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1

Skeleton-based abdominal aorta registration technique.  

PubMed

Vascular diseases are the most challenging health problems in developed countries. The vascular segmentation as well as registration techniques are the topics of past and ongoing research activities. In this work we target an abdominal aorta registration technique. The developed methodology is useful in the assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysm treatment by visualizing the correspondence between pre- and postoperative Computed Tomography (CT) data. The presented approach makes it possible to match all voxels belonging to the aorta from different CT series. It is based on aorta lumen segmentation and graph matching method. To segment the lumen area a hybrid level-set active contour approach is used. The matching step is performed based on a path similarity skeleton graph matching procedure. The registration results have been tested on the database of 8 patients, for which two different contrast-enhanced CT series were acquired. All registration results achieved with our system and verified by an expert prove the efficiency of the approach and encourage to further develop this method. PMID:25571538

Feinen, C; Czajkowska, J; Grzegorzek, M; Raspe, M; Wickenhofer, R

2014-08-01

2

[Surgery of abdominal aorta with horseshoe kidney].  

PubMed

Seventy one surgical procedures on abdominal aorta in patients with horseshoe kidney have been reported in literature until 1980. Bergan reviewed 30 operations of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in these patients until 1974. Of them 3 AAA were ruptured. Gutowitz noticed 57 surgically treated AAA in patients with horseshoe kidney until 1984. Over the period from 1991 to 1996 thirty nine new cases were reported , including 2 ruptured AAA. The surgery of the abdominal aorta in patients with horseshoe kidney is associated with the following major problems: -reservation of anomalous (aberrant) renal arteries; reservation of the kidney excretory system; approach to the abdominal aorta (especially in patients with AAA) and graft placement The aim of the paper is the presentation of 5 new patients operated for abdominal aorta with horseshoe kidney. Over the last 12 years (January 1, 1984 to December 31, 1996) at the Centre of Vascular Surgery of the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases of the Clinical Centre of Serbia, 5 patients with horseshoe kidney underwent surgery of the abdominal aorta. There were 4 male and one female patients whose average age was 57.8 years (50-70). Patient 1. A 50-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital for disabling claudication discomforts (Fontan stadium IlI) and with significantly decreased Ankle-Brachial indexes (ABI). The translumbal aortography showed aorto-iliac occlusive disease and horseshoe kidney with two normal and one anomalous renal artery originating from infrarenal aorta (Crawford type II). Intravenous pyelography and retrograde urography showed two separated ureters. The aorto-bifemoral (AFF) bypass with Dacron graft was done with end-to-end (TT) proximal anastomosis just under the anomalous renal artery. The graft was placed behind the isthmus. During a 12-year follow-up renal failure, renovascular hypertension and graft occlusion were not observed. Patient 2. A 53-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital for symptomatic AAA. Two years before admission the patient underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. The Duplex scan ultrasonography and translumbal aortography showed an infrarenal AAA, aneurysm of the right iliac artery and horseshoe kidney with two normal and one anomalous renal artery originating from the left iliac artery (Crawford type III). Intravenous pyelography and retrograde urography showed two separated ureters. After partial aneurysmectomy, the flow was restaured using bifurcated Dacron graft placed behind the isthmus. The right limb of the bifurcated graft was anastomosed with the common femoral artery and the left limb with left iliac artery just above the origin of the anomalous renal artery. The first day after operation thrombosis of the left common femoral artery with leg ischaemia was observed. (That artery was cannulated for ECC during coronary artery bypass grafting 2 years ago). The revascularisation of the left leg was done with femoro-femoral cross over bypass. During a 11-year follow-up period, the graft was patent and renal failure or revascular hypertension were not observed. Patient 3. A 66-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital for rest pain (Fontan stadium III) and significantly decreased ABI. The patient had diabetes mellitus and myocardial infarction two months before admission. Translumbar aortography showed an aorto-iliac occlusive disease associated with horseshoe kidney with 5 anomalous renal arteries. (Crawford type III). Due to high risk, the axillo-bifemoral (AxFF) extra-anatomic bypass graft was performed. Five years after the operation the patient died due to new myocardial infarction. During the follow-up period the graft was patent and there were no signs of renal failure and renovascular hypertension. Patient 4. A 50-year old male patient was admitted to the hospital for high asymptomatic AAA. The diagnosis was established by Duplex scan and translumbal aortography. The large infrarenal AAA (transverse diameter 7 cm) associated with horseshoe kidney with two normal renal arteries (Crawford type I) were

Lotina, S L; Davidovi?, L B; Kosti?, D M; Velimirovi?, D V; Petrovi?, P Lj; Perisi?-Savi?, M V; Kovacevi?N S

1997-01-01

3

[Coarctation of the abdominal aorta. Treatment by stent placement].  

PubMed

We report a nine-year-old boy referred for evaluation of suspected coarctation of the aorta. He presented with hypertension and absent femoral pulses. A 50 mmHg gradient was detected in the abdominal aorta by color flow doppler echocardiography but the level of coarctation was impossible to locate. The diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging and aortography, showing segmentary hypoplasia in the upper abdominal segment of the descending aorta, immediately below the celiac axis and above the renal arteries. Treatment consisted in placement of a stent Palmaz, which was effective in significantly decreasing the gradient. Some clinical aspects and different therapeutic strategies for this unusual case are discussed. PMID:11707245

Guía, J M; Castro, F J; Gracián, M; Gilabert, A; García, E

2001-11-01

4

[Abdominal aorta section caused by abdominal stab wound: discussion of two cases].  

PubMed

Abdominal vascular lesions are generally caused by accidents (most frequently car accidents, but also falling from an altitude, etc.) or by aggression with knives and fire arms. Abdominal vascular wounds, especially those involving the aorta, cause high mortality. Many patients die on the way to the hospital due to massive blood losses, their lesions being determined only through necropsy. Mortality is increased when abdominal vascular lesions are associated with abdominal or thoracic visceral lesions. We present two cases of partial sections of the abdominal aorta caused by stab wounds: a 16-year-old male aggressed by a school-mate and a 45-year-old male who aggressed himself. We discuss the necessity of immediate surgery on patients with abdominal stab wounds in order to determine the localization and gravity of the lesions. PMID:17615930

Chicos, S C; Beznea, A; Chebac, Gica Rumina

2007-01-01

5

Rigid intraluminal prosthesis for replacement of thoracic and abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

From December 1976 to April 1983, 55 patients underwent operations in which intraluminal ring grafts were used for replacement of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms. Twenty-eight patients had dissections, and 11 had ascending aneurysms. There were 10 descending aneurysms; three of these were traumatic. There were two arch aneurysms, three abdominal aneurysms, and one thoracoabdominal aneurysm. The follow-up period was 78 months with a mean follow-up period of 24 months. There were six postoperative deaths and six late deaths. No evidence of complications of thrombosis, migration, erosion, or pseudoaneurysm resulting from the ring within the 78-month follow-up period was seen, and we conclude that this is a safe, reliable, quick method for replacement of the aorta in certain well-defined situations. PMID:6481866

Lemole, G M; Spagna, P M; Strong, M D; Karmilowicz, N P

1984-01-01

6

Rigid intraluminal prosthesis for replacement of thoracic and abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

During the past seven years, 80 patients have undergone aortic substitution using a rigid intraluminal prosthesis. There were 9 early deaths. The procedures involved 32 dissecting aneurysms (18 ascending and 14 descending), 16 atherosclerotic aneurysms of the ascending aorta and 13 atherosclerotic aneurysms of the descending aorta, 3 thoracoabdominal aneurysms, 2 arch aneurysms, and 14 abdominal aortic aneurysms. There was one early dislodgment of the rings necessitating reoperation, but no other early complications related to the procedure. In the follow-up period (mean, 25 months) there were 6 late deaths. One occurred 6 months after operation in a patient with empyema. There were no late complications of thrombosis, erosion, pseudoaneurysm formation, or hemorrhage. The follow-up data are extremely encouraging. We now are using this device whenever possible in all substitutions of the aorta, although in approximately 40% of patients, it is necessary to remove one of the spools and suture either the proximal or distal end of the graft owing to the close proximity of the aneurysm to the coronary ostia or the origin of the subclavian artery. Important techniques of insertion and postoperative angiograms are presented. PMID:3966837

Spagna, P M; Lemole, G M; Strong, M D; Karmilowicz, N P

1985-01-01

7

Finite Element Modeling of Three-Dimensional Pulsatile Flow in the Abdominal Aorta: Relevance to Atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infrarenal abdominal aorta is particularly prone to atherosclerotic plaque formation while the thoracic aorta is relatively resistant. Localized differences in hemodynamic conditions, including differences in velocity profiles, wall shear stress, and recirculation zones have been implicated in the differential localization of disease in the infrarenal aorta. A comprehensive computational framework was developed, utilizing a stabilized, time accurate, finite element

Charles A. Taylor; Thomas J. R. Hughes; Christopher K. Zarins

1998-01-01

8

An Abdominal Aorta Wall Extraction for Liver Cirrhosis Classification Using Ultrasonic Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method to extract an abdominal aorta wall from an M-mode image. Furthermore, we propose the use of a Gaussian filter in order to improve image quality. The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter is effective in the abdominal aorta wall extraction.

Hayashi, Takaya; Fujita, Yusuke; Mitani, Yoshihiro; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Segawa, Makoto; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

2011-06-01

9

Simultaneous inflammatory pseudotumors of the coronary arteries and abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

We herein report a rare case of cardiac and abdominal aortic inflammatory pseudotumors (IPTs). A 64-year-old male presented with a loss of appetite, abdominal distension and general fatigue. A cardiac tumor was suspected on the basis of computed tomography scans. A needle biopsy was performed, but it did not lead to a definitive diagnosis. At the same time, a 70-mm abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was also detected. A full sternotomy was performed, and a huge, elastic hard tumor was found around the bilateral coronary arteries, anterior side of the right atria, ascending aorta and pulmonary artery. The pathological diagnosis was IPT, which was judged to be inoperable because of its anatomical location and the fact that the patient was a Jehovah's Witness, which precluded the administration of heterologous blood transfusions. The AAA was surgically treated, and the pathological diagnosis of the aneurysmal tissue also revealed IPT. Perioral steroid therapy was initiated, and the size of the tumor did not change for 1-2 years, but then gradually increased. The patient eventually died 8 years later, and the cause of his sudden death was considered to be heart failure caused by the pressure on the right atrium and ventricle due to the enlarged cardiac tumor. PMID:24254060

Wada, Tomoyuki; Anai, Hirofumi; Morita, Masato; Shuto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Shinji

2015-02-01

10

Acute Ascending Thrombosis of Abdominal and Suprarenal Aorta  

PubMed Central

We report the diagnostic and successful therapeutic images of an acute occlusion of the abdominal and suprarenal aorta. This lesion is a rare but catastrophic pathology which can cause severe ischemic manifestations, depending on the site of obstruction, with high rate of mortality even after treatment. In the majority of cases it represents a surgical emergency. Although the mechanism of the thrombosis has not been delineated, the proposed etiologies include propagation of thrombus from distal artery occlusion, cardiac thromboembolism, dislodgment of a mural thrombus, or coagulation disorders. Frequent risk factors include advanced atherosclerosis combined with a low flow state because of poor cardiac performance. The management of this condition includes immediate intervention with systemic heparinization, improvement of the cardiac condition, and surgical revascularization based on the clinical and anatomical presentation. In this case the authors highlight the importance of an early detection and early intervention to enhance survival rates and reduce morbidity. PMID:25400970

Pagliari, Stefano

2014-01-01

11

Renal artery stenosis and abdominal aorta aneurysm in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the renal arteries and abdominal aorta in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX). Design Prospective, case–control study. Methods The study involved 49 patients with PEX and 42 control subjects. Abdominal aorta and renal arteries were examined by Doppler ultrasonography. In both renal arteries (proximal and distal portions) and abdominal aorta, the peak systolic velocity (PSV) was measured. Renal artery stenosis (RAS) was defined as the renal artery PSV >150?cm/s or renal-to-aortic ratio (RAR) >3.0. Patients who had an abdominal aortic diameter >3?cm were recorded. Computed tomographic angiography was performed to confirm these findings in patients with RAS and/or abdominal aorta aneurysm. Results The mean PSV in the proximal renal artery was 88.3?cm/s in PEX group and 79.5?cm/s in control group (P=0.314); in distal renal artery was 91.7?cm/s in PEX group and 93.0?cm/s in control group (P=0.794); in abdominal aorta was 76.0?cm/s in PEX group and 65.2?cm/s in control group (P=0.046). RAS was observed in nine patients with PEX and in only one patient without PEX (P=0.017). Seven out of 10 patients with RAS (six patients in PEX group; one patient in control group) had hypertension. Abdominal aorta aneurysm was observed in four patients in PEX group but not in control group (P=0.061). Conclusions Our study has demonstrated that there is a significant association between PEX and RAS. The abdominal aorta aneurysm may be seen in patients with PEX. PMID:23579404

Gonen, K A; Gonen, T; Gumus, B

2013-01-01

12

Impact of Age-Dependent Adventitia Inflammation on Structural Alteration of Abdominal Aorta in Hyperlipidemic Mice  

PubMed Central

Background The adventitia is suggested to contribute to vascular remodeling; however, the site-selective inflammatory responses in association with the development of atherosclerosis remain to be elucidated. Methods and Results Wild-type or apolipoprotein E knockout male C57BL/6J background mice were fed standard chow for 16, 32, and 52 weeks, and the morphology of the aortic arch, descending aorta, and abdominal aorta was compared. Atheromatous plaque formation progressed with age, particularly in the aortic arch and abdominal aorta but not in the descending aorta. In addition, we found that the numbers of macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and microvessels, assessed by anti-F4/80, CD3, and CD31 antibodies, were higher in the adventitia of the abdominal aorta at 52 weeks. These numbers were positively correlated with plaque formation, but negatively correlated with elastin content, resulting in the enlargement of the total vessel area. In aortic tissues, interleukin-6 levels increased in the atheromatous plaque with age, whereas the level of regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) increased with age, and compared with other sites, it was particularly distributed in inflammatory cells in the adventitia of the abdominal aorta. Conclusion This study suggests that adventitial inflammation contributes to the age-dependent structural alterations, and that the activation/inactivation of cytokines/chemokines is involved in the process. PMID:25153991

Sakamoto, Sumiharu; Tsuruda, Toshihiro; Hatakeyama, Kinta; Imamura, Takuroh; Asada, Yujiro; Kitamura, Kazuo

2014-01-01

13

Anatomic Study of The Collateral Branches of The Abdominal Aorta of Primate Species Saguinus niger.  

PubMed

Saguinus niger is a primate of the family Callitrichidae, with a geographical distribution limited to northern Brazil, Guyanas, Suriname and Venezuela, where it inhabits rainforests along the coast. Three adult females from the Paragominas Bauxite Mine - PA were used, donated to the Laboratory of Animal Morphology Research (LAMR) of the Federal Rural University of Amazonia. These animals had died of natural causes. The arterial system was filled with latex, and the animals were fixed in 10% formalin. Afterwards, the abdominal aorta and its collateral branches were dissected. The arrangement of the abdominal aorta branches in this species showed a similar arrangement as domestic animals but differing in the formation of the coeliac trunk. The coeliac trunk originates from the abdominal aorta, and from this trunk, we found the hepatic, left gastric and splenic arteries, where the origin of these vessels was variable. These arteries originate from the coliac trunk or a common trunk originating from the coeliac trunk, a characteristic not described in other species. The other branches of the abdominal aorta from S. niger did not show great differences in origin when compared to other species. PMID:24597769

Andrade, L C; Branco, É; Lima, A R

2015-02-01

14

Thoracic and abdominal aortas stiffen through unique extracellular matrix changes in intrauterine growth restricted fetal sheep  

PubMed Central

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a fetal complication of pregnancy epidemiologically linked to cardiovascular disease in the newborn later in life. However, the mechanism is poorly understood with very little research on the vascular structure and function during development in healthy and IUGR neonates. Previously, we found vascular remodeling and increased stiffness in the carotid and umbilical arteries, but here we examine the remodeling and biomechanics in the larger vessels more proximal to the heart. To study this question, thoracic and abdominal aortas were collected from a sheep model of placental insufficiency IUGR (PI-IUGR) due to exposure to elevated ambient temperatures. Aortas from control (n = 12) and PI-IUGR fetuses (n = 10) were analyzed for functional biomechanics and structural remodeling. PI-IUGR aortas had a significant increase in stiffness (P < 0.05), increased collagen content (P < 0.05), and decreased sulfated glycosaminoglycan content (P < 0.05). Our derived constitutive model from experimental data related increased stiffness to reorganization changes of increased alignment angle of collagen fibers and increased elastin (P < 0.05) in the thoracic aorta and increased concentration of collagen fibers in the abdominal aorta toward the circumferential direction verified through use of histological techniques. This fetal vascular remodeling in PI-IUGR may set the stage for possible altered growth and development and help to explain the pathophysiology of adult cardiovascular disease in previously IUGR individuals. PMID:24322609

Dodson, R. Blair; Rozance, Paul J.; Petrash, Carson C.; Hunter, Kendall S.

2013-01-01

15

Pulsatile flow visualization in the abdominal aorta under differing physiologic conditions: implications for increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

The infrarenal abdominal aorta is a common site for clinically significant atherosclerosis. As has been shown in other susceptible locations, vessel geometry, flow division rates, and pulsatility may result in hemodynamic conditions which influence the preferential localization of disease in the abdominal aorta segment. Pulsatile flow visualization was performed in a glass model of the aorta constructed from measurements of angiograms and cadaver aortas. Flow rates and pulsatile waveforms were varied to reflect typical physiological conditions. Under normal resting conditions, the flow patterns in the infrarenal aorta were more complex than those in the suprarenal location. Time varying vortex patterns appeared at the level of the renal arteries and propagated through the infrarenal aorta into the common iliac arteries. A region of oscillating velocity direction extended from the renal arteries to the aortic bifurcation along the posterior wall. Dye became trapped along the posterior wall, requiring several cardiac cycles for clearance. In contrast, there was rapid clearance of the dye in the anterior aorta. Under postprandial conditions, the flow patterns in the aorta were basically unchanged. Simulated exercise conditions created laminar hemodynamic features very different from the resting conditions, including a decrease in dye residence time. This study reveals significant time-dependent variations in the hemodynamics of the abdominal aorta under differing physiologic conditions. Hemodynamic factors such as low wall shear stress, oscillating shear direction, and high particle residence time may be related to the clinically seen preferential plaque localization in the infrarenal aorta. PMID:1295493

Moore, J E; Ku, D N; Zarins, C K; Glagov, S

1992-08-01

16

2I-4 Pulse Wave Imaging in Murine Abdominal Aortas: A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most crucial aspects of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diagnosis lies in the early detection of the aneurysm and its propensity for rupture. This study aims at determining whether the estimation of the aortic wall stiffness of the natural mechanical, pulsating motion of the aorta is feasible using high-resolution and high-frame-rate imaging in a murine model. Twelve wild-type

Kana Fujikura; Jianwen Luo; Mathieu Pernot; Royd Fukumoto; David Tilson III; Elisa E. Konofagou

2006-01-01

17

Endovascular Repair of a Pseudoaneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta Secondary to Translumbar Aortography  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an incidental finding of a pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta on a computed tomography (CT) renal angiogram during investigation of chronic renal failure in a 73-year-old man. The patient had undergone a translumbar aortogram 20 years previously. An increase in the size of the aneurysm by 7 mm over 6 months prompted treatment and the aneurysm underwent successful endovascular repair with a custom-made stent-graft.

Mir, Naheed; Nunzio, Mario De; Pollock, John G [Derbyshire Royal Infirmary, Department of Clinical Radiology (United Kingdom)], E-mail: JG.Pollock@derbyhospitals.nhs.uk

2006-12-15

18

Replacement of the abdominal aorta with a sutureless intraluminal ringed prosthesis.  

PubMed

To evaluate our experience with sutureless intraluminal ringed grafts in the abdominal aorta, we reviewed all patients who were managed with this device from 1980 to 1987. Thirty-one patients were identified with a mean follow-up time of 41 months. Three patients had suprarenal aneurysms and four had ruptured abdominal aneurysms. Average tube graft insertion time was 17 minutes and required 0.9 units of transfused blood. There were two postoperative deaths (6 percent), both secondary to myocardial infarction. None of the patients with ruptured or suprarenal aneurysms died. No patients had permanent renal or neurologic deficits, and no instances of postoperative bleeding, wound infection, pseudoaneurysm formation, or graft migration were encountered. The sutureless intraluminal graft can be implanted easily and quickly and is safe for use in the abdominal aorta. It is particularly helpful in the management of suprarenal or ruptured abdominal aneurysms, in which speed is important, and in effecting technically difficult anastomoses to friable aortic tissue. PMID:2757138

Oz, M C; Ashton, R C; Oz, M; Singh, M K; Karmilowicz, N P; Spagna, P M; Lemole, G M

1989-08-01

19

Flow patterns in the abdominal aorta under simulated postprandial and exercise conditions: an experimental study.  

PubMed

Specific hemodynamic factors have been shown to be associated with atherosclerotic plaque localization at the human carotid bifurcation. Flow field characteristics may also determine plaque distribution in the abdominal aorta. We therefore characterized flow patterns in a glass model abdominal aorta that included its major branches under conditions of steady flow. Outflow resistances of the celiac, superior mesenteric, renal, inferior mesenteric, and iliac arteries were varied to produce flow distributions consistent with rest, the postprandial state, and vigorous lower limb exercise. Flow patterns were visualized with three colors of dye injected simultaneously through capillary tubes at selected locations and recorded as still photographs and by cinephotography on videotapes. Under resting conditions a large region of flow separation and stagnation occurred at the posterior wall of the aorta directly opposite the orifices of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. Similar separation regions were observed during the simulated postprandial state but diminished markedly when distal outflow was increased to levels consistent with exercise. In the highly susceptible infrarenal aortic segment, beginning about 2 cm below the renal artery orifices, multiple secondary flow patterns with three to four counterrotating vortex formations were observed under both resting and postprandial conditions but disappeared in the exercise state. Secondary flow patterns were not noted in the suprarenal abdominal aorta, which is usually relatively spared. Such features have been related to plaque localization elsewhere, and the disappearance of these patterns with increased flow velocity during exercise is consistent with the previously noted protective effect of unidirectional laminar high-flow states. The beneficial effects of physical fitness programs may be related in part to these hemodynamic modifications. PMID:2918626

Ku, D N; Glagov, S; Moore, J E; Zarins, C K

1989-02-01

20

Infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm: a rare cause of anterior nutcracker syndrome with associated pelvic congestion.  

PubMed

We present a rare case of anterior nutcracker syndrome caused by an abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). A 61-year-old woman was admitted to our institution for computed tomography angiography. It revealed an AAA 51 mm in diameter that was lifting off of the left renal vein toward the superior mesenteric artery, causing anterior nutcracker syndrome with consequent left renal vein compression and left ovarian vein congestion. Aneurysm resection was performed, followed by left ovarian vein ligation and left adnexectomy to prevent vein conglomerate rupture. This is the first case that describes anterior nutcracker syndrome caused by AAA, which was successfully treated by aneurysm resection. PMID:24200129

Lozuk, Branko; Tanaskovic, Slobodan; Radak, Djordje; Babic, Srdjan; Kovacevic, Vladimir; Matic, Predrag

2014-01-01

21

Ascending to Abdominal Aorta Extraanatomic Bypass for Descending Aortic Coarctation: A Reconstruction Technique without Laparotomy or Left Thoracotomy  

PubMed Central

The descending aortic coarctation is often difficult to anatomically reconstruct. We report two cases of ascending aorta to abdominal aorta bypass without laparotomy or thoracotomy. This approach enabled us to avoid anastomosis close to the inflammatory lesion and left thoracotomy causing bleeding from the collateral vessels, and to allow concomitant cardiac procedures to be performed. The graft contact with the intestines can be preventable by the retroperitoneal approach. This technique is useful for the selective patients. PMID:25298846

Yuasa, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masahiko; Horiuchi, Kazutaka; Nakata, Shunsuke; Yasuura, Kenzo

2014-01-01

22

Primary Self-Expandable Nitinol Stent Placement in Focal Lesions of Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta: Long Term Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the technical and clinical success, safety and long term results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty/self-expandable nitinol stent placement of infrarenal abdominal aorta focal lesions. Materials and Methods. Eighteen patients underwent PTA of focal atherosclerotic occlusive disease of distal abdominal aorta. Two symptomatic occlusions and 16 stenoses in 10 male and 8 female patients (mean age 68.2 years) were treated with primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement. Results. Primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement was technically successful in all 18 procedures; clinical success was achieved in 100% of patients. No complications associated with the procedure occurred. During the 49.4 months of mean follow up (range 3-96, 4 months) all treated aortic segments remained patent. Conclusions. Endovascular treatment (primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement) of focal atherosclerotic lesions of distal abdominal aorta is a safe method with excellent primary technical and clinical success rates and favourable Long term results.

Lastovickova, Jarmila, E-mail: jala@medicon.cz; Peregrin, Jan H. [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Czech Republic)

2008-01-15

23

Thrombosis of abdominal aorta in congenital afibrinogenemia: case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Thrombotic events in congenital hypo-afibrinogenemia have been rarely reported, either in association or not with replacement therapy or thrombotic risk factors. We describe clinical findings and management of thrombosis of abdominal aorta with peripheral embolism in a patient with congenital afibrinogenemia. A review of arterial thrombosis in inherited hypo-afibrinogenemia was also performed. The patient with a severe bleeding history requiring prophylaxis with fibrinogen concentrates (FC) was admitted for ischaemia of the 4th right toe. An angio-CT of abdominal aorta showed a thrombosis from the origin of renal arteries to the carrefour with a distal floating part. No thrombotic risk factors were found; a previous traumatic lesion of aortic wall might have triggered the thrombus formation, whereas the role of FC prophylaxis remains uncertain. The patient was successfully treated with FC, enoxaparin followed by fondaparinux, and low-dose aspirin without bleeding or thrombosis recurrence. After 2 years, aortic thrombus was almost completely recovered. Sixteen hypo/afibrinogenemia patients with arterial thrombosis were found in Literature, showing that thrombosis often occurs at a young age, involves large vessels, its recurrence is not unusual, and therapeutic strategy is not defined yet. Our therapeutic approach was effective and also safe, but further studies are needed to improve the knowledge of pathogenesis and the anti-thrombotic management in this peculiar setting. PMID:25421938

Teresa, S M; Marta, M; Emiliano, D B; Mariangela, F; Raffaele, P; Ezio, Z

2015-01-01

24

Correlations between age, prestrain, diameter and atherosclerosis in the male abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

The longitudinal prestrain of arteries facilitates their physiological function. Remodeling, adaptation and aging result in an age-dependent magnitude of the pretension. Although the phenomenon is known, detailed statistics, especially for human arteries, are lacking. This study was designed to propose the regression model capable of estimating the prestrain of the human abdominal aorta. The length of the abdominal aorta before, l, and after excision from the body, L, the diameter, heart weight, thickness of left ventricle and degree of atherosclerosis were collected in autopsies of 156 male cadavers of known age. Longitudinal prestrain was quantified by means of the stretch ratio ?=l/L. Statistical analysis revealed significant dependence between age, prestrain, diameter and atherosclerosis, which were best fitted to the power law equation. Longitudinal prestretch reduced with age significantly; ?mean=1.30±0.07 for age<30 (n=29), whereas ?mean=1.06±0.03 for age>59 (n=31) with p-value<0.0001. Raw data gave linear correlation coefficients as follows: ?-age (R=-0.842); l-age (R=0.023); L-age (R=0.476); (l-L)-age (R=-0.811). It was concluded that longitudinal prestrain decreases nonlinearly with age and both age and diameter are suitable predictors of the prestrain. Data suggests that unloaded length elongates with age in contrast to the elastic retraction. PMID:22098912

Horny, Lukas; Adamek, Tomas; Gultova, Eva; Zitny, Rudolf; Vesely, Jan; Chlup, Hynek; Konvickova, Svatava

2011-11-01

25

Limiting extensibility constitutive model with distributed fibre orientations and ageing of abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

The abdominal aorta is susceptible to age-related pathological changes (arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, aneurysm, and tortuosity). Computational biomechanics and mechanobiology provide models capable of predicting mutual interactions between a changing mechanical environment and patho-physiological processes in ageing. However, a key factor is a constitutive equation which should reflect the internal tissue architecture. Our study investigates three microstructurally-motivated invariant-based hyperelastic anisotropic models suitable for description of the passive mechanical behaviour of the human abdominal aorta at a multiaxial state of stress known from recent literature. The three adopted models have also been supplemented with a newly proposed constitutive model (limiting extensibility with fibre dispersion). All models additively decouple the mechanical response of the isotropic (elastin and smooth muscle cells represented by the neo-Hookean term) and the anisotropic (collagen) parts. Two models use exponential functions to capture large strain stiffening ascribed to the engagement of collagen fibres into the load-bearing process. The other two models are based on the concept of limiting extensibility. Perfect alignment of reinforcing fibres with two preferred directions as well as fibre dispersion are considered. Constitutive models are calibrated to the inflation-extension response adopted from the literature based on the computational model of the residually-stressed thick-walled tube. A correlation analysis of determined material parameters was performed to reveal dependence on the age. The results of the nonlinear regression suggest that limiting fibre extensibility is the concept which is suitable to be used for the constitutive description of the aorta at multiaxial stress states and is highly sensitive to ageing-induced changes in mechanical response. PMID:25016175

Horný, Lukáš; Netušil, Marek; Daniel, Mat?j

2014-10-01

26

Effects of hindlimb unweighting on the mechanical and structure properties of the rat abdominal aorta  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous studies have shown that hindlimb unweighting of rats, a model of microgravity, reduces evoked contractile tension of peripheral conduit arteries. It has been hypothesized that this diminished contractile tension is the result of alterations in the mechanical properties of these arteries (e.g., active and passive mechanics). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the reduced contractile force of the abdominal aorta from 2-wk hindlimb-unweighted (HU) rats results from a mechanical function deficit resulting from structural vascular alterations or material property changes. Aortas were isolated from control (C) and HU rats, and vasoconstrictor responses to norepinephrine (10(-9)-10(-4) M) and AVP (10(-9)-10(-5) M) were tested in vitro. In a second series of tests, the active and passive Cauchy stress-stretch relations were determined by incrementally increasing the uniaxial displacement of the aortic rings. Maximal Cauchy stress in response to norepinephrine and AVP were less in aortic rings from HU rats. The active Cauchy stress-stretch response indicated that, although maximum stress was lower in aortas from HU rats (C, 8.1 +/- 0.2 kPa; HU, 7.0 +/- 0.4 kPa), it was achieved at a similar hoop stretch. There were also no differences in the passive Cauchy stress-stretch response or the gross vascular morphology (e.g., medial cross-sectional area: C, 0.30 +/- 0.02 mm(2); HU, 0.32 +/- 0.01 mm(2)) between groups and no differences in resting or basal vascular tone at the displacement that elicits peak developed tension between groups (resting tension: C, 1.71 +/- 0.06 g; HU, 1.78 +/- 0.14 g). These results indicate that HU does not alter the functional mechanical properties of conduit arteries. However, the significantly lower active Cauchy stress of aortas from HU rats demonstrates a true contractile deficit in these arteries.

Papadopoulos, Anthony; Delp, Michael D.

2003-01-01

27

Topiramate ameliorates abdominal aorta cross-clamping induced liver injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the liver occurs after a prolonged period of ischemia followed by restoration of hepatic blood perfusion. During the surgery of abdominal aorta, I/R injury causes damage to lower extremities and many organs, especially liver. The antioxidant and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) suppression effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported in several studies. We evaluated the potential protective effect of TPM on cellular damage in liver tissue during I/R injury. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, I/R, and I/R plus TPM (I/R + TPM) groups. Laparotomy without I/R injury was performed in the control group. After laparotomy, cross-ligation of infrarenal abdominal aorta was applied for 2 h in I/R groups that was followed by 2 h of reperfusion. TPM (100 mg/kg/day) was orally administrated to the animals in the I/R + TPM group for seven consecutive days before I/R procedure. Results: The I/R group's TNF-? and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were significantly higher than those of the control (P = 0.010; P = 0.002) and I/R + TPM groups (P = 0.010; P = 0.002, respectively). Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) levels of I/R group were higher than the control (P = 0.015) and I/R + TPM groups. I/R caused serious histopathological damage to liver tissue; however, TPM led to very low histopathological changes. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that TPM treatment prominently decreases the severity of liver I/R injury. TPM pretreatment may have preventive effects on liver injury via I/R during intra-abdominal surgery. PMID:25253365

Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine C.; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Aydin, Ibrahim; Kirbas, Aynur; Yilmaz, Arif; Yuce, Suleyman; Gokce, Mehmet F.

2014-01-01

28

Real-Time Intravascular Shear Stress in the Rabbit Abdominal Aorta  

PubMed Central

Fluid shear stress is intimately linked with the biological activities of vascular cells. A flexible microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensor was developed to assess spatial- and temporal-varying components of intravascular shear stress (ISS) in the abdominal aorta of adult New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. Real-time ISS (ISSreal-time) was analyzed in comparison with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for wall shear stress (WSS). Three-dimensional abdominal arterial geometry and mesh were created using the GAMBIT software. Simulation of arterial flow profiles was established by FLUENT. The Navier–Stokes equations were solved for non-Newtonian blood flow. The coaxial-wire-based MEMS sensor was deployed into the abdominal arteries of rabbits via a femoral artery cutdown. Based on the CFD analysis, the entrance length of the sensor on the coaxial wire (0.4 mm in diameter) was less than 10 mm. Three-dimensional fluoroscope and contrast dye allowed for visualization of the positions of the sensor and ratios of vessel to coaxial wire diameters. Doppler ultrasound provided the velocity profiles for the CFD boundary conditions. If the coaxial wire were positioned at the center of vessel, the CFD analysis revealed a mean ISS value of 31.1 with a systolic peak at 102.8 dyn · cm?2. The mean WSS was computed to be 10.1 dyn · cm?2 with a systolic peak at 33.2 dyn · cm?2, and the introduction of coaxial wire increased the mean WSS by 5.4 dyn · cm?2 and systolic peak by 18.0 dyn · cm?2. Experimentally, the mean ISS was 11.9 dyn · cm?2 with a systolic peak at 47.0 dyn · cm?2. The waveform of experimental ISS was similar to that of CFD solution with a 30.2% difference in mean and 8.9% in peak systolic shear stress. Despite the difference between CD and experimental results, the flexible coaxial-wire-based MEMS sensors provided a possibility to assess real-time ISS in the abdominal aorta of NZW rabbits. PMID:19527952

Ai, Lisong; Yu, Hongyu; Dai, Wangde; Hale, Sharon L.; Kloner, Robert A.

2012-01-01

29

Aortoenteric Fistula as a Complication of Open Reconstruction and Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aorta  

PubMed Central

The paper intends to present a review of imaging characteristics of secondary aortoenteric fistula (AEF). Mechanical injury, infection, and adherence of a bowel segment to the aorta or aortic graft are major etiologic factors of AEF after open aortic repair. The pathogenesis of AEF formation after endovascular abdominal aortic repair is related to mechanical failure of the stent-graft, to stent graft infection, and to persistent pressurization of the aneurysmal sac. The major clinical manifestations of AEF comprise haematemesis, melaena, abdominal pain, sepsis, and fever. CT is the initial diagnostic modality of choice in a stable patient. However, the majority of reported CT appearances are not specific. In case of equivocal CT scans and clinical suspicion of AEF, scintigraphy, 67Ga citrate scans or 18F-FDG PET/CT is useful. Diagnostic accuracy of endoscopy in evaluation of AEF is low; nevertheless it allows to evaluate other than AEF etiologies of gastrointestinal bleeding. Without adequate therapy, AEF is lethal. Conventional surgical treatment is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The endovascular repair may be an option in hemodynamically unstable and high-risk surgical patients. We also illustrate an example of a secondary AEF with highly specific albeit rare radiologic picture from our institution. PMID:25302119

Tagowski, Marek; Vieweg, Hendryk; Wissgott, Christian; Andresen, Reimer

2014-01-01

30

Adalimumab Ameliorates Abdominal Aorta Cross Clamping Which Induced Liver Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of adalimumab (ADA) on cell damage in rat liver tissue during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of infrarenal abdominal aorta. Thirty male Wistar-albino rats were divided into three groups: control, I/R, and I/R+ADA, each group containing 10 animals. Laparotomy without I/R injury was performed in the control group animals. Laparotomy in the I/R group was followed by two hours of infrarenal abdominal aortic cross ligation and then two hours of reperfusion. ADA (50?mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally as a single dose, to the I/R+ADA group, five days before I/R. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) (pg/mg protein) and nitric oxide (NO) (µmol/g protein) levels in the I/R group (430.8 ± 70.1, 8.0 ± 1.1, resp.) were significantly higher than those in the I/R+ADA group (338.0 ± 71.6, P = 0.006; 6.3 ± 1.2, P = 0.008) and the control group (345.5 ± 53.3, P = 0.008; 6.5 ± 1.5, P = 0.010, resp.). I/R causes severe histopathological injury to the liver tissue, but ADA leads to much less histopathological changes. ADA treatment significantly decreased the severity of liver I/R injury. ADA pretreatment may have protective effects on experimental liver injury. PMID:24551855

Cure, Erkan; Cumhur Cure, Medine; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Aydin, Ibrahim; Kirbas, Aynur; Yilmaz, Arif; Yuce, Suleyman; Yücel, Ahmet Fikret

2014-01-01

31

In Vivo Quantification of Blood Flow and Wall Shear Stress in the Human Abdominal Aorta During Lower Limb Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques and a custom MR-compatible exercise bicycle were used to measure, in vivo, the effects of exercise on hemodynamic conditions in the abdominal aorta of eleven young, healthy subjects. Heart rate increased from 73±6.2 beats\\/min at rest to 110±8.8 beats\\/min during exercise (p p p p 2 at rest to 6.2±0.5 dyn\\/cm2 during exercise (p 2

Charles A. Taylor; Christopher P. Cheng; Leandro A. Espinosa; Beverly T. Tang; David Parker; Robert J. Herfkens

2002-01-01

32

The retroperitoneal approach to the abdominal aorta in the endovascular era.  

PubMed

The aim of this review was to assess the place of retroperitoneal (RP) aortic surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in the endovascular era and evaluate the evidence supporting it in preference to the more traditional transperitoneal approach. As endovascular graft technology improves, open aortic surgery is declining. AAAs unsuitable for endovascular aneurysm repair are, by definition, anatomically challenging. The RP approach is especially suited to anatomic challenges such as those posed by contemporary open AAA because it facilitates access to the suprarenal aorta. There is evidence that the RP approach reduces postoperative morbidity and length of stay compared with transperitoneal approaches. The evidence available indicates that the RP approach should be the first considered for any AAA unsuitable for endovascular aneurysm repair; however, the technique is more difficult to learn and less commonly practiced than the transperitoneal approach. Combined with a decrease in training hours in the United Kingdom, there is a real threat that the RP technique will only be performed by an ever-decreasing number of enthusiasts. PMID:22796332

Twine, Christopher P; Lane, Ian F; Williams, Ian M

2012-09-01

33

Determination of the layer-specific distributed collagen fibre orientations in human thoracic and abdominal aortas and common iliac arteries  

PubMed Central

The established method of polarized microscopy in combination with a universal stage is used to determine the layer-specific distributed collagen fibre orientations in 11 human non-atherosclerotic thoracic and abdominal aortas and common iliac arteries (63 ± 15.3 years, mean ± s.d.). A dispersion model is used to quantify over 37 000 recorded fibre angles from tissue samples. The study resulted in distinct fibre families, fibre directions, dispersion and thickness data for each layer and all vessels investigated. Two fibre families were present for the intima, media and adventitia in the aortas, with often a third and sometimes a fourth family in the intima in the respective axial and circumferential directions. In all aortas, the two families were almost symmetrically arranged with respect to the cylinder axis, closer to the axial direction in the adventitia, closer to the circumferential direction in the media and in between in the intima. The same trend was found for the intima and adventitia of the common iliac arteries; however, there was only one preferred fibre alignment present in the media. In all locations and layers, the observed fibre orientations were always in the tangential plane of the walls, with no radial components and very small dispersion through the wall thickness. A wider range of in-plane fibre orientations was present in the intima than in the media and adventitia. The mean total wall thickness for the aortas and the common iliac artery was 1.39 and 1.05 mm, respectively. For the aortas, a slight thickening of the intima and a thinning of the media in increasingly distal regions were observed. A clear intimal thickening was present distal to the branching of the celiac arteries. All data, except for the media of the common iliac arteries, showed two prominent collagen fibre families for all layers so that two-fibre family models seem most appropriate. PMID:22171063

Schriefl, Andreas J.; Zeindlinger, Georg; Pierce, David M.; Regitnig, Peter; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

2012-01-01

34

Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer of the Abdominal Aorta Involving the Celiac Trunk Origin and Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion: Endovascular Treatment  

SciTech Connect

We describe a case of endovascular treatment in a 64-year-old woman affected by a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) of the abdominal aorta with a 26-mm pseudoaneurysm involving the celiac trunk (CT) origin and with superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion in the first 30 mm. The patient underwent stenting to treat the SMA occlusion and subsequent deployment of a custom-designed fenestrated endovascular stent-graft to treat the PAU involving the CT origin. Follow-up at 6 months after device placement demonstrated no complications, and there was complete thrombosis of the PAU and patency of the two branch vessels.

Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G., E-mail: urossi76@hotmail.com; Petrocelli, Francesco; Seitun, Sara [San Martino University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Italy); Robaldo, Alessandro; Mazzei, Raffaele [San Martino University Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy)

2011-02-15

35

Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the abdominal aorta involving the celiac trunk origin and superior mesenteric artery occlusion: endovascular treatment.  

PubMed

We describe a case of endovascular treatment in a 64-year-old woman affected by a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) of the abdominal aorta with a 26-mm pseudoaneurysm involving the celiac trunk (CT) origin and with superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion in the first 30 mm. The patient underwent stenting to treat the SMA occlusion and subsequent deployment of a custom-designed fenestrated endovascular stent-graft to treat the PAU involving the CT origin. Follow-up at 6 months after device placement demonstrated no complications, and there was complete thrombosis of the PAU and patency of the two branch vessels. PMID:21103874

Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G; Petrocelli, Francesco; Seitun, Sara; Robaldo, Alessandro; Mazzei, Raffaele

2011-02-01

36

Gradient Echo MRI Characterization of Development of Atherosclerosis in the Abdominal Aorta in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbits  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit provides an important model of spontaneous atherosclerosis. With a strain of WHHL rabbits which do not develop abdominal aorta lumen stenosis even with advanced atherosclerosis, we studied the MRI-histology correlation, and the natural progression of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta. In addition, intra-reader segmentation repeatability and scan-rescan reproducibility were assessed. Methods. Two batches of female WHHL rabbits were used. The first batch of 6 rabbits was scanned at 20 weeks old. A second batch of 17 rabbits was scanned at 50 weeks old and then randomly divided into two subgroups: 8 were killed for histologic investigation; 9 were kept alive for follow-up, with repeat scanning a week later to assess scan-rescan reproducibility, and again at 73 weeks old to assess disease progression. MR images were acquired at 4.7 T using a chemical shift selective fat suppression gradient echo with a saturation band suppressing blood signal within the aortic lumen. Five slices per animal were acquired, centered around the renal artery region of the abdominal aorta, with in-plane resolution of 0.195 mm and slice thickness of 3 mm. Results. The coefficient of variation for intra-reader reproducibility for aortic wall thickness measurements was 2.5% for repeat segmentations of the same scans on the same day, but segmentations of these same scans made 8 months later showed a systematic change, suggesting that intra-reader bias as well as increased variability could compromise assessments made over time. Comparative analyses were therefore performed in one postprocessing session. The coefficient of variation for scan-rescan reproducibility for aortic wall thickness was 5.5% for nine pairs of scans acquired a week apart and segmented on the same day. Good MRI-histology correlation was obtained. The MRI-measured mean aortic wall thickness of animals at 20 weeks of age was 76% that of animals at 50 weeks of age (p < 0.001). There was a small increase in aortic wall thickness between 50 and 73 weeks of age, but this was not significant (p > 0.05). The corresponding differences in lumen cross-sectional areas at 20, 50, and 73 weeks of age were not significant. These results were consistent with in-house historical histology data on this strain of rabbits. Conclusions. High-resolution gradient echo MRI can follow disease progression in the WHHL rabbit spontaneous atherosclerosis disease model.

Wang, Yi-Xiang J., E-mail: yi-xiang.wang@astrazeneca.com; Kuribayashi, Hideto [AstraZeneca (United Kingdom); Wagberg, Maria [AstraZeneca (Sweden); Holmes, Andrew P.; Tessier, Jean J.; Waterton, John C. [AstraZeneca (United Kingdom)

2006-08-15

37

A 3D model of thrombus formation in a stent-graft after implantation in the abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

Here we present a 3D kinetic model of thrombus formation in an endovascular prosthesis after implantation in an abdominal aorta with an aneurysm. The computational fluid dynamic technique (CFD) was used to determine the process of thrombus formation and growth in the stent-graft on the basis of the medical data from computed tomography angiography and Doppler ultrasound examination of 10 patients. The Quemada model was used to describe rheological properties of blood. Results of the CFD simulations were validated based on actual data from patients with diagnosed thrombi in aortic implants. The results show that the elaborated CFD model correctly predicted thrombus formation, shape and deposition site in an endovascular prosthesis. The developed CFD model of thrombus growth can be applied to predict the risk of thrombus formation in stent-grafts and assist in selection of geometry of the endovascular prosthesis to reduce possible complications after stent-graft implantation using only basic medical data. PMID:25543277

Polanczyk, Andrzej; Podyma, Marek; Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Szubert, Wojciech; Zbicinski, Ireneusz

2015-02-01

38

Mechanical behavior of abdominal aorta aneurysm in rat model treated by cell therapy using mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Regenerative medicine to substitute conventional surgery or an endovascular stent constitutes currently a challenge to treat abdominal aneurysm artery (AAA). The present paper addresses the following question: Can a cellular therapy from mesenchymal stem cells reestablish the mechanical properties of damaged abdominal aorta? For that, the xenograft rat model that mimics arterial dilatation due to aneurysmal disease is used to study the effects of the proposed cellular therapy. To investigate the changes in the mechanical behavior of the arterial wall, the artery is assumed to be made of a hyperelastic and incompressible material characterized by a strain energy function fitted to the average data set of uniaxial tests of AAA tissue samples. In order to compute the stresses in the artery by using an analytical approach, the aneurysm is represented as a "parabolic-exponential" thin membrane. Thus, when compared to healthy, untreated and treated arteries, the obtained results demonstrate that the cellular therapy stabilizes the geometry of AAAs, improves the stiffness of the tissue and decreases stress variations in the arterial wall. PMID:24781283

Zidi, Mustapha; Allaire, Eric

2015-01-01

39

Pulse Wave Imaging of Normal and Aneurysmal Abdominal Aortas In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common vascular disease. The current clinical criterion for treating AAAs is an increased diameter above a critical value. However, the maximum diameter does not correlate well with aortic rupture, the main cause of death from AAA disease. AAA disease leads to changes in the aortic wall mechanical properties. The pulse-wave velocity (PWV) may

Jianwen Luo; Kana Fujikura; Leslie S. Tyrie; M. David Tilson III; Elisa E. Konofagou

2009-01-01

40

Aneurysm of the abdominal aorta ruptured to the retroperitoneal space and inferior vena cava. Case report.  

PubMed

Case of sixty-six year old male with abdominal aortic aneurysm rupturing into the retroperitoneal space and inferior vena cava is presented because of its rarity. Patient was operated upon with initial success but died probably due to pulmonary embolism with thrombus originating from the inferior vena cava narrowed at surgery. PMID:1842605

Rogowski, J; Landowski, S; Trenkner, M

1991-01-01

41

Multiple absences of the branches of abdominal aorta with congenital absence of the portal vein, unilateral adrenal agenesis and persistent ductus arteriosus in a female cadaver  

PubMed Central

We report on an extremely rare case of multiple absences of the branches of abdominal aorta with congenital absence of the portal vein, unilateral adrenal agenesis and persistent ductus arteriosus in an adult female cadaver. Specifically, instead of celiac trunk, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, solely a single arterial trunk aroused from the anterior aspect of abdominal aorta, inferior phrenic and ovarian arteries were absent in both sides. Left kidneys drained by two veins. There were not superior, splenic and mesenteric veins, while left renal vein received an additional vein, which run downward and drained primarily all parts of digestive tract and its associated glands (portal vein did not exist). Right adrenal gland was absent. To the best of our knowledge, it is the only reported case with such widespread anomalies. We think the importance of this case is beyond the surgical consideration and needs more profound developmental studies.

