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1

[Aneurysms and dissections of the thoracal and abdominal aorta].  

PubMed

One to four per cent of all deaths in patients over 65 are caused by aneurysmatic diseases of the abdominal or thoracic aorta. For elective surgery in abdominal aneurysms, open surgery and endovascular treatment both demonstrate brilliant overall results. In the thoracic aorta, new endovascular procedures have led to considerable reductions of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, in view of the endovascular procedure's high cost and the still unclear long-term behaviour of the stent device, a second opinion from a specialised centre is an absolute necessity. PMID:17594068

Heider, P; Wolf, O; Reeps, C; Hanke, M; Zimmermann, A; Berger, H; Eckstein, H H

2007-07-01

2

Mechanical and Pharmacological Approaches to Investigate the Pathogenesis of Marfan Syndrome in the Abdominal Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Occurrence of disease complications in the abdominal aorta in Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1, is relatively rare. We hypothesized that Marfan syndrome could affect the structure, vasomotor function and mechanical property of the abdominal aorta. Methods and Results: Abdominal aorta from mice at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of

Ada W. Y. Chung; H. H. Clarice Yang; Karen Au Yeung; Cornelis van Breemen

2008-01-01

3

Paciente intervenido de aneurisma de aorta abdominal por técnica quirúrgica endovascular. Caso clínico  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aneurysm is an abnormal dilation or irreversible convex of a portion of an artery. The most common site of aneurysms is the abdominal aorta and their appearance is often due to degeneration of the arterial wall, associated with atherosclerosis and favored by risk factors such as smoking and hypertension, among others. Left untreated, aneurysm of the abdominal aorta usually

Ana Rosa Alconero-Camarero; José Luis Cobo-Sánchez; María Casaus-Pérez; María Elena García-Campo; María José Garcia-Zarrabeitia; Marta Calvo-Diez; Luz Elena Mirones-Valdeolivas

2008-01-01

4

Acute Ascending Thrombosis of Abdominal and Suprarenal Aorta  

PubMed Central

We report the diagnostic and successful therapeutic images of an acute occlusion of the abdominal and suprarenal aorta. This lesion is a rare but catastrophic pathology which can cause severe ischemic manifestations, depending on the site of obstruction, with high rate of mortality even after treatment. In the majority of cases it represents a surgical emergency. Although the mechanism of the thrombosis has not been delineated, the proposed etiologies include propagation of thrombus from distal artery occlusion, cardiac thromboembolism, dislodgment of a mural thrombus, or coagulation disorders. Frequent risk factors include advanced atherosclerosis combined with a low flow state because of poor cardiac performance. The management of this condition includes immediate intervention with systemic heparinization, improvement of the cardiac condition, and surgical revascularization based on the clinical and anatomical presentation. In this case the authors highlight the importance of an early detection and early intervention to enhance survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Pagliari, Stefano

2014-01-01

5

Anterior retroperitoneal rami: until now unnamed direct branches of the abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to gain a thorough knowledge of the topography and distribution of until now officially unnamed minute direct branches from abdominal aorta, stemming from its ventral and lateral aspects, supplying surrounding tissue, and to comprise it to the existing studies. The study was performed in fixed cadaverous material collected from India ink injections of abdominal aorta samples with large surrounding retroperitoneal tissue. The 25 samples were dissected under magnifying binocular glass, followed by graphic reconstruction; statistical analysis, and the study was preceded with detailed review of branches from abdominal aorta. For systematization of the segmental anatomy of the abdominal aorta and infrarenal segment of inferior vena cava, we defined three levels in this area. The retroperitoneal branches were most frequently situated simultaneously within all three predefined levels according to renal and inferior mesenteric arteries origin. There were 18% of retroperitoneal branches within Level 1, 39% within Level 2 and 43% within Level 3. They were branches not only from the abdominal aorta, but also from the testicular/ovarian artery, common iliac artery and in one case from the right accessory renal artery. Paired arrangement was recorded mainly cranially to the origin of inferior mesenteric artery, unpaired branches were more frequently found caudally. In conclusion, due to the terminological disunity of these arteries in the clinical literature and total absence in the anatomical literature, we propose to denominate them as anterior retroperitoneal branches of abdominal aorta (rami retroperitoneales anteriores aortae abdominalis). PMID:24634276

Turyna, R; Kachlik, D; Feyreisl, J; Stingl, J; Baca, V

2014-09-01

6

Anomalies of the abdominal aorta in Williams-Beuren syndrome - another cause of arterial hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular disease in Williams-Beuren syndrome is based on an elastin arteriopathy which may cause stenoses in small and great vessels. This study presents the pattern of stenotic lesions of the abdominal aorta and the incidence of arterial hypertension. From 112 patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome followed since 1975, 25 patients were studied by aortography. The diameter of the thoracic aorta and

Christof Rose; Armin Wessel; Rainer Pankau; Carl-Joachim Partsch; Joachim Bürsch

2001-01-01

7

Flow dynamics in expansions characterizing abdominal aorta aneurysms.  

PubMed

Our purpose was to identify and quantify hemodynamic factors contributing to the generation, proliferation, and rupturing of abdominal aorta aneurysms (AAAs) using a computational investigation of steady laminar and turbulent flow in AAA models. Steady laminar and turbulent flows were computed using the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Flow fields in symmetric shapes of different extents and degrees of expansion are presented first. Two representative cases of asymmetric AAAs are considered next: an aneurysm with an elliptic cross section and an aneurysm with preferential expansion in one direction. For symmetric aneurysms, parametric studies are presented. For asymmetric aneurysms, flow fields are computed only for high flow rates representative of systolic flow. For all cases, a recirculating flow region was found in the expanded part of the AAA. Recirculation is accompanied by a minor increase in pressure but a significant increase in wall shear stress. For cases where turbulent flow was considered, it was found that the recirculation zone diminishes but the computed wall shear stress reaches levels higher than laminar flow. The levels of wall shear stress reached in turbulent flow may cause lesions of the aneurysmal wall. The minor variation of pressure within the aneurysms with smooth expansions indicates that the structural properties of the arterial wall tissue may play a significant role for the generation and subsequent proliferation of the aneurysm. However, the high values of the wall shear stress in AAAs appear to be an important hemodynamic factor that may contribute to wall degeneration and eventual rupturing. The recirculating flow in AAAs may explain the generation of intraluminal thrombi. Furthermore, the asymmetry and complexity of the flow in asymmetric AAAs may explain the frequently observed asymmetric thrombi distribution. PMID:16779517

Ekaterinaris, John A; Ioannou, Christos V; Katsamouris, Asterios N

2006-05-01

8

Anterior cerebral artery aneurysm associated with multiple intracranial aneurysms and abdominal aorta aneurysm  

PubMed Central

We found multiple aneurysms in the intracranial arteries and abdominal aorta of an 87-year-old Korean female cadaver, whose cause of death was reported as "cholangiocarcinoma." An abdominal aortic aneurysm was observed in the infrarenal aorta, where the inferior mesenteric artery arose. The intracranial aneurysms were found in the A3 segment of the anterior cerebral artery and at the bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery. This case provides an example of the very rare association of peripheral intracranial aneurysms with an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Clinicians as well as anatomists should recognize the potential association between these two aneurysm types. PMID:24179699

Lee, Yunghwan; Min, Hyung Ki

2013-01-01

9

In Situ Polytetrafluoroethylene Graft Bypass for Primary Infected Aneurysm of the Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Reinfection is a major issue of surgical treatment for patients with infected abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The present\\u000a report describes outcomes after use of our procedure for treating patients with infected aneurysm of the infrarenal abdominal\\u000a aorta. The procedure involved an in situ polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft bypass and omental wrapping of the graft. The\\u000a procedure was used regardless of the

Tae-Won KwonHyang-Kyoung Kim; Hyang-Kyoung Kim; Ki-Myung Moon; Yong-Pil Cho; Sang-Jun Park

2010-01-01

10

The relationship between wall shear stress distributions and intimal thickening in the human abdominal aorta  

PubMed Central

Purpose The goal of this work was to determine wall shear stress (WSS) patterns in the human abdominal aorta and to compare these patterns to measurements of intimal thickness (IT) from autopsy samples. Methods The WSS was experimentally measured using the laser photochromic dye tracer technique in an anatomically faithful in vitro model based on CT scans of the abdominal aorta in a healthy 35-year-old subject. IT was quantified as a function of circumferential and axial position using light microscopy in ten human autopsy specimens. Results The histomorphometric analysis suggests that IT increases with age and that the distribution of intimal thickening changes with age. The lowest WSS in the flow model was found on the posterior wall inferior to the inferior mesenteric artery, and coincided with the region of most prominent IT in the autopsy samples. Local geometrical features in the flow model, such as the expansion at the inferior mesenteric artery (common in younger individuals), strongly influenced WSS patterns. The WSS was found to correlate negatively with IT (r2 = 0.3099; P = 0.0047). Conclusion Low WSS in the abdominal aorta is co-localized with IT and may be related to atherogenesis. Also, rates of IT in the abdominal aorta are possibly influenced by age-related geometrical changes. PMID:14641919

Bonert, Michael; Leask, Richard L; Butany, Jagdish; Ethier, C Ross; Myers, Jerry G; Johnston, K Wayne; Ojha, Matadial

2003-01-01

11

Successful hybrid operation of an acute mobile thrombus in the abdominal aorta induced by chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Acute mobile thrombus of the abdominal aorta after chemotherapy is a very unusual finding, which can be a potential source of arterial embolism. We report here on a case of an acute mobile aortic thrombus with renal infarction. We successfully treated the patient with hybrid operation-open surgical and endovascular approach. Our case shows that hybrid treatment using wire-directed balloon catheter thrombectomy is a feasible, minimally-invasive treatment for a mobile aortic thrombus. PMID:22319746

Kim, Woo Chul; Hong, Kee Chun; Kim, Jang Yong; Cho, Soon Gu; Jeon, Yong Sun

2011-12-01

12

Reference Diameters of the Abdominal Aorta and Iliac Arteries in the Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Purpose It is important to know the normal diameter of artery throughout the body so that clinicians are able to determine when an artery becomes aneurysmal. However, there are no previous studies on the normal diameter of arteries in the general Korean population. The purpose of this article is to determine the normal reference diameters of the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries in the Korean population. Materials and Methods We recruited the study population from three cities in Korea for the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening. We measured the diameter of the aorta and iliac arteries. We analyzed the reference diameter of the population without AAA. The results were analyzed by Student's t-test and ANOVA on SPSS version 19. A p value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results One thousand two hundred and twenty-nine people were enrolled. 478 men and 751 women, with a mean age of 63.9±10.1 years (range 50 to 91) were examined. Eleven out of 1229 (0.89%) were diagnosed with AAA. In the population of 1218 people without AAA, the mean diameters (cm) of male/female were 2.20/2.11 (p<0.001) at suprarenal, 2.04/1.90 (p<0.001) at renal, 1.90/1.79 (p<0.001) at infrarenal, 1.22/1.17 (p<0.001) at right iliac and 1.47/1.15 (p=0.097) at the left iliac, respectively. There was a significantly larger diameter in the male population. The diameter of each level increased with age. Conclusion The normal reference diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta in the Korean population is 1.9 cm in males and 1.79 cm in females. The diameter of the abdominal aorta increases with age. PMID:23225798

Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Park, Ho-Chul

2013-01-01

13

"Kissing-balloon" technique for abdominal aorta angioplasty. Initial results and long term outcome.  

PubMed

We evaluated results after angioplasty of the distal abdominal aorta using "kissing-balloon" technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS. From 1981 through 1993, 14 patients (12 women and 2 men, average age 52.4 years), underwent balloon angioplasty of the distal segment of the abdominal aorta. In 8 patients stenosis involved one or both iliac arteries as well. In all cases double balloon technique was used. Follow-up was based on clinical, angiographical and duplex scanning examinations. RESULTS. The initial success rate was 85% (12/14). In one case there was residual stenosis of 20% (redilated successfully 1 month later), and in one case there was acute thrombosis of the right iliac artery (successfully relieved surgically). Long-term follow-up (6-143 months) showed good patency of the dilated segment in all patients (including patients that initially failed). At follow-up, all patients were asymptomatic. CONCLUSION. Dilatation of the distal abdominal aorta using "kissing-balloon" technique is a safe and efficient modality of treatment, with acceptable initial and excellent long-term results. PMID:8708428

Sagic, D; Grujicic, S; Peric, M; Popovic, Z; Radevic, B; Bojic, M

1995-12-01

14

Regional expression of HOXA4 along the aorta and its potential role in human abdominal aortic aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Background The infrarenal abdominal aorta exhibits increased disease susceptibility relative to other aortic regions. Allograft studies exchanging thoracic and abdominal segments showed that regional susceptibility is maintained regardless of location, suggesting substantial roles for embryological origin, tissue composition and site-specific gene expression. Results We analyzed gene expression with microarrays in baboon aortas, and found that members of the HOX gene family exhibited spatial expression differences. HOXA4 was chosen for further study, since it had decreased expression in the abdominal compared to the thoracic aorta. Western blot analysis from 24 human aortas demonstrated significantly higher HOXA4 protein levels in thoracic compared to abdominal tissues (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical staining for HOXA4 showed nuclear and perinuclear staining in endothelial and smooth muscle cells in aorta. The HOXA4 transcript levels were significantly decreased in human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) compared to age-matched non-aneurysmal controls (P < 0.00004). Cultured human aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells stimulated with INF-? (an important inflammatory cytokine in AAA pathogenesis) showed decreased levels of HOXA4 protein (P < 0.0007). Conclusions Our results demonstrated spatial variation in expression of HOXA4 in human aortas that persisted into adulthood and that downregulation of HOXA4 expression was associated with AAAs, an important aortic disease of the ageing population. PMID:21627813

2011-01-01

15

Ascending to Abdominal Aorta Extraanatomic Bypass for Descending Aortic Coarctation: A Reconstruction Technique without Laparotomy or Left Thoracotomy  

PubMed Central

The descending aortic coarctation is often difficult to anatomically reconstruct. We report two cases of ascending aorta to abdominal aorta bypass without laparotomy or thoracotomy. This approach enabled us to avoid anastomosis close to the inflammatory lesion and left thoracotomy causing bleeding from the collateral vessels, and to allow concomitant cardiac procedures to be performed. The graft contact with the intestines can be preventable by the retroperitoneal approach. This technique is useful for the selective patients. PMID:25298846

Yuasa, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masahiko; Horiuchi, Kazutaka; Nakata, Shunsuke; Yasuura, Kenzo

2014-01-01

16

[Assessment of velocity of deformation of abdominal aorta wall with the help of the multivox working station].  

PubMed

Most frequent cause of abnormalities of elastic properties of walls of abdominal aorta is development of atherosclerosis resulting in replacement of elastin by simpler fibrillar proteins and collagen. This subsequently leads to dilation of the aorta and formation of aneurism. Increase of collagen content in the aortic wall correlates with growth of aneurism dimensions. Main method of treatment of aneurisms is implantation of abdominal aortic prosthesis. Detailed preoperative assessment of functional state of the aortic wall is necessary in preoperative period but none of modern imaging instrumental methods including ultrasound study allows to realize this assessment. In this article we present first experience of assessment of aortic wall deformation velocity analyzing results of ultrasound study with the help of the Multivox working station in 36 patients 16 of whom were operated because of aneurism of abdominal aorta. PMID:24654437

Sandrikov, V A; Fisenko, E P; Gavrilov, A V; Lozhkevich, A A; Platova, E N; Arkhipov, I V

2013-01-01

17

Primary Self-Expandable Nitinol Stent Placement in Focal Lesions of Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta: Long Term Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the technical and clinical success, safety and long term results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty/self-expandable nitinol stent placement of infrarenal abdominal aorta focal lesions. Materials and Methods. Eighteen patients underwent PTA of focal atherosclerotic occlusive disease of distal abdominal aorta. Two symptomatic occlusions and 16 stenoses in 10 male and 8 female patients (mean age 68.2 years) were treated with primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement. Results. Primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement was technically successful in all 18 procedures; clinical success was achieved in 100% of patients. No complications associated with the procedure occurred. During the 49.4 months of mean follow up (range 3-96, 4 months) all treated aortic segments remained patent. Conclusions. Endovascular treatment (primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement) of focal atherosclerotic lesions of distal abdominal aorta is a safe method with excellent primary technical and clinical success rates and favourable Long term results.

Lastovickova, Jarmila, E-mail: jala@medicon.cz; Peregrin, Jan H. [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Czech Republic)

2008-01-15

18

Correlations between age, prestrain, diameter and atherosclerosis in the male abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

The longitudinal prestrain of arteries facilitates their physiological function. Remodeling, adaptation and aging result in an age-dependent magnitude of the pretension. Although the phenomenon is known, detailed statistics, especially for human arteries, are lacking. This study was designed to propose the regression model capable of estimating the prestrain of the human abdominal aorta. The length of the abdominal aorta before, l, and after excision from the body, L, the diameter, heart weight, thickness of left ventricle and degree of atherosclerosis were collected in autopsies of 156 male cadavers of known age. Longitudinal prestrain was quantified by means of the stretch ratio ?=l/L. Statistical analysis revealed significant dependence between age, prestrain, diameter and atherosclerosis, which were best fitted to the power law equation. Longitudinal prestretch reduced with age significantly; ?mean=1.30±0.07 for age<30 (n=29), whereas ?mean=1.06±0.03 for age>59 (n=31) with p-value<0.0001. Raw data gave linear correlation coefficients as follows: ?-age (R=-0.842); l-age (R=0.023); L-age (R=0.476); (l-L)-age (R=-0.811). It was concluded that longitudinal prestrain decreases nonlinearly with age and both age and diameter are suitable predictors of the prestrain. Data suggests that unloaded length elongates with age in contrast to the elastic retraction. PMID:22098912

Horny, Lukas; Adamek, Tomas; Gultova, Eva; Zitny, Rudolf; Vesely, Jan; Chlup, Hynek; Konvickova, Svatava

2011-11-01

19

Abdominal aorta anastomosis in rats and stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, prophylaxis and therapy.  

PubMed

We focused on abdominal aorta, clamped and transected bellow renal arteries, and aortic termino-terminal anastomosis created in Albino male rats. We suggested stomach cytoprotection theory holding endothelium protection and peptidergic anti-ulcer cytoprotection therapy to improve management of abdominal aorta anastomosis and thrombus formation. The stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419) is a small anti-ulcer peptide efficient in inflammatory bowel disease trials (PL 14736) and various wound treatment, no toxicity reported. After 24 h following aortic termino-terminal anastomosis, we shown that BPC 157 (10 microg/kg) may also decrease formation of cloth after aortic termino-terminal anastomosis and preserved walking ability and muscle strength when given as a bath immediately after aortic anastomosis creation. This may be important since aortic termino-terminal anastomosis is normally presenting in rats with a formed cloth obstructing more than third of aortic lumen, severely impaired walking ability, painful screaming and weak muscle strength. Thereby, the effect of BPC 157 (10 microg/kg) was additionally studied at 24 h following aortic termino-terminal anastomosis. Given at the that point, intraperitoneally, within 3 minutes post-application interval the pentadecapeptide BPC 157 rapidly recovered the function of lower limbs and muscle strength while no cloth could be seen in those rats at the anastomosis site. PMID:20388960

Hrelec, M; Klicek, R; Brcic, L; Brcic, I; Cvjetko, I; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P

2009-12-01

20

Topiramate ameliorates abdominal aorta cross-clamping induced liver injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the liver occurs after a prolonged period of ischemia followed by restoration of hepatic blood perfusion. During the surgery of abdominal aorta, I/R injury causes damage to lower extremities and many organs, especially liver. The antioxidant and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) suppression effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported in several studies. We evaluated the potential protective effect of TPM on cellular damage in liver tissue during I/R injury. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, I/R, and I/R plus TPM (I/R + TPM) groups. Laparotomy without I/R injury was performed in the control group. After laparotomy, cross-ligation of infrarenal abdominal aorta was applied for 2 h in I/R groups that was followed by 2 h of reperfusion. TPM (100 mg/kg/day) was orally administrated to the animals in the I/R + TPM group for seven consecutive days before I/R procedure. Results: The I/R group's TNF-? and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were significantly higher than those of the control (P = 0.010; P = 0.002) and I/R + TPM groups (P = 0.010; P = 0.002, respectively). Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) levels of I/R group were higher than the control (P = 0.015) and I/R + TPM groups. I/R caused serious histopathological damage to liver tissue; however, TPM led to very low histopathological changes. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that TPM treatment prominently decreases the severity of liver I/R injury. TPM pretreatment may have preventive effects on liver injury via I/R during intra-abdominal surgery. PMID:25253365

Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine C.; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Aydin, Ibrahim; Kirbas, Aynur; Yilmaz, Arif; Yuce, Suleyman; Gokce, Mehmet F.

2014-01-01

21

Topiramate ameliorates abdominal aorta cross-clamping induced liver injury in rats.  

PubMed

Background and Aim : Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the liver occurs after a prolonged period of ischemia followed by restoration of hepatic blood perfusion. During the surgery of abdominal aorta, I/R injury causes damage to lower extremities and many organs, especially liver. The antioxidant and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) suppression effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported in several studies. We evaluated the potential protective effect of TPM on cellular damage in liver tissue during I/R injury. Materials and Methods : Thirty male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, I/R, and I/R plus TPM (I/R + TPM) groups. Laparotomy without I/R injury was performed in the control group. After laparotomy, cross-ligation of infrarenal abdominal aorta was applied for 2 h in I/R groups that was followed by 2 h of reperfusion. TPM (100 mg/kg/day) was orally administrated to the animals in the I/R + TPM group for seven consecutive days before I/R procedure. Results : The I/R group's TNF-? and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were significantly higher than those of the control (P = 0.010; P = 0.002) and I/R + TPM groups (P = 0.010; P = 0.002, respectively). Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) levels of I/R group were higher than the control (P = 0.015) and I/R + TPM groups. I/R caused serious histopathological damage to liver tissue; however, TPM led to very low histopathological changes. Conclusion : Our data demonstrated that TPM treatment prominently decreases the severity of liver I/R injury. TPM pretreatment may have preventive effects on liver injury via I/R during intra-abdominal surgery. PMID:25253365

Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine C; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Aydin, Ibrahim; Kirbas, Aynur; Yilmaz, Arif; Yuce, Suleyman; Gokce, Mehmet F

2014-01-01

22

TRATAMENTO CIRÚRGICO DO ANEURISMA DE AORTA ABDOMINAL EM PACIENTE COM TRANSPLANTE RENAL SURGICAL TREATMENT OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM IN PATIENT WITH RENAL TRANSPLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Renal transplants are been carried out in an increasing number of elderly people and patients with diabetes who alsohavewidespreadaterosclerothiclesionswichisenhancedbyprolongedhemodialysis,arterialhypertension and other risk factors. The most common is the aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. There are currently several different opinions about the technique to adopt for the prevention of the ischaemic damage to the transplanted kidney. In this article, we

Luís Henrique; Gil França; Ricardo César; Rocha Moreira; Simone Dyniewicz; Cristiano Marcos; D'Alcantara Schmitt; Alessandra Vedolin; Marcelo Barros; Caroline Gomes Bredt; Josiane Souza

23

[Spinal cord protection in surgery of the thoracic, descending, and thoraco-abdominal aorta. Comparison of methods].  

PubMed

The authors compare the strategus needed for the elimination of paraplegia and for protection of abdominal organs after replacement of descending thoracic or thoraco-abdominal aorta. They analyse single technique considering the advantages and the controindications; furthermore they compare these properties and those of possible variants in the light of the presentation; type of disease and general conditions of the patient. These considerations are in agreement with later literature as well as the attitude of the surgeon. PMID:9082233

Zanetti, P P; Sorisio, V; Rosa, G; Cavanenghi, D; Amerio, G M; Zappa, A; Stillo, R; Dutto, C; Castenetto, E; Cardellino, S; Franco, M

1996-09-01

24

Long-term results of cryopreserved arterial allograft reconstruction in infected prosthetic grafts and mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This prospective, observational study determined the long-term outcome in patients with abdominal aortic infection (primary or prosthetic graft) who were treated with simultaneous aortic\\/graft excision and cryopreserved arterial allograft reconstruction. Methods: From April 1992 to March 2000, patients with abdominal aortic infection underwent complete or partial excision of the infected aorta\\/prosthetic graft and cryopreserved arterial allograft reconstruction. Arterial allografts

Guy Lesèche; Yves Castier; Marie-Dominique Petit; Patrick Bertrand; Michel Kitzis; Sacha Mussot; Mathieu Besnard; Olivier Cerceau

2001-01-01

25

Analysis of axial prestretch in the abdominal aorta with reference to post mortem interval and degree of atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

It is a well-known fact that the length of an artery in situ and the length of an excised artery differs. Retraction of blood vessels is usually observed. This prestretch plays an important role in arterial physiology. We have recently determined that the decrease of axial prestretch in the human abdominal aorta is so closely correlated with age that it is suitable for forensic applications (estimation of the age at time of death for cadavers of unknown identity). Since post mortem autolysis may affect the reliability of an estimate based on axial prestretch, the present study aims to detail analysis of the effect of post mortem time. The abdominal aorta is a prominent site of atherosclerotic changes (ATH), which may potentially affect longitudinal prestretch. Thus ATH was also involved in the analysis. Axial prestretch in the human abdominal aorta, post mortem interval (PMI), and the degree of ATH were documented in 365 regular autopsies. The data was first age adjusted to remove any supposed correlation with age. After the age adjustment of the sample, the correlation analysis showed no significant PMI effects on the prestretch in non-putrefied bodies. Analysis of the prestretch variance with respect to ATH suggested that ATH is not a suitable factor to explain the prestretch variability remaining after the age adjustment. It was concluded that, although atherosclerotic plaques may certainly change the biomechanics of arteries, they do not significantly affect the longitudinal prestretch in the human abdominal aorta. PMID:23676503

Horny, Lukas; Adamek, Tomas; Kulvajtova, Marketa

2014-05-01

26

Real-Time Intravascular Shear Stress in the Rabbit Abdominal Aorta  

PubMed Central

Fluid shear stress is intimately linked with the biological activities of vascular cells. A flexible microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensor was developed to assess spatial- and temporal-varying components of intravascular shear stress (ISS) in the abdominal aorta of adult New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. Real-time ISS (ISSreal-time) was analyzed in comparison with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for wall shear stress (WSS). Three-dimensional abdominal arterial geometry and mesh were created using the GAMBIT software. Simulation of arterial flow profiles was established by FLUENT. The Navier–Stokes equations were solved for non-Newtonian blood flow. The coaxial-wire-based MEMS sensor was deployed into the abdominal arteries of rabbits via a femoral artery cutdown. Based on the CFD analysis, the entrance length of the sensor on the coaxial wire (0.4 mm in diameter) was less than 10 mm. Three-dimensional fluoroscope and contrast dye allowed for visualization of the positions of the sensor and ratios of vessel to coaxial wire diameters. Doppler ultrasound provided the velocity profiles for the CFD boundary conditions. If the coaxial wire were positioned at the center of vessel, the CFD analysis revealed a mean ISS value of 31.1 with a systolic peak at 102.8 dyn · cm?2. The mean WSS was computed to be 10.1 dyn · cm?2 with a systolic peak at 33.2 dyn · cm?2, and the introduction of coaxial wire increased the mean WSS by 5.4 dyn · cm?2 and systolic peak by 18.0 dyn · cm?2. Experimentally, the mean ISS was 11.9 dyn · cm?2 with a systolic peak at 47.0 dyn · cm?2. The waveform of experimental ISS was similar to that of CFD solution with a 30.2% difference in mean and 8.9% in peak systolic shear stress. Despite the difference between CD and experimental results, the flexible coaxial-wire-based MEMS sensors provided a possibility to assess real-time ISS in the abdominal aorta of NZW rabbits. PMID:19527952

Ai, Lisong; Yu, Hongyu; Dai, Wangde; Hale, Sharon L.; Kloner, Robert A.

2012-01-01

27

Aortoenteric Fistula as a Complication of Open Reconstruction and Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aorta  

PubMed Central

The paper intends to present a review of imaging characteristics of secondary aortoenteric fistula (AEF). Mechanical injury, infection, and adherence of a bowel segment to the aorta or aortic graft are major etiologic factors of AEF after open aortic repair. The pathogenesis of AEF formation after endovascular abdominal aortic repair is related to mechanical failure of the stent-graft, to stent graft infection, and to persistent pressurization of the aneurysmal sac. The major clinical manifestations of AEF comprise haematemesis, melaena, abdominal pain, sepsis, and fever. CT is the initial diagnostic modality of choice in a stable patient. However, the majority of reported CT appearances are not specific. In case of equivocal CT scans and clinical suspicion of AEF, scintigraphy, 67Ga citrate scans or 18F-FDG PET/CT is useful. Diagnostic accuracy of endoscopy in evaluation of AEF is low; nevertheless it allows to evaluate other than AEF etiologies of gastrointestinal bleeding. Without adequate therapy, AEF is lethal. Conventional surgical treatment is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The endovascular repair may be an option in hemodynamically unstable and high-risk surgical patients. We also illustrate an example of a secondary AEF with highly specific albeit rare radiologic picture from our institution. PMID:25302119

Tagowski, Marek; Vieweg, Hendryk; Wissgott, Christian; Andresen, Reimer

2014-01-01

28

Fluid wall shear stress measurements in a model of the human abdominal aorta: oscillatory behavior and relationship to atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Clinically significant atherosclerosis in the human aorta is most common in the infrarenal segment. This study was initiated to test the hypothesis that flowfield properties are closely related to the localization of plaques in this segment of the arterial system. Wall shear stress was calculated from magnetic resonance velocity measurements of pulsatile flow in an anatomically accurate model of the human abdominal aorta. The wall shear stress values were compared with intimal thickening from 15 post-mortem aortas measured by quantitative morphometry of histological cross sections obtained at standard locations. Wall shear stress oscillated in direction throughout most of the infrarenal aorta, most prominently in the distal region. The time-averaged mean wall shear stress (-1.7 to 1.4 dyn/cm2) was lowest near the posterior wall in this region. These hemodynamic parameters coincided with the locations of maximal intimal thickening. Statistical correlation between oscillatory shear and intimal thickness yielded r = 0.79, P < 0.00001. Low mean shear stresses correlated nearly as well (r = -0.75, P < 0.00005). Comparison of our data with surface maps of Sudan Red staining and early lesions as reported by others revealed similar conclusions. In contrast, pulse and maximum shear stresses did not correlate with plaque localization as has been shown for other sites of selective involvement by atherosclerosis (r < 0.345). Simulated exercise conditions markedly changed the magnitude and pattern of wall shear stress in the distal abdominal aorta. These results demonstrate that in the infrarenal aorta, regions of low mean and oscillating wall shear stresses are predisposed to the development of plaque while regions of relatively high wall shear stress tend to be spared. PMID:7848371

Moore, J E; Xu, C; Glagov, S; Zarins, C K; Ku, D N

1994-10-01

29

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Surgery Introduction Aorta Common Iliac Arteries Ballooning of the aorta, also known as an "abdominal aortic aneurysm," can lead to life threatening bleeding. Doctors may ...

30

Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer of the Abdominal Aorta Involving the Celiac Trunk Origin and Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion: Endovascular Treatment  

SciTech Connect

We describe a case of endovascular treatment in a 64-year-old woman affected by a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) of the abdominal aorta with a 26-mm pseudoaneurysm involving the celiac trunk (CT) origin and with superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion in the first 30 mm. The patient underwent stenting to treat the SMA occlusion and subsequent deployment of a custom-designed fenestrated endovascular stent-graft to treat the PAU involving the CT origin. Follow-up at 6 months after device placement demonstrated no complications, and there was complete thrombosis of the PAU and patency of the two branch vessels.

Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G., E-mail: urossi76@hotmail.com; Petrocelli, Francesco; Seitun, Sara [San Martino University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Italy); Robaldo, Alessandro; Mazzei, Raffaele [San Martino University Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy)

2011-02-15

31

Comparison of the effect of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on muscle contractility of the rabbit abdominal aorta in vitro.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effect of selected agonists and antagonists of alpha-adrenergic receptors on muscle contractility of the rabbit abdominal aorta in vitro with particular emphasis on alpha2-adrenergic receptor subtypes. The study was conducted on 30 New Zealand breed rabbits from which specimens of the abdominal aorta were collected. The sections were set up in an automatic water bath in a Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37 degrees C. The experiments showed that alpha1-adrenergic receptors played the main role in the contractile response ofthe rabbit abdominal aorta. Stimulation of alpha1-adrenergic receptor by administration ofphenylephrine resulted in an increase in smooth muscle tonus ofthe rabbit abdominal aorta by an average of 4.75 mN. The reaction after stimulation of alpha2-adrenergic receptors by similar doses of their agonists was much weaker. Prolonged tissue response time and time needed to reach maximum tonus for alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists were observed. The obtained results confirm the thesis that the alpha1-adrenergic receptor is the most important factor controlling the contractility of the rabbit abdominal aorta, but the alpha2-adrenergic receptor is also involved in maintaining muscle tissue tonus. PMID:23767297

Gnus, Jan; Rusiecka, Agnieszka; Czerski, Albert; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Hauzer, Willy

2013-01-01

32

Surgical treatment of chronic occlusive disease of the enteric visceral branches of the abdominal aorta. Experience with 119 operations.  

