be an abdominal combined with intrauterine pregnancy. The pregnancy was terminated by cesarean section at 33 + 5 weeks gestation. We collected the relevant data of the case while reviewing the advanced abdominal pregnancy-related English literature in the Pubmed, Proquest, and OVID databases. We compared and analyzed the pregnancy history, gestational age when the diagnosis was confirmed, the placental colonization position, the course of treatment and surgical processes, related concurrency rate, post-operative drug treatment programs, and follow-up results with the expectation to provide guidance for other physicians who might encounter similar cases. PMID:25337188

  20. Unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrisome abdominal mass: Pedunculated GISTs?

    PubMed Central

    Baskiran, Adil; Otan, Emrah; Aydin, Cemalettin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Discovery of abdominal masses often poses significant diagnostic difficulties. GISTs are mesenchymal masses, with specific histological features. Dimensions may vary from millimeters to giant tumours. We would like to present our case, which had an unexpectedly easy operative course which was easily handled with a simple surgical excision with a short operative duration. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 38 years old female patient was diagnosed to have an abdominal heterogen mass of 15 cm × 12 cm × 10 cm in dimension. Abdominal computed tomography revealed the solid mass between the stomach and pancreas corpus and tail, possibly orginating from the pancreas. With the preoperative diagnosis of locally invasive distal pancreas cancer the patient underwent laparotomy, following the dissection, the mass was observed to be originating from the posterior gastric Wall, extending exophytically with a peduncle of 5 cm in width, without any visual evidence for peritoneal invasion and metastasis. The tumour and the peduncle was resected with stapler device. Total operation time was 30 min. Postoperative course was uneventful. Pathologic diagnosis was gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). DISCUSSION Pedunculated large GISTs are not frequent and they can enlarge as 15 cm in diameter and compress the neighbouring organs. When they were huge, it is difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. GISTs should be considered in differential diagnosis of giant abdominal masses. CONCLUSION When GISTs are huge and pedunculated, it can be difficult to differentiate the origin of the masses. This case report presents unexpectedly ease surgery for a worrysome abdominal mass. PMID:23999120

  1. Advanced abdominal pregnancy: an increasingly challenging clinical concern for obstetricians.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ke; Song, Lei; Wang, Longxia; Gao, Zhiying; Meng, Yuanguang; Lu, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    Advanced abdominal pregnancy is rare. The low incidence, high misdiagnosis rate, and lack of specific clinical signs and symptoms explain the fact that there are no standard diagnostic and treatment options available for advanced abdominal pregnancy. We managed a case of abdominal pregnancy in a woman who was pregnant for the first time. This case was further complicated by a concurrent singleton intrauterine pregnancy; the twin pregnancy was not detected until 20 weeks of pregnancy. The case was confirmed at 26 weeks gestational age using MRI to be an abdominal combined with intrauterine pregnancy. The pregnancy was terminated by cesarean section at 33 + 5 weeks gestation. We collected the relevant data of the case while reviewing the advanced abdominal pregnancy-related English literature in the Pubmed, Proquest, and OVID databases. We compared and analyzed the pregnancy history, gestational age when the diagnosis was confirmed, the placental colonization position, the course of treatment and surgical processes, related concurrency rate, post-operative drug treatment programs, and follow-up results with the expectation to provide guidance for other physicians who might encounter similar cases. PMID:25337188

  2. Abdominal tuberculosis in urban Britain--a common disease.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, K R; Patil, D H; Basran, G S; Riordan, J F; Silk, D B

    1985-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1983 abdominal tuberculosis was responsible for the admission of 90 patients to a west London district general hospital. Over the same period Crohn's disease was newly diagnosed in 102 hospitalised patients. In contrast with Crohn's disease, the majority (75) of tuberculous patients were Asian immigrants. Mean duration of residence in the United Kingdom was 4 +/- 0.9 (SD) years, and mean age at presentation was 34.9 +/- 1.1 years. Forty per cent of tuberculosis patients presented as an acute emergency to physicians, surgeons, or gynaecologists while the remainder presented a more insidious, chronic picture. Five groups of tuberculous patients were recognised. Forty two subjects had intestinal tuberculosis characterised by pain (100%), abdominal mass (43%) and abnormal contrast radiology (100%). Ten of these underwent emergency laparotomy for intestinal obstruction or perforation. Twenty seven patients had tuberculous peritonitis although only 16 had ascites. Eight patients presented with pyrexia and granulomatous hepatitis. Five had pulmonary and abdominal tuberculosis. The remaining eight patients represented a miscellaneous group. The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis was established histologically (60 cases), bacteriologically (six cases) or radiologically (24 cases). Chest radiograph, tuberculin skin testing and paracentesis were usually unhelpful. Five severely ill patients died. The remainder recovered completely after specific triple chemotherapy and response to treatment was usually evident within 14 days. In urban Britain tuberculosis is an important cause of abdominal disease. Prognosis is excellent following specific therapy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:4085907

  3. Prediction of Regulatory Networks in Mouse Abdominal Wall

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Diana; Campbell, Adam; Hilton, Traci; Leid, Mark; Gross, Michael K.; Kioussi, Chrissa

    2010-01-01

    Sequence specific transcription factors are essential for pattern formation and cell differentiation processes in mammals. The formation of the abdominal wall depends on a flawless merge of several developmental fields in time and space. Absence of Pitx2 leads to open abdominal wall in mice, while mutations in humans result in umbilical defects, suggesting that a single homeobox transcription factor coordinates the formation and patterning of this anatomical structure. Gene expression analysis from abdominal tissue including the abdominal wall after removal of the major organs, of wild type, Pitx2 heterozygote and mutant mice, at embryonic day 10.5, identified 275 genes with altered expression levels. Pitx2 target genes were clustered using the “David Bioinformatics Functional Annotation Tool” web application, which bins genes according to gene ontology (GO) key word enrichment. This provided a way to both narrow the target gene list and to start identifying potential gene families regulated by Pitx2. Target genes in the most enriched bins were further analyzed for the presence and the evolutionary conservation of Pitx2 consensus binding sequence, TAATCY, on the ?20kb, intronic and coding gene sequences. Twenty Pitx2 target genes that passed all the above criteria were classified as genes involved in cell transport and growth. Data from these studies suggest that Pitx2 acts as an inhibitor of protein transport and cell apoptosis contributing to the open body wall phenotype. This work provides the framework to which the developmental network leading to abdominal wall syndromes can be built. PMID:20797427