Foghi, Khadijeh

2014-01-01

42

Automatic identification and validation of planar collagen organization in the aorta wall with application to abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

Arterial physiology relies on a delicate three-dimensional (3D) organization of cells and extracellular matrix, which is remarkably altered by vascular diseases like abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The ability to explore the micro-histology of the aorta wall is important in the study of vascular pathologies and in the development of vascular constitutive models, i.e., mathematical descriptions of biomechanical properties of the wall. The present study reports and validates a fast image processing sequence capable of quantifying collagen fiber organization from histological stains. Powering and re-normalizing the histogram of the classical fast Fourier transformation (FFT) is a key step in the proposed analysis sequence. This modification introduces a powering parameter w, which was calibrated to best fit the reference data obtained using classical FFT and polarized light microscopy (PLM) of stained histological slices of AAA wall samples. The values of w = 3 and 7 give the best correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient larger than 0.7, R 2 about 0.7) with the classical FFT approach and PLM measurements. A fast and operator independent method to identify collagen organization in the arterial wall was developed and validated. This overcomes severe limitations of currently applied methods like PLM to identify collagen organization in the arterial wall. PMID:24016340

Polzer, Stanislav; Gasser, T Christian; Forsell, Caroline; Druckmüllerova, Hana; Tichy, Michal; Staffa, Robert; Vlachovsky, Robert; Bursa, Jiri

2013-12-01

43

Calcification of coronary arteries and abdominal aorta in relation to traditional and novel risk factors of atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Process of accelerated atherosclerosis specific for uremia increases cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may be influenced by the different structure of arteries. The study assesses the influence of traditional and novel risk factors on calcification of coronary arteries (CAC) and abdominal aorta (AAC) in hemodialysis patients (HD). Methods CAC and AAC were assessed by CT in 104 prevalent adult HD and 14 apparently healthy subjects with normal kidney function (control group). Mineral metabolism parameters, plasma levels of FGF-23, MGP, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, fetuin-A, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-? were measured. Results CAC and AAC (calcification score???1) were found in 76 (73.1%) and 83 (79.8%) HD respectively, more frequent than in the control group. In 7 HD with AAC no CAC were detected. The frequency and severity of calcifications increased with age. Both CAC and AAC were more frequently detected in diabetics (OR?=?17.37 and 13.00, respectively). CAC score was significantly greater in males. CAC and AAC scores were correlated significantly with pack-years of smoking and plasma osteoprotegrin levels. However the independent contribution of plasma osteoprotegerin levels was not confirmed in multiple regression analysis. Age (OR?=?1.13) and hemodialysis vintage (OR?=?1.14) were the independent risk factor favoring the occurrence of CAC; while age (OR?=?1.20) was the only predictor of AAC occurrence in HD. Conclusions 1. AAC precedes the occurrence of CAC in HD patients. 2. The exposition to uremic milieu and systemic chronic microinflammation has more deteriorative effect on the CAC than the AAC. PMID:23317172

2013-01-01

44

Preparation of double-raschel knitted silk vascular grafts and evaluation of short-term function in a rat abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

Silk fibroin fiber has a long history of use in sutures because of its high strength and toughness. In the work reported in this paper, small-diameter vascular grafts 1.5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length were prepared by coating a double-raschel knitted silk fiber graft with silk fibroin aqueous solution containing poly(ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether) as a cross-linking agent. The most important character of silk fibroin graft is remodeling, which is never observed for polyester fiber or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts. The double-raschel knitted silk fiber graft with coating has sufficient physical strength and protects the ladder from the end in the implantation process. The coating also gives protection against leakage of blood from the graft, and elasticity to the graft. Eight weeks after implantation of the grafts in rat abdominal aorta, early formation of thrombosis was avoided. PMID:21344164

Yagi, Takahito; Sato, Michiko; Nakazawa, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Kimie; Sata, Masataka; Itoh, Kenji; Takagi, Yoshihide; Asakura, Tetsuo

2011-06-01

45

Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdominal aorta and iliac vessels using combined 3-D gadolinium-enhanced MRA and gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed spoiled gradient echo sequences.  

PubMed

This study evaluates a combined protocol consisting of breath hold immediate post gadolinium 3-D gradient echo MR angiography and blood pool phase gadolinium-enhanced breath hold 2-D fat-suppressed spoiled gradient echo (SGE) sequences in the examination of diseases of the abdominal aorta and iliac vessels. Thirty-two patients with suspected disease of the abdominal aorta, major aortic branches, or iliac vessels underwent MR angiographic study from January 1996 to January 1997. Examinations were performed on a 1.5 T MR imager using 2-D axial SGE, coronal 3-D fast imaging in steady state precession (3-D FISP) following bolus administration of 40 mL of gadolinium, and axial and coronal blood pool phase gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed SGE. Post-processed data, including 3-D reconstructions using maximum intensity projection (MIP), targeted MIP, and multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) were evaluated. MR findings in all patients were correlated as follows: surgery (13 patients), angiography (11 patients), contrast enhanced CT (3 patients), non-contrast enhanced CT (1 patient), color doppler US (2 patients), and previous MR study (2 patients). MR findings correlated closely with findings at surgery or other imaging studies in 31 of 32 patients. One patient had renal artery occlusion that was misinterpreted as mild stenosis. The following vascular diseases were present: aneurysm disease [10 patients: aortic aneurysm (8 patients), inflammatory aneurysm (2 patients)], thoracoabdominal aortic dissection (2 patients), arteriovenous fistula (1 patient), stenoses and/or occlusion of the abdominal aorta, major aortic branches and iliac vessels [12 patients: stenoses and/or occlusion of the abdominal aorta with stenoses of the iliac vessels (9 patients), renal artery stenosis (2 patients), occlusion of the abdominal aorta (1 patient)], and occluded artery to pancreatic transplant artery (1 patient). Five patients had normal studies. The 3-D FISP technique accurately defined the luminal contours of vessels, allowing precise depiction of vessel stenosis (i.e., renal artery stenosis or common iliac artery stenosis) and clear demonstration of relationship of aortic branch vessels (i.e., renal arteries) to underlying aortic pathology (i.e., aortic aneurysm or dissection). Blood pool phase gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed SGE images were useful in the evaluation of the external surface of vessel walls, and providing accurate measurement of aneurysm diameter and other associated vascular entities (i.e., inflammatory aneurysm, left-sided IVC). Targeted MIP or MPR reconstruction were important for assessing stenoses of medium sized vessels such as renal arteries and branches of the iliac arteries, and for identifying accessory arteries. The combination of immediate post gadolinium 3-D FISP and blood pool phase gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed SGE is useful in the evaluation of the abdominal aorta, major aortic branches and iliac vessels. Immediate post gadolinium 3-D FISP images provides diagnostically useful information regarding vessel luminal contour, while blood pool phase gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed SGE provides ancillary information on the vessel wall and surrounding tissue. PMID:10372517

Kelekis, N L; Semelka, R C; Worawattanakul, S; Molina, P L; Mauro, M A

1999-06-01

46

Protective effect of delta opioid agonist [d-Ala2, d-Leu5] enkephalin on spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury by regional perfusion into abdominal aorta in rabbits.  

PubMed

[d-Ala(2), d-Leu(5)] enkephalin (DADLE) has been reported to exhibit protective effects against hypoxic or ischemic induced brain insult. However its efficacy on the spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury remains unclear. Here we investigate whether DADLE could attenuate ischemia and reperfusion induced neural injury in the rabbit spinal cord. New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to spinal cord ischemia by infrarenal aortic occlusion for 30min. In the period of spinal cord ischemia, DADLE 0.5mg/kg or NS were infused continuously into the distal clamped abdominal aorta. The heart rate, blood pressure, and core temperature were monitored continuously during the whole experimental procedure. Then the neurological behavioral function was assessed with Tarlov scale system at 1h, 6h, 24h, 48h after reperfusion, and neuronal injury evaluation in the ventral horn of gray matter was measured by counting the normal motor neurons at 48h after reperfusion. Comparing with the control group, the Tarlov scores were significantly higher and the incidences of paraplegia were significantly lower in the DADLE group at four time-point recorded. In addition, the normal neurons numbers in the DADLE group were significant more than those in the control group at 48h after reperfusion. These results suggested that DADLE infused into the abdominal aorta during ischemia period could attenuate behavioral retardation and the loss of normal motor neuron induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rabbits. PMID:25283992

Liu, Haitong; Chen, Binbin; Zhang, Yi; Qiu, Yimin; Xia, Yunfei; Li, Shitong; Yao, Junyan

2015-01-01

47

Morphometric Age and Surgical Risk  

PubMed Central

Background A cornerstone of a surgeon’s clinical assessment of suitability for major surgery is best described as the “eyeball test”. Pre-operative imaging may provide objective measures of this subjective assessment by calculating a patient’s morphometric age. Our hypothesis is that morphometric age is a surgical risk factor distinct from chronologic age and comorbidity and correlates with surgical mortality and length of stay. Study Design This is a retrospective cohort study within a large academic medical center. Using novel analytic morphomic techniques on pre-operative CT scans, a morphometric age was assigned to a random sample of patients having inpatient general and vascular abdominal surgery during 2006–2011. The primary outcomes for this study are post-operative mortality (1-year) and length of stay (LOS). Results The study cohort (N=1370) was stratified into tertiles based on morphometric age. The postoperative risk of mortality was significantly higher in the morphometric old age group when compared to the morphometric middle age group (OR = 2.42, 95%CI: 1.52 – 3.84, p<0.001). Morphometric old age patients were predicted to have a 4.6 day longer LOS than the morphometric middle age tertile. Similar trends were appreciated when comparing morphometric middle and young age tertiles. Chronologic age correlated poorly with these outcomes. Furthermore, patients in the chronologic middle age tertile found to be of morphometric old age had significantly inferior outcomes (mortality 21.4% and mean LOS 13.8 days) compared to patients in the chronologic middle age tertile found to be of morphometric young age (mortality 4.5% and mean LOS 6.3 days, p<0.001 for both). Conclusions Preoperative imaging can be used to assign a morphometric age to patients, which accurately predicts mortality and length of stay. PMID:23522786

Englesbe, Michael J; Terjimanian, Michael N; Lee, Jay S; Sheetz, Kyle H; Harbaugh, Calista M; Hussain, Adnan; Holcombe, Sven A; Sullivan, June; Campbell, Darrell A; Wang, Stewart C; Sonnenday, Christopher J

2013-01-01

48

Comparison of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Computed Tomography in Classifying Endoleaks After Endovascular Treatment of Abdominal Aorta Aneurysms: Preliminary Experience  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in endoleak classification after endovascular treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to computed tomography angiography (CTA). From May 2001 to April 2003, 10 patients with endoleaks already detected by CTA underwent CEUS with Sonovue (registered) to confirm the CTA classification or to reclassify the endoleak. In three conflicting cases, the patients were also studied with conventional angiography. CEUS confirmed the CTA classification in seven cases (type II endoleaks). Two CTA type III endoleaks were classified as type II using CEUS and one CTA type II endoleak was classified as type I by CEUS. Regarding the cases with discordant classification, conventional angiography confirmed the ultrasound classification. Additionally, CEUS documented the origin of type II endoleaks in all cases. After CEUS reclassification of endoleaks, a significant change in patient management occurred in three cases. CEUS allows a better attribution of the origin of the endoleak, as it shows the flow in real time. CEUS is more specific than CTA in endoleak classification and gives more accurate information in therapeutic planning.

Carrafiello, Gianpaolo, E-mail: gcarraf@tin.it; Lagana, Domenico; Recaldini, Chiara; Mangini, Monica; Bertolotti, Elena [University of Insubria, Department of Radiology (Italy); Caronno, Roberto; Tozzi, Matteo; Piffaretti, Gabriele [University of Insubria, Vascular Surgery (Italy); Annibale Genovese, Eugenio; Fugazzola, Carlo [University of Insubria, Department of Radiology (Italy)

2006-12-15

49

Stenting of the ascending aorta: a stent too far?  

PubMed

A 45-year old woman with then unknown Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) presented in 2007 with aneurysms involving the entire thoraco-abdominal aorta, but sparing the aortic root and valve. She underwent debranching of the aortic arch, followed by stenting of entire distal ascending aorta, arch and descending aorta. Two years later, a diagnosis of LDS was established. Five years later, she re-presented with severe aortic regurgitation in a dilated aortic root, requiring aortic root replacement. We present the challenges involved in performing aortic root replacement in the presence of stents within the ascending aorta. PMID:24532313

Mahesh, Balakrishnan; Catarino, Pedro; Gopalan, Deepa; Large, Stephen

2014-05-01

50

Coarctation of the Aorta  

MedlinePLUS

... cases, doctors might do a procedure known as balloon dilation (also called balloon angioplasty ). For this procedure, a cardiologist inserts a ... the aorta. This specialized catheter has a deflated balloon inside. When the catheter is in the aorta, ...

51

Phylogenetic signals in morphometric data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many of the goals and concepts of qualitative morphological analysis and morphometrics are similar, systematists have largely rejected the use of morphometric methods in phylogenetic analysis on a variety of grounds. This review finds that (1) the concepts of a cladistic character and a morphometric vari- able are essentially identical, (2) morphometric methods can be instrumental in discovering and

Norman MacLeod

52

Determining the Normal Aorta Size in Children.  

PubMed

Purpose To establish effective aorta diameter standards at multiple levels of the thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, and common iliac arteries by using computed tomographic (CT) data in healthy children (infants, children, adolescents) through young adults (hereafter referred to collectively as "children") of a wide range of sizes so that z scores may be calculated. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. The effective diameter, the average of aortic anteroposterior and lateral diameters, was independently measured at multiple levels of the aorta and common iliac arteries by two radiologists using 1-mm-collimation double-oblique reconstructions. Ordinary least squares regression methods were used to investigate models with various functional forms that related effective diameters at each level to patient body surface area ( BSA body surface area ) and sex. The best model was selected by using R(2), and formulas for deriving the expected diameter and estimates of the mean squared error ( MSE mean squared error ) were generated. Results Results from 88 thoracic and 110 abdominal contrast material-enhanced CT examinations were analyzed in children without known cardiovascular disease who ranged in age from 0 to 20 years (mean, 9.9 years; standard deviation, 5.7), with BSA body surface area ranging from 0.19 to 2.52 m(2). Excellent interrater reliability was present (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.95 to 0.98). The best model was a polynomial regression model of the natural log transformation of the effective diameter that included linear, quadratic, and cubic BSA body surface area terms and a sex main effect as independent variables. The z scores were calculated by using the observed and expected effective diameters and the MSE mean squared error . Conclusion The range of normal effective diameters of the aorta at multiple levels and the common iliac arteries was determined for children of different sizes and both sexes. Measurements outside of the normal ranges are consistent with aneurysm or hypoplasia. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25469783

Hegde, Shilpa V; Lensing, Shelly Y; Greenberg, S Bruce

2014-11-26

53

Calcific aorta and coronary artery: two cases of calcific ascending aorta and descending aorta  

PubMed Central

Calcific aorta is a disease of old age and is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Here, we present two patients with calcific aorta at different levels. One with a descending porcelain aorta, and modified Bentall's procedure was done. Second is a patient who is having a calcific ascending aorta and coronary artery. Coronary artery bypass grafting from left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending was done for the patient. The calcification and its morbidity had been discussed briefly.

Idhrees, A Mohammed; Radhakrishnan, Bineesh K; Panicker, Vargheese T; Pillai, Vivek; Karunakaran, Jayakumar

2015-01-01

54

Geostatistically constrained fuzzy segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm CT images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common disease affecting elderly people and increasing in incidence. The most feared complication of AAA is the rupture of which most will result in death. The AAA involves the excessive dilation of the abdominal aorta in diameter. As a result, open surgery or endoluminal repair is indicated in AAA greater than 55 mm. Currently

Tuan D. Pham; Jonathan Golledge

2008-01-01

55

Prothetischer Ersatz der thorakalen Aorta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Die Aorta ist das Stammgefäß des arteriellen Körperkreislaufs, von dem aus alle Organe mit Blut versorgt werden. Die Aorta entspringt der linken Herzkammer, beginnend mit dem aufsteigenden Teil (Aorta ascendens). Der Anfangsteil der Aorta ascendens ist natürlicherweise etwas erweitert und wird als Aortenbulbus oder nach seinem Erstbeschreiber als Sinus valsalvae bezeichnet. An dessen Basis liegt die Aortenklappe, die einen Rückfluss von Blut in den linken Ventrikel verhindert. Etwa 1 cm oberhalb der Aortenklappe entspringen die Herzkranzgefäße, die den Herzmuskel mit Blut versorgen. Die Aorta ascendens endet mit Beginn des Aortenbogens, aus dem die 3 Kopfhalsgefäße (Truncus bracheocephalicus, linke Arteria carotis und linke Arteria subclavia) abgehen. Nach Abgang der linken Arteria subclavia zieht die Aorta nach unten. Dieser Abschnitt wird als "Aorta descendens“ bezeichnet, wobei der thorakale Anteil bis zum Zwerchfelldurchtritt reicht.

Voss, Bernhard; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Brockmann, Gernot; Lange, Rüdiger

56

Tenascin C protects aorta from acute dissection in mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is caused by the disruption of intimomedial layer of the aortic walls, which is immediately life-threatening. Although recent studies indicate the importance of proinflammatory response in pathogenesis of AAD, the mechanism to keep the destructive inflammatory response in check is unknown. Here, we report that induction of tenascin-C (TNC) is a stress-evoked protective mechanism against the acute hemodynamic and humoral stress in aorta. Periaortic application of CaCl2 caused stiffening of abdominal aorta, which augmented the hemodynamic stress and TNC induction in suprarenal aorta by angiotensin II infusion. Deletion of Tnc gene rendered mice susceptible to AAD development upon the aortic stress, which was accompanied by impaired TGF? signaling, insufficient induction of extracellular matrix proteins and exaggerated proinflammatory response. Thus, TNC works as a stress-evoked molecular damper to maintain the aortic integrity under the acute stress.

Kimura, Taizo; Shiraishi, Kozoh; Furusho, Aya; Ito, Sohei; Hirakata, Saki; Nishida, Norifumi; Yoshimura, Koichi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Takanobu; Ueno, Takafumi; Hamano, Kimikazu; Hiroe, Michiaki; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Aoki, Hiroki

2014-02-01

57

Wireless Communicative stent for follow-up of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

E-print Network

Wireless Communicative stent for follow-up of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Johan Mazeyrat, Olivier aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilatation of the aorta at the abdominal level, which rupture is a life people in the world are nowadays subject to an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) illness. AAA illness

Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

58

Wall shear stress and endothelial cells dysfunction in the context of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

E-print Network

Wall shear stress and endothelial cells dysfunction in the context of abdominal aortic aneurysms Z7342,13384 Marseille Keywords: wall shear stress, abdominal aortic aneurysm, endothelial cells, mechanotransduction 1. Introduction The formation of aneurysm of abdominal aorta (AAA), is a multi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

59

Aorta pathology and pregnancy.  

PubMed

In addition to the haemodynamic changes in pregnancy, hormones also induce changes in the aortic wall. Women with diseases like Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlo syndrome, or other aortic abnormalities, have an increased risk of complications during pregnancy. Counselling and risk assessment before pregnancy is mandatory for all women with known aortic disease. Proper information should be provided about the risks of morbidity and mortality during pregnancy and information on the risks for the fetus, including the potential recurrence of disease in the offspring. Evaluation of past medical and family history, the aortic size before conception, and any increase in size before and during pregnancy, is essential to try and estimate the risk of aortic dissection. If the aorta is dilated, prophylactic repair before pregnancy may be indicated. In some cases, elective surgery during pregnancy may be warranted. In women with a severely dilated ascending aorta, caesarean section is, at present, the advised mode of delivery. PMID:24726851

van Hagen, Iris M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

2014-05-01

60

Divergent phenotype of rat thoracic and abdominal perivascular adipose tissues.  

PubMed

Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is implicated as a source of proatherogenic cytokines. Phenotypic differences in local PVAT depots may contribute to differences in disease susceptibility among arteries and even regions within an artery. It has been proposed that PVAT around the abdominal and thoracic aorta shares characteristics of white and brown adipose tissue (BAT), respectively; however, a detailed comparison of the phenotype of these PVAT depots has not been performed. Using young and older adult rats, we compared the phenotype of PVATs surrounding the abdominal and thoracic aorta to each other and also to epididymal white and subscapular BAT. Compared with young rats, older rats exhibited greater percent body fat (34.5 ± 3.1 vs. 10.4 ± 0.9%), total cholesterol (112.2 ± 7.5 vs. 58.7 ± 6.3 mg/dl), HOMA-insulin resistance (1.7 ± 0.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.1 a.u.), as well as reduced ACh-induced relaxation of the aorta (maximal relaxation: 54 ± 10 vs. 77 ± 6%) (all P < 0.05). Expression of inflammatory genes and markers of immune cell infiltration were greater in abdominal PVAT than in thoracic PVAT, and overall, abdominal and thoracic PVATs resembled the phenotype of white adipose tissue (WAT) and BAT, respectively. Histology and electron microscopy indicated structural similarity between visceral WAT and abdominal PVAT and between BAT and thoracic PVAT. Our data provide evidence that abdominal PVAT is more inflamed than thoracic PVAT, a difference that was by and large independent of sedentary aging. Phenotypic differences in PVAT between regions of the aorta may be relevant in light of the evidence in large animals and humans that the abdominal aorta is more vulnerable to atherosclerosis than the thoracic aorta. PMID:23389108

Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Laughlin, M Harold

2013-04-01

61

Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Patient with Renal Transplant  

SciTech Connect

Patients with functioning renal transplant who develop abdominal aortic aneurysm can safely be treated with endovascular repair. Endovascular repair of aneurysm avoids renal ischemia associated with cross-clamping of aorta.

Rao, M. [Specialist Registrar, Ulster Hospital (United Kingdom); Arya, N. [Specialist Registrar, Belfast City Hospital (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nityaarya@aol.com; Lee, B.; Hannon, R.J. [Regional Vascular and Endovascular Unit, Belfast City Hospital (United Kingdom); Loan, W. [Consultant Radiologist, Belfast City Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Soong, C.V. [Regional Vascular and Endovascular Unit, Belfast City Hospital (United Kingdom)

2004-09-15

62

Interactive segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysms in Marleen de Bruijne, Bram van Ginneken, Max A. Viergever, and Wiro J. Niessen  

E-print Network

Interactive segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysms in CTA images Marleen de Bruijne, Bram van of thrombus in abdominal aortic aneurysms from CTA data is presented. After manual segmentation of the first aneurysm (AAA) is an enlargement of the infrarenal abdominal aorta, resulting from weakened arterial walls

Utrecht, Universiteit

63

Morphometrics applied to medical entomology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphometrics underwent a revolution more than one decade ago. In the modern morphometrics, the estimate of size is now contained in a single variable reflecting variation in many directions, as many as there are landmarks under study, and shape is defined as their relative positions after correcting for size, position and orientation. With these informative data, and the corresponding software

Jean-Pierre Dujardin

2008-01-01

64

Angiosarcoma of the aorta: Report of a case and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary malignant tumors of the thoracic and abdominal aortas are extremely rare. In most cases, a diagnosis is established either postmortem or after an emergency operation for embolic complications. We present the case of a thoracic aortic angiosarcoma in a 71-year-old man who initially was seen with peripheral embolization. The management of these tumors and the world literature are reviewed.

Matthias H. Seelig; Paul J. Klingler; W. Andrew Oldenburg; Joseph L. Blackshear

1998-01-01

65

Abdominal pain  

MedlinePLUS

Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

66

Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

2009-02-01

67

The Role of Geometric Parameters in the Prediction of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress  

E-print Network

The Role of Geometric Parameters in the Prediction of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress E wall stress (PWS) and abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA) geometric parameters in the presence rights reserved. Introduction It has been postulated that aneurysm peak wall stress (PWS) may be superior

Papaharilaou, Yannis

68

Abdominal arteries recognition in X-Ray using a structural Olivier Nempont, Raoul Florent  

E-print Network

Abdominal arteries recognition in X-Ray using a structural model Olivier Nempont, Raoul Florent. For instance, during an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), the recognition of abdominal arteries of arteries (aorta, renal arteries, iliac arteries) whose relative positions are quite stable. We propose

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

Secondary procedures in thoracic aorta.  

PubMed

Secondary procedures for thoracic aorta are very demanding to the patient, with significantly high perioperative mortality and morbidity. The aim of this paper was to review the most remarkable secondary procedures following open and endorepairs of thoracic aorta. The PubMed database was searched without any year limits. Search terms used %were "thoracic", "aorta" and "reintervention". Two authors independently reviewed abstracts identified by the search and subsequently the reference lists of eligible series were scrutinized in order to detect any additional relevant articles. Different early and late complications following open an endovascular repair of thoracic aorta were described adding their incidence and their potential solutions with secondary interventions. Secondary interventions after open repair (OR) are more related to bleeding and progression of the aortic disease issues and open surgery is again the most common solution. However, in more fragile patients with favorable anatomy, endovascular repair can be offered as a secondary procedure. Reinterventions after endovascular treatment of thoracic aorta diseases (TEVAR) are mostly related to endoleaks and also to the aortic disease progression. Hopefully, the oncoming technological improvements together with the optimized operator expertise can reduce the incidence of secondary procedures following TEVAR for all the aortic pathologies. PMID:25216218

Mestres, G; Capoccia, L; Riambau, V

2014-12-01

70

Descending aorta-external iliac artery bypass for middle aortic syndrome.  

PubMed

We encountered a surgical case of middle aortic syndrome (MAS) in a 56-year-old man who had resistant hypertension. Computed tomography showed severe stenosis of the abdominal aorta from below the superior mesenteric artery to above the inferior mesenteric artery. Although bilateral renal artery stenosis was confirmed, renal function was within normal limits. A 10-mm vascular prosthetic graft was used to perform a descending aorta to left external iliac artery bypass. His hypertension was well controlled without medication. This extra-anatomic bypass may be a simple and useful approach for treating MAS if it is not necessary to reconstruct the renal artery or visceral artery. PMID:24275906

Okamoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Sugimoto, Tsutomu; Asami, Fuyuki; Nagasawa, Ayako; Shiraiwa, Satoru; Nakamura, Norihito; Yoshii, Shinpei

2014-11-01

71

Equine pericardial roll graft replacement of infected pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta  

PubMed Central

The standard procedure for treating infected aortic aneurysms is to resect the infected aorta, debridement of the surrounding tissue, in situ graft replacement, and omentopexy. However, the question of which graft material is optimal is still a matter of controversy. We recently treated a patient with an infected ascending aortic aneurysm. Because of previous abdominal surgery, the omentum was unavailable. The ascending aorta was replaced in situ with equine pericardial roll grafts. The patient is alive and well 29 months after the operation. PMID:22697377

2012-01-01

72

Elastin and collagen fibre microstructure of the human aorta in ageing and disease: a review  

PubMed Central

Aortic disease is a significant cause of death in developed countries. The most common forms of aortic disease are aneurysm, dissection, atherosclerotic occlusion and ageing-induced stiffening. The microstructure of the aortic tissue has been studied with great interest, because alteration of the quantity and/or architecture of the connective fibres (elastin and collagen) within the aortic wall, which directly imparts elasticity and strength, can lead to the mechanical and functional changes associated with these conditions. This review article summarizes the state of the art with respect to characterization of connective fibre microstructure in the wall of the human aorta in ageing and disease, with emphasis on the ascending thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta where the most common forms of aortic disease tend to occur. PMID:23536538

Tsamis, Alkiviadis; Krawiec, Jeffrey T.; Vorp, David A.

2013-01-01

73

Abdominal Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Throughout the world tuberculosis is\\u000a \\u000a associated with poverty, deprivation, and human immunodeficiency virus\\u000a \\u000a infection. Abdominal tuberculosis is usually of insidious onset with\\u000a \\u000a diverse symptoms and signs. A few present with acute complications of\\u000a \\u000a perforation, obstruction, or bleeding. The diagnosis is difficult,\\u000a \\u000a especially in areas where the disease is less common, as many patients\\u000a \\u000a do not have evidence of pulmonary

Niall O. Aston

1997-01-01

74

Morphological and molecular characterization of healthy human ascending aorta.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the characteristics of the normal human aorta has been constrained by lack of data on fresh aortic tissue, especially from healthy individuals. In this study, the gene expression and morphological characteristics of the thoracic ascending aorta (AA) of healthy organ donors have been evaluated, with the aim of providing reference data for the analysis of pathological AAs. We analysed by RT-PCR the differential expression of mRNAs coding for myocardin, smoothelin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and the ED-A isoform of fibronectin (ED-A FN) in AA specimens from donors, integrating the results with immunohistochemical analysis of the same targets. Morphological and morphometric characteristics of the AAs were also evaluated. In order to account for possible regional variations in wall structure, the convexity of the aortic profile was compared to the concavity. No differences in gene expression occurred for any of the target genes between the concavity and the convexity of AAs. Immunohistochemistry revealed a different distribution of total FN and of its ED-A isoform in the media and in the intima. Smoothelin is expressed by the majority of cells in the media, with some positive cells also in the intima. Alpha-SMA is expressed in all the tunicae. Immunohistochemistry also revealed in the convexity of 50% of AAs the presence of discrete areas in the subadventital media with altered structure and cell morphology and with altered gene expression, resulting positive for ED-A FN and alpha-SMA, but not for smoothelin, indicating the occurrence of early lesions also in macroscopically healthy AAs. PMID:22127602

Forte, A; Della Corte, A; Grossi, M; Finicelli, M; Bancone, C; Provenzano, R; Pepino, P; Nappi, G A; De Feo, M; Galderisi, U; Cotrufo, M; Cipollaro, M

2012-01-01

75

Mechanical Properties of Dilated Human Ascending Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilation of the ascending aorta, associated with Marfan Syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve, or advanced age, may lead to aortic dissection and rupture. Mathematical models can be used to assess the relative importance of increased wall stresses and decreased strength in these mechanical failures. To obtain needed inputs for such models, mechanical properties of dilated human ascending aorta were measured in

Ruth J. Okamoto; Jessica E. Wagenseil; William R. DeLong; Sara J. Peterson; Nicholas T. Kouchoukos; Thoralf M. Sundt; III

2002-01-01

76

Re-endothelialization following balloon injury and photodynamic therapy of the rabbit aorta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

De-endothelialization is the main stimulus of intimal hyperplasia following vascular injury. In this study we investigated the time course of re-endothelialization in balloon injured and photodynamic therapy (PDT) treated aortas of New Zealand white rabbits. Twenty rabbits underwent balloon denudation of the abdominal aorta and were then sacrificed in groups of 4 animals 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks later. Twenty more rabbits underwent similar balloon denudation and were treated immediately afterwards with photodynamic therapy using the photosensitizer metatetrahydroxy phenyl-chlorin and endovascular illumination with 652 nm light. PDT treated rabbits were also sacrificed in groups of 4 animals at the same time intervals. A further 4 rabbits were sacrificed without any treatment to act as normal controls. The vasculature was perfusion fixed at 100 mmHg with 10% formal saline. The abdominal aortas were retrieved and five sections were cut from each aorta at 1 cm intervals, embedded in wax, sectioned and stained for endothelial cells using the Avidin Biotin complex/horseradish peroxidase technique for use with the monoclonal primary antibody CD31 from the clone JC70. Endothelial covering was measured using a light microscope and Magiscan image analysis system. Normal arteries showed a near full (92.1% plus or minus 3.0, mean plus or minus SEM) endothelial covering. Endothelium was removed completely after both balloon injury and PDT. In balloon injury alone there was progressive endothelial regrowth with (54.1 plus or minus 7.2) covering at 8 weeks. In contrast, endothelial regrowth was retarded in the aortas treated with balloon injury and PDT, with only (7.1 plus or minus 2.9) of covering at 8 weeks. The slow pace of re-endothelialisation is consistent with greater production of intimal hyperplasia in PDT treated vessels.

Koenig, Thomas C.; Sobeh, Mohammed S.; Ham, Robert J.; Cross, Frank W.; Greenwald, Stephen E.

1997-05-01

77

Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination.  

PubMed

Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data.The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed.Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%).The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. PMID:25295390

Veronese, E; Tarroni, G; Visentin, S; Cosmi, E; Linguraru, M G; Grisan, E

2014-11-01

78

Form, function, and geometric morphometrics.  

PubMed

Geometric morphometrics (GM) has increasingly become an important tool in assessing and studying shape variation in a wide variety of taxa. While the GM toolkit has unparalleled power to quantify shape, its use in studies of functional morphology have been questioned. Here, we assess the state of the field of GM and provide an overview of the techniques available to assess shape, including aspects of visualization, statistical analysis, phylogenetic control, and more. Additionally, we briefly review the history of functional morphology and summarize the main tools available to the functional morphologist. We explore the intersection of geometric morphometrics and functional morphology and we suggest ways that we may be able to move forward in profitably combining these two research areas. Finally, this paper provides a brief introduction to the papers in this special issue and highlights the ways in which the contributing authors have approached the intersection of GM and functional morphology. Anat Rec, 298:5-28, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25339616

Cooke, Siobhán B; Terhune, Claire E

2015-01-01

79

In Vivo Three-Dimensional Surface Geometry of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a local, progressive dilation of the distal aorta that risks rupture until treated. Using the law of Laplace, in vivo assessment of AAA surface geometry could identify regions of high wall tensions as well as provide critical dimensional and shape data for customized endoluminal stent grafts. In this study, six patients with AAA underwent spiral

Michael S. Sacks; David A. Vorp; M. L. Raghavan; Michael P. Federle; Marshall W. Webster

1999-01-01

80

Effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm during echocardiography.  

PubMed

Screening patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is associated with reduced AAA-related mortality, but population screening is poorly implemented. Opportunistic screening during imaging for other indications might be efficient. Single-center series reported AAA rates of 0.8% to 6.5% in patients undergoing transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), with disparities due to selection bias. In this first multicenter study, we aimed to assess the feasibility and criteria for screening AAA during TTE in real-life practice. During a week of May 2011, 79 centers participated in a nationwide survey. All patients aged ?65 years requiring TTE for any indication were eligible, except for those with operated abdominal aorta. We defined AAA by an anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal aorta?30 mm. Of 1,382 consecutive patients, abdominal aorta imaging was feasible in 96.7%, with a median delay of 1.7 minutes (>3 minutes in 3.6% of cases). We found AAA in 50 patients (3.7%). Unknown AAA (2.7%) was more frequent in men than women (3.7% vs 1.3%, respectively, p=0.007) and increased by age at 2.2%, 2.5%, and 5.8% in age bands of 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85+ years, respectively. None of the female participants aged <75 years had AAA. Smoking status and family history of AAA were significantly more frequent among patients with AAA. The ascending aorta was larger in those with AAA (36.2±4.7 vs 34.0±5.2 mm, p=0.006), and bicuspid aortic valve and/or major aortic regurgitation were also more frequent (8% vs 2.6%, p=0.017). In conclusion, rapid AAA screening during TTE is feasible and should be limited to men ?65 years and women?75 years. PMID:25127549

Aboyans, Victor; Bataille, Vincent; Bliscaux, Pascale; Ederhy, Stéphane; Filliol, Didier; Honton, Benjamin; Kurtz, Baptiste; Messas, Emmanuel; Mohty, Dania; Brochet, Eric; Kownator, Serge

2014-10-01

81

Opposing changes in thoracic and abdominal aortic biomechanical properties in rodent models of vascular calcification and hypertension.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of hypertension on regional aortic biomechanical and structural properties in three rat models of vascular calcification: the hypertensive Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK; n = 13) model of chronic kidney disease, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs; n = 12), and calcification in normotensive Lewis rats induced by vitamin D3 and nicotine (VDN; n = 8). Lewis and Wistar-Kyoto rats were controls. Thoracic and abdominal aortic stiffness parameters were assessed by tensile testing. In models where aortic stiffness differences compared with controls existed in both thoracic and abdominal segments, an additional cohort was quantified by histology for thoracic and abdominal aortic elastin, collagen, and calcification. LPK and VDN animals had higher thoracic breaking strain than control animals (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) and lower energy absorption within the tensile curve of the abdominal aorta (P < 0.05). SHRs had a lower abdominal breaking stress than Wistar-Kyoto rats. LPK and VDN rats had more elastic lamellae fractures than control rats (P < 0.001), which were associated with calcium deposition (thoracic R = 0.37, P = 0.048; abdominal: R = 0.40, P = 0.046). LPK rats had higher nuclear density than control rats (P < 0.01), which was also evident in the thoracic but not abdominal aorta of VDN rats (P < 0.01). In LPK and VDN rats, but not in control rats, media thickness and cross-sectional area were at least 1.5-fold greater in thoracic than abdominal regions. The calcification models chronic kidney disease and induced calcification in normotension caused differences in regional aortic stiffness not seen in a genetic form of hypertension. Detrimental abdominal aortic remodeling but lower stiffness in the thoracic aorta with disease indicates possible compensatory mechanisms in the proximal aorta. PMID:24838503

Ameer, Omar Z; Salman, Ibrahim M; Avolio, Alberto P; Phillips, Jacqueline K; Butlin, Mark

2014-07-15

82

Efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in detecting graft rupture sites after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.  

PubMed

Non-anastomotic graft rupture is a rare but critical complication after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Therefore, identifying the rupture sites is important to perform endovascular stent grafting. A 78-year old man who had undergone Y-grafting for infrarenal AAA before 17 years was referred to our hospital with the complaints of abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed acute pancreatitis and an enlargement around the grafted abdominal aorta. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography revealed an extravazation from the graft body 1.5 cm distal to the proximal anastomosis, and endovascular stent grafting was successfully performed. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography might be useful in detecting the graft rupture. PMID:24218495

Nakanishi, Koji; Watanabe, Ryoji; Shimizu, Shuji; Nakai, Mikizo

2014-02-01

83

Congenital mitral incompetence and coarctation of aorta  

PubMed Central

Two patients with congenital mitral incompetence and coarctation of the aorta are presented. One patient had associated patent ductus arteriosus, bicuspid aortic valve, and endocardial fibroelastosis. The diagnosis in the two patients presented is well established by clinical, laboratory, and surgical findings and also by necropsy examination in one case. It is proposed that the rarity of reported cases in the literature may have resulted from the frequent diagnosis of left ventricular failure in infancy secondary to coarctation, leading to the assumption that a mitral insufficiency murmur, when present, is due to functional regurgitation. Likewise, the murmur may be mistakenly thought to originate from a ventricular septal defect. The diagnosis of coarctation of the aorta presented no problem in either patient, while detection of the mitral incompetence was difficult. Coarctation of the aorta complicated by pulmonary hypertension in the absence of intracardiac shunt should draw attention to the possibility of associated mitral incompetence. Congestive heart failure, especially after correction of coarctation, was also an indication of possible associated mitral insufficiency. The two patients were treated by repair of coarctation of the aorta at 3 months and 3 years of age and by mitral valve replacement at the age of 18 months and 5 years, respectively. One patient was in terminal heart failure and died following mitral valve surgery. The other patient benefited from the operation and her case has been followed for over one year. Correction of coarctation of the aorta provided only temporary relief of heart failure. Until both anomalies are corrected response will generally be unsatisfactory. The aetiology of combined mitral incompetence and coarctation of the aorta can be explained on a congenital basis. Endocardial fibroelastosis of the left ventricle is thought to be secondary to coarctation of the aorta, mitral incompetence, or both. Images PMID:4647632

Terzaki, Abdel K.; Leachman, Robert D.; Ali, M. Khalil; Hallman, Grady L.; Cooley, Denton A.

1972-01-01

84

Endovascular management of lap belt-related abdominal aortic injury in a 9-year-old child.  

PubMed

Blunt abdominal aortic trauma is a rare occurrence in children with only a few patients having been reported in the literature. Most such cases have been described in the context of lap belt injuries. We report a 9-year-old boy who suffered lap belt trauma to the abdomen during a high-speed road traffic accident resulting to the well-recognized pattern of blunt abdominal injury, that is, the triad of intestinal perforation, fractures of the lumbar spine, and abdominal aortic injury. The latter presented with lower limb ischemia due to dissection of the infrarenal aorta and right common iliac artery. Revascularization was achieved by endovascular means using 2 self-expanding stents in the infrarenal aorta and the right common iliac artery. This case is one of the few reports of lap belt-related acute traumatic abdominal aortic dissection in a young child and highlights the feasibility of endovascular management in the pediatric population. PMID:25463338

Papazoglou, Konstantinos O; Karkos, Christos D; Kalogirou, Thomas E; Giagtzidis, Ioakeim T

2015-02-01

85

Automatic Ascending Aorta Detection in CTA Datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of coronary arteries is an essential step when diagnosing coronary heart diseases. There exists a wide range of specialized algorithms for the segmentation of the coronary arteries in Computed Tomography Angiography datasets. In general, these algorithms have to be initialized by manually placing a seed point at the origins of the coronary arteries or within the ascending aorta. In this paper we present a fast and robust algorithm for the automatic detection of the ascending aorta in Computed Tomography Angiography datasets using a two-level threshold ray propagation approach. We further combine this method with an aorta segmentation and coronary artery tree detection algorithm to achieve a fully automatic coronary artery segmentation.

Saur, Stefan C.; Kühhnel, Caroline; Boskamp, Tobias; Székely, Gábor; Cattin, Philippe

86

Abdominal vacuum lift as an aid to diagnosing abdominal adhesions  

E-print Network

The internal organs are designed to move freely and slide over one another during normal body movement. The abdominal organs, however, have a tendency to adhere to the abdominal cavity (peritoneum) and other abdominal ...

Strauss, Julius (Julius Y.)

2006-01-01

87

Abdominal aortic calcific deposits are associated with increased risk for congestive heart failure: The Framingham Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives We sought to determine the association of aortic atherosclerosis, detected by calcific deposits in the abdominal aorta seen on lateral lumbar radiographs, with risk for congestive heart failure (CHF). Background Although the association between atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD) and CHF has been extensively studied, there are limited prospective data regarding the association of extracoronary atherosclerosis with CHF. Methods

Craig R. Walsh; L. Adrienne Cupples; Daniel Levy; Douglas P. Kiel; Marian Hannan; Peter W. F. Wilson; Christopher J. O'Donnell

2002-01-01

88

Pulse Wave Imaging Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Comparison Between Control And Angiotensin II-Treated Mice In Vivo  

E-print Network

Pulse Wave Imaging Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Comparison Between Control And Angiotensin II aneurysm (AAA) is a common vascular disease. AAA disease leads to changes in the mechanical properties along the AngII-treated aorta, with the lowest displacements at the aneurysmal regions. A Student's t

Konofagou, Elisa E.

89

Aortic Connective Tissue in Atherosclerotic Aorta— A Biochemical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biochemical analysis of the extracellular matrix of human aortas was per formed on samples of ascending and descending aortas affected by atherosclero sis in comparison with a control group of nonatherosclerotic aortas.Ulcerated or heavily calcified atheromas were excised and excluded from the analysis in order to differentiate biochemical alterations leading to the forma tion of atheromas from those due to

Lupo Andreotti; Alessandro Bussotti; Daniele Cammelli; Francesco di Giovine; Gaetana Sterrantino; Giuseppe Varcasia; Paolo Arcangeli

1986-01-01

90

Ultrasound Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the effectiveness the screening program? How often should population-based screening occur? What are appropriate treatment options after screening based on the size of aneurysms? Are there differences between universal and targeted screening strategies? What are the harms of screening? Summary of Findings Population-based ultrasound screening is effective in men aged 65 to 74 years, particularly in those with a history of smoking. Screening reduces the incidence of AAA ruptures, and decreases rates of emergency surgical repair for AAA and AAA-attributable mortality. Acceptance rates decline with increasing age and are lower for women. Low acceptance rates may affect the effectiveness of a screening program. A one-time screen is sufficient for a population-based screening program with regard to initial negative scans and development of large AAAs. There is no difference between early elective surgical repair and surveillance for small aneurysms (4.0–5.4 cm). Repeated surveillance of small aneurysms is recommended. Targeted screening based on history of smoking has been found to detect 89% of prevalent AAAs and increase the efficiency of screening programs from statistical modeling data. Women have not been studied for AAA screening programs. There is evidence suggesting that screening women for AAA should be considered with respect to mortality and case fatality rates in Ontario. It is important that further evaluation of AAAs in women occur. There is a small risk of physical harm from screening. Less than 1% of aneurysms will not be visualized on initial screen and a re-screen may be necessary; elective surgical repair is associated with a 6% operative morality rate and about 3% of small aneurysms may rupture during surveillance. These risks should be communicated through informed consent prior to screening. There is little evidence of severe psychological harms associated with screening. Conclusions Based on this review, the Medical Advisory Secretariat concluded that there is sufficient evidence to determine that AAA screening using ultrasound is effective

2006-01-01

91

Aorta Structural Alterations in Term Neonates: The Role of Birth and Maternal Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Aim. To evaluate the influence of selected maternal and neonatal characteristics on aorta walls in term, appropriately grown-for-gestational age newborns. Methods. Age, parity, previous abortions, weight, height, body mass index before and after delivery, smoking, and history of hypertension, of diabetes, of cardiovascular diseases, and of dyslipidemia were all assessed in seventy mothers. They delivered 34 males and 36 females healthy term newborns who underwent ultrasound evaluation of the anteroposterior infrarenal abdominal aorta diameter (APAO), biochemical profile (glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, and D-dimers homeostasis model assessment [HOMAIR]index), and biometric parameters. Results. APAO was related to newborn length (r = +0.36; P = 0.001), head circumference (r = +0.37; P = 0.001), gestational age (r = +0.40, P = 0.0005), HOMA index (r = +0.24; P = 0.04), and D-dimers (r = +0.33, P = 0.004). Smoke influenced APAO values (odds ratio: 1.80; confidence interval 95%: 1.05–3.30), as well as diabetes during pregnancy (r = +0.42, P = 0.0002). Maternal height influenced neonatal APAO (r = +0.47, P = 0.00003). Multiple regression analysis outlined neonatal D-dimers as still significantly related to neonatal APAO values. Conclusions. Many maternal and neonatal characteristics could influence aorta structures. Neonatal D-dimers are independently related to APAO. PMID:23984364

Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Salerno, Christian; Filippucci, Lucia; Angrisani, Lucia; Schettini, Federico; Laforgia, Nicola

2013-01-01

92

A basic trilobite morphometric exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity entails a basic morphometrics lab, followed up by an in-class exercise to reinforce some of the same key concepts. The lab exercise familiarizes the student with basic methods of quantitative characterization and statistical comparison through measurement of pygidia (tails) of two species of the Ordovician trilobite Bellefontia â one from New York and one from Pennsylvania. Actual specimens, while nice, are not required; data acquired by measurement from photo collages will suffice. The exercise culminates in a statistical test of significance (using the Z-statistic) of the difference in slopes of the lines acquired for data from the two species. The data also serve to pose questions and prompt consideration of growth trajectories and discrimination of isometric from anisometric growth. The in-class activity builds on the knowledge base built in the lab but applies it to species discrimination based on the cranidia (central part of the head) of three species of the Upper Cambrian genus Bartonaspis, known to be of identical age from their occurrences within the very thin (everywhere 2m or less) Irvingella major Zone of the Elvinia trilobite Zone. The importance of that subzone, which is the "critical interval" at the top of the Pterocephaliid Biomere the basal unit of the Sunwaptan Stage traceable throughout Laurentian North America, also contributes to the significance of the exercise. With the insight developed from the lab, students are able to confidently distinguish the three species of Bartonaspis (from three photo collages), but must thoughtfully evaluate the data presented in bivariate plots of cranidial morphologic data to do so. The exercise gives the students a good sense of the level of familiarity and morphologic characterization necessary to do species-level identification, and also some worthwhile practice in basic quantitative methods.

John Taylor

93

Abdominal hernias: Radiological features  

PubMed Central

Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

2011-01-01

94

Modeling Blood Flow in the Aorta.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an exercise to demonstrate two fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics: the Reynolds number and the Principle of Continuity. The exercise demonstrates flow in a major blood vessel, such as the aorta, with and without a stenosis. Students observe the transition from laminar to turbulent flow as well as downstream persistence of turbulence.…

McConnell, Colin J.; Carmichael, Jonathan B.; DeMont, M. Edwin

1997-01-01

95

Functional chiral asymmetry in descending thoracic aorta.  

PubMed

To determine whether rotational blood flow or chiral asymmetry exists in the human descending thoracic aorta, we established the ability of color Doppler ultrasound to detect rotational flow in a tornado tube model of a vortex descending fluid column. In a model of the human aortic arch with a pulse duplicator, color Doppler was then used to demonstrate that rotational flow occurs first in the transverse arch and then in the proximal descending thoracic aorta. With the use of color Doppler esophageal echocardiography, 53 patients (age range, 25-78 years; mean age, 56.4 years) were prospectively examined for rotational flow in the descending thoracic aorta. At 10 cm superior to retro-left ventricular position, 22 of 38 patients (58%) revealed rotational flow with obvious diastolic counterclockwise rotation but less obvious systolic clockwise rotation. At 5 cm superior to retro-left ventricular position, 29 of 46 patients (63%) revealed rotational flow with a tendency toward systolic clockwise and diastolic counterclockwise rotation. At the retro-left ventricular position, 47 of 53 patients (89%) revealed rotational flow, usually of a clockwise direction, occurring in systole. Our data suggest that aortic flow is not purely pulsatile and axial but has a rotational component. Rotational flow begins in the aortic arch and is carried through to the descending thoracic aorta, where flow is chirally asymmetric with systolic clockwise and diastolic counterclockwise components. These data demonstrate an aortic rotational flow component that may have physiological implications for organ perfusion. PMID:2242523

Frazin, L J; Lanza, G; Vonesh, M; Khasho, F; Spitzzeri, C; McGee, S; Mehlman, D; Chandran, K B; Talano, J; McPherson, D

1990-12-01

96

Posterior pericardial approach for ascending aorta-to-descending aorta bypass through a median sternotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Bypass grafting for repeat operation or complex forms of descending aortic disease is an alternative approach to decrease potential complications of anatomic repair.Methods. Between December 1985 and February 1998, 17 patients (13 men, 4 women; mean age, 47.6 ± 18.5 years) underwent ascending aorta-to-descending aorta bypass through a median sternotomy and posterior pericardial approach. Indications for operation were coarctation

Uzzi Izhar; Hartzell V Schaff; Charles J Mullany; Richard C Daly; Thomas A Orszulak

2000-01-01

97

Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure in various organ systems have been noted over the past century. The concept of abdominal compartment syndrome has gained more attention in both trauma and general surgery in the last decade. This article reviews the current understanding and management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. Methods: Relevant information was gathered from a

K.-M. Sieh; Kent-Man Chu; John Wong

2001-01-01

98

Abdominal aortic aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

Aneurysm - aortic; AAA ... pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often seen in males over age ... one or more risk factors. The larger the aneurysm, the more likely it is to break open. ...

99

Normal Abdominal CT  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Set of normal abdominal CT images with various important anatomic structures outlined, for cine viewing to gain a 3D view of the structure and its relationship to adjacent organs.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: Normal

Shaffer, Kitt

100

Mycotic Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Caused by Bacteroides Thetaiotaomicron and Acinetobacter Lwoffii: The First Case in Korea  

PubMed Central

Mycotic aneurysms are uncommon, but are fatal without appropriate management. Previous reports have shown that anaerobes and gram-negative organisms are less common but more dangerous than other causative agents of mycotic aneurysm. We report the case of a 60-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis in the aorta, and a 10-day of history of lower abdominal pain and fever. This man was diagnosed with an uncommon abdominal aorta mycotic aneurysm caused by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Acinetobacter lwoffii. The aneurysm was successfully treated with antibiotics therapy and aorto-bi-external iliac artery bypass with debridement of the infected aortic wall. We present this case together with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:24693472

Kim, Min Gyu; Jeon, Jae Woong; Ryu, Il Hwan; Lee, Jae Joon; Kim, Joo Seok; Choi, Ji Wook; Cho, Byung-Sun

2014-01-01

101

Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm caused by bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and acinetobacter lwoffii: the first case in Korea.  