PubMed Central

Whenever abdominal circulatory disorders are caused by obstruction of the abdominal aortic visceral branches, adequate blood flow may be restored only by surgical intervention. With the development of symptoms suggesting inadequate collateral circulation and disturbance of splanchnic blood supply, operation is indicated. The choice of operation depends on the nature and the cause of the disease and the type of occlusion. With intravascular obstruction, correction of blood flow may be achieved by a reconstructive procedure. In many patients with extravascular compression of the celiac artery, adequate flow is restored by simple external decompression. The present communication is based on experience with 119 operations, 102 reconstructive and 17 decompressive. Of the 102 reconstructive procedures, 94 were complex with one-stage revascularization of several arteries. Transaortic endarterectomy as described in our method of choice although with widespread lesions resection and replacement is preferred. A thoracolumbar approach is the most expedient incision for reconstruction. The results obtained provide evidence for the effectiveness of surgical treatment of chronic occlusive disease of the visceral branches of the abdominal aorta. PMID:7352776

Pokrovsky, A V; Kasantchjan, P O

1980-01-01

33

Determination of the local muscular blood flow in the hind limbs of dogs during electrolysis of electrically conducting vascular prostheses preimplanted into the abdominal aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peripheral blood flow in the hind limbs was studied in experiments on 25 mongrel dogs during electrolysis of electrically conducting vascular prostheses preimplanted into the abdominal aorta. After restoration of the trunk blood flow, a positive electrical potential of 3–4 V was applied to the prosthesis by means of a current conductor. The tissue blood flow was determined by

L. I. Vinnitskii; G. A. Stepanov; I. A. Egorova; O. K. Karimov

1978-01-01

34

Bullet embolization to the external iliac artery after gunshot injury to the abdominal aorta: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Abdominal vascular trauma is fairly common in modern civilian life and is a highly lethal injury. However, if the projectile is small enough, if its energy is diminished when passing through the tissue and if the arterial system is elastic enough, the entry wound into the artery may close without exsanguination and therefore may not be fatal. A projectile captured may even travel downstream until it is arrested by the smaller distal vasculature. The occurrence of this phenomenon is rare and was first described by Trimble in 1968. Case presentation Here we present a case of a 29-year-old Albanian man who, due to a gunshot injury to the back, suffered fracture of his twelfth thoracic and first lumbar vertebra, injury to the posterior wall of his abdominal aorta and then bullet embolism to his left external iliac artery. It is interesting that the signs of distal ischemia developed several hours after the exploratory surgery, raising the possibility that the bullet migrated in the interim or that there was a failure to recognize it during the exploratory surgery. Conclusion In all cases where there is a gunshot injury to the abdomen or chest without an exit wound and with no projectile in the area, there should be a high index of suspicion for possible bullet embolism, particularly in the presence of the distal ischemia. PMID:21819587

2011-01-01

35

Biaxial mechanical properties of the human thoracic and abdominal aorta, common carotid, subclavian, renal and common iliac arteries.  

PubMed

The biomechanics of large- and medium-sized arteries influence the pathophysiology of arterial disease and the response to therapeutic interventions. However, a comprehensive comparative analysis of human arterial biaxial mechanical properties has not yet been reported. Planar biaxial extension was used to establish the passive mechanical properties of human thoracic (TA, [Formula: see text]) and abdominal (AA, [Formula: see text]) aorta, common carotid (CCA, [Formula: see text]), subclavian (SA, [Formula: see text]), renal (RA, [Formula: see text]) and common iliac (CIA, [Formula: see text]) arteries from 11 deceased subjects ([Formula: see text] years old). Histological evaluation determined the structure of each specimen. Experimental data were used to determine constitutive parameters for a structurally motivated nonlinear anisotropic constitutive model. All arteries demonstrated appreciable anisotropy and large nonlinear deformations. Most CCA, SA, TA, AA and CIA specimens were stiffer longitudinally, while most RAs were stiffer circumferentially. A switch in anisotropy was occasionally demonstrated for all arteries. The CCA was the most compliant, least anisotropic and least frequently diseased of all arteries, while the CIA and AA were the stiffest and the most diseased. The severity of atherosclerosis correlated with age, but was not affected by laterality. Elastin fibers in the aorta, SA and CCA were uniformly and mostly circumferentially distributed throughout the media, while in the RA and CIA, elastin was primarily axially aligned and concentrated in the external elastic lamina. Constitutive modeling provided good fits to the experimental data for most arteries. Biomechanical and architectural features of major arteries differ depending on location and functional environment. A better understanding of localized arterial mechanical properties may support the development of site-specific treatment modalities for arterial disease. PMID:24710603

Kamenskiy, Alexey V; Dzenis, Yuris A; Kazmi, Syed A Jaffar; Pemberton, Mark A; Pipinos, Iraklis I; Phillips, Nick Y; Herber, Kyle; Woodford, Thomas; Bowen, Robert E; Lomneth, Carol S; MacTaggart, Jason N

2014-11-01

36

Age-related distribution of longitudinal pre-strain in abdominal aorta with emphasis on forensic application.  

PubMed

It is a well-known fact that the length of an artery in situ and the length of an excised artery differs. Retraction of blood vessels is usually observed. This pre-tension plays crucial role in arterial biomechanics. It augments an artery wall load-bearing capacity. This paper presents the longitudinal pre-strain of the human aorta as an index of human age. The length of abdominal aortas was measured during autopsies before and after segment resection. The longitudinal pre-strain was calculated in 130 donors; 100 male and 30 female bodies. The pre-strain was defined as the ratio between in situ length and the length after the excision. The mean pre-strain was found to be 1.18±0.10 for male and 1.14±0.10 for female sample (mean±standard deviation). The age in the male group was 41.6±15.9 years; and 47.7±17.7 years in the female group. Statistical analysis revealed the correlation coefficient between age and pre-strain r=-0.821 and r=-0.839 in male and female group, respectively. The analysis also confirmed close correlation between aortic circumference and age; and between circumference and pre-strain. Linear and power law regression equations were employed and prediction intervals were computed. The power law estimates the age more accurately than linear one model. Nevertheless, especially for small values of the pre-strain (aged individuals) the linear model can be advantageous. PMID:21794993

Horny, Lukas; Adamek, Tomas; Vesely, Jan; Chlup, Hynek; Zitny, Rudolf; Konvickova, Svatava

2012-01-10

37

Automatic identification and validation of planar collagen organization in the aorta wall with application to abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

Arterial physiology relies on a delicate three-dimensional (3D) organization of cells and extracellular matrix, which is remarkably altered by vascular diseases like abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The ability to explore the micro-histology of the aorta wall is important in the study of vascular pathologies and in the development of vascular constitutive models, i.e., mathematical descriptions of biomechanical properties of the wall. The present study reports and validates a fast image processing sequence capable of quantifying collagen fiber organization from histological stains. Powering and re-normalizing the histogram of the classical fast Fourier transformation (FFT) is a key step in the proposed analysis sequence. This modification introduces a powering parameter w, which was calibrated to best fit the reference data obtained using classical FFT and polarized light microscopy (PLM) of stained histological slices of AAA wall samples. The values of w = 3 and 7 give the best correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient larger than 0.7, R 2 about 0.7) with the classical FFT approach and PLM measurements. A fast and operator independent method to identify collagen organization in the arterial wall was developed and validated. This overcomes severe limitations of currently applied methods like PLM to identify collagen organization in the arterial wall. PMID:24016340

Polzer, Stanislav; Gasser, T Christian; Forsell, Caroline; Druckmüllerova, Hana; Tichy, Michal; Staffa, Robert; Vlachovsky, Robert; Bursa, Jiri

2013-12-01

38

Hemodynamics of the normal aorta compared to fusiform and saccular abdominal aortic aneurysms with emphasis on a potential thrombus formation mechanism.  

PubMed

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs), i.e., focal enlargements of the aorta in the abdomen are frequently observed in the elderly population and their rupture is highly mortal. An intra-luminal thrombus is found in nearly all aneurysms of clinically relevant size and multiply affects the underlying wall. However, from a biomechanical perspective thrombus development and its relation to aneurysm rupture is still not clearly understood. In order to explore the impact of blood flow on thrombus development, normal aortas (n = 4), fusiform AAAs (n = 3), and saccular AAAs (n = 2) were compared on the basis of unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. To this end patient-specific luminal geometries were segmented from Computerized Tomography Angiography data and five full heart cycles using physiologically realistic boundary conditions were analyzed. Simulations were carried out with computational grids of about half a million finite volume elements and the Carreau-Yasuda model captured the non-Newtonian behavior of blood. In contrast to the normal aorta the flow in aneurysm was highly disturbed and, particularly right after the neck, flow separation involving regions of high streaming velocities and high shear stresses were observed. Naturally, at the expanded sites of the aneurysm average flow velocity and wall shear stress were much lower compared to normal aortas. These findings suggest platelets activation right after the neck, i.e., within zones of pronounced recirculation, and platelet adhesion, i.e., thrombus formation, downstream. This mechanism is supported by recirculation zones promoting the advection of activated platelets to the wall. PMID:19936925

Biasetti, Jacopo; Gasser, T Christian; Auer, Martin; Hedin, Ulf; Labruto, Fausto

2010-02-01

39

Spontaneous resolution of iatrogenic dissection of the left main coronary artery extending to the thoracic and abdominal aorta  

PubMed Central

Iatrogenic coronary artery dissection extending to the ascending aorta is a rare complication of percutaneous coronary interventions. Coronary stent implantation is usually sufficient to control the injury. In this report we describe an unusual case of spontaneous resolution of both left main coronary artery and aortic wall dissection. The patient was not operated on due to the location of the initial tear in the distal part of the left main coronary artery. Moreover, in computed tomography (CT) thrombus formation in the false lumen of the dissected aorta was seen. The in-hospital course was uneventful. The last follow-up CT showed complete resolution of dissection. PMID:24570718

Lesiak, Maciej; Jemielity, Marek

2013-01-01

40

New approach of assessing hypovolemic shock class 1 during acute emergencies: Ultrasonographic inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta diameter ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a patient with hypovolemic shock class 1, the vital signs and biochemical properties are almost normal. The alteration of hemodynamic parameters and biochemical values occurs mainly in advanced hypovolemia state (neuroendocrine response). The availability of ultrasound machine at healthcare centers makes the measurement of vascular calibre feasible and possible. Inspiration and expiration inferior vena cava diameter changes predict hypovolemic shock class 1 but in acute emergencies this method is impractical. The purpose of this study is to develop a new approach in identifying hypovolemic shock at early phase by measuring the inferior vena cava and aorta diameter ratio using bedside ultrasound machine.

Ahmad, Rashidi; Kunji, Mohamad Iqhbal; Hj Abd Kareem, Meera Mohaideen; Halim, Shamimi A.

2013-09-01

41

Endovascular stenting as treatment for occult perforated abdominal aorta caused by acute necrotizing pancreatitis as rare complication after heart transplantation.  

PubMed

With an increase in the population of living cardiac allograft recipients, noncardiac surgery in this group of patients will be a more frequent phenomenon. The postoperative management in these patients is, however, complex. The authors present a case of an abdominal aortic rupture due to the involvement of a necrotizing pancreatitis caused by the side effects of immunosuppressive therapy. A 48-year-old man presented with a necrotizing pancreatitis with accidental affection of the abdominal aortic wall, necessitating emergency repair. Open surgical repair was considered too precarious in a cardiac allograft recipient, aortic stent-graft through endovascular surgery was therefore opted as the preferred procedure. The subsequent postoperative course was uneventful and patient could be discharged. PMID:24704055

Boeken, Udo; Ansari, Edward; Lichtenberg, Artur

2014-10-01

42

Aortic arch/elephant trunk procedure with SiennaTM graft and endovascular stenting of thoraco-abdominal aorta for treatment of complex chronic dissection  

PubMed Central

Aneurismal dilatation of the remaining thoracic aorta after ascending aortic interposition grafting for type ‘A’ aortic dissection is not uncommon. For such complex cases, one treatment option is total arch replacement and elephant trunk procedure with the SiennaTM collared graft (Vascutek, Inchinnan, UK) technique followed by a staged thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). The video illustrates our technique in a 56-year-old man with an extensive aortic arch and descending thoracic aortic dissecting aneurysm. For the ‘open’ procedure femoral arterial and venous cannulation was used along with systemic cooling and circulatory arrest at 22 °C. Upon circulatory arrest, the aortic arch was incised and antegrade cerebral perfusion achieved via selective cannulation to the right brachiocephalic and left common carotid artery, keeping flow rates at 10-15 mL/kg/min and perfusion pressure at 50-60 mmHg. Arch replacement with an elephant trunk component was then performed and after completion of the distal aortic anastomosis antegrade perfusion via a side-arm in the graft was started and the operation completed using a variation of the ‘sequential’ clamping technique to maximize cerebral perfusion. The second endovascular stage was performed two weeks after discharge. Two covered stents were landing from the elephant trunk to the distal descending thoracic aorta, to secure the distal landing a bare stent of was placed to cover the aorta just distal to the origin of the celiac axis. The left subclavian artery was embolised with fibre coils. Post TEVAR angiogram showed no endoleak Although re-operative total arch replacement and elephant trunk procedure and subsequent TEVAR remained a challenging procedure, we believe excellent surgical outcome can be achieved with carefully planned operative strategy. PMID:23977606

Wong, Randolph H.L.; Baghai, Max; Yu, Simon C.H.

2013-01-01

43

Lifetime, untreated isolated GH deficiency due to a GH-releasing hormone receptor mutation has beneficial consequences on bone status in older individuals, and does not influence their abdominal aorta calcification.  

PubMed

The GH/IGF-I axis has essential roles in regulating bone and vascular status. The age-related decrease in GH secretion ("somatopause") may contribute to osteoporosis and atherosclerosis, commonly observed in the elderly. Adult-onset GH deficiency (GHD) has been reported to be associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD), increased risk of fractures, and premature atherosclerosis. We have shown the young adult individuals with isolated GHD (IGHD) due to a homozygous for the c.57+1G>A GHRH receptor gene mutation have normal volumetric BMD (vBMD), and not develop premature atherosclerosis, despite adverse risk factor profile. However, the bone and vascular impact of lifetime GHD on the aging process remains unknown. We studied a group of ten older IGHD subjects (?60 years) homozygous for the mutation, comparing them with 20 age- and gender-matched controls (CO). Areal BMD was measured, and vBMD was calculated at the lumbar spine and total hip. Vertebral fractures and abdominal aortic calcifications (expressed as calcium score) were also assessed. Areal BMD was lower in IGHD, but vBMD was similar in the two groups. The percent of fractured individuals was similar, but the mean number of fractures per individual was lower in IGHD than CO. Calcium score was similar in the two groups. A positive correlation was found between calcium score and number of fractures. Untreated lifetime IGHD has beneficial consequences on bone status and does not have a deleterious effect on abdominal aorta calcification. PMID:24272598

Souza, Anita H O; Farias, Maria I T; Salvatori, Roberto; Silva, Gabriella M F; Santana, João A M; Pereira, Francisco A; de Paula, Francisco J A; Valença, Eugenia H O; Melo, Enaldo V; Barbosa, Rita A A; Pereira, Rossana M C; Gois-Junior, Miburge B; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H

2014-09-01

44

Self-Expandable Nitinol Stent Placement in Homocysteinemic Porcine Aorta  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To compare aortic intimal thickening of normal and hyperhomocysteinemic pigs (induced with a methionine-rich diet) following placement of a self-expanding nitinol stent. METHODS Eighteen Macau pigs were used. They were older than eight weeks in age and had an average weight of 30 kg. Pigs were randomly divided into two groups. The first, Group C (control), was fed a regular diet, and the second group, Group M, was fed a methionine-rich diet for 30 days to induce hyperhomocysteinemia. The self-expandable nitinol stents were 25mm in length and 8 mm in diameter after expansion. Blood samples were collected to measure total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and homocysteine concentrations. All animals were subjected to angiography. Thirty days after the procedure, the animals were sacrificed, and the abdominal aorta was removed for histological and digital morphometry analysis. RESULTS Under microscopic evaluation, the intima was significantly thicker in Group C than in Group M. When groups were compared by digital morphometric analysis, intimal thickening of the vessel wall was higher in Group C than in Group M. There was no significant change in total cholesterol, triglycerides or HDL concentrations in either group. In group C the levels of plasma homocysteine ranged from 14,40 to 16,73?mol/l; in Group M, plasma homocysteine levels ranged from 17.47 to 59.80 ?mol/l after 30 days of a methionine-rich diet. CONCLUSION Compared to normal pigs, less intimal hyperplasia was observed in the abdominal aortas of hyperhomocysteinemic pigs thirty days after the insertion of a self-expandable nitinol stent. PMID:18438578

Franca, Luis Henrique Gil; Pereira, Adamastor Humberto; Perini, Silvio Cesar

2008-01-01

45

Comparison of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Computed Tomography in Classifying Endoleaks After Endovascular Treatment of Abdominal Aorta Aneurysms: Preliminary Experience  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in endoleak classification after endovascular treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to computed tomography angiography (CTA). From May 2001 to April 2003, 10 patients with endoleaks already detected by CTA underwent CEUS with Sonovue (registered) to confirm the CTA classification or to reclassify the endoleak. In three conflicting cases, the patients were also studied with conventional angiography. CEUS confirmed the CTA classification in seven cases (type II endoleaks). Two CTA type III endoleaks were classified as type II using CEUS and one CTA type II endoleak was classified as type I by CEUS. Regarding the cases with discordant classification, conventional angiography confirmed the ultrasound classification. Additionally, CEUS documented the origin of type II endoleaks in all cases. After CEUS reclassification of endoleaks, a significant change in patient management occurred in three cases. CEUS allows a better attribution of the origin of the endoleak, as it shows the flow in real time. CEUS is more specific than CTA in endoleak classification and gives more accurate information in therapeutic planning.

Carrafiello, Gianpaolo, E-mail: gcarraf@tin.it; Lagana, Domenico; Recaldini, Chiara; Mangini, Monica; Bertolotti, Elena [University of Insubria, Department of Radiology (Italy); Caronno, Roberto; Tozzi, Matteo; Piffaretti, Gabriele [University of Insubria, Vascular Surgery (Italy); Annibale Genovese, Eugenio; Fugazzola, Carlo [University of Insubria, Department of Radiology (Italy)

2006-12-15

46

Morphometric analysis of aortic media in patients with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Patients with bicuspid aortic valves tend to develop dilatation of the ascending aorta. The aim of this study was to analyze whether or not there is any histologic difference in the aortic media of patients with a bicuspid aortic valve or a tricuspid aortic valve.Methods. A morphometric analysis of the wall of the ascending aorta was performed in 107

Matthias Bauer; Miralem Pasic; Rudolf Meyer; Nadine Goetze; Ulrike Bauer; Henryk Siniawski; Roland Hetzer

2002-01-01

47

Age-related changes of aorta in Syrian hamsters of APA strain.  

PubMed

Age related changes in thoracic aorta (TA) and abdominal aorta (AA) of male APA hamsters from 3 to 12 months of age were examined morphometrically and ultrastructurally. The nuclear density of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was larger in AA than in TA, and it decreased with advancing age. In contrast, the collagen fibre density was larger in TA than in AA, and it increased correlatively with aging, especially in TA. Electron microscopic examinations revealed that subendothelial cystic spaces and aggregations of fragments of elastic and collagen fibres were found at 3 months of age and progressed with advancing age in TA, while they were not evident in AA even at 12 months of age. Irregularity of medial SMC contours and an amount of SMC-associated collagen fibres were more prominent in TA than in AA throughout the experimental period. Degenerative changes of endothelial cells and medial SMCs progressed with aging in both TA and AA, and degenerated SMCs were characterized by aggregations of swollen mitochondria. PMID:7579821

Yamanouchi, J; Sugawara, Y; Itagaki, S; Doi, K

1995-07-01

48

Abdominal aortic thrombosis and tuberculosis: an uncommon association  

PubMed Central

Thrombosis of the abdominal aorta is an uncommon event and usually occurs in a diseased vessel. We report a case of a 42-year-old male who presented with abdominal distension and was found to have tuberculosis-related ascites and was incidentally found to have aortic thrombosis. The patient improved with four-drug anti-tubercular therapy and anticoagulation. The occurrence of non-occlusive thrombosis of the abdominal aorta in tuberculosis is unusual. PMID:24759354

Sharma, Alka; Sharma, Vishal

2014-01-01

49

Endografts, Pressure, and the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

E-print Network

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are an expansion in diameter of the abdominal aorta and their rupture is a leading cause of mortality. One of the treatments for AAA is the implantation of an endograft (also called a stent graft), a combination...

Meyer, Clark A.

2010-07-14

50

Predictive factors and clinical consequences of proximal aortic neck dilatation in 230 patients undergoing abdominal aorta aneurysm repair with self-expandable stent-grafts 1 1 Competition of interest: none  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Several studies have suggested that proximal aortic neck dilatation (AND) is a frequent event after balloon-expandable endografting. Yet few data are available on AND after repair with self-expandable stent grafts. To investigate incidence, predictive factors, and clinical consequences of AND, computed tomography (CT) scans obtained at intervals during follow-up of 230 patients who had undergone endoluminal abdominal aortic aneurysm

Piergiorgio Cao; Fabio Verzini; Gianbattista Parlani; Paola De Rango; Basso Parente; Giuseppe Giordano; Stefano Mosca; Agostino Maselli

2003-01-01

51

Blunt abdominal aortic trauma.  

PubMed

Due to its well protected position within the abdomen, blunt injuries to the abdominal aorta are uncommon. A review of previous reports in the literature, together with four new cases, are presented here. Motor car accidents are the most common cause of this injury, especially if seat belts are worn. Associated gastrointestinal injuries did not lead to any increased mortality; however, delay in the diagnosis was a significant factor in the deaths of several patients. Prompt recognition and early surgical management are essential in the treatment of this problem. PMID:2334357

Frydenberg, M; Royle, J P; Hoare, M

1990-05-01

52

Aorta pathology and pregnancy.  

PubMed

In addition to the haemodynamic changes in pregnancy, hormones also induce changes in the aortic wall. Women with diseases like Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlo syndrome, or other aortic abnormalities, have an increased risk of complications during pregnancy. Counselling and risk assessment before pregnancy is mandatory for all women with known aortic disease. Proper information should be provided about the risks of morbidity and mortality during pregnancy and information on the risks for the fetus, including the potential recurrence of disease in the offspring. Evaluation of past medical and family history, the aortic size before conception, and any increase in size before and during pregnancy, is essential to try and estimate the risk of aortic dissection. If the aorta is dilated, prophylactic repair before pregnancy may be indicated. In some cases, elective surgery during pregnancy may be warranted. In women with a severely dilated ascending aorta, caesarean section is, at present, the advised mode of delivery. PMID:24726851

van Hagen, Iris M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

2014-05-01

53

Tenascin C protects aorta from acute dissection in mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is caused by the disruption of intimomedial layer of the aortic walls, which is immediately life-threatening. Although recent studies indicate the importance of proinflammatory response in pathogenesis of AAD, the mechanism to keep the destructive inflammatory response in check is unknown. Here, we report that induction of tenascin-C (TNC) is a stress-evoked protective mechanism against the acute hemodynamic and humoral stress in aorta. Periaortic application of CaCl2 caused stiffening of abdominal aorta, which augmented the hemodynamic stress and TNC induction in suprarenal aorta by angiotensin II infusion. Deletion of Tnc gene rendered mice susceptible to AAD development upon the aortic stress, which was accompanied by impaired TGF? signaling, insufficient induction of extracellular matrix proteins and exaggerated proinflammatory response. Thus, TNC works as a stress-evoked molecular damper to maintain the aortic integrity under the acute stress.

Kimura, Taizo; Shiraishi, Kozoh; Furusho, Aya; Ito, Sohei; Hirakata, Saki; Nishida, Norifumi; Yoshimura, Koichi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Takanobu; Ueno, Takafumi; Hamano, Kimikazu; Hiroe, Michiaki; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Aoki, Hiroki

2014-02-01

54

Lipid Deposition in Rat Aortas with Intraluminal Hemispherical Plug Stenosis  

PubMed Central

A new method was devised to create a stenosis in the rat abdominal aorta. To restrict blood flow, a hemispherical plug was inserted into the aorta through a renal artery. This type of intrinsic (intraluminal) stenosis minimizes possible intramural effects associated with external compression or ligation which severely deform the arterial wall. In the aorta of hypercholesterolemic rats, lipid deposits were distributed in crescent-shaped patches proximal and distal to the plug, whereas lipid deposition in the opposite aortic wall was inhibited. Based on enlarged physical scale models used to study the flow field, the regions of lipid deposition were found to coincide with regions of low shear stress, stagnation, and recirculation. Shear stress was elevated at the wall opposite the plug. These results show that when confounding mural effects are minimized, lipid deposition is promoted in regions of low shear stress with recirculation and inhibited in regions of elevated shear stress. PMID:10393841

Zand, Thomas; Hoffman, Allen H.; Savilonis, Brian J.; Underwood, Jean M.; Nunnari, John J.; Majno, Guido; Joris, Isabelle

1999-01-01

55

Tenascin C protects aorta from acute dissection in mice  

PubMed Central

Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is caused by the disruption of intimomedial layer of the aortic walls, which is immediately life-threatening. Although recent studies indicate the importance of proinflammatory response in pathogenesis of AAD, the mechanism to keep the destructive inflammatory response in check is unknown. Here, we report that induction of tenascin-C (TNC) is a stress-evoked protective mechanism against the acute hemodynamic and humoral stress in aorta. Periaortic application of CaCl2 caused stiffening of abdominal aorta, which augmented the hemodynamic stress and TNC induction in suprarenal aorta by angiotensin II infusion. Deletion of Tnc gene rendered mice susceptible to AAD development upon the aortic stress, which was accompanied by impaired TGF? signaling, insufficient induction of extracellular matrix proteins and exaggerated proinflammatory response. Thus, TNC works as a stress-evoked molecular damper to maintain the aortic integrity under the acute stress. PMID:24514259

Kimura, Taizo; Shiraishi, Kozoh; Furusho, Aya; Ito, Sohei; Hirakata, Saki; Nishida, Norifumi; Yoshimura, Koichi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Takanobu; Ueno, Takafumi; Hamano, Kimikazu; Hiroe, Michiaki; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Aoki, Hiroki

2014-01-01

56

Impact of obstructive sleep apnea on abdominal aortic diameters.  

PubMed

Although obesity has been reported to be a potential risk factor for abdominal aortic dilatation, the impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on the abdominal aortic diameter remains unknown. We retrospectively reviewed 427 patients aged >45 years who underwent polysomnography and abdominal computed tomography from November 2008 to February 2012. Aortic diameters were measured at 3 locations: upper, infrarenal, and lower abdominal aorta. OSA was defined as non-OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] <10, n = 58), mild to moderate (AHI 10 to 30, n = 167), and severe (AHI ?30, n = 202). Adjusted diameter was not significantly different among OSA severity categories at the upper (21.0, 21.3, and 21.4 mm, respectively) and infrarenal aorta (19.5, 20.2, and 19.9 mm, respectively) but was significantly different at the lower abdominal aorta (17.3, 18.2, and 18.2 mm, respectively, p = 0.006) with larger diameters in patients with OSA. Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that risk profiles for aortic dilatation varied according to the location and gender and that OSA (AHI ?10) was an independent risk factor for infrarenal and lower abdominal aortic dilatation only in men (? = 0.10 and 0.18, p = 0.049 and 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, OSA may enhance dilatation of the distal abdominal aorta in men. PMID:25086782

Tachikawa, Ryo; Hamada, Satoshi; Azuma, Masanori; Toyama, Yoshiro; Murase, Kimihiko; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Inouchi, Morito; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

2014-08-15

57

Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Patient with Renal Transplant  

SciTech Connect

Patients with functioning renal transplant who develop abdominal aortic aneurysm can safely be treated with endovascular repair. Endovascular repair of aneurysm avoids renal ischemia associated with cross-clamping of aorta.

Rao, M. [Specialist Registrar, Ulster Hospital (United Kingdom); Arya, N. [Specialist Registrar, Belfast City Hospital (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nityaarya@aol.com; Lee, B.; Hannon, R.J. [Regional Vascular and Endovascular Unit, Belfast City Hospital (United Kingdom); Loan, W. [Consultant Radiologist, Belfast City Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Soong, C.V. [Regional Vascular and Endovascular Unit, Belfast City Hospital (United Kingdom)

2004-09-15

58

Secondary procedures in thoracic aorta.  

PubMed

Secondary procedures for thoracic aorta are very demanding to the patient, with significantly high perioperative mortality and morbidity. The aim of this paper was to review the most remarkable secondary procedures following open and endorepairs of thoracic aorta. The PubMed database was searched without any year limits. Search terms used %were "thoracic", "aorta" and "reintervention". Two authors independently reviewed abstracts identified by the search and subsequently the reference lists of eligible series were scrutinized in order to detect any additional relevant articles. Different early and late complications following open an endovascular repair of thoracic aorta were described adding their incidence and their potential solutions with secondary interventions. Secondary interventions after open repair (OR) are more related to bleeding and progression of the aortic disease issues and open surgery is again the most common solution. However, in more fragile patients with favorable anatomy, endovascular repair can be offered as a secondary procedure. Reinterventions after endovascular treatment of thoracic aorta diseases (TEVAR) are mostly related to endoleaks and also to the aortic disease progression. Hopefully, the oncoming technological improvements together with the optimized operator expertise can reduce the incidence of secondary procedures following TEVAR for all the aortic pathologies. PMID:25216218

Mestres, G; Capoccia, L; Riambau, V

2014-12-01

59

Abdominal rectovaginopexy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: We noted the combination of obstructed defecation or constipation and fecal incontinence, the poor results of abdominal rectopexy for constipation, and the well-known risk of postoperative induction of constipation after rectopexy. We developed a new operation to treat patients with constipation or fecal incontinence (with a concomitant rectocele, internal rectal intussusception, enterocele at dynamic defecography, or all three) or

R. Silvis; H. G. Gooszen; A. van Essen; A. Th. C. M. Kruif; L. W. M. Janssen

1999-01-01

60

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments  

MedlinePLUS

... Minimally Invasive Treatments Snapshots Multimedia Multimedia Archive Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

61

Thoracic aorta cardiac-cycle related dynamic changes assessed with a 256-slice CT scanner  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of our study was to demonstrate whether the dynamic changes previously documented at the ascending and abdominal aorta are replicated at the thoracic aorta. Methods and results A consecutive series of thirty patients referred to our institution to undergo CT angiography of the thoracic aorta (CTA) constituted the study population. Patients with diffuse aortic atherosclerosis were excluded from the analysis. All studies were acquired with a 256-MDCT scanner and ECG-gating was performed in all cases. Two orthogonal imaging planes (maximal and minimal diameters) were obtained at three different levels of the descending thoracic aorta, using the distance from the left subclavian artery as proximal landmark: 10, 40, and 80 mm distance. The mean age was 58.9±15.7 years and 16 (53%) patients were male. Descending aorta measurements at 10, 40, and 80 mm distance from the left subclavian artery were all significantly larger within the systolic window (P<0.01 for all comparisons). Measurements of the maximal diameter were systematically larger than the minimal diameters among all aortic positions including ungated, systolic, and diastolic measurements (P<0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusions The main finding of our pilot investigation was that the thoracic descending aorta undergoes significant conformational changes during the cardiac cycle, irrespective from the distance from the left subclavian artery. PMID:24282760

Carrascosa, Patricia; Capunay, Carlos; Deviggiano, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Granillo, Gaston A.; Sagarduy, Maria Ines; Cortines, Patricio; Carrascosa, Jorge; Parodi, Juan C.

2013-01-01

62

Elastin and collagen fibre microstructure of the human aorta in ageing and disease: a review  

PubMed Central

Aortic disease is a significant cause of death in developed countries. The most common forms of aortic disease are aneurysm, dissection, atherosclerotic occlusion and ageing-induced stiffening. The microstructure of the aortic tissue has been studied with great interest, because alteration of the quantity and/or architecture of the connective fibres (elastin and collagen) within the aortic wall, which directly imparts elasticity and strength, can lead to the mechanical and functional changes associated with these conditions. This review article summarizes the state of the art with respect to characterization of connective fibre microstructure in the wall of the human aorta in ageing and disease, with emphasis on the ascending thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta where the most common forms of aortic disease tend to occur. PMID:23536538

Tsamis, Alkiviadis; Krawiec, Jeffrey T.; Vorp, David A.

2013-01-01

63

Abdominal wall surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Abdominal wall surgery is surgery that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. It ... tummy tuck" to more complicated, extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which ...

64

Percutaneous treatment of abdominal coarctation in children using a covered stent.  

PubMed

Coarctation of the abdominal aorta is extremely rare. It generally involves a long segment of the descending aorta and causes uncontrolled and unexplainable hypertension in children. The therapeutic choice is very challenging because acute and chronic complications are reported for both the surgical and the percutaneous approaches. The two reported cases of abdominal coarctation were treated primarily and successfully through the use of covered stents. Three covered stents were implanted in two children. No complication occurred with either procedure. At this writing, an 18-month follow-up assessment has found the patients in good health with no restenosis at the coarctation site. Covered stent implantation in children with abdominal coarctation is a feasible, safe, and effective procedure. It provides adequate relief of symptoms and reduces the risk of aneurysm formation. To avoid covering important side branches with polytetrafluoroethylene, this type of procedure must be preceded by precise study of the aorta and its branches. PMID:23515761

Pilati, Mara; Pongiglione, Giacomo; Gagliardi, M G

2013-01-01

65

Rapid control in ruptured abdominal aneurysms.  