  4. Population studies of Glossina pallidipes in Ethiopia: emphasis on cuticular hydrocarbons and wing morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Getahun, M N; Cecchi, G; Seyoum, E

    2014-10-01

    Tsetse flies, like many insects, use pheromones for inter- and intra-specific communication. Several of their pheromones are cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) that are perceived by contact at close range. We hypothesized that for a successful implementation of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), along with proper identification of target area and target species, the target tsetse populations and the sterile flies must chemically communicate with each other. To study the population structuring of Glossina pallidipes in Ethiopia, CHCs were extracted and analyzed from three tsetse belts. As a comparative approach, wing morphometric analysis was performed. The analysis of the relative abundance of CHCs revealed that populations of G. pallidipes from the Rift Valley tsetse belt showed a distinct clustering compared to populations from the other two belts. The spatial pattern of CHC differences was complemented by the wing morphometric analysis. Our data suggest that CHCs of known biological and ecological role, when combined with wing morphometric data, will provide an alternative means for the study of population structuring of Glossina populations. This could aid the planning of area wide control strategies using SIT, which is dependent on sexual competence. PMID:24751419

  5. A morphometric study of the canine colon: comparison of control dogs and cases of colonic disease.

    PubMed Central

    Spinato, M T; Barker, I K; Houston, D M

    1990-01-01

    The microstructure of the canine colon was described morphometrically. The artifacts induced by administration of enemas and biopsy technique were studied by comparing biopsy specimens to tissues obtained at necropsy from 15 normal dogs. Biopsies from control dogs and clinical cases of colonic disease were then evaluated quantitatively, and histological abnormalities which might clarify mechanisms underlying large bowel dysfunction in the dog were sought. In control dogs, gland length and diameter, epithelial, goblet cell and mucosal mast cell numbers, and intraepithelial lymphocyte and mitotic indices were remarkably uniform throughout the colon. Minor variations were found in the proximal and distal regions of the colon. An apparent shortening of glands, and a reduction in mucous goblets and intraepithelial lymphocytes in biopsies were attributed to suboptimal orientation and irritation caused by enemas. The only significant difference from controls identified by morphometric analysis of biopsies from clinical cases was fewer epithelial cells lining longitudinal sections of glands. It was concluded that failure to identify morphometric variations in the colonic mucosa of clinical cases might reflect either a biased, homogeneously mild clinical syndrome in this group, or the possibility that in many of the clinical cases, a functional rather than physical abnormality was involved. The proprial inflammatory cell population was not examined quantitatively; further investigation of this component is merited. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2249180

  6. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Lashkari, Mohammadreza; Hentz, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB), is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida). The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1), Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1), and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6), to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran—Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida—Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan—Punjab) were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks’ lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001). The body length (BL), circumanal ring length (CL), antenna length (AL), forewing length (WL) and Rs vein length of forewing (RL) were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1) Iran, (2) USA (Florida) and (3) Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations. PMID:26038715

  7. Morphometric evaluation of Swarnrekha watershed, Madhya Pradesh, India: an integrated GIS-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Abhishek; Singh, Prafull; Pratap, Kamleshwar

    2015-10-01

    The quantitative analysis of the watershed is vital to understand the hydrological setup of any terrain. The present study deals with quantitative evaluation of Swarnrekha Watershed, Madhya Pradesh, India based on IRS satellite data and SRTM DEM. Morphometric parameters of the watershed were evaluated by computations of linear and areal aspect using standard methodology in GIS environment. ARC GIS software was utilized for morphometric component analysis and delineation of the watershed using SRTM digital elevation model (DEM). The watershed is drained by a fifth-order river and shown a dendritic drainage pattern, which is a sign of the homogeneity in texture and lack of structural control. The drainage density in the area has been found to be low which indicates that the area possesses highly permeable soils and low relief. The bifurcation ratio varies from 3.00 to 5.60 and elongation ratio is 0.518 which reveals that the basin belongs to the elongated shape basin and has the potential for water management. The main objective of the paper is to extract the morphometric parameters of the watershed and their relevance in water resource evaluation management. The results observed from this work would be useful in categorization of watershed for future water management and selection recharge structure in the area.

  8. Do iodinated nano-emulsions designed for preclinical vascular imaging alter the vascular reactivity in rat aorta?

    PubMed

    Anton, Nicolas; Atzenhoffer, Marina; Daubeuf, François; Li, Xiang; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B; Delmotte, Barbara; Vandamme, Thierry F; Chataigneau, Thierry

    2013-09-15

    This study proposes a new methodology to evaluate the putative consequences of the long-lasting circulation in the blood pool of nanoparticulate systems widely used in nanomedicine, Indeed, the blood pool contrast agent for micro-computed tomography, i.e. iodinated nano-emulsions, have recently been developed, for their great potential in medical applications such as advanced diagnosis, image-guided surgery, personalized medicine or theragnostics. Stealth nanoparticles exhibit a low recognition by the reticuloendothelial system, resulting in a prolonged circulation in the bloodstream and long-lasting contact with the endothelium. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to determine whether this prolonged interaction could induce an alteration of the vascular reactivity in rat aorta. The Iodinated nano-emulsions were intravenously injected in anesthetized rats. After 1h of contrast agent circulation in the blood pool, the thoracic aorta was removed for the study of vascular reactivity. These animals were compared with control (untreated) rats and a third group of rats receiving an injection of phosphate buffered saline (i.e. dispersing phase of the nano-emulsions). Phenylephrine-induced concentration-dependent contractions of the isolated rat thoracic aorta were not modified whatever the group. Sodium nitroprusside (a nitric oxide (NO) donor)-induced relaxations of endothelium-denuded aorta were also unaltered in response to the different administrations. In contrast, in comparison with control animals, endothelium-dependent NO-mediated relaxations to acetylcholine were significantly impaired in thoracic aorta from PBS-treated rats, but not in animals receiving the iodinated nano-emulsion. In addition, neither isoprenaline-induced nor levcromakalim-induced relaxations were modified in the aorta from the three groups of animals. These findings indicate that even with a long-lasting residence time of the iodinated nano-emulsion in the blood flow, these iodinated nano-emulsions do not alter the vascular reactivity and thus can be used as contrast agent for preclinical vascular imaging on small laboratory animals. PMID:23850235