PubMed

Mycotic aneurysms are uncommon, but are fatal without appropriate management. Previous reports have shown that anaerobes and gram-negative organisms are less common but more dangerous than other causative agents of mycotic aneurysm. We report the case of a 60-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis in the aorta, and a 10-day of history of lower abdominal pain and fever. This man was diagnosed with an uncommon abdominal aorta mycotic aneurysm caused by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Acinetobacter lwoffii. The aneurysm was successfully treated with antibiotics therapy and aorto-bi-external iliac artery bypass with debridement of the infected aortic wall. We present this case together with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:24693472

Kim, Min Gyu; Jeon, Jae Woong; Ryu, Il Hwan; Lee, Jae Joon; Kim, Joo Seok; Choi, Ji Wook; Cho, Byung-Sun; Yoon, Hee Jung

2014-03-01

102

Functional Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a relatively less common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder defined by\\u000a the presence of constant or frequently recurring abdominal pain that is not associated with eating, change in bowel habits,\\u000a or menstrual periods (Drossman Gastroenterology 130:1377–1390, 2006), which points to a more centrally targeted (spinal and supraspinal) basis for the symptoms. However, FAPS is frequently

Madhusudan Grover; Douglas A. Drossman

2010-01-01

103

Stenting of coarctation of the aorta.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to assess the usefulness of balloon expandable Palmaz intravascular stents in the transcatheter treatment of children and young adults with native and recurrent coarctation of the aorta, and to develop an improved intravascular stent and balloon delivery catheter specifically developed for vascular obstructions associated with congenital heart disease, including coarctation of the aorta. Twenty-one patients, 8 native and 13 recurrent coarctations, were successfully treated with the Palmaz stent. However, limitations and disadvantages in stent design and the single balloon delivery system were uncovered. Therefore, the NuMED CP stent and BIB delivery catheter were developed and used to treat 25 patients with native (17) and recurrent (8) coarctation successfully. Improvements in stent design and long-term follow-up using three-dimensional spiral CT scan will be helpful in determining the role of transcatheter stent therapy for native and recurrent coarctation of the aorta. Cathet Cardiovasc Intervent 2001;54:112-125. PMID:11553960

Cheatham, J P

2001-09-01

104

B2 cells suppress experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed

Recent reports of rupture in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) receiving B-cell depletion therapy highlight the importance of understanding the role of B cells (B1 and B2 subsets) in the development of AAA. We hypothesized that B2 cells aggravate experimental aneurysm formation. The IHC staining revealed infiltration of B cells in the aorta of wild-type (C57BL/6) mice at day 7 after elastase perfusion and persisted through day 21. Quantification of immune cell types using flow cytometry at day 14 showed significantly greater infiltration of mononuclear cells, including B cells (B2: 93% of total B cells) and T cells in elastase-perfused aortas compared with saline-perfused or normal aortas. muMT (mature B-cell deficient) mice were prone to AAA formation similar to wild-type mice in two different experimental AAA models. Contradicting our hypothesis, adoptive transfer of B2 cells suppressed AAA formation (102.0% ± 7.3% versus 75.2% ± 5.5%; P < 0.05) with concomitant increase in the splenic regulatory T cell (0.24% ± 0.03% versus 0.92% ± 0.23%; P < 0.05) and decrease in aortic infiltration of mononuclear cells. Our data suggest that B2 cells constitute the largest population of B cells in experimental AAA. Furthermore, B2 cells, in the absence of other B-cell subsets, increase splenic regulatory T-cell population and suppress AAA formation. PMID:25194661

Meher, Akshaya K; Johnston, William F; Lu, Guanyi; Pope, Nicolas H; Bhamidipati, Castigliano M; Harmon, Daniel B; Su, Gang; Zhao, Yunge; McNamara, Coleen A; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Ailawadi, Gorav

2014-11-01

105

Inhibition of PKC-dependent extracellular Ca2+ entry contributes to the depression of contractile activity in long-term pressure-overloaded endothelium-denuded rat aortas  

PubMed Central

We examined the contractile responsiveness of rat thoracic aortas under pressure overload after long-term suprarenal abdominal aortic coarctation (lt-Srac). Endothelium-dependent angiotensin II (ANG II) type 2 receptor (AT2R)-mediated depression of contractions to ANG II has been reported in short-term (1 week) pressure-overloaded rat aortas. Contractility was evaluated in the aortic rings of rats subjected to lt-Srac or sham surgery (Sham) for 8 weeks. ANG I and II levels and AT2R protein expression in the aortas of lt-Srac and Sham rats were also evaluated. lt-Srac attenuated the contractions of ANG II and phenylephrine in the aortas in an endothelium-independent manner. However, lt-Srac did not influence the transient contractions induced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings by ANG II, phenylephrine, or caffeine in Ca2+-free medium or the subsequent tonic constrictions induced by the addition of Ca2+ in the absence of agonists. Thus, the contractions induced by Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca2+ influx through stored-operated channels were not inhibited in the aortas of lt-Srac rats. Potassium-elicited contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats remained unaltered compared with control tissues. Consequently, the contractile depression observed in aortic tissues of lt-Srac rats cannot be explained by direct inhibition of voltage-operated Ca2+ channels. Interestingly, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats were depressed in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Neither levels of angiotensins nor of AT2R were modified in the aortas after lt-Srac. The results suggest that, in rat thoracic aortas, lt-Srac selectively inhibited protein kinase C-mediated activation of contraction that is dependent on extracellular Ca2+ entry. PMID:25098618

Padilla, J.; López, R.M.; López, P.; Castillo, M.C.; Querejeta, E.; Ruiz, A.; Castillo, E.F.

2014-01-01

106

Penetrating injury of ascending aorta with arrow in situ.  

PubMed

Penetrating injuries of the aorta are rare and highly lethal; very few patients are able to reach the hospital alive. We report a case of penetrating injury into the ascending aorta with the arrow still in situ, shot by a bow in a tribal region of India. The wound of entry into the aorta was sealed by the arrow itself. The patient came to us walking and supporting the arrow with his left hand. He was operated on, and the arrow was successfully removed from the aorta. PMID:22450110

Lakhotia, Siddharth; Prakash, Shashi; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Panigrahi, Debasish

2012-04-01

107

Abdominal Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor  

PubMed Central

A 28-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal pain, weight loss and a palpable intra-abdominal mass. A CT scan revealed a tumor with a diameter of 7 cm with sharp margins, intra-tumoral fatty components and enhancing soft tissue. After initial workup, which suggested an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT), she underwent laparotomy with complete resection. Pathological examination indeed revealed IMT. IMT is a rare benign neoplasm and has been described in nearly the entire body. It presents with nonspecific symptoms. The therapy of abdominal IMT consists of radical surgery because of high local recurrence rates. In this case report clinical, surgical, radiological and histological features with a review of the relevant literature are described. PMID:24707245

Groenveld, Roosmarijn L.; Raber, Menno H.; Oosterhof-Berktas, Richard; Eijken, Erik; Klaase, Joost M.

2014-01-01

108

Fetal abdominal wall defects.  

PubMed

The most common fetal abdominal wall defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, both with a prevalence of about three in 10,000 births. Prenatal ultrasound has a high sensitivity for these abnormalities already at the time of the first-trimester nuchal scan. Major unrelated defects are associated with gastroschisis in about 10% of cases, whereas omphalocele is associated with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities in a much higher proportion of cases. Challenges in management of gastroschisis are related to the prevention of late intrauterine death, and the prediction and treatment of complex forms. With omphalocele, the main difficulty is the exclusion of associated conditions, not all diagnosed prenatally. An outline of the postnatal treatment of abdominal wall defects is given. Other rarer forms of abdominal wall defects are pentalogy of Cantrell, omphalocele, bladder exstrophy, imperforate anus, spina bifida complex, prune-belly syndrome, body stalk anomaly, and bladder and cloacal exstrophy; they deserve multidisciplinary counselling and management. PMID:24342556

Prefumo, Federico; Izzi, Claudia

2014-04-01

109

Morphometric Analysis of Upper End of Tibia  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study aims to assess different morphometric parameters of condylar and intercondylar surface of tibia and to compile the results, analyze and formulate a baseline data for future studies with relevance to Indian population and also to compare the current data with accessible literature for pertinent surgical utilities. Morphometric parameters of upper end of tibia can be used to guide treatment and monitor outcome of total knee replacement surgeries. Information regarding morphometry of upper end of the tibia is vital as it provides reliable method of assessing knee deformity. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 50 male and 50 female adult human tibiae. Morphometric measurements of medial condyle, lateral condyle and intercondylar area of tibiae were meticulously recorded with digital Vernier calipers with a least count of 0.01 mm. Student’s t-test was used with significant level of p-value < 0.05 and 95% confidence interval. Results: All measurements were found to be statistically significant when compared between the two sexes on both sides (p-value<0.05). Anteroposterior measurements were found to be greater than transverse measurements for both medial and lateral condyles. Furthermore, both anteroposterior and transverse measurements were greater in medial condyle than in lateral condyle on both sides and sexes. Conclusion: The present study is an endeavor to provide a base line data pertaining to morphometric details of upper end of tibia with reference to unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasty in Indian population. The results of the study assume special importance in view of the technical advancements in reconstructive surgical procedures in orthopedic practice. PMID:25302182

Singla, Rajan Kumar; Kullar, Jagdev Singh; Suri, Rajesh Kumar; Mehta, Vandana

2014-01-01

110

Supplementary Appendix 1 Additional details of morphometric methods .............................................p. 2  

E-print Network

.............................................p. 2 Anolis skull centroid size ................................................................................p. 2 Maximum likelihood reconstruction of skull shape................................... pp. 34 Phylomorphospace of Anolis skull shape....................................................p. 5 Morphometric

Mahler, D. Luke

111

Hydroelastic effects in the aorta bifurcation zone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical behavior of the vessels and blood is mathematically analyzed at the point of aortic bifurcation using a homogeneous single layer channel as a model of the aorta. Allowance is made for the fact that the aortic intima is considerably less rigid than the other layers. For analysis of blood flow in the major arteries, the blood is treated as a viscous Newtonian fluid whose movements are described by Navier-Stokes equations and a continuity equation. Blood flow dynamics at the aortic bifurcation are discussed on the basis of the results.

Volmir, A. S.; Gersheyn, M. S.; Purinya, B. A.

1980-01-01

112

Incision for abdominal laparoscopy (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Abdominal laparoscopy is a useful aid in diagnosing disease or trauma in the abdominal cavity with less scarring than ... as liver and pancreatic resections may begin with laparoscopy to exclude the presence of additional tumors (metastatic ...

113

Effects of simulated microgravity on vasoconstrictor and mechanical properties of the rat abdominal aorta  

E-print Network

In humans and rats, microgravity induces adaptations within the cardiovascular system that appear to include modifications in peripheral vascular reactivity. Rodent hindlimb unweighting (HU) has been used to model putative adaptations that occur...

Papadopoulos, Anthony

2012-06-07

114

Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos, E-mail: lioupisC@vodafone.net.gr; Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris [Red Cross Hospital of Athens, Department of Vascular Surgery (Greece); Pomoni, Maria [Red Cross Hospital of Athens, Department of Radiology (Greece); Andrikopoulos, Vassilios [Red Cross Hospital of Athens, Department of Vascular Surgery (Greece)

2008-07-15

115

Effects of simulated microgravity on vasoconstrictor and mechanical properties of the rat abdominal aorta.  

E-print Network

??In humans and rats, microgravity induces adaptations within the cardiovascular system that appear to include modifications in peripheral vascular reactivity. Rodent hindlimb unweighting (HU) has… (more)

Papadopoulos, Anthony

2012-01-01

116

The coral reef aorta – a single centre experience in 70 patients  

PubMed Central

Coral reef aorta (CRA) is described as rock-hard calcifications in the visceral part of the aorta. These heavily calcified plaques grow into the lumen and can cause significant stenoses, which may lead to malperfusion of the lower limbs, visceral ischemia or hypertension due to renal ischemia. From January 1984 to February 2007, 70 patients (24 men, 46 women, mean age 59.5 years, range 14 to 81 years) underwent treatment in the Department of Vascular Surgery and Renal Transplantation, University Hospital, Heinrich-Heine-University (Düsseldorf, Germany) for CRA. The present study is based on a review of patients’ records and the prospective follow-up in the outpatient clinic. The most frequent finding was renovascular arterial hypertension (44.3%) causing headache, vertigo and visual symptoms. Intermittent claudication due to peripheral arterial occlusive disease was found in 28 patients (40.0%). Seventeen patients (24.3%) presented with chronic visceral ischemia causing diarrhea, weight loss and abdominal pain. Sixty-nine of the 70 patients (98.6%) underwent surgery; in 57 patients, aortic reconstruction was achieved with thromboendarterectomy, performed on an isolated suprarenal segment in six cases (8.7%), an infrarenal segment in 15 cases (21.7%), and the supra- and infrarenal aorta in 43 cases (62.3%). Eight patients (11.6%) died during or soon after surgery. Postoperative complications requiring corrective surgery occurred in 11 patients (15.9%). Almost one-third of the patients (n=19, 27.5%) returned for follow-up after a mean of 52.6 months (range six to 215 months). Of the 19 patients, there was significant clinical and diagnostic improvement in 16 patients (84.2%) and three patients (15.8%) were unchanged. Impairment was not observed. Despite the existing and improving surgical techniques for the treatment of CRA, its pathophysiological basis and genesis is not yet understood. PMID:22477301

Grotemeyer, Dirk; Pourhassan, Siamak; Rehbein, Hermann; Voiculescu, Adina; Reinecke, Petra; Sandmann, Wilhelm

2007-01-01

117

Aorta-Left Renal Vein Fistula Complicating an Aortic Aneurysm: Preoperative and Postoperative Multislice CT Findings  

SciTech Connect

Fistulas complicating an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are rare, and fistulas involving the left renal vein are particularly uncommon. We highlight here a fistula between an infrarenal aortic aneurysm and a retroaortic left renal vein, revealed by left flank pain associated with hematuria and acute renal failure. The multislice CT angiography performed in this 68-year-old patient revealed communication and equal enhancement between the aorta and the left gonadic vein, suggesting the presence of a fistula. The three-dimensional VRT reconstructions presented in this case were of great value in the preoperative planning, enabling immediate visualization of this unusual feature. Alternative diagnoses to consider when encountering this clinical presentation are reviewed.

Barrier, Pierre, E-mail: p.barrier@gmail.com; Otal, Philippe [Hopital de Rangueil CHU de Toulouse, Department of Radiology (France); Garcia, Olivier; Vahdat, Olivier; Domenech, Brice [Clinique Pasteur, Department of Radiology (France); Lannareix, Valerie; Joffre, Francis; Rousseau, Herve [Hopital de Rangueil CHU de Toulouse, Department of Radiology (France)

2007-06-15

118

Regeneration of endothelium in rat aorta after local freezing. A scanning electron microscopic study.  

PubMed Central

Immediately after freezing the abdominal aorta of rats by applying a cold probe, the endothelium is desquamated or necrotic and platelets adhere to desquamated areas (at the earliest observable time) but not to necrotic endothelium or endothelium adjacent to the injury. Preferential adhesion of platelets to fenestrations of the internal elastic laimina appears to lead to their active migration into the media, where a large number may be present up to 8 days after injury. Platelets seems to be removed from the surface by the action of the advancing edge of the regenerating endothelium, moving at a maximum mean rate of 590 mu daily. An increase in area of individual cells appears to relate better than an increase in their number to the advance of the edge of the regenerating sheet. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figures 6 and 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figures 10 and 11 Figure 12 PMID:831513

Malczak, H. T.; Buck, R. C.

1977-01-01

119

Huge ascending aorta and aortic arch aneurysm in ultra octogenarian  

PubMed Central

Giant ascending aorta aneurysms (AAA), which are larger than 10 cm, are rarely been reported (1–7). We hereby present the case of a giant AAA of about 11 cm in a very old women who was successfully operated on for ascending aorta and aortic arch replacement under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. PMID:24841684

CERESA, F.; SANSONE, F.; ZAGARELLA, G.; PATANÈ, F.

2014-01-01

120

POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Ascending aorta backward flow parameters  

E-print Network

POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Ascending aorta backward flow parameters estimated from phase, is associated with arterial stiffness. PC-CMR blood flow studies can assess the presence of both Backward flow (BF) and for- ward flow (FF) in the aorta. We hypothesized that quan- titative parameters derived from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

121

Intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma.  

PubMed

Cystic lymphangioma is an uncommon intra-abdominal lesion that is an occasional incidental finding. We report herein the case of a 27-year-old woman with a 3-year history of abdominal pain due to a large intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma. The lesion was removed surgically with a complete resection that is the optimal treatment with excellent prognosis. PMID:16647365

Guinier, David; Denue, Pierre O; Mantion, George A

2006-05-01

122

Abdominal obesity is associated with heart disease in dogs  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between overall obesity and fat distribution in dogs and the development of heart disease is unclear. In the present study we evaluated the association between overall obesity and fat distribution and clinical heart disease by morphometric and computed tomography (CT)-based measurements. Body condition score (BCS), modified body mass index (MBMI, kg/m2), waist-to-hock-to-stifle distance ratio (WHSDR), waist-to-ilium wing distance ratio (WIWDR), and waist-to-truncal length ratio (WTLR) were compared between dogs with (n?=?44) and without (n?=?43) heart disease using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous fat (SQF) were measured in dogs with (n?=?8) and without (n?=?9) heart disease at the center of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae by CT. Results BCS was similar between heart disease and healthy groups (3.6?±?0.2 vs. 3.3?±?0.1, P?=?0.126). The following morphometric measurements were greater in the heart disease group compared with healthy canines: MBMI (65.0?±?4.5 vs. 52.5?±?3.7 kg/m2, respectively, P?=?0.035); WIWDR (4.1?±?0.1 vs. 3.1?±?0.1, P?morphometric indices studied, WIWDR and WTLR provided acceptable discrimination for diagnosing heart disease in dogs, with areas under the ROC curve of 0.778 (95% confidence interval [CI]:0.683-0.874) and 0.727 (95% CI:0.619-0.835), respectively. Conclusions Our data indicate that abdominal obesity, rather than overall obesity, is associated with heart disease in dogs. Measurements of both WIWDR and WTLR are particular useful for detection of an abdominal obesity in dogs. PMID:24923277

2014-01-01

123

Reevaluation of honeybee (Apis mellifera) microtaxonomy: a geometric morphometric approach  

E-print Network

Reevaluation of honeybee (Apis mellifera) microtaxonomy: a geometric morphometric approach rfan, the microtaxonomy of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) subspecies was reevaluated based on a geometric morphometric analysis displayed that Apis mellifera intermissa, a member of M lineage, seemed to belong to the A lineage

124

CORMs protect endothelial cells during cold preservation, resulting in inhibition of intimal hyperplasia after aorta transplantation in rats.  

PubMed

Allograft vasculopathy is the leading cause for chronic transplant loss. We investigated if the addition of carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CORMs) to the preservation solution would protect the endothelium from cold preservation injury in an aortic transplantation model. In particular, we tested if CORM preserve vascular functioning and limit neo-intima formation following cold preservation (Cp). Abdominal aortas from Lewis or Fisher rats were subjected to Cp in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution to which 50??m of CORM-3 was added or not. Hereafter, whole mount staining, acetylcholine mediated vasorelaxation (AMV) and aortic transplantation was performed. In vitro CORM-3 protected human umbilical vein endothelial cells from Cp injury and prevented denudation and intercellular gap formation in aortic grafts. Cp resulted in loss of AMV of aorta segments. By contrast, AMV was preserved after the addition of CORM-3 during Cp. Two months after transplantation Cp of aorta grafts resulted in an increased adventitial remodelling and neo-intima formation. This was significantly blunted by CORM-3 in syngeneic recipients. Our study demonstrates that addition of CORM-3 to UW solution prevents endothelial damage, thereby maintaining vascular function directly after cold preservation. Hence, our findings might offer a novel strategy to prevent vascular damage during CP. PMID:20536912

Song, Hui; Hoeger, Simone; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Mandel, Isabell; Loesel, Ralf; Beck, Grietje; Schilling, Lothar; Schnuelle, Peter; Yard, Benito

2010-11-01

125

Obesity-Associated Abdominal Elephantiasis  

PubMed Central

Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare entity. Abdominal elephantiasis is an uncommon, but deformative and progressive cutaneous disease caused by chronic lymphedema and recurrent streptococcal or Staphylococcus infections of the abdominal wall. We present 3 cases of patients with morbid obesity who presented to our hospital with abdominal wall swelling, thickening, erythema, and pain. The abdominal wall and legs were edematous, with cobblestone-like, thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured plaques on the abdomen. Two patients had localised areas of skin erythema, tenderness, and increased warmth. There was purulent drainage from the abdominal wall in one patient. They were managed with antibiotics with some initial improvement. Meticulous skin care and local keratolytic treatment for the lesions were initiated with limited success due to their late presentation. All three patients refused surgical therapy. Conclusion. Early diagnosis is important for the treatment of abdominal elephantiasis and prevention of complications. PMID:23606857

Kohli, Ritesh; Argento, Vivian; Amoateng-Adjepong, Yaw

2013-01-01

126

Functional Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a frequent complaint seen in the pediatric primary care setting. Current diagnostic criteria\\u000a for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are defi ned in the Rome III criteria, which outline a positive symptom\\u000a profi le for diagnosis. In addition, clinicians should be aware of specifi c “red fl ag ” rule-out symptoms that may suggest\\u000a organic disease

Lisa Scharff; Laura E. Simons

127

Robotic abdominal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a whole, abdominal surgeons possess excellent videoendoscopic surgical skills. However, the limitations of laparoscopy—such as reduced range of motion and instrument dexterity and 2-dimensional view of the operative field—have inspired even the most accomplished laparoscopists to investigate the potential of surgical robotics to broaden their application of the minimally invasive surgery paradigm. This review discusses data obtained from articles

Eric J. Hanly; Mark A. Talamini

2004-01-01

128

Functional abdominal pain  

PubMed Central

Functional abdominal pain or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is an uncommon functional gut disorder characterised by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain attributed to the gut but poorly related to gut function. It is associated with abnormal illness behaviour and patients show psychological morbidity that is often minimised or denied in an attempt to discover an organic cause for symptoms. Thus the conventional biomedical approach to the management of such patients is unhelpful and a person's symptom experience is more usefully investigated using a biopsychosocial evaluation, which necessarily entails a multidisciplinary system of healthcare provision. Currently the pathophysiology of the disorder is poorly understood but is most likely to involve a dysfunction of central pain mechanisms either in terms of attentional bias, for example, hypervigilance or a failure of central pain modulation/inhibition. Although modern neurophysiological investigation of patients is promising and may provide important insights into the pathophysiology of FAPS, current clinical management relies on an effective physician-patient relationship in which limits on clinical investigation are set and achievable treatment goals tailored to the patient's needs are pursued. PMID:15998821

Matthews, P; Aziz, Q

2005-01-01

129

Abdominal trauma by ostrich  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen.

Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

2015-01-01

130

[Occlusion of the aorta and iliac arteries].  

PubMed

Occlusion of the aorta and the iliac arteries leads to an insufficient perfusion of the legs and the genital and gluteal region. The occurring symptoms may be variable, mainly depending on the collateralization network of the internal iliac artery (IIA) circulation. Various differential diagnoses need to be excluded. Invasive therapy is almost always inevitable if an aortoiliac stenosis is established. With good patency rates and low mortality rates the indications for reconstructive procedures are liberally interpreted; therefore, invasive therapy can be performed in the early stages of claudication in certain situations. Due to lower invasiveness and therefore lower risk of complications while showing comparable long-term patency rates, endovascular treatment is the preferred first line therapy for the majority of occlusions. Because aortoiliac occlusion processes also affect patients who are actively involved in a professional career, the indications for invasive therapy can be attained even in Fontaine stage IIa. PMID:25182006

Kosan, J; Riess, H; Atlihan, G; Diener, H; Kölbel, T; Debus, E S

2014-09-01

131

The Effect of Chlorpyrifos on Isolated Thoracic Aorta in Rats  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta and on the level of NO in plasma and aorta. The effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta in organ bath was determined in 10 rats. Another 45 rats were assigned to 3 groups with 15 rats each: control group 1 received distilled water, control group 2 was given corn oil, and the last group was given 13.5?mg/kg chlorpyrifos dissolved in corn oil every other day for 8 weeks orally. Chlorpyrifos (10?10?M–10?5?M) showed no effect on isolated thoracic aorta. Plasma AChE activity was decreased, while LDH, ALT, GGT, and AST activities were increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. Plasma NO level was increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. iNOS expression was present in all groups in the cytoplasm of the endothelia and in the smooth muscle cells of aorta. According to semiquantitative histomorphological analysis, iNOS immunopositive reactions were seen in the decreasing order in chlorpyrifos, control 2, and control 1 groups. eNOS immunopositive reactions were observed in the endothelial cell cytoplasm, rarely in the subintimal layer, and the smooth muscle cells of aorta. There were no differences among the groups in terms of eNOS immunostaining. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos induced NO production in aorta following an increase in NOS expression. PMID:23878805

Y?ld?r?m, Ebru; Baydan, Emine; Kanbur, Murat; Kul, O?uz; Ç?nar, Miyase; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül

2013-01-01

132

The Morphometrics of “Masculinity” in Human Faces  

PubMed Central

In studies of social inference and human mate preference, a wide but inconsistent array of tools for computing facial masculinity has been devised. Several of these approaches implicitly assumed that the individual expression of sexually dimorphic shape features, which we refer to as maleness, resembles facial shape features perceived as masculine. We outline a morphometric strategy for estimating separately the face shape patterns that underlie perceived masculinity and maleness, and for computing individual scores for these shape patterns. We further show how faces with different degrees of masculinity or maleness can be constructed in a geometric morphometric framework. In an application of these methods to a set of human facial photographs, we found that shape features typically perceived as masculine are wide faces with a wide inter-orbital distance, a wide nose, thin lips, and a large and massive lower face. The individual expressions of this combination of shape features—the masculinity shape scores—were the best predictor of rated masculinity among the compared methods (r = 0.5). The shape features perceived as masculine only partly resembled the average face shape difference between males and females (sexual dimorphism). Discriminant functions and Procrustes distances to the female mean shape were poor predictors of perceived masculinity. PMID:25671667

Mitteroecker, Philipp; Windhager, Sonja; Müller, Gerd B.; Schaefer, Katrin

2015-01-01

133

Successful treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a severely angulated and large aortic neck using a modified Zenith.  

PubMed

This report presents the case of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), in which the aortic neck was severely angulated. Furthermore, there was moderate stenosis and a severe angle with calcification of the suprarenal aorta. EVAR was performed with a commercial Zenith stent-graft, with a slight modification, because an open aneurysm repair was risky in general condition. No complications occurred during the follow-up period. PMID:24800529

Guntani, Atsushi; Fukunaga, Ryota; Kuma, Sosei; Okazaki, Jin; Nishihara, Yunosuke; Aibe, Hitoshi; Okadome, Jun; Morisaki, Koichi; Matsumoto, Takuya; Maehara, Yoshihiko

2014-01-01

134

Abdominal Perfusion Computed Tomography  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis.

Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M. Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

2013-01-01

135

Fault-bounded mountains and morphometric properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is based on the information presented in following article: Bull, W.B., 1984, Tectonic Geomorphology: Journal of Geological Education 32, pp.310-324. To prepare for the classroom exercise, the instructor briefly presents the concept that measurable landform properties can reflect the intensity of tectonic activity. We discuss that certain landforms and settings are particularly useful in these types of analyses, for example, fault-bounded mountains and piedmonts. The class goes through a quick review of dip-slip faults, fault scarps, and triangular facets, and the Tobin Range is introduced as a typical example of a fault-bounded mountain range. We then ask the question, what are the useful characteristics of these settings in terms of inferring tectonic activity? To address the question, students work in groups of 2 or 3. Each group is given a set of topographic maps chosen from the following (the region can also be printed from CDs of digital, seamless topo.s, but the quad. names are provided for reference): 7.5 minute quad.s: Home Station Ranch , Jersey Summit , Kennedy Canyon, Mount Tobin , Needle Peak 15-minute quad.s: Mt. Tobin, Buffalo Springs, Cain Mountain On each map set, two lengths along the fault scarps are marked. One is marked in red and one in purple. Each student group has a map set of a slightly different region, but all map sets have a red fault scarp and a purple fault scarp marked. The red fault scarps in all of the sets are those that have experienced more recent displacement. Each group is asked to do the following: 1. List physical characteristics of each of the two fault-bounded mountains/piedmonts that are marked on your quad.s with different colors. 2. Decide among yourselves which fault-bounded mountains/piedmont has experienced more recent displacement. 3. Suggest morphometric properties that could be used to differentiate between the more recent and less recent displacement, and explain why each of your properties makes sense. Morphometric properties must be measurable from the topographic maps. After about 10 minutes, the class reconvenes and we go through the first two questions as a class. Then, each group presents at least one morphometric property and explains their reasoning. Once we have a list of properties that the class agrees on, the instructor presents and the class discusses the properties that Bull (1984) used in his research of the Tobin Range region, such as sinuosity, the ratio between the valley floor width and the total valley height, the development of triangular facets. Designed for a geomorphology course Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills

Swanson, Sue

136

In vitro assessment of mouse fetal abdominal aortic vascular function.  

PubMed

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects 3-8% of human pregnancies. Mouse models have provided important etiological data on FGR; they permit the assessment of treatment strategies on the physiological function of both mother and her developing offspring. Our study aimed to 1) develop a method to assess vascular function in fetal mice and 2) as a proof of principle ascertain whether a high dose of sildenafil citrate (SC; Viagra) administered to the pregnant dam affected fetal vascular reactivity. We developed a wire myography methodology for evaluation of fetal vascular function in vitro using the placenta-specific insulin-like growth factor II (Igf2) knockout mouse (P0; a model of FGR). Vascular function was determined in abdominal aortas isolated from P0 and wild-type (WT) fetuses at embryonic day (E) 18.5 of gestation. A subset of dams received SC 0.8 mg/ml via drinking water from E12.5; data were compared with water-only controls. Using wire myography, we found that fetal aortic rings exhibited significant agonist-induced contraction, and endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation. Sex-specific alterations in reactivity were noted in both strains. Maternal treatment with SC significantly attenuated endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation of fetal aortic rings. Mouse fetal abdominal aortas reproducibly respond to vasoactive agents. Study of these vessels in mouse genetic models of pregnancy complications may 1) help to delineate early signs of abnormal vascular reactivity and 2) inform whether treatments given to the mother during pregnancy may impact upon fetal vascular function. PMID:25056105

Renshall, Lewis J; Dilworth, Mark R; Greenwood, Susan L; Sibley, Colin P; Wareing, Mark

2014-09-15

137

Dealing with a Porcelain Aorta during Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting  

PubMed Central

We report a complex case of multivessel CAD in a patient with a porcelain aorta and high-grade left subclavian artery stenosis. Utilizing a staged left subclavian artery stent placement with a next-day plan for a four-vessel, on-pump CABG and ascending aortic replacement, this case highlights an organized approach to diagnosing and dealing with a heavily calcified aorta while describing a stepwise algorithm to deal with aortic calcifications prior to initiating cardiac surgery. PMID:25610695

Adesanya, T. M. Ayodele

2014-01-01

138

Improving the Efficiency of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress Computations  

PubMed Central

An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a pathological dilation of the abdominal aorta, which carries a high mortality rate if ruptured. The most commonly used surrogate marker of rupture risk is the maximal transverse diameter of the aneurysm. More recent studies suggest that wall stress from models of patient-specific aneurysm geometries extracted, for instance, from computed tomography images may be a more accurate predictor of rupture risk and an important factor in AAA size progression. However, quantification of wall stress is typically computationally intensive and time-consuming, mainly due to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the abdominal aortic aneurysm walls. These difficulties have limited the potential of computational models in clinical practice. To facilitate computation of wall stresses, we propose to use a linear approach that ensures equilibrium of wall stresses in the aneurysms. This proposed linear model approach is easy to implement and eliminates the burden of nonlinear computations. To assess the accuracy of our proposed approach to compute wall stresses, results from idealized and patient-specific model simulations were compared to those obtained using conventional approaches and to those of a hypothetical, reference abdominal aortic aneurysm model. For the reference model, wall mechanical properties and the initial unloaded and unstressed configuration were assumed to be known, and the resulting wall stresses were used as reference for comparison. Our proposed linear approach accurately approximates wall stresses for varying model geometries and wall material properties. Our findings suggest that the proposed linear approach could be used as an effective, efficient, easy-to-use clinical tool to estimate patient-specific wall stresses. PMID:25007052

Zelaya, Jaime E.; Goenezen, Sevan; Dargon, Phong T.; Azarbal, Amir-Farzin; Rugonyi, Sandra

2014-01-01

139

[Morphometric analysis of an Anoplocephala perfoliata population].  

PubMed

An Anoplocephala perfoliata population isolated from the caecum of a dead horse was analysed morphometrically. Besides the number of segments, length and width of strobila, the width of scolex and the last segment, in adult tapeworms the number of eggs per segment was counted. By the aid of these data the population was divided into 4 categories. The length of fixed tapeworms varied between 5.46 and 41.53 mm. There was an direct relation between length of the strobila and number of segments. Only 42 of 440 investigated tapeworms contained mature eggs in the uterus. The number of eggs varied between 125 and 4482. The beetle mite Scheloribates latipes could be infected successfully, 9 cysticercoids were isolated from their body cavity. PMID:1888072

Schuster, R

1991-05-01

140

Ruptured aneurysm of the descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta. Analysis according to size and treatment.  

PubMed Central

Acute rupture was confirmed at operation in 117 patients treated for descending thoracic or thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm. Descending thoracic (n = 80) aortic rupture occurred into lung or esophagus in 8, the pleural cavity in 49, and the mediastinum in 23. Upper abdominal aortic (n = 37) rupture occurred into peritoneal cavity in 3 and into retroperitoneal tissues in 34. Aneurysmal size (range, 5 to 17 cm; median, 8 cm) could be determined retrospectively in 86 patients; 59 (74%) descending thoracic and 27 (73%) abdominal aorta. Size (external diameter) in the former was 8 (14%), 5 to 6 cm; 21 (36%), 6 to 8 cm; 23 (39%), 8 to 10 cm; and 7 (12%) greater than 10 cm. Size at the abdominal site was similar. Thus size was not greater than 10 cm in 52 (88%) (range, 5 to 10 cm), which contradicts opinions that thoracic aneurysms rupture only when size exceeds 10 cm. Twenty-nine patients (25%) were hypotensive (systolic blood pressure less than 100 mmHg), of whom 16 (55%) had cardiac arrest before operation. Associated conditions included advanced age (greater than or equal to 75 years) in 26 (22%), coronary artery disease in 41 (35%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 46 (39%), renal insufficiency in 25 (21%), and cardiovascular disease in 22 (18%). The overall early survival rate (30-day) was 89 of 117 patients (76%); 69% in patients with hypotension, 56% of patients with cardiac arrest, 88% in good-risk patients. Five-year (Kaplan-Meier) survival was 28%. Because elective operation is associated with 92% survival, this should be considered before rupture when aneurysm is 5 cm or larger in good-risk patients, in patients with symptomatic aneurysms, and in most patients with larger aneurysms. Images Figs. 1A and B. Figs. 2A-F. Figs. 2A-F. Figs. 3A-D. PMID:2025061

Crawford, E S; Hess, K R; Cohen, E S; Coselli, J S; Safi, H J

1991-01-01

141

PIV and MRV Measurements in Human Thoracic Aorta Phantoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aortic dissection is a non-traumatic injury to the aorta in which a flap is created inside the aorta by the separation of the inner lining of the vessel wall from its outer layers. It is hypothesized that dissections start as tears in vessels' inner lining and propagate as blood impinges through the tear into the separated part of the vessel wall. No two dissections are alike, but many share common characteristics, one of which is that tear sites occur in similar places in the aorta. In an effort to understand the origins of these tear sites and the propagation of dissections, we are studying blood flow in human aortas. To begin, we are using rigid aorta phantoms based on anatomies of healthy adults extracted from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) medical scans. Clear polyurethane phantoms are created by casting around water-soluble positive molds manufactured using rapid prototyping. We study steady flows with Reynolds numbers comparable to those present in the aorta during the systolic pulse and physiologically pulsatile flows. The entire three-dimensional flow is measured using magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV), a technique based on MRI principles capable of measuring three-component mean velocities. MRV results are compared to the instantaneous and average two-component velocity fields measured in a few 2D planes with particle image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV results provide validation for the MRV and insight into the instantaneous flow structures that may possibly lead to aortic dissection through fluid structure wall interaction.

Iyengar, Ananth; Elkins, Christopher; Draney, Mary; Medina, Francisco; Wicker, Ryan

2004-11-01

142

Geometric morphometric footprint analysis of young women  

PubMed Central

Background Most published attempts to quantify footprint shape are based on a small number of measurements. We applied geometric morphometric methods to study shape variation of the complete footprint outline in a sample of 83 adult women. Methods The outline of the footprint, including the toes, was represented by a comprehensive set of 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Shape coordinates were computed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Results The first four principal components represented the major axes of variation in foot morphology: low-arched versus high-arched feet, long and narrow versus short and wide feet, the relative length of the hallux, and the relative length of the forefoot. These shape features varied across the measured individuals without any distinct clusters or discrete types of footprint shape. A high body mass index (BMI) was associated with wide and flat feet, and a high frequency of wearing high-heeled shoes was associated with a larger forefoot area of the footprint and a relatively long hallux. Larger feet had an increased length-to-width ratio of the footprint, a lower-arched foot, and longer toes relative to the remaining foot. Footprint shape differed on average between left and right feet, and the variability of footprint asymmetry increased with BMI. Conclusions Foot shape is affected by lifestyle factors even in a sample of young women (median age 23 years). Geometric morphometrics proved to be a powerful tool for the detailed analysis of footprint shape that is applicable in various scientific disciplines, including forensics, orthopedics, and footwear design. PMID:23886074

2013-01-01

143

MORPHOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN ENGLISH SOLE  

EPA Science Inventory

We present an application of the powerful thin plate spline method of morphometric analysis to demonstrate its utility for detecting environmental stress in an estuarine flatfish. Juvenile English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) were captured from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, photographed w...

144

Hypnosis for Functional Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other

David Gottsegen

2011-01-01

145

How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

Haycock, Christine E.

1986-01-01

146

A Behavioral Analysis of Clovis Point Morphology Using Geometric Morphometrics  

E-print Network

to cladistic analyses to assess New World colonization models (Buchanan 2006; Buchanan et al. 2007; Buchanan and Collard 2007; Buchanan and Collard 2010). An application of geometric morphometrics to Paleoindian projectile-point vari- ability... and adaptation is demonstrated by Buchanan and Collard (2007) who, however, utilized the technique to compute typical distance measurements from the coordinates. To investigate the origins of Clovis peoples, the authors conducted a morphometric analysis...

Smith, Heather Lynn

2012-02-14

147

Single vessel abdominal arterial disease.  

PubMed

The long-standing discussion concerning the mere existence of single vessel abdominal artery disease can be closed: chronic gastrointestinal ischaemia (CGI) due to single vessel abdominal artery stenosis exists, can be treated successfully and in a safe manner. The most common causes of single vessel CGI are the coeliac artery compression syndrome (CACS) in younger patients, and atherosclerotic disease in elderly patients. The clinical symptoms of single vessel CGI patients are postprandial and exercise-related pain, weight loss, and an abdominal bruit. The current diagnostic approach in patients suspected of single vessel CGI is gastrointestinal tonometry combined with radiological visualisation of the abdominal arteries to define possible arterial stenosis. Especially in single vessel abdominal artery stenosis, gastrointestinal tonometry plays a pivotal role in establishing the diagnosis CGI. First-choice treatment of single vessel CGI remains surgical revascularisation, especially in CACS. In elderly or selected patients endovascular stent placement therapy is an acceptable option. PMID:19258186

van Noord, Désirée; Kuipers, Ernst J; Mensink, Peter B F

2009-01-01

148

Method for extracting the aorta from 3D CT images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bronchoscopic biopsy of the central-chest lymph nodes is vital in the staging of lung cancer. Three-dimensional multi-detector CT (MDCT) images provide vivid anatomical detail for planning bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, many lymph nodes are situated close to the aorta, and an inadvertent needle biopsy could puncture the aorta, causing serious harm. As an eventual aid for more complete planning of lymph-node biopsy, it is important to define the aorta. This paper proposes a method for extracting the aorta from a 3D MDCT chest image. The method has two main phases: (1) Off-line Model Construction, which provides a set of training cases for fitting new images, and (2) On-Line Aorta Construction, which is used for new incoming 3D MDCT images. Off-Line Model Construction is done once using several representative human MDCT images and consists of the following steps: construct a likelihood image, select control points of the medial axis of the aortic arch, and recompute the control points to obtain a constant-interval medial-axis model. On-Line Aorta Construction consists of the following operations: construct a likelihood image, perform global fitting of the precomputed models to the current case's likelihood image to find the best fitting model, perform local fitting to adjust the medial axis to local data variations, and employ a region recovery method to arrive at the complete constructed 3D aorta. The region recovery method consists of two steps: model-based and region-growing steps. This region growing method can recover regions outside the model coverage and non-circular tube structures. In our experiments, we used three models and achieved satisfactory results on twelve of thirteen test cases.

Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

2007-03-01

149

Investigation of pulsatile flowfield in healthy thoracic aorta models.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Complex hemodynamics plays a critical role in the development of aortic dissection and atherosclerosis, as well as many other diseases. Since fundamental fluid mechanics are important for the understanding of the blood flow in the cardiovascular circulatory system of the human body aspects, a joint experimental and numerical study was conducted in this study to determine the distributions of wall shear stress and pressure and oscillatory WSS index, and to examine their correlation with the aortic disorders, especially dissection. Experimentally, the Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PC-MRI) method was used to acquire the true geometry of a normal human thoracic aorta, which was readily converted into a transparent thoracic aorta model by the rapid prototyping (RP) technique. The thoracic aorta model was then used in the in vitro experiments and computations. Simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code ACE+((R)) to determine flow characteristics of the three-dimensional, pulsatile, incompressible, and Newtonian fluid in the thoracic aorta model. The unsteady boundary conditions at the inlet and the outlet of the aortic flow were specified from the measured flowrate and pressure results during in vitro experiments. For the code validation, the predicted axial velocity reasonably agrees with the PC-MRI experimental data in the oblique sagittal plane of the thoracic aorta model. The thorough analyses of the thoracic aorta flow, WSSs, WSS index (OSI), and wall pressures are presented. The predicted locations of the maxima of WSS and the wall pressure can be then correlated with that of the thoracic aorta dissection, and thereby may lead to a useful biological significance. The numerical results also suggest that the effects of low WSS and high OSI tend to cause wall thickening occurred along the inferior wall of the aortic arch and the anterior wall of the brachiocephalic artery, similar implication reported in a number of previous studies. PMID:19890715

Wen, Chih-Yung; Yang, An-Shik; Tseng, Li-Yu; Chai, Jyh-Wen

2010-02-01

150

Enlargement of the aorta: An occupational disease?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Aortic dilation may critically precede progression to thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). Prolonged or repetitive isometric-type heavier strenuous activities resulting from the nature of some professions may be an important causative factor for TAA. METHOD: The echocardiographic measurement data of middle-age subjects who were isometric-type daily strenuous activity trainers or ordinary activity trainers were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical features and echocardiographic parameters of the left ventricle and left atrium (LA), aortic root (AR) and ascending aorta (AA) were compared between the groups. RESULTS: AR (35.6±3.0 mm versus 33.5±1.9 mm), AA (36.8±3.0 mm versus 34.4±1.9 mm) and LA (37.4±2.2 mm versus 36.2±2.2 mm) diameters were significantly enlarged in the strenuous activity trainer group versus the ordinary activity group. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower (73.8±5.9 mmHg versus 78.3±6.0 mmHg) in this group. AR diameter was correlated with height (?=0.460; P=0.004) and LA diameter (?=0.280; P=0.008) while AA diameter was correlated with type of profession (?=0.309; P=0.003), left ventricular systolic diameter (?=0.500; P=0.001) and LA diameter (?=0.272; P=0.005) in regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Aortic dilation and, subsequently, TAA may be an occupational disease due to nature of some professions (eg, the military, security, weight lifters, athletes, heavy workers, etc). Echocardiography is a convenient method of imaging that could be easily applied either during preparticipation screening or during periodical examination of these subjects. Earlier detection of TAA and limitation of such strenuous activities in these individuals may be initial lifesaving measures for the prevention of future cases of aortic aneurysm and dissection. PMID:23940428

Aparci, Mustafa; Erdal, Muhammed; Isilak, Zafer; Yalcin, Murat; Uz, Omer; Arslan, Zekeriya; Kardesoglu, Ejder

2013-01-01

151

In vivo strain assessment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

The only criteria currently used to inform surgical decision for abdominal aortic aneurysms are maximum diameter (>5.5cm) and rate of growth, even though several studies have identified the need for more specific indicators of risk. Patient-specific biomechanical variables likely to affect rupture risk would be a valuable addition to the science of understanding rupture risk and prove to be a life saving benefit for patients. Local deformability of the aorta is related to the local mechanical properties of the wall and may provide indication on the state of weakening of the wall tissue. We propose a 3D image-based approach to compute aortic wall strain maps in vivo. The method is applicable to a variety of imaging modalities that provide sequential images at different phases in the cardiac cycle. We applied the method to a series of abdominal aneurysms imaged using cine-MRI obtaining strain maps at different phases in the cardiac cycle. These maps could be used to evaluate the distensibility of an aneurysm at baseline and at different follow-up times and provide an additional index to clinicians to facilitate decisions on the best course of action for a specific patient. PMID:25497379

Satriano, Alessandro; Rivolo, Simone; Martufi, Giampaolo; Finol, Ender A; Di Martino, Elena S

2015-01-21

152

Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia  

PubMed Central

External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

Yang, Xue-Fei

2014-01-01

153

Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia.  

PubMed

External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

2014-11-01

154

Fused Traditional and Geometric Morphometrics Demonstrate Pinniped Whisker Diversity  

PubMed Central

Vibrissae (whiskers) are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system, and primarily function as detectors of vibrotactile information from the environment. Pinnipeds possess the largest vibrissae among mammals and their vibrissal hair shafts demonstrate a diversity of shapes. The vibrissae of most phocid seals exhibit a beaded morphology with repeating sequences of crests and troughs along their length. However, there are few detailed analyses of pinniped vibrissal morphology, and these are limited to a few species. Therefore, we comparatively characterized differences in vibrissal hair shaft morphologies among phocid species with a beaded profile, phocid species with a smooth profile, and otariids with a smooth profile using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Traditional morphometric measurements (peak-to-peak distance, crest width, trough width and total length) were collected using digital photographs. Elliptic Fourier analysis (geometric morphometrics) was used to quantify the outlines of whole vibrissae. The traditional and geometric morphometric datasets were subsequently combined by mathematically scaling each to true rank, followed by a single eigendecomposition. Quadratic discriminant function analysis demonstrated that 79.3, 97.8 and 100% of individuals could be correctly classified to their species based on vibrissal shape variables in the traditional, geometric and combined morphometric analyses, respectively. Phocids with beaded vibrissae, phocids with smooth vibrissae, and otariids each occupied distinct morphospace in the geometric morphometric and combined data analyses. Otariids split into two groups in the geometric morphometric analysis and gray seals appeared intermediate between beaded- and smooth-whiskered species in the traditional and combined analyses. Vibrissal hair shafts modulate the transduction of environmental stimuli to the mechanoreceptors in the follicle-sinus complex (F-SC), which results in vibrotactile reception, but it is currently unclear how the diversity of shapes affects environmental signal modulation. PMID:22509310

Ginter, Carly C.; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Fish, Frank E.; Marshall, Christopher D.

2012-01-01

155

Exploring eucladoceros ecomorphology using geometric morphometrics.  

PubMed

An increasingly common method for reconstructing paleoenvironmental parameters of hominin sites is ecological functional morphology (ecomorphology). This study provides a geometric morphometric study of cervid rearlimb morphology as it relates to phylogeny, size, and ecomorphology. These methods are then applied to an extinct Pleistocene cervid, Eucladoceros, which is found in some of the earliest hominin-occupied sites in Eurasia. Variation in cervid postcranial functional morphology associated with different habitats can be summarized as trade-offs between joint stability versus mobility and rapid movement versus power-generation. Cervids in open habitats emphasize limb stability to avoid joint dislocation during rapid flight from predators. Closed-adapted cervids require more joint mobility to rapidly switch directions in complex habitats. Two skeletal features (of the tibia and calcaneus) have significant phylogenetic signals, while two (the femur and third phalanx) do not. Additionally, morphology of two of these features (tibia and third phalanx) were correlated with body size. For the tibial analysis (but not the third phalanx) this correlation was ameliorated when phylogeny was taken into account. Eucladoceros specimens from France and Romania fall on the more open side of the habitat continuum, a result that is at odds with reconstructions of their diet as browsers, suggesting that they may have had a behavioral regime unlike any extant cervid. Anat Rec, 298:291-313, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25338504

Curran, Sabrina C

2015-01-01

156

Index terms: Arteries, internal thoracic Aorta, stenosis or obstruction Angiography  

E-print Network

Objective: To evaluate the incidence and angiographic findings of the collateral pathway involving the internal thoracic artery in patients with chronic aortoiliac occlusive disease. Materials and Methods: Between March 2000 and Februrary 2001, 124 patients at our hospital underwent angiographic evaluation of chronic aortoiliac occlusive disease, and in 15 of these complete obstruction or severe stenosis of the aortoiliac artery was identified. The aortograms and collateral arteriograms obtained, including internal thoracic arteriograms, as well as the medical records of the patients involved, were evaluated. Results: In nine patients there was complete occlusion of the infrarenal aorta, or diffuse stenosis of 75 % or more in the descending thoracic aorta, and in the other six, a patent aorta but complete occlusion or stenosis of 75 % or more of the common iliac artery was demonstrated. Collateral perfusion via hypertrophied internal thoracic arteries and rich anastomoses between the superior and inferior epigastric arteries, reconstituting the external iliac artery, were noted in all fifteen

Jinna Kim Md; Jong Yun Won; Korean J Radiol

2002-01-01

157

Functional Abdominal Pain in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... be intermittent (recurrent abdominal pain or RAP) or continuous. Although the exact cause is not known, nerve ... fearful, anxious, or depressed child however should be fully assessed by a psychiatrist or psychologist. Some psychological ...