PubMed

Rapid control of a ruptured abdominal aneurysm can be achieved under local anesthesia by passing a Fogarty catheter, 8/22 F, retrograde from either femoral artery up into the thoracic aorta and inflating the balloon after administering heparin to the patient. This method avoids the often fatal hypotension that may occur with induction of general anesthesia in the hypovolemic patient. In cases in which the Fogarty catheter cannot pass up the iliac artery, direct insertion of the catheter through the aneurysm can be used, but this method requires the induction of general anesthesia prior to aortic control. PMID:7259508

Sensenig, D M

1981-08-01

66

Coarctation of the aorta: outcome of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe study sought to determine the outcome of pregnancy in women with coarctation of the thoracic aorta.BACKGROUNDPatients with coarctation of the thoracic aorta are expected to reach childbearing age, but data on the outcome of pregnancy in this population are limited.METHODSThe Mayo Clinic database was reviewed for women of childbearing age (?16 years old) with a diagnosis of aortic coarctation

Luc M Beauchesne; Heidi M Connolly; Naser M Ammash; Carole A Warnes

2001-01-01

67

Obstruction of the Superior Mesenteric Artery Due to Emboli from the Thoracic Aorta in a Patient with Thromboangiitis Obliterans  

PubMed Central

A 48-year-old woman presented at our hospital with acute abdominal pain 3 years after being diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO). Computed tomography revealed occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and multiple kidney infarction with thrombus floating in the thoracic aorta connected with the intercostal artery. Despite emergency embolectomy, further thromboembolism eventually required massive resection of the intestine with jejunostomy and colostomy and permanent intravenous hyper-alimentation therapy. Although TAO rarely involves the large artery, the aorta could be the source of embolization in patients with TAO.

Kamiya, Chiaki; Kitaoka, Tadashi; Suzuki, Jun; Abe, Keiko; Sato, Osamu

2014-01-01

68

Imaging after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm is a less invasive alternative to open surgery. With the recognition of this\\u000a new treatment, however, many complications, some of them life-threatening, have been reported. Short-term and mid-term results\\u000a have shown that this technology is advancing and needs close follow-up. Imaging plays a major role in the evaluation of the\\u000a aorta after endolumenal repair.

J. Golzarian

2003-01-01

69

Spontaneous rupture of adrenal haemangioma mimicking abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture  

PubMed Central

Serious bleeding from a ruptured adrenal mass limits preoperative diagnostics and can necessitate urgent laparotomy to control blood loss. A 45-year old man underwent an emergency laparotomy due to severe retroperitoneal haemorrhage causing hypovolaemia. Detailed retroperitoneal dissection after splenectomy and clamping of the abdominal aorta revealed bleeding from a ruptured haemangioma of the left adrenal gland. Following a left adrenalectomy, the patient returned to a stable haemodynamic state. Adrenal haemangiomas are rare, but may cause spontaneous life-threatening haemorrhage. PMID:22371732

Ambroziak, Iwona; Holynska-Dabrowska, Katarzyna; Siezieniewska-Skowronska, Zofia; Paluszkiewicz, Andrzej

2010-01-01

70

Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination.  

PubMed

Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data.The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed.Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%).The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. PMID:25295390

Veronese, E; Tarroni, G; Visentin, S; Cosmi, E; Linguraru, M G; Grisan, E

2014-10-01

71

[Abdominal aortic aneurysm treated by endovascular surgery: a case report].  

PubMed

An aneurysm is an abnormal dilation or irreversible convex of a portion of an artery. The most common site of aneurysms is the abdominal aorta and their appearance is often due to degeneration of the arterial wall, associated with atherosclerosis and favored by risk factors such as smoking and hypertension, among others. Left untreated, aneurysm of the abdominal aorta usually leads to rupture. Treatment is surgical, consisting of the introduction of a prosthesis, composed basically of a stent and an introducer, into the aorta. We report the case of a person diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysm in a routine examination who was admitted for ambulatory surgical treatment. We designed a nursing care plan, following Virginia Henderson's conceptual model. The care plan was divided into 2 parts, a first preoperative phase and a second postimplantation or monitoring phase. The care plan contained the principal nursing diagnoses, based on the taxonomies of the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA), nursing interventions classification (NIC) and nursing outcomes classifications (NOC), and collaboration problems/potential complications. The patient was discharged to home after contact was made with his reference nurse in the primary health center, since during the hospital phase, some NOC indicators remained unresolved. PMID:18448049

Alconero-Camarero, Ana Rosa; Cobo-Sánchez, José Luis; Casaus-Pérez, María; García-Campo, María Elena; García-Zarrabeitia, María José; Calvo-Diez, Marta; Mirones-Valdeolivas, Luz Elena

2008-01-01

72

Bromine and selenium in human aorta.  

PubMed Central

The bromine and selenium concentrations of healthy and atheromatous human aorta and of other organs are reported. No relation between age and concentration in the aorta is found. The selenium levels of the aorta are similar to those of other internal organs; the content of the three layers show no significant differences. The bromine concentrations of the media are higher than those of the other layers, which are similar to those of the internal organs. A possibly greater concentration of bromine in atheromatous medial tissue is indicated. PMID:7240426

Cross, J D; Raie, R M; Smith, H

1981-01-01

73

Spontaneous retrograde dissection of ascending aorta from descending thoracic aorta--a case review.  

PubMed

A 56-year-old man with sudden onset chest pain, absent right lower limb pulses and ECG changes suggestive of inferior ST elevation MI underwent coronary angiogram through the right radial artery with a view to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The left coronary angiogram demonstrated severe proximal stenotic disease in the left anterior descending and circumflex coronary arteries, but the right coronary artery could not be selectively cannulated. An ascending aortogram to visualise the right coronary artery not only failed to demonstrate it, but revealed, instead, a dissection flap in the ascending aorta, arch and descending thoracic aorta, with moderately severe aortic regurgitation. At operation, the patient was found to have an acute dissection of the ascending aorta, arch and descending aorta with an entry tear in the descending aorta below the left subclavian artery origin. Triple coronary artery bypass grafting with re-suspension of the aortic valve, supracoronary replacement of the ascending aorta and hemiarch and transaortic repair of the descending aortic tear was performed. The patient made an uncomplicated recovery, with the re-appearance of right limb pulses. A postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) scan revealed complete thrombosis of the false channel in the residual arch and a considerably shrunken false channel in the descending aorta and no aortic regurgitation. Retrograde dissection of the ascending aorta from the descending aorta has been reported infrequently in the past. We believe the scale of the problem has been underestimated because of the failure to adopt open distal anastomosis routinely in the past and, hence, failure to inspect the arch and the descending aorta routinely, particularly when the intimal tear was not identified in the ascending aorta. Retrograde dissection of the ascending aorta from an intimal tear in the descending aorta, when identified as such, has been managed, either on the principle of exclusion of the tear in the descending aorta by various elephant trunk procedures and their variants or, alternatively, on the principle of excision of the tear by extended one-stage aortic replacement, usually combined with an elephant trunk procedure. Neither of these procedures is widely adopted, owing to procedural, institutional and outcome considerations. We describe a transaortic repair of the intimal tear in the descending aorta with supracoronary interposition graft replacement of the ascending aorta and hemiarch with excellent clinical and radiological result. We also review the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this incompletely understood lethal disease. PMID:21247986

Kaul, Pankaj

2011-05-01

74

Facts about Coarctation of the Aorta  

MedlinePLUS

... include: pale skin irritability heavy sweating difficulty breathing Detection of the defect is often made during a ... a catheter, which is inserted into a blood vessel and directed to the aorta. When the catheter ...

75

Demonstration of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the walls of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Seroepidemiologic studies have indicated an association between chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary heart disease. The organism, which is a common respiratory pathogen, has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta and coronary arteries. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are frequently associated with atherosclerosis, and inflammation may actually be an important factor in aneurysmal dilatation. Hence it could be assumed

Jukka Juvonen; Tatu Juvonen; Aino Laurila; Hannu Alakärppä; Kari Lounatmaa; Heljä-Marja Surcel; Maija Leinonen; Matti I. Kairaluoma; Pekka Saikku

1997-01-01

76

Effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm during echocardiography.  

PubMed

Screening patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is associated with reduced AAA-related mortality, but population screening is poorly implemented. Opportunistic screening during imaging for other indications might be efficient. Single-center series reported AAA rates of 0.8% to 6.5% in patients undergoing transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), with disparities due to selection bias. In this first multicenter study, we aimed to assess the feasibility and criteria for screening AAA during TTE in real-life practice. During a week of May 2011, 79 centers participated in a nationwide survey. All patients aged ?65 years requiring TTE for any indication were eligible, except for those with operated abdominal aorta. We defined AAA by an anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal aorta?30 mm. Of 1,382 consecutive patients, abdominal aorta imaging was feasible in 96.7%, with a median delay of 1.7 minutes (>3 minutes in 3.6% of cases). We found AAA in 50 patients (3.7%). Unknown AAA (2.7%) was more frequent in men than women (3.7% vs 1.3%, respectively, p=0.007) and increased by age at 2.2%, 2.5%, and 5.8% in age bands of 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85+ years, respectively. None of the female participants aged <75 years had AAA. Smoking status and family history of AAA were significantly more frequent among patients with AAA. The ascending aorta was larger in those with AAA (36.2±4.7 vs 34.0±5.2 mm, p=0.006), and bicuspid aortic valve and/or major aortic regurgitation were also more frequent (8% vs 2.6%, p=0.017). In conclusion, rapid AAA screening during TTE is feasible and should be limited to men ?65 years and women?75 years. PMID:25127549

Aboyans, Victor; Bataille, Vincent; Bliscaux, Pascale; Ederhy, Stéphane; Filliol, Didier; Honton, Benjamin; Kurtz, Baptiste; Messas, Emmanuel; Mohty, Dania; Brochet, Eric; Kownator, Serge

2014-10-01

77

[Abdominal aortic aneurysm: an uncommon presentation].  

PubMed

Most abdominal aortic aneurysms are asymptomatic, being accidentally found on physical examination or in routinely performed imaging studies. They only require surveillance (which is variable according to the aneurism size) and medical therapy in order to achieve risk factor reduction. However, in certain situations, according to the risk of aneurism rupture, elective surgery or endovascular procedure may be necessary. About 80% of the cases of aneurism rupture occur into the retroperitoneal space, with a high mortality rate. There are uncommon presentations of aneurism rupture as the aorto-caval fistula, which also require fast diagnosis and intervention. The authors present the case of a 71-year-old man, with the previous diagnosis of hypertension, acute myocardial infarction 2 months earlier (undergone primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) and tabagism, who was admitted at the emergency department with intense 24-hour-evolution epigastric pain. On physical examination, the Blood Pressure values measured at the lower limbs were about half the ones measured at the upper limbs and there was an abdominal pulsatile mass, with a high-intensity murmur. As the authors suspected aortic dissection, aneurysm, coarctation or thrombosis, it was done a Computed Tomography scanning with intravenous contrast, which revealed a ruptured abdominal aorta aneurysm with a mural thrombus. The doppler ultrasound confirmed the presence of a high debit aorto-caval fistula. The patient was immediately transferred to the Vascular Surgery. However he died 2 hours later, during surgery. PMID:22525642

Taborda, Lúcia; Pereira, Laurinda; Amona, Eurides; Pinto, Erique Guedes; Rodrigues, Joaquim

2011-01-01

78

Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data. The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed. Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%). The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. Preliminary results have been presented in E Veronese, E Cosmi, S Visentin, E Grisan: 'Semiautomatic estimation of fetal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination', MICCAI Workshop on Perinatal and Paediatric Imaging: PaPI 2012.

Veronese, E.; Tarroni, G.; Visentin, S.; Cosmi, E.; Linguraru, M. G.; Grisan, E.

2014-10-01

79

[Surgical management of a dissecting aneurysm of the thoracic aorta in a patient with Marfan's syndrome - Case report].  

PubMed

Marfan's Syndrome is a rare connective tissue disease whose surgical treatment presents several challenges. The existing criteria and recommendations on how and when to surgically approach this disease is almost exclusively confined to the root and ascending aorta, in contrast to the variability of indications on the involvement of the remaining segments of the thoracic and abdominal aorta, due to the multiplicity, morphology and topography of these involvements. This case report is related to a 39 year old woman with Marfan's syndrome, with a type B chronic dissection and a segmentar aneurysm of the proximal descending thoracic aorta with 6,1cm of maximum diameter. The clinical and imagiologic evaluation pointed out the absence of any disorder of the heart, root or ascending aorta. The patient underwent surgical management of the dissecting aneurysm through a transthoracic approach to the aneurysm, with fenestration of the distal aorta and exclusion of the aneurism and intercostal arteries. The efficacy and result of the procedure in addition to the rarity of the vascular pathology presented by the patient, even in the context of a Marfan, completely justify the presentation and disclosure of this clinical case. PMID:23560272

Dinis Da Gama, A; Marcelino, João Luís; Damião, Angélica; Evangelista, Ana; Ministro, Augusto

2011-01-01

80

Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness in ultrasound examination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction have been shown to be associated with an increased thickness of abdominal aorta in the fetus. Therefore the measurement of abdominal aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) has been recently considered a sensitive marker of artherosclerosis risk. To date measure of aortic diameter and of aIMT has been performed manually on US fetal images, thus being susceptible to intra- and inter- operator variability. This work introduces an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from videos recorded during routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal biometry. Firstly, in each frame, the algorithm locates and segments the region corresponding to aorta by means of an active contour driven by two different external forces: a static vector field convolution force and a dynamic pressure force. Then, in each frame, the mean diameter of the vessel is computed, to reconstruct the cardiac cycle: in fact, we expect the diameter to have a sinusoidal trend, according to the heart rate. From the obtained sinusoid, we identify the frames corresponding to the end diastole and to the end systole. Finally, in these frames we assess the aIMT. According to its definition, we consider as aIMT the distance between the leading edge of the blood-intima interface, and the leading edge of the media-adventitia interface on the far wall of the vessel. The correlation between end-diastole and end-systole aIMT automatic and manual measures is 0.90 and 0.84 respectively.

Veronese, Elisa; Poletti, Enea; Cosmi, Erich; Grisan, Enrico

2012-03-01

81

Ascending thoracic aorta: postoperative imaging evaluation.  

PubMed

Advances in computed tomography (CT) scanners and electrocardiographic gating techniques have resulted in superior image quality of the ascending aorta and increased the use of CT angiography for evaluating the postoperative ascending aorta. Several abnormalities of the ascending aorta and aortic arch often require surgery, and various open techniques may be used to reconstruct the aorta, such as the Wheat procedure, in which both an ascending aortic graft and an aortic valve prosthesis are implanted; the Cabrol and modified Bentall procedures, in which a composite synthetic ascending aorta and aortic valve graft are placed; the Ross procedure, in which the aortic valve and aortic root are replaced with the patient's native pulmonary valve and proximal pulmonary artery; valve-sparing procedures such as the T. David-V technique, which leaves the native aortic valve intact; and more extensive arch repair procedures such as the elephant trunk and arch-first techniques, in which interposition or inclusion grafts are implanted, with or without replacement of the aortic valve. Normal postoperative imaging findings, such as hyperattenuating felt pledgets, prosthetic conduits, and reanastomosis sites, may mimic pathologic processes. Postoperative complications seen at CT angiography that require further intervention include pseudoaneurysms, anastomotic stenoses, dissections, and aneurysms. Radiologists must be familiar with these procedures and their imaging features to identify normal postoperative appearances and complications. PMID:23322828

Prescott-Focht, Julia A; Martinez-Jimenez, Santiago; Hurwitz, Lynne M; Hoang, Jenny K; Christensen, Jared D; Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Abbara, Suhny

2013-01-01

82

Automatic Ascending Aorta Detection in CTA Datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of coronary arteries is an essential step when diagnosing coronary heart diseases. There exists a wide range of specialized algorithms for the segmentation of the coronary arteries in Computed Tomography Angiography datasets. In general, these algorithms have to be initialized by manually placing a seed point at the origins of the coronary arteries or within the ascending aorta. In this paper we present a fast and robust algorithm for the automatic detection of the ascending aorta in Computed Tomography Angiography datasets using a two-level threshold ray propagation approach. We further combine this method with an aorta segmentation and coronary artery tree detection algorithm to achieve a fully automatic coronary artery segmentation.

Saur, Stefan C.; Kühhnel, Caroline; Boskamp, Tobias; Székely, Gábor; Cattin, Philippe

83

Regional wave travel and reflections along the human aorta: a study with six simultaneous micromanometric pressures.  

PubMed

The human aorta and its terminal branches were investigated in normal subjects during elective cardiac catheterization to evaluate regional wave travel and arterial wave reflections. A specially designed catheter with six micromanometers equally spaced at 10 cm intervals was positioned with the tip sensor in the distal external iliac artery and the proximal sensor in the aortic arch. Simultaneous pressures were obtained and analyzed for foot-to-foot wave velocity, and Fourier analysis was used to derive apparent phase velocity. These quantities were assessed during control (n = 9), during Valsalva (n = 8) and Müller (n = 4) maneuvers, and during femoral artery occlusion by bilateral manual compression (n = 8). During control, regional cross-sectional areas, determined from aortography, and regional foot-to-foot pulse wave velocities were used to calculate the local reflection coefficient in the proximal descending aorta (gamma = 0.05), at the junction of the renal arteries (gamma = 0.43), and at the terminal aortic bifurcation (gamma = 0.13). To test the hypothesis that significant reflections originate in the aorta, at the level of the renal arteries, aortograms were used to design a latex tube model with geometric properties similar to the descending aorta. Velocities and reflection characteristics in the model and in vivo were compared. Inspection of thoracic aortic pressures under control conditions revealed a reflected wave originating from the region of the aorta at the level of the renal arterial branches while abdominal pressures exhibited reflection from a site peripheral to the terminal aortic bifurcation. In the low frequency range, apparent phase velocity was found to be higher proximal to the renal arteries as compared with at the distal sites. In addition, the minimum value occurred at a higher frequency in the lower thoracic aorta than at more distal sites. The effects of reflection on apparent wave velocity in the tube model were consistent with data obtained in vivo. The Valsalva maneuver diminished the reflection from the aortic region of the renal arteries, thus allowing the distal reflected wave to become more evident on the thoracic pressure waveforms. Bilateral femoral artery occlusion usually enhanced the distal reflection and the Müller maneuver usually resulted in small increases in reflections. In conclusion, the geometric and elastic nonuniformity of the aorta results in two major sites of arterial wave reflection that influence the aortic pressure waveforms in man.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:4064270

Latham, R D; Westerhof, N; Sipkema, P; Rubal, B J; Reuderink, P; Murgo, J P

1985-12-01

84

Abdominal vacuum lift as an aid to diagnosing abdominal adhesions  

E-print Network

The internal organs are designed to move freely and slide over one another during normal body movement. The abdominal organs, however, have a tendency to adhere to the abdominal cavity (peritoneum) and other abdominal ...

Strauss, Julius (Julius Y.)

2006-01-01

85

Abdominal Wall Endometriomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endometriosis is a condition in which uterine mucosal tissue is located outside the uterus. Endometriosis may be pelvic or extrapelvic. The term endometrioma is used when endometriosis appears as a circumscribed mass. Abdominal wall endometriomas are usually a secondary process in scars after surgical procedures. A retrospective study of abdominal wall endometrioma, from March 1992 through April 1999 at our

Amit J. Dwivedi; Sunita N. Agrawal; Yvan J. Silva

2002-01-01

86

Platelet affinity for burro aorta collagen.  

PubMed

Despite ingenious concepts, there are no unequivocal clues as to what, when, and how some undefined biochemical factor(s) or constituent(s) that localizes in the arterial wall can precipitate a thromboatheromatous lesion or arterial disease. The present study focused on the extraction, partial purification, and characterization of a collagen-active platelet stimulator from the aortas of aged burros. The aggregator moiety in the aorta extracts invariably had a higher affinity for platelets in citrated platelet-rich plasma of human beings than for platelets of homologous burros. The platelet-aggregating factor(s) in the aorta extract was retained by incubation with alpha-chymotrypsin. Platelet-aggregating activity was rapidldy abolished after incubation with collagenase, as determined by plateletaggregometry tests. Evidence based on light microscope and polysaccharide histochemical reactions indicates a probability that the intracellular amorphous matrix (PAS-positive) and filamentous components (PTAH-positive) expelled from smooth muscle cells disrupted during homogenization of the aorta may be a principle source of a precursor collagen species which is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation. PMID:201188

Schneider, M D

1977-10-01

87

Modeling Blood Flow in the Aorta.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an exercise to demonstrate two fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics: the Reynolds number and the Principle of Continuity. The exercise demonstrates flow in a major blood vessel, such as the aorta, with and without a stenosis. Students observe the transition from laminar to turbulent flow as well as downstream persistence of turbulence.…

McConnell, Colin J.; Carmichael, Jonathan B.; DeMont, M. Edwin

1997-01-01

88

Abdominal hernias: Radiological features  

PubMed Central

Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

2011-01-01

89

A basic trilobite morphometric exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity entails a basic morphometrics lab, followed up by an in-class exercise to reinforce some of the same key concepts. The lab exercise familiarizes the student with basic methods of quantitative characterization and statistical comparison through measurement of pygidia (tails) of two species of the Ordovician trilobite Bellefontia â one from New York and one from Pennsylvania. Actual specimens, while nice, are not required; data acquired by measurement from photo collages will suffice. The exercise culminates in a statistical test of significance (using the Z-statistic) of the difference in slopes of the lines acquired for data from the two species. The data also serve to pose questions and prompt consideration of growth trajectories and discrimination of isometric from anisometric growth. The in-class activity builds on the knowledge base built in the lab but applies it to species discrimination based on the cranidia (central part of the head) of three species of the Upper Cambrian genus Bartonaspis, known to be of identical age from their occurrences within the very thin (everywhere 2m or less) Irvingella major Zone of the Elvinia trilobite Zone. The importance of that subzone, which is the "critical interval" at the top of the Pterocephaliid Biomere the basal unit of the Sunwaptan Stage traceable throughout Laurentian North America, also contributes to the significance of the exercise. With the insight developed from the lab, students are able to confidently distinguish the three species of Bartonaspis (from three photo collages), but must thoughtfully evaluate the data presented in bivariate plots of cranidial morphologic data to do so. The exercise gives the students a good sense of the level of familiarity and morphologic characterization necessary to do species-level identification, and also some worthwhile practice in basic quantitative methods.

Taylor, John

90

Apparent adiposity assessed by standardised scoring systems and morphometric measurements in horses and ponies.  

PubMed

This study described a scoring system for the assessment of apparent neck adiposity and evaluated morphometric measurements for assessment of neck and overall adiposity. Twenty-one barren Thoroughbred mares, 13 Arabian geldings and 75 Welsh, Dartmoor, or crossbred pony mares, were clinically examined and blood samples analysed for insulin, glucose, leptin, and triglycerides. Bodyweight (BW), height, length, girth and abdominal circumferences, neck length, neck crest height and neck circumference were measured, and body condition scores (BCS) and cresty neck scores (CNS) were rated. Girth:height ratio had the strongest associations with BCS (r(s)=0.64, P<0.001 in horses; r(s)=0.83, P<0.001 in ponies) and blood variables, such as leptin (r(s)=0.39, P=0.024 in horses; r(s)=0.68, P<0.001 in ponies). Crest height and neck circumference:height ratio had the strongest association with CNS (r(s)>0.50, P<0.01) and blood variables, such as insulin (r(s)0.40, P<0.05). Cresty neck score was useful in the assessment of neck crest adiposity and had physiological relevance, as demonstrated by associations with blood variables. Girth:height was the most suitable morphometric for assessment of overall adiposity, and either crest height or neck circumference:height was a suitable morphometric for assessment of apparent neck adiposity. PMID:18440844

Carter, Rebecca A; Geor, Raymond J; Burton Staniar, W; Cubitt, Tania A; Harris, Pat A

2009-02-01

91

3D morphometric analysis of the arterial switch operation using in vivo MRI data.  

PubMed

The arterial switch operation (ASO) is widely used nowadays as the surgical strategy of choice to repair transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Residual morphological and geometrical abnormalities of the aorta, pulmonary arteries and coronary arteries, however, have not been fully studied in a three-dimensional (3D) domain. These morphometric complications might have implications on long-term outcomes of ASO patients, hence the need to explore them in detail and study them with reference to healthy controls of comparable age and body surface area. These anatomical characteristics were examined using 3D patient-specific anatomical models reconstructed from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images of 20 ASO patients (mean age 14.4?±?2.4 years, 16 males and 4 females) compared with healthy controls (mean age 15.2?±?2.0 years, 17 males and 3 females). It was found that the aorta, pulmonary arteries and re-implanted coronary arteries of ASO patients were significantly different morphologically and geometrically to those of healthy controls. In particular, the aortic root was dilated, with abnormal 3D angulation and additional acute angulation of the curvature of the aortic arch in the ASO group compared with controls. This could theoretically impinge on aortic flow profiles and physiological stresses, which can act as a primer for the development of early atherosclerotic disease in the ASO population. Clin. Anat. 27:1212-1222, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25156444

Ntsinjana, Hopewell N; Capelli, Claudio; Biglino, Giovanni; Cook, Andrew C; Tann, Oliver; Derrick, Graham; Taylor, Andrew M; Schievano, Silvia

2014-11-01

92

Abdominal Pain Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... most helpful information that a doctor uses to determine the cause of abdominal pain. The characteristics of the pain (sharp, dull, cramping, burning, twisting, tearing, penetrating), its location and relation to eating or to having a bowel movement are important ...

93

Abdominal ultrasound (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

94

Abdominal CT scan  

MedlinePLUS

... care provider if you take the diabetes medication metformin(Glucophage). People taking this medicine may have to ... be used to look for: Cause of abdominal pain or swelling Hernia Cause of a fever Masses ...

95

Intra-abdominal abscess  

MedlinePLUS

... abscess requires antibiotics (given by an IV) and drainage. Drainage involves placing a needle through the skin in ... abscess and how bad the infection is. Generally, drainage is successful in treating intra-abdominal abscesses that ...

96

Postpartum Lower Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pains after labor can be as severe as those experienced during labor, particularly the commonly occurring lower abdominal\\u000a “after-pains” that are associated with prolonged uterine contractions during breast feeding. Other causes of lower abdominal\\u000a pain may not be physiologically based but are either direct complications of parturition, such as genital infection, or fortuitous,\\u000a such as appendicitis. Although the focus of

Anita Holdcroft

1999-01-01

97

[Stent graft of the thoracic aorta].  

PubMed

Considering the demographic changes in our society and the proliferation of imaging-based improved diagnostics, both acute and chronic aortic diseases attract increasing attention and require dedicated care. Cardiac as well as vascular surgery used to represent the gold standards for therapeutic management of pathologies of the ascending aorta and the arch; however, the technological evolution of endoluminal strategies has had a serious impact on the treatment of the descending aorta, the aortic arch in combination with vascular debranching or bypass, and in selected cases even on managing pathologies of the ascending aorta. Although several case series and meta-analyses of published observations hint towards superiority of endografting in comparison to open surgical repair, the affected usually multimorbid patients with highly complex aortic disease should be subjected to an individual evaluation by a team of cardiologists, cardiac and vascular surgeons as well as imaging specialists; a dedicated individualized treatment concept in highly experienced centers of excellence is likely to provide the best results for such challenging patients. PMID:23588784

Nienaber, C A; Akin, I; Kische, S; Ince, H; Chatterjee, T

2013-05-01

98

MIGRATION AND MORPHOMETRICS ANTH 501 / 690  

E-print Network

MIGRATION AND MORPHOMETRICS ANTH 501 / 690 THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE Instructor: Benjamin of human adaptation to environmental factors, migration, and population history. This context is provided by the populating of and migrations within the Americas, starting at the end of the Pleistocene. The majority

Auerbach, Benjamin M.

99

Turning back the clock: regression of abdominal aortic aneurysms via pharmacotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common disease that causes progressive expansion and rupture of the aorta with high mortality.\\u000a There is a large and unmet need for nonsurgical treatment for AAA. Research has shown that an intricate network of inflammatory\\u000a cells and interstitial cells contributes to the formation of AAA by producing pro-inflammatory mediators that activate enzymes\\u000a to degrade

Hiroki Aoki; Koichi Yoshimura; Masunori Matsuzaki

2007-01-01

100

Subtype-Specific Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Vasodilator Activity in the Cephalic, Thoracic and Abdominal Vasculature of Female Rat  

PubMed Central

Estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate genomic and nongenomic vasodilator effects, but estrogen therapy may not provide systemic vascular protection. To test whether this is due to regional differences in ER distribution or vasodilator activity, cephalic (carotid), thoracic (thoracic aorta, pulmonary) and abdominal arteries (abdominal aorta, mesenteric, renal) from female Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared to measure contraction to phenylephrine (Phe), and relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and the ER activators 17?-estradiol (E2) (all ERs), PPT (ER?), DPN (ER?) and G1 (GPR30). Phe caused contraction that was enhanced in endothelium-denuded aorta, supporting endothelial release of vasodilators. In cephalic and thoracic arteries, ACh relaxation was abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, suggesting a role of NO. In mesenteric vessels, ACh-induced relaxation was partly inhibited by L-NAME+COX inhibitor indomethacin and blocked by the K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA), suggesting a hyperpolarization pathway. E2 and PPT caused similar relaxation in all vessels. DPN and G1 caused smaller relaxation that was more prominent in abdominal vessels. RT-PCR revealed variable ER? mRNA expression, and increased ER? in carotid artery and GPR30 in abdominal arteries. Western blots revealed greater amounts of ER?, ER? and GPR30 in abdominal arteries. In thoracic aorta, E2, PPT and DPN-induced relaxation was blocked by L-NAME, and was associated with increased nitrite/nitrate production, suggesting a role of NO. In abdominal vessels, E2, PPT, DPN and G1-induced relaxation persisted in L-NAME+indomethacin+TEA-treated or endothelium-denuded arteries, suggesting direct effect on vascular smooth muscle (VSM). E2, PPT, DPN, and G1 caused greater relaxation of KCl-induced contraction in abdominal vessels, suggesting inhibitory effects on Ca2+ entry. Thus, E2 and ER? stimulation produce similar relaxation of the cephalic, thoracic and abdominal arteries. In the cephalic and thoracic arteries, particularly the thoracic aorta, E2-induced and ER?- and ER?-mediated vasodilation involve NO production. ER?- and GPR30-mediated relaxation is greater in the abdominal arteries, and appears to involve hyperpolarization and inhibition of VSM Ca2+ entry. Specific ER agonists could produce vasodilation in specific vascular beds without affecting other vessels in systemic circulation. PMID:23429596

Reslan, Ossama M.; Yin, Zongzhi; do Nascimento, Graciliano R. A.; Khalil, Raouf A.

2013-01-01

101

Enhanced production of the chemotactic cytokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory leukocytes play a central role in the pathogenesis of human atherosclerotic disease, from early atherogenesis to the late stages of atherosclerosis, such as aneurysm formation. We have shown previously that human abdominal aortic aneurysms are characterized by the presence of numerous chronic inflammatory cells throughout the vessel wall (Am J Pathol 1990, 137: 1199-1213). The signals that attract lymphocytes and monocytes into the aortic wall in aneurysmal disease remain to be precisely defined. We have studied the production of the chemotactic cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by aortic tissues obtained from 47 subjects. We compared the antigenic production of these cytokines by explants of: 1) human abdominal aneurysmal tissue, 2) occlusive (atherosclerotic) aortas, and 3) normal aortas. IL-8, which is chemotactic for neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells was liberated in greater quantities by abdominal aortic aneurysms than by occlusive or normal aortas. Using immunohistochemistry, macrophages, and to a lesser degree endothelial cells, were found to be positive for the expression of antigenic IL-8. Similarly, MCP-1, a potent chemotactic cytokine for monocytes/macrophages, was released by explants from abdominal aortic aneurysms in greater quantities than by explants from occlusive or normal aortas. Using immunohistochemistry, the predominant MCP-1 antigen-positive cells were macrophages and to a lesser extent smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate that human abdominal aortic aneurysms produce IL-8 and MCP-1, both of which may serve to recruit additional inflammatory cells into the abdominal aortic wall, hence perpetuating the inflammatory reaction that may result in the pathology of vessel wall destruction and aortic aneurysm formation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8494046

Koch, A. E.; Kunkel, S. L.; Pearce, W. H.; Shah, M. R.; Parikh, D.; Evanoff, H. L.; Haines, G. K.; Burdick, M. D.; Strieter, R. M.