  9. Giant adrenal hemangioma: Unusual cause of huge abdominal mass

    PubMed Central

    Tarchouli, Mohamed; Boudhas, Adil; Ratbi, Moulay Brahim; Essarghini, Mohamed; Njoumi, Noureddine; Sair, Khalid; Zentar, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal hemangioma is an extremely rare benign and non-functioning neoplasm of the adrenal gland. We report a case of a 71-year-old woman admitted for intermittent abdominal pain and abdominal distension associated with vomiting and chronic constipation for 5 years. Physical examination revealed a large abdominal mass. Both computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging suggested hemangioma in the right lobe of the liver. Laboratory examinations and tumour markers were within normal limits, except for hypochromic microcytic anemia. The mass was removed intact by conventional surgery and histopathology revealed a cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland with no signs of malignancy. Surgical resection was curative, with no recurrence at the 2-year follow-up. PMID:26600897

  10. Delayed repair for traumatic abdominal wall hernia: is it safe?

    PubMed

    Sall, I; El Kaoui, H; Bouchentouf, S M; Ait Ali, A; Bounaim, A; Hajjouji, A; Baba, H; Fahssi, M; Alhyane, A; Zentar, A; Sair, K

    2009-08-01

    Abdominal wall hernias after trauma have been recognized for more than a century, with the first case reported as occurring after a fall. Traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWHs) after blunt trauma are uncommon. The timing of definitive repair, early or delayed, is not clear. We report a case on TAWH and mesenteric avulsion, highlighting the reasons for immediate or delayed repair. A single case study can hardly be considered as a basis for profound changes in the management of post traumatic hernias. However, damage to all layers of the abdominal wall indicates high-energy trauma. In such cases, the damage is not, in all probability, limited to the integumentary system. For the moment, the timing of surgery in any TAWH should be considered differently according to the trauma, the wall defect, clinical and radiological findings, associated injuries, and the clinical status of the patient. PMID:19153644

  11. Abdominal calcifications and diagnostic imaging decision making: a topic review

    PubMed Central

    Bassano, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review commonly encountered calcifications found within the abdomen as seen on the lumbar spine radiograph and to determine which advanced imaging modality is best to thoroughly assess the patient. Methods Searches of electronic databases and textbooks were conducted to construct this narrative overview. Discussion By categorizing the type of calcification and localizing it anatomically, most often a definitive diagnosis can be reached. Two commonly encountered conditions, abdominal aortic aneurysms and urinary calculi, are used to compare the main advanced imaging modalities (diagnostic ultrasound and computed tomography) used to further assess abdominal calcifications. Conclusion In most circumstances, either diagnostic ultrasound or computed tomography will establish a definitive diagnosis and offer thorough imaging assessment for abdominal calcifications. PMID:19674671

  12. Intraoperative Dexmedetomidine Promotes Postoperative Analgesia in Patients After Abdominal Colectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dong-Jian; Qi, Bin; Tang, Gang; Li, Jin-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Surgery-induced acute postoperative pain may lead to prolonged convalescence. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of intraoperative dexmedetomidine on postoperative analgesia following abdominal colectomy surgeries. Eighty patients scheduled for abdominal colectomy surgery under general anesthesia were divided into 2 groups, which were maintained using propofol/remifentanil/dexmedetomidine (PRD) or propofol/remifentanil/saline (PRS). During surgery, patients in the PRD group had a lower bispectral index (BIS) value, which indicated a deeper anesthetic state, and a higher sedation score right after extubation than patients in the PRS group. During the first 24?hours post surgery, PRD patients consumed less morphine in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and had a lower score in the visual analog scale (VAS) testing than their controls from the PRS group. Intraoperative administration of dexmedetomidine appears to promote the analgesic property of morphine-based PCA in patients after abdominal colectomy. PMID:26376397

  13. Abdominal perforator vs. muscle sparing flaps for breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liza C.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominally based free flaps have become the mainstay for women that desire to use their own tissue as a means of breast reconstruction after mastectomy. As the techniques have evolved, significant effort has been invested in finding the best means of minimizing morbidity to the abdominal donor site while ensuring a viable reconstructed breast that is aesthetically pleasing. This manuscript reviews and compares the muscle sparing free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (MsfTRAM), the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP), and the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flaps, regarding flap success rate, operative times, abdominal donor site morbidity and residual functionality, hospital lengths of stay and associated costs, impact of co-morbid conditions, and resilience after adjuvant radiation treatment. PMID:26161306

  14. Support Vector Machine Diagnosis of Acute Abdominal Pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björnsdotter, Malin; Nalin, Kajsa; Hansson, Lars-Erik; Malmgren, Helge

    This study explores the feasibility of a decision-support system for patients seeking care for acute abdominal pain, and, specifically the diagnosis of acute diverticulitis. We used a linear support vector machine (SVM) to separate diverticulitis from all other reported cases of abdominal pain and from the important differential diagnosis non-specific abdominal pain (NSAP). On a database containing 3337 patients, the SVM obtained results comparable to those of the doctors in separating diverticulitis or NSAP from the remaining diseases. The distinction between diverticulitis and NSAP was, however, substantially improved by the SVM. For this patient group, the doctors achieved a sensitivity of 0.714 and a specificity of 0.963. When adjusted to the physicians' results, the SVM sensitivity/specificity was higher at 0.714/0.985 and 0.786/0.963 respectively. Age was found as the most important discriminative variable, closely followed by C-reactive protein level and lower left side pain.

  15. Abdominal wall closure after a stomal reversal procedure.

    PubMed

    López-Cano, Manuel; Pereira, José Antonio; Villanueva, Borja; Vallribera, Francesc; Espin, Eloy; Armengol Carrasco, Manuel; Arbós Vía, María Antonia; Feliu, Xavier; Morales-Conde, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    The closure of a temporary stoma involves 2 different surgical procedures: the stoma reversal procedure and the abdominal wall reconstruction of the stoma site. The management of the abdominal wall has different areas that should be analyzed such us how to avoid surgical site infection (SSI), the technique to be used in case of a concomitant hernia at the stoma site or to prevent an incisional hernia in the future, how to deal with the incision when the stoma reversal procedure is performed by laparoscopy and how to close the skin at the stoma site. The aim of this paper is to analyze these aspects in relation to abdominal wall reconstruction during a stoma reversal procedure. PMID:24581880