158

JAMA Patient Page: Abdominal Hernia  

MedlinePLUS

... Weight lifting, coughing, straining during bowel movement • Cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infections • Previous abdominal surgery COMPLICATIONS ... hernia recurring, but the mesh material can become infected. In some cases, hernia repairs may be performed ...

159

Mesoesophagus and other fascial structures of the abdominal and lower thoracic esophagus: a histological study using human embryos and fetuses  

PubMed Central

A term "mesoesophagus" has been often used by surgeons, but the morphology was not described well. To better understand the structures attaching the human abdominal and lower thoracic esophagus to the body wall, we examined serial or semiserial sections from 10 embryos and 9 fetuses. The esophagus was initially embedded in a large posterior mesenchymal tissue, which included the vertebral column and aorta. Below the tracheal bifurcation at the fifth week, the esophagus formed a mesentery-like structure, which we call the "mesoesophagus," that was sculpted by the enlarging lungs and pleural cavity. The pneumatoenteric recess of the pleuroperitoneal canal was observed in the lowest part of the mesoesophagus. At the seventh week, the mesoesophagus was divided into the upper long and lower short parts by the diaphragm. Near the esophageal hiatus, the pleural cavity provided 1 or 2 recesses in the upper side, while the fetal adrenal gland in the left side was attached to the lower side of the mesoesophagus. At the 10th and 18th week, the mesoesophagus remained along the lower thoracic esophagus, but the abdominal esophagus attached to the diaphragm instead of to the left adrenal. The mesoesophagus did not contain any blood vessels from the aorta and to the azygos vein. The posterior attachment of the abdominal esophagus seemed to develop to the major part of the phrenoesophageal membrane with modification from the increased mass of the left fetal adrenal. After postnatal degeneration of the fetal adrenal, the abdominal esophagus might again obtain a mesentery. Consequently, the mesoesophagus seemed to correspond to a small area containing the pulmonary ligament and aorta in adults. PMID:25548720

Hwang, Si Eun; Bae, Sang In; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

2014-01-01

160

CORRELATED MORPHOMETRIC AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE LIVER CELL: I. Morphometric Model, Stereologic Methods, and Normal Morphometric Data for Rat Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic morphological properties of liver cells are defined in the form of a morphometric model to permit integrated quantitative characterization of functionally important param- eters . Stereologic methods which allow efficient and reliable quantitative evaluation of sectioned liver tissue are presented . Material, obtained by a rigorous three-stage sampling

EWALD R. WEIBEL; WILLY STAUBLI; HANS RUDOLF GNAGI; FELIX A. HESS

1969-01-01

161

Updates on abdominal desmoid tumors  

PubMed Central

Desmoid tumor is a monoclonal, fibroblastic proliferation arising in musculoaponeurotic structures. This connective tissue hyperplasia infiltrates locally, recurs frequently after resection but does not metastasize. Abdominal desmoid occurs sporadically, in association with some familial syndromes and often represents a clinical dilemma for surgeons. The enigmatic biology and anatomical location of abdominal desmoids make treatment recommendations difficult. This distinct pathological entity is reviewed with a specific focus on aetiology and management. PMID:18023087

Rampone, Bernardino; Pedrazzani, Corrado; Marrelli, Daniele; Pinto, Enrico; Roviello, Franco

2007-01-01

162

Management of functional abdominal pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The diagnosis of functional abdominal pain should be made based on the Rome II symptom criteria with only limited testing\\u000a to exclude other disease. During physical examination the clinician may look for evidence of pain behavior which would be\\u000a supportive of the diagnosis. Reassurance and proper education regarding the clinical entity of functional abdominal pain is\\u000a critical for successful

Yuri A. Saito; Jean C. Fox

2004-01-01

163

Chronic abdominal pain in children.  

PubMed

Chronic abdominal pain, defined as long-lasting intermittent or constant abdominal pain, is a common pediatric problem encountered by primary care physicians, medical subspecialists, and surgical specialists. Chronic abdominal pain in children is usually functional, that is, without objective evidence of an underlying organic disorder. The Subcommittee on Chronic Abdominal Pain of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition has prepared this report based on a comprehensive, systematic review and rating of the medical literature. This report accompanies a clinical report based on the literature review and expert opinion. The subcommittee examined the diagnostic and therapeutic value of a medical and psychological history, diagnostic tests, and pharmacologic and behavioral therapy. The presence of alarm symptoms or signs (such as weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding, persistent fever, chronic severe diarrhea, and significant vomiting) is associated with a higher prevalence of organic disease. There was insufficient evidence to state that the nature of the abdominal pain or the presence of associated symptoms (such as anorexia, nausea, headache, and joint pain) can discriminate between functional and organic disorders. Although children with chronic abdominal pain and their parents are more often anxious or depressed, the presence of anxiety, depression, behavior problems, or recent negative life events does not distinguish between functional and organic abdominal pain. Most children who are brought to the primary care physician's office for chronic abdominal pain are unlikely to require diagnostic testing. Pediatric studies of therapeutic interventions were examined and found to be limited or inconclusive. PMID:15741363

2005-03-01

164

Abdominal emergencies in the geriatric patient  

PubMed Central

Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons that elderly people visit the emergency department (ED). In this article, we review the deadliest causes of abdominal pain in this population, including mesenteric ischemia, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and appendicitis and potentially lethal non-abdominal causes. We also highlight the pitfalls in diagnosing, or rather misdiagnosing, these clinical entities. PMID:25635203

2014-01-01

165

Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm during Transthoracic Echocardiography in Patients with Significant Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose Coronary artery disease (CAD) shares several risk factors with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We evaluated the prevalence during transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and risk factors of AAA in patients with CAD. Materials and Methods A total of 1300 CAD patients were screened from August 2009 to May 2010, and measurement of abdominal aorta size was feasible in 920 patients (71%) at the end of routine TTE. An AAA was defined as having a maximal diameter of ?30 mm. Results Of the 920 patients, 22 (2.4% of the study population) were diagnosed with AAA; of these AAA patients, 86% were male, and 82% were over 65 years-old. Abdominal aortic size was weakly correlated with aortic root diameter (r=0.22, p<0.01). Although the proportions of male gender, hypertension, and dyslipidemia were higher in AAA patients, such differences were not statistically significant. Advanced age [odds ratio (OR)=1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.12; p<0.01], smoking (OR=3.44; 95% CI: 1.18-10.04; p=0.02), and peripheral arterial disease (OR=5.88; 95% CI: 1.38-25.05; p=0.01) were found to be associated with AAA. Conclusion Although prevalence of AAA is very low in the Asian population, the prevalence of AAA in Asian CAD patients is higher than the general population. Therefore, opportunistic examination of the abdominal aorta during routine TTE could be effective, especially for male CAD patients over 65 years with a history of smoking or peripheral arterial disease. PMID:25510745

Lee, Sung Ho; Chang, Sung-A; Jang, Shin Yi; Lee, Sang-Chol; Song, Young Bin; Park, Seung Woo; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Oh, Jae K.

2015-01-01

166

Pseudoaneurysm of the descending aorta complicating an untreated aortic coarctation.  

PubMed

A 22-year-old man was referred for severe aortic coarctation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography confirmed the aortic coarctation diagnosis and showed an aortic pseudoaneurysm arising from the anterior and left surface of the descending aorta, communicating with the aortic lumen with a small neck. Under cardiopulmonary bypass through the femoral vessels, the patient underwent closure of the pseudoaneurysm neck using a synthetic patch and interposition of a prosthetic graft between the left subclavian artery and the descending aorta below the pseudoaneurysm. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:25555985

Prifti, Edvin; Kuci, Saimir; Krakulli, Klodian; Nuellari, Edmond

2015-01-01

167

Transapical endovascular stenting of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of ascending aorta.  

PubMed

A 71-year-old woman presented with acute chest pain and was admitted at our institution. Computed tomography revealed a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer in the ascending aorta with extensive intramural hematoma. A transapical endovascular stenting was successfully performed. Computed tomography at a 6-month follow-up visit revealed a type I endoleak, which was restented through the same approach. Despite initial satisfactory results, follow-up revealed a persistent endoleak, so that a high-risk open surgical repair was required. Surgical replacement of the ascending aorta was successfully performed without postoperative neurologic deficit. PMID:24088494

Kappert, Utz; Ghazy, Tamer; Ouda, Ahmed; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten; Simonis, Gregor; Matschke, Klaus

2013-10-01

168

Experimental unsteady flow study in a patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The velocity field in a patient-specific abdominal aneurysm model including the aorto-iliac bifurcation was measured by 2D PIV. Phase-averaged velocities obtained in 14 planes reveal details of the flow evolution during a cycle. The aneurysm expanding asymmetrically toward the anterior side of the aorta causes the generation of a vortex at its entrance, covering the entire aneurysm bulge progressively before flow peak. The fluid entering the aneurysm impinges on the left side of its distal end, following the axis of the upstream aorta segment, causing an increased flow rate in the left (compared to the right) common iliac artery. High shear stresses appear at the aneurysm inlet and outlet as well as along the posterior wall, varying proportionally to the flow rate. At the same regions, elevated flow disturbances are observed, being intensified at flow peak and during the deceleration phase. Low shear stresses are present in the recirculation region, being two orders of magnitude smaller than the previous ones. At flow peak and during the deceleration phase, a clockwise swirling motion (viewed from the inlet) is present in the aneurysm due to the out of plane curvature of the aorta.

Stamatopoulos, Ch.; Mathioulakis, D. S.; Papaharilaou, Y.; Katsamouris, A.

2011-06-01

169

Geometric morphometrics of hominoid infraspinous fossa shape.  

PubMed

Recent discoveries of early hominin scapulae from Ethiopia (Dikika, Woranso-Mille) and South Africa (Malapa) have motivated new examinations of the relationship between scapular morphology and locomotor function. In particular, infraspinous fossa shape has been shown to significantly differ among hominoids. However, this region presents relatively few homologous landmarks, such that traditional distance and angle-based methods may oversimplify this three-dimensional structure. To more thoroughly assess infraspinous fossa shape variation as it relates to function among adult hominoid representatives, we considered two geometric morphometric (GM) approaches--one employing five homologous landmarks ("wireframe") and another with 83 sliding semilandmarks along the border of the infraspinous fossa. We identified several differences in infraspinous fossa shape with traditional approaches, particularly in superoinferior fossa breadth and scapular spine orientation. The wireframe analysis reliably captured the range of shape variation in the sample, which reflects the relatively straightforward geometry of the infraspinous fossa. Building on the traditional approach, the GM results highlighted how the orientation of the medial portion of the infraspinous fossa differed relative to both the axillary border and spine. These features distinguished Pan from Gorilla in a way that traditional analyses had not been able to discern. Relative to the wireframe method, the semilandmark approach further distinguished Pongo from Homo, highlighting aspects of infraspinous fossa morphology that may be associated with climbing behaviors in hominoid taxa. These results highlight the ways that GM methods can enhance our ability to evaluate complex aspects of shape for refining and testing hypotheses about functional morphology. PMID:25339150

Green, David J; Serrins, Jesse D; Seitelman, Brielle; Martiny, Amy R; Gunz, Philipp

2015-01-01

170

Morphometric Analysis of Auxin-Mediated Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auxin controls many aspects of plant development through its effects on growth. Its distribution is controlled by specific tissue and organ level polar transport streams. The responses to environmental cues such as gravity light, nutrient availability are largely controlled by coordinated regulation of distinct auxin transport streams. Many plant responses to the environment involve changes in shape. Much can be learned about the underlying processes controlling plant form if the response is measured with sufficient resolution. Computer-aided analysis of digital images or 'machine vision' can be used to greatly increase the speed and consistency of data from a morphometric study of plant form. Advances in image acquisition and analysis pioneered at UW-Madison have allowed unprecedented resolution of the growth and gravitropism of Arabidopsis. A reverse genetic analysis was used to determine if the MDR-like ABC transporters influence auxin distribution important for plant development and the response to environmental cues in Arabidopsis. Mutations in MDR1 (At3g28860) reduce acropetal auxin transport in the root. This is correlated with deviation from the vertical axis. Mutations in MDR4 (At2g47000) reduce basipetal auxin transport in the root. This is correlated with hypergravitropism. It was theorized that reduced transport whithin the elongation zone is responsible for the increased curvature. Flavanols were found to regulate gravitropism upstream of MDR4. The mdr1 mdr4 double mutant showed additive but not synergistic phenotypes, suggesting that the two auxin transport streams are more independent than interdependent. MDR proteins seem to enhance auxin transport in situations where PIN-type effux alone is insufficient.

Lewis, Daniel

171

Replacement of the heavily calcified ascending aorta in aortic valve replacement.  

PubMed

A totally calcified ascending aorta prevents aortic crossclamping and aortotomy during aortic valve replacement, and replacement of the ascending aorta is a valid option in these cases. We describe a simple technique for calcified ascending aorta replacement using the Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator. This can be used in aortic endarterectomy for removal of the calcified plaque in the anastomotic part. PMID:24928643

Matsumoto, Kazuhisa; Hisashi, Yosuke; Imoto, Yutaka

2015-03-01

172

[Thyroid glands as an object of morphometric study].  

PubMed

Standardization of the morphometric studies of the thyroid is performed. The following table for a semiquantitative analysis of thyroid morphofunctional state is given: 1) epithelial components with characteristics of main cell types and their proliferative activity; 2) stromal components; 3) some pathologic changes (cyst, hemorrhages, etc.). A quantitative study of the thyroid includes: I) on the organ (macroscopic level)--thyroid volume, weight, length, width, height; II) light microscopy: point counting, stereological methods. Main parameters: 1) epithelial components (18 indices are suggested); 2) proliferative activity (7 indices: nuclear diameter and surface, mitotic activity, etc.); 3) desquamation (mean number of cells per follicle, relative volume of the desquamated epithelium); 4) colloid characteristics; 5) stromal characteristics; 6) vascular characteristics; III) electron microscopy. The first stage of the morphometric study is a description, then semiquantitative method supported by a deep morphometric analysis with the use of statistics. PMID:9791696

Khmel'nitskaiaOK; Tret'iakova, M S

1998-01-01

173

Geomorphometric feature analysis using morphometric parameterization and artificial neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a semi-automatic method using an unsupervised neural network to analyze geomorphometric features as landform elements. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) provided detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) for all land masses between 60°N and 57°S. Exploiting these data for recognition and extraction of geomorphometric features is a challenging task. Results obtained with two methods, Wood's morphometric parameterization and the Self Organizing Map (SOM), are presented in this paper. Four morphometric parameters (slope, minimum curvature, maximum curvature and cross-sectional curvature) were derived by fitting a bivariate quadratic surface with a window size of 5 by 5 to the SRTM DEM. These parameters were then used as input to the two methods. Wood's morphometric parameterization provides point-based features (peak, pit and pass), line-based features (channel and ridge) and area-based features (planar). Since point-based features are defined as having a very small slope when their neighbors are considered, two tolerance values (slope tolerance and curvature tolerance) are introduced. Selection of suitable values for the tolerance parameters is crucial for obtaining useful results. The SOM as an unsupervised neural network algorithm is employed for the classification of the same morphometric parameters into ten classes characterized by morphometric position (crest, channel, ridge and plan area) subdivided by slope ranges. These terrain features are generic landform element and can be used to improve mapping and modeling of soils, vegetation, and land use, as well as ecological, hydrological and geomorphological features. These landform elements are the smallest homogeneous divisions of the land surface at the given resolution. The result showed that the SOM is an efficient scalable tool for analyzing geomorphometric features as meaningful landform elements, and uses the full potential of morphometric characteristics.

Ehsani, Amir Houshang; Quiel, Friedrich

2008-07-01

174

Geometric morphometrics and virtual anthropology: advances in human evolutionary studies.  

PubMed

Geometric morphometric methods have been increasingly used in paleoanthropology in the last two decades, lending greater power to the analysis and interpretation of the human fossil record. More recently the advent of the wide use of computed tomography and surface scanning, implemented in combination with geometric morphometrics (GM), characterizes a new approach, termed Virtual Anthropology (VA). These methodological advances have led to a number of developments in human evolutionary studies. We present some recent examples of GM and VA related research in human evolution with an emphasis on work conducted at the University of Tübingen and other German research institutions. PMID:24818438

Rein, Thomas R; Harvati, Katerina

2014-01-01

175

Crack cocaine causing fatal vasoconstriction of the aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine is the most powerful central nervous stimulant found in nature. All forms of cocaine cause tachycardia and vasoconstriction. A smokable, rapidly reacting form of cocaine base, “crack,” is highly addictive. Smoking crack introduces a high concentration of cocaine into the bloodstream, rendering it especially dangerous. We report a case that visually demonstrates severe aortic vasoconstriction from the suprarenal aorta

Joanne Williams; Jonathan Wasserberger

2006-01-01

176

[Aneurysm of the thoracic aorta with esophageal perforation].  

PubMed

Aneurysms of a chest department of an aorta with esophageal perforation two cases are presented and a lethal outcome. Difficulties in diagnostics have been caused by rare occurrence of the given pathology, insufficient experience of clinical physicians, and also absence during supervision of characteristic attributes Aortoesophageal Fistula. PMID:20731170

Timen, L Ia; Shertsinger, A G; Zhigalova, S B; Chikunova, B Z; Markarov, A E; Fedotov, E V; Nazar'ev, P I

2010-01-01

177

Resection of a leiomyoma of the descending thoracic aorta.  

PubMed Central

A primary aortic neoplasm in a 4-year-old asymptomatic boy is described. At operation the tumour was found to originate from the descending thoracici aorta. Histologically it proved to be a leiomyoma. The operative findings and pathological features are briefly discussed. Images PMID:1257932

Gula, G; Cancrini, A; Provenzale, L

1976-01-01

178

Non-Contrast-Enhanced Renal and Abdominal MRA using Velocity-Selective Inversion Preparation  

PubMed Central

Non-contrast-enhanced (NCE) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a promising alternative to the established contrast-enhanced approach as it reduces patient discomfort and examination costs, and avoids the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Inflow-sensitive slab-selective (SS) inversion recovery (IR) imaging has been used with great promise, particularly for abdominal applications, but has limited craniocaudal coverage due to inflow time constraints. In this work, a new NCE MRA method using velocity-selective (VS) inversion preparation is developed and applied to renal and abdominal angiography. Based on the excitation k-space formalism and Shinnar-Le-Roux transform, a VS excitation pulse is designed that inverts stationary tissues and venous blood while preserving inferiorly flowing arterial blood. As the magnetization of the arterial blood in the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries is well-preserved during the magnetization preparation, artery visualization over a large abdominal FOV is achievable with an inversion delay time that is chosen for optimal background suppression. Healthy volunteer tests demonstrate that the proposed VS-IR MRA method significantly increases the extent of visible arteries compared with the SS-IR approach, covering renal arteries through iliac arteries over a craniocaudal FOV of 340 mm. PMID:22711643

Shin, Taehoon; Worters, Pauline W.; Hu, Bob S.; Nishimura, Dwight G.

2012-01-01

179

Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

1989-02-01

180

A novel measurement technique for the design of fenestrated stent grafts: Comparison with three-dimensional aorta models  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Stent graft placement is an acceptable treatment option for aortic disease, particularly for abdominal aortic aneurysm. At present, the use of stent grafts is expanding beyond current indications for use. Fenestrated stent grafts are used in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms whose aortic anatomy is unsuitable for repair using standard devices. The success of fenestrated stent graft placement is largely dependent on planning, including obtaining measurements and designing the stent. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a measurement technique that may be used for the design of fenestrated stent grafts to repair endovascular aneurysms, and to compare these measurements, obtained using archived two-dimensional patient data, with measurements obtained using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer-assisted design model. METHODS: Fenestrated stent grafts were designed and fabricated based on computed tomographic angiography images. 3-D models were constructed using modelling software and rapid prototyping technology incorporated with fused deposition modelling. The stent grafts were trunk-type, with four holes for the visceral branches (celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery, right renal artery and left renal artery). Computed tomography scans of 10 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were reviewed. Axial, multiplanar reconstruction and curved multiplanar reconstruction images were used to measure 11 parameters. Sizing of the fenestrated aortic stent grafts was performed independently by an experienced interventional radiologist, and the results were compared with the same measurements calculated using the 3-D aorta model (generated using Materialise Interactive Medical Image Control System software [Materialise NV, Belgium]). Data were reported as the mean of the measurements. Measurements were evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis and concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs). RESULTS: A total of 10 fenestrated stent grafts were fabricated. The proximal landing section above the celiac axis (one point of the wall being defined as the standard point) was 3 cm, and the distal flared section was 3 cm below the lowest renal artery. Ten computer-assisted design aorta models were successfully constructed. Measurements of the aortic diameter showed high agreement between those obtained using the archived patient computer system stent graft and those obtained using the 3-D aorta model. The CCC for variability was 0.9974. The distance from the standard point to the branch vessels also demonstrated good agreement. The CCC for variability was 0.9999. DISCUSSION: A direct measurement technique using a standard point was simple to perform and was easily applied to the fabrication process. Preparation time will likely be shortened and the versatility of stent grafts will be improved using this method. It will be possible to produce standardized fenestrated stent grafts once patients’ measurements are recorded and analyzed. CONCLUSION: A fenestrated stent graft design technique using measurements of distance from a standard point generally showed a high level of agreement with a 3-D aorta model. PMID:24294038

You, Ji Hoon; Kang, Sung-Gwon; Kim, Bong Man

2013-01-01

181

Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies  

PubMed Central

Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

2009-01-01

182

Chronic abdominal pain in children.  

PubMed

Chronic abdominal pain in children is usually not caused by organic disease. Diagnostic triage focuses on the assessment of alarm symptoms by means of history and physical examination. Additional diagnostic evaluation is not required in children without alarm symptoms. Family characteristics have an important influence on the chronicity of abdominal pain. A specific intervention is not recommended owing to lack of evidence of a beneficial effect. The greatest challenge is to identify children at risk of a prolonged course of pain and its correlated functional disability. The evaluation of family for coping strategies, psychosocial factors and appropriate follow-up can prevent ineffective use of healthcare resources. PMID:22886462

Singh, Utpal Kant; Prasad, Rajniti; Verma, Nishant

2013-02-01

183

Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report  

PubMed Central

A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

1998-01-01

184

Original article Morphometrical control of pure race breeding  

E-print Network

Original article Morphometrical control of pure race breeding in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L) D and seven samples of an A m carnica-breeding line from Hessen with the pure races A m mellifera and A m car- nica revealed that the two German provenances are located in the proximity of the pure race A m carnica

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

In situ morphometric characterization of Aframomum melegueta accessions in Ghana  

PubMed Central

In spite of the huge economic importance of Aframomum melegueta in the herbal and pharmaceutical industries, its production is limited by lack of planting materials (propagules). The plant also lacks scientific descriptors, which has often led to misidentification with adverse health implications. We therefore aimed at developing a descriptor list to facilitate the identification of A. melegueta using 34 morphometric traits comprising 18 quantitative and 16 qualitative characters. The morphological traits showed that A. melegueta has a characteristic stolon that produces tillers instead of rhizomes. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean using both the nearest-neighbour and complete-linkage methods based on the 34 morphometric traits clustered the eight accessions into two main groups based on ecological location. The accessions from the Eastern and Ashanti regions were separated at similarity coefficients of 0.822 and 0.644, respectively, with a highly significant discriminant function. The Eastern accessions were further clustered into red or yellow fruits at similarity indexes of 0.936 and 0.865 using the nearest-neighbour and complete-linkage methods, respectively. The present study has shown that morphometric traits of A. melegueta are greatly influenced by its ecological habitat. It is envisaged that the descriptor list developed coupled with a morphometric description would enhance its identification and utilization. PMID:23799183

Amponsah, J.; Adamtey, N.; Elegba, W.; Danso, K. E.

2013-01-01

186

Distinct evolutionary patterns of morphometric sperm traits in passerine birds.  

PubMed

The striking diversity of sperm shape across the animal kingdom is still poorly understood. Postcopulatory sexual selection is an important factor driving the evolution of sperm size and shape. Interestingly, morphometric sperm traits, such as the length of the head, midpiece and flagellum, exhibit a strong positive phenotypic correlation across species. Here we used recently developed comparative methods to investigate how such phenotypic correlations between morphometric sperm traits may evolve. We compare allometric relationships and evolutionary trajectories of three morphometric sperm traits (length of head, midpiece and flagellum) in passerine birds. We show that these traits exhibit strong phenotypic correlations but that allometry varies across families. In addition, the evolutionary trajectories of the midpiece and flagellum are similar while the trajectory for head length differs. We discuss our findings in the light of three scenarios accounting for correlated trait evolution: (i) genetic correlation; (ii) concerted response to selection acting simultaneously on different traits; and (iii) phenotypic correlation between traits driven by mechanistic constraints owing to selection on sperm performance. Our results suggest that concerted response to selection is the most likely explanation for the phenotypic correlation between morphometric sperm traits. PMID:22896646

Immler, Simone; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Birkhead, Tim R

2012-10-22

187

Distinct evolutionary patterns of morphometric sperm traits in passerine birds  

PubMed Central

The striking diversity of sperm shape across the animal kingdom is still poorly understood. Postcopulatory sexual selection is an important factor driving the evolution of sperm size and shape. Interestingly, morphometric sperm traits, such as the length of the head, midpiece and flagellum, exhibit a strong positive phenotypic correlation across species. Here we used recently developed comparative methods to investigate how such phenotypic correlations between morphometric sperm traits may evolve. We compare allometric relationships and evolutionary trajectories of three morphometric sperm traits (length of head, midpiece and flagellum) in passerine birds. We show that these traits exhibit strong phenotypic correlations but that allometry varies across families. In addition, the evolutionary trajectories of the midpiece and flagellum are similar while the trajectory for head length differs. We discuss our findings in the light of three scenarios accounting for correlated trait evolution: (i) genetic correlation; (ii) concerted response to selection acting simultaneously on different traits; and (iii) phenotypic correlation between traits driven by mechanistic constraints owing to selection on sperm performance. Our results suggest that concerted response to selection is the most likely explanation for the phenotypic correlation between morphometric sperm traits. PMID:22896646

Immler, Simone; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Birkhead, Tim R.

2012-01-01

188

Original article The morphometric position of Apis nuluensis  

E-print Network

Original article The morphometric position of Apis nuluensis Tingek, Koeniger and Koeniger, 1996 samples of Apis nuluensis collected at the region of Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia in mountainous areas ranging-nesting Apis species drawn from the Oberursel data bank (Apis cerana from four Asian locations, Apis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

Original article Morphometric studies with pure bred stock  

E-print Network

Original article Morphometric studies with pure bred stock of Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann from are not under control of the breeders were determined and compared to typical Apis mellifera carnica and A m mel. An influence of genes from other races than Mellifera is more likely. Apis mellifera carnica/ Apis mellifera

Boyer, Edmond

190

Morphometric analysis of dermal collagen by color clusters segmentation.  

PubMed

Morphometric analysis of dermal collagen can provide quantitative support to dermatologic research. The authors of this article disclose a technique of digital image analysis which allows the identification of microscopic structures by color cluster segmentation regarding the estimate intensity and density of dermal collagen fibers. PMID:20676470

Miot, Hélio Amante; Brianezi, Gabrielli

2010-01-01

191

Production and localization of 92-kilodalton gelatinase in abdominal aortic aneurysms. An elastolytic metalloproteinase expressed by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages.  

PubMed

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are characterized by disruption and degradation of the elastic media, yet the elastolytic proteinases involved and their cellular sources are undefined. We examined if 92-kD gelatinase, an elastolytic matrix metalloproteinase, participates in the pathobiology of AAA. Gelatin zymography of conditioned medium from normal, atheroocclusive disease (AOD), or AAA tissues in organ culture showed that all tissues produced 72-kD gelatinase. AOD and AAA cultures also secreted 92-kD gelatinase, but significantly more enzyme was released from AAA tissues. ELISA confirmed that AAA tissues released approximately 2-fold more 92-kD gelatinase than AOD tissue and approximately 10-fold more than normal aorta. Phorbol ester induced a 5.3-fold increase in 92-kD gelatinase secretion by normal aorta and AOD and an 11.5-fold increase by AAA. By immunohistochemistry, 92-kD gelatinase was not detected in normal aorta and was only occasionally seen within the neointimal lesions of AOD tissue. In all AAA specimens, however, 92-kD gelatinase was readily localized to numerous macrophages in the media and at the adventitial-medial junction. The expression of 92-kD gelatinase mRNA by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages was confirmed by in situ hybridization. These results demonstrate that diseased aortic tissues secrete greater amounts of gelatinolytic activity than normal aorta primarily due to increased production of 92-kD gelatinase. In addition, the localization of 92-kD gelatinase to macrophages in the damaged wall of aneurysmal aortas suggests that chronic release of this elastolytic metalloproteinase contributes to extracellular matrix degradation in AAA. PMID:7615801

Thompson, R W; Holmes, D R; Mertens, R A; Liao, S; Botney, M D; Mecham, R P; Welgus, H G; Parks, W C

1995-07-01

192

Production and localization of 92-kilodalton gelatinase in abdominal aortic aneurysms. An elastolytic metalloproteinase expressed by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages.  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are characterized by disruption and degradation of the elastic media, yet the elastolytic proteinases involved and their cellular sources are undefined. We examined if 92-kD gelatinase, an elastolytic matrix metalloproteinase, participates in the pathobiology of AAA. Gelatin zymography of conditioned medium from normal, atheroocclusive disease (AOD), or AAA tissues in organ culture showed that all tissues produced 72-kD gelatinase. AOD and AAA cultures also secreted 92-kD gelatinase, but significantly more enzyme was released from AAA tissues. ELISA confirmed that AAA tissues released approximately 2-fold more 92-kD gelatinase than AOD tissue and approximately 10-fold more than normal aorta. Phorbol ester induced a 5.3-fold increase in 92-kD gelatinase secretion by normal aorta and AOD and an 11.5-fold increase by AAA. By immunohistochemistry, 92-kD gelatinase was not detected in normal aorta and was only occasionally seen within the neointimal lesions of AOD tissue. In all AAA specimens, however, 92-kD gelatinase was readily localized to numerous macrophages in the media and at the adventitial-medial junction. The expression of 92-kD gelatinase mRNA by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages was confirmed by in situ hybridization. These results demonstrate that diseased aortic tissues secrete greater amounts of gelatinolytic activity than normal aorta primarily due to increased production of 92-kD gelatinase. In addition, the localization of 92-kD gelatinase to macrophages in the damaged wall of aneurysmal aortas suggests that chronic release of this elastolytic metalloproteinase contributes to extracellular matrix degradation in AAA. Images PMID:7615801

Thompson, R W; Holmes, D R; Mertens, R A; Liao, S; Botney, M D; Mecham, R P; Welgus, H G; Parks, W C

1995-01-01

193

Abdominal pain - children under age 12  

MedlinePLUS

Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

194

Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease

Jean-Pierre Després; Isabelle Lemieux

2006-01-01

195

[Principles and methods of geometric morphometrics].  

PubMed

The basic concepts, notions and methods of geometric morphometrics (GM) are considered. This approach implies multivariate analysis of landmark coordinates located following certain rules on the surface of a morphological object. The aim of GM is to reveal differences between morphological objects by their shapes as such, the "size factor" being excluded. The GM is based on the concept of Kendall's space (KS) defined as a hypersphere with points distributed on its surface. These points are the shapes defined as aligned landmark configurations. KS is a non-Euclidian space, its metrics called Procrustes is defined by landmark configuration of a reference shape relative to which other shapes are aligned and compared. The differences among shapes are measured as Procrustes distances between respective points. For the linear methods of multivariate statistics to be applied to comparison of shapes, the respective points are projected onto the tangent plane (tangent space), the tangent point being defined by the reference. There are two principal methods of shape comparisons in GM: the Procrustes superimposition (a version of the least squares analysis) and thin-plate spline analysis. In the first case, Procrustes residuals are the outcome shape variables which remain after isometric alignment of the shapes being compared. Their summation over all landmarks yields Procrustes distances among these shapes. The Procrustes distances can be used in multivariate analyses just as the Euclidian distances. In the second case, the shapes are fitted to the references by stretching/compressing and shearing until complete identity of their landmark configurations. Eigenvectors of resulting bending energy matrix are defined as new shape variables, principal warps which yield another shape space with the origin defined by the reference. Projections of the shapes being compared onto principal warps yield partial warps, and their covariance matrix decomposition into eigenvectors yields relative warps which are similar to principal components (in particular, they are mutually orthogonal). Both partial and relative warps can be used in many multivariate statistic analyses as quantitative shape variables. Results of thin-plate spline analysis can be represented graphically by transformation grid which displays type, amount and localization of the shape differences. Basis rules of sample composition and landmark positioning to be used in GM are considered. At present, rigid (with minimal degrees of freedom) 2D morphological objects are most suitable for GM applications. It is important to recognize three type of real landmarks, and additionally semi-landmarks and "virtual" landmarks. Some procedures of thin-plate spline analysis are considered exemplified by some study cases, as well as applications of some standard multivariate methods to GM results. They make it possible to evaluate correlation between different shapes, as well as between a shape and some non-shape variables (linear measurements etc); to evaluate the differences among organisms by shape of a morphological structure; to identify landmarks which most accounted for both correlation and differences between the shapes. An annotated list of most popular softwares for GM is provided. PMID:12510587

Pavlinov, I Ia; Mikeshina, N G

2002-01-01

196

Coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy–Walker variant  

PubMed Central

This article reports a rare case of coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy–Walker variant in a 17-year-old girl. Differential diagnoses of coarctation of the aorta and Dandy–Walker variant are extensively discussed. In addition, standard surgical treatment of coarctation as well as new approaches such as endovascular stenting are described in detail to provide therapeutic insights into her management. Although surgical or endovascular repair of coarctation results in significant improvement of systemic hypertension and is associated with better survival, cardiovascular complications are still very common. Thus, long-term follow-up after repair is required, and high-quality imaging studies such as echocardiography, CT and MRI are warranted. PMID:24396258

Zhou, Li; Lui, George K.; Shenoy, Rajesh; Taub, Cynthia C.

2013-01-01

197

MagnetoHemoDynamics in the aorta and electrocardiograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses a complex multi-physical phenomenon involving cardiac electrophysiology and hemodynamics. The purpose is to model and simulate a phenomenon that has been observed in magnetic resonance imaging machines: in the presence of a strong magnetic field, the T-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) gets bigger, which may perturb ECG-gated imaging. This is due to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect occurring in the aorta. We reproduce this experimental observation through computer simulations on a realistic anatomy, and with a three-compartment model: inductionless MHD equations in the aorta, bi-domain equations in the heart and electrical diffusion in the rest of the body. These compartments are strongly coupled and solved using finite elements. Several benchmark tests are proposed to assess the numerical solutions and the validity of some modeling assumptions. Then, ECGs are simulated for a wide range of magnetic field intensities (from 0 to 20 T).

Martin, Vincent; Drochon, Agnès; Fokapu, Odette; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric

2012-05-01

198

Vaginal mesh erosion after abdominal sacral colpopexy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our goal was to compare the prevalence of vaginal mesh erosion between abdominal sacral colpopexy and various sacral colpoperineopexy procedures. Study Design: We undertook a retrospective analysis of all sacral colpopexies and colpoperineopexies performed between March 1, 1992, and February 28, 1999. The patients were divided into the following 4 groups: abdominal sacral colpopexy, abdominal sacral colpoperineopexy, and 2

Anthony G. Visco; Alison C. Weidner; Matthew D. Barber; Evan R. Myers; Geoffrey W. Cundiff; Richard C. Bump; W. Allen Addison

2001-01-01

199

Common FXIII and Fibrinogen Polymorphisms in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Introduction Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are characterized by a progressive dilatation of the abdominal aorta, and are associated with a high risk of rupture once the dilatation exceeds 55 mm in diameter. A large proportion of AAA develops an intraluminal thrombus, which contributes to hypoxia, inflammation and tissue degradation. We have previously shown that patients with AAA produce clots with altered structure which is more resistant to fibrinolysis. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic polymorphisms of FXIII and fibrinogen in AAA to identify how changes to these proteins may play a role in the development of AAA. Methods Subjects of Western/European descent, ?55 years of age (520 AAA patients and 449 controls) were genotyped for five polymorphisms (FXIII-A Val34Leu, FXIII-B His95Arg, FXIII-B Splice Variant (intron K nt29576C-G), Fib-A Thr312Ala and Fib-B Arg448Lys) by RT-PCR. Data were analysed by ?2 test and CubeX. Results The FXIII-B Arg95 allele associated with AAA (Relative risk - 1.240, CI 1.093–1.407, P?=?0.006). There was no association between FXIII-A Val34Leu, FXIII-B Splice Variant, Fib-A Thr312Ala or Fib-B Arg448Lys and AAA. FXIII-B His95Arg and FXIII-B Splice variant (intron K nt29576C-G) were in negative linkage disequilibrium (D’?=??0.609, p?=?0.011). Discussion The FXIII-B Arg95 variant is associated with an increased risk of AAA. These data suggest a possible role for FXIII in AAA pathogenesis. PMID:25384012

Macrae, Fraser L.; Lee Evans, Hannah; Bridge, Katherine I.; Johnson, Anne; Scott, D. Julian A.; Ariëns, Robert A. S.

2014-01-01

200

Methylglyoxal enhances sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation in rat aorta.  

PubMed

The concentration of methylglyoxal (MGO), a metabolite of glucose, increases in plasma of type II diabetic patients as well as in tissues of hypertensive rats. We have previously shown that MGO inhibited noradrenaline (NA)-induced smooth muscle contraction in rat aorta. However, the effect of MGO on relaxing responses in isolated blood vessel remains to be clarified. Thus, we examined if MGO affects acetylcholine (ACh)- or sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced vasodilation on NA (100 nM)-induced pre-contraction in rat thoracic aorta. Treatment of endothelium-intact aorta with MGO (420 microM, 30 min) did not change ACh (1 nM - 3 microM)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation. In contrast, treatment of endothelium-denuded aorta with MGO shifted the concentration-response curve for SNP (0.1 - 300 nM) to the left. MGO increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in smooth muscle on analysis of protein carbonylation. Anti-oxidant agents such as tempol (10 microM), catalase (5000 U/mL), and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (100 microM) had no effect on MGO-induced enhancement of SNP-induced relaxation. However, iberiotoxin (100 nM), a large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca))-channel inhibitor, significantly prevented the effect. The present study revealed that MGO enhanced SNP-induced relaxation in a ROS-independent manner via in part opening smooth muscle BK(Ca) channels. PMID:20168042

Mukohda, Masashi; Yamawaki, Hideyuki; Okada, Muneyoshi; Hara, Yukio

2010-01-01

201

Delayed traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta into the esophagus.  

PubMed

A case of delayed rupture of the thoracic aorta into the esophagus after blunt thoracic injury is reported. It involved a hemodynamically stable 18-year-old male patient without any clinical or radiological signs to indicate aortic injury. Aortoesophageal fistula presented in the fifth post traumatic day, with a sudden dyspnea episode, intraperitoneal hemorrhage and lower gastrointestinal bleeding, due to intraperitoneal and intragastric rupture of intramural esophageal hematoma. PMID:9595238

Komborozos, V A; Belenis, I; Malagari, C; Yannopoulos, P

1998-01-01

202

Release of 3H-5-hydroxytryptamine from isolated rabbit aorta.  

PubMed

The main aim of the present investigation was to study systematically the passive and stimulation-evoked release of 3H-5-hydroxytryptamine (3H-5-HT) from rabbit isolated aorta. This was accomplished by preloading rings of aorta with 3H-5-HT (10(-6)M) and then monitoring by fractional collection the basal 3H-outflow and stimulation-evoked 3H-overflow. The basal 3H-outflow from aorta preloaded with 10(-6)M of either 3H-5-HT or (-)-3H-noradrenaline (3H-NA) leveled off about 100 min. after the onset of wash-out and remained almost constant thereafter (100-240 min.). The basal 3H-outflow from tissue preloaded with 3H-5-HT was almost 3-fold higher (70-240 min.) than that seen after preloading with 3H-NA. Cocaine (3 x 10(-5)M) did not alter the basal 3H-outflow (15-240 min.) from tissue preloaded with 3H-5-HT, while pargyline (5 x 10(-4)M) decreased it by about 66% (100-240 min.). Electrical-field stimulation (S1-S7, 200 mA, 600 pulses, 0.5 msec., 3 Hz) were applied to the tissue. The initial stimulation-evoked 3H-overflow from aorta preloaded with 3H-5-HT was higher than the subsequent ones (S1-S7; 100, 35, 35, 35, 35, 37, and 40%). Similar results to these were obtained with tissues preloaded with 3H-NA. The stimulation (S1-S7; 200 mA). 600 pulses, 0.5 msec, 3 Hz)-evoked 3H-overflow increased in an apparent linear manner with the amount of current used (50-200 mA).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7617558

Gouliaev, A H; Nedergaard, O A

1995-04-01

203

Mechanical Characteristics of Fresh and Frozen Human Descending Thoracic Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, mechanical characteristics of descending thoracic aorta were evaluated after preservation at +4°C in EuroCollins solution or after programmed cryopreservation with 15% dimethylsulfoxide and compared to control segments. Arterial allografts were procured from multiple organ harvesting over a period of 2 years. All the segments were allowed to incubate in EuroCollins enriched antibiotics solution for 18 to 24

Mustapha Adham; Jean-Paul Gournier; Jean-Pierre Favre; Eric De La Roche; Christian Ducerf; Jacques Baulieux; Xavier Barral; Michel Pouyet

1996-01-01

204

Multilayer material properties of aorta determined from nanoindentation tests  

PubMed Central

In a wide range of biomechanical modeling of aorta from traumatic injury to stent grafts, the arterial wall has been considered as a single homogeneous layer vessel, ignoring the fact that arteries are composed of distinct anatomical layers with different mechanical characteristics. In this study, using a custom-made nanoindentation technique, changes in the mechanical properties of porcine thoracic aorta wall in the radial direction were characterized using a quasi-linear viscoelastic model. Two layers of equal thickness were mechanically distinguishable in descending aorta based on the radial variations in the instantaneous Young's modulus E and reduced relaxation function G(t). Overall, comparison of E and G? of the outer half (70.27 ± 2.47 kPa and 0.35 ± 0.01) versus the inner half (60.32 ± 1.65 kPa and 0.33 ± 0.01) revealed that the outer half was stiffer and showed less relaxation. The results were used to explain local mechanisms of deformation, force transmission, tear propagation and failure in arteries. PMID:23123343

Hemmasizadeh, Ali; Autieri, Michael; Darvish, Kurosh

2013-01-01

205

Multilayer material properties of aorta determined from nanoindentation tests.  

PubMed

In a wide range of biomechanical modeling of aorta from traumatic injury to stent grafts, the arterial wall has been considered as a single homogeneous layer vessel, ignoring the fact that arteries are composed of distinct anatomical layers with different mechanical characteristics. In this study, using a custom-made nanoindentation technique, changes in the mechanical properties of porcine thoracic aorta wall in the radial direction were characterized using a quasi-linear viscoelastic model. Two layers of equal thickness were mechanically distinguishable in descending aorta based on the radial variations in the instantaneous Young's modulus E and reduced relaxation function G(t). Overall, comparison of E and G(?) of the outer half (70.27±2.47 kPa and 0.35±0.01) versus the inner half (60.32±1.65 kPa and 0.33±0.01) revealed that the outer half was stiffer and showed less relaxation. The results were used to explain local mechanisms of deformation, force transmission, tear propagation and failure in arteries. PMID:23123343

Hemmasizadeh, Ali; Autieri, Michael; Darvish, Kurosh

2012-11-01

206

Endovascular Repair of Contained Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of stent-grafts for the treatment of acute rupture of the thoracic aorta. Methods: Four patients with acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta were treated by insertion of stent-grafts. The underlying aortic lesions were aneurysm, acute aortic ulcer, acute type B dissection and giant cell aortitis. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia in three patients and local anesthesia in one patient. Results: All stent-grafts were successfully deployed. All patients survived the procedure and are now alive and well at follow-up (mean 6.3 months, range 44 days-16 months). One patient underwent a second stent procedure 10 days after the first procedure because of a proximal endoleak. All hemothoraces have resolved. There were no complications. Conclusion:Treatment of acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta by the insertion of stent-grafts is feasible. The technical success rates,complication rates and patient survival compare favorably with emergency surgery.

Morgan, Robert [Department of Radiology, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Loosemore, Tom [Department of Vascular Surgery, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Belli, Anna-Maria [Department of Radiology, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom)

2002-08-15

207

Strain Analysis of Wall Motion in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this exploratory study, we used ultrasound speckle-tracking methods, originally used for analyzing cardiac wall motion, to evaluate aortic wall motion. Materials and Methods: We compared 19 abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients with 10 healthy volunteers (diameter, 48 mm vs. 15 mm). Motion pictures of the axial view of the aneurysm using ultrasonography were analyzed. Circumferential strain and strain rate at 6 equally divided segments of the aorta were semiautomatically calculated. We termed ‘peak’ strain and strain rate as the maximum of strain and strain rate in a cardiac cycle for each segment. We also evaluated the coefficient of variation of peak strain rate for the six segments. Results: In the aneurysm and control groups, the mean values of peak strain along the 6 segments were 1.5% ± 0.6% vs. 4.7% ± 1.6% (p <0.0001), respectively. The coefficient of variation of the peak strain rate was higher in the AAA group (0.74 ± 0.20) than in the control group (0.56 ± 0.12; p <0.05). Conclusions: Aortic wall compliance decreased in the more atherosclerotic AAA group. The higher relative dispersion of strain rates in the AAA group is indicative of the inhomogeneous movement of the aortic wall.

Taniguchi, Ryosuke; Hosaka, Akihiro; Miyahara, Takuya; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Miyata, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Toshiaki

2014-01-01

208

Percutaneous closure of complex paravalvular aortic root pseudoaneurysm and aorta-cavitary fistulas  

PubMed Central

Native aortic valve or its prosthetic valve endocarditis can extend to the adjacent periannular areas and erode into nearby cardiac chambers, leading to pseudoaneurysm and aorta-cavitary fistulas respectively. The later usually leads to acute cardiac failure and hemodynamic instability requiring an urgent surgical intervention. However rarely this might pass unnoticed and the patient might present later with cardiac murmur. Percutaneous device closure of aortic pseudoaneurysm, ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm, aorta-pulmonary window, paravalvular leaks, and aorta-cavitary fistula have been reported. We present a 59-year-old female who developed a large aortic root pseudoaneurysm with biventricular communication aorta-cavitary fistulas presenting late following aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis. She underwent successful percutaneous device closure of her pseudoaneurysm and aorta-cavitary fistulas using two Amplatzer Duct Occluders. This case illustrates a challenging combination of aortic root pseudoaneurysm and biventricular aorta-cavitary fistulas that was successfully treated with percutaneous procedure. PMID:24973845

Al-Maskari, Salim; Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Farqani, Abdullah; Thomas, Eapen; Velliath, John

2014-01-01

209

MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics.  

PubMed

Increasingly, data on shape are analysed in combination with molecular genetic or ecological information, so that tools for geometric morphometric analysis are required. Morphometric studies most often use the arrangements of morphological landmarks as the data source and extract shape information from them by Procrustes superimposition. The MorphoJ software combines this approach with a wide range of methods for shape analysis in different biological contexts. The program offers an integrated and user-friendly environment for standard multivariate analyses such as principal components, discriminant analysis and multivariate regression as well as specialized applications including phylogenetics, quantitative genetics and analyses of modularity in shape data. MorphoJ is written in Java and versions for the Windows, Macintosh and Unix/Linux platforms are freely available from http://www.flywings.org.uk/MorphoJ_page.htm. PMID:21429143

Klingenberg, Christian Peter

2011-03-01

210

Sarcoma of the aorta: Report of a case and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumors of the aorta are extremely rare and usually malignant. We report the case of a sarcoma of the infrarenal aorta in a\\u000a 67-year-old man. Initial symptoms were metastatic cutaneous nodules and lower extremity claudication. Aortography and computerized\\u000a tomography of the abdomen revealed a f ungating mass obstructing the aortic bifurcation. Treatment consisted of resection\\u000a of the aorta, aortobiiliac bypass,

Jean-Pierre Becquemin; Céleste Lebbe; Frederic Saada; Marie-Françoise Avril

1988-01-01

211

A morphometric analysis of the infant calvarium and dura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature addressing the anatomic development of the dura and calvarium during childhood is limited. Nevertheless, histological\\u000a features of a subdural neomembrane (NM), including its thickness and vascularity, developing in response to an acute subdural\\u000a hematoma (SDH) have been compared to the dura of adults to estimate when an injury occurred. Therefore, we measured the morphometric\\u000a growth of the calvarium and

Eric Breisch; Elisabeth A. Haas; Homeyra Masoumi; Amy E. Chadwick; Henry F. Krous

2010-01-01

212

Identification of Erosion Prone Areas by Morphometric Analysis Using GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was undertaken to determine the priority watersheds for conservation of natural resources of the Haharo sub catchment in the Damodar catchment of upper Damodar valley area having an area of 565 km2 involving four watersheds in Jharkhand State in eastern India by morphometric analysis using topographical maps on a scale of 1:50,000. To define the morphometric features of the watershed, the topographic information of the study area at 1:50,000 scaled are taken for analysis with the help of GIS tools. The topographical information derived from this map is utilized for calculating parameters and fixing of priority of watershed for suggesting conservation measures. The parameters computed include the morphometric parameters like bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, and three basin shape parameters i.e., form factor, circularity ratio, and elongation ratio. A rating was done for each of these parameters according to their value. Average of all these parameter for each watershed is calculated to determine the priority. Among the four watersheds 4/4 was the highest priority area where conservation measure has to be taken first then watershed 4/3. Watershed 4/1 was the medium priority area and watershed 4/2 was the low priority area.

Das, D.