1993-01-01

102

Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in comparison to open surgical repair. An abdominal aortic aneurysm [AAA] is the enlargement and weakening of the aorta (major blood artery) that may rupture and result in stroke and death. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair [EVAR] is a procedure for repairing abdominal aortic aneurysms from within the blood vessel without open surgery. In this procedure, an aneurysm is excluded from blood circulation by an endograft (a device) delivered to the site of the aneurysm via a catheter inserted into an artery in the groin. The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this technology. The review included 44 eligible articles out of 489 citations identified through a systematic literature search. Most of the research evidence is based on non-randomized comparative studies and case series. In the short-term, EVAR appears to be safe and comparable to open surgical repair in terms of survival. It is associated with less severe hemodynamic changes, less blood transfusion and shorter stay in the intensive care and hospital. However, there is concern about a high incidence of endoleak, requiring secondary interventions, and in some cases, conversion to open surgical repair. Current evidence does not support the use of EVAR in all patients. EVAR might benefit individuals who are not fit for surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and whose risk of rupture of the aneurysm outweighs the risk of death from EVAR. The long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVAR cannot be determined at this time. Further evaluation of this technology is required. OBJECTIVE The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) in comparison to open surgical repair (OSR). BACKGROUND Clinical Need An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized, abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm or 50% of the aortic diameter at the diaphragm. (1) A true AAA involves all 3 layers of the vessel wall. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. (61) Heller et al. (44) analyzed information from a national hospital database in the United States. They found no significant change in the incidence rate of elective AAA repair or ruptured AAA presented to the nation’s hospitals. The investigators concluded that technologic and treatment advances over the past 19 years have not affected the outcomes of patients with AAAs, and the ability to identify and to treat patients with AAAs has not improved. Classification of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms At least 90% of the AAAs are affected by atherosclerosis, and most of these aneurysms are below the level of the renal arteries.(1) An abdominal aortic aneurysm may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. An AAA may be classified according to their sizes:(7) Small aneurysms: less than 5 cm in diameter. Medium aneurysms: 5-7cm. Large aneurysms: more than 7 cm in diameter. Small aneurysms account for approximately 50% of all clinically recognized aneurysms.(7) Aortic aneurysms may be classified according to their gross appearance as follows (1): Fusiform aneurysms affect the entire circumference of a vessel, resulting in a diffusely dilated lesion Saccular aneurysms involve only a portion of the circumference, resulting in an outpouching (protrusion) in the vessel wall. Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 1% and 5.4%. (61) The prevalence is related to age and vascular risk factors. It is more common in men and in those with a positive family history. In Canada, Abdominal aortic aneurysms are the 10th leading cause of death in men 6

2002-01-01

103

Unexpected limited chronic dissection of the ascending aorta  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of a limited chronic dissection of the ascending aorta that was accidentally discovered at operation performed for severe aortic stenosis and moderate to severe dilatation of the ascending aorta. Preoperative investigations such as transoesophageal echocardiography and cardiac catheterization missed the diagnosis of dissection. Intraoperative findings included a 3.5 cm eccentric bulge of the ascending aorta and a 5 mm circular shaped intimal tear comunicating with a limited hematoma or small dissection of the media layer. (The rarety of the report is that the chronic dissection is limited to a small area (approximatively 3.5 × 2.5 cm) of the ascending aorta). PMID:18638403

Venturini, Andrea; Zoffoli, Giampaolo; Mangino, Domenico; Ascione, Raimondo; Terrini, Alberto; Asta, Angiolino; Angelini, Gianni; Polesel, Elvio

2008-01-01

104

Abdominal Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor  

PubMed Central

A 28-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal pain, weight loss and a palpable intra-abdominal mass. A CT scan revealed a tumor with a diameter of 7 cm with sharp margins, intra-tumoral fatty components and enhancing soft tissue. After initial workup, which suggested an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT), she underwent laparotomy with complete resection. Pathological examination indeed revealed IMT. IMT is a rare benign neoplasm and has been described in nearly the entire body. It presents with nonspecific symptoms. The therapy of abdominal IMT consists of radical surgery because of high local recurrence rates. In this case report clinical, surgical, radiological and histological features with a review of the relevant literature are described. PMID:24707245

Groenveld, Roosmarijn L.; Raber, Menno H.; Oosterhof-Berktas, Richard; Eijken, Erik; Klaase, Joost M.

2014-01-01

105

Pharmacokinetic study of methyldopa in aorta-coarctated rats using a microdialysis technique.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics of methyldopa (12.5, 25 and 50 mg kg(-1), i.p.) was studied in anesthetized sham-operated (SO) and abdominal aorta-coarctated (ACo) rats using a microdialysis technique. A non-linear relationship between the area under the curve (AUC) and dose was observed in SO rats. However, in ACo rats the AUC showed a proportional increase with dose. Abdominal aortic coarctation produced significant differences in the estimates of clearance (Cl) and the elimination rate constant from the dialysate (K(ed)) after the administration of 50 mg kg(-1)of methyldopa (K(ed)SO, 0.31 +/- 0.09; ACo, 0.66 +/- 0.09(*)h(-1): Cl SO, 30.8 +/- 10.1; ACo, 78.6 +/- 13.3(*)mlkg(-1)min(-1);n= 6,(*)P< 0.05 vs SO). In conclusion, this study, by using a microdialysis technique, suggests that abdominal aortic coarctation seems to produce changes in the pharmacokinetics of methyldopa in rats. PMID:11243717

Opezzo, J A; Höcht, C; Taira, C A; Bramuglia, G F

2001-02-01

106

Coarctation of aorta with complete aortic occlusion  

PubMed Central

Survival to advanced age is exceptional in patients with unrepaired aortic coarctation. We report the case of an 81-year-old man with aortic coarctation and total occlusion who was otherwise asymptomatic. Coarctation was suspected when a femoral-radial pulse delay was noted during his routine physical examination. A 70-mmHg systolic blood pressure gradient between the upper and lower extremities was detected. Subsequent magnetic resonance angiography, aortography, and coronary angiography revealed severe coarctation of the aorta, well-developed collateral vessels, and severe coronary artery disease. A staged percutaneous coronary intervention procedure was performed and the coarctation was managed conservatively with antihypertensive medication. PMID:24454333

Ohlow, Marc-Alexander; Lauer, Bernward

2013-01-01

107

Morphometric evaluations of the human nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is very important to evaluate and accurately understand the various conditions of the human nervous system. In this review\\u000a article, we introduce several morphometric reports that are proven to be accurate from the view point of various errors (range\\u000a of tissue shrinkage ratios, microscopic multiple counting, artifacts of microscopic structures, etc.). We review the following\\u000a aspects of the selected

Noboru Goto; Jun Goto

2006-01-01

108

Morphometric Analysis of Upper End of Tibia  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study aims to assess different morphometric parameters of condylar and intercondylar surface of tibia and to compile the results, analyze and formulate a baseline data for future studies with relevance to Indian population and also to compare the current data with accessible literature for pertinent surgical utilities. Morphometric parameters of upper end of tibia can be used to guide treatment and monitor outcome of total knee replacement surgeries. Information regarding morphometry of upper end of the tibia is vital as it provides reliable method of assessing knee deformity. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 50 male and 50 female adult human tibiae. Morphometric measurements of medial condyle, lateral condyle and intercondylar area of tibiae were meticulously recorded with digital Vernier calipers with a least count of 0.01 mm. Student’s t-test was used with significant level of p-value < 0.05 and 95% confidence interval. Results: All measurements were found to be statistically significant when compared between the two sexes on both sides (p-value<0.05). Anteroposterior measurements were found to be greater than transverse measurements for both medial and lateral condyles. Furthermore, both anteroposterior and transverse measurements were greater in medial condyle than in lateral condyle on both sides and sexes. Conclusion: The present study is an endeavor to provide a base line data pertaining to morphometric details of upper end of tibia with reference to unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasty in Indian population. The results of the study assume special importance in view of the technical advancements in reconstructive surgical procedures in orthopedic practice. PMID:25302182

Singla, Rajan Kumar; Kullar, Jagdev Singh; Suri, Rajesh Kumar; Mehta, Vandana

2014-01-01

109

Morphometric characterisation of treecreepers (genus Certhia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lengths of hind claw, tarsus, bill, wing and tail plus bill depth and width, wing tip and tail graduation were measured in\\u000a nearly 2,000 specimens from all nine currently accepted Certhia species and most subspecies to provide morphometric characterisation. In a discriminant analysis for all species, only C. [discolor], C. nipalensis and C. tianquanensis were clearly separated from each other

Dieter Thomas Tietze; Jochen Martens

2009-01-01

110

Effects of simulated microgravity on vasoconstrictor and mechanical properties of the rat abdominal aorta  

E-print Network

, 2 NaHiPO4, 1. 2 MgCli, 11. 2 glucose, 13. 5 NaHCOs, 0. 003 propranolol, and 0. 025 EDTA. Solutions were aerated with 95% Oz-5% COi (pH 7. 4) and maintained at 37 + 0. 05'C. In the Ca + free solution, lmM EDTA was added and CaCIi was replaced..., 2 NaHiPO4, 1. 2 MgCli, 11. 2 glucose, 13. 5 NaHCOs, 0. 003 propranolol, and 0. 025 EDTA. Solutions were aerated with 95% Oz-5% COi (pH 7. 4) and maintained at 37 + 0. 05'C. In the Ca + free solution, lmM EDTA was added and CaCIi was replaced...

Papadopoulos, Anthony

2012-06-07

111

Laparoscopic total abdominal colectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the impact of laparoscopy upon the outcome of total abdominal colectomy (TAC). Specifically, patients underwent standard laparotomy with TAC and ileoproctostomy (TAC + IP), TAC and ileoanal reservoir (TAC + IAR), laparoscopically assisted TAC + IP (L-TAC + IP), or laparoscopically assisted TAC + IAR (L-TAC + IAR). Parameters studied included

Steven D. Wexner; Olaf B. Johansen; Juan J. Nogueras; David G. Jagelman

1992-01-01

112

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers a one-time abdominal aortic aneurysm ultrasound. You must get a referral for it ...

113

Balloon-expandable stent repair of severe coarctation of aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies have shown that stents implanted at the aorta become incorporated within the aortic wall and can be further expanded in growing animals. This study evaluates the feasibility and immediate results of balloon-expandable stent implantation in 10 patients with severe coarctation of aorta. The ages of the patients ranged from 1 month to 43 years; 1 was an infant,

José Suárez de Lezo; Manuel Pan; Miguel Romero; Alfonso Medina; José Segura; Djordje Pavlovic; Carlos Martinez; Ignacio Tejero; Juan Perez Navero; Francisco Torres; Mercedes Lafuente; Enrique Hernández; Francisco Melián; Manuel Concha

1995-01-01

114

The use of the TDMAC-heparin shunt in replacement of the descending thoracic aorta.  

PubMed

The use of a flexible polyvinyl tube bonded with tridodecylmethylammonium-heparin (Gott) as a temporary shunt during the resection of lesions of the descending thoracic aorta has proven a safe and simple means of providing adequate circulation to the abdominal viscera and spinal cord. This technique avoids the metabolic consequences of ischemia to the lower body, diminishes left ventricular afterload during aortic clamping, and obviates the requirement for systemic anticoagulation associated with pump bypass. Between September 1970 and October 1974, 24 patients have been operated using the TDMAC shunt. There were two deaths (9%) among the 22 patients undergoing elective resections. Two patients with acutely dissecting and ruptured aneurysms expired. Followup data has been obtained on all patients from one to 46 months postoperative. The ease with which the shunt is inserted and its adaptability to varied clinical and anatomic situations is stressed. We feel that TDMAC-Heparin shunt provides the best method of circulatory support for elective operative procedures on the descending thoracic aorta. PMID:1130887

Connors, J P; Ferguson, T B; Roper, C L; Weldon, C S

1975-05-01

115

[Blunt abdominal trauma].  

PubMed

Serious intraabdominal injury due to intraabdominal hemorrhage, gastro-intestinal laceration with peritonitis or incarceration of abdominal organs. The most important question in the management is to ascertain a laparotomy or the diagnostic of a specific organ injury is needed. The peritoneal lavage is a great help in making this decision. The x-ray examinations of thorax, abdomen and bones are required. Adjunctive diagnostic modalities for subtile examination of organs are ultrasound, computed tomography and angiography. These examinations have a limited application. Exploratory laparotomy should be done if there are signs of peritoneal irritation with an increased tendency. 168 patients with blunt abdominal trauma where treated in Charity-hospital of Berlin. The laparotomy was necessary in 78 patients. In 70 cases we found organ injuries. It was pointed to splenic repair, the management of liver injury especially the packing of the laceration and the treatment of the injuries of gastro-intestinal tract, pancreas- and diaphragmatic rupture. PMID:3281391

Wolff, H; Lippert, H

1988-01-01

116

Functional Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a frequent complaint seen in the pediatric primary care setting. Current diagnostic criteria\\u000a for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are defi ned in the Rome III criteria, which outline a positive symptom\\u000a profi le for diagnosis. In addition, clinicians should be aware of specifi c “red fl ag ” rule-out symptoms that may suggest\\u000a organic disease

Lisa Scharff; Laura E. Simons

117

[Abdominal catastrophe--surgeon's view].  

PubMed

Abdominal catastrophe is a serious clinical condition, usually being a complication arising during treatment of intraabdominal nontraumatic disorders or abdominal injuries. Most commonly, inflamation- secondary peritonitis, is concerned. Abdominal catastrophe also includes secondary signs of sepsis, abdominal compartment syndrome and enterocutaneous fistules. Most septic abdominal disorders which show signs of abdominal catastrophy, require surgical intervention and reinterventions--planned or "on demand" laparotomies. During the postoperative period, the patient requires intensive care management, including steps taken to stabilize his/hers condition, management of sepsis and metabolic and nutritional support measures, as well as adequate indication for reoperations. New technologies aimed at prevention of complications in laparostomies and to improve conditions for final laparotomy closure are used in phase procedures for surgical management of intraabdominal infections. Despite the new technologies, abdominal catastrophe has higher morbidity and lethality risk rates. PMID:20731313

Vyhnánek, F

2010-07-01

118

Obesity-Associated Abdominal Elephantiasis  

PubMed Central

Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare entity. Abdominal elephantiasis is an uncommon, but deformative and progressive cutaneous disease caused by chronic lymphedema and recurrent streptococcal or Staphylococcus infections of the abdominal wall. We present 3 cases of patients with morbid obesity who presented to our hospital with abdominal wall swelling, thickening, erythema, and pain. The abdominal wall and legs were edematous, with cobblestone-like, thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured plaques on the abdomen. Two patients had localised areas of skin erythema, tenderness, and increased warmth. There was purulent drainage from the abdominal wall in one patient. They were managed with antibiotics with some initial improvement. Meticulous skin care and local keratolytic treatment for the lesions were initiated with limited success due to their late presentation. All three patients refused surgical therapy. Conclusion. Early diagnosis is important for the treatment of abdominal elephantiasis and prevention of complications. PMID:23606857

Kohli, Ritesh; Argento, Vivian; Amoateng-Adjepong, Yaw

2013-01-01

119

Reevaluation of honeybee (Apis mellifera) microtaxonomy: a geometric morphometric approach  

E-print Network

Reevaluation of honeybee (Apis mellifera) microtaxonomy: a geometric morphometric approach rfan, the microtaxonomy of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) subspecies was reevaluated based on a geometric morphometric analysis displayed that Apis mellifera intermissa, a member of M lineage, seemed to belong to the A lineage

120

Morphometrics of Six Turtle Species from South Dakota  

E-print Network

), smooth softshell turtle (Apalone mutica), spiny softshell turtle (Apalone spinifera), western painted213 Morphometrics of Six Turtle Species from South Dakota SARAH J. BANDAS1 and KENNETH F. HIGGINS, morphometric measurements were recorded for 755 turtles representing six species in South Dakota. Turtles were

121

The Effect of Chlorpyrifos on Isolated Thoracic Aorta in Rats  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta and on the level of NO in plasma and aorta. The effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta in organ bath was determined in 10 rats. Another 45 rats were assigned to 3 groups with 15 rats each: control group 1 received distilled water, control group 2 was given corn oil, and the last group was given 13.5?mg/kg chlorpyrifos dissolved in corn oil every other day for 8 weeks orally. Chlorpyrifos (10?10?M–10?5?M) showed no effect on isolated thoracic aorta. Plasma AChE activity was decreased, while LDH, ALT, GGT, and AST activities were increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. Plasma NO level was increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. iNOS expression was present in all groups in the cytoplasm of the endothelia and in the smooth muscle cells of aorta. According to semiquantitative histomorphological analysis, iNOS immunopositive reactions were seen in the decreasing order in chlorpyrifos, control 2, and control 1 groups. eNOS immunopositive reactions were observed in the endothelial cell cytoplasm, rarely in the subintimal layer, and the smooth muscle cells of aorta. There were no differences among the groups in terms of eNOS immunostaining. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos induced NO production in aorta following an increase in NOS expression. PMID:23878805

Y?ld?r?m, Ebru; Baydan, Emine; Kanbur, Murat; Kul, Oguz; C?nar, Miyase; Ekici, Husamettin; Atmaca, Nurgul

2013-01-01

122

[Disseminated intravascular coagulation related to atherosclerosis and aneurysm of aorta: successful management with subcutaneous self injection of heparin sodium].  

PubMed

We described here a seventy-one year-old male, who had repeated disseminated intravascular coagulation related to atherosclerosis and aneurysm of the aorta, and was successfully treated with self-subcutaneous injection of heparin sodium. He developed gingival bleeding and purpura in 1977. He was first treated with prednisolone (30 mg/day) and ACTH-Z under the diagnosis of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with chronic thyroiditis, since platelet count (0.2 x 10(4)/microliters) was markedly decreased and megakaryocytes in the bone marrow were increased. By the treatment, platelet count recovered to 16.7 x 10(4)/microliters, while fibrin-degradation product levels were increased and hypofibrinogenemia developed, suggesting disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Additional treatment with heparin was effective, and the coagulation studies became normal. In 1980, he again developed the episode with thrombocytopenia. At this time, prednisolone did not improve the episode, but heparin was effective. Since 1983, an enlargement of abdominal aorta had been recognized and gradually progressed. In 1983, he developed lumbago and abdominal pain, and received an emergency operation using artificial Y-graft vessel under the diagnosis of rupture of the aneurysm. There was no evidence of consumption coagulopathy at that time. He had been well until 1987, when he developed the third episode of thrombocytopenia with gingival bleeding. Thrombocytopenia was controlled with the treatment of heparin, but needed a continuous treatment with heparin. Thereafter, he has been well managed with self-injection of the anticoagulant, heparin sodium. PMID:2593249

Takahashi, K; Ichikawa, Y; Arimori, S

1989-10-01

123

[Endovascular repair for coarctation of the aorta in an adult].  

PubMed

A 27-year-old woman with Turner's syndrome who underwent successful endovascular treatment for coarctation of the aorta is presented. She was admitted to our hospital complaining of upper extremity hypertension. Computed tomography revealed discrete stenosis of the proximal descending aorta and developed collateral circulation. After endovascular repair with a balloon expandable stent, her transcoarctation gradient fell from 44 mmHg preoperatively to less than 10 mmHg. She was discharged with no complications on the 7th postoperative day. Coarctation of the aorta in an adult patient could be safely and effectively managed by endovascular treatment. PMID:24008641

Hayashi, Jun; Abe, Kazuo; Hata, Masaki; Nagano, Naoko; Hamasaki, Azumi; Suzuki, Kenji

2013-09-01

124

[Role of endovascular surgery in presence of rupture of the thoracic aorta in patients with severe multisystemic post-traumatic surgical lesions].  

PubMed

The endovascular treatment (ET) of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta (TRTA) may represent, particularly in patients with severe multisystemic post-traumatic surgical lesions, an alternative approach to traditional surgery. We observed (October 2001- November 2004) 5 male patients (age: range 23-42 years - average 32,4) affected by TRTA (3 isthmic aortic ruptures - 2 distal descending thoracic aorta ruptures), all successfully treated with an endovascular approach. The Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) ranged between 5 and 13. After performing resuscitation manoeuvres, all patients were investigated with total body CT scans in order to evaluate the thoracic aorta and to identify associated visceral lesions. In 4 cases were evident associated visceral lesions (3 cases: bone, abdominal and neurosurgical trauma - 1 case: bone, abdominal, neurosurgical and thoracic trauma). All the procedures were performed in the operative room using DSA (Digital Subtraction Angiography). The mean operating time was 105 minutes (range 80 - 125). We didn't observed early and late complications (follow-up: average 24 months, range 12-36). In conclusion the ET of TRTA represents in 'critical' patients with severe polytrauma an alternative approach to traditional surgery in order to 'stabilizing' the cardiovascular clinical parameters and to treating 'safety' the other associated surgical lesions. PMID:17626766

De Santis, F; Di Cintio, V; Napoleone, M; Morettini, G; Colonna, M; Mancuso, M; Bruni, A; Chaves B, C M

2007-01-01

125

Abdominal imaging: An introduction  

SciTech Connect

This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures.

Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

1986-01-01

126

Staged hybrid treatment of ascending aorta aneurysm post cardiac surgery  

PubMed Central

We describe the management of ascending aorta aneurysm following a recurrent sternotomy wound infection in 2 male patients. The patients had undergone cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass with late complications of chronic sternal wound infection and saccular aneurysm at the aortic cannulation site. In both patients, following a multidisciplinary approach, a customized stent graft was implanted endovascularly into the ascending aorta to seal the aneurysm orifice followed by resternotomy, repair of the aneurysm and omentopexy. Both patients' postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:23475117

Shaikhrezai, Kasra; Nanjaiah, Prakash; Ingram, Susan M.; Brackenbury, Edward T.

2013-01-01

127

Hypnosis for functional abdominal pain.  

PubMed

Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other somatic symptoms are easily adaptable for use with functional abdominal pain. The author discusses 2 contrasting hypnotic approaches to functional abdominal pain and provides implications for further research. These approaches may provide new insights into this common and complex disorder. PMID:21922712

Gottsegen, David

2011-07-01

128

Abdominal pain in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Abdominal pain in pregnancy is most commonly caused by complications of the pregnancy, e.g., abortion, ectopic pregnancy and abruptio placentae. A careful history and methodical physical examination and, if necessary, simple ultrasonographic investigations will reveal the cause in most of these conditions. In a few cases of abdominal pain in pregnancy a gynaecological condition, such as torsion of an ovarian cyst, or a nongynaecological (medical or surgical) one is the cause. Some of these conditions are serious, e.g., acute appendicitis, and unless the correct diagnosis is made and the appropriate management promptly instituted both the mother and her baby may suffer tragic consequences. Moreover, these conditions are more likely to be misdiagnosed during pregnancy. This is because the anatomical and physiological changes which occur in pregnancy tend to change and obtund the expected clinical features and laboratory data which are used to diagnose these conditions. Their early diagnosis therefore requires a high index of suspicion together with awareness of the ways in which they may present in pregnancy. PMID:7941766

Klufio, C A; Amoa, A B; Rageau, O

1993-12-01

129

Abdominal MR Elastography  

PubMed Central

MR Elastography (MRE) is an MRI-based technique for quantitatively assessing the mechanical properties of tissues, based on the propagation of shear waves. Multiple studies have described many potential applications of MRE, from characterizing tumors to detecting diffuse disease processes. Studies have shown that MRE can be successfully implemented to assess abdominal organs. The first clinical application MRE to be well documented is the detection and characterization of hepatic fibrosis, which systematically increases the stiffness of liver tissue. In this diagnostic role, offers a safer, and less expensive, and potentially more accurate alternative to invasive liver biopsy. Emerging results suggest that measurements of liver and spleen stiffness may provide an indirect way to assess portal hypertension. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that is possible to use MRE to evaluate the mechanical properties of other abdominal structures, such as the pancreas and kidneys. Steady technical progress in developing practical protocols for applying MRE in the abdomen and pelvis provides opportunities to explore many other potential applications of this emerging technology. PMID:20010062

Yin, Meng; Chen, Jun; Glaser, Kevin J.; Talwalkar, Jayant A.; Ehman, Richard L.

2011-01-01

130

Abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed

Key Clinical Points Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Abdominal aortic aneurysms are usually asymptomatic until they rupture, with an ensuing mortality of 85 to 90%. Symptomatic patients require urgent repair. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations support screening in men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking and selective screening in men 65 to 75 years of age without a smoking history, although the optimal cohort to be screened remains controversial. The usual threshold for elective repair is an aortic diameter of 5.5 cm in men and 5.0 cm in women. Endovascular repair results in lower perioperative morbidity and mortality than open repair, but the two methods are associated with similar mortality in the long term (8 to 10 years). Patients treated with endovascular repair require long-term surveillance owing to a small risk of aneurysm sac reperfusion and late rupture. Decisions regarding prophylactic repair - whether to pursue it and, if so, what type of repair to perform - must take into account anatomy (not all patients have anatomy amenable to endovascular repair), operative risk, and patient preference. PMID:25427112

Kent, K Craig

2014-11-27

131

Fault-bounded mountains and morphometric properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is based on the information presented in following article: Bull, W.B., 1984, Tectonic Geomorphology: Journal of Geological Education 32, pp.310-324. To prepare for the classroom exercise, the instructor briefly presents the concept that measurable landform properties can reflect the intensity of tectonic activity. We discuss that certain landforms and settings are particularly useful in these types of analyses, for example, fault-bounded mountains and piedmonts. The class goes through a quick review of dip-slip faults, fault scarps, and triangular facets, and the Tobin Range is introduced as a typical example of a fault-bounded mountain range. We then ask the question, what are the useful characteristics of these settings in terms of inferring tectonic activity? To address the question, students work in groups of 2 or 3. Each group is given a set of topographic maps chosen from the following (the region can also be printed from CDs of digital, seamless topo.s, but the quad. names are provided for reference): 7.5 minute quad.s: Home Station Ranch , Jersey Summit , Kennedy Canyon, Mount Tobin , Needle Peak 15-minute quad.s: Mt. Tobin, Buffalo Springs, Cain Mountain On each map set, two lengths along the fault scarps are marked. One is marked in red and one in purple. Each student group has a map set of a slightly different region, but all map sets have a red fault scarp and a purple fault scarp marked. The red fault scarps in all of the sets are those that have experienced more recent displacement. Each group is asked to do the following: 1. List physical characteristics of each of the two fault-bounded mountains/piedmonts that are marked on your quad.s with different colors. 2. Decide among yourselves which fault-bounded mountains/piedmont has experienced more recent displacement. 3. Suggest morphometric properties that could be used to differentiate between the more recent and less recent displacement, and explain why each of your properties makes sense. Morphometric properties must be measurable from the topographic maps. After about 10 minutes, the class reconvenes and we go through the first two questions as a class. Then, each group presents at least one morphometric property and explains their reasoning. Once we have a list of properties that the class agrees on, the instructor presents and the class discusses the properties that Bull (1984) used in his research of the Tobin Range region, such as sinuosity, the ratio between the valley floor width and the total valley height, the development of triangular facets. Designed for a geomorphology course Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills

Swanson, Sue

132

Morphometric analysis of follicular center cell lymphomas.  

PubMed Central

The Lukes/Collins classification of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas subdivides follicular center cell (FCC) lymphomas into four categories based on nuclear size, shape, and state of transformation. Because of the well-recognized difficulty in making these subdivisions in routine histologic sections, a morphometric analysis of typical small cleaved (SC), large cleaved (LC), small noncleaved (SNC), and large noncleaved (LNC) FCCs was performed to describe and compare these four categories using objective parameters. The following features, which had been previously tested on normal follicles, were measured and calculated: nuclear area (NA), nuclear contour index of ellipticity (NCIe), nuclear contour index of nuclear irregularity (NCIni), and a relative chromatin dispersal index (CDI). The presence of nucleoli also was recorded. Mean values for the NA, NCIe, NCIni, and CDI were significantly different among all four FCC lymphoma subtypes, except that the CDI, which reflects transformation, was similar for the SC and LC cell groups. Comparison using the proportion of cells with nucleoli in each case revealed significant differences between all but the SNC and LNC groups. The LC group had the highest mean nuclear ellipticity and nuclear irregularity values. Mean nuclear area was smallest for the SC group followed by the LC, SNC, and LNC groups. Despite these many differences, all parameters showed a broad spectrum of values when either mean values for individual cases of each FCC subtype or distribution curves for all cells within a certain subtype were compared. This morphometric data demonstrates that the four histologically recognized types of FCC lymphomas are distinctive using a more analytic technique. This study also provides further insight into the differences among them. Evidence of nuclear transformation (nuclear size, chromatin dispersal, and frequent nucleoli) is a more important criterion than nuclear contours in distinguishing LNC from LC lymphomas. Although LC lymphomas have some features intermediate between SC and the noncleaved FCC lymphomas, they more closely resemble SC lymphomas. Finally morphometric analyses such as these provide an objective morphologic foundation for future prospective investigations of transformation-related phenomena; these studies may facilitate comparison of morphologic data with immunophenotype and genotype in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and comparison of various other B-cell neoplasms with follicular center cell neoplasms. Images Figure 1 PMID:2221019

Swerdlow, S. H.; Pelstring, R. J.; Collins, R. D.

1990-01-01

133

Morphometric X-ray absorptiometry of the spine: Correlation in vivo with morphometric radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of vertebral fractures has been based on lateral thoracic and lumbar spine films and entails the determination of crush, endplate and wedge deformities of the vertebral bodies, generally between T4 and L4. Accuracy and precision of X-ray based morphometry are limited by geometric distortion and other technique-related factors. This paper proposes the use of morphometric X-ray absorptiometry (MXA)

P. Steiger; S. R. Cummings; H. K. Genant; H. Weiss

1994-01-01

134

Improving the Efficiency of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress Computations  

PubMed Central

An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a pathological dilation of the abdominal aorta, which carries a high mortality rate if ruptured. The most commonly used surrogate marker of rupture risk is the maximal transverse diameter of the aneurysm. More recent studies suggest that wall stress from models of patient-specific aneurysm geometries extracted, for instance, from computed tomography images may be a more accurate predictor of rupture risk and an important factor in AAA size progression. However, quantification of wall stress is typically computationally intensive and time-consuming, mainly due to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the abdominal aortic aneurysm walls. These difficulties have limited the potential of computational models in clinical practice. To facilitate computation of wall stresses, we propose to use a linear approach that ensures equilibrium of wall stresses in the aneurysms. This proposed linear model approach is easy to implement and eliminates the burden of nonlinear computations. To assess the accuracy of our proposed approach to compute wall stresses, results from idealized and patient-specific model simulations were compared to those obtained using conventional approaches and to those of a hypothetical, reference abdominal aortic aneurysm model. For the reference model, wall mechanical properties and the initial unloaded and unstressed configuration were assumed to be known, and the resulting wall stresses were used as reference for comparison. Our proposed linear approach accurately approximates wall stresses for varying model geometries and wall material properties. Our findings suggest that the proposed linear approach could be used as an effective, efficient, easy-to-use clinical tool to estimate patient-specific wall stresses. PMID:25007052

Zelaya, Jaime E.; Goenezen, Sevan; Dargon, Phong T.; Azarbal, Amir-Farzin; Rugonyi, Sandra

2014-01-01

135

Mathematical, numerical and experimental study in the human aorta with coexisting models of bicuspid aortic stenosis and coarctation of the aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coarctation of the aorta is an obstruction of the aorta and is usually associated with other concomitant cardiovascular abnormalities especially with bicuspid aortic valve stenosis. The objectives of this study are, (1) to investigate the effects of coarctation on the hemodynamics in the aorta to gain a better understanding of the cause of certain post-surgical coarctation problems, (2) to develop

Z. Keshavarz-Motamed; J. Garcia; L. Kadem

2011-01-01

136

JAMA Patient Page: Abdominal Hernia  

MedlinePLUS

... movement • Cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infections • Previous abdominal surgery COMPLICATIONS A hernia may result in entrapment of other organs (such as the bladder or colon) or nerves, producing constipation or problems with ... of the abdominal cavity) needing surgical removal of part of the ...

137

Hypnosis for Functional Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other

David Gottsegen

2011-01-01

138

Investigation of pulsatile flowfield in healthy thoracic aorta models.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Complex hemodynamics plays a critical role in the development of aortic dissection and atherosclerosis, as well as many other diseases. Since fundamental fluid mechanics are important for the understanding of the blood flow in the cardiovascular circulatory system of the human body aspects, a joint experimental and numerical study was conducted in this study to determine the distributions of wall shear stress and pressure and oscillatory WSS index, and to examine their correlation with the aortic disorders, especially dissection. Experimentally, the Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PC-MRI) method was used to acquire the true geometry of a normal human thoracic aorta, which was readily converted into a transparent thoracic aorta model by the rapid prototyping (RP) technique. The thoracic aorta model was then used in the in vitro experiments and computations. Simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code ACE+((R)) to determine flow characteristics of the three-dimensional, pulsatile, incompressible, and Newtonian fluid in the thoracic aorta model. The unsteady boundary conditions at the inlet and the outlet of the aortic flow were specified from the measured flowrate and pressure results during in vitro experiments. For the code validation, the predicted axial velocity reasonably agrees with the PC-MRI experimental data in the oblique sagittal plane of the thoracic aorta model. The thorough analyses of the thoracic aorta flow, WSSs, WSS index (OSI), and wall pressures are presented. The predicted locations of the maxima of WSS and the wall pressure can be then correlated with that of the thoracic aorta dissection, and thereby may lead to a useful biological significance. The numerical results also suggest that the effects of low WSS and high OSI tend to cause wall thickening occurred along the inferior wall of the aortic arch and the anterior wall of the brachiocephalic artery, similar implication reported in a number of previous studies. PMID:19890715

Wen, Chih-Yung; Yang, An-Shik; Tseng, Li-Yu; Chai, Jyh-Wen

2010-02-01

139

Elastic fibers and collagen distribution in human aorta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic and collagen fibers are essential components of the aorta, the remodeling of these structures is accompanied with aging in various diseases and life-threatening events. While the elastic fibers confer resilience to major blood vessels collagen confers resistance to the same. Elastic fibers are easily visualized in the fluorescent light when stained with hematoxylin eosin. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) is a non linear signal that occurs only in molecules without inversion symmetry and is particularly strong in the collagen fibers arranged in triple helices. The aim of this paper is to describe the distribution of collagen in the thickness of the thoracic aorta, and to demonstrate the distribution of between elastic fibers. The images were acquired in a multifoton microscopy and both signals, Two-phtoton excitaded fluorescence (TPEF) and SHG, were excited by a Ti:Sapphire laser. We used a band pass filter to filter the SHG signal from the TPEF signal. The thickness of the aorta varies 2-3 mm, and the image was composed of the juxtaposition of images of 220 x 220 microns. We acquired images of a histological slide of the thoracic aorta stained with picrosirius red (specific for collagen) at a wavelength of 670nm SHG subsequently acquired images with the same region and observed that the images are overlapping. Therefore, the following images were acquired by confocal microscopy (fluorescence of eosin for visualization of elastic fibers) and for collagen SHG. After reconstruction of the images, we observed the distribution of collagen along the aorta.