  16. Abdominal Tuberculosis: An Immigrant's Disease in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jehangir, Waqas; Khan, Rafay; Gil, Constante; Baruiz-Creel, Marilyn; Bandel, Geraldo; Middleton, John R.; Sen, Purnendu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is an uncommon condition in the United States (US) except for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). An increasing number of cases have been reported in western countries amongst immigrants. It is important to be aware of the data and clinical characteristics in the immigrant population. Aims: The purpose of this study is to determine the epidemiologic characteristics of abdominal TB among immigrants in the US and to review the clinical presentations of abdominal TB with a focus particularly on unusual features. Materials and Methods: In a community teaching hospital in New Jersey, patients diagnosed with abdominal TB were examined and included in this report. All nine patients were immigrants from countries with high prevalence of TB and a majority had resided in the US for at least 5 years. None had clinical evidence of HIV and those that were tested were not found to be positive for HIV. Initial examination, diagnostic workup, and response to therapy were all pertinent to the management and diagnosis of these patients. Results: Three patients had atypical clinical presentations with normal chest X-rays and either negative or unknown tuberculin tests leading to delayed diagnosis and inappropriate therapy in at least one patient. With antituberculous therapy, all except for one patient had satisfactory outcomes. Immigrant patients with a diagnosis of abdominal TB had no evidence of HIV infection or other associated conditions in contrast to native-born individuals. Conclusion: Atypical presentations may cause diagnostic difficulties. Failure to perform appropriate tests may lead to inappropriate therapy with adverse outcomes. Although there is a decline in the number of TB cases in the US and screening for latent pulmonary infection in foreigners has been implemented effectively, the diagnosis of abdominal TB continues to be under diagnosed. PMID:26199920

  17. Morphometric analysis of alveolar responses of F344 rats to subchronic inhalation of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Mercer, R R

    1999-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)*, the principal airborne pollutant generated from combustion processes such as gas stoves, tobacco smoke, and burning of fossil fuels, is being tested as a therapeutic agent in clinical trials. A prior morphometric study of rats exposed for 9 weeks to 0.5 parts per million (ppm) NO demonstrated focal degeneration of the alveolar interstitium and increased numbers of fenestrated alveolar septa (Mercer et al. 1995). The limited size and distribution of defects in this NO exposure did not alter alveolar surface area or other morphometric indicators of lung function, but were of interest as the responses to inhaled NO appeared to differ from those produced by other oxidants such as ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Nitric oxide exposures at the same concentration and duration as prior morphometric studies of O3 and NO2 were necessary in order to make a comparison. This was the purpose of the current study in which F344 rats were exposed for 6 weeks to air, 2 ppm NO, or 6 ppm NO. Following exposure, the lungs of NO- and air-exposed rats were preserved and prepared for electron microscopy. The lungs of replicate groups were lavaged and analyzed for protein content and antioxidants. Ultrastructural alterations due to exposure were determined by quantitative morphometric analyses and serial-section counts of the number of alveolar fenestrae. In contrast to the prior study of NO, there was no significant difference in the number of alveolar fenestrae/lung between control and NO-exposed groups. Morphometric analysis of the 6 ppm NO-exposure group demonstrated a significant increase from controls in the percentage of epithelial basement membrane covered by type II epithelial cells and a significant increase in the number of type II epithelial cells and airspace macrophages. At 2 ppm, only the percentage of epithelial basement membrane covered by type II epithelial cells was significant. No significant differences were found in lavage protein or in lavage ascorbic acid or glutathione content between clean-air controls and NO-exposed groups. Overall, the proinflammatory responses by type II epithelial cells and airspace macrophages following inhaled NO were comparable to those of O3 and NO2. These results, derived from experiments using significantly higher concentrations than in the prior study, demonstrate that inhaled NO produces a pattern of injury similar to that of other oxidants. PMID:10553264

  18. Morphometric Analysis of Sub-axial Cervical Vertebrae and Its Surgical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sachin; Vasudeva, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Background The predilection of the cervical spine to a wide array of traumatic, degenerative and neoplastic diseases necessitates frequent surgical interventions. For successful surgical management of these conditions, a detailed anatomical knowledge of the cervical spine is required but variability in vertebral dimensions exists amongst different races and prevents the standardization of measurements. Aim The aim of this study was to present a morphometric reference database for cervical vertebrae of the Indian population and enable comparisons with other populations. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 203 typical (C3-C6) cervical vertebrae. Linear measurements of the vertebrae were taken with the help of digital Vernier caliper and angular measurements were determined with software Image J. Statistical Analysis Mean and standard deviation of the morphometric parameters taken into account were analysed. The comparison of morphometric dimensions of the right and left sides was performed using Student’s t-test and p-value was calculated. Results The morphometric analysis of the cervical vertebrae demonstrated that when compared with other races, the mean height (11.39 ± 1.08 mm) and transverse diameters (22.18 ± 2.52 mm) of the vertebral body were larger but antero-posterior diameter was less, making the vertebral bodies in Indians transversely longer. The dimensions of the pedicle, laminae, articular processes and spinous process were smaller when compared to other populations. There existed a highly significant difference (p=0.002) between the widths of the right and left superior & inferior articular processes. A great disparity of the pedicle transverse angle was noted in different populations but in Indians the angle was 44.47 ± 2.81. Conclusion The present morphometric study in Indian population would be valuable for the successful instrumentation of the cervical spine as smaller dimensions of the cervical vertebrae pose a challenge to the surgeons during application of plates and screws. The data would be helpful in designing spinal implants and permit identification of osteological remains. PMID:26673539

  19. [Clostridial myonecrosis of the abdominal wall - case report].

    PubMed

    Látrová, S; Cáp, R; Subrt, Z

    2014-06-01

    The authors present a case report of a forty-five-year-old patient operated on for acute appendicitis who developed gas gangrene of the abdominal wall within 48 hours after an appendectomy and subsequently also clostridial sepsis. Due to early diagnosis and intensive care, the patient survived. Clostridial myonecrosis is a rare complication after abdominal surgery and may be fatal in many cases. In our literature, there are only a few publications describing cases of patients who survived this rare postoperative complication. PMID:25047974

  20. Congenital abdominal aortic aneurysm with porencephaly: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tsunematsu, Ryosuke; Shinozaki, Tomoko; Fukushima, Kotaro; Yumoto, Yasuo; Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Morokuma, Seiichi; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Hojo, Satoshi; Wake, Norio

    2011-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a rare disease in the paediatric population and is mainly caused by intrauterine infection, connective tissue diseases, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and Marfan's syndrome, and iatrogenic trauma due to umbilical artery catheterization. Although several cases have been reported in the English literature, they were rarely diagnosed prenatally. Vascular obstruction in utero is also believed to be the major cause of porencephaly. Recently, gene mutations have been reported as the cause of both the above-mentioned diseases. We present a prenatally diagnosed case of congenital abdominal aortic aneurysm with porencephaly. PMID:21160169

  1. [What imaging to choose for low abdominal pain?].