2014-01-01

213

Single Therapeutic Catheterization for Treatment of Late Diagnosed Native Coarctation of Aorta Using A Covered Stent  

PubMed Central

Here in we are reporting a 35-year-old pregnant, hypertensive woman with a strict descending aorta coarctation. She had two missing pregnancies which were complicated with hypertension, but which were not diagnosed for any pathologies before. We diagnosed coarctation of aorta, but however postponed her treatment after delivery of baby, because hypertension was under control with medical treatment and she had no complication. She had an uneventful delivery. MRI angiography revealed coarctation of aorta and it was successfully treated by using an endovascular covered stent during a single cardiac catheterization. Endovascular covered stent implantation is an easy, safe and effective method for treating coarctation of aorta in adults. PMID:24783116

Ural, Alper V; Caglar, Ilker Murat; Caglar, Fatma Nihan Turhan; Ciftci, Serkan; Karakaya, Osman

2014-01-01

214

Importance of initial aortic properties on the evolving regional anisotropy, stiffness and wall thickness of human abdominal aortic aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Complementary advances in medical imaging, vascular biology and biomechanics promise to enable computational modelling of abdominal aortic aneurysms to play increasingly important roles in clinical decision processes. Using a finite-element-based growth and remodelling model of evolving aneurysm geometry and material properties, we show that regional variations in material anisotropy, stiffness and wall thickness should be expected to arise naturally and thus should be included in analyses of aneurysmal enlargement or wall stress. In addition, by initiating the model from best-fit material parameters estimated for non-aneurysmal aortas from different subjects, we show that the initial state of the aorta may influence strongly the subsequent rate of enlargement, wall thickness, mechanical behaviour and thus stress in the lesion. We submit, therefore, that clinically reliable modelling of the enlargement and overall rupture-potential of aneurysms may require both a better understanding of the mechanobiological processes that govern the evolution of these lesions and new methods of determining the patient-specific state of the pre-aneurysmal aorta (or correlation to currently unaffected portions thereof) through knowledge of demographics, comorbidities, lifestyle, genetics and future non-invasive or minimally invasive tests. PMID:22491975

Wilson, J. S.; Baek, S.; Humphrey, J. D.

2012-01-01

215

The ?-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid, Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Attenuates Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Development via Suppression of Tissue Remodeling  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent vascular disease that can progressively enlarge and rupture with a high rate of mortality. Inflammation and active remodeling of the aortic wall have been suggested to be critical in its pathogenesis. Meanwhile, ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are known to reduce cardiovascular events, but its role in AAA management remains unclear. Here, we show that EPA can attenuate murine CaCl2-induced AAA formation. Aortas from BALB/c mice fed an EPA-diet appeared less inflamed, were significantly smaller in diameter compared to those from control-diet-fed mice, and had relative preservation of aortic elastic lamina. Interestingly, CT imaging also revealed markedly reduced calcification of the aortas after EPA treatment. Mechanistically, MMP2, MMP9, and TNFSF11 levels in the aortas were reduced after EPA treatment. Consistent with this finding, RAW264.7 macrophages treated with EPA showed attenuated Mmp9 levels after TNF-? simulation. These results demonstrate a novel role of EPA in attenuating AAA formation via the suppression of critical remodeling pathways in the pathogenesis of AAAs, and raise the possibility of using EPA for AAA prevention in the clinical setting. PMID:24798452

Wang, Jack H.; Eguchi, Kosei; Matsumoto, Sahohime; Fujiu, Katsuhito; Komuro, Issei; Nagai, Ryozo; Manabe, Ichiro

2014-01-01

216

Penetration of an Inferior Vena Cava Filter into the Aorta  

PubMed Central

Transvenous placement of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters is commonly performed in selected patients with deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. However, filter placement is sometimes associated with serious complications. A common complication is asymptomatic perforation of the IVC and penetration of adjacent organs by the filter. Here, we report a case of an 83-year-old man whose prophylactic IVC filter penetrated the aorta. The patient was closely followed without surgical intervention for more than a year, and no additional complications were observed.

Hosaka, Akihiro; Miyahara, Takuya; Hoshina, Katsuyuki; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Watanabe, Toshiaki

2014-01-01

217

Intravascular Stent Therapy for Coarctation of the Aorta  

PubMed Central

Intravascular stent therapy is considered a primary therapeutic option for most adults and adolescents with coarctation of the aorta. This review highlights the indications, technical considerations, procedural aspects, and limited long-term outcome data when using this intervention. Stent technology has continued to evolve with potential for further modifications since its inception in the early 1990s. The best therapeutic approach, e.g., stenting versus surgery, in the treatment of native coarctation continues to be debated due to the paucity of long-term clinical and imaging data in both groups. PMID:25114759

2014-01-01

218

Large Abdominal Wall Endometrioma Following Laparoscopic Hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Background: Endometriosis is a common condition in women that affects up to 45% of patients in the reproductive age group by causing pelvic pain. It is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity and is rarely found subcutaneously or in abdominal incisions, causing it to be overlooked in patients with abdominal pain. Methods: A 45-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain 2 years following a laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy. She was found to have incidental cholelithiasis and a large abdominal mass suggestive of a significant ventral hernia on CT scan. Results: Due to the peculiar presentation, surgical intervention took place that revealed a large 9cm×7.6cm×6.2cm abdominal wall endometrioma. Conclusion: Although extrapelvic endometriosis is rare, it should be entertained in the differential diagnosis for the female patient who presents with an abdominal mass and pain and has a previous surgical history. PMID:21902990

Borncamp, Erik; Mehaffey, Philip; Rotman, Carlos

2011-01-01

219

Expression and localization of macrophage elastase (matrix metalloproteinase-12) in abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed Central

Elastolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), a disorder characterized by chronic aortic wall inflammation and destruction of medial elastin. The purpose of this study was to determine if human macrophage elastase (HME; MMP-12) might participate in this disease. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, HME mRNA was consistently demonstrated in AAA and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (AOD) tissues (six of six), but in only one of six normal aortas. Immunoreactive proteins corresponding to proHME and two products of extracellular processing were present in seven of seven AAA tissue extracts. Total HME recovered from AAA tissue was sevenfold greater than normal aorta (P < 0.001), and the extracted enzyme exhibited activity in vitro. Production of HME was demonstrated in the media of AAA tissues by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, but HME was not detected within the media of normal or AOD specimens. Importantly, immunoreactive HME was specifically localized to residual elastin fragments within the media of AAA tissue, particularly areas adjacent to nondilated normal aorta. In vitro, the fraction of MMP-12 sequestered by insoluble elastin was two- to fivefold greater than other elastases found in AAA tissue. Therefore, HME is prominently expressed by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages within the degenerating aortic media of AAA, where it is also bound to residual elastic fiber fragments. Because elastin represents a critical component of aortic wall structure and a matrix substrate for metalloelastases, HME may have a direct and singular role in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms. PMID:9835614

Curci, J A; Liao, S; Huffman, M D; Shapiro, S D; Thompson, R W

1998-01-01

220

Extrahepatic Portal Hypertension Following Abdominal Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of non-cirrhotic extrahepatic portal hypertension in a 31-year-old woman following exten- sive abdominal laparotomy for the drainage of multiple retroperitoneal and liver abscesses following a perfo- rated appendix. Chronic portal, splenic, and mesenteric vein thrombosis with portal hypertension was caused by a hypercoagulable state due to the abdominal infec- tion and abdominal surgery. Various etiological aspects

Ajit Singh Ahluwalia; Joseph J. Mazza; Steven H. Yale

221

Carcinoid abdominal crisis: a case report.  

PubMed

Over the past 40 years, the incidence of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) has been increasing. Distal small bowel (i.e., midgut) NETs most often cause carcinoid syndrome manifested as cutaneous flushing, diarrhea, bronchial constriction, and cardiac involvement. Carcinoid abdominal crisis occurs when submucosal tumors impede the vascular supply to the gut leading to mesenteric ischemia and worsening abdominal pain. Here, we report the case of a young woman with progressively worsening abdominal pain. PMID:24860963

Jacobs, Ramon E A; Bai, Shuting; Hindman, Nicole; Shah, Paresh C

2014-09-01

222

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man has abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss but no significant past medical history. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Nine, Jeff S.; Weir, Ed

2007-12-03

223

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old man is complaining of abdominal pain. Visitors are given the radiology, gross and microscopic descriptions, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostics, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Latulippe, Steven; Ohori, N. P.

2007-12-05

224

[Surgical abdominal pain in children].  

PubMed

Abdominal pain in child could be related to surgical pathologies in 10 to 20 % of cases. The more frequent etiology remains appendicitis. Regarding to clinical presentation, age and medical history, intestinal intussusception, incarcerated hernia, adhesive occlusion and Meckel's diverticulum could be evocated. But the most dreadful diagnosis is malrotation with volvulus, because of mortality and morbidities induced by bowel necrosis. Usually, medical history and clinical exam allowed diagnosis. Ultrasound remains the more helpful exam in children with surgical pathologies and in some selected cases, CT scan and others biological and/or radiological exams could be performed. PMID:21698888

Arnaud, Alexis; Sauvat, Frédérique

2011-05-01

225

Abdominal wall endometriosis: case report.  

PubMed

Abdominal wall endometriosis, also known as scar endometrioma, is a rare condition, in most cases occurring after previous cesarean section or pelvic surgery. The incidence of scar endometrioma is estimated to 0.03%-1.5% of all women with previous cesarean delivery. The predominant clinical picture is cyclic pain. Due to a wide range of mimicking conditions and a relative rarity, a significant delay is often observed from the onset of symptoms to proper treatment. We report on a case of a 36-year-old patient with scar endometrioma after two previous cesarean deliveries. The possible diagnostic pitfalls and treatment options are discussed. PMID:23115952

Eljuga, Damir; Klari?, Petar; Bolanca, Ivan; Grbavac, Ivan; Kuna, Krunoslav

2012-06-01

226

Abdominal aortic occlusion and vascular compromise secondary to acute gastric dilatation in a patient with bulimia.  

PubMed

Acute gastric dilation is a rare but recognised complication in patients with bulimia and anorexia following binge episodes owing to decreased bowel motility. We present a rare case of acute gastric dilation secondary to bulimia in an otherwise healthy 18-year-old female patient that resulted in compression and complete occlusion of the abdominal aorta, leading to acute mesenteric and bilateral lower limb ischaemia. This resolved immediately following a laparotomy and gastric decompression. Management of these patients is very challenging owing to the lack of a successful precedent. To our knowledge, such a catastrophic complication has only ever been reported once in the literature and the outcome was fatal. Our case is of additional importance as it offers a successful management strategy for these patients. PMID:25350169

Elsharif, M; Doulias, T; Aljundi, W; Balchandra, S

2014-11-01

227

Abdominal arteries recognition in x-ray using a structural model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automatic recognition of vascular trees is a challenging task, required for roadmapping or advanced visualization. For instance, during an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), the recognition of abdominal arteries in angiograms can be used to select the appropriate stent graft. This choice is based on a reduced set of arteries (aorta, renal arteries, iliac arteries) whose relative positions are quite stable. We propose in this article a recognition process based on a structural model. The centerlines of the target vessels are represented by a set of control points whose relative positions are constrained. To find their position in an angiogram, we enhance the target vessels and extract a set of possible positions for each control point. Then, a constraint propagation algorithm based on the model prunes those sets of candidates, removing inconsistent ones. We present preliminary results on 5 cases, illustrating the potential of this approach and especially its ability to handle the high variability of the target vessels.

Nempont, Olivier; Florent, Raoul

2010-03-01

228

Diagnosis of Intra-Abdominal Extralobar Pulmonary Sequestration by means of Ultrasound in a Neonate  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital abnormality consisting of a mass of pulmonary tissue that presents an abnormal connection with the tracheobronchial tree, with a blood supply coming from an anomalous artery derived from the systemic circulation. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration is characterized by having pleural coverings that are independent of the normal lungs, with vascular supply usually coming from the aorta or from one of its branches. This diagnosis can be suspected prenatally if an abdominal mass, generally below the diaphragm, is seen. Here, we present a case of a neonate on the second day of life, with ultrasonography showing extralobar pulmonary sequestration located above the left adrenal gland that prenatally simulated a neuroblastoma. PMID:23762717

Pires, Claudio Rodrigues; Czapkowski, Adriano; Zanforlin Filho, Sebastião Marques

2013-01-01

229

Lessons Learned from a Case of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Accompanied by Unstable Coagulopathy  

PubMed Central

Preoperative examination for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) occasionally reveals an abnormal decrease in coagulation factors and thrombocytopenia, fulfilling the criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Treatment of the underlying disorder is indispensable for alleviating DIC. We report an uncommon case of a patient with AAA and DIC who showed prolonged thrombocytopenia despite successful treatment of AAA and temporary recovery of coagulation factors. A 70-year-old man presented with AAA and shaggy aorta accompanied by DIC and underwent aneurysmectomy. Combined preoperative use of nafamostat mesilate and recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin was effective in controlling DIC. Although recovery of coagulation factors was observed after surgery, the thrombocytopenia continued throughout the postoperative course and was refractory to platelet transfusion. Because HPA antibody and PA-IgG were present, a trial administration of ?-globulin was performed; this resulted in rapid improvement of thrombocytopenia. Although DIC recurred again 2 weeks thereafter, coagulation factors subsequently recovered without any medication. PMID:22934232

Hoshina, Katsuyuki; Kaneko, Makoto; Hosaka, Akihiro; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Miyata, Tetsuro

2012-01-01

230

Blood flow and coherent vortices in the normal and aneurysmatic aortas: a fluid dynamical approach to intra-luminal thrombus formation  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are frequently characterized by the development of an intra-luminal thrombus (ILT), which is known to have multiple biochemical and biomechanical implications. Development of the ILT is not well understood, and shear–stress-triggered activation of platelets could be the first step in its evolution. Vortical structures (VSs) in the flow affect platelet dynamics, which motivated the present study of a possible correlation between VS and ILT formation in AAAs. VSs educed by the ?2-method using computational fluid dynamics simulations of the backward-facing step problem, normal aorta, fusiform AAA and saccular AAA were investigated. Patient-specific luminal geometries were reconstructed from computed tomography scans, and Newtonian and Carreau–Yasuda models were used to capture salient rheological features of blood flow. Particularly in complex flow domains, results depended on the constitutive model. VSs developed all along the normal aorta, showing that a clear correlation between VSs and high wall shear stress (WSS) existed, and that VSs started to break up during late systole. In contrast, in the fusiform AAA, large VSs developed at sites of tortuous geometry and high WSS, occupying the entire lumen, and lasting over the entire cardiac cycle. Downward motion of VSs in the AAA was in the range of a few centimetres per cardiac cycle, and with a VS burst at that location, the release (from VSs) of shear-stress-activated platelets and their deposition to the wall was within the lower part of the diseased artery, i.e. where the thickest ILT layer is typically observed. In the saccular AAA, only one VS was found near the healthy portion of the aorta, while in the aneurysmatic bulge, no VSs occurred. We present a fluid-dynamics-motivated mechanism for platelet activation, convection and deposition in AAAs that has the potential of improving our current understanding of the pathophysiology of fluid-driven ILT growth. PMID:21471188

Biasetti, Jacopo; Hussain, Fazle; Gasser, T. Christian

2011-01-01

231

Successful stent-grafting for perforation of the thoracic aorta by an intraaortic balloon pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular complications associated with intraaortic balloon pump placement are quite common and predominantly related to femoral or iliac damage. Iatrogenic injury of the thoracic aorta is less usual and often fatal. Surgery for the lesions of the descending thoracic aorta still has a relatively high morbidity and mortality. Endovascular covered stent-graft prostheses have become a less invasive therapeutic approach to

Victor Bautista-Hernández; Javier Moya; Jorge Martinell; Maria Luz Polo; Julián Fraile

2002-01-01

232

Obstruction of the Aorta and Left Pulmonary Artery After Gianturco Coil Occlusion of Patent Ductus Arteriosus  

SciTech Connect

We report an unusual case of simultaneous obstruction of the left pulmonary artery and descending thoracic aorta after Gianturco coil occlusion in a 15-month-old boy. The diagnosis was made by echocardiography and cardiac angiography. At surgery, thrombi coating on the protruded parts of the Gianturco coil in the pulmonary artery and aorta were found.

Kuo, H.-Cg [Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics (China); Ko, Sheung-Fat [Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Department of Radiology (China); Wu, Yu-Tsun; Huang, Chien-Fu; Chien, Shao-Ju; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Liang, Chi-Di [Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics (China)], E-mail: cdliang@adm.cgmh.org.tw

2005-01-15

233

Exercise Training Restores Hypertension-Induced Changes in the Elastic Tissue of the Thoracic Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Pharmacological antihypertensive therapies decrease both wall hypertrophy and collagen, but are unable to diminish the elastic content in the thoracic aorta. We investigated the effects of exercise training on aortic structure and function. Methods: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive rats (WKY), submitted to low-intensity training (T) or kept sedentary (S), were subjected to haemodynamic analyses. The thoracic aorta

Maria Tereza Jordão; Fernando V. L. Ladd; Antonio Augusto Coppi; Renato P. Chopard; Lisete C. Michelini

2011-01-01

234

Elastin aging and lipid oxidation products in human aorta  

PubMed Central

Vascular aging is associated with structural and functional modifications of the arteries, and by an increase in arterial wall thickening in the intima and the media, mainly resulting from structural modifications of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Among the factors known to accumulate with aging, advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs) are a hallmark of oxidative stress-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. Aldehydes generated from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), (4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, acrolein), form adducts on cellular proteins, leading to a progressive protein dysfunction with consequences in the pathophysiology of vascular aging. The contribution of these aldehydes to ECM modification is not known. This study was carried out to investigate whether aldehyde-adducts are detected in the intima and media in human aorta, whether their level is increased in vascular aging, and whether elastin fibers are a target of aldehyde-adduct formation. Immunohistological and confocal immunofluorescence studies indicate that 4-HNE-histidine-adducts accumulate in an age-related manner in the intima, media and adventitia layers of human aortas, and are mainly expressed in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, even if the structure of elastin fiber is strongly altered in the aged vessels, our results show that elastin is not or very poorly modified by 4-HNE. These data indicate a complex role for lipid peroxidation and in particular for 4-HNE in elastin homeostasis, in the vascular wall remodeling during aging and atherosclerosis development. PMID:25553420

Zarkovic, Kamelija; Larroque-Cardoso, Pauline; Pucelle, Mélanie; Salvayre, Robert; Waeg, Georg; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Zarkovic, Neven

2014-01-01

235

Automatic segmentation of the aorta and the adjoining vessels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diseases of the cardiovascular system are one of the main causes of death in the Western world. Especially the aorta and its main descending vessels are of high importance for diagnosis and treatment. Today, minimally invasive interventions are becoming increasingly popular due to their advantages like cost effectiveness and minimized risk for the patient. The training of such interventions, which require much of coordination skills, can be trained by task training systems, which are operation simualtion units. These systems require a data model that can be reconstructed from given patient data sets. In this paper, we present a method that allows to segment and classify aorta, carotides, and ostium (including coronary arteries) in one run, fully automatic and highly robust. The system tolerates changes in topology, streak artifacts in CT caused by calcification and inhomogeneous distribution of contrast agent. Both CT and MRI-Images can be processed. The underlying algorithm is based on a combination of Vesselness Enhancement Diffusion, Region Growing, and the Level Set Method. The system showed good results on all 15 real patient data sets whereby the deviation was smaller than two voxels.

Stutzmann, Tobias; Hesser, Jürgen; Völker, Wolfram; Dobhan, Matthias

2010-03-01

236

Surgical treatment of acute traumatic tear of the thoracic aorta.  

PubMed Central

Acute traumatic tear of the thoracic aorta is a severe injury with a high mortality rate. This condition requires expeditious evaluation and prompt surgical intervention in order to improve patient survival. The experience at the authors' institution from 1971 to 1987 includes 41 patients who sustained acute traumatic tear of the thoracic aorta and reached the hospital alive. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the surgical management of this injury with regards to mortality rate and the incidence of spinal cord injury. Five patients died from exsanguination before definitive repair could be undertaken. Thirty-six patients had repair of traumatic aortic tear in the area of the isthmus. Nine patients were operated upon with the clamp and sew technique, 20 patients had a heparin-bonded shunt placed, and seven patients were treated by repair with cardiopulmonary bypass. There were five operative deaths that were not related to the technique employed. Two patients without preoperative evidence of spinal cord injury developed paraparesis. No patient had postoperative paraplegia. Despite rapid transport, expeditious evaluation, and emergency thoracotomy, some patients die from exsanguination prior to definitive repair. Even with the provision of distal aortic perfusion during clamping, the risk of spinal cord injury is not eliminated. PMID:3389938

Merrill, W H; Lee, R B; Hammon, J W; Frist, W H; Stewart, J R; Bender, H W

1988-01-01

237

[Wall elasticity of the ascending aorta in ischemic heart disease].  

PubMed

M-mode echocardiography was used to examine in male subjects the physical properties of the ascending aorta, 3 cm above the valvular plane. Subjects were divided into three groups based on age, lifestyle and presence or absence of vascular disease: Group A (10 recruited military young men, age 20.87 +/- 0.834 years) in good health; Group B (14 senior competitive athletes, age 49.92 +/- 8.17 years); Group C (10 patients with effort-angina, age 53.1 +/- 11.18 years). We observed that: the inner diastolic diameter of the ascending aorta was different between Group A and B (p < 0.001) and between Group A and C (p < 0.001), and it increased with aging (r = 0.7) whereas no relationship to body surface was seen (r = 0.3); the elasticity-stiffness parameters (aortic wall distensibility, aortic wall stress, wall stiffness index, wall elasticity index and modulus) of major vessels in senior athletes (Group B), were not different (p > 0.05) from military young men (Group A), although they were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in Group C patients; wall elasticity was lower in Group C patients (versus both Group A and B). Altered compliance might be the consequence of vessel structural changes and may contribute to reduce blood flow to the coronary arteries. Our data suggest that sports activity has beneficial effects; physical characteristics of great vessels do not show age-related changes. PMID:7664307

Alessandri, N; Franzin, S; Sulpizii, L; Cecchetti, F; Rondoni, G; Martarelli, L; Anaclerio, M; Campa, P P

1995-03-01

238

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Targeted by Functionalized Polysaccharide Microparticles: a new Tool for SPECT Imaging  

PubMed Central

Aneurysm diagnostic is nowadays limited by the lack of technology that enables early detection and rupture risk prediction. New non invasive tools for molecular imaging are still required. In the present study, we present an innovative SPECT diagnostic tool for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) produced from injectable polysaccharide microparticles radiolabeled with technetium 99m (99mTc) and functionalized with fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide with the ability to target P-Selectin. P-Selectin is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated endothelial cells and platelets which can be found in the thrombus of aneurysms, as well as in other vascular pathologies. Microparticles with a maximum hydrodynamic diameter of 4 µm were obtained by crosslinking the polysaccharides dextran and pullulan. They were functionalized with fucoidan. In vitro interactions with human activated platelets were assessed by flow cytometry that demonstrated a specific affinity of fucoidan functionalized microparticles for P-Selectin expressed by activated platelets. For in vivo AAA imaging, microparticles were radiolabeled with 99mTc and intravenously injected into healthy and AAA rats obtained by elastase perfusion through the aorta wall. Animals were scanned by SPECT imaging. A strong contrast enhancement located in the abdominal aorta of AAA rats was obtained, while no signal was obtained in healthy rats or in AAA rats after injection of non-functionalized control microparticles. Histological studies revealed that functionalized radiolabeled polysaccharide microparticles were localized in the AAA wall, in the same location where P-Selectin was expressed. These microparticles therefore constitute a promising SPECT imaging tool for AAA and potentially for other vascular diseases characterized by P-Selectin expression. Future work will focus on validating the efficiency of the microparticles to diagnose these other pathologies and the different stages of AAA. Incorporation of a therapeutic molecule is also considered. PMID:24723981

Bonnard, Thomas; Yang, Gonord; Petiet, Anne; Ollivier, Véronique; Haddad, Oualid; Arnaud, Denis; Louedec, Liliane; Bachelet-Violette, Laure; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cedric; Le Visage, Catherine

2014-01-01

239

Abdominal aortic aneurysms targeted by functionalized polysaccharide microparticles: a new tool for SPECT imaging.  

PubMed

Aneurysm diagnostic is nowadays limited by the lack of technology that enables early detection and rupture risk prediction. New non invasive tools for molecular imaging are still required. In the present study, we present an innovative SPECT diagnostic tool for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) produced from injectable polysaccharide microparticles radiolabeled with technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) and functionalized with fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide with the ability to target P-Selectin. P-Selectin is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated endothelial cells and platelets which can be found in the thrombus of aneurysms, as well as in other vascular pathologies. Microparticles with a maximum hydrodynamic diameter of 4 µm were obtained by crosslinking the polysaccharides dextran and pullulan. They were functionalized with fucoidan. In vitro interactions with human activated platelets were assessed by flow cytometry that demonstrated a specific affinity of fucoidan functionalized microparticles for P-Selectin expressed by activated platelets. For in vivo AAA imaging, microparticles were radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and intravenously injected into healthy and AAA rats obtained by elastase perfusion through the aorta wall. Animals were scanned by SPECT imaging. A strong contrast enhancement located in the abdominal aorta of AAA rats was obtained, while no signal was obtained in healthy rats or in AAA rats after injection of non-functionalized control microparticles. Histological studies revealed that functionalized radiolabeled polysaccharide microparticles were localized in the AAA wall, in the same location where P-Selectin was expressed. These microparticles therefore constitute a promising SPECT imaging tool for AAA and potentially for other vascular diseases characterized by P-Selectin expression. Future work will focus on validating the efficiency of the microparticles to diagnose these other pathologies and the different stages of AAA. Incorporation of a therapeutic molecule is also considered. PMID:24723981

Bonnard, Thomas; Yang, Gonord; Petiet, Anne; Ollivier, Véronique; Haddad, Oualid; Arnaud, Denis; Louedec, Liliane; Bachelet-Violette, Laure; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cedric; Le Visage, Catherine

2014-01-01

240

Prognostic value of tissue factor in patients with abdominal aortic and iliac arterial aneurysms – preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The decision on the time and choice of strategy of treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm must be especially carefully balanced. The aim of the study was to evaluate the tissue factor (TF) plasma level as a potential factor useful in anticipation of abdominal aortic aneurysm and/or iliac arterial aneurysm via comparison of plasma TF level in patients with ruptured and non-ruptured aneurysms. Material and methods The study included 33 patients with aneurysm (17 operated on electively because of non-ruptured aneurysm and 16 operated on emergently due to ruptured aneurysm), 33 claudicant patients with atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries with normal diameter of arteries, and 30 healthy controls. Plasma TF level was assessed by ELISA method using the IMUBIND Tissue Factor ELISA Kit (American Diagnostica Inc.). Results The study showed an increased TF level in patients with aneurysm (134 ±54 pg/ml) and in patients with atherosclerosis without concomitant aneurysm (91 ±30 pg/ml) in comparison with the control group (62 ±20 pg/ml), respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.008. A significantly higher TF plasma level was observed in patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (160 ±57 pg/ml) as compared to patients with non-ruptured aortic aneurysms (109 ±39 pg/ml) or peripheral arterial occlusive disease (91 ±30 pg/ml), respectively p < 0.001 and p < 0.001. The difference in TF level between the group with non-ruptured aortic aneurysms (109 ±39 pg/ml) and the patients with atherosclerosis without aneurysm (91 ±30 pg/ml) was not statistically significant. Conclusions No difference in TF level between patients with non-ruptured AAA/IAA and patients with aortic and iliac atherosclerosis without aneurysm indicates that an increased TF plasma level is not specific for any of the above-mentioned vascular pathologies. PMID:24482652

Skóra, Jan; Dawiskiba, Tomasz; Zaleska, Patrycja; Kurcz, Jacek; Adamiec, Rajmund; Gosk-Bierska, Izabela

2013-01-01

241

Endothelial dysfunction induced by oxidized low-density lipoproteins in isolated mouse aorta: a comparison with apolipoprotein-E deficient mice.  

PubMed

We characterized the acute effects of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxidized-LDL) on vascular reactivity in isolated aorta from wild-type C57BL/6J mice, and compared these with the chronic alterations in vascular function observed in apolipoprotein-E gene knockout [ApoE(-/-)] mice fed a high-fat diet, which results in hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. In the abdominal (but not thoracic) aorta, oxidized-LDL (100 microg/ml) reduced relaxations induced by acetylcholine (10(-9) M-10(-5) M), which are mediated entirely by nitric oxide (NO). The relaxations induced by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, 10(-8) M-10(-4) M), the cyclic GMP analogue 8-bromo cyclic GMP (100 microM) and the nonspecific vasodilator papaverine (100 microM) were not changed by oxidized-LDL. Native LDL had no effect on vasorelaxations. The attenuation of endothelium-dependent relaxations caused by oxidized-LDL mimicked the endothelial dysfunction found in ApoE(-/-) mice. These results are consistent with the suggestion that oxidized-LDL has an important role in the pathogenesis of endothelial NO dysfunction associated with hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in these mice. PMID:11476760

Jiang, F; Gibson, A P; Dusting, G J

2001-07-20

242

Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood.  

PubMed

Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood is common, and continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is usually attributed to a functional gastrointestinal disorder rather than an organic disease. In most cases, a comprehensive history and physical examination should enable one to make a positive diagnosis of functional disorder. The presence of alarm symptoms and signs, such as weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic severe diarrhoea, warrants further investigations and referral to a paediatric gastrointestinal specialist. The mainstay of therapy in functional abdominal pain is education, reassurance and avoidance of triggering factors. While symptom-based pharmacological therapy may be helpful in patients who do not respond to simple management, it is best used on a time-limited basis due to the lack of good evidence of its efficacy. The primary goal of therapy is a return to normal daily activities rather than complete elimination of pain. In recalcitrant cases, psychological interventions such as cognitive behaviour therapy and relaxation training have proven to be efficacious. PMID:23624445

Chiou, Fang Kuan; How, Choon How; Ong, Christina

2013-04-01

243

Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.  

PubMed

One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. PMID:25153670

Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

2014-01-01

244

Whole genome expression analysis within the angiotensin II-apolipoprotein E deficient mouse model of abdominal aortic aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Background An animal model commonly used to investigate pathways and potential therapeutic interventions relevant to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) involves subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II within the apolipoprotein E deficient mouse. The aim of this study was to investigate genes differentially expressed in aneurysms forming within this mouse model in order to assess the relevance of this model to human AAA. Results Using microarrays we identified genes relevant to aneurysm formation within apolipoprotein E deficient mice. Firstly we investigated genes differentially expressed in the aneurysm prone segment of the suprarenal aorta in these mice. Secondly we investigated genes that were differentially expressed in the aortas of mice developing aneurysms relative to those that did not develop aneurysms in response to angiotensin II infusion. Our findings suggest that a host of inflammation and extracellular matrix remodelling pathways are upregulated within the aorta in mice developing aneurysms. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome categories enriched in the aortas of mice with aneurysms included cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, leukocyte transendothelial migration, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity and hematopoietic cell lineage. Genes associated with extracellular matrix remodelling, such as a range of matrix metalloproteinases were also differentially expressed in relation to aneurysm formation. Conclusion This study is the first report describing whole genome expression arrays in the apolipoprotein E deficient mice in relation to aneurysm formation. The findings suggest that the pathways believed to be critical in human AAA are also relevant to aneurysm formation in this mouse model. The findings therefore support the value of this model to investigate interventions and mechanisms of human AAA. PMID:19580648

Rush, Catherine; Nyara, Moses; Moxon, Joseph V; Trollope, Alexandra; Cullen, Bradford; Golledge, Jonathan

2009-01-01

245

Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This study shows that morphometric analysis of the basins in regional level are very important to understand general morphological characteristics of the basins. In this case, tectonic and lithological conditions of the basins have greatly affected the morphometric characteristics of the north and south basins of the Marmara Sea. References Abrahams, AD. 1984. Channel Networks: A Geomorphological Perspective. Water Resources Research, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 161-188. Horton, R.E. 1932. Drainage basin characteristics. Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361. Keller, E.A., Pinter, N. 2002. Active Tectonics Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Ozdemir H., Bird D. 2009. Evaluation of morphometric parameters of drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in point of floods, Environmental Geology, vol.56, pp.1405-1415. Schumm, S.A. 1956. Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geol Soc Am Bull 67:597-646. Strahler, A.N. 1957. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage and channel networks. In: Chow YT (ed) Handbook of appliecl hydrology. Me Graw Hill Book Company, New York. Verstappen, H.Th. 1983. Applied geomorphology. ITC, Enschede.

Elba??, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

2014-05-01

246

Blood flow measurements in the aorta and major arteries with MR velocity mapping.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to measure antegrade and retrograde flow in the aorta and the major arterial pathways in the body noninvasively with cine magnetic resonance (MR) velocity mapping, to determine the hemodynamic significance of retrograde flow in arteries. Two hundred forty cine velocity maps for blood flow measurements were obtained at 29 sites in the aorta and the major arteries in 31 healthy human subjects of varying age at rest. Synchronous or isolated antegrade and retrograde flow was found in the entire aorta and in arteries supplying muscles. No retrograde flow was found in arteries supplying internal organs, such as the internal carotid or splanchnic arteries. The retrograde flow in the aorta and the extremity arteries contributes substantially to supplying diastolic perfusion of internal organs such as the heart, brain, and kidneys. Antegrade flow tends to be helical in the thoracic aorta. PMID:8180449

Bogren, H G; Buonocore, M H

1994-01-01

247

Treatment of symptomatic coral reef aorta with an uncovered stent graft.  

PubMed

Coral reef aorta is a rare condition characterised by extreme calcific growths affecting the juxta and suprarenal aorta. It can cause symptoms due to visceral ischaemia, lower limb hypoperfusion, and distal embolisation. We present a case of a 61-year-old man with unresponsive hypertension, who was found to have an occluded right renal artery, and an extensive coral reef aorta with a marked pressure gradient across the lesion. Renal hypoperfusion secondary to aortic coral reef aorta was thought to be the cause for his hypertension. Endovascular placement of a balloon expandable uncovered stent resolved his hypertension within one month, with no adverse effects noted at subsequent follow-up. Endovascular treatment of coral reef aorta is technically possible and avoids a major vascular procedure. PMID:25394887

Bosanquet, Dc; Wood, A; Williams, Im

2014-11-13

248

Oncocytomas and null cell adenomas of the human pituitary: Morphometric and in vitro functional comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, light microscopic and ultrastructural morphometric features of oncocytomas and null cell adenomas were compared and the morphometric data were correlated with in vitro endocrine activity. All tumours were unassociated with clinical or biochemical evidence of hormone excess and were diagnosed as oncocytomas or null cell adenomas, using histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. In oncocytomas, when compared with

Shozo Yamada; Sylvia L. Asa; Kalman Kovacs

1988-01-01

249

INFLUENCE OF NUTRITIONAL STRESS AND THE AGE OF ADULTS ON THE MORPHOMETRICS OF HONEY BEES  

E-print Network

INFLUENCE OF NUTRITIONAL STRESS AND THE AGE OF ADULTS ON THE MORPHOMETRICS OF HONEY BEES (APIS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705 **Honey Bee Breeding, Genetics of nutritional stress, and the post-emergence age of adult worker honey bees, on the morphometric determinations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

250

Morphometric evaluation of vascularization of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Comparative morphometric evaluation of the quantitative characteristics of vessels in hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia tissue was carried out on preparations stained with hematoxylin and eosin and by immunohistochemical detection of CD34 and CD105. Analysis of histological preparations stained with hematoxylin and eosin allowed the most ample characterization. Immunohistochemical detection of CD34 promoted better visualization of endotheliocytes, but just some sinusoids in the preparations were labeled. Expression of CD105 visualized the active endothelial cells and hence, helped to evaluate neoangiogenesis. PMID:24319765

Shchyogolev, A I; Tumanova, U N; Dubova, E A

2013-12-01

251

VAGAL WITHDRAWAL AND RECURRENT ABDOMINAL PAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common pediatric problem characterized by recurrent bouts of abdominal pain in children with no identifiable etiology. RAP affects 10 to 15% of the children in elementary school, increasing to nearly 20% in middle and high school. The symptoms are severe enough to cause disruption of daily activities and are associated with learning difficulties, perhaps

Elizabeth Bigham

252

Abdominal Situs inversus in a sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractMadam:— Transposition of thoracic and\\/or abdominal viscera is recognised in humans, rats, mice, hamsters, dogs, amphibians and fish, but does not appear to have been previously described in sheep. We report the finding of an apparently complete transposition of abdominal viscera in a nine-month-old castrated male lamb slaughtered at the Tomoana Freezing Works, Hastings

C. Larsen; E. J. Kirk

1987-01-01

253

21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225 Section...Devices § 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device...

2010-04-01

254

Abdominal Pain following Gastric Bypass: Suspects & Solutions  

PubMed Central

Introduction Gastric bypass remains the mainstay of surgical therapy for obesity. Abdominal pain after gastric bypass is common, and accounts for up to half of all postoperative complaints and emergency room visits. This manuscript reviews the most important causes of abdominal pain specific to gastric bypass and discusses management considerations. Data Sources The current surgical literature was reviewed using PubMed, with a focus on abdominal pain after gastric bypass and the known pathologies that underlie its pathogenesis. Conclusions The differential diagnosis for abdominal pain after gastric bypass is large and includes benign and life-threatening entities. Its diverse causes require a broad evaluation that should be directed by history and clinical presentation. In the absence of a clear diagnosis, the threshold for surgical exploration in patients with abdominal pain after gastric bypass should be low. PMID:21333269

Greenstein, Alexander J.; O’Rourke, Robert W.

2010-01-01

255

Pulmonary complications of abdominal wall defects.  

PubMed

The abdominal wall is an integral component of the chest wall. Defects in the ventral abdominal wall alter respiratory mechanics and can impair diaphragm function. Congenital abdominal wall defects also are associated with abnormalities in lung growth and development that lead to pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and alterations in thoracic cage formation. Although infants with ventral abdominal wall defects can experience life-threatening pulmonary complications, older children typically experience a more benign respiratory course. Studies of lung and chest wall function in older children and adolescents with congenital abdominal wall defects are few; such investigations could provide strategies for improved respiratory performance, avoidance of respiratory morbidity, and enhanced exercise ability for these children. PMID:25458796

Panitch, Howard B

2015-01-01

256

Decreased vascular smooth muscle cell density in medial degeneration of human abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by structural deterioration of the aortic wall leading to progressive aortic dilatation and eventual rupture. The histopathological changes in AAAs are particularly evident within the elastic media, which is normally dominated by vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). To determine whether a decrease in vascular SMCs contributes to medial degeneration, we measured SMC density in 21 normal and pathological human abdominal aortic tissue specimens using immunohistochemistry for alpha-SMC actin and direct cell counts (medial SMCs per high-power field (HPF)). Medial SMC density was not significantly different between normal aorta (n = 5; 199.5 +/- 14.9 SMCs/HPF) and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (n = 6; 176.4 +/- 13.9 SMCs/HPF), but it was reduced by 74% in AAA (n = 10; 50.9 +/- 6.1 SMCs/HPF; P < 0.01 versus normal aorta). Light and electron microscopy revealed no evidence of overt cellular necrosis, but SMCs in AAAs exhibited ultrastructural changes consistent with apoptosis. Using in situ end-labeling (ISEL) of fragmented DNA to detect apoptotic cells, up to 30% of aortic wall cells were ISEL positive in AAAs. By double-labeling techniques, many of these cells were alpha-actin-positive SMCs distributed throughout the degenerative media. In contrast, ISEL-positive cells were observed only within the intimal plaque in atherosclerotic occlusive disease. The amount of p53 protein detected by immunoblotting was increased nearly fourfold in AAA compared with normal aorta and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (P < 0.01), and immunoreactive p53 was localized to lymphocytes and residual SMCs in the aneurysm wall. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays a substantial amount of p53 mRNA expression was observed in AAAs. These results demonstrate that medial SMC density is significantly decreased in human AAA tissues associated with evidence of SMC apoptosis and increased production of p53, a potential mediator of cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death. Given the role that SMCs normally play in maintaining medial architecture and in arterial wall matrix remodeling, the induction of SMC apoptosis likely makes an important contribution to the evolution of aneurysm degeneration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9060837

López-Candales, A.; Holmes, D. R.; Liao, S.; Scott, M. J.; Wickline, S. A.; Thompson, R. W.

1997-01-01

257

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Sepulveda, Antonia; Yu, Hongbo

2009-03-18

258

Mapping the Longitudinal Wall Stiffness Heterogeneities within Intact Canine Aortas using Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) Ex Vivo  

PubMed Central

The aortic stiffness has been found to be a useful independent indicator of several cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and aneurysms. Existing methods to estimate the aortic stiffness are either invasive, e.g. catheterization, or yield average global measurements which could be inaccurate, e.g., tonometry. Alternatively, the aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) has been shown to be a reliable marker for estimating the wall stiffness based on the Moens–Korteweg (M–K) formulation. Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) is a relatively new, ultrasound-based imaging method for noninvasive and regional estimation of PWV. The present study aims at showing the application of PWI in obtaining localized wall mechanical properties by making PWV measurements on several adjacent locations along the ascending thoracic to the suprarenal abdominal aortic trunk in its intact vessel form. The PWV estimates were used to calculate the regional wall modulus based on the M-K relationship and were compared against conventional mechanical testing. The findings indicated that for the anisotropic aortic wall, the PWI estimates of the modulus are smaller than the circumferential modulus by an average of ?32.22% and larger than the longitudinal modulus by an average of 25.83%. Ongoing work is focused on the in vivo applications of PWI in normal and pathological aortas with future implications in the clinical applications of the technique. PMID:23764176

Shahmirzadi, Danial; Narayanan, Prathyush; Li, Ronny X.; Qaqish, William W.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

2014-01-01

259

Lymphotoxin ? receptor signaling promotes tertiary lymphoid organogenesis in the aorta adventitia of aged ApoE?/? mice  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis involves a macrophage-rich inflammation in the aortic intima. It is increasingly recognized that this intimal inflammation is paralleled over time by a distinct inflammatory reaction in adjacent adventitia. Though cross talk between the coordinated inflammatory foci in the intima and the adventitia seems implicit, the mechanism(s) underlying their communication is unclear. Here, using detailed imaging analysis, microarray analyses, laser-capture microdissection, adoptive lymphocyte transfers, and functional blocking studies, we undertook to identify this mechanism. We show that in aged apoE?/? mice, medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) beneath intimal plaques in abdominal aortae become activated through lymphotoxin ? receptor (LT?R) to express the lymphorganogenic chemokines CXCL13 and CCL21. These signals in turn trigger the development of elaborate bona fide adventitial aortic tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs) containing functional conduit meshworks, germinal centers within B cell follicles, clusters of plasma cells, high endothelial venules (HEVs) in T cell areas, and a high proportion of T regulatory cells. Treatment of apoE?/? mice with LT?R-Ig to interrupt LT?R signaling in SMCs strongly reduced HEV abundance, CXCL13, and CCL21 expression, and disrupted the structure and maintenance of ATLOs. Thus, the LT?R pathway has a major role in shaping the immunological characteristics and overall integrity of the arterial wall. PMID:19139167

Gräbner, Rolf; Lötzer, Katharina; Döpping, Sandra; Hildner, Markus; Radke, Dörte; Beer, Michael; Spanbroek, Rainer; Lippert, Beatrix; Reardon, Catherine A.; Getz, Godfrey S.; Fu, Yang-Xin; Hehlgans, Thomas; Mebius, Reina E.; van der Wall, Michael; Kruspe, Dagmar; Englert, Christoph; Lovas, Agnes; Hu, Desheng; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Weih, Falk; Habenicht, Andreas J.R.

2009-01-01

260

Morphometric Approach to Pulp Fibroblast Development in Tooth Germ  

PubMed Central

This paper builds a morphometric framework for the analysis of dental pulp fibroblast evolution during tooth development. We investigated 15 tooth germs (cases) organized, by histological criteria, in three groups corresponding to cap, early bell, and late bell stages, respectively. Each group comprised five cases. The morphometric description used the following parameters: area (A), perimeter (P)—automatically extracted by a color segmentation technique, and form factor (FF)—calculated as 4?A/P2. The designed framework operated at inter- and intragroup levels. The intergroup analysis quantified the differences between groups, in the sense of a relative distance (RD) adequately defined by mean-value scaling. We showed that the stage of early bell is approximately 5 times closer to late bell than to cap. The quantification procedure required concomitant information about A, P parameters (as P versus A dependences, or FF values), whereas the procedure failed for A or P separately used. The intragroup analysis quantified the similarity of the cases belonging to the same stage. We proved that, unlike the intergroup tests, the individual exploitation of all three descriptors A, P, and FF is effective, yielding highly compatible results. Within any group, most cases presented RDs less than 10% from the group mean value, regardless of the descriptor type. PMID:25057501

C?runtu, Irina-Draga; S?vinescu, Sergiu Daniel; Am?linei, Cornelia

2014-01-01

261

Morphometric categorization of the human oocyte and early conceptus.  

PubMed

Morphometrical procedures were used to quantitatively evaluate human oocytes and embryos in an IVF programme. The metaphase II oocyte was an irregular 3.5 x 10(6) microns 3 sphere of 1.05 coefficient of form. The ooplasmic volume of 1.4 x 10(6) microns 3 was reduced by 10% by fertilization. The zona pellucida behaved as a stable and almost spherical envelope of 1.8 x 10(6) microns 3 volume and 17 microns thickness. Through the first three cleavages, mean blastomere reduces 28.5% volume per division, evolving from an irregular spherical shape with 0.9 coefficient of form to an ellipsoid (0.8) at the 8-cell stage. The coefficient of diversity between sister blastomeres progressively moved from 1.4 to 1.6 during the first two (2n) cleavages. The coefficient of diversity also increased at 3-cell (2.2) and 6-cell (2.6) asynchronous divisions. Morphologically abnormal embryos showed some morphometrical differences. Embryos which successfully implanted and progressed to birth showed a higher coefficient of diversity between sister blastomeres. PMID:2394794

Goyanes, V J; Ron-Corzo, A; Costas, E; Maneiro, E

1990-07-01

262

Morphometric and molecular differentiation of Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) sandflies.  

PubMed

The closely related sandfly species of the subgenus Phlebotomus namely, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli, 1786), Phlebotomus duboscqi Neveu-Lemair, 1906 and Phlebotomus bergeroti Parrot, 1934 (Diptera: Psychodidae), are major vectors of Leishmania major (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Old World. Although allopatric in most of their distribution, the three species exist sympatrically in many places in central and eastern Sudan. Males of the three species can be distinguished using morphological characters; however, females are much harder to identify, thus complicating epidemiological studies. We carried out a morphometric and a molecular study to determine reliable morphological features and develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for distinguishing females of these species. Males and females from each species were collected from sites in Sudan, East Africa and from one site in Mali, West Africa. Males were analysed morphologically and 20 characters and 10 character ratios were used in a stepwise discriminant analysis. This led to the identification of four characters with high discriminant loading scores sufficient for accurate male species identification. Male DNA was then used for the development of a PCR-based species diagnostic based on the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA. A set of four primers was developed to generate fragment sizes that are specific to each species and can reliably identify females as well as hybrid DNA. Both the morphometric and the molecular findings of this study have important applications for studies of the epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:20633225

Khalid, N; Elnaiem, D; Aboud, M; Al Rabba, F; Tripet, F

2010-12-01

263

DERMAL VASCULATURE IN PSORIASIS AND PSORIASIFORM DERMATITIS: A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY  

PubMed Central

Background: Vascular proliferation in the papillary dermis is considered to be an important and probably an early feature of psoriasis. Few morphometric studies have attempted to analyze the vascular changes. However, no study was found in the available literature comparing vascular changes between psoriasis and psoriasiform dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Skin biopsies from 25 cases each of psoriasis and psoriasiform lesions were immunohistochemically stained for CD34 (endothelial marker). Microvessel density (MVD), microvessel length density and ratio of microvessel area to papillary dermal area were calculated using image analysis software. Results: Skin biopsies from psoriasis showed higher staining for CD34 on light microscopy. Using morphometric techniques, microvessel length density was significantly higher in psoriasis compared to psoriasiform lesions (P value <0.05). MVD was also higher in psoriasis, though the difference was not significant. The ratio of microvessel area to dermal area was almost similar in both the groups. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vascular tortuousity and dilatation is significant only in psoriatic lesions. These results may assist in automated diagnosis of skin biopsies. PMID:22345762

Gupta, Shilpa; Kaur, Mandeep; Gupta, Ruchika; Singh, Sompal; Pant, Leela; Singh, P P

2011-01-01

264

Morphometric characterisation of 52 B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.  

PubMed Central

Fifty-two B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, in which the diagnosis was based on immunological, cytochemical, and ultrastructural studies, were characterised by morphometry on plastic-embedded tissue sections. Parameters studied were: nuclear size, cytoplasmic area, cytoplasm to nucleus ratio, nuclear contour index, nucleolar size, location of nucleoli within the nucleus, as expressed by relative nucleolar eccentricity, and the mean number of nucleoli per nuclear cross-section. The results of the measurements and subsequent statistical analysis show that the different types of lymphoma can be distinguished from each other, even though the differences were small. Small cell lymphomas (chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, lymphoplasmacytoid and polymorphic immunocytoma, centrocytic, centroblastic/centrocytic and intermediate lymphocytic lymphomas) could be separated from each other by the standard error of mean (SEM) of nuclear area, the cytoplasm to nucleus ratio, and nuclear contour index. Large cell lymphomas (centroblastic and B immunoblastic lymphomas) could be differentiated with cytoplasm to nucleus ratio and nucleolar parameters (relative nucleolar eccentricity and number of nucleoli per nuclear cross-section). The morphometric parameters of lymphoblastic lymphomas fell in the range of the large cell lymphomas, but lower SEM indicate these lymphomas were more monomorphic. These morphometric data underline the concept of the Kiel classification and establish the usefulness of morphometry as an additional technique in diagnosis. PMID:6600749

van der Valk, P; Mosch, A; Kurver, P J; Meijer, C J

1983-01-01

265

Dactylogyrus species parasitizing European Barbus species: morphometric and molecular variability.  

PubMed

The aims of the study were (1) to describe the Dactylogyrus communities living on selected South European Barbus species, (2) to analyse morphometric variability of their attachment and reproductive organs, and (3) to perform molecular phylogenetic analyses, in order to investigate the mode of speciation in Dactylogyrus species parasitizing congeneric hosts. In Bulgaria, Dactylogyrus crivellius, D. dyki and D. petenyi were found on B. balcanicus, and D. dyki on B. cyclolepis. In Spain, Dactylogyrus carpathicus and D. dyki were detected on B. meridionalis. Morphometric analyses of D. dyki revealed significant differences in the attachment and reproductive organs when individuals from different Barbus species were compared. Two monophyletic groups were recognized from the molecular phylogenetic analyses: the first included D. carpathicus and D. crivellius which have large body size and anchors, with a weakly supported basal position of D. malleus from B. barbus; the second included D. dyki and D. petenyi which have small body and anchor sizes. The comparison of host and parasite phylogenies did not indicate the intrahost speciation. Intraspecific molecular variability was found between individuals of D. dyki and D. carpathicus from different Barbus species, suggesting the need for a taxonomic revision for these species. PMID:17662164

Simková, A; Pecínková, M; Rehulková, E; Vyskocilová, M; Ondracková, M

2007-11-01

266

Current evidence for thoracic aorta type B dissection management.  