Vieira-Damiani, G.; Ferro, D. P.; Adam, R. L.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Pelegati, V.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, K.

2011-03-01

140

Serial postmortem abdominal radiographic findings in canine cadavers.  

PubMed

Postmortem radiographic examinations of animals are often performed in judicial investigation to rule out gunshot and fractures due to cruelty or illegal hunting or poaching activities. Literature describing postmortem changes seen on radiographs of animals is rarely available. Serial abdominal radiography of 6 recently euthanized dogs were performed in an interval of 8h at a tropical ambient temperature of 22-33 degrees C. Severe decomposition of the cadavers prevented the study to be performed beyond 24h. Gradual increment of gas accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, kidney and blood vessels were observed. Increased amount of gas in the gastrointestinal tract was detected as early as 8h post-euthanasia and continuously increased throughout the study. Gas was seen in the portal vein and caudal vena cava of all cadavers at 16h post-euthanasia. The presence of gas in the aorta occurred at a later stage. Tubular branching gas pattern in the liver and spleen was first observed and progressed to vesicular gas pattern due to tissue decomposition. This study showed that abdominal radiographic postmortem changes occurred most rapidly between 8 and 16h post-euthanasia at the ambient temperature of 22-33 degrees C. PMID:19716666

Heng, Hock Gan; Selvarajah, Gayathri Thevi; Lim, Hiang Tee; Ong, Jin Seng; Lim, Jiehan; Ooi, Jin Tatt

2009-11-20

141

Abdominal aortic feminism.  

PubMed

A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2?years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6?cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4?days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12?day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. PMID:25398912

Mortimer, Alice Emily

2014-01-01

142

JAMA Patient Page: Abdominal Paracentesis  

MedlinePLUS

... organs), severe bowel or bladder distention, and previous abdominal-pelvic surgery may increase the risk of the procedure. In those situations, an ultrasound-guided paracentesis should be considered. Procedural complications are rare but can include ANALYSIS OF ASCITIC ...

143

How morphometric characteristics affect flow accumulation values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing methods (like aerial based LIDAR recording, land-use recording etc.) become continually more available and accurate. On the other hand in-situ surveying is still expensive. Above all in small, anthropogenically uninfluenced catchments, with poor, or non-existing surveying network could be remote sensing methods extremely useful. Overland flow accumulation (FA) values belong to important indicators of higher flash floods or soil erosion exposure. This value gives the number of cells of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) grid, which are drained to each point of the catchment. This contribution deals with relations between basic geomorphological and morphometric characteristics (like hypsometric integral, Melton index of subcatchment etc.) and FA values. These relations are studied in the rocky sandstone landscapes of National park Ceské Svycarsko with the particular occurrence of broken relief. All calculations are based on high-resolution LIDAR DEM named Genesis created by TU Dresden. The main computational platform is GIS GRASS . The goal of the conference paper is to submit a quick method or indicators to estimate small particular subcatchments threatened by higher flash floods or soil erosion risks, without the necessity of using sophisticated rainfall-runoff models. There is a possibility to split catchments easily to small subcatchments (or use existing disjunction), compute basic characteristics and (with knowledge of links between this characteristics and FA values) identify, which particular subcatchment is potentially threatened by flash floods or soil erosion.

Farek, Vladimir

2014-05-01

144

An unusual cause of dysphagia: thoracic aorta aneurysm.  

PubMed

The vascular structure related compression of esophagus is rather rare. Aberrant right subclavicular artery accounts for the majority of the rare entity, while the thoracic aorta aneurysm is a more dangerous type, called as dysphagia aortica. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of the dysphagia aortica predisposes to rupture and death. Herein, we reported a female patient with thoracic aorta aneurysm. A quick diagnosis by using chest contrast computed tomography (CT) scan and angiography of heart was made, and followed by emergent surgery. In the process, there was no delay on the diagnosis and treatment. The patient is going on well in the follow up. PMID:24416520

Wang, Wu-Ping; Yan, Xiao-Long; Ni, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Tao; Han, Yong; Li, Xiao-Fei; Lu, Qiang

2013-12-01

145

An unusual cause of dysphagia: thoracic aorta aneurysm  

PubMed Central

The vascular structure related compression of esophagus is rather rare. Aberrant right subclavicular artery accounts for the majority of the rare entity, while the thoracic aorta aneurysm is a more dangerous type, called as dysphagia aortica. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of the dysphagia aortica predisposes to rupture and death. Herein, we reported a female patient with thoracic aorta aneurysm. A quick diagnosis by using chest contrast computed tomography (CT) scan and angiography of heart was made, and followed by emergent surgery. In the process, there was no delay on the diagnosis and treatment. The patient is going on well in the follow up. PMID:24416520

Wang, Wu-Ping; Yan, Xiao-Long; Ni, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Tao; Han, Yong; Li, Xiao-Fei

2013-01-01

146

[Traumatic rupture of the descending aorta].  

PubMed

During a ten-year period 16 patients were seen with aortic rupture and false aneurysm secondary to blunt trauma. One patient underwent an acute operation, 4 patients had operative therapy elective delayed and 11 patients were operated on for chronic traumatic false aneurysm. Operative delay was done in case of simultaneous multisystem injury (e.g. shock caused by abdominal injuries, cerebral contusion or pulmonary contusion on the right side). The shunt bypass method of repair was used in the case of 3 patients, cardiopulmonary bypass in 6 cases and simple aortic cross-clamping in 6 patients. One operation was performed without aortic cross-clamping. Primary repair was achieved in three patient, in 3 more cases a patch was inserted and in 9 cases interposition Dacron grafting was accomplished. One "wrapping" operation was performed. In 2 cases, reoperation was necessary because of postoperative bleeding. One patient died in the perioperative period. Right sided hemiparesis occurred in one patient postoperatively. Rupture does not affect the whole aortic wall, especially in young people because of the natural elasticity of vessel. The appearing shock and hypotension might protect the mediastinal pleura against bursting. This could provide a chance to survive. Our experience indicate: Elective delay of operation in patients with multiple system injuries can be achieved with antihypertensive therapy. PMID:9380385

Kovács, E; Dzsinich, C; Gyöngy, T; Moravcsik, E; Szabolcs, Z; Bodor, E

1997-09-28

147

Fused Traditional and Geometric Morphometrics Demonstrate Pinniped Whisker Diversity  

PubMed Central

Vibrissae (whiskers) are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system, and primarily function as detectors of vibrotactile information from the environment. Pinnipeds possess the largest vibrissae among mammals and their vibrissal hair shafts demonstrate a diversity of shapes. The vibrissae of most phocid seals exhibit a beaded morphology with repeating sequences of crests and troughs along their length. However, there are few detailed analyses of pinniped vibrissal morphology, and these are limited to a few species. Therefore, we comparatively characterized differences in vibrissal hair shaft morphologies among phocid species with a beaded profile, phocid species with a smooth profile, and otariids with a smooth profile using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Traditional morphometric measurements (peak-to-peak distance, crest width, trough width and total length) were collected using digital photographs. Elliptic Fourier analysis (geometric morphometrics) was used to quantify the outlines of whole vibrissae. The traditional and geometric morphometric datasets were subsequently combined by mathematically scaling each to true rank, followed by a single eigendecomposition. Quadratic discriminant function analysis demonstrated that 79.3, 97.8 and 100% of individuals could be correctly classified to their species based on vibrissal shape variables in the traditional, geometric and combined morphometric analyses, respectively. Phocids with beaded vibrissae, phocids with smooth vibrissae, and otariids each occupied distinct morphospace in the geometric morphometric and combined data analyses. Otariids split into two groups in the geometric morphometric analysis and gray seals appeared intermediate between beaded- and smooth-whiskered species in the traditional and combined analyses. Vibrissal hair shafts modulate the transduction of environmental stimuli to the mechanoreceptors in the follicle-sinus complex (F-SC), which results in vibrotactile reception, but it is currently unclear how the diversity of shapes affects environmental signal modulation. PMID:22509310

Ginter, Carly C.; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Fish, Frank E.; Marshall, Christopher D.

2012-01-01

148

Abdominal ultrasonography, 2nd Ed  

SciTech Connect

This volume is a new and updated edition of an extensively illustrated text and reference on the capabilities and imaging of gray scale ultrasonography for each major abdominal organ. Each major organ system is treated separately, including liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, pancreas, kidney, retroperitoneum, abdominal vasculature, and more. There are over 500 illustrations and ten pages of full color plates for cross sectional anatomy.

Goldberg, B.B.

1984-01-01

149

Abdominal intrauterine vacuum aspiration.  

PubMed

Evaluating and "cleaning" of the uterine cavity is probably the most performed operation in women. It is done for several reasons: abortion, evaluation of irregular bleeding in premenopausal period, and postmenopausal bleeding. Abortion is undoubtedly the number one procedure with more than 44 million pregnancies terminated every year. This procedure should not be underestimated and a careful preoperative evaluation is needed. Ideally a sensitive pregnancy test should be done together with an ultrasound in order to confirm a uterine pregnancy, excluding extra-uterine pregnancy, and to detect genital and/or uterine malformations. Three out of four abortions are performed by surgical methods. Surgical methods include a sharp, blunt, and suction curettage. Suction curettage or vacuum aspiration is the preferred method. Despite the fact that it is a relative safe procedure with major complications in less than one percent of cases, it is still responsible for 13% of all maternal deaths. All the figures have not declined in the last decade. Trauma, perforation, and bleeding are a danger triage. When there is a perforation, a laparoscopy should be performed immediately, in order to detect intra-abdominal lacerations and bleeding. The bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible in order to not destabilize the patient. When there is a perforation in the uterus, this "entrance" can be used to perform the curettage. This is particularly useful if there is trauma of the isthmus and uterine wall, and it is difficult to identify the uterine canal. A curettage is a frequent performed procedure, which should not be underestimated. If there is a perforation in the uterus, then this opening can safely be used for vacuum aspiration. PMID:25134300

Tjalma, W A A

2014-01-01

150

CORRELATED MORPHOMETRIC AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE LIVER CELL: I. Morphometric Model, Stereologic Methods, and Normal Morphometric Data for Rat Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic morphological properties of liver cells are defined in the form of a morphometric model to permit integrated quantitative characterization of functionally important param- eters . Stereologic methods which allow efficient and reliable quantitative evaluation of sectioned liver tissue are presented . Material, obtained by a rigorous three-stage sampling

EWALD R. WEIBEL; WILLY STAUBLI; HANS RUDOLF GNAGI; FELIX A. HESS

1969-01-01

151

Reduction aortoplasty for dilatation of the ascending aorta in patients with bicuspid aortic valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Individuals with bicuspid aortic valve tend to develop a dilatation of the ascending aorta. It is controversial whether the dilated ascending aorta should be replaced with a tube graft or whether the diameter of the aorta should be reduced by reduction aortoplasty. Furthermore, it is unclear whether an external prosthetic support of the reduction aortoplasty is necessary. The aim

Matthias Bauer; Miralem Pasic; Raymond Schaffarzyk; Henryk Siniawski; Friedrich Knollmann; Rudolf Meyer; Roland Hetzer

2002-01-01

152

[Clinico-histologic-morphometric correlations in pulmonary arteries among patients with heart malformations ].  

PubMed

To improve the evaluation of grades of pulmonary vascular lesions in congenital heart malformations, we studied the extent to which there is a measurable relationship between pressure conditions in the pulmonary circulation and the area of the media in small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries, and the possibility of a correlation between the subjective evaluation of grades of hypertensive pulmonary vascular lesions according to Heath and Edwards (1958). Material and methods. The lungs in 68 children (mean age, 22.7 months) with congenital malformations of the heart or great vessels resulting in pulmonary hypertension were examined. The lungs were fixed in a 4% formalin solution passed via the trachea under a constant filling pressure of 150 cm H2O. Peripheral as well as central tissue was removed from all lobes of the lungs; the specimens were stained with Elastica-van Gieson. The extent of hypertensive pulmonary vasculopathy was staged, without knowledge of the pressure conditions, according to the grading system developed by Heath and Edwards. The diameter and the area of all muscular arteries with diameters smaller or larger than 100 micron were measured using a semiautomatic measurement device for quantitative morphometric analysis (MOP/AM 01). Cardiac catheter values were available for all cases. The quotient of systolic pressures in the pulmonary artery and the aorta was taken as the measure of hemodynamic conditions in the pulmonary circulation. The Pearson-Bravais correlation coefficient (r) was computed from the respective area quotient and the corresponding pressure values. In addition, the coefficient of determination (r2) and regression functions were determined. Results. A linear correlation (r = 0.70) exists between the pressure quotient (Psyst. pulm. art./ Psyst. aorta) and the vessel area quotient (media area/total area). The correlation is expressed by the following functions: x = 1.89 y - 0.08 y = 0.26 x + 0.24 Using the Heath and Edwards grading, the following frequencies were obtained: Grade 0: 21, Grade I: 7, Grade II: 16, Grade III: 15, Grade IV: 6, and 3 children were undeterminable. No relationship exists between the grades and certain heart malformations. In spite of the fact that hypertensive vasculopathy becomes progressively more severe as the child grows older, we found four cases of Grade IV in children under the age of one. On the whole, a comparison of the measured area quotients and the Heath and Edwards grading showed a good correlation. Although we considered only pressure quotients and no other hemodynamic parameters, conclusions can be drawn about the operability of congenital heart malformations based on these findings. Using measured pressure values, the morphologic state of the pulmonary arteries can be approximately evaluated. PMID:7122326

Fischbach, H; Hoffmeister, H M; Hoffmeister, H E; Apitz, J; Schmidt, C

1982-01-01

153

The Photoactivated Relaxation of Smooth Muscle of Rabbit Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

n B S T R n C T Smooth muscle of strips of rabbit aorta, placed in a state of ac- tive tonic contraction by addition of a stimulating drug, relaxes during exposure to light. The relaxation is reversible. The extent of relaxation produced by a standard exposure depends on the preexposure level of active contraction but not on the

R. F. Furchgott; S. J. EHRREICH; E. GREENBLATT

1961-01-01

154

Tratamento cirúrgico da coarctação da aorta: experiência de três décadas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Objetivo: Revisar os resultados imediatos de 30 anos da cirurgia de coarctação da aorta (CoAo), no período entre 1974 e 2004. Foram incluídos todos pacientes operados de CoAo, isolada ou associada a outros defeitos congênitos. Método: Foram pesquisados os seguintes dados: idade no momento da cirurgia, sexo, lesões associadas, tipo de técnica cirúrgica utilizada, resultado cirúrgico imediato, com ênfase

Alline de Souza Alves Oliveira; Breno Barbosa de Siqueira Carneiro; Ricardo de Carvalho Lima; Catarina Cavalcanti; Roberta Villachan; Nadja Arraes; Ricardo de Albuquerque Lins; Mozart Escobar

2007-01-01

155

[3D echocardiography of the ascending aorta in Marfan's syndrome].  

PubMed

Marfan's syndrome is a cause of dilatation of the aorta, the main complication of which is dissection of the aorta. 2D echocardiography is the reference investigation for measuring the ascending aorta. Asymmetry of sinus dilatation makes a 3D approach necessary. Real time 3D echocardiography is a simple, non-invasive method which, by a biplane mode, allows measurement of the 3 sinuses of Valsalva. The aim of the study was to compare the 2D and 3D echocardiographic methods for measuring the ascending aorta. Fifteen patients (average age 12 +/- 8 years) with Marfan's syndrome were studied prospectively. The maximal 3D diameter was significantly greater than the 2D measurement (31.7 +/- 6.8 mm vs 29.9 +/- 6.6 mm, p< 0.005). In 4 patients, the difference was over 3 mm. The diameter between the right coronary and left coronary sinus was greater than the two others (right coronary-non coronary and left coronary-non coronary). The oldest 5 patients had an MRI aortic measurement very similar to that of 3D echocardiography (36.6 vs 36.7 mm). Real time 3D echocardiography in the biplane mode enables reliable and reproducible measurement of the aortic root in patients with Marfan's syndrome. Larger and multicenter studies are required to allow confirmation of the value of 3D echocardiography in the follow-up of these patients. PMID:15966605

Dulac, Y; Taktak, A; Acar, P; Abadir, S; Chilon, T; Edouard, T; Julia, S; Tauber, M; Hovnanian, A

2005-05-01

156

Hemodynamic correlates of spontaneous echo contrast in the descending aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the hemodynamic associations of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) in the descending aorta (DA), we measured aortic flow parameters in 102 consecutive patients studied with transesophageal echocardiography. SEC in the DA was identified in 19 of 102 patients (19%). Patients with SEC in the DA were older (67 ± 9 vs 57 ± 17 years; p = 0.001), had

Mikhail R. Sukernik; Oscar West; Olujide Lawal; Babu Chittivelu; Ronald Henderson; Ali A. Sherzoy; Eric J. Vanderbush; Charles K. Francis

1996-01-01

157

Vein of Galen arteriovenous malformation mimicking coarctation of the aorta.  

PubMed

Arteriovenous malformation of the vein of Galen is a rare congenital intracranial anomaly lacking a capillary bed and subsequent aneurysmal enlargement of the arterial and venous system, warranting careful management due to associated morbidity and mortality. Coarctations of aorta demonstrate similar neonatal echocardiographic signs to the vein of Galen arterial malformation (VGAM). We present a boy at 37 weeks of gestation whose initial ultrasound and echocardiographic investigations showed a dominant right ventricle and isthmal hypoplasia, suggestive of coarctation of aorta. Follow-up ultrasound and echocardiography revealed an arteriovenous malformation involving middle and posterior cerebral artery branches, eliminating coarctation of aorta. VGAM was confirmed by further ultrasound and angiographic investigation, which demonstrated a tangle of cerebral and choroidal arterial branches centrally feeding into an enlarged vein of Galen. The boy's hemodynamic and neurological statuses were confirmed to be stable despite increased venous pressure. Elective embolization at 7 months of age was complicated by a cerebrovascular accident, resulting in right hemiparesis despite no residual cardiac issues. This case demonstrates that rarely, arteriovenous malformations such as the vein of Galen malformations may be the primary cause of patients presenting with coarctation of aorta. The rarity of this condition and its guarded prognosis make our case of special interest to cardiologists and the perinatal care team. PMID:25368688

Firdouse, Mohammed; Agarwal, Arnav; Mondal, Tapas

2014-12-01

158

Morphometric Analysis of Auxin-Mediated Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auxin controls many aspects of plant development through its effects on growth. Its distribution is controlled by specific tissue and organ level polar transport streams. The responses to environmental cues such as gravity light, nutrient availability are largely controlled by coordinated regulation of distinct auxin transport streams. Many plant responses to the environment involve changes in shape. Much can be learned about the underlying processes controlling plant form if the response is measured with sufficient resolution. Computer-aided analysis of digital images or 'machine vision' can be used to greatly increase the speed and consistency of data from a morphometric study of plant form. Advances in image acquisition and analysis pioneered at UW-Madison have allowed unprecedented resolution of the growth and gravitropism of Arabidopsis. A reverse genetic analysis was used to determine if the MDR-like ABC transporters influence auxin distribution important for plant development and the response to environmental cues in Arabidopsis. Mutations in MDR1 (At3g28860) reduce acropetal auxin transport in the root. This is correlated with deviation from the vertical axis. Mutations in MDR4 (At2g47000) reduce basipetal auxin transport in the root. This is correlated with hypergravitropism. It was theorized that reduced transport whithin the elongation zone is responsible for the increased curvature. Flavanols were found to regulate gravitropism upstream of MDR4. The mdr1 mdr4 double mutant showed additive but not synergistic phenotypes, suggesting that the two auxin transport streams are more independent than interdependent. MDR proteins seem to enhance auxin transport in situations where PIN-type effux alone is insufficient.

Lewis, Daniel

159

Subtype-specific estrogen receptor-mediated vasodilator activity in the cephalic, thoracic, and abdominal vasculature of female rat.  

PubMed

Estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate genomic and nongenomic vasodilator effects, but estrogen therapy may not provide systemic vascular protection. To test whether this is because of regional differences in ER distribution or vasodilator activity, cephalic (carotid artery), thoracic (thoracic aorta and pulmonary artery), and abdominal arteries (abdominal aorta, mesenteric artery, and renal artery) from female Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared to measure contraction to phenylephrine and relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and the ER activators 17?-estradiol (E2) (all ERs), 4,4',4?-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)-tris-phenol (PPT) (ER?), diarylpropionitrile (DPN) (ER?), and (±)-1-[(3aR*,4S*,9bS*)-4-(6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinolin-8-yl]-ethanone (G1) (GPR30). Phenylephrine caused contraction that was enhanced in endothelium-denuded aorta, supporting endothelial release of vasodilators. In cephalic and thoracic arteries, ACh relaxation was abolished by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), suggesting a role of NO. In mesenteric vessels, ACh-induced relaxation was partly inhibited by the L-NAME + cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin and blocked by the K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium, suggesting a hyperpolarization pathway. E2 and PPT caused similar relaxation in all vessels. DPN and G1 caused smaller relaxation that was more prominent in abdominal vessels. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed variable ER? messenger RNA expression and increased ER? in carotid artery and GPR30 in abdominal arteries. Western blots revealed greater amounts of ER?, ER?, and GPR30 in abdominal arteries. In thoracic aorta, E2-, PPT-, and DPN-induced relaxation was blocked by L-NAME and was associated with increased nitrite/nitrate production, suggesting a role of NO. In abdominal vessels, E2-, PPT-, DPN-, and G1-induced relaxation persisted in L-NAME + indomethacin + tetraethylammonium-treated or endothelium-denuded arteries, suggesting direct effect on vascular smooth muscle. E2, PPT, DPN, and G1 caused greater relaxation of KCl-induced contraction in abdominal vessels, suggesting inhibitory effects on Ca2+ entry. Thus, E2 and ER? stimulation produces similar relaxation of the cephalic, thoracic, and abdominal arteries. In the cephalic and thoracic arteries, particularly the thoracic aorta, E2-induced and ER?- and ER?-mediated vasodilation involves NO production. ER?- and GPR30-mediated relaxation is greater in the abdominal arteries and seems to involve hyperpolarization and inhibition of vascular smooth muscle Ca2+ entry. Specific ER agonists could produce vasodilation in specific vascular beds without affecting other vessels in the systemic circulation. PMID:23429596

Reslan, Ossama M; Yin, Zongzhi; do Nascimento, Graciliano R A; Khalil, Raouf A

2013-07-01

160

Vasorelaxation of rat thoracic aorta caused by 14-deoxyandrographolide.  

PubMed

1. The pharmacological effects of 14-deoxyandrographolide on rat isolated thoracic aorta were examined. 2. 14-Deoxyandrographolide (2.5-120 mumol/L) inhibited contractions induced by phenylephrine (PE; 0.1 mumol/L) and high K+ (80 mmol/L) in a concentration-dependent manner in endothelium-intact aorta. The effect was attenuated in endothelium-denuded aorta without modifying the maximal response. Like verapamil, 14-deoxyandrographolide produced a much greater vasorelaxant effect in aorta precontracted by KCl than by PE. 14-Deoxyandrographolide (20-60 mumol/L) also inhibited responses of the rat aorta to PE. 3. In Ca(2+)-free medium (KCl 55 mmol/L), 14-deoxyandrographolide (20-80 mumol/L) antagonized Ca(2+)-induced vasocontraction in a concentration-dependent manner and transient contractions induced by both caffeine (10 mmol/L) and nor-adrenaline (1 mumol/L) were suppressed or almost abolished by 14-deoxyandrographolide. 4. The vasorelaxant effect of 14-deoxyandrographolide was partially antagonized by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (25 mumol/L), a specific and competitive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, and methylene blue (10 mumol/L), a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, but was not affected by indomethacin (20 mumol/L), a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, or glibenclamide (10 mumol/L), an ATP-sensitive K(+)-channel blocker. 5. These results suggest that the vasorelaxant activity of 14-deoxyandrographolide may be mediated via the activation of NOS and guanylate cyclase, as well as the blockade of Ca2+ influx through both voltage- and receptor-operated Ca2+ channels. PMID:9673817

Zhang, C Y; Tan, B K

1998-06-01

161

Morphometric Variation and Biogeography of Ogwa menzeli and Criconema sphagni.  

PubMed

Morphometrics of Ogma menzeli from woodlands in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State and in Iowa were compared. Specimens from the Adirondacks were significantly greater in mean total body length, stylet length, the b, R, and RV values, body width, and esophagus length than specimens from Iowa. The V value was significantly greater in the Iowa than in the Adirondack specimens. The two populations are considered ecotypes of O. menzeli. Criconema sphagni morphometric measurements differed significantly for the RV value (negative) and V value (positive) relative to elevation in the Adirondacks. There was a positive regression correlation for the RV value of O. menzeli and elevation in the Adirondack Mountains. PMID:19283015

Norton, D C; Hinz, P N

1992-09-01

162

Morphometric Variation and Biogeography of Ogwa menzeli and Criconema sphagni  

PubMed Central

Morphometrics of Ogma menzeli from woodlands in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State and in Iowa were compared. Specimens from the Adirondacks were significantly greater in mean total body length, stylet length, the b, R, and RV values, body width, and esophagus length than specimens from Iowa. The V value was significantly greater in the Iowa than in the Adirondack specimens. The two populations are considered ecotypes of O. menzeli. Criconema sphagni morphometric measurements differed significantly for the RV value (negative) and V value (positive) relative to elevation in the Adirondacks. There was a positive regression correlation for the RV value of O. menzeli and elevation in the Adirondack Mountains. PMID:19283015

Norton, Don C.; Hinz, P. N.

1992-01-01

163

Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

1989-02-01

164

[The results of treatment of the patients with the rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms in multifield hospital].  

PubMed

The rupture of infrarenal segment of aorta is the severe pathology in spite of modem diagnostics and the operation. This case is accompanied by negative results of treatment (lethality consists of 56,3%). The article presents the experience of treatment of 157 patients with the rupture of infrarenal segment of aorta in conditions of multifield hospital (Municipal hospital No 26). The authors highlighted the postoperative complications, their influence on negative outcome. It was shown, that the main reasons of negative outcome of such patients with abdominal aortic aneurism, complicated by the rupture, were an advanced age of patients, who had the complex of concomitant diseases and postoperative complications such as nosocomial pneumonia, cardiac problems and multiple organ failure due to massive acute hemorrhage. PMID:24640754

Mosiagin, V B; Ryl'kov, V F; Moiseev, A A; Karpatski?, I V

2013-01-01

165

Fibrolipomas masquerading as abdominal hernias.  

PubMed

A 15-year-old Caucasian girl presented to her general practitioner with a tender, irreducible mass in the paraumbilical region. On examination, two small masses could be felt. She was referred to general surgery. Ultrasound imaging and MRI were unremarkable. However, clinical suspicion suggested multiple areas of abdominal wall herniation. The patient was admitted for elective surgery to exclude herniation. At operation, three subcutaneous masses were found but with no evidence of abdominal wall herniation. Histopathology results from the specimens showed mature adipose tissue mixed with fibrous deposits. There was no evidence of malignancy. A diagnosis of fibrolipoma was given. PMID:24343803

Watson, Hannah Isabella; Saunders, Andrew John

2013-01-01

166

CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment. PMID:22212637

Lee, W-K; Van Tonder, F; Tartaglia, C J; Dagia, C; Cazzato, R L; Duddalwar, V A; Chang, S D

2012-06-01

167

Abdominal imaging in child abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Abdominal injuries in abused children are less common than musculoskeletal and craniocerebral injuries; however they carry\\u000a high mortality and morbidity rates. In every case of trauma, regardless of aetiology, radiologists are responsible for the\\u000a documentation and evaluation of injuries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Injuries  Any abdominal injury pattern maybe observed following physical abuse and none is specific for abuse. However, a high index\\u000a of suspicion

Maria Raissaki; Corinne Veyrac; Eleonore Blondiaux; Christiana Hadjigeorgi

2011-01-01

168

Recurrent abdominal pain in children.  

PubMed

Eighty five children with recurrent abdominal pain(RAP) were studied. Organic cause was noticed in 70 cases and non-organic in 15 cases. Giardiasis was the commonest organic cause in 57 (67.0 percent), either alone or with other parasitic infestations. Other organic causes include gallstones (4.7 percent), urinary infections (4.7 percent), esophagitis/gastritis (3.5 percent) and abdominal tuberculosis (2.3 percent). Single parent, school phobia, sibling rivalry, RAP in other family members and nocturnal enuresis are significant factors associated with nonorganic causes PMID:12368527

Buch, Niyaz A; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq; Ahmed, S Zubair; Ali, Syed Wazid; Charoo, B A; Hassan, Masood Ul

2002-09-01

169

Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies  

PubMed Central

Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

2009-01-01

170

Characterization of human aortic elastase found in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed

Recent evidence indicates that the homeostatic balance between elastase and antiprotease activity is altered in the infrarenal aorta of those patients with different types of aortic pathologic findings. The specific properties of elastase found in the aorta of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are discussed herein. Activity of elastase extracted from ten pooled AAA specimens was observed when incubated with several inhibitors: 13.2 per cent for phenyl-suphonyl flouride (PSF); 43.3 per cent for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); 77.7 per cent for pepstatin; 137.0 per cent for leupeptin, and 24.0 per cent for alpha-1-antitrypsin. Irreversible inhibition by PSF indicates that the elastase is a serine protease. The elastase is most likely not a metallo enzyme, since it had no absolute requirement for divalent cations as indicated by only partial inhibition by EDTA. Elastase activity is most likely not due to cathepsins B or D, since cathepsins are active in an acid pH and selectively inhibited by leupeptin and pepstatin. The pH curve revealed a maximum activity at pH 8.2 and elastase activity was significantly inhibited by alpha-1-antitrypsin in a dose response manner determining functional elastase activity. These data indicate that the elastase in the aorta of patients with an AAA has the exact properties of the serine elastase found in the smooth muscle cells of the aorta in rats. These results also confirm the critical role of alpha-1-antitrypsin in determining functional elastase activity. Smooth muscle cell regulation of elastin metabolism may be important in determining why some patients have AAA and others have occlusive aortic disease develop. PMID:3477880

Cohen, J R; Mandell, C; Wise, L

1987-10-01

171

Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

AAA - open - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open - discharge ... You had open aortic aneurysm surgery to repair an aneurysm (a widened part) in your aorta, the large artery that carries blood to your ...

172

Original article The morphometric position of Apis nuluensis  

E-print Network

Original article The morphometric position of Apis nuluensis Tingek, Koeniger and Koeniger, 1996 samples of Apis nuluensis collected at the region of Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia in mountainous areas ranging-nesting Apis species drawn from the Oberursel data bank (Apis cerana from four Asian locations, Apis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

173

Morphometric analysis of parathyroid glands in neonatal and growing dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dogs aged 6 days or 5 months, the parathyroid (PT) glands exhibited differences of both the distribution and ultrastructure of dark and light cells. Morphometric estimates of cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), Golgi apparatus, secretory granules, lysosomes and plasma membranes of both dark and light cells were obtained by point counting volumetry from PT glands of dogs

P. Wild; E. Manser

1980-01-01

174

Morphometric Analysis of Dendritic Remodeling in an Identified Motoneuron  

E-print Network

. The maximum path length of the major dendritic tree changes little, whereas branch order increases from 20Morphometric Analysis of Dendritic Remodeling in an Identified Motoneuron During Postembryonic. The regression of most larval dendrites (1) is followed by the formation of dendritic growth-cones (2

Libersat, Frederic

175

Morphometrical analysis of retinal hemorrhages in the shaken baby syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A morphometrical analysis of retinal hemorrhages was performed in cases of physical child abuse including the shaken baby syndrome and in controls (severe head injury, intravital brain death, non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage, SIDS including cardiopulmonary resuscitation). The extent of the retinal hemorrhages was significantly different between both groups. In all cases of physical child abuse, massive retinal hemorrhages in at least

P. Betz; K. Püschel; E. Miltner; E. Lignitz; W. Eisenmenger

1996-01-01

176

Functional Morphometric Analysis of the Furcula in Mesozoic Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The furcula displays enormous morphological and structural diversity. Acting as an important origin for flight muscles involved in the downstroke, the form of this element has been shown to vary with flight mode. This study seeks to clarify the strength of this form-function relationship through the use of eigenshape morphometric analysis coupled with recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs), including

Roger A. Close; Emily J. Rayfield

2012-01-01

177

Morphometric Study of the Right Gastroepiploic and Inferior Epigastric Arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Based on earlier observations that the thickness of the intima and structure of the media may have an impact on the long-term patency of arterial conduits and the lack of detailed histologic studies of the right gastroepiploic and inferior epigastric arteries, we subjected both vessels to morphometric analysis with emphasis on their suitability as conduits in myocardial revascularization.Methods. The

Jacques A. M van Son; Frank M Smedts; Cheng-Qin Yang; Marcel Mravunac; Volkmar Falk; Friedrich W Mohr; Guo-Wei He

1997-01-01

178

Distinct evolutionary patterns of morphometric sperm traits in passerine birds  

PubMed Central

The striking diversity of sperm shape across the animal kingdom is still poorly understood. Postcopulatory sexual selection is an important factor driving the evolution of sperm size and shape. Interestingly, morphometric sperm traits, such as the length of the head, midpiece and flagellum, exhibit a strong positive phenotypic correlation across species. Here we used recently developed comparative methods to investigate how such phenotypic correlations between morphometric sperm traits may evolve. We compare allometric relationships and evolutionary trajectories of three morphometric sperm traits (length of head, midpiece and flagellum) in passerine birds. We show that these traits exhibit strong phenotypic correlations but that allometry varies across families. In addition, the evolutionary trajectories of the midpiece and flagellum are similar while the trajectory for head length differs. We discuss our findings in the light of three scenarios accounting for correlated trait evolution: (i) genetic correlation; (ii) concerted response to selection acting simultaneously on different traits; and (iii) phenotypic correlation between traits driven by mechanistic constraints owing to selection on sperm performance. Our results suggest that concerted response to selection is the most likely explanation for the phenotypic correlation between morphometric sperm traits. PMID:22896646

Immler, Simone; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Birkhead, Tim R.