    PubMed

    Navarro, I; Poletti, P-A; Bréchet, Bachmann A-C

    2013-09-25

    Nowadays, we need to counterbalance the excellent diagnostic yield of the abdominal CT Scan, with the significant risks of X irradiation. The Low Dose CT Scan allows confirmation of a diagnosis of appendicitis or nephrolithiasis with comparable precision and a much lower irradiation dose. In the case of appendicitis, the ultrasound is particularly useful, provided that the patient's BMI is <30. If there is suspicion of diverticulitis, the standard CT Scan remains the first line test. The Ultrasound is the first choice exam for a woman in childbearing age presenting with an acute abdominal pain. PMID:24163878

  2. Abdominal Problems in Children with Congenital Cardiovascular Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Güney, Lütfi Hakan; Araz, Co?kun; Beyazp?nar, Deniz Sarp; Arda, ?rfan Serdar; Arslan, Esra Elif; Hiçsönmez, Akgün

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital cardiovascular abnormality is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Both the type of congenital cardiovascular abnormality and cardiopulmonary bypass are responsible for gastrointestinal system problems. Aims: Intra-abdominal problems, such as paralytic ileus, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intestinal perforation, are common in patients who have been operated or who are being followed for congenital cardiovascular abnormalities. Besides the primary congenital cardiovascular abnormalities, ischemia secondary to cardiac catheterization or surgery contributes to the incidence of these problems. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: In this study, we aimed to screen the intra-abdominal problems seen in patients with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities who had undergone surgical or angiographical intervention(s). Patients with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities who had been treated medically or surgically between 2000 and 2014 were analyzed retrospectively in terms of intra-abdominal problems. The patients’ demographic data, type of congenital cardiovascular abnormalities, the intervention applied (surgical, angiographic), the incidence of intra-abdominal problem(s), the interventions applied for the intra-abdominal problems, and the results were evaluated. Results: Fourteen (Group I) of the 76 patients with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities diagnosis were operated due to intra-abdominal problems, and 62 (Group II) were followed-up clinically for intra-abdominal problems. In Group I (10 boys and 4 girls), 11 patients were aged between 0 and 12 months, and three patients were older than 12 months. Group II included 52 patients aged between 0 and 12 months and 10 patients older than 12 months. Cardiovascular surgical interventions had been applied to six patients in Group I and 40 patients in Group II. The most frequent intra-abdominal problems were necrotizing enterocolitis and intestinal perforation in Group I, and paralytic ileus in Group II. Seven of the Group I patients and 22 of the Group II patients died. The patients who died in both groups had more than three congenital cardiovascular abnormalities in the same patient, and 80% of these patients had been operated for congenital cardiovascular abnormalities. Conclusion: The gastrointestinal system is involved in important complications experienced by patients with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities. The mortality rate was higher in operated patients due to gastrointestinal complications. Gastrointestinal complications are more frequent in patients with cyanotic anomalies. The presence of more than one congenital cardiovascular abnormality in a patient increased the mortality rate. PMID:26185717

  3. An Infected Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Caused by Helicobacter cinaedi

    PubMed Central

    Niino, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm due to Helicobacter cinaedi that was detected by blood culture. A 79-year-old man with lumbago and left lower quadrant pain was admitted for the treatment of an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm. H. cinaedi was isolated from a blood culture, which was obtained on admission. The aneurysm was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy, aneurysmectomy, debridement, replacement of a bifurcated Dacron prosthesis, and omental wrapping. Our present case suggests that H. cinaedi should be considered as the causative agent of an infected aortic aneurysm.

  4. Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia Presenting as Exercise-induced Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Famularo, Marissa; Lombardi, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Patients with a stenosis of the superior mesenteric artery and a widely patent celiac axis are often asymptomatic because of a rich network of collaterals between the two. Compression of the celiac axis by the diaphragm is, in patients without additional vascular disease, also frequently asymptomatic. Here, we describe an unusual case of exercise-induced abdominal pain caused by a combination of these two pathologies. In our patient with a previously occluded inferior mesenteric artery and a 90% superior mesenteric artery stenosis, celiac compression by the diaphragm, worsened with exercise, caused severe abdominal pain. This exercise-induced pain resolved completely with endovascular treatment of the superior mesenteric artery stenosis. PMID:26184369

  5. Abdominal cocoon: a potential pitfall in patients with ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Isacson, Rut; Segal, Amiel; Alberton, Joseph; Reinus, Constantin; Schwarz, Alon; Grenader, Tal

    2012-11-01

    Background. Abdominal cocoon, or sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, is a rare condition characterized by partial or total encasement of small bowel and mesentery by a thick fibrocollagenous sack that looks like a cocoon. Within the sack, bowel loops are drawn together causing intestinal obstruction.Case presentation. We report on a 57-year-old female patient who developed a very unusual complication of ovarian cancer: abdominal cocoon formation.Conclusions. This report highlights the need for a timely diagnosis of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis in cancer patients. PMID:23389380

  6. Measuring and modeling patient-specific distributions of material properties in abdominal aortic aneurysm wall.

    PubMed

    Reeps, C; Maier, A; Pelisek, J; Härtl, F; Grabher-Meier, V; Wall, W A; Essler, M; Eckstein, H-H; Gee, M W