PubMed

Aortic dissection is a devastating cardiovascular condition and represents the most common aortic emergency. Outcome is determined by the type and extent of dissection and the presence of associated complications requiring early diagnosis and treatment. Aortic dissection is defined as acute within 14 days from onset and chronic after that time period. The natural course of type B dissection is determined by 2 elements, early and chronic complications. An uncomplicated acute type B dissection is less frequently lethal but it is not totally benign. Some peculiar issues must be taken into account, such as the high probability of complications development in a dissected aorta and the poor long-term prognosis on medical treatment alone. Then, it would be helpful to identify which patients with uncomplicated type B dissection will have a poorest aortic prognosis over time in order to apply an early intervention. PMID:24043474

Capoccia, Laura; Riambau, Vicente

2014-12-01

267

Reproducibility of aortic pulsatility measurements from ECG-gated abdominal CTA in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: ECG-gated abdominal CT angiography with reconstruction of multiple, temporally overlapping CT angiography datasets has been proposed for measuring aortic pulsatility. The purpose of this work is to develop algorithms to segment the aorta from surrounding structures from CTA datasets across cardiac phases, calculate registered centerlines and measurements of regional aortic pulsatility in patients with AAA, and to assess the reproducibility of these measurements. Methods: ECG-gated CTA was performed with a temporal resolution of 165 ms, reconstructed to 1 mm slices ranging at 14 cardiac phase points. Data sets were obtained from 17 patients on which two such scans were performed 6 to 12 months apart. Automated segmentation, centerline generation, and registration of centerlines between phases was performed, followed by calculation of cross-sectional areas and regional and local pulsatility. Results: Pulsatility calculations for the supraceliac region were very reproducible between earlier and later scans of the same patient, with average differences less than 1% for pulsatility values ranging from 2% to 13%. Local radial pulsatilities were also reproducible to within ~1%. Aneurysm volume changes between scans can also be quantified. Conclusion: Automated segmentation, centerline generation, and registration of temporally resolved CTA datasets permit measurements of regional changes in cross-sectional area over the course of the cardiac cycle (i.e., regional aortic pulsatility). These measurements are reproducible between scans 6-12 months apart, with differences in aortic areas reflecting both aneurysm remodeling and changes in blood pressure. Regional pulsatilities ranged from 2 to 13% but were reproducible at the 1% level.

Manduca, Armando; Fletcher, Joel G.; Wentz, Robert J.; Shields, Raymond C.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Siddiki, Hassan; Nielson, Theresa

2009-02-01

268

Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.  

PubMed

Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption. PMID:25541927

Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa

2014-11-01

269

Asymptomatic mycotic aneurysm of ascending aorta after heart transplantation: a case report.  

PubMed

Mycotic pseudoaneurysm and aneurysm of the ascending aorta is a very rare and potentially fatal complication of heart transplantation. It usually presents with fever, chest pain, dyspnea, or constitutional symptoms. Most reports in the literature are about mycotic pseudoaneurysm, but mycotic aneurysm is rarer. Herein we report a 39-year-old man in who had an asymptomatic mycotic aneurysm of the ascending aorta developed late (1 year) after orthotopic heart transplantation. There was no history of previous mediastinitis or any other important infection. He underwent an uneventful replacement of the ascending aorta. PMID:25645806

Behzadnia, N; Ahmadi, Z H; Mandegar, M H; Salehi, F; Sharif-Kashani, B; Pourabdollah, M; Ansari-Aval, Z; Kianfar, A-A; Mirhosseini, S M; Eiji, M

2015-01-01

270

Update on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Research: From Clinical to Genetic Studies  

PubMed Central

An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilatation of the abdominal aorta with a diameter of at least 3.0?cm. AAAs are often asymptomatic and are discovered as incidental findings in imaging studies or when the AAA ruptures leading to a medical emergency. AAAs are more common in males than females, in individuals of European ancestry, and in those over 65 years of age. Smoking is the most important environmental risk factor. In addition, a positive family history of AAA increases the person's risk for AAA. Interestingly, diabetes has been shown to be a protective factor for AAA in many large studies. Hallmarks of AAA pathogenesis include inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, extracellular matrix degradation, and oxidative stress. Autoimmunity may also play a role in AAA development and progression. In this Outlook paper, we summarize our recent studies on AAA including clinical studies related to surgical repair of AAA and genetic risk factor and large-scale gene expression studies. We conclude with a discussion on our research projects using large data sets available through electronic medical records and biobanks. PMID:24834361

Kuivaniemi, Helena; Ryer, Evan J.; Elmore, James R.; Hinterseher, Irene; Smelser, Diane T.; Tromp, Gerard

2014-01-01

271

The Benefits of Internal Thoracic Artery Catheterization in Patients With Chronic Abdominal Aortic Occlusion  

SciTech Connect

Occlusion of the abdominal aorta may be caused by an embolic lesion, but more commonly by thrombotic disease at the aortoiliac area, progressing retrograde. However, the visualization of the distal run-off via internal thoracic-epigastric inferior artery collateral channel may be a very important diagnostic tool, especially in countries with poor technical equipment. This study was designed to show the benefit of the selective internal thoracic angiography in cases with complete aortic occlusion. We present 30 patients with chronic aortic abdominal occlusion who were submitted to the transaxillary aortography and selective ITA angiography with purpose of distal run off evaluation. Angiographic evaluation was performed by two independent radiologists according to previously defined classification. Good angiographic score via internal thoracic angiography by first observer was achieved in 19 (63.3%) patients and in 18 (60%) by a second observer. Transaxillary aortography showed inferior results: good angiographic score by the first observer in six (20%) patients and by the second observer in three (3%) patients. Low extremity run-off is better visualized during internal thoracic angiography than during transaxillary aortography.

Ilic, Nikola, E-mail: fosafosa75@yahoo.com; Davidovic, Lazar; Koncar, Igor; Dragas, Marko; Markovic, Miroslav; Colic, Momcilo; Cinara, Ilijas [Clinical Center Serbia, Clinic of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Serbia)

2011-04-15

272

Surgical Treatment of Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Outcome and Predictors Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study is to report our experience on the postoperative outcome of surgical treatment of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA). Materials and Methods: Between 1997-2014, 35 patients with IAAA underwent surgery. The mean age was 63+/-18years. Chronic renal failure was identified in 11(31.4%)patients and confirmed ischemic heart disease in 15(43%)patients. The mean aortic aneurysm diameter was 68+/-25mm. The abdominal aorta was clamped above the renal arteries in 6 (17%) patients. Results: The hospital mortality was 5.7% (2 patients). Three patients developed an aortic pseudoaneurysm and underwent a redo operation. Another patient developed a femoral anastomotic pseudoaneurysm 7 years after operation and he was treated surgically. The actuarial free-reoperation actuarial survival at 1, 5 and 7 years was 94%, 62% and 50% respectively. The Cox model revealed the delta ESR (p=0.002), ischemic heart disease (p=0.006) and renal failure (p=0.036) as strong predictors for poor overall outcome. Conclusion: Early postoperative outcome in terms of mortality and morbidity seems acceptable, however patients with IAAA have an increased risk for reoperation due to pseudonaneurysm formation. Strong predictors for poor overall outcome seems to be the elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ischemic heart disease and chronic renal failure. PMID:25568545

Nuellari, Edmond; Prifti, Edvin; Esposito, Giampiero; Kapedani, Edmond

2014-01-01

273

Chronic Contained Rupture of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: From Diagnosis to Endovascular Resolution  

SciTech Connect

A male patient, 69 years old, presented with fever, leucocytosis, and persistent low back pain; he also had an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), as previously diagnosed by Doppler UltraSound (US), and was admitted to our hospital. On multislice computed tomography (msCT), a large abdominal mass having no definite border and involving the aorta and both of the psoas muscles was seen. This mass involved the forth-lumbar vertebra with lysis, thus simulating AAA rupture into a paraspinal collection; it was initially considered a paraspinal abscess. After magnetic resonance imaging examination and culture of the fluid aspirated from the mass, no infective organisms were found; therefore, a diagnosisof chronically contained AAA rupture was made, and an aortic endoprosthesis was subsequently implanted. The patient was discharged with decreased lumbar pain. At 12-month follow-up, no evidence of leakage was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of endoprosthesis implantation in a patient, who was a poor candidate for surgical intervention due to renal failure, leucocytosis and high fever, having a chronically contained AAA ruptured simulatingspodilodiscitis abscess. Appropriate diagnosis and therapy resolved potentially crippling pathology and avoided surgical graft-related complications.

Gandini, Roberto, E-mail: marcello.chiocchi@fastwebnet.it; Chiocchi, Marcello; Maresca, Luciano; Pipitone, Vincenzo; Messina, Massimo; Simonetti, Giovanni [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy (Italy)

2008-07-15

274

Traumatic mesenteric cyst after blunt abdominal trauma  

PubMed Central

Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal tumors of unclear histologic origin, usually asymptomatic. Post-traumatic mesenteric cyst usually results as a consequence of a mesenteric lymphangitic rupture or a hematoma followed by absorption and cystic degeneration. The preoperative histological and radiological diagnosis is difficult. We present the case of a 45-year-old male patient with sizable, palpable abdominal tumor, the gradual swelling of which the patient himself combined with the blunt abdominal trauma he acquired from an opponent's knee in a football game 5 months ago. PMID:22096714

Falidas, Evangelos; Mathioulakis, Stavros; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Pavlakis, Emmanouil; Anyfantakis, Georgios; Villias, Constantinos

2011-01-01

275

The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1993-01-01

276

Coarctation of the aorta in adults: what is the best treatment? Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital cardiac malformation that can go undiagnosed until old age with only hypertension as a marker of its presence because clinical signs can be subtle and overlooked if a complete physical exam is not performed. We report the case of a 45 year–old women, diagnosed with severe coarctation of the aorta just distal to the left subclavian artery, with poststenotic dilatation of the descending aorta and difficult control of blood pressure values. The patient was successfully treated interventionally, by balloon angioplasty with deployment of a covered stent. We review here the different methods employed for the treatment of coarctation of the aorta in adults, including surgical or percutaneous balloon angioplasty with or without stent placement, underlying their complications and the factors that influence the choice of the best coarctation repair method. PMID:21776305

Daraban, AM; Lorber, A; Deleanu, D; Amzulescu, MS; Zara, C; Popescu, BA; Ginghina, C

2011-01-01

277

Genetics Home Reference: Abdominal wall defect  

MedlinePLUS

... and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding abdominal wall defect? acids ; atresia ; ... sporadic ; stomach ; syndrome ; tissue ; trisomy You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the ...

278

Primary abdominal ectopic pregnancy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction We present a case of a 13-week abdominal pregnancy evaluated with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Case presentation A 34-year-old woman, (gravida 2, para 1) suffering from lower abdominal pain and slight vaginal bleeding was transferred to our hospital. A transabdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were performed. The diagnosis of primary abdominal pregnancy was confirmed according to Studdiford’s criteria. A laparatomy was carried out. The placenta was attached to the mesentery of sigmoid colon and to the left abdominal sidewall. The placenta was dissected away completely and safely. No postoperative complications were observed. Conclusion Ultrasound examination is the usual diagnostic procedure of choice. In addition magnetic resonance imaging can be useful to show the localization of the placenta preoperatively. PMID:19918376

Kolusari, Ali; Adali, Fulya; Adali, Ertan; Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Ozgokce, Cagdas; Cim, Numan

2009-01-01

279

Outline-based morphometrics, an overlooked method in arthropod studies?  

PubMed

Modern methods allow a geometric representation of forms, separating size and shape. In entomology, as well as in many other fields involving arthropod studies, shape variation has proved useful for species identification and population characterization. In medical entomology, it has been applied to very specific questions such as population structure, reinfestation of insecticide-treated areas and cryptic species recognition. For shape comparisons, great importance is given to the quality of landmarks in terms of comparability. Two conceptually and statistically separate approaches are: (i) landmark-based morphometrics, based on the relative position of a few anatomical "true" or "traditional" landmarks, and (ii) outline-based morphometrics, which captures the contour of forms through a sequence of close "pseudo-landmarks". Most of the studies on insects of medical, veterinary or economic importance make use of the landmark approach. The present survey makes a case for the outline method, here based on elliptic Fourier analysis. The collection of pseudo-landmarks may require the manual digitization of many points and, for this reason, might appear less attractive. It, however, has the ability to compare homologous organs or structures having no landmarks at all. This strength offers the possibility to study a wider range of anatomical structures and thus, a larger range of arthropods. We present a few examples highlighting its interest for separating close or cryptic species, or characterizing conspecific geographic populations, in a series of different vector organisms. In this simple application, i.e. the recognition of close or cryptic forms, the outline approach provided similar scores as those obtained by the landmark-based approach. PMID:25111609

Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kaba, D; Solano, P; Dupraz, M; McCoy, K D; Jaramillo-O, N

2014-12-01

280

Ancestry estimation in South Africa using craniometrics and geometric morphometrics.  

PubMed

Population history and positive assortative mating directs gene flow in such a way that biological differences are recognized among groups. In turn, forensic anthropologists quantify biological differences to estimate ancestry. Some anthropologists argue that highly admixed population groups, such as South African coloureds, cannot achieve acceptable accuracies because within group variance is too large. Whereas ancestry estimation in South Africa has been limited to craniometric data from South African blacks and whites, the current study integrates craniometric and geometric morphometric data from the three largest South African groups. Crania from 377 South African individuals (black=158, white=112, and coloured=107) comprised the sample. Standard measurements were collected and the coordinate data were subjected to Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA), which resulted in size-free shape variables (ProCoords). A principal component analysis was used to combine the shape variation captured in the ProCoords (ProCoords PC). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), using equal priors, stepwise variable selection and leave-one-out cross-validation, was conducted on the ProCoords, the ProCoords PCs, and the traditional craniometric data. The LDA using 18 stepwise selected ProCoords resulted in the highest cross-validated accuracy (89%). Utilization of geometric morphometric data emphasized that the relative location of cranial landmarks was more discriminating than simple linear distances. Regardless of high levels of genetic admixture, South African coloureds are a homogeneous group and morphologically distinct from other contemporaneous South African populations. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated a correspondence between peer-reported race and morphological differences in the crania of black, white, and coloured South Africans. PMID:25459274

Stull, Kyra E; Kenyhercz, Michael W; L'Abbé, Ericka N

2014-10-16

281

Giant Subcutaneous Leiomyosarcoma of Anterior Abdominal Wall  

PubMed Central

Subcutaneous leiomyosarcomas are rare tumors accounting for 1% to 2% of all superficial soft tissue malignancies. Although they may arise anywhere in the body, they most frequently occur in the lower extremities. The incidence of subcutaneous LMS affecting the anterior abdominal wall is very rare. We herein report the case of a patient with a giant subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in the anterior abdominal wall. It was diagnosed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry and treated accordingly. PMID:25506027

2014-01-01

282

Abdominal Pathology in Patients With Diabetes Ketoacidosis.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: The objective is to describe the incidence and nature of significant abdominal pathologies in patients with diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) and abdominal pain. METHODS: Retrospective chart review (N = 86) of patients with DKA from January 1, 2005, to January 31, 2010, was performed. Data included demographics, comorbidities, compliance, chief complaints and physical findings, blood count, metabolic profile, lactic acid, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), amylase, lipase, anion gap, arterial gases, imaging and final diagnosis. Continuous variables were described as mean ± standard deviation and compared with the Student's t test. Categorical variables were expressed as percentages (%) and compared with the Mantel-Haenszel ? test. Univariate analysis was conducted among patients with and without significant abdominal pain and also with and without significant abdominal pathology. Two lipase strata were created at 400 U. Multivariate model to identify limits (confidence interval) of the estimated risk imposed by the predictor found significant in univariate analysis. A P value of ?0.05 was considered significant. Stat View 5.0 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In patients with abdominal pain, 17% had significant abdominal pathology mainly acute pancreatitis (AP). Serum amylase and lipase level were found to be an indicator of significant underlying pathology (both P values ?0.001). The logistic model created showed that patients with lipase level ?400 U have a 7% increased risk of having AP with confidence interval of 0.01 to 0.6. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DKA and abdominal pain with lipase >400 U have an increased risk of significant underlying abdominal pathology (AP). PMID:22270401

Pant, Nicole; Kadaria, Dipen; Murillo, Luis C; Yataco, Jose C; Headley, Arthur S; Freire, Amado X

2012-01-20

283

Computed tomography-guided preoperative localization of abdominal wall endometrioma.  

PubMed

A multiparous obese patient with prior abdominal surgeries complained of cyclic abdominal pain located near the surgical scar. A 1 cm lesion was identified on imaging. Computed tomography-guided needle localization was performed immediately before surgery. This allowed for complete excision of the abdominal wall endometrioma and resolution of the cyclic, focal abdominal pain. PMID:25218124

Moulder, Janelle K; Hobbs, Kumari A; Stavas, Joseph; Siedhoff, Matthew T

2015-02-01

284

Impaired Collagen Biosynthesis and Cross?linking in Aorta of Patients With Bicuspid Aortic Valve  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) have an increased risk of developing ascending aortic aneurysm. In the present study, collagen homeostasis in nondilated and dilated aorta segments from patients with BAV was studied, with normal and dilated aortas from tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) patients as reference. Methods and Results Ascending aortas from 56 patients were used for biochemical and morphological analyses of collagen. mRNA expression was analyzed in 109 patients. Collagen turnover rates were similar in nondilated and dilated aortas of BAV patients, showing that aneurysmal formation in BAV is, in contrast to TAV, not associated with an increased collagen turnover. However, BAV in general was associated with an increased aortic collagen turnover compared with nondilated aortas of TAV patients. Importantly, the ratio of hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) to lysyl pyridinoline (LP), 2 distinct forms of collagen cross?linking, was lower in dilated aortas from patients with BAV, which suggests that BAV is associated with a defect in the posttranslational collagen modification. This suggests a deficiency at the level of lysyl hydroxylase (PLOD1), which was confirmed by mRNA and protein analyses that showed reduced PLOD1 expression but normal lysyl oxidase expression in dilated aortas from patients with BAV. This suggests that impaired collagen cross?linking in BAV patients may be attributed to changes in the expression and/or activity of PLOD1. Conclusions Our results demonstrate an impaired biosynthesis and posttranslational modification of collagen in aortas of patients with BAV, which may explain the increased aortic aneurysm formation in BAV patients. PMID:23525417

Wågsäter, Dick; Paloschi, Valentina; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Hultenby, Kjell; Bank, Ruud A.; Franco?Cereceda, Anders; Lindeman, Jan H. N.; Eriksson, Per

2013-01-01

285

Antegrade selective cerebral perfusion in operations on the proximal thoracic aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. To determine the factors that influence hospital death and neurologic complications after surgery on the thoracic aorta using circulatory arrest and antegrade selective cerebral perfusion.Methods. From May 1989 through April 1997, 106 patients underwent surgery on the thoracic aorta using circulatory arrest and antegrade selective cerebral perfusion. Mean age was 64.0 ± 11.5 years. Unilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion was

Karl M Dossche; Marc A. A. M Schepens; Wim J Morshuis; Filip E Muysoms; Johanna J Langemeijer; Freddy E. E Vermeulen

1999-01-01

286

Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator and Its Inhibitor in Rat Aorta Effect of Endotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasminogen activator (PA) and PA inhibitor (PAI) antigen, activity, and mRNA were analyzed in the three layers of rat aorta, and the effect of endotoxin on PA and PAI was studied. All PA activity in aorta was identified as tissue-type PA (TPA) activity; no urokinase-type PA was detected. In the tunica adventitia TPA activity, TPA antigen, and TPA mRNA were

T. Padro; P. H. A. Quax; P. Roholl; J. H. Verheijen; J. J. Emeis

287

Effect of valve orientation on flow development past aortic valve prostheses in a model human aorta.  

PubMed

The effect of valve orientation on flow development in a model human aorta was studied by means of a qualitative flow visualization technique. The model replicated the geometry of the human aorta and the experiment simulated a physiologically realistic pulsatile flow. The following valves were studied: Starr-Edwards Stellite, Starr-Edwards silicone, Björk-Shiley spherical disc, Björk-Shiley convexo-concave disc, and Hall-Kaster tilting disc. All the valves had a tissue anulus diameter of 27 mm. With the ball-in-cage valves, the flow in the ascending aorta was predominantly axial and uniform throughout systole, while vortex formation was observed downstream from the ball. With the tilting disc valves, the flow development in the aorta was a function of the orientation of the valves. With the major flow orifice directed toward the commissure between the right and noncoronary cusps, the fluid motion was predominantly in the axial direction through early systole. A vortex developed along the wall of lesser curvature of the aorta with the progression of systole. In early diastole, a well-defined flow reversal was observed along the lesser curvature of the aorta. With the major flow orifice directed toward the left coronary cusp, the fluid motion, although predominantly axial, was not uniform in the ascending aorta. Regions of relative stasis present near the wall of greater curvature subsequently developed into a trapped vortex throughout the cardiac cycle. With the major flow orifice directed more posteriorly, an improved fluid dynamic characteristic was observed, and there was no trapped vortex present near the wall of greater curvature. The flow visualization study in the model human aorta suggests that, from a fluid dynamic point of view, orientation of the major flow orifice of the tilting disc valve toward the wall of lesser curvature is not advisable. PMID:6855259

Chandran, K B; Khalighi, B; Chen, C J; Falsetti, H L; Yearwood, T L; Hiratzka, L F

1983-06-01

288

Mechanisms and management of functional abdominal pain.  

PubMed

Functional abdominal pain syndrome is characterised by frequent or continuous abdominal pain associated with a degree of loss of daily activity. It has a reported population prevalence of between 0.5% and 1.7%, with a female preponderance. The pathophysiology of functional abdominal pain is incompletely understood although it has been postulated that peripheral sensitisation of visceral afferents, central sensitisation of the spinal dorsal horn and aberrancies within descending modulatory systems may have an important role. The management of patients with functional abdominal pain requires a tailored multidisciplinary approach in a supportive and empathetic environment in order to develop an effective therapeutic relationship. Patient education directed towards an explanation of the pathophysiology of functional abdominal pain is in our opinion a prerequisite step and provides the rationale for the introduction of interventions. Interventions can usefully be categorised into general measures, pharmacotherapy, psychological interventions and 'step-up' treatments. Pharmacotherapeutic/step-up options include tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors and the gabapentinoids. Psychological treatments include cognitive behavioural therapy and hypnotherapy. However, the objective evidence base for these interventions is largely derived from other chronic pain syndrome, and further research is warranted in adult patients with functional abdominal pain. PMID:25193056

Farmer, Adam D; Aziz, Qasim

2014-09-01

289

Fluid Dynamics of Coarctation of the Aorta and Effect of Bicuspid Aortic Valve  

PubMed Central

Up to 80% of patients with coarctation of the aorta (COA) have a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Patients with COA and BAV have elevated risks of aortic complications despite successful surgical repair. The development of such complications involves the interplay between the mechanical forces applied on the artery and the biological processes occurring at the cellular level. The focus of this study is on hemodynamic modifications induced in the aorta in the presence of a COA and a BAV. For this purpose, numerical investigations and magnetic resonance imaging measurements were conducted with different configurations: (1) normal: normal aorta and normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: aorta with COA (75% reduction by area) and normal aortic valve; (3) complex COA: aorta with the same severity of COA (75% reduction by area) and BAV. The results show that the coexistence of COA and BAV significantly alters blood flow in the aorta with a significant increase in the maximal velocity, secondary flow, pressure loss, time-averaged wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index downstream of the COA. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of why patients with complex COA have adverse outcome even following a successful surgery. PMID:24015239

Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Kadem, Lyes

2013-01-01

290

Laparotomy for blunt abdominal trauma in a civilian trauma service.  

PubMed

This report looks at the group of patients who required a laparotomy for blunt torso trauma at a busy metropolitan trauma service in South Africa. Methods. A prospective trauma registry is maintained by the surgical services of the Pietermaritzburg metropolitan complex. This registry is interrogated retrospectively. All patients who required admission for blunt torso trauma over the period September 2006 - September 2007 were included for review. Proformas documenting mechanism of injury, age, vital signs, blood gas, delay in presentation, length of hospital stay, intensive care unit stay and operative details were completed. Results. A total of 926 patients were treated for blunt trauma by the Pietermaritzburg metropolitan services during the period under consideration. A cohort of 65 (8%) required a laparotomy for blunt trauma during this period. There were 17 females in this group. The mechanisms of injury were motor vehicle accident (MVA) (27), pedestrian vehicle accident (PVA) (21), assault (5), fall from a height (3), bicycle accident (6), quad bike accident (1) and tractor-related accident (2). The following isolated injuries were discovered at laparotomy: liver (9), spleen (5), diaphragm (1), duodenum (2), small bowel (8), mesentery (8) bladder (10), gallbladder (1), stomach (2), colon/rectum (2) and retrohepatic vena cava (1). The following combined injuries were discovered: liver and diaphragm (2), spleen and pancreas (1), spleen and liver (2), spleen, aorta and diaphragm (1), spleen and bladder (1) and small bowel and bladder (2). Eighteen patients in the series (26%) required relaparotomy. In 10 patients temporary abdominal containment was needed. The mortality rate was 26% (18 patients). There were 6 deaths from massive bleeding, all within 6 hours of operation, and 3 deaths from renal failure; the remaining 9 patients died of multiple organ failure. There were 8 negative laparotomies (7%). In the negative laparotomy group false-positive computed tomography (CT) scan findings were a problem in 3 cases, in 1 case hypotension and a fractured pelvis on admission prompted laparotomy, and in the other cases clinical findings prompted laparotomy. All patients who underwent negative laparotomy survived. There were 10 pelvic fractures, 5 lower limb fractures, 2 spinal injuries, 4 femur fractures and 2 upper limb fractures. CT scans were done in 25 patients. In 20 patients the systolic blood pressure on presentation was <90 mmHg and in 41 the pulse rate was >110 beats/min. In 16 patients there was a base excess of <-4 on presentation. Conclusion. Laparotomy is needed in less than 10% of patients who sustain blunt abdominal trauma. Solid visceral injury requiring laparotomy presents with haemodynamic instability. Hollow visceral injury has a more insidious presentation and is associated with a delay in diagnosis. CT scan is the most widely used investigation in blunt abdominal trauma. It is both sensitive and specific for solid visceral injury, but its accuracy for the diagnosis of hollow visceral injury is less well defined. Clinical suspicion must be high, and hollow visceral injury needs to be actively excluded. PMID:22622098

Howes, N; Walker, T; Allorto, N L; Oosthuizen, G V; Clarke, D L

2012-05-01

291

Morphometric characteristics of terminal villi of the placenta in pre-eclampsia.  

PubMed

Comparative morphological study of the placentas from women suffering from pre-eclampsia was carried out. Morphometric studies of histological preparations showed shrinkage and low vascularization of the placental terminal villi determining the development of hypoxia. PMID:23330099

Shchyogolev, A I; Dubova, E A; Pavlov, K A; Lyapin, V M; Kulikova, G V; Shmakov, R G

2012-11-01

292

THE INFLUENCE OF FRESHWATER RUNOFF ON BIOMASS, MORPHOMETRICS, AND PRODUCTION OF THALASSIA TESTUDINUM. (R827453)  

EPA Science Inventory

Efforts to restore more natural freshwater flows in South Florida will impact Biscayne Bay. In order to evaluate possible effects of decreased freshwater discharge on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum , we determined the biomass, density, morphometrics (width, length, nu...

293

Genes and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Since first candidate gene studies were published 20 years ago, nearly 100 genetic association studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biologically relevant genes have been reported on AAA. The studies investigated SNPs in genes of the extracellular matrix, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and signaling pathways. Very few studies were large enough to draw firm conclusions and very few results could be replicated in another sample set. The more recent unbiased approaches are family-based DNA linkage studies and genome-wide genetic association studies, which have the potential of identifying the genetic basis for AAA, if appropriately powered and well-characterized large AAA cohorts are used. SNPs associated with AAA have already been identified in these large multicenter studies. One significant association was of a variant in a gene called CNTN3 which is located on chromosome 3p12.3. Two follow-up studies, however, could not replicate the association. Two other SNPs, which are located on chromosome 9p21 and 9q33 were replicated in other samples. The two genes with the strongest supporting evidence of contribution to the genetic risk for AAA are the CDKN2BAS gene, also known as ANRIL, which encodes an antisense RNA that regulates expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival. Functional studies are now needed to establish the mechanisms by which these genes contribute to AAA pathogenesis. PMID:21146954

Hinterseher, Irene; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

2010-01-01

294

Morphometric sex determination of young Ospreys Pandion haliaetus using discriminant analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule Discriminant functions based on morphometric variables provide a reliable method for sex identification of free?living and hacked young Ospreys.Aims To describe an easy, accurate and low?cost method for sex determination of fully grown nestling and fledgling Ospreys Pandion haliaetus based on morphometric measurements.Methods Four different measurements were taken in 114 birds (40–73 days old) and a DNA analysis, using

Roberto Muriel; Eva Casado; Daniel Schmidt; Cecilia P. Calabuig; Miguel Ferrer

2010-01-01

295

Morphometric and allozyme variation in central and southern Greek populations of Microtus (Terricola) thomasi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endemic Balkan vole taxonMicrotus (Terricola) thomasi (Barrett-Hamilton, 1903) exhibits great karyological variability in Greece. In this study, populations belonging to two different\\u000a karyotypic forms (‘atticus’ and ‘thomasi’) are examined both morphometrically and electrophoretically. A total of 140 individuals\\u000a ofM. (T.) thomasi were collected from 6 localities of south and central Greece. For the morphometric analysis, 27 variables (external body

Nandia Tsekoura; Stella Fraguedakis-Tsolis; Basil Chondropoulos; George Markakis

2002-01-01

296

Morphology and morphometrics of hematological cells from eastern sarus crane, Grus antigone sharpii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of the eastern sarus crane (Grus antigone sharpii) has been greatly reduced both in distribution and number, and documents presenting the blood cell characteristics and morphometric\\u000a data of blood cells in this kind of bird are limited. The objective of this study was to examine the morphometric and morphological\\u000a aspects of the blood cells of the eastern sarus

N.-A. Narkkong; Worapol Aengwanich; A. Tanomthong

2011-01-01

297

A three-dimensional comparison of a morphometric and conventional cephalometric midsagittal planes for craniofacial asymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphometric methods are used in biology to study object symmetry in living organisms and to determine the true plane of symmetry.\\u000a The aim of this study was to determine if there are clinical differences between three-dimensional (3D) cephalometric midsagittal\\u000a planes used to describe craniofacial asymmetry and a true symmetry plane derived from a morphometric method based on visible\\u000a facial features.

Janalt Damstra; Zacharias Fourie; Marnix De Wit; Yijin Ren

298

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm diagnosed through non-contrast MRI  

PubMed Central

Rupture of an aneurysm is a rare complication although it is considered a common cause of death. Some of these patients present with the classic triad of symptoms such as abdominal pain, pulsatile abdominal mass and shock. Most symptoms are misleading and will only present as vague abdominal pain. Here we describe one such patient with an unusual presentation of a misleading abdominal mass which was eventually diagnosed as a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm after an emergency MRI. PMID:25003065

Chatra, Priyank S

2013-01-01

299

Replacement of the descending thoracic aorta with intraluminal ring graft.  

PubMed

Renal failure and paraplegia are major complications of operations on the descending thoracic aorta. To minimize cross-clamp time and reduce the incidence of such complications, we have used an intraluminal ring graft to reestablish aortic continuity in patients with descending thoracic aortic lesions. From March 1978 to December 1986, we used this technique alone in 28 patients. There were 4 patients with traumatic aortic disruptions, 4 with dissections, 4 with expanding aneurysms, 2 with ruptured aneurysms, 1 with Marfan's syndrome, and 13 with atherosclerotic aneurysms that were repaired electively. The cross-clamp times ranged from 4 to 28 minutes. There were three early postoperative deaths (within 30 days) and one late postoperative death in the follow-up period (mean, 28.2 months). Ring dislodgement occurred only once, in the first patient in this series. There were no instances of postoperative renal failure or paraplegia. We conclude that the use of an intraluminal ring graft greatly reduces the aortic cross-clamp time and is a safe and effective technique. PMID:2818061

Serra, A J; McNicholas, K W; Spagna, P M; Karmilowicz, N P; Lemole, G M

1989-11-01

300

Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate induces contraction and relaxation in rat aorta  

PubMed Central

Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) has been recently reported as an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor and plasma levels of this dinucleotide are increased in juvenile hypertensive subjects. This study aimed to evaluate the vascular actions of Up4A, typify the putative purinergic receptors that might mediate these effects and characterize the intracellular signaling pathways that may govern Up4A responses. Up4A induced a modest endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat aortic rings contracted with phenylephrine. From baseline, Up4A induced concentration-dependent contractions that were significantly potentiated by endothelium removal or nitric oxide synthase inhibition. The contractile response induced by Up4A was not tachyphylactic and was significantly reduced in the presence of P1 or P2X receptor antagonists, L-type Ca2+ channel blocker and Rho-kinase inhibitor. Up4A-induced contraction apparently involves superoxide anion formation since it was significantly reduced by treatment with apocynin or tempol. This study presents the unique findings that the endogenous compound Up4A is able to induce relaxation in addition to contraction of rat aorta. Up4A-induced contraction is modulated by nitric oxide production, mediated by P1 and P2X receptor activation, and involves L-type Ca2+ channels, Rho-kinase pathway and superoxide formation. PMID:18467183

Linder, A. Elizabeth; Tumbri, Michelle; Linder, Felipe F. P.; Webb, R. Clinton; Leite, Romulo

2008-01-01

301

Somatization symptoms in pediatric abdominal pain patients: Relation to chronicity of abdominal pain and parent somatization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptoms of somatization were investigated in pediatric patients with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) and comparison groups of patients with organic etiology for abdominal pain and well patients. Somatization scores were higher in RAP patients than well patients at the clinic visit, and higher than in either well patients or organic patients at a 3- month followup. Higher somatization scores in

Lynn S. Walker; Judy Garber; John W. Greene

1991-01-01

302

Abdominal adiposity with respect to the proportion of intra-abdominal visceral fat to extra-abdominal fat ( V S ratio) in Japanese childhood obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the influence of intra-abdominal fat accumulation in obese children upon lipids, glucose metabolism, and blood pressure. Intra-abdominal fat accumulation was quantified by the intra-abdominal visceral fat to extra-abdominal fat ratio (VS ratio) using CT scanning. The subjects were simple obese boys (35) and girls (24) aged 10.6 ± 2.1 years. The following

Jin Yamaguchi; Tatsuya Oguni; Kazutaka Konishi; Makoto Mino

1996-01-01

303

Debate: Whether evidence supports reducing the threshold diameter to 5 cm for elective interventions in women with abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed

Current practice guidelines recommend repair of asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms once they reach the 5.5-cm-diameter threshold and are based on information from randomized controlled trials. However, because aneurysms are more common in men, women are under-represented in these trials, and questions persist about whether this repair threshold should apply to them. In addition, women have smaller aortas to begin with and in most aneurysm cohorts are older, have more atherosclerotic risk factors, are less likely to be anatomic candidates for endovascular repair, and do poorer after emergency or elective repair of their aneurysm. These are just some of the issues that our discussants address in determining whether the repair threshold should be at a smaller diameter for women. PMID:25454111

Vavra, Ashley K; Kibbe, Melina R; Bown, Matthew J; Powell, Janet T

2014-12-01

304

Selective inhibition of NADPH oxidase reverses the over contraction of diabetic rat aorta?  

PubMed Central

Abnormal vascular responsiveness in diabetes has been attributed to a number of changes in contractile pathways, affected in part by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been reported that NADPH oxidase (NOX) is increased in diabetic (streptozotocin treated; STZ) rat arteries; however the pharmacological agents used to inhibit NOX activity are known to be unsuitable for in vitro studies and have a high level of non-selectivity. Here we have used the highly selective NOX inhibitor VAS2870 in diabetic rat aorta and compared its effects with apocynin, SOD, and allopurinol on phenylephrine and U46619 induced contraction. Male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with 65 mg/kg STZ and development of diabetes was confirmed by testing blood glucose levels. Rats were killed by CO2 asphyxiation, and the thoracic aorta removed and mounted in an organ bath under a tension of 1 g. Diabetic rat aortas exhibit a greatly increased response to phenylephrine, which was reduced to a level consistent with control rat aorta by 10?5 M VAS2870 and 150 U/ml SOD. Incubation with VAS2870 led to an increase in normal rat aorta contraction, but led to a significant reduction in phenylephrine and U46619 induced tone in diabetic rat aorta, which indicates that ROS in diabetic rats directly contributes to these contractile responses. Apocynin and allopurinol had no effect on contraction in diabetic or normal rat aorta. This data is the first to show that selective inhibition of NOX reduces diabetic arterial contraction in direct comparison with inhibition of other known contributors of ROS. PMID:25460721

Rehman, Atif ur; Dugic, Elma; Benham, Chris; Lione, Lisa; Mackenzie, Louise S.

2013-01-01

305

Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase and transacetylase activities in human aorta and mammary artery*  

PubMed Central

Platelet-activating factor (PAF), the potent phospholipid mediator of inflammation, is involved in atherosclerosis. Platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), the enzyme that inactivates PAF bioactivity, possesses both acetylhydrolase and transacetylase activities. In the present study, we measured acetylhydrolase and transacetylase activities in human atherogenic aorta and nonatherogenic mammary arteries. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed PAF-AH expression in the intima and the media of the aorta and in the media of mammary arteries. Acetylhydrolase and transacetylase activities were (mean ± SE, n = 38): acetylhydrolase of aorta, 2.8 ± 0.5 pmol/min/mg of tissue; transacetylase of aorta, 3.3 ± 0.7 pmol/min/mg of tissue; acetylhydrolase of mammary artery, 1.4 ± 0.3 pmol/min/mg of tissue (P < 0.004 as compared with acetylhydrolase of aorta); transacetylase of mammary artery, 0.8 ± 0.2 pmol/min/mg of tissue (P < 0.03 as compared with acetylhydrolase of mammary artery). Lyso-PAF accumulation and an increase in PAF bioactivity were observed in the aorta of some patients. Reverse-phase HPLC and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed that 1-O-hexadecyl-2 acetyl-sn glycero-3-phosphocholine accounted for 60% of the PAF bioactivity and 1-O-hexadecyl-2-butanoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine for 40% of the PAF bioactivity. The nonatherogenic properties of mammary arteries may in part be due to low PAF formation regulated by PAF-AH activity. In atherogenic aortas, an imbalance between PAF-AH and transacetylase activity, as well as lyso-PAF accumulation, may lead to unregulated PAF formation and to progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:18587071

Tsoukatos, Demokritos C.; Brochériou, Isabelle; Moussis, Vassilios; Panopoulou, Christina P.; Christofidou, Elena D.; Koussissis, Stamatis; Sismanidis, Socratis; Ninio, Ewa; Siminelakis, Stavros

2008-01-01

306

Histological and genetic studies in patients with bicuspid aortic valve and ascending aorta complications†  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Aneurysm diameter and growing rate does not represent a definite parameter for operation in bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), ascending aortic aneurysm and normal root patients. Thus, we investigated histological and immunohistochemical aspects of different segments of ascending aorta (precisely, aortic root without dilatation, aneurysmatic tubular portion, dissected ascending aorta) and genetic features of patients with BAV and ascending aorta complication (aneurysm or dissection). METHODS Aorta tissue samples of 24 BAV patients were examined. The patients comprised of 18 men and 6 women; the mean age was 54.2 ± 14.3 years. All patients underwent composite aortic root replacement (button Bentall operation). Multiple histological sections were prepared from each aortic specimen. The evaluated features included elastic fibre fragmentation, cystic medial change, smooth muscle cell necrosis, medial fibrosis, and the markers of medial apoptosis and the metalloproteinases. Furthermore, genetic risk factors were also investigated. RESULTS The same medial degenerative lesions in tissue samples of different aorta segments (precisely of aortic root without dilatation, and aneurysmatic ascending aorta portion) were observed. More significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (?786T/C endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme, D/I angiotensin-converting enzyme, ?1562C/T metalloproteinase-9 and ?735C/T metalloproteinase-2) and aneurysm risk were detected in BAV patients than in controls. CONCLUSIONS Based on our histological and genetic data, we underline that a surgical approach in patients with BAV, ascending aortic aneurysm and normal root, should consider not only the diameter of the aneurysmatic aortic portion but also the histological features of the whole ascending aorta and the genetic risk profile. PMID:22194275

Pisano, Calogera; Maresi, Emiliano; Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Candore, Giuseppina; Merlo, Daniele; Fattouch, Khalil; Bianco, Giuseppe; Ruvolo, Giovanni

2012-01-01

307

Morphometric characterization of microglial phenotypes in human cerebral cortex  

PubMed Central

Background Microglia can adopt different morphologies, ranging from a highly ramified to an amoeboid-like phenotype. Although morphological properties of microglia have been described in rodents, little is known about their fine features in humans. The aim of this study was to characterize the morphometric properties of human microglia in gray and white matter of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), a region implicated in behavioral adaptation to neuroinflammation. These properties were compared to those of murine microglia in order to gain a better appreciation of the differences displayed by these cells across species. Methods Postmortem dACC samples were analyzed from 11 individuals having died suddenly without any history of neuroinflammatory, neurodegenerative, nor psychiatric illness. Tissues were sectioned and immunostained for the macrophage marker Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA1). Randomly selected IBA1-immunoreactive (IBA1-IR) cells displaying features corresponding to commonly accepted microglial phenotypes (ramified, primed, reactive, amoeboid) were reconstructed in 3D and all aspects of their morphologies quantified using the Neurolucida software. The relative abundance of each morphological phenotype was also assessed. Furthermore, adult mouse brains were similarly immunostained, and IBA1-IR cells in cingulate cortex were compared to those scrutinized in human dACC. Results In human cortical gray and white matter, all microglial phenotypes were observed in significant proportions. Compared to ramified, primed microglia presented an average 2.5 fold increase in cell body size, with almost no differences in branching patterns. When compared to the primed microglia, which projected an average of six primary processes, the reactive and amoeboid phenotypes displayed fewer processes and branching points, or no processes at all. In contrast, the majority of microglial cells in adult mouse cortex were highly ramified. This was also the case following a postmortem interval of 43 hours. Interestingly, the morphology of ramified microglia was strikingly similar between species. Conclusions This study provides fundamental information on the morphological features of microglia in the normal adult human cerebral cortex. These morphometric data will be useful for future studies of microglial morphology in various illnesses. Furthermore, this first direct comparison of human and mouse microglia reveals that these brain cells are morphologically similar across species, suggesting highly conserved functions. PMID:24447857

2014-01-01

308

Endovascular Stenting for Unsuccessful Angioplasty of the Aorta in Aortoarteritis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The efficacy and safety of endovascular stent implantation to correct dissection or a suboptimal result after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was evaluated in patients suffering from aortic stenosis due to aortoarteritis. Methods: Twelve children and young adults [aged (mean {+-} SD) 18.2 {+-} 8.7 years] underwent stent implantation after PTA of the aorta, seven for obstructive dissection, four for ineffective balloon dilatation, and one for recurrent restenosis. Nine patients underwent implantation of self-expandable stents and three received balloon-expandable Palmaz stents. Results: Stent implantation could be successfully performed in all 12 patients. After stent implantation, the peak systolic pressure gradient decreased from 91 {+-} 33.5 mmHg to 12.4 {+-} 12.5 mmHg (p < 0.001). The diameter of the stenosed segment increased from 4.6 {+-} 0.8 mm to 11.1 {+-} 1.9 mm (p < 0.001). The dissection was completely covered in all seven patients with dissection. Except for epigastric pain with vomiting in one patient, there was no complication. On follow-up, over 12-57 months (mean 26.8 {+-} 10.8 months), 11 patients (91.6%) had marked improvement in their blood pressure. Patients with congestive heart failure and claudication also showed improvement. Repeat catheterization in five patients, between 6-30 months (mean 16.8 {+-} 9.1 months) after stent implantation, showed sustained improvement in four and a fusiform, long segment, intrastent restenosis after 30 months in one child. The stenosis was safely redilated. Conclusion: Endovascular aortic stent implantation is safe and provides good immediate relief in patients with unsatisfactory results after balloon angioplasty. Improvement is sustained in most patients on intermediate-term follow-up.

Tyagi, Sanjay; Kaul, Upkar A.; Arora, Ramesh [Department of Cardiology, G. B. Pant Hospital and Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi 110002 (India)

1999-11-15

309

Current Evidence and Insights about Genetics in Thoracic Aorta Disease  

PubMed Central

Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also sporadic forms have been found to be potentially associated with genetic disorders, as highlighted by the analysis of rare variants and expression of specific microRNAs. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive review of the role of genetic causes in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms, by analyzing in detail the current evidence of genetic alterations in syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehler-Danlos, familial or sporadic forms, or forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve. PMID:24453931

Muneretto, Claudio

2013-01-01

310

Determination of comprehensive arterial blood inflow in abdominal-pelvic organs: Impact of respiration and posture on organ perfusion  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Arterial blood flow (BF) to all abdominal-pelvic organs (AP) shows potential for an indicator of comprehensive splanchnic organ circulation (reservoir of blood supply for redistribution) in cardiovascular disease, hepato-gastrointestinal disease or hemodynamic disorders. Our previous assessment of splanchnic hemodynamics, as magnitude of BFAP [measuring by subtracting BF in both femoral arteries (FAs) from the upper abdominal aorta (Ao) above the celiac trunk] using Doppler ultrasound, was reported as the relationship between Ao and FAs, day-to-day variability and response to exercise. For accurate determination of BFAP, it is important to consider the various factors that potentially influence BFAP. However, little information exists regarding the influence of respiration (interplay between inspiration and expiration) and posture on BFAP. Material/Methods Ten healthy males were evaluated in sitting/supine positions following a 12 hr fast. Magnitude of BFAP was determined as measurement of Ao and FAs hemodynamics (blood velocity and vessel diameter) using pulsed Doppler with spectral analysis during spontaneous 4-sec inspiration/4-sec expiration phases. Results BF/blood velocity in the Ao and FAs showed significant lower in inspiration than expiration. BFAP showed a significant (P<0.005) reduction of ~20% in inspiratory phase (sitting, 2213±222 ml/min; supine, 2059±215 ml/min) compared with expiratory phase (sitting, 2765±303 ml/min; supine, 2539±253 ml/min), with no difference between sitting and supine. Conclusions Respiratory-related to alterations in BFAP were observed. It may be speculated that changes in intra-abdominal pressure during breathing (thoracic-abdominal movement) is possibly reflecting transient changes in blood velocity in the Ao and FAs. Respiratory effects should be taken into account for evaluation of BFAP. PMID:21278689

Osada, Takuya; Nagata, Hiroyasu; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Katsumura, Toshihito

2011-01-01

311

The Role of Extracellular Signal-Related Kinase During Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND It is hypothesized that activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) is critical in activating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) during abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. STUDY DESIGN C57BL/6 male mice underwent either elastase or heat-inactivated elastase aortic perfusion (n = 9 per group). Mouse aortic smooth muscle cells were transfected with ERK-1 and 2 siRNA along with or without elastase treatment. Mouse and human aortic tissue were analyzed by Western blots, zymograms, and immunohistochemistry, and statistical analysis was done using Graphpad and Image J softwares. RESULTS Western blot and immunohistochemistry documented increased phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1/2 (pMEK-1/2; 153%, p = 0.270 by Western) and pERK (171%, p = 0.004 by Western blot) in the elastase perfused aortas. Male ERK-1?/? mice underwent elastase perfusion, and aortic diameter was determined at day 14. ERK-1?/? mice failed to develop AAA, and histologic analysis depicted intact collagen and elastin fibers in the aortas. Zymography of aortas of elastase-treated ERK-1?/? mice showed lower levels of proMMP2 (p < 0.005) and active MMP2 (p < 0.0001), as well as proMMP9 (p = 0.037) compared with C57BL/6 mice. siRNA transfection of ERK-1 and -2 significantly reduced formation of pro- and active MMP2 (p < 0.01 for both isoforms) in aortic smooth muscle cells treated with elastase in vitro. Human AAA tissue had significantly elevated levels of pMEK-1/2 (150%, p = 0.014) and pERK (159%, p = 0.013) compared with control tissues. CONCLUSIONS The MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK pathway is an important modulator of MMPs during AAA formation. Targeting the ERK pathway by reagents that inhibit either the expression or phosphorylation of ERK isoforms could be a potential therapy to prevent AAA formation. PMID:22917644

Ghosh, Abhijit; DiMusto, Paul D; Ehrlichman, Lauren K; Sadiq, Omar; McEvoy, Brendan; Futchko, John S; Henke, Peter K; Eliason, Jonathan L; Upchurch, Gilbert R

2013-01-01

312

[Thoracic and abdominal trauma in children].  

PubMed

Knowledge of the characteristics of thoraco-abdominal trauma in children is important to optimize the imaging work up while keeping radiation exposure to a minimum. Because of the plasticity of the pediatric rib cage, rib fractures are infrequent, and severe parenchymal injuries may be present in the absence of rib fracture. Mediastinal injuries are unusual. The increased mobility of solid intraabdominal organs combined with a weaker abdominal wall are specific to pediatric patients. First-line imaging typically includes chest radiograph and abdominal US with Doppler imaging. Contrast-material enhanced CT is used as a second-line technique, with delayed imaging in patients with urinary tract lesions. Dedicated pediatric acquisition protocols are mandatory. Follow-up is obtained mainly with US. PMID:19106844

Chaumoître, K; Merrot, T; Petit, P; Panuel, M

2008-11-01

313

Performance assessment and optimization of Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) in ex vivo canine aortas and in vivo normal human arteries.  