2012-01-01

179

Novelty and ``Homology-free'' Morphometrics: What's in a Name?  

E-print Network

Science+Business Media, LLC 2008 The field of morphometrics has developed fast over the last two decades genetic inference on resemblance among relatives (Klingenberg and Leamy 2001; Myers et al. 2006, or G matrix, as a central quantity, as well as QTL studies that aim to identify the effects of single

Klingenberg, Christian Peter

180

In situ morphometric characterization of Aframomum melegueta accessions in Ghana  

PubMed Central

In spite of the huge economic importance of Aframomum melegueta in the herbal and pharmaceutical industries, its production is limited by lack of planting materials (propagules). The plant also lacks scientific descriptors, which has often led to misidentification with adverse health implications. We therefore aimed at developing a descriptor list to facilitate the identification of A. melegueta using 34 morphometric traits comprising 18 quantitative and 16 qualitative characters. The morphological traits showed that A. melegueta has a characteristic stolon that produces tillers instead of rhizomes. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean using both the nearest-neighbour and complete-linkage methods based on the 34 morphometric traits clustered the eight accessions into two main groups based on ecological location. The accessions from the Eastern and Ashanti regions were separated at similarity coefficients of 0.822 and 0.644, respectively, with a highly significant discriminant function. The Eastern accessions were further clustered into red or yellow fruits at similarity indexes of 0.936 and 0.865 using the nearest-neighbour and complete-linkage methods, respectively. The present study has shown that morphometric traits of A. melegueta are greatly influenced by its ecological habitat. It is envisaged that the descriptor list developed coupled with a morphometric description would enhance its identification and utilization. PMID:23799183

Amponsah, J.; Adamtey, N.; Elegba, W.; Danso, K. E.

2013-01-01

181

Sternum and appendicular skeleton: morphometric differences between the  

E-print Network

Sternum and appendicular skeleton: morphometric differences between the species of genus Sotalia--27835 S and 48834 W). For the first time the sternum and the appendicular skeleton of the two species distinction of two species in relation to postcranial skeleton in the morpho- metric analysis (canonical

Simões-Lopes, Paulo César

182

Pulse pressure assessment in the human fetal descending aorta.  

PubMed

Pulsatile vessel diameter recordings were obtained at two different levels of the fetal descending aorta in ten third-trimester human fetuses using an echo-tracking system. A derivation of the Moens-Korteweg equation was used to estimate the pulse pressure amplitude in this vessel. The positive phase of the first derivative of the diameter curves was cross correlated to assess the propagation time of the pulse wave. It is postulated that this method minimises the measuring errors resulting from diameter pulse wave changes during propagation along the longitudinal axis of the descending aorta. It was estimated from repeated measurements that approximately 13 recordings of 5.2 s each are required to assess the mean pulse pressure amplitude for an individual fetus with an estimated random error of 10%. PMID:1566524

Struijk, P C; Wladimiroff, J W; Hop, W C; Simonazzi, E

1992-01-01

183

Floating thrombus originating from an almost normal thoracic aorta.  

PubMed

We present a case of floating thrombus originating from an almost normal thoracic aorta in a 54-year-old man who presented with acute arterial occlusion of his left leg. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging showed two masses in an almost normal aorta after embolectomy for the acute arterial occlusion. Although the embolus was thrombus histologically, malignant tumors could not be ruled out. The masses did not decrease in size after 7 days of anticoagulant therapy, so they were extirpated under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and TEE guidance. Frozen section examination during CPB indicated that there was no evidence of malignancy in the removed mass. TEE played an important role in the diagnosis and surgery of this condition, and it was useful when deciding on a surgical strategy. Because the treatment strategy for this disease remains controversial, further studies are needed. PMID:22231789

Namura, Osamu; Sogawa, Masakazu; Asami, Fuyuki; Okamoto, Takeshi; Hanzawa, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Jun-ichi

2011-09-01

184

Coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy-Walker variant.  

PubMed

This article reports a rare case of coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy-Walker variant in a 17-year-old girl. Differential diagnoses of coarctation of the aorta and Dandy-Walker variant are extensively discussed. In addition, standard surgical treatment of coarctation as well as new approaches such as endovascular stenting are described in detail to provide therapeutic insights into her management. Although surgical or endovascular repair of coarctation results in significant improvement of systemic hypertension and is associated with better survival, cardiovascular complications are still very common. Thus, long-term follow-up after repair is required, and high-quality imaging studies such as echocardiography, CT and MRI are warranted. PMID:24396258

Zhou, Li; Lui, George K; Shenoy, Rajesh; Taub, Cynthia C

2013-09-01

185

MagnetoHemoDynamics in the aorta and electrocardiograms.  

PubMed

This paper addresses a complex multi-physical phenomenon involving cardiac electrophysiology and hemodynamics. The purpose is to model and simulate a phenomenon that has been observed in magnetic resonance imaging machines: in the presence of a strong magnetic field, the T-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) gets bigger, which may perturb ECG-gated imaging. This is due to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect occurring in the aorta. We reproduce this experimental observation through computer simulations on a realistic anatomy, and with a three-compartment model: inductionless MHD equations in the aorta, bi-domain equations in the heart and electrical diffusion in the rest of the body. These compartments are strongly coupled and solved using finite elements. Several benchmark tests are proposed to assess the numerical solutions and the validity of some modeling assumptions. Then, ECGs are simulated for a wide range of magnetic field intensities (from 0 to 20 T). PMID:22547537

Martin, Vincent; Drochon, Agnès; Fokapu, Odette; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric

2012-05-01

186

Coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy-Walker variant  

PubMed Central

This article reports a rare case of coarctation of the aorta associated with Dandy–Walker variant in a 17-year-old girl. Differential diagnoses of coarctation of the aorta and Dandy–Walker variant are extensively discussed. In addition, standard surgical treatment of coarctation as well as new approaches such as endovascular stenting are described in detail to provide therapeutic insights into her management. Although surgical or endovascular repair of coarctation results in significant improvement of systemic hypertension and is associated with better survival, cardiovascular complications are still very common. Thus, long-term follow-up after repair is required, and high-quality imaging studies such as echocardiography, CT and MRI are warranted. PMID:24396258

Zhou, Li; Lui, George K.; Shenoy, Rajesh; Taub, Cynthia C.

2013-01-01

187

Abdominal pain - children under age 12  

MedlinePLUS

Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if s/he can describe it to you. Here are different kinds of pain: ...

188

[Four cases of dissecting aneurysm of the aorta].  

PubMed

Four cases of dissecting aneurysm of the aorta are described. Attention is drawn to the difficulties of clinical diagnosis, the results of which will often be expressed in wide differences of prognosis and sometimes of treatment pattern, including surgical correction in suitable cases. A summary account of the literature data is used in expressing some views on the clinical and aetiopathogenetic position in the light of recent knowledge. PMID:17340830

Micheletti, P C; Tortarolo, E; Cardellino, G

1969-09-01

189

Vasorelaxing activity of resveratrol and quercetin in isolated rat aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Both resveratrol and quercetin dose-dependently inhibited the contractile response to noradrenaline (NA) in isolated endothelium-intact rat aorta. This inhibitory effect on vascular contraction was blocked by pretreatment of the blood vessel with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, L-NNA (1 ?M).2.2. Quereetin at a concentration >1 × 10?5M, and resveratrol at >3 × 10?5M, caused relaxation of the phenylephrine

Cora Ke Chen; Cecil R. Pace-Asciak

1996-01-01

190

Endovascular Repair of Contained Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of stent-grafts for the treatment of acute rupture of the thoracic aorta. Methods: Four patients with acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta were treated by insertion of stent-grafts. The underlying aortic lesions were aneurysm, acute aortic ulcer, acute type B dissection and giant cell aortitis. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia in three patients and local anesthesia in one patient. Results: All stent-grafts were successfully deployed. All patients survived the procedure and are now alive and well at follow-up (mean 6.3 months, range 44 days-16 months). One patient underwent a second stent procedure 10 days after the first procedure because of a proximal endoleak. All hemothoraces have resolved. There were no complications. Conclusion:Treatment of acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta by the insertion of stent-grafts is feasible. The technical success rates,complication rates and patient survival compare favorably with emergency surgery.

Morgan, Robert [Department of Radiology, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Loosemore, Tom [Department of Vascular Surgery, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Belli, Anna-Maria [Department of Radiology, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom)

2002-08-15

191

Multilayer material properties of aorta determined from nanoindentation tests  

PubMed Central

In a wide range of biomechanical modeling of aorta from traumatic injury to stent grafts, the arterial wall has been considered as a single homogeneous layer vessel, ignoring the fact that arteries are composed of distinct anatomical layers with different mechanical characteristics. In this study, using a custom-made nanoindentation technique, changes in the mechanical properties of porcine thoracic aorta wall in the radial direction were characterized using a quasi-linear viscoelastic model. Two layers of equal thickness were mechanically distinguishable in descending aorta based on the radial variations in the instantaneous Young's modulus E and reduced relaxation function G(t). Overall, comparison of E and G? of the outer half (70.27 ± 2.47 kPa and 0.35 ± 0.01) versus the inner half (60.32 ± 1.65 kPa and 0.33 ± 0.01) revealed that the outer half was stiffer and showed less relaxation. The results were used to explain local mechanisms of deformation, force transmission, tear propagation and failure in arteries. PMID:23123343

Hemmasizadeh, Ali; Autieri, Michael; Darvish, Kurosh

2013-01-01

192

Pitfalls in sonographic diagnosis of abdominal pregnancy.  

PubMed

Abdominal pregnancy is relatively rare, with an estimated frequency of 1/3,000 pregnancies in this country. We have described serial sonographic findings in an abdominal pregnancy from 28 weeks to term. Particular emphasis is placed on the pitfalls facing the sonographer in the diagnosis of advanced abdominal pregnancy. PMID:7221666

Ali, V; Saldana, L R; Balat, I Y; Katragadda, R

1981-04-01

193

Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:25239980

Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

2014-01-01

194

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and Diastasis Recti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Midline abdominal incisional hernias are common following open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. These may be caused by the weakness of connective tissue. This study sought to determine the prevalence of diastasis recti among unoperated Caucasian males with abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to a control group with atherosclerotic lower extremity peripheral arterial disease. Forty-two consecutive white males referred for evaluation

Ian McPhail

2009-01-01

195

Common FXIII and Fibrinogen Polymorphisms in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Introduction Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are characterized by a progressive dilatation of the abdominal aorta, and are associated with a high risk of rupture once the dilatation exceeds 55 mm in diameter. A large proportion of AAA develops an intraluminal thrombus, which contributes to hypoxia, inflammation and tissue degradation. We have previously shown that patients with AAA produce clots with altered structure which is more resistant to fibrinolysis. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic polymorphisms of FXIII and fibrinogen in AAA to identify how changes to these proteins may play a role in the development of AAA. Methods Subjects of Western/European descent, ?55 years of age (520 AAA patients and 449 controls) were genotyped for five polymorphisms (FXIII-A Val34Leu, FXIII-B His95Arg, FXIII-B Splice Variant (intron K nt29576C-G), Fib-A Thr312Ala and Fib-B Arg448Lys) by RT-PCR. Data were analysed by ?2 test and CubeX. Results The FXIII-B Arg95 allele associated with AAA (Relative risk - 1.240, CI 1.093–1.407, P?=?0.006). There was no association between FXIII-A Val34Leu, FXIII-B Splice Variant, Fib-A Thr312Ala or Fib-B Arg448Lys and AAA. FXIII-B His95Arg and FXIII-B Splice variant (intron K nt29576C-G) were in negative linkage disequilibrium (D’?=??0.609, p?=?0.011). Discussion The FXIII-B Arg95 variant is associated with an increased risk of AAA. These data suggest a possible role for FXIII in AAA pathogenesis. PMID:25384012

Macrae, Fraser L.; Lee Evans, Hannah; Bridge, Katherine I.; Johnson, Anne; Scott, D. Julian A.; Ariens, Robert A. S.

2014-01-01

196

Constructs have shown success in replacement of large-diameter vessels (e.g. thoracic and abdominal aortas,  

E-print Network

@on and atherosclero@c disease progression Design of a Bioreactor for Engineered Blood Vessels Manifolds Linear Actuator Piston-cylinder Peristal@c Pump Pressure Gauge Bioreactor Bioreactor Design Cell culture medium Pressure port Media exchange port Silicone

197

Percutaneous closure of complex paravalvular aortic root pseudoaneurysm and aorta-cavitary fistulas  

PubMed Central

Native aortic valve or its prosthetic valve endocarditis can extend to the adjacent periannular areas and erode into nearby cardiac chambers, leading to pseudoaneurysm and aorta-cavitary fistulas respectively. The later usually leads to acute cardiac failure and hemodynamic instability requiring an urgent surgical intervention. However rarely this might pass unnoticed and the patient might present later with cardiac murmur. Percutaneous device closure of aortic pseudoaneurysm, ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm, aorta-pulmonary window, paravalvular leaks, and aorta-cavitary fistula have been reported. We present a 59-year-old female who developed a large aortic root pseudoaneurysm with biventricular communication aorta-cavitary fistulas presenting late following aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis. She underwent successful percutaneous device closure of her pseudoaneurysm and aorta-cavitary fistulas using two Amplatzer Duct Occluders. This case illustrates a challenging combination of aortic root pseudoaneurysm and biventricular aorta-cavitary fistulas that was successfully treated with percutaneous procedure. PMID:24973845

Al-Maskari, Salim; Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Farqani, Abdullah; Thomas, Eapen; Velliath, John

2014-01-01

198

[Abdominal cystic tumor revealing lymphangioleiomyomatosis].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 39 year-old woman with many years of intermittent abdominal pain who was found to have cystic masses evocative of cystic lymphangioma involving the posterior mediastinal and retroperitoneum. Worsening abdominal pain led to a recommendation for laparoscopic unroofing and decompression of the cysts. During the postoperative period, hemorrhagic shock required reintervention with excision of the tumoral mass. Pathologic examination revealed lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). On the 15th postoperative day, the patient developed a chylopneumothorax which required prolonged chest tube drainage. The presence of multiple polycystic lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma supported the diagnosis of diffuse LAM with primary extrapulmonary presentation. This diagnosis should be considered preoperatively since it modifies the treatment: a complete excision of the cystic lesions seems to be necessary in order to prevent bleeding and lymphatic extravasation. PMID:19446700

Barbier, L; Ebbo, M; Andrac-Meyer, L; Schneilitz, N; Le Treut, Y-P; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Hardwigsen, J

2009-02-01

199

Monitoring and staging abdominal aortic aneurysm disease with pulse wave imaging.  

PubMed

The abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a silent and often deadly vascular disease caused by the localized weakening of the arterial wall. Previous work has indicated that local changes in wall stiffness can be detected with pulse wave imaging (PWI), which is a non-invasive technique for tracking the propagation of pulse waves along the aorta at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The aim of this study was to assess the capability of PWI to monitor and stage AAA progression in a murine model of the disease. ApoE/TIMP-1 knockout mice (N = 18) were given angiotensin II for 30 days via subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps. The suprarenal sections of the abdominal aortas were imaged every 2-3 d after implantation using a 30-MHz VisualSonics Vevo 770 with 15-?m lateral resolution. Pulse wave propagation was monitored at an effective frame rate of 8 kHz by using retrospective electrocardiogram gating and by performing 1-D cross-correlation on the radiofrequency signals to obtain the displacements induced by the waves. In normal aortas, the pulse waves propagated at constant velocities (2.8 ± 0.9 m/s, r(2) = 0.89 ± 0.11), indicating that the composition of these vessels was relatively homogeneous. In the mice that developed AAAs (N = 10), the wave speeds in the aneurysm sac were 45% lower (1.6 ± 0.6 m/s) and were more variable (r(2) = 0.66 ± 0.23). Moreover, the wave-induced wall displacements were at least 80% lower within the sacs compared with the surrounding vessel. Finally, in mice that developed fissures (N = 5) or ruptures (N = 3) at the sites of their AAA, higher displacements directed out of the lumen and with no discernible wave pattern (r(2) < 0.20) were observed throughout the cardiac cycle. These findings indicate that PWI can be used to distinguish normal murine aortas from aneurysmal, fissured and ruptured ones. Hence, PWI could potentially be used to monitor and stage human aneurysms by providing information complementary to standard B-mode ultrasound. PMID:25130446

Nandlall, Sacha D; Goldklang, Monica P; Kalashian, Aubrey; Dangra, Nida A; D'Armiento, Jeanine M; Konofagou, Elisa E

2014-10-01

200

Single Therapeutic Catheterization for Treatment of Late Diagnosed Native Coarctation of Aorta Using A Covered Stent  

PubMed Central

Here in we are reporting a 35-year-old pregnant, hypertensive woman with a strict descending aorta coarctation. She had two missing pregnancies which were complicated with hypertension, but which were not diagnosed for any pathologies before. We diagnosed coarctation of aorta, but however postponed her treatment after delivery of baby, because hypertension was under control with medical treatment and she had no complication. She had an uneventful delivery. MRI angiography revealed coarctation of aorta and it was successfully treated by using an endovascular covered stent during a single cardiac catheterization. Endovascular covered stent implantation is an easy, safe and effective method for treating coarctation of aorta in adults. PMID:24783116

Ural, Alper V; Caglar, Ilker Murat; Caglar, Fatma Nihan Turhan; Ciftci, Serkan; Karakaya, Osman

2014-01-01

201

Single therapeutic catheterization for treatment of late diagnosed native coarctation of aorta using a covered stent.  

PubMed

Here in we are reporting a 35-year-old pregnant, hypertensive woman with a strict descending aorta coarctation. She had two missing pregnancies which were complicated with hypertension, but which were not diagnosed for any pathologies before. We diagnosed coarctation of aorta, but however postponed her treatment after delivery of baby, because hypertension was under control with medical treatment and she had no complication. She had an uneventful delivery. MRI angiography revealed coarctation of aorta and it was successfully treated by using an endovascular covered stent during a single cardiac catheterization. Endovascular covered stent implantation is an easy, safe and effective method for treating coarctation of aorta in adults. PMID:24783116

Ural, Alper V; Caglar, Ilker Murat; Caglar, Fatma Nihan Turhan; Ciftci, Serkan; Karakaya, Osman

2014-03-01

202

In vivo wall shear stress and flow reversal in canine thoracic aortae  

E-print Network

arms and a variable reference resistor acts as the other. The other two resistances are fixed. The system is set up Artery Wall Velocity Shear Figure 4 Velocity and shear probes. Vs R sensor Rei PC ampiiT'ier Figure 5 Wheatstone bridge ? DC... retraction at sixth intercostal space. Collar is placed around aorta 29 of the thoracic aorta. The animal was then placed in ster- nal recubancy so that the aorta would drop down away fzom the dorsal wall of the chest cavity. The aorta...

Dunn, Carl Anthony

2012-06-07

203

MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics.  

PubMed

Increasingly, data on shape are analysed in combination with molecular genetic or ecological information, so that tools for geometric morphometric analysis are required. Morphometric studies most often use the arrangements of morphological landmarks as the data source and extract shape information from them by Procrustes superimposition. The MorphoJ software combines this approach with a wide range of methods for shape analysis in different biological contexts. The program offers an integrated and user-friendly environment for standard multivariate analyses such as principal components, discriminant analysis and multivariate regression as well as specialized applications including phylogenetics, quantitative genetics and analyses of modularity in shape data. MorphoJ is written in Java and versions for the Windows, Macintosh and Unix/Linux platforms are freely available from http://www.flywings.org.uk/MorphoJ_page.htm. PMID:21429143

Klingenberg, Christian Peter

2011-03-01

204

On the prediction of monocyte deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms using computational fluid dynamics.  

PubMed

In abdominal aortic aneurysm disease, the aortic wall is exposed to intense biological activity involving inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase-mediated degradation of the extracellular matrix. These processes are orchestrated by monocytes and rather than affecting the aorta uniformly, damage and weaken focal areas of the wall leaving it vulnerable to rupture. This study attempts to model numerically the deposition of monocytes using large eddy simulation, discrete phase modelling and near-wall particle residence time. The model was first applied to idealised aneurysms and then to three patient-specific lumen geometries using three-component inlet velocities derived from phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. The use of a novel, variable wall shear stress-limiter based on previous experimental data significantly improved the results. Simulations identified a critical diameter (1.8 times the inlet diameter) beyond which significant monocyte deposition is expected to occur. Monocyte adhesion occurred proximally in smaller abdominal aortic aneurysms and distally as the sac expands. The near-wall particle residence time observed in each of the patient-specific models was markedly different. Discrete hotspots of monocyte residence time were detected, suggesting that the monocyte infiltration responsible for the breakdown of the abdominal aortic aneurysm wall occurs heterogeneously. Peak monocyte residence time was found to increase with aneurysm sac size. Further work addressing certain limitations is needed in a larger cohort to determine clinical significance. PMID:23886969

Hardman, David; Doyle, Barry J; Semple, Scott I K; Richards, Jennifer M J; Newby, David E; Easson, William J; Hoskins, Peter R

2013-10-01

205

Morphometric changes in boar spermatozoa induced by cryopreservation.  

PubMed

Computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis was used to determine the effects of cryopreservation on boar sperm head and midpiece morphometry. Sperm-rich fractions were collected from five mature boars. Three microscope slides were prepared from single extended sperm samples prior freezing and post-thawing. All slides were stained with Hemacolor, and 250 sperm images were obtained from each slide. The sperm head dimensions for length, width, area, perimeter and four shape factors and sperm-midpiece dimensions for area, width, angle and distance were determined in each spermatozoa. The effects of sperm freezing on sperm dimensions within and among boars were determined. A previous discriminant analysis of the results was able to correctly classify a 78.3 and 82% of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa respectively. Sperm heads were significantly smaller in cryopreserved spermatozoa than in the companion extended samples for length, width, area and perimeter. Sperm midpieces were also significantly smaller in cryopreserved spermatozoa for width and area. The highest changes in morphometric dimensions after the freeze-thawing process were found in the midpiece of spermatozoa. The variability of morphometric measurements only was significantly different between fresh and thawed samples for head rugosity and midpiece area. The effects of cryopreservation on morphometric parameters were similar in the boars, which allow us to conclude that cryopreservation process does not have a different effect in each individual boar. In summary, morphometric changes associated with the cryopreservation process on boar spermatozoa do not apparently depends on an effect at individual level. PMID:17651399

García-Herreros, M; Barón, F J; Aparicio, I M; Santos, A J; García-Marín, L J; Gil, M C

2008-09-01

206

Allozymic and morphometric variation in Lemna minor ( Lemnaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozymic and morphometric variation was studied in 28 clones ofLemna minor. This variation was compared with the corresponding variation in four clones ofLemna gibba and four clones ofSpirodela polyrrhiza. A high level of allozymic variation was observed among the clones, despite having been grown under uniform laboratory conditions for several years and despite its quasi-exclusive clonal means of propagation. Based

Liette Vasseur; Lonnie W. Aarssen; Daniel D. Lefebvre

1991-01-01

207

A comparison of cardiac reactivity and beta-adrenoceptor number and affinity between aorta-coarcted hypertensive and normotensive rats.  

PubMed Central

1 The effects of noradrenaline (NA) and isoprenaline on isolated atria from aorta-coarcted hypertensive rats (AHR) at early (6 day) and chronic (28 day) stages of hypertension were studied and compared with time-matched, sham-operated, normotensive rats (SNR). The number and affinity of beta-adrenoceptor ((-)-[3H]-dihydroalprenolol binding sites) were also studied in cardiac membranes prepared from these animals. 2 Six and 28 days after complete ligation of the abdominal aorta between the two renal arteries, rats became hypertensive with significantly greater arterial blood pressures than time-matched SNR. 3 At both stages of hypertension, the atrial inotropic or chronotropic effects of NA and isoprenaline from hypertensive rats were similar to time-matched SNR. Moreover, no differences in atrial reactivity were observed between the early and chronic stages of hypertension. 4 Irrespective of the stage of hypertension, cardiac membranes from the AHR contained the same number of beta-adrenoceptors as time-matched SNR. In addition, the receptor affinity for the radioligand within each group was equivalent. However, the chronic stage hypertensive rats and their time-matched controls contained fewer beta-adrenoceptors and these receptors had greater affinity for the radioligand when compared with cardiac membranes from rats at the early stage of hypertension and their controls. 5 The observed equivalent chronotropic and inotropic responses to NA and isoprenaline between the hypertensive and normotensive rats in both stages of hypertension may be explained in terms of similar receptor number and receptor binding affinity. 6 The reduced number of beta-adrenoceptors with greater binding affinity in day 28 normotensive or hypertensive rats may be a compensatory mechanism for these animals to maintain normal cardiac function with increasing age. PMID:6271317

Cervoni, P.; Herzlinger, H.; Lai, F. M.; Tanikella, T.

1981-01-01

208

Identification of Erosion Prone Areas by Morphometric Analysis Using GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was undertaken to determine the priority watersheds for conservation of natural resources of the Haharo sub catchment in the Damodar catchment of upper Damodar valley area having an area of 565 km2 involving four watersheds in Jharkhand State in eastern India by morphometric analysis using topographical maps on a scale of 1:50,000. To define the morphometric features of the watershed, the topographic information of the study area at 1:50,000 scaled are taken for analysis with the help of GIS tools. The topographical information derived from this map is utilized for calculating parameters and fixing of priority of watershed for suggesting conservation measures. The parameters computed include the morphometric parameters like bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, and three basin shape parameters i.e., form factor, circularity ratio, and elongation ratio. A rating was done for each of these parameters according to their value. Average of all these parameter for each watershed is calculated to determine the priority. Among the four watersheds 4/4 was the highest priority area where conservation measure has to be taken first then watershed 4/3. Watershed 4/1 was the medium priority area and watershed 4/2 was the low priority area.

Das, D.

2014-01-01

209

Intravascular Stent Therapy for Coarctation of the Aorta  

PubMed Central

Intravascular stent therapy is considered a primary therapeutic option for most adults and adolescents with coarctation of the aorta. This review highlights the indications, technical considerations, procedural aspects, and limited long-term outcome data when using this intervention. Stent technology has continued to evolve with potential for further modifications since its inception in the early 1990s. The best therapeutic approach, e.g., stenting versus surgery, in the treatment of native coarctation continues to be debated due to the paucity of long-term clinical and imaging data in both groups. PMID:25114759

2014-01-01

210

Intravascular stent therapy for coarctation of the aorta.  

PubMed

Intravascular stent therapy is considered a primary therapeutic option for most adults and adolescents with coarctation of the aorta. This review highlights the indications, technical considerations, procedural aspects, and limited long-term outcome data when using this intervention. Stent technology has continued to evolve with potential for further modifications since its inception in the early 1990s. The best therapeutic approach, e.g., stenting versus surgery, in the treatment of native coarctation continues to be debated due to the paucity of long-term clinical and imaging data in both groups. PMID:25114759

Forbes, Thomas J; Gowda, Srinath T

2014-01-01

211

Direct aortic transcatheter valve implantation in a porcelain aorta.  

PubMed

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has been designed to treat elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis at high risk for surgery, and is generally performed retrogradely with vascular access. However, in certain patients, this access is either not possible or deemed to carry a high risk of vascular injury. We report our experience of a direct aortic approach in a 78-year old man with severe aortic stenosis, excluded from standard aortic valve replacement due to a porcelain aorta, and affected by severe aortic, iliac-femoral, and subclavian arteriopathy, rendering the transfemoral or subclavian approach unemployable. PMID:24887834

Bruschi, Giuseppe; Botta, Luca; De Marco, Federico; Colombo, Paola; Klugmann, Silvio; Martinelli, Luigi

2014-10-01

212

Rarefaction of the aorta under Dacron wrap: a rare complication.  

PubMed

Treatment for ascending aortic dilatation varies from a wait-and-watch approach to aortic replacement. The use of an external prosthesis to gird and support the proximal aorta is safe and durable for selected aortic aneurysms. We report a rare complication in a 62-year-old man with bicuspid aortic valve and coronary artery disease who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery and ascending aortic wrapping 10 years previously. During subsequent aortic valve surgery, he was incidentally found to have erosion of Dacron wrap through the aortic wall. PMID:24778144

Doyle, Mathew; Peeceeyan, Sheen; Bonar, Fiona; Horton, Matthew

2014-08-01

213

The ?-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid, Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Attenuates Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Development via Suppression of Tissue Remodeling  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent vascular disease that can progressively enlarge and rupture with a high rate of mortality. Inflammation and active remodeling of the aortic wall have been suggested to be critical in its pathogenesis. Meanwhile, ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are known to reduce cardiovascular events, but its role in AAA management remains unclear. Here, we show that EPA can attenuate murine CaCl2-induced AAA formation. Aortas from BALB/c mice fed an EPA-diet appeared less inflamed, were significantly smaller in diameter compared to those from control-diet-fed mice, and had relative preservation of aortic elastic lamina. Interestingly, CT imaging also revealed markedly reduced calcification of the aortas after EPA treatment. Mechanistically, MMP2, MMP9, and TNFSF11 levels in the aortas were reduced after EPA treatment. Consistent with this finding, RAW264.7 macrophages treated with EPA showed attenuated Mmp9 levels after TNF-? simulation. These results demonstrate a novel role of EPA in attenuating AAA formation via the suppression of critical remodeling pathways in the pathogenesis of AAAs, and raise the possibility of using EPA for AAA prevention in the clinical setting. PMID:24798452

Wang, Jack H.; Eguchi, Kosei; Matsumoto, Sahohime; Fujiu, Katsuhito; Komuro, Issei; Nagai, Ryozo; Manabe, Ichiro

2014-01-01

214

Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair  

PubMed Central

The operative mortality following conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair has not fallen significantly over the past two decades. Since its inception in 1991, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has provided an alternative to open AAA repair and perhaps an opportunity to improve operative mortality. Two recent large randomised trials have demonstrated the short and medium term benefit of EVAR over open AAA repair, although data on the long term efficacy of the technique are still lacking. This review aimed at providing an overview of EVAR and a discussion of the potential benefits and current limitations of the technique. PMID:17267674

Norwood, M G A; Lloyd, G M; Bown, M J; Fishwick, G; London, N J; Sayers, R D

2007-01-01

215

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old man is complaining of abdominal pain. Visitors are given the radiology, gross and microscopic descriptions, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostics, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Latulippe, Steven; Ohori, N. P.

2007-12-05

216

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man has abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss but no significant past medical history. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Nine, Jeff S.; Weir, Ed

2007-12-03

217

Pressure gradient related to energy conversion in the aorta.  

PubMed

In this study, we analyzed a common form of experimental investigation of blood vessels, in which measurements are obtained with branches ligated. Utilizing representative pressure and flow pulses and the full expression for the equation of motion, we calculated the axial pressure gradient, in the time domain at a plane in the descending aorta. The time function representing the ratio between axial pressure gradient and axial flow for the resulting tapering geometry was subjected to Fourier analysis. The harmonics were utilized to obtain the real and imaginary components of the longitudinal impedance as if it were a linear system. In a linear system, the real and imaginary components represent the viscous and inertial properties of the fluid, respectively. For the system studied, however, the real part contained both viscous and substantial in-phase components arising from the inertial terms of the equation of motion. The real part, therefore, cannot be interpreted as indicative solely of dissipated energy. When measurements are obtained from an adulterated system, caution must be exercised if the interpretation is to be considered that of the real system. The analysis clarifies an anomalous issue concerning resistive features of the aorta. PMID:6825213

Melbin, J; Noordergraaf, A

1983-02-01

218

Endothelium-dependent relaxation in rabbit aorta after cold storage.  