    2013-08-01

    Both the clinically established diameter criterion and novel approaches of computational finite element (FE) analyses for rupture risk stratification of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are based on assumptions of population-averaged, uniform material properties for the AAA wall. The presence of inter-patient and intra-patient variations in material properties is known, but has so far not been addressed sufficiently. In order to enable the preoperative estimation of patient-specific AAA wall properties in the future, we investigated the relationship between non-invasively assessable clinical parameters and experimentally measured AAA wall properties. We harvested n = 163 AAA wall specimens (n = 50 patients) during open surgery and recorded the exact excision sites. Specimens were tested for their thickness, elastic properties, and failure loads using uniaxial tensile tests. In addition, 43 non-invasively assessable patient-specific or specimen-specific parameters were obtained from recordings made during surgery and patient charts. Experimental results were correlated with the non-invasively assessable parameters and simple regression models were created to mathematically describe the relationships. Wall thickness was most significantly correlated with the metabolic activity at the excision site assessed by PET/CT (? = 0.499, P = 4 × 10(-7)) and to thrombocyte counts from laboratory blood analyses (? = 0.445, P = 3 × 10(-9)). Wall thickness was increased in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus, while it was significantly thinner in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elastic AAA wall properties had significant correlations with the metabolic activity at the excision site (PET/CT), with existent calcifications, and with the diameter of the non-dilated aorta proximal to the AAA. Failure properties (wall strength and failure tension) had correlations with the patient's medical history and with results from laboratory blood analyses. Interestingly, AAA wall failure tension was significantly reduced for patients with CKD and elevated blood levels of potassium and urea, respectively, both of which are associated with kidney disease. This study is a first step to a future preoperative estimation of AAA wall properties. Results can be conveyed to both the diameter criterion and FE analyses to refine rupture risk prediction. The fact that AAA wall from patients suffering from CKD featured reduced failure tension implies an increased AAA rupture risk for this patient group at comparably smaller AAA diameters. PMID:22955570

  7. Ischemic bowel due to embolization from an isolated mobile thrombus of the ascending aorta: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hechtman, Jaclyn F; Lento, Patrick A; Scordi-bello, Irini

    2011-08-01

    Aortic thrombi are commonly present in atherosclerotic and aneurysmatic aortas. Thrombus formation in an aorta with or focal atherosclerosis in a patient without risk factors is rare. A 63-year-old woman with dementia and hypothyroidism presented with hypotension and respiratory distress. Work-up revealed leukocytosis, sinus tachycardia, and proximal small bowel obstruction. At emergent laparotomy, a superior mesenteric artery thomboembolus was identified with necrosis of surrounding bowel. The patient expired on hospital day five. Autopsy revealed a 1.4 cm thrombus overlying an isolated atherosclerotic plaque in the ascending aorta and infarctions of the spleen, liver, and right kidney as well as occlusive thromboembolism of the superior mesenteric artery. This case report illustrates lethal complications from an unsuspected aortic thrombus. Work-up for patients presenting with signs of peripheral embolization, or in this case, necrotic bowel, should include the aorta as a source of embolic thrombi. PMID:21416131

  8. A hybrid method based on level set and 3D region growing for segmentation of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Mera, Juan Antonio; Tahoces, Pablo G; Carreira, José M; Suárez-Cuenca, Jorge Juan; Souto, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to develop a completely automatic method for image segmentation of the thoracic aorta. We used a total of 4682 images from 10 consecutive patients. The proposed method is based on the use of level set and region growing, automatically initialized using the Hough transform. The results obtained were compared to those of manual segmentation as performed by an external expert radiologist. Concordance between the developed method and manual segmentation ranged from 92.79 to 95.77% in the descending regions of the aorta and from 90.68 to 96.54% in the ascending regions, with a mean value of 93.83% being obtained for total segmentation. PMID:23879881

  9. Emergency Endovascular Treatment of an Acute Traumatic Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta Complicated by a Distal Low-Flow Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Bruninx, Guy; Wery, Didier; Dubois, Eric; El Nakadi, Badih; Dueren, Eric van; Verhelst, Guy; Delcour, Christian

    1999-11-15

    We report the case of a patient who suffered major trauma following a motorcycle accident that resulted in multiple fractures, bilateral hemopneumothorax, pulmonary contusions, and an isthmic rupture of the aorta with a pseudoaneurysm compressing the descending aorta. This compression was responsible for distal hypotension and low flow, leading to acute renal insufficiency and massive rhabdomyolysis. Due to the critical clinical status of the patient, which prevented any type of open thoracic surgery, endovascular treatment was performed. An initial stent-graft permitted alleviation of the compression and the re-establishment of normal hemodynamic conditions, but its low position did not allow sufficient coverage of the rupture. A second stent-graft permitted total exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm while preserving the patency of the left subclavian artery.

  10. [Arteriosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries in persons older than 70 living in different geographical areas of the USSR].

    PubMed

    Vikhert, A M; Zhadanov, V S; Matova, E E

    1977-11-01

    Visual-planimetric examination of the conspicuousness of atherosclerosis in the aorta and coronary arteries of persons who had died at an age of over 70 years was conducted in Tallin, Riga, Ryazan, Kharkov, Yalta, Frunze, and Ashkhabad (1,775 females and 1,425 males). The material was collected and studied according to the program elaborated by WHO experts for epidermilogic study of atherosclerosis according to post-mortem findings. It was found that atherosclerosis progresses at a much slower rate in persons over 70 than in those of younger age groups. The average conspicuousness of atherosclerosis in the vessels of females over 70 and particularly over 80 years of age often surpassed that in males. The least changes in the aorta and coronary arteries were found among the native population of Frunze and Ashkhabad and the most marked among natives of Tallin, Riga, Kharkov, and Yalta. PMID:599809

  11. Sonographic assessment of the inferior vena cava/aorta index measured with the transducer placed in the anterior median line and right anterior axillary line – a comparison

    PubMed Central

    ?o?, Magdalena; Szmygel, ?ukasz; Kosiak, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the values of the sonographic inferior vena cava/ aorta index obtained with the transducer placed in the median line and right anterior axillary line. Material and methods The study enrolled 45 volunteers, including 33 women, aged 22.5 ± 1.26 with a negative history of circulatory and renal diseases. The study consisted in a sonographic assessment and measurement of the inferior vena cava and aorta by placing the transducer in the anterior median line and right anterior axillary line. The value of the inferior vena cava/aorta index was obtained by calculating the ratio of the diameters of the inferior vena cava and aorta. The diameter measurements were taken by placing the ultrasound transducer in the anterior median line and right anterior axillary line. Two examiners performed the measurement three times and used convex probes of 3.5–5 MHz. Additionally, the subjects’ weight, height and arterial blood pressure were taken. Results Following a statistical analysis with the use of STATISTICA software, the following values of the inferior vena cava/aorta index were obtained: in the anterior median line – 1.43 ± 0.21, and in the right anterior axillary line – 1.285 ± 0.19. There was no statistically significant difference between the measurements obtained by the two examiners (p = 0.17). A strong correlation was noted between the inferior vena cava/ aorta indices calculated in both sites of transducer placement, which was irrespective of the examiners (the correlation coefficient: r = 0.61 and r = 0.71). The study indicate that the inferior vena cava/aorta index measured in the right anterior axillary line is a simple and reproducible method for determining the body fluid status; the examinations conducted in both sites may be used interchangeably. Further studies are needed to determine reference values for the inferior vena cava/aorta index measured in the right anterior axillary line.