PubMed

The amplitude, velocity, and morphology of the arterial pulse wave may all provide valuable diagnostic information for cardiovascular pathology. Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) is an ultrasound-based method developed by our group to noninvasively visualize and map the spatio-temporal variations of the pulse wave-induced vessel wall motion. Because PWI is capable of acquiring multiple wall motion waveforms successively along an imaged arterial segment over a single cardiac cycle in vivo, the regional morphological changes, amplitudes, and velocity (i.e. pulse wave velocity, or PWV) of the pulse wave can all be evaluated. In this study, an ex vivo setup was used to assess the effects of varying PWI image acquisition variables (beam density/frame rate and scanning orientation) and signal processing methods (beam sweep compensation scheme and waveform feature tracking) on the PWV estimation in order to validate the optimal parameters. PWI was also performed on the carotid arteries and abdominal aortas of six healthy volunteers for identification of several salient features of the waveforms over the entire cardiac cycle that may aid in assessing the morphological changes of the pulse wave. The ex vivo results suggest that the PWI temporal resolution is more important for PWV estimation than the PWI spatial resolution, and also that the reverse scanning orientation (i.e. beam sweeping direction opposite the direction of fluid flow) is advantageous due to higher precision and less dependence on the frame rate. In the in vivo waveforms, the highest precision PWV measurements were obtained by tracking the 50% upstroke of the waveforms. Finally, the dicrotic notch, reflected wave, and several inflection points were qualitatively identified in the carotid and aortic anterior wall motion waveforms and shown in one representative subject. PMID:23366601

Li, Ronny X; Qaqish, William W; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Konofagou, Elisa E

2012-01-01

314

Infected abdominal sacrocolpopexies: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

The abdominal sacrocolpopexy is an excellent procedure to surgically treat vaginal vault prolapse. A synthetic graft is often used to support the vaginal apex, but has the potential to become infected or erode, requiring its removal or revision. The purpose of this paper is to report our experience in the management of patients with infected synthetic grafts after abdominal sacrocolpopexy. A review of the patient databases from three specialty gynecology centers was performed from March 1996 to June 2002. Only patients with an infected graft after an abdominal sacrocolpopexy were included in the study; patients with either suture or graft erosion responding to conservative treatment were excluded. Twenty-two women, ages 37-73 years, developed infection of the synthetic graft after an abdominal sacrocolpopexy (1-60 months after their initial surgery, mean 8.8 months). The infected materials included polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Goretex, n =15) and polypropylene (n=7). Nine of the 15 PTFE meshes and four of the seven polypropylene meshes were placed at the time of a contaminated case (abdominal hysterectomy [n=12], colon resection [n=1]). Eighteen (82%) of the infected grafts involved braided permanent suture to attach the graft to the vaginal wall, monofilament/non-braided permanent suture was used in three patients, and suture type could not be determined in one. All graft removals were attempted vaginally, and this was successful in 16 cases (73%). Two patients experienced significant bleeding: the first patient required an emergency laparotomy and the second patient's bleeding was controlled with packing. A rectovaginal fistula occurred 3 weeks postoperatively in one patient. Synthetic graft infection should be considered as the differential diagnosis in a patient who has undergone an abdominal sacrocolpopexy. Transvaginal removal is preferred, but is fraught with potentially serious complications. The use of braided permanent sutures to affix the graft to the vagina may be associated with mesh infections. PMID:15580416

Mattox, T Fleming; Stanford, Edward J; Varner, E

2004-01-01

315

[Abdominal migraine as a cause of chronic recurrent abdominal pain in a 9-years-old girl--case report].  

PubMed

Abdominal migraine is a rarely recognized functional intestinal disorder, manifesting as recurrent paroxysmal abdominal pain of neurogenic origin. The authors describe the 9-years old girl referred to the hospital because of chronic paroxysmal abdominal pain. She did not improve after medication used commonly in functional abdominal disorders (drotaverine, mebeverine, trimebutine). On the ground of various investigations organic causes of abdominal pain were excluded. Carefully completed anamnesis, as well as precise description of the clinical picture of abdominal pain attacks, has lead to the diagnosis of abdominal migraine. According to advice of neurologist the treatment with amitriptyline was introduced. Thereafter a significant improvement was observed. Abdominal migraine has to be taken in to account when diagnosing chronic abdominal pain in children. PMID:16245431

Kwiecie?, Jaros?aw; Piasecki, Leszek; Kasner, Jacek; Karczewska, Krystyna

2005-08-01

316

Morphometric Analysis of Anguina amsinckiae from Three Host Species  

PubMed Central

Amsinckia species (fiddleneck) in the South Coast Ranges of California were surveyed to determine if any of the 12 different California species of Amsinckia are hosts of the nematode, Anguina amsinckiae (Steiner and Scott, 1935) Thorne, 1961. Previously only Amsinckia intermedia Fischer and Meyer was reported as a host of Anguina amsinckiae. The survey established that there are at least two additional hosts of Anguina amsinckiae: Amsinckia lycopsoides Lehmann and Amsinckia gloriosa Suksdorf. Seven sites containing nematode-infected Amsinckia plants were discovered. Every site contained two or more species of Amsinckia; however, only one site contained more than one species of Amsinckia that was galled. Nematode specimens from A. intermedia, A. lycopsoides, and A. gloriosa were used in a morphometric analysis of 14 morphological variables. Stepwise discriminant analysis of the variables to separate the populations by host were successful for females, and the pairwise F-tests showed all three populations to have different group means (P < 0.05). Males from the three hosts were not always separable, however, as only the nematodes from Amsinckia gloriosa had a different group mean (P < 0.05). PMID:19290124

Pantone, Dan James; Griesbach, John A.; Maggenti, A. R.

1987-01-01

317

Morphometrical structure evaluation of long-term manured Ukrainian chernozem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There was performed an image analysis of the structure of Ukrainian chernozem, which (I) by standard crop rotation was fertilized for 78 years with farm yard manure and (II) by continuous cultivation of sugar beet was not organically fertilized. For the both soils the largest differences were stated in the values of morphometrical parameters related to the soil solid phase element cross-sections. The differences in the parameters for pore cross-sections were much smaller. The soil I was characterized on average with larger macroporosity, larger relative and absolute number of solid phase element cross-sections, and larger relative length of border line between pore and solid phase element cross-sections than the soil II. For the both pedons the pore and solid phase element cross-sections were in general randomly oriented in the soil body. Due to the kneading the pore cross-sections in the superficial layer of the soil after monoculture of sugar beet were oriented horizontally. The soil structure in the corresponding layers of both pedons was to a high degree dissimilar. The largest differences in the arrangement of the soil solid phase and void space occurred in the upper layers.

Bryk, M.; S?owi?ska-Jurkiewicz, A.; Medvedev, V.

2012-04-01

318

Morphometric analysis of suprabasal cells in oral white lesions.  

PubMed Central

Surgical specimens from the cheek mucosa of 73 patients with white lesions were studied to determine various morphometric parameters that would help differentiate between the various types of oral mucosal white lesions that carry a risk of malignant change. Four cell types were represented: traumatic keratosis, leucoplakia, candidal leucoplakia and lichen planus, in addition to a control group of normal mucosa. The shape and size of the epithelial cells in two cell compartments, parabasal and spinous, were investigated by an interactive image analysis system (IBAS-1). The results showed an increase in the cell size in the parabasal cell compartment of all the white lesions compared with the normal mucosa. In the spinous cell compartment there was an increase in the cell size in lichen planus and traumatic keratosis; leucoplakia and candidal leucoplakia showed a slight decrease in cell size compared with the normal mucosa. Attempts to discriminate between the four groups of white lesions showed that these parameters can provide a high level of separation between lichen planus and the three other groups, but not between leucoplakia, candidal leucoplakia, and traumatic keratosis. PMID:2703543

Shabana, A H; el-Labban, N G; Lee, K W; Kramer, I R

1989-01-01

319

Evaluation of dental morphometrics during the orthodontic treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Diagnostic orthodontic and prosthetic procedures commence with an initial examination, during which a number of individual findings on occlusion or malocclusion are clarified. Nowadays we try to replace standard plaster casts by scanned objects and digital models. Method Geometrically calibrated images aid in the comparison of several different steps of the treatment and show the variation of selected features belonging to individual biomedical objects. The methods used are based on geometric morphometrics, making a new approach to the evaluation of the variability of features. The study presents two different methods of measurement and shows their accuracy and reliability. Results The experimental part of the present paper is devoted to the analysis of the dental arch objects of 24 patients before and after the treatment using the distances between the canines and premolars as the features important for diagnostic purposes. Our work proved the advantage of measuring digitalized orthodontic models over manual measuring of plaster casts, with statistically significant results and accuracy sufficient for dental practice. Conclusion A new method of computer imaging and measurements of a dental stone cast provides information with the precision required for orthodontic treatment. The results obtained point to the reduction in the variance of the distances between the premolars and canines during the treatment, with a regression coefficient RC=0.7 and confidence intervals close enough for dental practice. The ratio of these distances pointed to the nearly constant value of this measure close to 0.84 for the given set of 24 individuals. PMID:24893983

2014-01-01

320

Studying Developmental Variation with Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis (GMIA)  

PubMed Central

The ways in which embryo development can vary across individuals of a population determine how genetic variation translates into adult phenotypic variation. The study of developmental variation has been hampered by the lack of quantitative methods for the joint analysis of embryo shape and the spatial distribution of cellular activity within the developing embryo geometry. By drawing from the strength of geometric morphometrics and pixel/voxel-based image analysis, we present a new approach for the biometric analysis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional embryonic images. Well-differentiated structures are described in terms of their shape, whereas structures with diffuse boundaries, such as emerging cell condensations or molecular gradients, are described as spatial patterns of intensities. We applied this approach to microscopic images of the tail fins of larval and juvenile rainbow trout. Inter-individual variation of shape and cell density was found highly spatially structured across the tail fin and temporally dynamic throughout the investigated period. PMID:25500820

Mayer, Christine; Metscher, Brian D.; Müller, Gerd B.; Mitteroecker, Philipp

2014-01-01

321

Experimental study and analysis of mechanical properties of frozen rabbit aorta by fracture mechanics approach.  

PubMed

In order to investigate fracture problems associated with cryopreservation of aorta, experiments were carried out to study the effects of temperature, freezing rate and cryoprotective agent on the fracture mechanics properties of frozen rabbit aorta and a test method for crack criterion of frozen rabbit aorta was developed. Results showed that as temperature decreases, the fracture modes of frozen rabbit aorta changed from typical ductile fracture to typical brittle fracture, the crack was more difficult to grow as temperature decreased, and its resist-fracture ability weakened remarkably from -20 to -80 degrees C. However, freezing rates had no effects on the fracture modes when sample was cooled to -50 degrees C, while the resist-fracture ability was stronger when the sample was cooled at a higher freezing rate. Due to the hydration action of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), the rabbit aorta permeated by 10% (v/v) DMSO presented typical ductile fracture when it was cooled to -50 degrees C, so its resist-fracture ability was enhanced obviously. Compared to the axial sample, the circumferential sample's resist-fracture ability is better because of its larger deformation energy available. PMID:17980371

Xu, Yi; Hua, Tse-Chao; Sun, Da-Wen; Zhou, Guo-Yan

2008-01-01

322

A tissue-equivalent upper abdominal phantom.  

PubMed

The first prototypes of an abdominal phantom have been constructed. The phantom is intended for eventual use in training diagnostic ultrasound personnel and in demonstrating commercial equipment. It is constructed from plastics believed to be stable and approximately tissue-equivalent at room temperature. Abdominal structures are formed from a dispersion of a polystyrene butadiene plastic in mineral oil. Polyvinyl chloride particles are incorporated to provide the desired attenuation coefficients and scattering levels. B-scans of the phantom produced realistic images, although problems associated with scanning technique and somewhat high phantom attenuation were noted. Very useful phantoms should result from relatively simple improvements in construction techniques. PMID:6632059

Scherzinger, A L; Carson, P L; Clayman, W; Carter, W; Johnson, M L; Rashbaum, C

1983-10-01

323

Synovial Sarcoma of the Abdominal Wall  

PubMed Central

A case report is presented of a synovial sarcoma arising in the abdominal wall. This is the seventh such case to be reported. A brief review of the clinical and pathological features of synovial sarcoma is made. Pre-operative diagnosis of an abdominal wall synovial sarcoma is virtually impossible, but should be considered when a soft tissue swelling is found to show amorphous stippled calcification on X-ray. ImagesFig. 1Figs. 2-3Figs. 4-5 PMID:4319939

Hale, J. E.; Calder, I. M.

1970-01-01

324

A GIS-based approach in drainage morphometric analysis of Kanhar River Basin, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study indicates that analysis of morphometric parameters with the help of geographic information system (GIS) would prove a viable method of characterizing the hydrological response behaviour of the watershed. It is also well observed that remote sensing satellite data is emerging as the most effective, time saving and accurate technique for morphometric analysis of a basin. This technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its stream networks through ASTER (DEM) in conjunction with remote sensing satellite data (Landsat etm+, 2013 and georeferenced survey of Indian toposheet, 1972). In this study, Kanhar basin a tributaries of Son River has been selected for detailed morphometric analysis. Seven sub-watersheds are also delineated within this basin to calculate the selected morphometric parameters. Morphometric parameters viz; stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, form factor, circulatory ratio, etc., are calculated. The drainage area of the basin is 5,654 km2 and shows sub-dendritic to dendritic drainage pattern. The stream order of the basin is mainly controlled by physiographic and lithological conditions of the area. The study area is designated as seventh-order basin with the drainage density value being as 1.72 km/km2. The increase in stream length ratio from lower to higher order shows that the study area has reached a mature geomorphic stage.

Rai, Praveen Kumar; Mohan, Kshitij; Mishra, Sameer; Ahmad, Aariz; Mishra, Varun Narayan

2014-11-01

325

Seasonal dynamics of sperm morphometric subpopulations and its association with sperm quality parameters in ram ejaculates.  

PubMed

Sperm morphologic assessment is considered an irreplaceable part of standard laboratory routine analyses in the diagnosis of male fertility. Thus, in an attempt to quantify the effects of season on sperm morphology and its functional significance in relation to sperm quality parameters, sperm head morphometric traits were analyzed by using an objective computerized analysis combined with principal components analysis (PCA) cluster analysis to establish the relationship between the distribution of the subpopulations found and sperm quality in each season. There were slight variations on sperm motility and sperm membrane integrity indexes (P > 0.05). However, the mean values for sperm concentration substantially changed among seasons in all individuals studied (P < 0.01). There were significant differences in sperm morphometric parameters (P < 0.01) as well as in the distribution of morphometric subpopulations between seasons (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this study confirmed that there was an important seasonal effect on sperm morphometric traits. In addition, the distribution of these subpopulations seems to be related to the season studied and the ejaculate quality which would be a very important indicator of sperm function. The substantial information derived from these morphometric subpopulations has provided new knowledge which can be used in future studies using sperm morphometry as a seasonal indicator in ram ejaculates. PMID:22626774

Martí, J I; Aparicio, I M; Leal, C L V; García-Herreros, M

2012-08-01

326

Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in aneurysmatic thoracic aortas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomographic images of ascending thoracic human aortas from aneurysms exhibit disorders on the smooth muscle cell structure of the media layer of the aortic vessel as well as elastin degradation. Ex-vivo measurements of human samples provide results that correlate with pathologist diagnosis in aneurysmatic and control aortas. The observed disorders are studied as possible hallmarks for aneurysm diagnosis. To this end, the backscattering profile along the vessel thickness has been evaluated by fitting its decay against two different models, a third order polynomial fitting and an exponential fitting. The discontinuities present on the vessel wall on aneurysmatic aortas are slightly better identified with the exponential approach. Aneurysmatic aortic walls present uneven reflectivity decay when compared with healthy vessels. The fitting error has revealed as the most favorable indicator for aneurysm diagnosis as it provides a measure of how uniform is the decay along the vessel thickness.

Real, Eusebio; Eguizabal, Alma; Pontón, Alejandro; Val-Bernal, J. Fernando; Mayorga, Marta; Revuelta, José M.; López-Higuera, José; Conde, Olga M.

2013-06-01

327

Numerical investigation of mass transport through patient-specific deformed aortae.  

PubMed

Blood flow in human arteries has been investigated using computational fluid dynamics tools. This paper considers flow modeling through three aorta models reconstructed from cross-sectional magnetic resonance scans of female patients. One has the normal control configuration, the second has elongation of the transverse aorta, and the third has tortuosity of the aorta with stenosis. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of aortic abnormal geometries on the wall shear stress (WSS), luminal surface low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) concentration, and oxygen flux along the arterial wall. The results show that the curvature of the aortic arch and the stenosis have significant effects on the blood flow, and in turn, the mass transport. The location of hypoxia areas can be predicted well by ignoring the effect of hemoglobin on the oxygen transport. However, this simplification indeed alters the absolute value of Sherwood number on the wall. PMID:24210472

Chen, Jie; Gutmark, Ephraim; Mylavarapu, Goutham; Backeljauw, Philippe F; Gutmark-Little, Iris

2014-01-22

328

Endothelial cell membrane perforation of aorta and pulmonary artery in the electrocution victims.  

PubMed

Some electrocution deaths occur without detectable current marks on the skin, making forensic examination to determine the true cause of death more difficult. Because arterial thrombosis was a frequent finding in victims of electrocution, we investigated injury to the endothelium of the aorta and pulmonary artery with a scanning electron microscope in five cases of death known to be caused by electrocution. We found large pores on the surface of endothelial cells of the aorta and pulmonary artery in those who died of electrocution, but no endothelial membrane perforation was found in those who died of cardiac diseases. These findings were present within 12h after death. Therefore, scanning electron microscopic evidence of endothelial perforation in the aorta and pulmonary artery could be a useful marker to identify electrocution for those victims without detectable current marks on the skin. PMID:18495397

Wang, Ye; Liu, Min; Cheng, Wei-Bo; Li, Fan; Liao, Zhigang; Wang, Yaqin

2008-07-01

329

Concomitant reconstruction of infrarenal aorta and inferior vena cava after en bloc resection of retroperitoneal rhabdomyosarcoma.  

PubMed

Adult paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma (PRMS) with invasion of the retroperitoneum and involvement of the infrarenal aorta and inferior vena cava (IVC) is rare. We describe a 23-year-old male diagnosed with PRMS in 2008, previously treated with right orchiectomy, chemotherapy, and radiation, who presented with new onset of lower back pain. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a 4.8 × 4.2 cm mass involving both the infrarenal aorta and the IVC. We resected the tumor en bloc with in situ reconstruction of the aorta utilizing a Dacron graft and the IVC with a bovine pericardium roll graft. His postoperative period was uneventful, and he was discharged on postoperative day 6 in stable condition. At 2-month follow-up, the patient recovered well from the surgery, patent grafts on CT scan with no clinical signs of lower extremity ischemia or edema, and he continues to receive cycles of chemotherapy. PMID:21914678

Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Cheema, Zulfiqar F; Davies, Mark G; Lumsden, Alan B; Reardon, Michael J

2011-11-01

330

Rupture of the thoracic aorta associated with experimental Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a dog  

PubMed Central

This note describes the sudden death of a dog by the rupture of the thoracic aorta caused by the presence of Angiostrongylus vasorum. A female mongrel canine with a history of weight loss and exhaustion died two hours after clinical examination. At necropsy, performed one hour after death, showed the presence of clotted blood in the thoracic cavity. Haemothorax was diagnosed. The thoracic aorta wall was thin, congested and an abnormal hole in the wall was detected approximately 0.5 cm from the entrance to the diaphragm. From clotted blood collected from the thoracic cavity, 224 first stage larvae (L1) and 15 adults of Angiostrongylus vasorum were recovered alive. Also, from a blood clot found in the aorta, four adult females and 47 L1 larvae were recovered alive. Possibly, this parasite was responsible for the aortic rupture and death of the animal. PMID:22550632

Mozzer, L.R.; Lima, W.S.

2012-01-01

331

FSI analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta. The FSI is handled with the sequentially-coupled arterial FSI technique. The fluid mechanics equations are solved with the ST-VMS method, which is the variational multiscale version of the deforming-spatial-domain/stabilized space-time (DSD/SST) method. We focus on the relationship between the centerline geometry of the aorta and the flow field, which influences the wall shear stress distribution. The centerlines of the aorta models we use in our analysis are extracted from the CT scans, and we assume a constant diameter. Torsion-free model geometries are generated by projecting the original centerline to its averaged plane of curvature. The flow fields for the original and projected geometries are compared to examine the influence of the torsion.

Suito, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Kenji; Huynh, Viet Q. H.; Sze, Daniel; Ueda, Takuya

2014-10-01

332

Splenic trauma during abdominal wall liposuction: a case report  

PubMed Central

Summary A 35-year-old woman collapsed 18 hours after undergoing abdominal wall liposuction. Abdominal CT scan revealed a punctured spleen. She underwent an emergency splenectomy and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:18387911

Harnett, Paul; Koak, Yashwant; Baker, Daryl

2008-01-01

333

SEBASTIAN RACLAW ABDOMINAL CANCER FUND COMEDY NIGHT FunDRAISER  

E-print Network

for an evening of laughter! Friday, April 26, 2013 Milwaukee's Comedy Café 615 E. Brady Street, Milwaukee, WI 6 benefit the Sebastian Raclaw Abdominal Cancer Fund The Sebastian Raclaw Abdominal Cancer Fund

334

Acute abdominal complications following hip surgery.  

PubMed

Hip surgeries are some of the most common and successful orthopedic procedures. Although rarely, abdominal complications do occur and are associated with unfavorable outcomes.We aimed to identify and describe the severe abdominal complications that appear in patients under-going elective or traumatic hip surgery. A four year retrospective electronic database research identified 408 elective primary hip replacements,51 hip revisions and 1040 intra and extracapsular proximal femur fractures. Out of these, three males and 4 females between 64 - 84 years old were identified to have developed acute abdominal complications: perforated acute ulcer (3),acute cholecystitis (2), volvulus (1), toxic megacolon with peritonitis (1) and acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (1).Complications debuted 3 - 10 days after index orthopedic surgery. Acute perioperative abdominal complications are rarely encountered during orthopedic surgery. When these do occur, they do so almost exclusively in patients with hippathology, comorbidities and most often lead to life threatening situations. We thus emphasize the need for early identification and appropriate management by both orthopedic and general surgery doctors in order to improve patient safety. PMID:24742414

Deleanu, B; Prejbeanu, R; Vermesan, D; Haragus, H; Icma, I; Predescu, V

2014-01-01

335

Small Animal Abdominal Ultrasound Seminar & Wetlab  

E-print Network

: Dr. George Henry Noon­1:00 p.m. Lunch 1:00­5:00 p.m. Hands-on Abdominal Ultrasound Lab 5:00 p.m. Wrap Campbell CMP, UTCVM Continuing Education 2407 River Drive Room A104D, Knoxville, TN 37996-4550 f. 865

Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

336

Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised.

W G Thompson; G F Longstreth; D A Drossman; K W Heaton; E J Irvine; S A Müller-Lissner

1999-01-01

337

Laparoscopic Management of an Abdominal Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background. Ectopic pregnancy is one of the leading causes of significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Abdominal surgeries increase the risk of postoperative adhesions. We here present a case of omental ectopic pregnancy in a patient with a prior history of cesarean section. Case. A 20-year-old female presented with a two-day history of crampy lower abdominal pain. Patient was hemodynamically stable with a beta HCG of 1057?mI/mL. Transvaginal ultrasound did not show an intrauterine pregnancy but revealed an ill-defined mass in the midline pelvis extending to the right of the midline. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed large clots in the pelvis with normal uterus and adnexa. Intra-abdominal survey revealed an omental adhesion close to the right adnexa with a hematoma. Partial omentectomy was completed and the portion of the omentum with the hematoma was sent to pathology for confirmation. Final pathology confirmed the presence of chorionic villi consistent with products of conception. Conclusion. Omental ectopic pregnancy is a rare diagnosis and often missed. We recommend careful intra-abdominal survey for an ectopic pregnancy in the presence of hemoperitoneum with normal uterus and adnexa. This can be safely achieved using laparoscopy in early gestational ages when the patient is hemodynamically stable. PMID:25478262

2014-01-01

338

Fat Segmentation in Abdominal Thomas Hammershaimb Mosbech  

E-print Network

Fat Segmentation in Abdominal MR-scans Thomas Hammershaimb Mosbech Kongens Lyngby 2008 #12 resonance images. The segmentation dis- tinguishes between three types of adipose tissue; visceral adipose boundary is segmented, and the visceral adipose tissue is sepa- rated from the subcutaneous adipose tissue

339

Abdominal fat segmentation using graph cut methods  

E-print Network

Abdominal fat segmentation using graph cut methods Anamaria Marta Sirghie s102133 Kongens Lyngby tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume from 3D DIXON MRI. The test data used was acquired in finding the sought surface. VAT estimation is conducted using information from both fat and water images

340

Segmentation of male abdominal fat using MRI  

E-print Network

Segmentation of male abdominal fat using MRI Peter Stanley Jørgensen Kongens Lyngby 2006 IMM is done into 3 classes: subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue and other tissue. The MRI of adipose tissue into the subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue classes is done using

341

[A woman with acute upper abdominal pain].  

PubMed

A 42-year-old woman came to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain. CT-scan showed an isolated dissection of the A. mesenterica superior and signs of ischaemic colitis. The patient was treated with endovascular stent placement in the artery and partial small bowel resection. PMID:21771373

Urlings, Thijs A J; van Weel, Vincent; van der Linden, Edwin

2011-01-01

342

Abdominal wall repair using human acellular dermis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe surgical repair of abdominal wall defects that cannot be closed primarily in contaminated fields is a difficult problem. The use of nonabsorbable synthetic materials usually is contraindicated in this setting because of the risk for colonization and chronic infection of the mesh. In this study we sought to determine the safety and efficacy of implanted human acellular dermal graft

Charles F. Bellows; Daniel Albo; David H. Berger; Samir S. Awad

2007-01-01

343

Endovascular infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair has undergone a revolution since Volodos and Parodi described endoluminal repair in the early 1990s. Subsequent data from large registries have confirmed its efficacy. Randomised controlled trials have shown that although endoluminal repair may not be as cost effective as open repair, it can be performed with a lower mortality in patients fit for open repair.

M Davis; P R Taylor

2008-01-01

344

by Abdominal Obesity versus Overall Obesity  

E-print Network

?The authors have no financial conflicts of interest. Purpose: This research compares the predictive value of the abdominal obesity indicator, waist circumference (WC), and the overall obesity indicator, body mass index (BMI), among men and women with regard to type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This study used data collected from 4,400 households selected by a stratified multistage probability sampling method during the 2001 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The final study sample included 4,684 subjects over 30 years of age who had completed the health examination required for the analysis of the health interview and health behavior surveys. Results: Both men and women showed significant differences in fasting blood glucose (FBG) or HbA1c levels based on abdominal obesity irrespective of BMI. However, the presence of overall obesity among men with abdominal obesity was not significantly correlated with FBG or HbA1c levels, while the presence of overall obesity among women with abdominal obesity was significantly different in

Kyung-won Paek; Ki-hong Chun

2010-01-01

345

The Disappearing Abdominal Mass: Mesenteric Pseudocyst  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Mesenteric pseudocyst is a term used to describe an abdominal cystic mass with an unknown abdominal origin. They are rare intra-abdominal masses, with a reported incidence of approximately 1 per 100,000 to 250,000 hospital admissions. Most cysts are benign and they may present differently, such as a disappearing mass or a mass that changes locations, thus posing a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. Case Report: We describe a case of a 29-year-old woman who presented with a 2-year history of feeling a large mass within her abdomen, which would then disappear for several days and would frequently change position and be felt in different quadrants of her abdomen. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a large cystic structure, and a computed tomography–guided biopsy was inconclusive. Diagnostic laparoscopic surgery revealed a firm mass arising from the jejunal mesentery; the patient underwent an en bloc resection. Histopathologic examination of the resected mass revealed a rare diagnosis of mesenteric pseudocyst. Mesenteric pseudocyst should be should be kept high on the list of differential diagnoses when a patient presents with a disappearing mass and/or an abdominal mass that changes location. PMID:24960500

Orfanou, Paraskevi

2014-01-01

346

Extraosseous Ewing's tumor of lateral abdominal wall  

PubMed Central

Extraosseous Ewings tumor (EES) is a rare entity. Few cases have been reported in literature. There are no specific guidelines for management of this disease. We are reporting a case of EES arising from left lateral abdominal wall. We did wide excision of tumor followed by chemoradiation. Patient is asymptomatic after 8 months of follow up. PMID:24765376

Gupta, Nikhil; Chand, Tirlok; Yadav, Nidhi; Kumar, Rajeev; Chauhan, Devender S.; Chaudhary, Poras; Arora, Mohinder P.

2011-01-01

347

New device for saphenous vein-to-aorta proximal anastomosis without side-clamping  

PubMed Central

Background Side clamping to perform saphenous vein-to-aorta proximal anastomosis is a well known cause of cerebral embolization during coronary bypass surgery. Automatic and manual devices have been introduced to avoid aortic clamping and facilitate proximal anastomosis but the manual ones only allow the traditional hand-sewing running suture. Nevertheless, they are not easy to use and very expensive to buy. Methods We developed a simple object that helps to perform a manual proximal anastomosis without the need to clamp the side of the aorta. This device is a steel bar which blocks the aortic hole and simultaneously it provides a slit to receive the needle. Through the slit comes out a thin, sharp, straight, but also well directed and predictable jet of blood which could be easily controlled during the suture. Results The function of the object is quite different from other devices. Nothing is deployed in the aorta. The object is only placed on the aorta with the small appendage slipped into the hole. The main advantage of the device is that while manipulation of the aorta is avoided no foreign bodies are incorporated in the suture and – most importantly – the aortic intima is not touched at all. The main drawback of the device is the blood jet coming from the slit so that the blood pressure has to be lowered by vasodilators during the anastomosis. Moreover, the suture has to change direction and the needle has to enter the aortic wall first to slip out through the slit. Conclusion The object was named "Slit Device" and is not a routine instrument. It would be only an alternative to other anastomotic devices with the same surgical indications. In the case of ascending aortic disease and saphenous vein grafting, the Slit Device avoids aortic clamping thereby preventing atheroembolism and also avoiding the need for hypothermic circulatory arrest in patients with unclampable aorta. PMID:17480222

Tappainer, Ernesto

2007-01-01

348

Distribution and length of osteophytes in the lumbar vertebrae and risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a study of dry bones from Chiang Mai, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Vertebral osteophytes are a characteristic feature of intervertebral disc degeneration. In the lumbar spinal region, the two major structures in close proximity anterior to the spine are the inferior vena cava and the abdominal aorta, both of which have been reported to be affected by osteophytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution, classification and lengths of osteophytes in the lumbar vertebrae. One hundred and eighty lumbar columns of 90 males and 90 females from Chiang Mai, Thailand, in the age range 15 to 96 years (mean age, 63 years) were collected. The measuring length of osteophytes was assessed on vertebral body and articular facet. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive analysis, chi-square and Pearson Correlation. Lumbar osteophytes were presented in 175 specimens (97.2%), 88 males and 87 females. The highest frequency was at L4, most were on the superior, inferior surface of body and articular facet (39.7%, 38.4%, and 22%), respectively. The greatest mean length was 3.47±2.21 mm at L5, and the longest length of anterior superior surface of body was 28.56 mm. The osteophyte length was significantly correlated directly with age (P<0.01), and males were significantly greater than females (P<0.05). The highest prevalence of osteophytes was on the anterior side of superior surface of body (30.4%), and the classification was traction. It can be proposed that the abdominal aorta could be damaged, especially a risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm. PMID:25276474

Chanapa, Patcharin; Yoshiyuki, Tohno

2014-01-01

349

Abdominal adenopathy found during a routine follow-up.  

PubMed

During routine follow-up of a 60-year-old man with an endoluminal lesion of the duodenum, we found a persistent reactive abdominal adenopathy of unknown origin, later diagnosed as an abdominal localization of sarcoidosis. This article focuses on the differential diagnosis of abdominal granulomatous lymphadenopathies, the management of abdominal adenopathy of unknown origin, and the difficult decision making about sampling lymph nodes with reactive and inflammatory echographic appearance. PMID:25621963

Carmagnola, Stefania; Venezia, Ludovica; Anderloni, Andrea; Nicali, Roberta; Patrucco, Filippo; Balbo, Piero Emilio

2015-02-01

350

Combined Two-Photon Luminescence Microscopy and OCT for Macrophage Detection in the Hypercholesterolemic Rabbit Aorta Using Plasmonic Gold Nanorose  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives The macrophage is an important early cellular marker related to risk of future rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Two-channel two-photon luminescence (TPL) microscopy combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to detect, and further characterize the distribution of aorta-based macrophages using plasmonic gold nanorose as an imaging contrast agent. Study Design/Materials and Methods Nanorose uptake by macrophages was identified by TPL microscopy in macrophage cell culture. Ex vivo aorta segments (8 × 8 × 2 mm3) rich in macrophages from a rabbit model of aorta inflammation were imaged by TPL microscopy in combination with OCT. Aorta histological sections (5 µm in thickness) were also imaged by TPL microscopy. Results Merged two-channel TPL images showed the lateral and depth distribution of nanorose-loaded macrophages (confirmed by RAM-11 stain) and other aorta components (e.g., elastin fiber and lipid droplet), suggesting that nanorose-loaded macrophages are diffusively distributed and mostly detected superficially within 20 µm from the luminal surface of the aorta. Moreover, OCT images depicted detailed surface structure of the diseased aorta. Conclusions Results suggest that TPL microscopy combined with OCT can simultaneously reveal macrophage distribution with respect to aorta surface structure, which has the potential to detect vulnerable plaques and monitor plaque-based macrophages overtime during cardiovascular interventions. PMID:22246984

Wang, Tianyi; Mancuso, J. Jacob; Kazmi, S.M. Shams; Dwelle, Jordan; Sapozhnikova, Veronika; Willsey, Brian; Ma, Li L.; Qiu, Jinze; Li, Xiankai; Dunn, Andrew K.; Johnston, Keith P.; Feldman, Marc D.; Milner, Thomas E.

2013-01-01

351

Penetrating injury of the torso with impalement of the thoracic aorta: preoperative value of the computed tomographic scan.  

PubMed

A patient survived thoracoabdominal penetrating injury with impalement of the descending thoracic aorta from a crossbow bolt. The precise extent and nature of the injury were determined preoperatively by computed tomography. The injury to the aorta had not been suspected clinically before the computed tomographic scan. PMID:3377582

Fradet, G; Nelems, B; Müller, N L

1988-06-01

352

Metabolism of arachidonic acid in 1 yr old New Zealand white (NZW) and watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit aortas  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to characterize the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) in normal and atherosclerotic aortas. Segments of aortas were obtained from 1 yr old NZW rabbits, and WHHL rabbits, a genetic model of athero-sclerosis resembling familial hypercholesterolemia. Aortas were incubated at 37/sup 0/C for 15 min with /sup 14/C-AA (5 x 10/sup -5/M) during stimulation by A23187. The media was extracted using octadecylsilica columns and resolved into metabolites by reverse-phase HPLC. Prostaglandins (PGs) were identified by comigration of /sup 14/C-metabolites with standards. The monoxygenated metabolites of AA (HETEs) were resolved by normal-phase HPLC, and their structures confirmed by GC-MS. In extracts from NZW and WHHL aortas, approximately 14% and 6% of the total radioactivity was converted to PGs and HETEs, respectively. The major PG produced by NZW and WHHL aortas was 6-keto PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ with lesser amounts of PGE/sub 2/. Similarly, NZW and WHHL aortas produced primarily 12- and 15-HETE with lesser amounts of 11-, 9-, 8-, and 5-HETE. There were no qualitative differences between NZW and WHHL aortas in PG and HETE production. Therefore, despite extensive atherosclerosis in aortas of WHHL rabbits, the vessels maintain the ability to synthesize PGs and HETEs.

Pfister, S.L.; Schmitz, J.M.; Willerson, J.T.; Campbell, W.B.

1986-03-01

353

Neointimal-specific induction of apoptosis by losartan results in regression of vascular lesion in rat aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported that initiating treatment with the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan, prior to and immediately after balloon injury, attenuates neointimal hyperplasia via induction of smooth muscle cell (SMC) apoptosis in the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The present study examines whether losartan can induce regression of an established neointima. Balloon angioplasty was performed in the aorta of

Jacinthe Lemay; Taben M. Hale; Denis deBlois

2009-01-01

354

[Gastrointestinal hemorrhage after operation for dissecting aneurysm of the thoracic aorta].  

PubMed

We present the case of a 45-year-old man who underwent surgical repair of a dissecting aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta. 25 days postoperatively, the patient unexpectedly developed hematemesis and hypovolemic shock. Emergency gastroscopy was performed and a suspected aortoesophageal fistula was diagnosed. Unfortunately, the patient died prior to emergency surgery. Aneurysms of the aorta or of aortic grafts occasionally lead to the development of fistulae to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Once this rare, but life-threatening complication is suspected, endoscopy must be performed immediately. Emergency surgery is associated with a high risk, but represents the only possibly chance of survival for the patient. PMID:9553205

Kirchgatterer, A; Punzengruber, C; Zisch, R; Balon, R; Knoflach, P

1998-02-13

355

A morbid coexistence: thrombosed descending thoracic aorta aneurysm and aortic insufficiency with aortic diastolic reverse flow.  

PubMed

A 76-year-old woman presented with difficulty in speech and weakness on right arm and leg. Her medical history was remarkable only for uncontrolled hypertension for a long period. Dysarthria, right central facial paralysis, right hemiparesis and hypoactive deep tendon reflexes were noticed on neurological examination. Moderate degree aortic insufficiency with aortic diastolic reverse flow was detected on transthoracic echocardiography. Thrombosed aortic aneurysm on descending thoracic aorta, and an acute hemorrhagic infarction in the distribution of the left middle cerebral artery were depicted on thorax, and brain computed tomography scans, respectively. Cerebrovascular event was medically managed and whereas conservative management was offered for thrombosed descending thoracic aorta aneurysm. PMID:25392831

Yildiz, Sema; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Yildiz, Ali

2014-10-01

356

Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.  

PubMed

Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents. PMID:25088309

Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; My?liwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Miros?aw

2015-02-01

357

Diagnostic yield of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in children with abdominal pain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Abdominal pain is the most common indication for OGD in children. However, existing studies examining the diagnostic outcomes of OGD in children with abdominal pain are limited. We conducted the current study to examine the diagnostic yield of OGD with biopsy in the evaluation of abdominal pain and ...

358

Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

2001-01-01

359

Metabolic and inflammatory responses after laparoscopic and abdominal hysterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to quantify and compare the metabolic and inflammatory changes after laparoscopic and abdominal hysterectomy.STUDY DESIGN: Forty-four patients with no major medical disease requiring abdominal hysterectomy for benign disorders were randomly assigned to have laparoscopic hysterectomy (n = 20) and abdominal hysterectomy (n = 24). Venous blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected the day before and

Pong Mo Yuen; Tony W. L. Mak; So Fan Yim; Warwick D. Ngan Kee; Christopher W. K. Lam; Michael S. Rogers; Allan M. Z. Chang

1998-01-01

360

A combined spectrophotometric and morphometric study of the lunar mare dome fields near Cauchy, Arago, Hortensius, and Milichius  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examine the spectral and morphometric properties of the four important lunar mare dome fields near Cauchy, Arago, Hortensius, and Milichius. We utilize Clementine UV–vis multispectral data to examine the soil composition of the mare domes while employing telescopic CCD imagery to compute digital elevation maps in order to determine their morphometric properties, especially flank slope, height,

Christian Wöhler; Raffaello Lena; Paolo Lazzarotti; Jim Phillips; Michael Wirths; Zac Pujic

2006-01-01

361

Robust and fast abdominal aortic aneurysm centerline detection for rupture risk prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes a robust and fast semi-automatic approach for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) centerline detection. AAA is a vascular disease accompanied by progressive enlargement of the abdominal aorta, which leads to rupture if left untreated, an event that accounts for the 13th leading cause of death in the U.S. The lumen centerline can be used to provide the initial starting points for thrombus segmentation. Different from other methods, which are mostly based on region growing and suffer from problems of leakage and heavy computational burden, we propose a novel method based on online classification. An online version of the adaboost classifier based on steerable features is applied to AAA MRI data sets with a rectangular box enclosing the lumen in the first slice. The classifier is updated during the tracking process by using the testing result of the previous image as the new training data. Unlike traditional offline versions, the online classifier can adjust parameters automatically when a leakage occurs. With the help of integral images on the computation of haar-like features, the method can achieve nearly real time processing (about 2 seconds per image on a standard workstation). Ten ruptured and ten unruptured AAA data sets were processed and the tortuosity of the 20 centerlines was calculated. The correlation coefficient of the tortuosity was calculated to illustrate the significance of the prediction with the proposed method. The mean relative accuracy is 95.68% with a standard deviation of 0.89% when compared to a manual segmentation procedure. The correlation coefficient is 0.394.

Zhang, Hong; Finol, Ender A.

2011-03-01

362

[Combined surgical treatment of patients with huge aortic abdominal aneurysms associated with coronary artery lesions].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to define the perioperative risk of simultaneous operations in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). The hospital data of 30 patients with coexistent severe symptomatic AAA and significant CAD, who underwent one stage surgery of the abdominal aorta and the coronary arteries was retrospectively analysed. Most of the pts.--28 were male and only 2 female. The average age consisted 57.7 years. Infrarenal AAA (diameter over 5 cm) was presented in 25 patients and suprarenal extension was in presented in 5 pts, while all patients with coexisting CAD had three vessels disease and significant impairment of left ventricular function (23 pts with ejection fraction (EF) < 50% and 10 pts < 30% EF). The resections of AAA in pts. undergoing simultaneous coronary artery procedure were performed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and moderate hypothermia. There were 2 early postoperative deaths (6.66%) and 5 major nonfatal postoperative complications (16.6%). Our experience with simultaneous surgery of coexistent huge AAA and CAD demonstrated that: a) Combined procedure can be performed safely in patients with significant AAA and CAD. b) The overall early operative mortality and morbidity after combined surgery compare favourably with the results after CABG of patients with impaired left ventricular function. c) Simultaneous operation seems to be more favourable in patients with coexistent AAA and CAD regarding the high risk of aneurysmal rupture, saving them also the potential morbidity and eventually fatal complications associated with the second procedure. d) Even the management of suprarenal and huge infrarenal AAA can be carried out easier and with less risk of complications under the protection of CPB. PMID:11194672

Zakhariev, T; Nachev, G; Alexandrov, V; Chervenkov, V; Chirkov, A

1999-01-01

363

Evaluation of Chemical Preparation on Insect Wing Shape for Geometric Morphometrics  

PubMed Central

Geometric morphometrics is an approach that has been increasingly applied in studies with insects. A limiting factor of this technique is that some mosquitoes have wings with dark spots or many scales, which jeopardizes the visualization of landmarks for morphometric analysis. Recently, in some studies, chemically treatment (staining) of the wings was used to improve the viewing of landmarks. In this study, we evaluated whether this method causes deformation of the wing veins and tested whether it facilitates the visualization of the most problematic landmarks. In addition, we tested whether mechanical removal of the scales was sufficient for this purpose. The results showed that the physical and chemical treatments are equally effective in improving visualization of the landmarks. The chemical method did not cause deformation of the wing. Thus, some of these treatments should be performed before beginning geometric morphometric analysis to avoid erroneous landmark digitizing. PMID:24019438

Lorenz, Camila; Suesdek, Lincoln

2013-01-01

364

Prioritization of sub-watersheds based on morphometric analysis using geospatial technique in Piperiya watershed, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological investigation and behavior of watershed depend upon geo-morphometric characteristics of catchment. Morphometric analysis is commonly used for development of regional hydrological model of ungauged watershed. A critical valuation and assessment of geo-morphometric constraints has been carried out. Prioritization of watersheds based on water plot capacity of Piperiya watershed has been evaluated by linear, aerial and relief aspects. Morphometric analysis has been attempted for prioritization for nine sub-watersheds of Piperiya watershed in Hasdeo river basin, which is a tributary of the Mahanadi. Sub-watersheds are delineated by ArcMap 9.3 software as per digital elevation model (DEM). Assessment of drainages and their relative parameters such as stream order, stream length, stream frequency, drainage density, texture ratio, form factor, circulatory ratio, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio and compactness ratio has been calculated separately for each sub-watershed using the Remote Sensing (RS) and Geospatial techniques. Finally, the prioritized score on the basis of morphometric behavior of each sub-watershed is assigned and thereafter consolidated scores have been estimated to identify the most sensitive parameters. The analysis reveals that stream order varies from 1 to 5; however, the first-order stream covers maximum area of about 87.7 %. Total number of stream segment of all order is 1,264 in the watershed. The study emphasizes the prioritization of the sub-watersheds on the basis of morphometric analysis. The final score of entire nine sub-watersheds is assigned as per erosion threat. The sub-watershed with the least compound parameter value was assigned as highest priority. However, the sub-watersheds has been categorized into three classes as high (4.1-4.7), medium (4.8-5.3) and low (>5.4) priority on the basis of their maximum (6.0) and minimum (4.1) prioritized score.

Chandniha, Surendra Kumar; Kansal, Mitthan Lal

2014-11-01

365

Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+} did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta.

Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H.; Ferramola, Mariana L.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gimenez, María S., E-mail: marisofigime44@gmail.com

2013-11-01

366

[Comparative MRI morphometric study of the corpus callosum at term and preterm infants].  

PubMed

A comparative morphometric analysis of MRI brain tomograms of term ant preterm born children was conducted. Common morphometric indexes and a novel quantitative parameter, a coefficient of corpus callosum (kCC), developed with regard to prenatal cortex ontogenesis pattern were applied to the study in order to get objective structural characteristics of the brain. All these quantitative indexes display anatomical features of the preterm brain. Reduced values of corpus callosum coefficient at preterm born children are known to associate with altered proportion between its rostral and caudal segments. A threshold coefficient value was established to differentiate preterm brain from the term one and it has proven its statistical significance. PMID:25272766

Tkachenko, L A; Toronova, N O; Krasnoshchekova, E I; Aleksandrov, T A; Zykin, P A; Ialfimov, A N

2014-01-01

367

Endovascular Treatment of Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Lesions With or Without Common Iliac Artery Involvement  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the results of stent placement for obstructive atherosclerotic aortic disease with or without involvement of the common iliac artery. Forty patients had self-expanding stents primarily or after balloon dilatation in the abdominal aorta between January 2005 and May 2011. All patients had trouble walking. Follow-up examinations were performed with clinical visits; these included color Doppler ultrasonography and computed tomographic angiography. Technical, clinical, and hemodynamic success was achieved in all patients. None of the patients underwent reintervention during the follow-up period, which ranged from 3 months to 6 years (median 24 months). Nine complications occurred in six patients. Of the nine complications, four were distal thromboembolisms, which were successfully treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis or anticoagulation therapy. Endovascular treatment of the obstructive aortic disease using self-expanding stents was safe and effective, with high technical success and long-term patency. Thromboembolic complications were high even though direct stenting was considered protective for thromboembolism formation. Particularly for infrarenal aortic stenosis, it can be recommended as the first-line treatment option for patients with obstructive atherosclerotic aortic disease.

Oender, Hakan, E-mail: drhakanonder@hotmail.com [Dicle University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Dicle University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Oguzkurt, Levent [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Guer, Serkan [Sifa University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Sifa University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Tekbas, Gueven [Dicle University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Dicle University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Guerel, Kamil [Abant Izzet Baysal University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Abant Izzet Baysal University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Coskun, Isa [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Turkey)] [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Turkey); Oezkan, Ugur [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2013-02-15

368

Role of plasma ammonia level in detecting intra-abdominal hemorrhage following blunt abdominal trauma  

PubMed Central

Background: Blunt abdominal injury is a leading cause of death in trauma patients. A reliable test predicting intra-abdominal hemorrhage would be a novel method. The study objective was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of plasma ammonia in detection of intra-abdominal bleeding in patients with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). Materials and Methods: In this observational study, all patients suffering from BAT, referred to our university teaching hospital included. The levels of ammonia were measured at the time of emergency department admission and 1 h after initial treatment. Demographic data, vital signs, and venous blood gas reports were recorded. Findings of contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography scan and laparotomy were assumed as a gold standard for abdominal injuries. Results: A total of 104 patients was enrolled in the study. 15 patients (14.4%) had intra-abdominal hemorrhage and the mean plasma ammonia level in this group was significantly higher than the other patients on admission time (101.73 ± 5.41 ?g/dL vs. 47.36 ± 26.31 ?g/dL, P < 0.001). On receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis, in cutoff point of 89 ?g/dL, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79.6-100), 93.26% (95% CI, 86-96.8), 14.83 (95% CI, 6.84-32.12), and 0, respectively. Conclusion: The study findings suggest the measurement of ammonia level at the time of admission in the patients with BAT would be a useful test predicting intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Furthermore, decrease in the ammonia level could be a useful marker for monitoring response to treatment in these patients.

Farsi, Davood; Fadaki, Ali Akbar Khademi; Kianmehr, Nahid; Abbasi, Saeed; Rezai, Mahdi; Marashi, Mohammad; Mofidi, Mani

2014-01-01

369

Surface Electromyographic Activity of the Abdominal Muscles During Pelvic-Tilt and Abdominal-Hollowing Exercises  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus abdominus and external oblique abdominus muscles during pelvic-tilt and abdominal-hollowing exercises performed in different positions. Design and Setting: 2 × 3 (exercise by position) within-subjects design with repeated measures on both factors. All testing was performed in a university laboratory. Subjects: Twenty-six healthy, active young adult females. Measurements: Surface EMG activity was recorded from the left and right rectus abdominus and external oblique muscles while the 2 exercises (pelvic tilt and abdominal hollowing) were performed in different positions (standard, legs supported, and legs unsupported). The standard position was supine in the crook-lying position, the supported position was with hips and knees flexed to 90° and legs supported on a platform, and the unsupported position was with hips and knees flexed to 90° without external support. Peak EMG activity was normalized to a maximum voluntary isometric contraction for each muscle. Results: For the rectus abdominus, there was an interaction between position and activity. Abdominal hollowing produced significantly less activity than the pelvic tilt in all positions. The difference between the 2 exercises with the legs unsupported was of a greater magnitude than the other 2 positions. For the external obliques, there was significantly lower activity during the abdominal hollowing compared with the pelvic tilting. The greatest muscle activity occurred with the legs-unsupported position during both exercises. Conclusions: Abdominal-hollowing exercises produced less rectus abdominus and external oblique activity than pelvic-tilting exercises. Abdominal hollowing may be performed with minimal activation of the large global abdominal muscles. PMID:15085209

Drysdale, Cheri L.; Earl, Jennifer E.