PubMed

The extent of preservation of endothelial, smooth muscle and neurogenic function following cold storage was studied in rabbit thoracic aorta. Relaxation responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were compared between fresh aortic rings and rings that had been stored in a refrigerator for 2-8 days at 4 degrees C. In fresh aortic rings, the addition of acetylcholine to precontracted vessels resulted in dose-dependent relaxation. The magnitude of relaxation was gradually decreased after 4-8 days of cold storage. Relaxation in response to sodium nitroprusside did not change. Following cold storage contractions of aortic rings in response to noradrenaline and phenylephrine were not reduced. Contractile responses induced by transmural nerve stimulation were gradually attenuated with the length of cold storage. Electron microscopy after 4 days showed partial damage of endothelial cells (slightly vacuolized mitochondria). After 8 days, endothelial cells were destroyed; only membranous material was present. The structure of smooth muscle cells was only partially changed even after 8 days. Sympathetic nerve endings on the 4th day were partially, but on the 8th day completely destroyed. These results suggest that after cold storage of rabbit aorta, the gradual reduction of endothelium-dependent relaxation is probably caused by a decrease in production of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor due to the destruction of endothelial cells. PMID:8482323

Török, J; Kristek, F; Mokrásová, M

1993-04-01

219

Automatic segmentation of the aorta and the adjoining vessels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diseases of the cardiovascular system are one of the main causes of death in the Western world. Especially the aorta and its main descending vessels are of high importance for diagnosis and treatment. Today, minimally invasive interventions are becoming increasingly popular due to their advantages like cost effectiveness and minimized risk for the patient. The training of such interventions, which require much of coordination skills, can be trained by task training systems, which are operation simualtion units. These systems require a data model that can be reconstructed from given patient data sets. In this paper, we present a method that allows to segment and classify aorta, carotides, and ostium (including coronary arteries) in one run, fully automatic and highly robust. The system tolerates changes in topology, streak artifacts in CT caused by calcification and inhomogeneous distribution of contrast agent. Both CT and MRI-Images can be processed. The underlying algorithm is based on a combination of Vesselness Enhancement Diffusion, Region Growing, and the Level Set Method. The system showed good results on all 15 real patient data sets whereby the deviation was smaller than two voxels.

Stutzmann, Tobias; Hesser, Jürgen; Völker, Wolfram; Dobhan, Matthias

2010-03-01

220

Non-traumatic lateral abdominal wall hernia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rare lateral abdominal wall hernia is described in an adult patient. This was diagnosed in a patient with a prominent right\\u000a lateral abdominal wall deformity. The patient had been experiencing pain that increased progressively in severity over time.\\u000a A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed the location of the lateral abdominal wall defect. The hernia\\u000a defect was

M. Castillo-Sang; B. Gociman; B. Almaroof; J. Fath; F. Cason

2009-01-01

221

Expression and localization of macrophage elastase (matrix metalloproteinase-12) in abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed Central

Elastolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), a disorder characterized by chronic aortic wall inflammation and destruction of medial elastin. The purpose of this study was to determine if human macrophage elastase (HME; MMP-12) might participate in this disease. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, HME mRNA was consistently demonstrated in AAA and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (AOD) tissues (six of six), but in only one of six normal aortas. Immunoreactive proteins corresponding to proHME and two products of extracellular processing were present in seven of seven AAA tissue extracts. Total HME recovered from AAA tissue was sevenfold greater than normal aorta (P < 0.001), and the extracted enzyme exhibited activity in vitro. Production of HME was demonstrated in the media of AAA tissues by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, but HME was not detected within the media of normal or AOD specimens. Importantly, immunoreactive HME was specifically localized to residual elastin fragments within the media of AAA tissue, particularly areas adjacent to nondilated normal aorta. In vitro, the fraction of MMP-12 sequestered by insoluble elastin was two- to fivefold greater than other elastases found in AAA tissue. Therefore, HME is prominently expressed by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages within the degenerating aortic media of AAA, where it is also bound to residual elastic fiber fragments. Because elastin represents a critical component of aortic wall structure and a matrix substrate for metalloelastases, HME may have a direct and singular role in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms. PMID:9835614

Curci, J A; Liao, S; Huffman, M D; Shapiro, S D; Thompson, R W

1998-01-01

222

Abdominal aortic aneurysm and diastasis recti.  

PubMed

Midline abdominal incisional hernias are common following open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. These may be caused by the weakness of connective tissue. This study sought to determine the prevalence of diastasis recti among unoperated Caucasian males with abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to a control group with atherosclerotic lower extremity peripheral arterial disease. Forty-two consecutive white males referred for evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (n = 18) or peripheral arterial disease (n = 24) were examined by a single examiner at the Mayo Clinic. Both groups were similar in terms of age and smoking history, 2 major risk factors for both abdominal aortic aneurysm and peripheral arterial disease. Abdominal aortic aneurysm patients ranged in age from 59 to 89 (mean, 73.2) years. Seventeen of 18 (94.4%) had a history of smoking. Peripheral arterial disease patients ranged in age from 52 to 93 (mean, 70.8) years. Twenty-one of 24 (87.5%) had a history of smoking. Diastasis recti were present in 12 of 18 (66.7%) subjects with abdominal aortic aneurysm versus 4 of 24 (16.7%) subjects with peripheral arterial disease (P = .001, 2-tailed Fisher exact test). Diastasis recti are significantly more common in males with abdominal aortic aneurysm than peripheral arterial disease and may provide an important clue to screen for abdominal aortic aneurysm in those at risk. PMID:18550558

McPhail, Ian

223

Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.  

PubMed

One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEP<5cmH2O) or no PEEP, may cause alveolar overdistension and repetitive tidal recruitment leading to ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. PMID:25153670

Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

2014-01-01

224

Stent graft infection secondary to appendicitis: an unusual complication of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a 73-year-old gentleman with an aortic endograft infection post endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair (EVAR), from whence erosion has come in from an acutely inflamed appendix. To our best understanding, there is no similar case published in the literature. Intra-operatively, there was obvious inflammation and oedema over the retroperitoneal tissue, with frank pus and thrombotic material projecting from the aorta. The tip of an obviously inflamed appendix had stuck to and eroded through the aortic sac, seeding the infection. The endograft was explanted and the aneurysm sac oversewn. Lower limb circulation was preserved with a right axillo-femoral Dacron bypass graft. This case highlights a rare complication following EVAR, and for one to consider unusual sources of graft infection. PMID:25326918

Perera, Kalpa G.; Wong, Ed; Devine, Terry

2014-01-01

225

Diagnosis of Intra-Abdominal Extralobar Pulmonary Sequestration by means of Ultrasound in a Neonate  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary sequestration is a congenital abnormality consisting of a mass of pulmonary tissue that presents an abnormal connection with the tracheobronchial tree, with a blood supply coming from an anomalous artery derived from the systemic circulation. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration is characterized by having pleural coverings that are independent of the normal lungs, with vascular supply usually coming from the aorta or from one of its branches. This diagnosis can be suspected prenatally if an abdominal mass, generally below the diaphragm, is seen. Here, we present a case of a neonate on the second day of life, with ultrasonography showing extralobar pulmonary sequestration located above the left adrenal gland that prenatally simulated a neuroblastoma. PMID:23762717

Pires, Claudio Rodrigues; Czapkowski, Adriano; Zanforlin Filho, Sebastiao Marques

2013-01-01

226

Stent graft infection secondary to appendicitis: an unusual complication of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.  

PubMed

We present a case of a 73-year-old gentleman with an aortic endograft infection post endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair (EVAR), from whence erosion has come in from an acutely inflamed appendix. To our best understanding, there is no similar case published in the literature. Intra-operatively, there was obvious inflammation and oedema over the retroperitoneal tissue, with frank pus and thrombotic material projecting from the aorta. The tip of an obviously inflamed appendix had stuck to and eroded through the aortic sac, seeding the infection. The endograft was explanted and the aneurysm sac oversewn. Lower limb circulation was preserved with a right axillo-femoral Dacron bypass graft. This case highlights a rare complication following EVAR, and for one to consider unusual sources of graft infection. PMID:25326918

Perera, Kalpa G; Wong, Ed; Devine, Terry

2014-01-01

227

Abdominal aortic occlusion and vascular compromise secondary to acute gastric dilatation in a patient with bulimia.  

PubMed

Acute gastric dilation is a rare but recognised complication in patients with bulimia and anorexia following binge episodes owing to decreased bowel motility. We present a rare case of acute gastric dilation secondary to bulimia in an otherwise healthy 18-year-old female patient that resulted in compression and complete occlusion of the abdominal aorta, leading to acute mesenteric and bilateral lower limb ischaemia. This resolved immediately following a laparotomy and gastric decompression. Management of these patients is very challenging owing to the lack of a successful precedent. To our knowledge, such a catastrophic complication has only ever been reported once in the literature and the outcome was fatal. Our case is of additional importance as it offers a successful management strategy for these patients. PMID:25350169

Elsharif, M; Doulias, T; Aljundi, W; Balchandra, S

2014-11-01

228

Blood flow and coherent vortices in the normal and aneurysmatic aortas: a fluid dynamical approach to intra-luminal thrombus formation.  

PubMed

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are frequently characterized by the development of an intra-luminal thrombus (ILT), which is known to have multiple biochemical and biomechanical implications. Development of the ILT is not well understood, and shear-stress-triggered activation of platelets could be the first step in its evolution. Vortical structures (VSs) in the flow affect platelet dynamics, which motivated the present study of a possible correlation between VS and ILT formation in AAAs. VSs educed by the ?(2)-method using computational fluid dynamics simulations of the backward-facing step problem, normal aorta, fusiform AAA and saccular AAA were investigated. Patient-specific luminal geometries were reconstructed from computed tomography scans, and Newtonian and Carreau-Yasuda models were used to capture salient rheological features of blood flow. Particularly in complex flow domains, results depended on the constitutive model. VSs developed all along the normal aorta, showing that a clear correlation between VSs and high wall shear stress (WSS) existed, and that VSs started to break up during late systole. In contrast, in the fusiform AAA, large VSs developed at sites of tortuous geometry and high WSS, occupying the entire lumen, and lasting over the entire cardiac cycle. Downward motion of VSs in the AAA was in the range of a few centimetres per cardiac cycle, and with a VS burst at that location, the release (from VSs) of shear-stress-activated platelets and their deposition to the wall was within the lower part of the diseased artery, i.e. where the thickest ILT layer is typically observed. In the saccular AAA, only one VS was found near the healthy portion of the aorta, while in the aneurysmatic bulge, no VSs occurred. We present a fluid-dynamics-motivated mechanism for platelet activation, convection and deposition in AAAs that has the potential of improving our current understanding of the pathophysiology of fluid-driven ILT growth. PMID:21471188

Biasetti, Jacopo; Hussain, Fazle; Gasser, T Christian

2011-10-01

229

CD14 Directs Adventitial Macrophage Precursor Recruitment: Role in Early Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation  

PubMed Central

Background Recruitment of macrophage precursors to the adventitia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), but molecular mechanisms remain undefined. The innate immune signaling molecule CD14 was reported to be upregulated in adventitial macrophages in a murine model of AAA and in monocytes cocultured with aortic adventitial fibroblasts (AoAf) in vitro, concurrent with increased interleukin?6 (IL?6) expression. We hypothesized that CD14 plays a crucial role in adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment early during AAA formation. Methods and Results CD14?/? mice were resistant to AAA formation induced by 2 different AAA induction models: aortic elastase infusion and systemic angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. CD14 gene deletion led to reduced aortic macrophage infiltration and diminished elastin degradation. Adventitial monocyte binding to AngII?infused aorta in vitro was dependent on CD14, and incubation of human acute monocytic leukemia cell line?1 (THP?1) monocytes with IL?6 or conditioned medium from perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) upregulated CD14 expression. Conditioned medium from AoAf and PVAT induced CD14?dependent monocyte chemotaxis, which was potentiated by IL?6. CD14 expression in aorta and plasma CD14 levels were increased in AAA patients compared with controls. Conclusions These findings link CD14 innate immune signaling via a novel IL?6 amplification loop to adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment in the pathogenesis of AAA. PMID:23537804

Blomkalns, Andra L.; Gavrila, Daniel; Thomas, Manesh; Neltner, Bonnie S.; Blanco, Victor M.; Benjamin, Stephanie B.; McCormick, Michael L.; Stoll, Lynn L.; Denning, Gerene M.; Collins, Sean P.; Qin, Zhenyu; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A.; Thompson, Robert W.; Weiss, Robert M.; Lindower, Paul D.; Pinney, Susan M.; Chatterjee, Tapan; Weintraub, Neal L.

2013-01-01

230

Uncluttered single-image visualization of the abdominal aortic vessel tree: Method and evaluation  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The authors develop a method to visualize the abdominal aorta and its branches, obtained by CT or MR angiography, in a single 2D stylistic image without overlap among branches. Methods: The abdominal aortic vasculature is modeled as an articulated object whose underlying topology is a rooted tree. The inputs to the algorithm are the 3D centerlines of the abdominal aorta, its branches, and their associated diameter information. The visualization problem is formulated as an optimization problem that finds a spatial configuration of the bounding boxes of the centerlines most similar to the projection of the input into a given viewing direction (e.g., anteroposterior), while not introducing intersections among the boxes. The optimization algorithm minimizes a score function regarding the overlap of the bounding boxes and the deviation from the input. The output of the algorithm is used to produce a stylistic visualization, made of the 2D centerlines modulated by the associated diameter information, on a plane. The authors performed a preliminary evaluation by asking three radiologists to label 366 arterial branches from the 30 visualizations of five cases produced by the method. Each of the five patients was presented in six different variant images, selected from ten variants with the three lowest and three highest scores. For each label, they assigned confidence and distortion ratings (low?medium?high). They studied the association between the quantitative metrics measured from the visualization and the subjective ratings by the radiologists. Results: All resulting visualizations were free from branch overlaps. Labeling accuracies of the three readers were 93.4%, 94.5%, and 95.4%, respectively. For the total of 1098 samples, the distortion ratings were low: 77.39%, medium: 10.48%, and high: 12.12%. The confidence ratings were low: 5.56%, medium: 16.50%, and high: 77.94%. The association study shows that the proposed quantitative metrics can predict a reader’s subjective ratings and suggests that the visualization with the lowest score should be selected for readers. Conclusions: The method for eliminating misleading false intersections in 2D projections of the abdominal aortic tree conserves the overall shape and does not diminish accurate identifiability of the branches. PMID:19994535

Won, Joong-Ho; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Napel, Sandy

2009-01-01

231

Uncluttered single-image visualization of the abdominal aortic vessel tree: Method and evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The authors develop a method to visualize the abdominal aorta and its branches, obtained by CT or MR angiography, in a single 2D stylistic image without overlap among branches. Methods: The abdominal aortic vasculature is modeled as an articulated object whose underlying topology is a rooted tree. The inputs to the algorithm are the 3D centerlines of the abdominal aorta, its branches, and their associated diameter information. The visualization problem is formulated as an optimization problem that finds a spatial configuration of the bounding boxes of the centerlines most similar to the projection of the input into a given viewing direction (e.g., anteroposterior), while not introducing intersections among the boxes. The optimization algorithm minimizes a score function regarding the overlap of the bounding boxes and the deviation from the input. The output of the algorithm is used to produce a stylistic visualization, made of the 2D centerlines modulated by the associated diameter information, on a plane. The authors performed a preliminary evaluation by asking three radiologists to label 366 arterial branches from the 30 visualizations of five cases produced by the method. Each of the five patients was presented in six different variant images, selected from ten variants with the three lowest and three highest scores. For each label, they assigned confidence and distortion ratings (low/medium/high). They studied the association between the quantitative metrics measured from the visualization and the subjective ratings by the radiologists. Results: All resulting visualizations were free from branch overlaps. Labeling accuracies of the three readers were 93.4%, 94.5%, and 95.4%, respectively. For the total of 1098 samples, the distortion ratings were low: 77.39%, medium: 10.48%, and high: 12.12%. The confidence ratings were low: 5.56%, medium: 16.50%, and high: 77.94%. The association study shows that the proposed quantitative metrics can predict a reader's subjective ratings and suggests that the visualization with the lowest score should be selected for readers. Conclusions: The method for eliminating misleading false intersections in 2D projections of the abdominal aortic tree conserves the overall shape and does not diminish accurate identifiability of the branches.

Won, Joong-Ho; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Napel, Sandy [Department of Electrical Engineering and Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2009-11-15

232

Abdominal aortic aneurysms targeted by functionalized polysaccharide microparticles: a new tool for SPECT imaging.  

PubMed

Aneurysm diagnostic is nowadays limited by the lack of technology that enables early detection and rupture risk prediction. New non invasive tools for molecular imaging are still required. In the present study, we present an innovative SPECT diagnostic tool for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) produced from injectable polysaccharide microparticles radiolabeled with technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) and functionalized with fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide with the ability to target P-Selectin. P-Selectin is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated endothelial cells and platelets which can be found in the thrombus of aneurysms, as well as in other vascular pathologies. Microparticles with a maximum hydrodynamic diameter of 4 µm were obtained by crosslinking the polysaccharides dextran and pullulan. They were functionalized with fucoidan. In vitro interactions with human activated platelets were assessed by flow cytometry that demonstrated a specific affinity of fucoidan functionalized microparticles for P-Selectin expressed by activated platelets. For in vivo AAA imaging, microparticles were radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and intravenously injected into healthy and AAA rats obtained by elastase perfusion through the aorta wall. Animals were scanned by SPECT imaging. A strong contrast enhancement located in the abdominal aorta of AAA rats was obtained, while no signal was obtained in healthy rats or in AAA rats after injection of non-functionalized control microparticles. Histological studies revealed that functionalized radiolabeled polysaccharide microparticles were localized in the AAA wall, in the same location where P-Selectin was expressed. These microparticles therefore constitute a promising SPECT imaging tool for AAA and potentially for other vascular diseases characterized by P-Selectin expression. Future work will focus on validating the efficiency of the microparticles to diagnose these other pathologies and the different stages of AAA. Incorporation of a therapeutic molecule is also considered. PMID:24723981

Bonnard, Thomas; Yang, Gonord; Petiet, Anne; Ollivier, Véronique; Haddad, Oualid; Arnaud, Denis; Louedec, Liliane; Bachelet-Violette, Laure; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cedric; Le Visage, Catherine

2014-01-01

233

Abdominal atlas mapping in CT and MR volume images using a normalized abdominal coordinate system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a normalized abdominal coordinate system is defined for abdominal atlas mapping in CT and MR volume images. This coordinate system is independent of both the abdomen size and the respiratory motion. A real-time atlas mapping algorithm based on this coordinate system is also proposed. The purpose of this algorithm is to provide initial positions for abdominal organ

Hongkai Wang; Jing Bai; Yongxin Zhou; Yonghong Zhang

2008-01-01

234

Whole genome expression analysis within the angiotensin II-apolipoprotein E deficient mouse model of abdominal aortic aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Background An animal model commonly used to investigate pathways and potential therapeutic interventions relevant to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) involves subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II within the apolipoprotein E deficient mouse. The aim of this study was to investigate genes differentially expressed in aneurysms forming within this mouse model in order to assess the relevance of this model to human AAA. Results Using microarrays we identified genes relevant to aneurysm formation within apolipoprotein E deficient mice. Firstly we investigated genes differentially expressed in the aneurysm prone segment of the suprarenal aorta in these mice. Secondly we investigated genes that were differentially expressed in the aortas of mice developing aneurysms relative to those that did not develop aneurysms in response to angiotensin II infusion. Our findings suggest that a host of inflammation and extracellular matrix remodelling pathways are upregulated within the aorta in mice developing aneurysms. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome categories enriched in the aortas of mice with aneurysms included cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, leukocyte transendothelial migration, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity and hematopoietic cell lineage. Genes associated with extracellular matrix remodelling, such as a range of matrix metalloproteinases were also differentially expressed in relation to aneurysm formation. Conclusion This study is the first report describing whole genome expression arrays in the apolipoprotein E deficient mice in relation to aneurysm formation. The findings suggest that the pathways believed to be critical in human AAA are also relevant to aneurysm formation in this mouse model. The findings therefore support the value of this model to investigate interventions and mechanisms of human AAA. PMID:19580648

Rush, Catherine; Nyara, Moses; Moxon, Joseph V; Trollope, Alexandra; Cullen, Bradford; Golledge, Jonathan

2009-01-01

235

Geomorphology and morphometric characteristics of alluvial fans, Guadalupe Mountains National Park and adjacent areas, west Texas and New Mexico  

E-print Network

analysis indicate that the morphometric relationships that exist between the alluvial fans of the GMR and their contributory drainage basins are comparably to those of alluvial fans of the western United States. Morphologic and morphometric differences...

Given, Jeffrey Lyle

2004-09-30

236

Prognostic value of tissue factor in patients with abdominal aortic and iliac arterial aneurysms - preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The decision on the time and choice of strategy of treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm must be especially carefully balanced. The aim of the study was to evaluate the tissue factor (TF) plasma level as a potential factor useful in anticipation of abdominal aortic aneurysm and/or iliac arterial aneurysm via comparison of plasma TF level in patients with ruptured and non-ruptured aneurysms. Material and methods The study included 33 patients with aneurysm (17 operated on electively because of non-ruptured aneurysm and 16 operated on emergently due to ruptured aneurysm), 33 claudicant patients with atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries with normal diameter of arteries, and 30 healthy controls. Plasma TF level was assessed by ELISA method using the IMUBIND Tissue Factor ELISA Kit (American Diagnostica Inc.). Results The study showed an increased TF level in patients with aneurysm (134 ±54 pg/ml) and in patients with atherosclerosis without concomitant aneurysm (91 ±30 pg/ml) in comparison with the control group (62 ±20 pg/ml), respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.008. A significantly higher TF plasma level was observed in patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (160 ±57 pg/ml) as compared to patients with non-ruptured aortic aneurysms (109 ±39 pg/ml) or peripheral arterial occlusive disease (91 ±30 pg/ml), respectively p < 0.001 and p < 0.001. The difference in TF level between the group with non-ruptured aortic aneurysms (109 ±39 pg/ml) and the patients with atherosclerosis without aneurysm (91 ±30 pg/ml) was not statistically significant. Conclusions No difference in TF level between patients with non-ruptured AAA/IAA and patients with aortic and iliac atherosclerosis without aneurysm indicates that an increased TF plasma level is not specific for any of the above-mentioned vascular pathologies. PMID:24482652

Skora, Jan; Dawiskiba, Tomasz; Zaleska, Patrycja; Kurcz, Jacek; Adamiec, Rajmund; Gosk-Bierska, Izabela

2013-01-01

237

Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This study shows that morphometric analysis of the basins in regional level are very important to understand general morphological characteristics of the basins. In this case, tectonic and lithological conditions of the basins have greatly affected the morphometric characteristics of the north and south basins of the Marmara Sea. References Abrahams, AD. 1984. Channel Networks: A Geomorphological Perspective. Water Resources Research, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 161-188. Horton, R.E. 1932. Drainage basin characteristics. Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361. Keller, E.A., Pinter, N. 2002. Active Tectonics Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Ozdemir H., Bird D. 2009. Evaluation of morphometric parameters of drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in point of floods, Environmental Geology, vol.56, pp.1405-1415. Schumm, S.A. 1956. Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geol Soc Am Bull 67:597-646. Strahler, A.N. 1957. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage and channel networks. In: Chow YT (ed) Handbook of appliecl hydrology. Me Graw Hill Book Company, New York. Verstappen, H.Th. 1983. Applied geomorphology. ITC, Enschede.

Elba??, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

2014-05-01

238

Morphometric Differences Between Golden Redfish (5ebastes marinus) and Beaked Redfishes (5. mentella and 5. fasciatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphometric characters were investigated to provide criteria, in addition to morphological differences that are presently employed, for species identification of Atlantic redfishes (genus Sebastes). The study involved the analysis of morphometric data for a sample of redfish which was collected in the Labrador-Newfoundland region in 1958 and initially separated into two groups (Sebastes marinus and beaked redfish) on the basis

D. J. Power; I-Hsun Ni

239

A FRAMEWORK FOR MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF LONG BONES: APPLICATION TO THE HUMAN CLAVICLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical morphometric analysis is an important tool in computer vision and medical image analysis and it is a difficult and challenging task. We present a computational framework for surface-based morphometric analysis to identify and localize shape differences between groups of 3D elongated objects. We employ the framework to analyze the shape of the human clavicle. The clavicle is a long

T. Huysmans; A. Bernat; R. Pinho; J. Sijbers; F. Van Glabbeeck; P. M. Parizel; H. Bortier

240

Trinomys's ecological life-history and morphological traits: 3D Morphometrical Data Analysis using Wavelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation between morphological or molec- ular descriptors and the evolutive process is one of the main questions in morphometric analysis, which can be addressed in phylogenetic or environ- mental terms. In this context, many works have been presented to the scientific community hav- ing as main key the relation between phenotype and pre-determined time-space conditions. Tradi- tional morphometrics generally

Celina Maki Takemura; Roberto M. Cesar-Jr

241

INFLUENCE OF NUTRITIONAL STRESS AND THE AGE OF ADULTS ON THE MORPHOMETRICS OF HONEY BEES  

E-print Network

INFLUENCE OF NUTRITIONAL STRESS AND THE AGE OF ADULTS ON THE MORPHOMETRICS OF HONEY BEES (APIS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705 **Honey Bee Breeding, Genetics of nutritional stress, and the post-emergence age of adult worker honey bees, on the morphometric determinations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

242

GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRIC APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF SEXUAL SIZE DIMORPHISM IN MAMMALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) has been extensively documented in many organisms, from vascular plants to vertebrates, including mammals. Geometric morphometric methods offer new, powerful tools for the study of SSD. The investigation of shape variability has not been previously pursued in traditional SSD studies and is an unique contribution of geometric morphometrics to this field. The combining of Procrustes methods

CRAIG S. HOOD

2000-01-01

243

Respiration-related control of abdominal motoneurons.  

PubMed

The abdominal muscles form part of the expiratory pump in cooperation with the other expiratory muscles, primarily the internal intercostal and triangularis sterni muscles. The discharge of abdominal muscles is divided into four main patterns: augmenting, plateau, spindle and decrementing. The patterns tend to be species-specific and dependent on the state of the central nervous system. Recent studies suggest that the abdominal muscles are more active than classically thought, even under resting conditions. Expiratory bulbospinal neurons (EBSN) in the caudal ventral respiratory group are the final output pathway to abdominal motoneurons in the spinal cord. Electrophysiological and anatomical studies indicated the excitatory monosynaptic inputs from EBSN to the abdominal motoneurons, although inputs from the propriospinal neurons seemed to be necessary to produce useful motor outputs. Respiration-related sensory modulation of expiratory neurons by vagal afferents that monitor the rate of change of lung volume and the end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) play a crucial role in modulating the drive to the abdominal musculature. Studies using in vitro and in situ preparations of neonatal and juvenile rats show bi-phasic abdominal activity, characterized by bursting at the end of expiration, a silent period during the inspiratory period, and another burst that occurs abruptly after inspiratory termination. Since the abdominal muscles rarely show these post-inspiratory bursts in the adult rat, the organization of the expiratory output pathway must undergo significant development alterations. PMID:21255690

Iizuka, Makito

2011-10-15

244

Infected abdominal sacrocolpopexies: diagnosis and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abdominal sacrocolpopexy is an excellent procedure to surgically treat vaginal vault prolapse. A synthetic graft is often used to support the vaginal apex, but has the potential to become infected or erode, requiring its removal or revision. The purpose of this paper is to report our experience in the management of patients with infected synthetic grafts after abdominal sacrocolpopexy.

T. Fleming Mattox; Edward J. Stanford; E. Varner

2004-01-01

245

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N.; Sepulveda, Antonia; Yu, Hongbo

2009-03-18

246

Morphometric model of lymphocyte as applied to scanning flow cytometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peripheral blood lymphocytes of normal individuals are investigated by methods of specialized light microscopy. Lymphocytes as a whole and T-cell subpopulation are considered. Lymphocyte structure is characterized with reference to polarizing scanning flow cytometry. The lymphocyte and lymphocyte nucleus shapes are analyzed. Linear correlation dependence between sizes of lymphocyte and its nucleus is indicated. A morphometric model of a lymphocyte is constructed using the obtained data. The findings can be used, for instance, as input parameters to solve the direct and inverse light-scattering problems of turbidimetry, nephelometry, and flow cytometry.

Loiko, Valery A.; Ruban, Gennady I.; Gritsai, Olga A.; Gruzdev, Alexey D.; Kosmacheva, Svetlana M.; Goncharova, Natalia V.; Miskevich, Alexander A.

2006-11-01

247

Daily melatonin supplementation in mice increases atherosclerosis in proximal aorta.  

PubMed

Considerable evidence supports the hypothesis that LDL oxidation plays an important role in atherosclerosis. Even though high melatonin doses inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro, the effect of melatonin on atherosclerosis has never been studied. We have demonstrated that the feeding of hypercholesterolemic mice with an atherogenic diet supplemented with melatonin highly increases the surface of atherosclerotic lesions in the proximal aorta. These observations occur without detectable lipidic or glucidic phenotype alteration. Melatonin treatment increased highly the sensitivity of atherogenic lipoprotein to Cu(2+) and gamma-radiolysis generated oxyradical ex vivo oxidation during the fasting period. Moreover, these altered lipoproteins were less recognized by the LDL receptor metabolic pathway of murine fibroblasts while they transferred many more cholesteryl esters to murine macrophages. This study suggests that caution should be taken as regards high melatonin dosage in hypercholesterolemic patients. PMID:12051775

Tailleux, Anne; Torpier, Gérard; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Lestavel, Sophie; Lemdani, Mohamed; Caudeville, Bernadette; Furman, Christophe; Foricher, Rachel; Gardes-Albert, Monique; Lesieur, Daniel; Rolando, Christian; Teissier, Elisabeth; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Clavey, Véronique; Fievet, Catherine; Duriez, Patrick

2002-05-10

248

Abdominal tuberculosis of the gastrointestinal tract: Revisited  

PubMed Central

Abdominal tuberculosis is an increasingly common disease that poses diagnostic challenge, as the nonspecific features of the disease which may lead to diagnostic delays and development of complications. This condition is regarded as a great mimicker of other abdominal pathology. A high index of suspicion is an important factor in early diagnosis. Abdominal involvement may occur in the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lymphnodes or solid viscera. Various investigative methods have been used to aid in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and initiation of antituberculous therapy and surgical treatment are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality. Most of the patients respond very well to standard antitubercular therapy and surgery is required only in a minority of cases. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis because early recognition of this condition is important. We reviewed our experience with the findings on various imaging modalities for diagnosis of this potentially treatable disease.

Debi, Uma; Ravisankar, Vasudevan; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sharma, Arun Kumar

2014-01-01

249

Proteomics Characterization of Extracellular Space Components in the Human Aorta*  

PubMed Central

The vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for the structural integrity of the vessel wall and also serves as a substrate for the binding and retention of secreted products of vascular cells as well as molecules coming from the circulation. Although proteomics has been previously applied to vascular tissues, few studies have specifically targeted the vascular ECM and its associated proteins. Thus, its detailed composition remains to be characterized. In this study, we describe a methodology for the extraction of extracellular proteins from human aortas and their identification by proteomics. The approach is based on (a) effective decellularization to enrich for scarce extracellular proteins, (b) successful solubilization and deglycosylation of ECM proteins, and (c) relative estimation of protein abundance using spectral counting. Our three-step extraction approach resulted in the identification of 103 extracellular proteins of which one-third have never been reported in the proteomics literature of vascular tissues. In particular, three glycoproteins (podocan, sclerostin, and agrin) were identified for the first time in human aortas at the protein level. We also identified extracellular adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1, the cartilage glycoprotein asporin, and a previously hypothetical protein, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) spondin. Moreover, our methodology allowed us to screen for proteolysis in the aortic samples based on the identification of proteolytic enzymes and their corresponding degradation products. For instance, we were able to detect matrix metalloproteinase-9 by mass spectrometry and relate its presence to degradation of fibronectin in a clinical specimen. We expect this proteomics methodology to further our understanding of the composition of the vascular extracellular environment, shed light on ECM remodeling and degradation, and provide insights into important pathological processes, such as plaque rupture, aneurysm formation, and restenosis. PMID:20551380

Didangelos, Athanasios; Yin, Xiaoke; Mandal, Kaushik; Baumert, Mark; Jahangiri, Marjan; Mayr, Manuel

2010-01-01

250

Hydrogen peroxide modulates phenylephrine-induced contractile response in renal hypertensive rat aorta.  