  12. Contrast Ultrasound Imaging of the Aorta Alters Vascular Morphology and Circulating von Willebrand Factor in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brendon W.; Simpson, Douglas G.; Sarwate, Sandhya; Miller, Rita J.; Blue, James P.; Haak, Alexander; O’Brien, William D.; Erdman, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are intravenously infused microbubbles that add definition to ultrasonic images. Ultrasound contrast agents continue to show clinical promise in cardiovascular imaging, but their biological effects are not known with confidence. We used a cholesterol-fed rabbit model to evaluate these effects when used in conjunction with ultrasound (US) to image the descending aorta. Methods Male New Zealand White rabbits (n = 41) were weaned onto an atherogenic diet containing 1% cholesterol, 10% fat, and 0.11% magnesium. At 21 days, rabbits were exposed to contrast US at 1 of 4 pressure levels using either the UCA Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, Inc, North Billerica, MA) or a saline control (n = 5 per group). Blood samples were collected and analyzed for lipids and von Willebrand factor (vWF), a marker of endothelial function. Animals were euthanized at 42 days, and tissues were collected for histologic analysis. Results After adjustment for pre-exposure vWF, high-level US (in situ [at the aorta] peak rarefactional pressure of 1.4 or 2.1 MPa) resulted in significantly lower vWF 1 hour post exposure (P = .0127; Padj < .0762). This difference disappeared within 24 hours. Atheroma thickness in the descending aorta was lower in animals receiving the UCA compared to animals receiving saline. Conclusions Contrast US affected the descending aorta, as evidenced by two separate outcome measures. These results may be a first step in elucidating a previously unknown biological effect of UCAs. Further research is warranted to characterize the effects of this procedure. PMID:22535718

  13. Motor Vehicle Collision Patient with Simultaneous Duodenal Transection and Thoracic Aorta Injury: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Blunt polytrauma can present complex management decisions. Here we report the case of a 31-year-old male involved in a high speed motor vehicle collision resulting in both duodenal and thoracic aorta injury that was managed collaboratively between the trauma, vascular, and cardiothoracic surgical teams. The patient went on to a full recovery. We also review the management of such injuries which has evolved over the past two decades resulting in less morbidity and mortality. PMID:25688322

  14. Advanced endovascular techniques for thoracic and abdominal aortic dissections.

    PubMed

    Kölbel, T; Diener, H; Larena-Avellaneda, A; Debus, S

    2013-02-01

    Endovascular treatment of aortic dissection is still in its infancy and consists usually of implantation of thoracic tubular stent-grafts to cover the proximal entry tear and redirect flow into the true lumen. Large registries comparing endovascular treatment by thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) with open surgery for aortic dissection of the descending aorta have demonstrated a clear benefit for endovascular treatment with lower mortality and morbidity rates turning TEVAR into the standard treatment for complicated type B aortic dissection. With this momentum of success endovascular techniques continue to challenge open surgical techniques also in the aortic arch and the ascending aorta. TEVAR for aortic dissection has become more complex requiring an individualized treatment strategy as endovascular techniques have developed with the advent of new devices and increased experience of the operators. In many cases straight implantation of a thoracic tubular stent-graft is sufficient. But as rerouting of the blood flow can also change perfusion of vital side-branches the endovascular operator needs to have a large armamentarium of techniques and adjunctive procedures in order to sufficiently address the individual patient morphology. This chapter reviews a variety of endovascular techniques including access techniques, proximal sealing, the Petticoat-technique, false lumen deployment, fenestration techniques, branch vessel stenting and false lumen obstruction by various techniques. PMID:23443592

  15. Lung, aorta, and platelet metabolism of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid in vitamin E deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Valentovic, M.A.; Gairola, C.; Lubawy, W.C.

    1982-08-01

    /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid metabolism was determined in aortas, platelets, and perfused lungs from rats pair fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 or 100 ppm vitamin E for 11 weeks. Spontaneous erythrocyte hemolysis tests showed 92% and 8% hemolysis for the 0 and 100 ppm vitamin E groups, respectively. Elevated lung homogenate levels of malonaldehyde in the 0 ppm group confirmed its deficient vitamin E status. Aortas from the vitamin E deficient group synthesized 54% less prostacyclin than aortas from the supplemented group (p less than 0.05). Although thromboxane generation by platelets from the vitamin E deficient group exhibited a 37% increase, this difference was not statistically significant compared to the supplemented animals. Greater amounts of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, TXB2, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were obtained in albumin buffer perfusates from lungs of vitamin E deficient rats than in those from supplemented rats. Significant differences (p less than 0.05) were noticed, however, only for PGE2 and PGF2 alpha. These studies indicate that vitamin E quantitatively alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortic and lung tissue but its effect on thromboxane synthesis by platelets is less marked.

  16. Differential expression and regulation of Klotho by paricalcitol in the kidney, parathyroid, and aorta of uremic rats.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Cynthia S; Zhang, Sarah; Delmez, James; Finch, Jane L; Slatopolsky, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Klotho plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Klotho is highly expressed in the kidney and parathyroid glands, but its presence in the vasculature is debated. Renal Klotho is decreased in CKD, but the effect of uremia on Klotho in other tissues is not defined. The effect of vitamin D receptor activator therapy in CKD on the expression of Klotho in various tissues is also in debate. In uremic rats (surgical 5/6th nephrectomy model), we compared 3 months of treatment with and without paricalcitol on Klotho immunostaining in the kidney, parathyroid glands, and aorta. With uremia, Klotho was unchanged in the parathyroid, significantly decreased in the kidney (66%) and the intimal-medial area of the aorta (69%), and significantly increased in the adventitial area of the aorta (67%) compared with controls. Paricalcitol prevented the decrease of Klotho in the kidney, increased expression in the parathyroid (31%), had no effect in the aortic media, but blunted the increase of Klotho in the aortic adventitia. We propose that fibroblasts are responsible for the expression of Klotho in the adventitia. In hyperplastic human parathyroid tissue from uremic patients, Klotho was higher in oxyphil compared with chief cells. Thus, under our conditions of moderate CKD and mild-to-moderate hyperphosphatemia in rats, the differential expression of Klotho and its regulation by paricalcitol in uremia is tissue-dependent. PMID:25692955