2004-01-01

370

Pictorial review Imaging the post-operative thoracic aorta: normal anatomy and pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following surgical repair or replacement of the thoracic aorta, interpretation of CT and MRI scans of the thorax can be confusing. It is important to be aware of the variety of appearances that can be encountered. There is usually a surgical explanation and close collaboration with surgical colleagues is required. An appreciation of the normal post-operative appearances allows recognition of

P RILEY; S ROONEY; R BONSER

371

Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic evaluation of NIR laser-welded human and porcine aorta tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser tissue welding involves the partial denaturing and renaturing of the collagen triple helical structure. Although the mechanisms of laser tissue welding are not well understood, water in tissues plays an important role in the process. High quality welding of human and porcine aorta tissue have been achieved using NIR lasers tuned to the water absorption band around 1450 nm. Fluorescence and Raman spectra from welded and non-welded regions are compared for ex vivo human and porcine aorta tissues. The fluorescence from the outer surface of welded aorta was substantially weaker than the fluorescence from the non-welded region. The Raman spectra from the welded and non-welded tissue regions appeared similar in the energies of the observed vibrational levels but the intensity of the fluorescence wing was considerably greater from the outer surface of the welded region as compared to the non-welded region. For the outer surface of the aorta, the emission intensity from the welded region was larger than for the non-welded region.

Katz, Alvin; Alimova, Alexandra; Minko, Glenn; Liu, C. H.; Gayen, Tapan K.; Savage, Howard E.; Halder, Rabindra K.; McCormick, Steven A.; Alfano, Robert R.

2003-06-01

372

Excitatory effect of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin on the rat isolated aorta.  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin caused contraction of the isolated aorta of the rat in a dose-dependent manner. The contractile action caused by the toxin was inhibited or abolished by calcium antagonists such as nifedipine, verapamil and cinnarizine, or a Ca-free medium, but was not affected by phentolamine, chlorpheniramine, atropine, tetrodotoxin or a low Na medium. The toxin stimulated Ca uptake into the aorta in a dose-dependent manner. 8-N,N'-diethylaminooctyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMB-8) blocked significantly both the toxin- and noradrenaline (NA)-induced contractions. Trifluoperazine (TFP) and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtharene sulphonamide (W-7) did not affect the contractile activity of the toxin but blocked the NA-induced contraction. The toxin also stimulated the 32P phosphate labelling of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidic acid (PA) in the preparation. These results indicate that the toxin-induced contraction, which is different from that induced by NA, is the result of a direct action of the toxin on the aorta and is due to an increased Ca2+ permeability across the smooth muscle membrane. It is suggested that the contractile response to the toxin is associated with activation of phospholipid metabolism and enhanced entry of Ca into the aorta. Images Figure 1 PMID:3742149

Fujii, Y.; Nomura, S.; Oshita, Y.; Sakurai, J.

1986-01-01

373

Dorsal aorta catheterization in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). II. Glucocorticoid levels, hematological data and resumption  

E-print Network

for the erythrocyte loss. The results of this investigation indicate that well-adapted catheterized trout may of dorsal aorta or heart cannulation allows serial blood sampling from unanesthetized, free-swimming fish concentrations have been recorded in cannulated fishes (Houston et al., 1969 and 1971b ; Soivio et at., 1972

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

374

Noninfectious Pseudoaneurysm of Ascending Aorta Following Redo-Aortic Valve Replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 46 year old man had been undergone Aortic valve replacement (AVR) due to mechanical aortic valve endocarditis two month ago. He was referred to Imam Khomeini hospital because of dyspnea since two weeks ago. Echocardiography showed the false aneurysm, with an area of flow beyond the lumen of the aorta. This patient underwent reoperation, the previously implanted aortic valve

Younes Nozari; Nehzat Akiash

375

MRI of pseudocoarctation of the aorta: morphological and cine-MRI findings.  

PubMed

We report a case of pseudocoarctation of the thoracic aorta diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. Morphological spin-echo findings and cine-MRI performed by gradient-echo multiphase images are reported. No other more invasive examinations were needed to establish the diagnosis of pseudocoarctation and to differentiate from other aortic abnormalities. PMID:8734782

Soler, R; Pombo, F; Bargiela, A; Gayol, A; Rodríguez, E

1995-01-01

376

Gene transfer of superoxide dismutase isoforms reverses endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rabbit aorta.  

PubMed

Increased production of oxygen free radicals is an important mechanism of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Our goal was to test whether adenovirus (Ad)-mediated gene transfer of copper/zinc (CuZn) or manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD) improves relaxation of diabetic vessels. The aortas from 9 alloxan-induced diabetic mellitus (DM) and 16 control rabbits were used. Control and DM rings were transduced ex vivo with Ad vectors encoding Mn SOD (AdMn SOD), CuZn SOD (AdCuZn SOD), beta-galactosidase (Ad(beta)gal), or diluents. In the absence of gene transfer, SOD activity was significantly increased in DM aortas. Transgene expression in DM AdCuZn SOD and DM AdMn SOD-transduced vessels was confirmed by Western blot analysis and by increased SOD activity (DM AdCuZn SOD, 76.2 +/- 9.3; DM AdMn SOD, 65.2 +/- 4.8; P < 0.05 vs. DM Ad(beta)gal; 50.9 +/- 4.4 U/mg protein). Superoxide production was increased in DM Ad(beta)gal-transduced aorta and relaxations to acetylcholine were impaired in these vessels. Gene transfer of CuZn SOD and Mn SOD corrected both of these defects. Thus Ad-mediated gene transfer CuZn and Mn SOD to the diabetic aorta improves endothelium-dependent relaxation. PMID:11356606

Zanetti, M; Sato, J; Katusic, Z S; O'Brien, T

2001-06-01

377

Posterior acceleration as a mechanism of blunt traumatic injury of the aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rupture of the thoracic aorta is a leading cause of rapid fatality in automobile crashes, but the exact mechanisms of this injury remain unidentified. One commonly postulated mechanism is a differential motion of the aortic arch relative to the heart and its neighboring vessels caused by high-magnitude acceleration of the thorax. This paper investigates acceleration as an aortic injury mechanism

Jason Forman; Stephen Stacey; Jay Evans; Richard Kent

2008-01-01

378

Analysis of thoracic aorta hemodynamics using 3D particle tracking velocimetry and computational fluid dynamics.  

PubMed

Parallel to the massive use of image-based computational hemodynamics to study the complex flow establishing in the human aorta, the need for suitable experimental techniques and ad hoc cases for the validation and benchmarking of numerical codes has grown more and more. Here we present a study where the 3D pulsatile flow in an anatomically realistic phantom of human ascending aorta is investigated both experimentally and computationally. The experimental study uses 3D particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to characterize the flow field in vitro, while finite volume method is applied to numerically solve the governing equations of motion in the same domain, under the same conditions. Our findings show that there is an excellent agreement between computational and measured flow fields during the forward flow phase, while the agreement is poorer during the reverse flow phase. In conclusion, here we demonstrate that 3D PTV is very suitable for a detailed study of complex unsteady flows as in aorta and for validating computational models of aortic hemodynamics. In a future step, it will be possible to take advantage from the ability of 3D PTV to evaluate velocity fluctuations and, for this reason, to gain further knowledge on the process of transition to turbulence occurring in the thoracic aorta. PMID:25017300

Gallo, Diego; Gülan, Utku; Di Stefano, Antonietta; Ponzini, Raffaele; Lüthi, Beat; Holzner, Markus; Morbiducci, Umberto

2014-09-22

379

[Clinical case of the month. Penetrating trauma of the thoracic aorta caused by a deer horn].  

PubMed

We present a 33 year-old patient who sustained a penetrating wound of the thoracic aorta caused by a deer horn, without any other lesions. A brief survey of the literature summarizes the epidemiology, diagnosis, surgical care and prognosis of this lesion. PMID:14748193

Bayaux, M

2003-11-01

380

Aorta segmentation in non-contrast cardiac CT images using an entropy-based cost function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies have shown that aortic calcification is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, aortic calcium assessment can be performed on standard cardiac calcium scoring Computed Tomography scans, which may help to avoid additional imaging studies. In this paper, we present an entropy-based, narrow band restricted, iterative method for segmentation of the ascending aorta in non-contrast CT images, as a step towards aortic calcification detection and pericardial fat quantitation. First, an estimate of the aorta center and radius is obtained by applying dynamic programming in Hough space. In the second step, these estimates serve to reduce the aorta boundary search area to within a narrow band, and the contour is updated iteratively using dynamic programming methods. Our algorithm is able to overcome the limitations of previous approaches in characterizing (i) the boundary edge features and (ii) non-circular shape at aortic root. The results from the proposed method compare favorably with the manually traced aorta boundaries and outperform other approaches in terms of boundary distance and volume overlap.

Avila-Montes, Olga C.; Kukure, Uday; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A.

2010-03-01

381

Noggin recruits mesoderm progenitors from the dorsal aorta to a skeletal myogenic fate.  

PubMed

Embryonic mesoangioblasts are the in vitro counterpart of vessel-associated progenitors, able to differentiate into different mesoderm cell types. To investigate signals recruiting these progenitors to a skeletal myogenic fate, we developed an in vitro assay, based upon co-culture of E11.5 dorsal aorta (from MLC3F-nLacZ transgenic embryos, expressing nuclear beta galactosidase only in striated muscle) with differentiating C2C12 or primary myoblasts. Under these conditions muscle differentiation from cells originating from the vessel can be quantified by counting the number of beta gal+nuclei. Results indicated that Noggin (but not Follistatin, Chordin or Gremlin) stimulates while BMP2/4 inhibits myogenesis from dorsal aorta progenitors; neutralizing antibodies and shRNA greatly reduce these effects. In contrast, TGF-?1, VEGF, Wnt7A, Wnt3A, bFGF, PDGF-BB and IGF1 have no effect. Sorting experiments indicated that the majority of these myogenic progenitors express the pericyte marker NG2. Moreover they are abundant in the thoracic segment at E10.5 and in the iliac bifurcation at E11.5 suggesting the occurrence of a cranio-caudal wave of competent cells along the aorta. BMP2 is expressed in the dorsal aorta and Noggin in newly formed muscle fibers suggesting that these two tissues compete to recruit mesoderm cells to a myogenic or to a perithelial fate in the developing fetal muscle. PMID:22370001

Ugarte, Gonzalo; Cappellari, Ornella; Perani, Laura; Pistocchi, Anna; Cossu, Giulio

2012-05-01

382

Finite Element Modeling of the Pulse Wave propagation in the aorta for simulation of the  

E-print Network

-Structure Interaction (FSI) coupled model was developed based on an idealized axisymmetric aorta geometry. The accuracy Introduction For several decades, the pulse wave velocity (PWV) has been used as a health indicator of the cardiovascular system. This assertion relies on the fact that the PWV is directly linked to the aortic stiffness

Konofagou, Elisa E.

383

Endothelial injury and leukocyte adherence in Häutchen preparations from coronary arteries and aorta of cynomolgus monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to describe the production of en face preparations (Häutchens) of the endothelium from the aorta and the coronary arteries of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), to describe the morphology of the endothelium and to estimate endothelial injury. The present study describes, for the first time, the application of this technique to the coronary arteries. Numerous leukocytes (peroxidase-positive and

Harriet Björk Skantze; Jay Kaplan; Göran Bondjers; Stephen Manuck; Knut Pettersson

1998-01-01

384

Incidental finding of complete interruption of the aorta in a septuagenarian.  

PubMed

Adult survivors of aortic interruption is extremely rare. Diagnosis mostly depends on additional imaging with CT and MRI. We present a rare case of acquired complete interruption of the aorta that was found incidentally at the time of coronary angiography. This finding was confirmed by CT scan. PMID:25222340

Ozturk, Semi; Gurbuz, Ahmet Seyfeddin; Efe, Suleyman Cagan

2015-03-01

385

AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS  

E-print Network

in CTA scans would allow an imaging protocol without a CT scan, thus reducing scanning time and radiationAUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS R enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) scans. This CT scan is generally followed by a contrast enhanced

van Vliet, Lucas J.

386

Vasoconstrictor effect of Africanized honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) venom on rat aorta  

PubMed Central

Background Apis mellifera stings are a problem for public health worldwide, particularly in Latin America due to the aggressiveness of its Africanized honeybees. Massive poisoning by A. mellifera venom (AmV) affects mainly the cardiovascular system, and several works have described its actions on heart muscle. Nevertheless, no work on the pharmacological action mechanisms of the AmV in isolated aorta has been reported. Thus, the present work aimed to investigate the actions of AmV and its main fractions, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and melittin, on isolated aorta rings and a probable action mechanism. Results AmV and the complex PLA2 + melittin (0.1-50 ?g/mL) caused contraction in endothelium-containing aorta rings, but neither isolated PLA2 nor melittin were able to reproduce the effect. Endothelium removal did not change the maximum vasoconstrictor effect elicited by AmV. Ca2+-free medium, as well as treatment with phentolamine (5 ?M), verapamil (10 ?M), losartan (100 ?M), and U-73122 (10 ?M, a phospholipase C inhibitor), eliminated the AmV-induced contractile effects. Conclusions In conclusion, AmV caused contractile effect in aorta rings probably through the involvement of voltage-operated calcium channels, AT1 and ?-adrenergic receptors via the downstream activation of phospholipase C. The protein complex, PLA2 + melittin, was also able to induce vasoconstriction, whereas the isolated proteins were not. PMID:24066982

2013-01-01

387

Endothelial cell membrane perforation of aorta and pulmonary artery in the electrocution victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some electrocution deaths occur without detectable current marks on the skin, making forensic examination to determine the true cause of death more difficult. Because arterial thrombosis was a frequent finding in victims of electrocution, we investigated injury to the endothelium of the aorta and pulmonary artery with a scanning electron microscope in five cases of death known to be caused

Ye Wang; Min Liu; Wei-Bo Cheng; Fan Li; Zhigang Liao; Yaqin Wang

2008-01-01

388

Aorta Segmentation for Stent Simulation Jan Egger1,2,3  

E-print Network

Aorta Segmentation for Stent Simulation Jan Egger1,2,3 , Bernd Freisleben1 , Randolph Setser4 of arterial stenting procedures prior to intervention allows for appropriate device selection as well stenting from a contrast computer tomography (CT) scan. More specifically, we present a method for both

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

389

Effect of temperature increase on the distensibility of porcine thoracic aorta.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to investigate the temperature impact on the elasticity of porcine thoracic aorta. Under general anesthesia, 16 Landrace pigs were subjected to thoracotomy, and the descending thoracic aorta was removed and stored in normal saline. Serial sections of the vessel created cylindrical aortic specimens which were tested in a uniaxial tension device to determine the elastic properties of the aortic wall. In the control, Group A (n = 8), the aortic tissues were tested while immersed in normal saline bath of temperature TA = 37.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C, while in Group B, the temperature was TB = 40.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C. Each experiment took place only after the tissues had remained for 15 min in temperature TA or TB. For the results, the stiffness modulus of Group B showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) at medium strain level deformation (e = 1, SB1 = 114 +/- 8 Pa) as well as at high strain level deformation (e = 2, SB1 = 1182 +/- 48 Pa) in comparison with the control, Group A (e = 1, SA1 = 147 +/- 15 Pa; e = 2, SA1 = 1479 +/- 64 Pa). It is concluded that temperature increase facilitates, in vitro, the expansion of descending thoracic aorta. We assume that thermal treatment may be another means against the stiffening of aorta, which calls for further research. PMID:16266302

Tsatsaris, Athanasios

2005-11-01

390

G enistein supplementation stimulates the oxytocin system in the aorta of ovariectomized rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In the present study, we localized oxytocin (OT) and its receptor (OTR) in the rat aorta, and investigated whether genistein, an isoflavonic phytoestrogen, influences their expression in ovariectomized (OVX) rats deficient in estrogen. Methods and results: OVX Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to the following groups: genistein (from 0.02 to 5 mg \\/ g \\/ day, s.c. for 10 days),

Donghao Wang; Jolanta Gutkowska; Mieczyslaw Marcinkiewicz; Grazyna Rachelska; Marek Jankowski

391

A rare nonincisional lateral abdominal wall hernia  

PubMed Central

A 68-year-old woman presented a rare lateral abdominal wall hernia. Three month before admission to Chungbuk National University Hospital, she found a large protruding mass measuring 8 cm in diameter in the midaxillary line just below the costal margin upon heavy coughing. She had no history of abdominal trauma, infection, or operation previously. The mass was easily reduced manually or by position change to left lateral decubitus. CT scan showed a defect of the right transversus abdominis muscle and internal oblique muscle at the right flank with omental herniation. Its location is different from that of spigelian hernia or lumbar hernia. The peritoneal lining of the hernia sac was smooth and there was no evidence of inflammation or adhesion. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically using Parietex composite mesh with an intraperitoneal onlay mesh technique. The patient was discharged uneventfully and did not show any evidence of recurrence at follow-up visits.

Kim, Dong-Ju

2015-01-01

392

Staged Management of Giant Abdominal Wall Defects  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Shock resuscitation leads to visceral edema often precluding abdominal wall closure. We have developed a staged approach encompassing acute management through definitive abdominal wall reconstruction. The purpose of this report is to analyze our experience with this technique applied to the treatment of patients with open abdomen and giant abdominal wall defects. Methods: Our management scheme for giant abdominal wall defects consists of 3 stages: stage I, absorbable mesh insertion for temporary closure (if edema quickly resolves within 3-5 days, the mesh is gradually pleated, allowing delayed fascial closure); stage II, absorbable mesh removal in patients without edema resolution (2-3 weeks after insertion to allow for granulation and fixation of viscera) and formation of the planned ventral hernia with either split thickness skin graft or full thickness skin closure over the viscera; and stage III, definitive reconstruction after 6-12 months (allowing for inflammation and dense adhesion resolution) by using the modified components separation technique. Consecutive patients from 1993 to 2001 at a single institution were evaluated. Outcomes were analyzed by management stage, with emphasis on wound related morbidity and mortality, and fistula and recurrent hernia rates. Results: Two hundred seventy four patients (35 with sepsis, 239 with hemorrhagic shock) were managed. There were 212 males (77%), and mean age was 37 (range, 12-88). The average size of the defects was 20 × 30 cm. In the stage I group, 108 died (92% of all deaths) because of shock. The remaining 166 had temporary closure with polyglactin 910 woven absorbable mesh. As visceral edema resolved, bedside pleating of the absorbable mesh allowed delayed fascial closure in 37 patients (22%). In the stage II group, 9 died (8% of all deaths) from multiple organ failure associated with their underlying disease process, and 96% of the remaining 120 had split-thickness skin graft placed over the viscera. No wound related mortality occurred. There were a total of 14 fistulae (5% of total, 8% of survivors). In the stage III group, to date, 73 of the 120 have had definitive abdominal wall reconstruction using the modified components separation technique. There were no deaths. Mean follow-up was 24 months, (range 2-60). Recurrent hernias developed in 4 of these patients (5%). Conclusions: The staged management of patients with giant abdominal wall defects without the use of permanent mesh results in a safe and consistent approach for both initial and definitive management with low morbidity and no technique-related mortality. Absorbable mesh provides effective temporary abdominal wall defect coverage with a low fistula rate. Because of the low recurrent hernia rate and avoidance of permanent mesh, the components separation technique is the procedure of choice for definitive abdominal wall reconstruction. PMID:14501501

Jernigan, T Wright; Fabian, Timothy C.; Croce, Martin A.; Moore, Natalie; Pritchard, F Elizabeth; Minard, Gayle; Bee, Tiffany K.

2003-01-01

393

Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order sub-basins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km 2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the sub-surface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the drainage basin. The slope map of Suketi river basin has been classified into three main zones, which delineate the runoff zone in the mountains, recharge zone in the transition zone between mountains and valley plane, and discharge zone in the plane areas of Balh valley.

Pophare, Anil M.; Balpande, Umesh S.

2014-10-01

394

Elective treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 20 years at the Massachusetts General Hospital the mortality rate for elective resection and grafting of abdominal\\u000a aortic aneurysms (AAA) has fallen from 9.6% to 1.7% in a series of over 1000 patients. The improvement in mortality rate is\\u000a partially the result of earlier diagnosis, better preoperative preparation, routine use of aortography, and increased technical\\u000a experience. Improvements

R. Clement Darling; David C. Brewster

1980-01-01

395

Anaesthesia for abdominal emergencies in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The anaesthetist dealing with abdominal emergencies in children must take into account the condition of the child or infant,\\u000a the environment of the hospital, which is quite different in the evening and at night from during the usual operating hours,\\u000a and the skill of the operator as well as the surgical procedure.\\u000a \\u000a Before surgery, the anaesthetist must assure himself that

T. J. Mccaughey

1963-01-01

396

Eosinophilic jejunitis presenting as intractable abdominal pain.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical manifestations are related to the layer(s) and extent of the bowel involved. In this paper, we present a case of intractable abdominal pain caused by jejunal submucosal eosinophilic infiltration without mucosal involvement, diagnosed by deep endoscopic biopsies. The patient was successfully treated with steroids without need for surgery for diagnosis or therapy. PMID:25565932

Mungan, Zeynel; Attila, Tan; Kapran, Yersu; Tokatli, Ilyas Pinar; Unal, Zeynep

2014-09-01

397

Abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects up to 22% of the US population, and patients with this disorder account for up to 28%\\u000a of patients seen by gastroenterologists. IBS is a chronic disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by exacerbations and\\u000a remissions, that presents with symptoms of abdominal pain and discomfort and alterations in bowel habits. Approximately two\\u000a thirds of patients report

Bruce Naliboff; Anthony Lembo; Emeran A. Mayer

1999-01-01

398

Imaging-guided percutaneous abdominal biopsy.  

PubMed

Guided percutaneous biopsy has become an important means of diagnosing abdominal lesions. This technique provides necessary pathologic information without resorting to open biopsy. Fluoroscopy, sonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be used for needle guidance, depending on the patient's condition and the size and location of the lesion. These variables also influence selection of needle gauge, tip configuration, and sampling mechanism. The authors describe appropriate techniques for percutaneous biopsy of hepatic, renal, pancreatic, adrenal, and retroperitoneal lesions. PMID:1831639

Gazelle, G S; Haaga, J R

1991-06-01

399

A historical review of penetrating abdominal trauma.  

PubMed

The course of history changed because of the deaths of these two men. Although the world doesn't remember Chester Allan Arthur (JAG's Vice President), Theodore Roosevelt became one of our most popular presidents. Neither president's injuries were life-threatening, but they died of postoperative complications. The technology and treatment used for penetrating abdominal trauma have changed tremendously over the past 100 years. Both presidents would survive if they sustained their injuries today. PMID:16962459

Blank-Reid, Cynthia

2006-09-01

400

Eosinophilic Jejunitis Presenting as Intractable Abdominal Pain  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical manifestations are related to the layer(s) and extent of the bowel involved. In this paper, we present a case of intractable abdominal pain caused by jejunal submucosal eosinophilic infiltration without mucosal involvement, diagnosed by deep endoscopic biopsies. The patient was successfully treated with steroids without need for surgery for diagnosis or therapy. PMID:25565932

Mungan, Zeynel; Attila, Tan; Kapran, Yersu; Tokatli, Ilyas Pinar; Unal, Zeynep

2014-01-01

401

Non-traumatic lateral abdominal wall hernia.  

PubMed

A rare lateral abdominal wall hernia is described in an adult patient. This was diagnosed in a patient with a prominent right lateral abdominal wall deformity. The patient had been experiencing pain that increased progressively in severity over time. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed the location of the lateral abdominal wall defect. The hernia defect was through the transversus abdominis and the internal oblique, with the inferior aspect of the 11th rib forming part of the superior border of the defect. A 4-cm bony spur from the inferior aspect of the rib formed part of the lateral margin of the defect. The hernia sac was contained within a space underneath the external oblique muscle. The association of the hernia defect with a bony spur was highly suggestive of a congenital etiology. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically with Parietex mesh (Sofradim, Lyons, France), and the patient had resolution of the symptoms on discharge and follow-up visits. PMID:18949442

Castillo-Sang, M; Gociman, B; Almaroof, B; Fath, J; Cason, F

2009-06-01

402

Association between the rotation and three-dimensional tortuosity of the proximal ascending aorta.  

PubMed

Age-related morphological changes of the aorta, including dilatation and elongation, have been reported. However, rotation has not been fully investigated. We focused on the rotation of the ascending aorta and investigated its relationship with tortuosity. One hundred and two consecutive patients who underwent computed tomography coronary angiography were studied. The angle at which the en face view of the volume-rendered image of the right coronary aortic sinus (RCS) was obtained without foreshortening was defined as the rotation index. It was defined as zero if the RCS was squarely visible in the frontal view, positive if it rotated clockwise toward the left anterior oblique (LAO) direction, and negative if it rotated counter-clockwise toward the right anterior oblique (RAO) direction. The tortuosity was evaluated by measuring the biplane tilt angles formed between the ascending aorta and the horizontal line. The mean rotation index, posterior tilt angle viewed from the RAO direction (?RAO ), and anterior tilt angle viewed from the LAO direction (?LAO ) were 4.8?±?16.3, 60.7?±?7.0°, and 63.6?±?9.0°, respectively. Although no correlation was observed between the rotation index and the ?LAO (??=?-0.0761, P?=?0.1651), there was a significant negative correlation between the rotation index and ?RAO (??=?-0.1810, P?aorta exacerbates the tortuosity by tilting the aorta toward the posterior direction. PMID:25091125

Mori, Shumpei; Yamashita, Tomoya; Takaya, Tomofumi; Kinugasa, Mitsuo; Takamine, Sachiko; Shigeru, Mayumi; Ito, Tatsuro; Fujiwara, Sei; Nishii, Tatsuya; Kono, Atsushi K; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

2014-11-01

403

Cell-specific and endothelium-dependent regulations of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in rat aorta.  

PubMed

Chronic activation of angiotensin II (ANGII) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) during hypertension contributes to increased aortic stiffness. We studied signalling mechanisms employed by ANGII in the regulation of latent (pro-) and active forms of MMP-2 in rat aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells, along with isolated rat aorta. Using western blotting, we demonstrate that ANGII (1 µmol/L) significantly (P < 0.01) increases pro-MMP-2 protein expression after 8 h not only in endothelial and smooth muscle cells, but also in isolated rat aorta. We demonstrate that ANGII acts via AT1 receptor-activated cell-specific pathways. In endothelial cells, the JNK1/c-jun pathway is activated, whereas in smooth muscle cells, the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Activation of JAK2/STAT3 pathway in response to ANGII was EGF receptor-dependent. Results obtained in cell culture are in agreement with the results obtained in isolated aorta. However, active MMP-2 was not found under cell culture conditions, whereas in isolated aorta, active MMP-2 was significantly (P < 0.05) increased after stimulation with ANGII, as detected by gelatine zymography. This increase of MMP-2 activity was not inhibited by blocking the pathways we identified to control pro-MMP-2 protein expression, but was abolished in the absence of endothelium. Our findings demonstrate that ANGII regulates pro-MMP-2 protein expression via cell-specific pathways in rat aorta. The endothelium may play an essential role in the activation of pro-MMP-2. These results may lead to new strategies for inhibiting MMP-2 expression and activity in distinct cell types of the aortic wall. PMID:24907869

Kopaliani, Irakli; Martin, Melanie; Zatschler, Birgit; Bortlik, Katrin; Müller, Bianca; Deussen, Andreas

2014-07-01

404

Endothelial ?-Glutamyltransferase Contributes to the Vasorelaxant Effect of S-Nitrosoglutathione in Rat Aorta  

PubMed Central

S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) involved in storage and transport of nitric oxide (•NO) plays an important role in vascular homeostasis. Breakdown of GSNO can be catalyzed by ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT). We investigated whether vascular GGT influences the vasorelaxant effect of GSNO in isolated rat aorta. Histochemical localization of GGT and measurement of its activity were performed by using chromogenic substrates in sections and in aorta homogenates, respectively. The role of GGT in GSNO metabolism was evaluated by measuring GSNO consumption rate (absorbance decay at 334 nm), •NO release was visualized and quantified with the fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate. The vasorelaxant effect of GSNO was assayed using isolated rat aortic rings (in the presence or absence of endothelium). The role of GGT was assessed by stimulating enzyme activity with cosubstrate glycylglycine, as well as using two independent inhibitors, competitive serine borate complex and non-competitive acivicin. Specific GGT activity was histochemically localized in the endothelium. Consumption of GSNO and release of free •NO decreased and increased in presence of serine borate complex and glycylglycine, respectively. In vasorelaxation experiments with endothelium-intact aorta, the half maximal effective concentration of GSNO (EC50?=?3.2±0.5.10?7 M) increased in the presence of the two distinct GGT inhibitors, serine borate complex (1.6±0.2.10?6 M) and acivicin (8.3±0.6.10?7 M), while it decreased with glycylglycine (4.7±0.9.10?8 M). In endothelium-denuded aorta, EC50 for GSNO alone increased to 2.3±0.3.10?6 M, with no change in the presence of serine borate complex. These data demonstrate the important role of endothelial GGT activity in mediating the vasorelaxant effect of GSNO in rat aorta under physiological conditions. Because therapeutic treatments based on GSNO are presently under development, this endothelium-dependent mechanism involved in the vascular effects of GSNO should be taken into account in a pharmacological perspective. PMID:22984412

Dahboul, Fatima; Leroy, Pierre; Maguin Gate, Katy; Boudier, Ariane; Gaucher, Caroline; Liminana, Patrick; Lartaud, Isabelle; Pompella, Alfonso; Perrin-Sarrado, Caroline

2012-01-01

405

Endovascular Repair of Localized Pathological Lesions of the Descending Thoracic Aorta: Midterm Results  

SciTech Connect

The endoluminal stent-graft represents an attractive and a less invasive technique for treatment of various diseases of the descending thoracic aorta. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Talent endovascular stent-graft for the treatment of various localized diseases of the descending thoracic aorta. Over a 3-year period, Talent thoracic endografts were placed in 40 patients with a high surgical risk, presenting a localized lesion of the descending thoracic aorta: degenerative aneurysm (n = 13), acute traumatic rupture (n = 11), acute Stanford type B aortic dissection (n = 6), false aneurysm (n = 7), and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (n = 3). Fifteen patients (37.5%) were treated as emergencies. The feasibility of endovascular treatment and sizing of the aorta and stent-grafts were determined preoperatively by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and intraoperative angiography. Immediate and mid-term technical and clinical success was assessed by clinical and MRA follow-up. Endovascular treatment was completed successfully in all 40 patients, with no conversion to open repair or intraoperative mortality. The mean operative time was 37.5 {+-} 7 min. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 10% (n = 4), all in emergency cases, for causes not related to the endograft. The primary technical success was 92.5%. The mean follow-up period was 15 {+-} 5 months. The survival rate was 95% (n = 35). Diminution of the aneurismal size was observed in 47.5% (n = 19). We conclude that endovascular treatment of the various localized diseases of the descending thoracic aorta is a promising, feasible, alternative technique to open surgery in well-selected patients.

Attia, Cherif; Villard, Jacques [University Hospital Louis Pradel, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (France); Boussel, Loic [University Hospital Louis Pradel, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Farhat, Fadi; Robin, Jacques [University Hospital Louis Pradel, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (France); Revel, Didier; Douek, Philippe [University Hospital Louis Pradel, Department of Interventional Radiology (France)], E-mail: Philippe.Douek@creatis.univ-lyon1.fr

2007-07-15

406

Calcifications of the Thoracic Aorta on Extended Non-Contrast-Enhanced Cardiac CT  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of calcified atherosclerosis in different vascular beds has been associated with a higher risk of mortality. Thoracic aorta calcium (TAC) can be assessed from computed tomography (CT) scans, originally aimed at coronary artery calcium (CAC) assessment. CAC screening improves cardiovascular risk prediction, beyond standard risk assessment, whereas TAC performance remains controversial. However, the curvilinear portion of the thoracic aorta (TA), that includes the aortic arch, is systematically excluded from TAC analysis. We investigated the prevalence and spatial distribution of TAC all along the TA, to see how those segments that remain invisible in standard TA evaluation were affected. Methods and Results A total of 970 patients (77% men) underwent extended non-contrast cardiac CT scans including the aortic arch. An automated algorithm was designed to extract the vessel centerline and to estimate the vessel diameter in perpendicular planes. Then, calcifications were quantified using the Agatston score and associated with the corresponding thoracic aorta segment. The aortic arch and the proximal descending aorta, “invisible” in routine CAC screening, appeared as two vulnerable sites concentrating 60% of almost 11000 calcifications. The aortic arch was the most affected segment per cm length. Using the extended measurement method, TAC prevalence doubled from 31% to 64%, meaning that 52% of patients would escape detection with a standard scan. In a stratified analysis for CAC and/or TAC assessment, 111 subjects (46% women) were exclusively identified with the enlarged scan. Conclusions Calcium screening in the TA revealed that the aortic arch and the proximal descending aorta, hidden in standard TA evaluations, concentrated most of the calcifications. Middle-aged women were more prone to have calcifications in those hidden portions and became candidates for reclassification. PMID:25302677

Craiem, Damian; Chironi, Gilles; Casciaro, Mariano E.; Graf, Sebastian; Simon, Alain

2014-01-01

407

Osteopontin gene expression in the aorta and the heart of propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroid mice.  

PubMed

It is known that there is abnormal osteopontin (OPN) expression at the sites of atherosclerotic lesions. In the Apolipoprotein E gene knockout (ApoE-KO) mouse, a model of the atherosclerotic process, altered cholesterol metabolism with associated increase in OPN expression is evident at 12-22 weeks in the aorta and at 22 weeks in the heart. In this study, we analyzed another animal model of hypothyroid mice created by ingestion of propylthiouracil (PTU). After 2 weeks of PTU ingestion, the animals had significant decreases in thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and immediate increases in blood lipids/cholesterol. Hypothyroid mice showed 1.3-, 1.5-, 2-fold increases in blood levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol respectively. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that hypothyroid mice had 1.4- to 2-fold increases of OPN mRNA expression in the aorta and 1.5-fold increases in the heart. Hypothyroid animals treated with T3 (5 microg/day for 6 days) or statin (0.2 mg/30 g for 2 weeks) reduce blood lipids and aortic OPN mRNA expression. Data obtained with ELISA analyses showed 1.5- and 1.7-fold increases in OPN protein in the aorta (10 weeks) and the heart (22 weeks), respectively. This increase is close to the mRNA expression in both tissues of hypothyroid mice. In addition, western blots showed several variants of OPN protein expressed in the aorta and the heart. The decrease in the 70 kDa OPN is accompanied by an increase in 45 kDa OPN in the aorta of hypothyroid mice. In contrast, only 45 kDa OPN is found in the heart of control and hypothyroid mice. These data indicate that the increase of OPN mRNA and protein expression occurs in cardiovascular tissues of hypothyroid mice. PMID:16265595

Liou, Y M; Chang, L Y; Liaw, J M; Jiang, M J

2005-12-01

408

Delayed abdominal closure in the management of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare initial use of the open abdomen using the vacuum-pack technique followed by delayed abdominal closure with standard primary abdominal closure in the treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) repair. A retrospective review identified 122 rAAA cases, which were divided into two management eras: era 1 (primarily closed) and era 2 (47% open abdomen).One hundred three patients were included in this review: 58 in era 1 and 45 in era 2. Evidence of one of three ischemia-reperfusion (IR) criteria, preoperative hypotension, estimated blood loss > or = 6 L, or intraoperative resuscitation with > or = 12 L, predicted mortality. These criteria were also used as surrogate clinical markers for abdominal compartment syndrome. The in-hospital mortality was higher in those with at least one IR criterion: 43% versus 10% (p = .0003). In those with at least one IR criterion, the initial 24-hour mortality was 21% for era 1 versus 0% for era 2 (p = .03), and the 30-day mortality was 40% for era 1 and 32% for era 2 (p = .77).Three IR criteria were identified and were associated with increased mortality. Patients with these risk factors who were treated with delayed abdominal closure had an improved acute survival rate and a trend for improved long-term survival. PMID:19909677

Kimball, Edward J; Adams, Danielle M; Kinikini, Daniel V; Mone, Mary C; Alder, Stephen C

2009-01-01

409

Cholesterol efflux and the effect of combined treatment with niacin and chromium on aorta of hyperlipidemic rat.  

PubMed

Endothelial cells may play a potential role in cholesterol efflux from peripheral tissues to liver. Cholesterol efflux from cells is essential for activation of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway and cardiovascular health. One of the cholesterol transporters is steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) which promotes intramitochondrial delivery of cholesterol to the cholesterol side-chain cleavage system. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a niacin-chromium complex on aortas of hyperlipidemic rats and on the cholesterol efflux from aorta endothelial cells by examination under light and transmission electron microscopes and evaluating the StAR immunoreactivity, respectively. Aorta lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by spectrophotometric methods. After treating hyperlipidemic animals with the complex, the StAR immunoreactivity in endothelial cells increased to achieve cholesterol homeostasis and efflux. Combined treatment with niacin and chromium resulted in an inhibition in the mast cell secretion and a decrease in lipid vacuole size in unilocular adipose tissue surrounding aorta, as well as in a decrease in morphological degenerations observing in aorta of hyperlipidemic rats. Aorta LPO levels increased and GSH levels decreased in the hyperlipidemic group, whereas treatment with niacin and chromium reversed these effects. In conclusion, this study reveals that combined treatment with niacin and chromium prevents the morphological and biochemical changes observed in thoracic aorta of hyperlipidemic rats, and may regulate effectively cardiovascular diseases inducing an increase in StAR levels on endothelial cells. PMID:17934701

Suren Castillo, Songul; Doger, M Mutluhan; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Yanardag, Refiye

2008-01-01

410

Effects of chronic diabetes on vascular responses of basilar artery and aorta from rabbits with alloxan-induced diabetes.  

PubMed

The influences of chronically diabetic states on contraction and relaxation responses of the isolated basilar artery and aorta to various vasoactive agents were examined in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits with 2 years duration. There were no significant differences in the reactivities of basilar artery to norepinephrine (NE), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and KCl between age-matched control and diabetic rabbits. Maximal contractions of aorta with endothelium in response to NE and 5-HT were significantly enhanced in case concentration-response curves for NE and 5-HT-induced contractions in the aorta without endothelium from diabetic rabbits were not different from those from age-matched control rabbits. Acetylcholine-induced relaxations in both the basilar artery and aorta from diabetic rabbits were significantly attenuated compared with those from age-matched control rabbits. However, no differences were observed in concentration-response curves for sodiumnitroprusside-induced relaxations in both the basilar artery and aorta between diabetic rabbits and age-matched control rabbits. These results indicate that chronic diabetes induces an specific enhancement in the contractile responses to NE and 5-HT in aorta and an attenuation in the endothelium-dependent relaxation in both the basilar artery and aorta. These results further demonstrated that the cerebral artery is resistant to diabetes of 2 years duration as compared with the peripheral artery. PMID:1801104

Abiru, T; Kamata, K; Kasuya, Y

1991-10-01

411

A morphometric analysis of the foramen magnum region as it relates to the transcondylar approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background. The transcondylar approach is being increasingly used to access lesions ventral to the brainstem and cervicomedullary junction. Understanding the bony anatomy of this region is important for this approach. The purpose of this study was to conduct a morphometric analysis of the hypoglossal canal (HC), occipital condyle (OC) and the foramen magnum (FM) as it pertains to the

N. Muthukumar; R. Swaminathan; G. Venkatesh; S. P. Bhanumathy

2005-01-01

412

How Heterogeneous Bronchoconstriction Affects Ventilation Distribution in Human Lungs: A Morphometric Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convective dependent flow heterogeneities associated with airways proximal to the acini are the dominant cause of abnormal ventilation distribution during induced bronchoconstriction (Verbanck, S., D. Schuermans, A. Van Muylem, M. Paira, M. Noppen, and W. Vincken. Ventilation distribution during histamine provocation. J. Appl. Physiol. 83:1907–1916, 1997). We applied a morphometric model of the human lung to predict flow distributions among

Heather L. Gillis; Kenneth R. Lutchen

1999-01-01

413

Quantitative analysis of Neanderthal temporal bone morphology using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal bone is the location of sev- eral traits thought to differentiate Neanderthals from modern humans, including some proposed Neanderthal- derived traits. Most of these, however, are difficult to measure and are usually described qualitatively. This study applied the techniques of geometric morphometrics to the complex morphology of the temporal bone, in order to quantify the differences observed between

Katerina Harvati

2003-01-01

414

Geometric morphometric analysis of fish scales for identifying genera, species, and local populations within the Mugilidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometric morphometric methods (GMMs) were used to determine if scale morphology can discriminate be- tween genera, species, geographic variants, and stocks of mullet (Mugilidae). GMMs were used because they allow standard multivariate analyses while preserving information about scale shape, which is important in making biological interpretations of results. The method was tested on ctenoid scales from mullets collected from different

Ana L. Ibañez; Ian G. Cowx; Paul O'Higgins

2007-01-01

415

Human Body Mass Estimation: A Comparison of "Morphometric" and "Mechanical" Methods  

E-print Network

Human Body Mass Estimation: A Comparison of "Morphometric" and "Mechanical" Methods Benjamin M compared across a large group of modern humans of diverse body form. This study incorporates skeletal in results due to differences in body proportions. Since the STBIB method was validated on other samples

Auerbach, Benjamin M.

416

A Morphometric Comparison of Island and Mainland Boas (Boa constrictor) in Belize  

E-print Network

A Morphometric Comparison of Island and Mainland Boas (Boa constrictor) in Belize SCOTT M. BOBACK Relative to mainland Boa constrictor, boas from islands off the coast of Belize are described as being the body size and head shape variation between island and mainland boas in Belize. One hundred twenty- nine

Boback, Scott

417

Predictive Morphometric Relationships for Estimating Fecundity of Sea Lampreys from Lake Champlain and Other  

E-print Network

Predictive Morphometric Relationships for Estimating Fecundity of Sea Lampreys from Lake Champlain lampreys in Lake Champlain, we sampled 29 female sea lampreys (mean length ¼ 456 mm [range ¼ 364­550 mm based on wet weight alone. Sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus are a nuisance species in Lake Champlain

Marsden, Ellen

418

APPLICATION OF LANDMARK MORPHOMETRICS TO SKULLS REPRESENTING THE ORDERS OF LIVING MAMMALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical analyses of geometric morphometric data have been generally restricted to the Euclidean space tangent to curved shape space. This approach is based on the knowledge that such an approximation does not affect statistical and biological conclusions, when differences among spec- imens' shapes are not too large. We examined the wide variation of shapes within the vertebrate class Mammalia to

LESLIE E MARCUS; ERIKA HINGST-ZAHER; HUSSAM ZAHER

2000-01-01

419

A geometric morphometric appraisal of beak shape in Darwin’s finches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beak size and shape in Darwin's finches have traditionally been quantified using a few univariate measurements (length, depth, width). Here we show the improved inferential resolution of geometric morphometric methods, as applied to three hierarchical levels: (i) among seven species on Santa Cruz Island, (ii) among different sites on Santa Cruz for a single species (Geospiza fortis), and (iii) between

D. J. FOSTER; J. PODOS; A. P. HENDRY

2007-01-01

420

Copper treatment of the digestive gland of the slug Arion ater L. 2. Morphometrics and histophysiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to have a clear image of processes involved in copper bioaccumulation-detoxication mechanisms in the terrestrial slug, Arion ater, the authors planned a histophysiological analysis based on morphometrics and on the variations in morphological characteristics of epithelia. This study is the completion of the histochemical analysis, in which the authors suggest a close relationship between copper and calcium in

J. A. Marigomez; E. Angulo; J. Moya

1986-01-01

421

A scheme for automatically building three-dimensional morphometric anatomical atlases: application to a skull atlas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a general scheme for automatically building a morphometric anatomical atlas. We detail each stage of the method, including the non-rigid registration algorithm, three-dimensional line averaging and statistical processes. We apply the method to obtain a quantitative atlas of skull crest lines. Finally, we use the resulting atlas to study a craniofacial disease; we show how we can obtain

Gérard Subsol; Jean-Philippe Thirion; Nicholas Ayache

1998-01-01

422

MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CELLS IN THE ALVEOLAR REGION OF MAMMALIAN LUNGS  

EPA Science Inventory

Morphometric procedures have been used to study the characteristics of cells in the alveolar region of the lungs of rats, dogs, baboons, and humans. Compared with the other species, human lungs were found to contain greater numbers of macrophages and to have larger alveolar type ...

423

Inversion of Crater Morphometric Data to Gain Insight on the Cratering Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, morphometric data for Venus and several outer planet satellites have been collected, so we now have observational data of complex Craters formed in a large range of target properties. We present general inversion techniques that can utilize the morphometric data to quantitatively test various models of complex crater formation. The morphometric data we use in this paper are depth of a complex crater, the diameter at which the depth-diameter ratio changes, and onset diameters for central peaks, terraces, and peak rings. We tested the roles of impactor velocities and hydrostatic pressure vs. crustal strength, and we tested the specific models of acoustic fluidization (Melosh, 1982) and nonproportional growth (Schultz, 1988). Neither the acoustic fluidization model nor the nonproportional growth in their published formulations are able to successfully reproduce the data. No dependence on impactor velocity is evident from our inversions. Most of the morphometric data is consistent with a linear dependence on the ratio of crustal strength to hydrostatic pressure on a planet, or the factor c/pg.

Herrick, Robert R.; Lyons, Suzane N.

1998-01-01

424

MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF LARGE FALCO SPECIES AND THEIR HYBRIDS WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTPACT.---Morphometric examination of several large falcon species and their hybrids was conducted to ascertain whether phenotype was an accurate indicator of hybrid parentage. Six external body measure- ments were recorded from 167 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), Saker (E chefrug), Peregrine (E peregrinus), and New Zealand Falcons (E novaezeelandiae) and from 100 F1, F2, and backcross hybrids of these species. Principal Component

CHRIS P. EASTHAM; MIKE K. NICHOLLS

425

Preliminary Morphometrics of Spleen and Kidney Macrophage Aggregates in Clinically Normal Blue Gourami Trichogaster  

E-print Network

Preliminary Morphometrics of Spleen and Kidney Macrophage Aggregates in Clinically Normal Blue of this study was to characterize a ``normal'' morphometry baseline of spleen and kidney MAs in blue gourami arbitrarily selected fields of view from each spleen and kidney. In clinically normal blue gourami, increases

Watson, Craig A.

426

Ontogeny, Phylogeny, and Morphology in Anuran Larvae: Morphometric Analysis of Cranial Development  

E-print Network

Ontogeny, Phylogeny, and Morphology in Anuran Larvae: Morphometric Analysis of Cranial Development demonstrates a tight link between ontogeny, phylogeny, and morphol- ogy, and highlights the importance change over the course of larval ontogeny in anurans re- mains limited (but see Wassersug and Hoff, 1979

Larson, Peter

427

CRANIAL MORPHOMETRIC AND EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS IN THE NORTHERN RANGE OF OVIS CANADENSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Univariate and multivariate statistical methods were used to examine geographic variation in skull and horn characters of 694 bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) specimens from the Great Basin north to British Columbia and Alberta to test previous taxonomic hypotheses. Substantially more morphometric variation in skull and horn size and shape was found west of the Rocky Mountains than within the Rocky

John D. Wehausen; ROB ROY RAMEY II

2000-01-01

428

Reconstruction and Morphometric Analysis of the Nasal Airway of the Dog  

E-print Network

Reconstruction and Morphometric Analysis of the Nasal Airway of the Dog (Canis familiaris of the nasal airway of a large dog, using magnetic resonance imaging scans. Representative airway sections The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) displays the larg- est variation in body size of all terrestrial

Settles, Gary S.

429

J. AMER. SOC. HORT. SCI. 134(1):7787. 2009. Tomato Fruit Shape Analysis Using Morphometric  

E-print Network

J. AMER. SOC. HORT. SCI. 134(1):77­87. 2009. Tomato Fruit Shape Analysis Using Morphometric of two methods in the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling fruit morphology in three uses fruit morphology attributes such as fruit shape index, blockiness, pear shape, indentation area

van der Knaap, Esther

430

Alcohol Intake Effects on the Dorsal Vagal Complex of the Rat: A Cellular Morphometric Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed the morphometric effects on the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) of the rat of alcohol exposure and\\/or hypoproteic diet intake during 8 weeks. In the area postrema (AP), alcohol treatment (combined with normal isoproteic or hypoproteic diet) caused a significant decrease in karyometric parameters. In the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS),

J. Bañuelos-Pineda; E. Carmona-Calero; R. Peris-Sanchis; H. Perez-Gonzalez; N. Marrero-Gordillo; M. M. Perez-Delgado; A. Castañeyra-Perdomo

1995-01-01

431

A morphometric analysis of Scottish Athyrium distentifolium: a contribution to the BAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

A morphologically distinct variety of Athyrium distentifolium called A. distentifolium var. flexile has been found only in Scotland. Research was undertaken for aUK Biodiversity Action Plan. To confirm that this taxon has a definitely recognisable morphology, a morphometric analysis was used on the range of characters used to define this variety. It showed that it can be clearly differentiated.

Heather McHaffie; Colin Legg; Chris Sydes

2002-01-01

432

Comparative floral morphometrics of distyly and homostyly in three evolutionary lineages of  

E-print Network

Comparative floral morphometrics of distyly and homostyly in three evolutionary lineages of 26 floral traits were made between pins and thrums within the distylous groups, between distyly (pins in the degree of differentiation among the three morphs as well as between distyly and homostyly. Thus

Johnston, Mark

433

Depression of cyclooxygenase-2 induction in aortas of rats with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether cyclooxygenase expression in arteries is affected by diabetes. Streptozotocin-injected rats and Goto-Kakizaki rats were used as animal models for type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression was induced by lipopolysaccharide. Lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression was significantly lower in aortas isolated from streptozotocin-injected rats and Goto-Kakizaki rats than in aortas of control rats, while expression level of cyclooxygenase-1 was not affected by lipopolysaccharide and was not different in aortas of the three groups of rats. The level of 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1alpha) that accumulated in the presence of lipopolysaccharide as well as the basal accumulation level in the absence of lipopolysaccharide was significantly lower in aortas of streptozotocin-injected rats and Goto-Kakizaki rats than in aortas of control rats. The net increase in 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1alpha) level in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, which was calculated by subtracting the basal accumulation level from the total accumulation level, was also significantly lower in aortas