  17. Experimental investigation of the flow field past a bileaflet mechanical heart valve in pulsatile flow within an anatomical aorta model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Laura; Tavoularis, Stavros

    2011-11-01

    A bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) has been mounted at the inlet of an anatomical model of the human aorta, and placed within a mock circulation loop that simulates physiological flow conditions. The working fluid matches the refractive index of silicone, from which the aorta model and other parts of the test section are made, and the viscosity of blood. Flow characteristics past the BMHV are measured using stereoscopic and planar particle image velocimetry and laser Doppler velocimetry. In contrast to previous experiments, in which heart valves have been tested in simplified aortic geometries, this arrangement permits the study of the dependence of flow past the valve upon recirculation in the sinuses of Valsalva, the flow rate through the coronary arteries, and the aorta curvature. The effect of valve orientation will also be investigated with the objective to determine a hemodynamically optimal configuration with potential benefits to implantation procedures. The measured viscous shear stress distribution will be analyzed towards predicting the initiation of thrombosis in patients and identifying regions of stagnation, which could facilitate thrombus attachment.

  18. Molecular anatomy of ascending aorta in atherosclerosis by MS Imaging: Specific lipid and protein patterns reflect pathology.

    PubMed

    Martin-Lorenzo, Marta; Balluff, Benjamin; Maroto, Aroa S; Carreira, Ricardo J; van Zeijl, Rene J M; Gonzalez-Calero, Laura; de la Cuesta, Fernando; Barderas, Maria G; Lopez-Almodovar, Luis F; Padial, Luis R; McDonnell, Liam A; Vivanco, Fernando; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria

    2015-08-01

    The molecular anatomy of healthy and atherosclerotic tissue is pursued here to identify ongoing molecular changes in atherosclerosis development. Subclinical atherosclerosis cannot be predicted and novel therapeutic targets are needed. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a novel unexplored ex vivo imaging approach in CVD able to provide in-tissue molecular maps. A rabbit model of early atherosclerosis was developed and high-spatial-resolution MALDI-MSI was applied to comparatively analyze histologically-based arterial regions of interest from control and early atherosclerotic aortas. Specific protocols were applied to identify lipids and proteins significantly altered in response to atherosclerosis. Observed protein alterations were confirmed by immunohistochemistry in rabbit tissue, and additionally in human aortas. Molecular features specifically defining different arterial regions were identified. Localized in the intima, increased expression of SFA and lysolipids and intimal spatial organization showing accumulation of PI, PG and SM point to endothelial dysfunction and triggered inflammatory response. TG, PA, SM and PE-Cer were identified specifically located in calcified regions. Thymosin ?4 (TMSB4X) protein was upregulated in intima versus media layer and also in response to atherosclerosis. This overexpression and localization was confirmed in human aortas. In conclusion, molecular histology by MS Imaging identifies spatial organization of arterial tissue in response to atherosclerosis. PMID:26079611

  19. Intracellular and extracellular calcium utilization during hypoxic vasoconstriction of cyclostome aortas.

    PubMed

    Russell, M J; Pelaez, N J; Packer, C S; Forster, M E; Olson, K R

    2001-11-01

    Hypoxic vasoconstriction (HV) is an intrinsic response of mammalian pulmonary and cyclostome aortic vascular smooth muscle. The present study examined the utilization of calcium during HV in dorsal aortas (DA) from sea lamprey and New Zealand hagfish. HV was temporally correlated with increased free cytosolic calcium (Ca2+c) in lamprey DA. Extracellular calcium (Ca2+o) did not contribute significantly to HV in lamprey DA, but it accounted for 38.1 +/- 5.3% of HV in hagfish DA. Treatment of lamprey DA with ionomycin, ryanodine, or caffeine added to thapsigargin-reduced HV, whereas HV was augmented by BAY K 8644. Methoxyverapamil (D600) in zero Ca2+o did not affect HV in lamprey DA, nor did it prevent further constriction when Ca2+o was restored during hypoxia in hagfish DA. Removal of extracellular sodium (Na+o) caused a constriction in both species. Lamprey DA relaxed to prehypoxic tension following return to normoxia in zero Na+o, whereas relaxation was inhibited in hagfish DA. Relaxation following HV was inhibited in lamprey DA when Na+o and Ca2+o were removed. These results show that HV is correlated with [Ca2+]c in lamprey DA and that Na+/Ca2+ exchange is used during HV in hagfish but not lamprey DA. Multiple receptor types appear to mediate stored intracellular calcium release in lamprey DA, and L-type calcium channels do not contribute significantly to constriction in either cyclostome. PMID:11641122

  20. Vascular dysfunctions in the isolated aorta of double-transgenic hypertensive mice developing aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Waeckel, Ludovic; Badier-Commander, Cécile; Damery, Thibaut; Köhler, Ralf; Sansilvestri-Morel, Patricia; Simonet, Serge; Vayssettes-Courchay, Christine; Wulff, Heike; Félétou, Michel

    2015-09-01

    Angiotensin-II and oxidative stress are involved in the genesis of aortic aneurysms, a phenomenon exacerbated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) deletion or uncoupling. The purpose of this work was to study the endothelial function in wild-type C57BL/6 (BL) and transgenic mice expressing the h-angiotensinogen and h-renin genes (AR) subjected to either a control, or a high-salt diet plus a treatment with a NO-synthase inhibitor, N-?-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME; BLSL and ARSL). BLSL showed a moderate increase in blood pressure, while ARSL became severely hypertensive. Seventy-five percent of ARSL developed aortic aneurysms, characterized by major histo-morphological changes and associated with an increase in NADP(H) oxidase-2 (NOX2) expression. Contractile responses (KCl, norepinephrine, U-46619) were similar in the four groups of mice, and relaxations were not affected in BLSL and AR. However, in ARSL, endothelium-dependent relaxations (acetylcholine, UK-14304) were significantly reduced, and this dysfunction was similar in aortae without or with aneurysms. The endothelial impairment was unaffected by catalase, superoxide-dismutase mimetic, radical scavengers, cyclooxygenase inhibition, or TP-receptor blockade and could not be attributed to sGC oxidation. Thus, ARSL is a severe hypertension model developing aortic aneurysm. A vascular dysfunction, involving both endothelial (reduced role of NO) and smooth muscle cells, precedes aneurysms formation and, paradoxically, does not appear to involve oxidative stress. PMID:25385304