PubMed

Endothelium-derived factors play an important role in vascular tone control. This study aimed to evaluate how endothelium and reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction in renovascular hypertensive (2K-1C) and normotensive (2K) rats aortas. The effects of the superoxide scavenger Tiron (0.1mM and 1mM) or catalase (30 U/ml, 90 U/ml, 150 U/ml and 300 U/ml) on the PE-induced contraction were evaluated in both intact endothelium (E+) and denuded (E-) aortas. Endothelium removal increased the PE-induced contractions. The maximum contractile response decreased only in 2K-1C rat E+ aorta, and catalase (30 U/ml, 90 U/ml, 150 U/ml) partially reversed this effect. Endothelium increased the basal hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in 2K and 2K-1C rats aortas. PE-stimulated H2O2 production was higher in 2K-1C (E+/E-) than in 2K (E+/E-). Inhibition of the enzymes cyclooxygenase, NADPH-oxidase, xanthine-oxidase, and superoxide dismutase reduced the PE-stimulated H2O2 production in 2K-1C rat aorta. The decreased contraction to PE in 2K-1C rat aorta is partially due to endothelial H2O2 production; however, in denuded aorta, it contributes to maintaining the contractile response. Superoxide plays an important role on the PE-induced contraction in 2K rat denuded aorta, whereas in 2K-1C rat aorta, it is H2O2 that plays an important role in this effect. PMID:24091168

Silva, Bruno R; Pernomian, Laena; Grando, Marcella D; Amaral, Jefferson H; Tanus-Santos, José E; Bendhack, Lusiane M

2013-12-01

251

Morphometric Approach to Pulp Fibroblast Development in Tooth Germ  

PubMed Central

This paper builds a morphometric framework for the analysis of dental pulp fibroblast evolution during tooth development. We investigated 15 tooth germs (cases) organized, by histological criteria, in three groups corresponding to cap, early bell, and late bell stages, respectively. Each group comprised five cases. The morphometric description used the following parameters: area (A), perimeter (P)—automatically extracted by a color segmentation technique, and form factor (FF)—calculated as 4?A/P2. The designed framework operated at inter- and intragroup levels. The intergroup analysis quantified the differences between groups, in the sense of a relative distance (RD) adequately defined by mean-value scaling. We showed that the stage of early bell is approximately 5 times closer to late bell than to cap. The quantification procedure required concomitant information about A, P parameters (as P versus A dependences, or FF values), whereas the procedure failed for A or P separately used. The intragroup analysis quantified the similarity of the cases belonging to the same stage. We proved that, unlike the intergroup tests, the individual exploitation of all three descriptors A, P, and FF is effective, yielding highly compatible results. Within any group, most cases presented RDs less than 10% from the group mean value, regardless of the descriptor type. PMID:25057501

Caruntu, Irina-Draga; Savinescu, Sergiu Daniel; Amalinei, Cornelia

2014-01-01

252

Intra-abdominal pressure during swimming.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4?m?·?s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in stroke length by velocity. Significant within-subject correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke rate or stroke length (P < 0.01) were observed, although there were no significant correlations between intra-abdominal pressure and stroke indices when controlling for swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure. PMID:23868677

Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y

2014-02-01

253

Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review  

PubMed Central

Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

2014-01-01

254

Traumatic mesenteric cyst after blunt abdominal trauma  

PubMed Central

Mesenteric cysts are rare abdominal tumors of unclear histologic origin, usually asymptomatic. Post-traumatic mesenteric cyst usually results as a consequence of a mesenteric lymphangitic rupture or a hematoma followed by absorption and cystic degeneration. The preoperative histological and radiological diagnosis is difficult. We present the case of a 45-year-old male patient with sizable, palpable abdominal tumor, the gradual swelling of which the patient himself combined with the blunt abdominal trauma he acquired from an opponent's knee in a football game 5 months ago. PMID:22096714

Falidas, Evangelos; Mathioulakis, Stavros; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Pavlakis, Emmanouil; Anyfantakis, Georgios; Villias, Constantinos

2011-01-01

255

[Abdominal tuberculosis: clinical and therapeutic evaluation].  

PubMed

In this paper we present our experience concerning abdominal tuberculosis. The aim of this study is to evaluate various methods and to establish therapeutic approach to patients with abdominal tuberculosis. There were six patients (3 males and 3 females), aged between 22 and 67 years old, such as: 2 patients developed peritoneal tuberculosis, 3 patients developed intestinal tuberculosis and one patient developed mesenteric lymph node tuberculosis. We concluded that early diagnosis is often impossible and laboratory report was non-specific. Because surgical treatment in abdominal tuberculosis was made in complicate forms, we concluded that enterostomy "a minima" is the best therapeutic method. PMID:15675286

Me?in?, C; Pa?alega, M; Vâlcea, D; Vasile, I

2004-01-01

256

Laparoscopic approach for an intra-abdominal kidney allograft nephrectomy after pediatric transplantation: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of minimally invasive nephrectomy of a kidney transplanted into the abdominal cavity in a child. A 15-year-old girl underwent transplantation with a cadaveric donor kidney due to congenital pyelonephritis, vesicoureteral reflux, and secondary bladder atrophy. The transplant was complicated by hyperacute rejection, cytomegalovirus infection, and anastomotic stenosis of the Bricker neobladder. After recurrent urinary tract infections, the patient was reintroduced to hemodialysis in 2010. After pneumo-peritoneum, we placed 2 10-mm trocars in the hypochondrium and left side and 2 5-mm in the left iliac fossa and right upper quadrant. The transplanted kidney was skeletonized, the artery and vein were cut to the end-to-side anastomoses to the juxta-renal aorta and cava using an automatic 35-mm, stapler, and the ureter was dissected and closed with clips. Via a Pfannestiel minilaparotomy we extracted the allograft. The patient was discharged on the third postoperative day. After 4 months of follow-up, she is alive an on dialysis. Laparoscopic nephrectomy of a kidney transplanted into the abdominal cavity is feasible and safe in centers with skilled minimally invasive techniques. PMID:22974901

Pagano, D; Cintorino, D; Li Petri, S; di Francesco, F; Ricotta, C; Argento, J; Echeverri, G J; Bertani, T; Riva, S; Gridelli, B G; Spada, M

2012-09-01

257

Chronic Contained Rupture of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: From Diagnosis to Endovascular Resolution  

SciTech Connect

A male patient, 69 years old, presented with fever, leucocytosis, and persistent low back pain; he also had an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), as previously diagnosed by Doppler UltraSound (US), and was admitted to our hospital. On multislice computed tomography (msCT), a large abdominal mass having no definite border and involving the aorta and both of the psoas muscles was seen. This mass involved the forth-lumbar vertebra with lysis, thus simulating AAA rupture into a paraspinal collection; it was initially considered a paraspinal abscess. After magnetic resonance imaging examination and culture of the fluid aspirated from the mass, no infective organisms were found; therefore, a diagnosisof chronically contained AAA rupture was made, and an aortic endoprosthesis was subsequently implanted. The patient was discharged with decreased lumbar pain. At 12-month follow-up, no evidence of leakage was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of endoprosthesis implantation in a patient, who was a poor candidate for surgical intervention due to renal failure, leucocytosis and high fever, having a chronically contained AAA ruptured simulatingspodilodiscitis abscess. Appropriate diagnosis and therapy resolved potentially crippling pathology and avoided surgical graft-related complications.

Gandini, Roberto, E-mail: marcello.chiocchi@fastwebnet.it; Chiocchi, Marcello; Maresca, Luciano; Pipitone, Vincenzo; Messina, Massimo; Simonetti, Giovanni [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy (Italy)

2008-07-15

258

[Subrenal abdominal aortic aneurysms--critical analysis of deteriorating medico-social problem].  

PubMed

An analysis of patients that have been accepted at the Dept. of vascular surgery, Higher Medical Institute of Plovdiv, Bulgaria, is presented. The number of patients with subrenal abdominal aortic aneurysm for a period of ten years is 201. Most of the patients are with the symptoms of AAA-163, there are 33 with rupture of the aneurysm and 5 with aneurysm for which there were no symptoms. Eighty of the patients have been operated--resection of abdominal aorta with replacement. 72.5% of the patients left the hospital with normal preoperative condition and without any complications. Post-operative mortality is as follows: when there were no symptoms it was 0%, when there were symptoms it was 5.66%; when there was rupture it was 39.2%. Patients that have lived longer than 5 years are 68%. The data from our own research is compared to the data found in the literature. No matter the good outcomes some critical conclusions may be made. The number of patients accepted at the hospital is not real and is far under the real number, what is more--the patients are accepted with an advanced disease. Smarter decisions should be taken by the authorities. PMID:15704761

Zhelev, D; Anastasov, V

2004-01-01

259

Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibition Attenuates Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression in Hyperlipidemic Mice  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a chronic inflammatory disease that increase the risk of life-threatening aortic rupture. In humans, AAAs have been characterized by increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and the inactivation of COX-2 prior to disease initiation reduces AAA incidence in a mouse model of the disease. The current study examined the effectiveness of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition on reducing AAA progression when administered after the initiation of AAA formation. AAAs were induced in hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by chronic angiotensin II (AngII) infusion and the effect of treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib was examined when initiated at different stages of the disease. Celecoxib treatment that was started 1 week after initiating AngII infusion reduced AAA incidence by 61% and significantly decreased AAA severity. Mice treated with celecoxib also showed significantly reduced aortic rupture and mortality. Treatment with celecoxib that was started at a late stage of AAA development also significantly reduced AAA incidence and severity. Celecoxib treatment significantly increased smooth muscle alpha-actin expression in the abdominal aorta and did not reduce expression of markers of macrophage-dependent inflammation. These findings indicate that COX-2 inhibitor treatment initiated after formation of AngII-induced AAAs effectively reduces progression of the disease in hyperlipidemic mice. PMID:23209546

Ghoshal, Sarbani; Loftin, Charles D.

2012-01-01

260

The Benefits of Internal Thoracic Artery Catheterization in Patients With Chronic Abdominal Aortic Occlusion  

SciTech Connect

Occlusion of the abdominal aorta may be caused by an embolic lesion, but more commonly by thrombotic disease at the aortoiliac area, progressing retrograde. However, the visualization of the distal run-off via internal thoracic-epigastric inferior artery collateral channel may be a very important diagnostic tool, especially in countries with poor technical equipment. This study was designed to show the benefit of the selective internal thoracic angiography in cases with complete aortic occlusion. We present 30 patients with chronic aortic abdominal occlusion who were submitted to the transaxillary aortography and selective ITA angiography with purpose of distal run off evaluation. Angiographic evaluation was performed by two independent radiologists according to previously defined classification. Good angiographic score via internal thoracic angiography by first observer was achieved in 19 (63.3%) patients and in 18 (60%) by a second observer. Transaxillary aortography showed inferior results: good angiographic score by the first observer in six (20%) patients and by the second observer in three (3%) patients. Low extremity run-off is better visualized during internal thoracic angiography than during transaxillary aortography.

Ilic, Nikola, E-mail: fosafosa75@yahoo.com; Davidovic, Lazar; Koncar, Igor; Dragas, Marko; Markovic, Miroslav; Colic, Momcilo; Cinara, Ilijas [Clinical Center Serbia, Clinic of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Serbia)

2011-04-15

261

Abdominal surgery. [Radiology, screening techniques  

SciTech Connect

A new art of ''interventional radiology'' has been developed in the past few years. Major applications include postoperative instrumentation of the biliary tract, percutaneous biliary drainage, tumor biopsy, abscess drainage, and intestinal-intubation procedures. Intervention by angiography encompasses injection of such substances as Pitressin (vasopressin), and embolization. These procedures have been of immense value. Fortunately, complications, such as sepsis and bleeding, have been infrequent. Computerized body tomography has also proved extremely important, particularly in the diagnosis of subphrenic abscess and pancreatic and pelvic pathology. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled-erythrocyte scans can be used to detect gastrointestinal bleeding sites. Scans can also identify hepatobiliary disease and splenic injury or differentiate the cause of jaundice. /sup 111/Indium-labeled autologous leukocytes may be useful in differentiating a pancreatic abscess from a pseudocyst. The advantage of indium scans over /sup 67/Ga scans is that a shorter time is required for maximum resolution: gallium requires 48 hours, indium 4. Another advantage is that indium is cleared through the liver and spleen and is not secreted into the bowel. /sup 67/Ga is absorbed by lymphomas and hepatocarcinomas. Nuclear magnetic resonance has many possible uses in abdominal surgery, but so far little information is available. This technique has been used to detect an empyema of the gallbladder that was not diagnosed by ultrasound. Among hepatic lesions, it can easily differentiate tumors from cysts and in that regard is superior to both ultrasound and scan. (JMT)

Welch, C.E.; Malt, R.A.

1983-03-31

262

Regional flood susceptibility analysis in mountainous areas through the use of morphometric and land cover indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A classification of susceptibility to flooding of 106 mountain watersheds was carried out in Bogotá (Colombia) through the use of an index composed of a morphometric indicator and a land cover indicator. Susceptibility was considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flows. Morphological variables recognised in literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows were used to construct the morphometric indicator by applying principal component analysis. Subsequently, this indicator was compared with the results of debris flow propagation to assess its capacity in indentifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation of debris flows was carried out using the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the slope-area curve of the watersheds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped in four categories: size, shape, hypsometry and energy, with energy being the component that best explains the capability of a watershed to transport debris flows. However, the morphometric indicator was found to not sufficiently explain the records of past floods in the study area. Combining the morphometric indicator with land cover indicators improved the agreement, showing that even if morphometric parameters identify a high disposition to the occurrence of debris flow, improving land cover can reduce the susceptibility. On the contrary, if good morphometric conditions are present but deterioration of the land cover in the watershed takes place then the susceptibility to debris flow events increases.

Rogelis, M. C.; Werner, M.

2013-12-01

263

Stereological analysis of the tunica media of the aorta and renal artery during the development of hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.  

PubMed Central

The relationship between the arterial blood pressure and the composition of the tunica media in spontaneously hypertensive, Wistar-America and Wistar-Kyoto rats was examined. The systolic blood pressure of the spontaneously hypertensive rat, measured through an intra-arterial cannula, was significantly higher than that of the controls from 5 weeks and became hypertensive by 18 weeks of age. However, the content of the tunica media of the abdominal aortal and renal artery of the spontaneously hypertensive rats, as revealed by EM stereological analysis, and measurements of the thickness of the wall and diameter of the lumen, were not significantly different from the controls, at least up to the age of 18 weeks. The result of the present investigation suggests that the elevation of arterial blood pressure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat during the first 18 weeks of postnatal development is not a result of stereologically detectable changes in the composition of the tunica media of the abdominal aorta and renal artery. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7333958

Pang, S C; Scott, T M

1981-01-01

264

Type A quadricuspid aortic valve and ascending aorta aneurysm: a rare combination.  

PubMed

Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare congenital anomaly associated with aortic valve insufficiency and significant morbidity, and requires the replacement or, rarely, the repair of the malfunctioning heart valve. A QAV associated with an ascending aorta aneurysm is an extremely rare anatomic combination with a hypothetical, but not clear, shared embryological etiology. To date, only two cases of type B QAV with ascending aorta aneurysm have been reported. Herein is described the first ever case of a 38-year-old male suffering from severe symptomatic aortic valve regurgitation due to a type A QAV, associated with an ascending aorta aneurism, who underwent a successful combined replacement of the aortic valve and ascending aorta. PMID:22655506

Ferrari, Enrico; Marcucci, Carlo; Roumy, Aurelien; von Segesser, Ludwig Karl

2011-11-01

265

The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1993-01-01

266

Abdominal imaging in zinc phosphide poisoning.  

PubMed

Radiography has been proved to be a good diagnostic tool in visualization of many radiopaque xenobiotics in clinical toxicology. Zinc is a potentially radiopaque material which is a constituent of the zinc phosphide (ZN2P3) rodenticide. We report two cases of zinc phosphide poisoning with positive abdominal X-rays in whom the diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal imaging. Positive abdominal imaging was an indication for aggressive management; however, aggressive treatment was not lifesaving in one of them. We aim to emphasize the diagnostic value of abdominal X-rays in zinc phosphide-poisoned patients. We also would like to suggest that zinc phosphide (ZP)-poisoned patients with positive X-rays have more chance to become unstable even if they are symptom free on presentation and should be more aggressively managed. PMID:24477450

Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shahnazi, Makhtoom; Zamani, Nasim; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

2014-06-01

267

Intra-abdominal actinomycetoma in a cat.  

PubMed

A 5-year-old, female Ragdoll cat was diagnosed with an intra-abdominal mycetoma involving the ileocaecal region. Diagnosis was obtained via histopathological examination following surgical resection of the mass and an ileocolic anastomosis. The initial surgery was complicated by lymphangiectasia, chylous abdominal effusion and mild bacterial leakage from the anastomosis site. A second, exploratory laparotomy was performed to augment the anastomosis with serosal patching and omentalisation and to investigate a cystic structure observed on follow-up abdominal ultrasound. Initial amoxycillin clavulanate (Clavulox; Pfizer Animal Health) therapy was ineffective, but clindamycin (Antirobe; Pfizer Animal Health) proved successful in resolving the infection. Abdominal actinomycetoma in the cat may be an under-diagnosed condition due to its close resemblance to neoplastic disease. Standard diagnostic and therapeutic regimens are commonly ineffective in Actinomyces species infections. Surgical resection along with adjunctive, long-term, selective antimicrobial therapy is effective and prognosis is good for localised lesions. PMID:19181557

Sharman, Mellora J; Goh, Clara S; Kuipers von Lande, Richard G; Hodgson, Jennifer L

2009-08-01

268

Understanding noninguinal abdominal hernias in the athlete.  

PubMed

Abdominal hernias are common with over 20 million hernia repairs performed worldwide. Inguinal hernias are the most common type of hernia. Inguinal and sports hernia have been discussed at length in recent literature, and therefore, they will not be addressed in this article. The noninguinal hernias are much less common but do occur, and knowledge of these hernias is important when assessing the athlete with abdominal pain. Approximately 25% of abdominal wall hernias are noninguinal, and new data show the order of frequency as umbilical, epigastric, incisional, femoral, and all others (i.e., Spigelian, obturator, traumatic). Return-to-play guidelines need to be tailored to the athlete and the needs of their sport. Using guidelines similar to abdominal strain injuries can be a starting point for the treatment plan. Laparoscopic repair is becoming more popular because of safety and efficacy, and it may lead to a more rapid return to play. PMID:24614421

Cabry, Robert J; Thorell, Erik; Heck, Keith; Hong, Eugene; Berkson, David

2014-01-01

269

Ruptured Sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm and Coarctation of Aorta in a Woman at Early Postpartum Period  

PubMed Central

Coarctation of aorta and sinus of Valsalva aneurysm are frequently missed congenital cardiac defects that their diagnosis might be delayed. To our knowledge, coincidence of these cardiac defects is unusual and has not been reported in the literature before. Here, we present a patient with coarctation of aorta and ruptured noncoronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm leading to aorto-right atrial fistula in the early postpartum period and our management of this unusual case. PMID:24715919

Sener, Erol; Kucuker, Aslihan; Kurt, Kadir; Uguz, Emrah; Saglam, Muhammed Fethi

2014-01-01

270

Mycotic aneurysm complicating a covered stent implanted for coarctation of the aorta in a child.  

PubMed

A mycotic aneurysm associated with a covered stent in the thoracic aorta of a 12-year-old child was successfully managed by excision and replacement with aortic homograft. On follow-up, there was unobstructed flow through the homograft. This case highlights the need for high index of suspicion for mycotic aneurysm and prompt surgical intervention in children with coarctation of aorta who present with features of infective endocarditis. PMID:23804874

Sridhar, Anuradha; Tripathi, Ravi Ranjan; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Subramanyan, Raghavan; Vaijyanath, Prashanth; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen

2012-07-01

271

Effect of non-Newtonian and pulsatile blood flow on mass transport in the human aorta.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of both non-Newtonian behavior and the pulsation of blood flow on the distributions of luminal surface LDL concentration and oxygen flux along the wall of the human aorta, we numerically compared a non-Newtonian model with the Newtonian one under both steady flow and in vivo pulsatile flow conditions using a human aorta model constructed from MRI images. The results showed that under steady flow conditions, although the shear thinning non-Newtonian nature of blood could elevate wall shear stress (WSS) in most regions of the aorta, especially areas with low WSS, it had little effect on luminal surface LDL concentration (c(w)) in most regions of the aorta. Nevertheless, it could significantly enhance c(w) in areas with high luminal surface LDL concentration through the shear dependent diffusivity of LDLs. For oxygen transport, the shear thinning non-Newtonian nature of blood could slightly reduce oxygen flux in most regions of the aorta, but this effect became much more apparent in areas with already low oxygen flux. The pulsation of blood flow could significantly reduce c(w) and enhance oxygen flux in these disturbed places. In most other regions of the aorta, the oxygen flux was also significantly higher than that for the steady flow simulation. In conclusion, the shear shining non-Newtonian nature of blood has little effect on LDL and oxygen transport in most regions of the aorta, but in the atherogenic-prone areas where luminal surface LDL concentration is high and oxygen flux is low, its effect is apparent. Similar is for the effect of pulsatile flow on the transport of LDLs. But, the pulsation of blood flow can apparently affect oxygen flux in the aorta, especially in areas with low oxygen flux. PMID:21310418

Liu, Xiao; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Xiaoyan; Zhan, Fan

2011-04-01

272

Effect of valve orientation on flow development past aortic valve prostheses in a model human aorta.  

PubMed

The effect of valve orientation on flow development in a model human aorta was studied by means of a qualitative flow visualization technique. The model replicated the geometry of the human aorta and the experiment simulated a physiologically realistic pulsatile flow. The following valves were studied: Starr-Edwards Stellite, Starr-Edwards silicone, Björk-Shiley spherical disc, Björk-Shiley convexo-concave disc, and Hall-Kaster tilting disc. All the valves had a tissue anulus diameter of 27 mm. With the ball-in-cage valves, the flow in the ascending aorta was predominantly axial and uniform throughout systole, while vortex formation was observed downstream from the ball. With the tilting disc valves, the flow development in the aorta was a function of the orientation of the valves. With the major flow orifice directed toward the commissure between the right and noncoronary cusps, the fluid motion was predominantly in the axial direction through early systole. A vortex developed along the wall of lesser curvature of the aorta with the progression of systole. In early diastole, a well-defined flow reversal was observed along the lesser curvature of the aorta. With the major flow orifice directed toward the left coronary cusp, the fluid motion, although predominantly axial, was not uniform in the ascending aorta. Regions of relative stasis present near the wall of greater curvature subsequently developed into a trapped vortex throughout the cardiac cycle. With the major flow orifice directed more posteriorly, an improved fluid dynamic characteristic was observed, and there was no trapped vortex present near the wall of greater curvature. The flow visualization study in the model human aorta suggests that, from a fluid dynamic point of view, orientation of the major flow orifice of the tilting disc valve toward the wall of lesser curvature is not advisable. PMID:6855259

Chandran, K B; Khalighi, B; Chen, C J; Falsetti, H L; Yearwood, T L; Hiratzka, L F

1983-06-01

273

Aortic Valve Replacement Using Balloon Catheter for Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair to Patient with Calcified Aorta  

PubMed Central

A 79-year-old man was admitted to Samsung Changwon Hospital due to chest pain and dyspnea. The ejection fraction was 31% and mean pressure gradient between the left ventricle and aorta was 69.4 mmHg on echocardiography. Chest computed tomography showed severe calcification of the ascending aorta. Aortic valve replacement was successfully performed using a thoracic endovascular aortic repair balloon catheter without classic aortic cross clamping. The patient was discharged on the eleventh postoperative day. PMID:23772410

Kim, In Sook; Yoo, Byung Ha; Kim, Han Yong; Hwang, Sang Won; Song, Yun Gyu

2013-01-01

274

Correlation between intra-abdominal pressure and pulmonary volumes after superior and inferior abdominal surgery  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing abdominal surgery are at risk for pulmonary complications. The principal cause of postoperative pulmonary complications is a significant reduction in pulmonary volumes (FEV1 and FVC) to approximately 65-70% of the predicted value. Another frequent occurrence after abdominal surgery is increased intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study was to correlate changes in pulmonary volumes with the values of intra-abdominal pressure after abdominal surgery, according to the surgical incision in the abdomen (superior or inferior). METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 60 patients who underwent elective open abdominal surgery with a surgical time greater than 240 minutes. Patients were evaluated before surgery and on the 3rd postoperative day. Spirometry was assessed by maximal respiratory maneuvers and flow-volume curves. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured in the postoperative period using the bladder technique. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 56±13 years, and 41.6% 25 were female; 50 patients (83.3%) had malignant disease. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical incision (superior or inferior). The lung volumes in the preoperative period showed no abnormalities. After surgery, there was a significant reduction in both FEV1 (1.6±0.6 L) and FVC (2.0±0.7 L) with maintenance of FEV1/FVC of 0.8±0.2 in both groups. The maximum intra-abdominal pressure values were similar (p?=?0.59) for the two groups. There was no association between pulmonary volumes and intra-abdominal pressure measured in any of the groups analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that superior and inferior abdominal surgery determines hypoventilation, unrelated to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Patients at high risk of pulmonary complications should receive respiratory care even if undergoing inferior abdominal surgery. PMID:25029580

de Cleva, Roberto; de Assumpcao, Marianna Siqueira; Sasaya, Flavia; Chaves, Natalia Zuniaga; Santo, Marco Aurelio; Flo, Claudia; Lunardi, Adriana C.; Filho, Wilson Jacob

2014-01-01

275

A focus on intra-abdominal infections  

PubMed Central

Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as immunodeficiency and prolonged antibacterial exposure. Therapy should focus on the obtainment of adequate source control and adequate use of antimicrobial therapy dictated by individual patient risk factors. Other critical issues remain debated and more controversies are still open mainly because of the limited number of randomized controlled trials. PMID:20302628

2010-01-01

276

Laparoscopic-assisted abdominal aortic aneurysmectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The technical elements and early results of laparoscopic-assisted abdominal aortic aneurysmectomy are described. Methods: From February 1997 to May 1999, 60 patients underwent elective laparoscopic surgery for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. Patients ranged in age from 53 to 87 years (mean age, 70.6 years). The mean aneurysm size was 5.7 cm (range, 4.4-8.0 cm). All patients underwent aortography and

John J. Castronuovo; Kevin V. James; Michael Resnikoff; Edward R. McLean; John K. Edoga

2000-01-01

277

Fluid Dynamics of Coarctation of the Aorta and Effect of Bicuspid Aortic Valve  

PubMed Central

Up to 80% of patients with coarctation of the aorta (COA) have a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Patients with COA and BAV have elevated risks of aortic complications despite successful surgical repair. The development of such complications involves the interplay between the mechanical forces applied on the artery and the biological processes occurring at the cellular level. The focus of this study is on hemodynamic modifications induced in the aorta in the presence of a COA and a BAV. For this purpose, numerical investigations and magnetic resonance imaging measurements were conducted with different configurations: (1) normal: normal aorta and normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: aorta with COA (75% reduction by area) and normal aortic valve; (3) complex COA: aorta with the same severity of COA (75% reduction by area) and BAV. The results show that the coexistence of COA and BAV significantly alters blood flow in the aorta with a significant increase in the maximal velocity, secondary flow, pressure loss, time-averaged wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index downstream of the COA. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of why patients with complex COA have adverse outcome even following a successful surgery. PMID:24015239

Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Kadem, Lyes

2013-01-01

278

Genes and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Since first candidate gene studies were published 20 years ago, nearly 100 genetic association studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biologically relevant genes have been reported on AAA. The studies investigated SNPs in genes of the extracellular matrix, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and signaling pathways. Very few studies were large enough to draw firm conclusions and very few results could be replicated in another sample set. The more recent unbiased approaches are family-based DNA linkage studies and genome-wide genetic association studies, which have the potential of identifying the genetic basis for AAA, if appropriately powered and well-characterized large AAA cohorts are used. SNPs associated with AAA have already been identified in these large multicenter studies. One significant association was of a variant in a gene called CNTN3 which is located on chromosome 3p12.3. Two follow-up studies, however, could not replicate the association. Two other SNPs, which are located on chromosome 9p21 and 9q33 were replicated in other samples. The two genes with the strongest supporting evidence of contribution to the genetic risk for AAA are the CDKN2BAS gene, also known as ANRIL, which encodes an antisense RNA that regulates expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival. Functional studies are now needed to establish the mechanisms by which these genes contribute to AAA pathogenesis. PMID:21146954

Hinterseher, Irene; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

2010-01-01

279

Mechanisms and management of functional abdominal pain.  

PubMed

Functional abdominal pain syndrome is characterised by frequent or continuous abdominal pain associated with a degree of loss of daily activity. It has a reported population prevalence of between 0.5% and 1.7%, with a female preponderance. The pathophysiology of functional abdominal pain is incompletely understood although it has been postulated that peripheral sensitisation of visceral afferents, central sensitisation of the spinal dorsal horn and aberrancies within descending modulatory systems may have an important role. The management of patients with functional abdominal pain requires a tailored multidisciplinary approach in a supportive and empathetic environment in order to develop an effective therapeutic relationship. Patient education directed towards an explanation of the pathophysiology of functional abdominal pain is in our opinion a prerequisite step and provides the rationale for the introduction of interventions. Interventions can usefully be categorised into general measures, pharmacotherapy, psychological interventions and 'step-up' treatments. Pharmacotherapeutic/step-up options include tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors and the gabapentinoids. Psychological treatments include cognitive behavioural therapy and hypnotherapy. However, the objective evidence base for these interventions is largely derived from other chronic pain syndrome, and further research is warranted in adult patients with functional abdominal pain. PMID:25193056

Farmer, Adam D; Aziz, Qasim

2014-09-01

280

Morphometrics and adaptatives aspects in africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

The introduction of the African bees (Apis mellifera scutelata) in Brazil and their expansion in the American Continent created the opportunity to study the process of species adaptation in a new environment. In that process, within intra-specific variability, normalising selection can favour individuals that present a better adaptative morphology and they will constitute the most frequent type found in the population. To test that hypothesis morphometric analyses in samples of colonies of africanized bees and in samples of the populations were performed. The development of the colonies was also evaluated in terms of the amount of their brood, honey and pollen. Analysis of the data indicates that more developed colonies are formed by individuals closer to the population average with concerning morphological traits. PMID:10959115

Oliveira; Brandeburgo; Marcolino

2000-05-01

281

[Morphometric vectorial method of analysis of the frontal sinuses].  

PubMed

The frontal sinuses are pneumatic cavities located in the thickness of the squama frontalis, which communicate with the nasal cavity through the frontonasal duct. These cavities develop by the pneumatisation extent of some anterior ethmoidal cells. Morphologically, there is a large variability of the frontal sinus shape, size and extent, the position of the intersinusal septum, the existence and number of intrasinusal septa. There exist morphologically atypical frontal sinuses as: uni- or bilateral frontal sinuses aplasia, supernumerary sinuses, great extent of the cavities. Paranasal sinuses can be explored by different methods, but the most accessible and easy to perform is conventional radiological imaging. The radiographs can be morphometrically assessed in order to prove the individuality of these air cavities. PMID:18508402

Iordan, A; Ulmeanu, D

2008-03-01

282

Geometric morphometrics of the skull of Tinamidae (Aves, Palaeognathae).  

PubMed

The Tinamidae comprise exclusively Neotropical palaegnathous birds, with homogeneous body morphology and no sexual dimorphism. The goal of this work was to explore the variation in skull morphology between taxa and its possible correspondence with features such as diet or gender using geometric morphometric tools. Eleven landmarks were analyzed in 53 skulls of 4 genera that inhabit grasslands: Nothoprocta, Eudromia, Nothura and Rhynchotus. Intrageneric and intergeneric variability was analyzed. The genera studied here can be distinguished based on the geometric shape of their skull, with prenarial region length and neurocranium shape as the most outstanding features. In the genus Eudromia, males and females could be differentiated, while in the genus Nothoprocta, the species differentiated according to their trophic habits. This study allows establishing that genera and, in some cases, the gender of the Tinamidae can be differentiated based on cranial shape. PMID:21115291

Degrange, Federico J; Picasso, Mariana B J

2010-12-01

283

Allopurinol prevents nitroglycerin-induced tolerance in rat thoracic aorta.  

PubMed

Xanthine oxidase is an important source of reactive oxygen species; so, it may play a role in the pathogenesis of endothelium dysfunction and its consequences. Allopurinol, a purine analog, is a famous xanthine oxidase inhibitor. This study aimed to investigate possible effects of allopurinol on nitroglycerin tolerance, vasoconstriction, and vasorelaxation in rat aortic ring. Using thoracic aortic rings obtained from male Wistar rats, the effect of allopurinol was examined on nitroglycerin-induced tolerance. In addition, changes of vasoconstriction (by using KCl and phenylephrine) and vasorelaxation (by using carbachol, sodium nitroprusside, and nitroglycerin) were also measured and compared between tissues treated with and without allopurinol. All 3 concentrations of allopurinol (50, 100, and 150 ?M) significantly acted against the development of nitroglycerin-induced tolerance in comparison with controls. In terms of vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation, the effect of allopurinol was significant only on carbachol-induced (endothelium related) vasorelaxation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, although allopurinol had no significant effect on the contractile response of the aorta, in accord with the previous data, it significantly intensified endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The inhibitory effect of allopurinol against the development of nitrate-induced tolerance may suggest its clinical benefit and is worth to be studied more extensively. PMID:24126565

Azarmi, Yadollah; Babaei, Hossein; Alizadeh, Fatemeh; Gharebageri, Afsaneh; Fouladi, Daniel F; Nikkhah, Elhameh

2014-02-01

284

Phorbol ester and spontaneous activity in SHR aorta  

SciTech Connect

Thoracic aortas (TA) were excised from 6-week old SHR and WKY. 2mm rings were mounted isometrically at optimum preload. Spontaneous rhythmical activity developed in TA from SHR and had a frequency of 3-4/min with varying periods of quiescence between bursts of activity. The spontaneous activity often produced an increase in tension development which was associated with increased frequency of oscillations. Verapamil (10/sup -7/ M) or Ca/sup + +/-free solution added during the contractile phase resulted in an immediate loss of tension and spontaneous activity. Addition of ouabain (10/sup -4/ M) during the contractile phase of spontaneous activity, increased the frequency of oscillations which appeared to fuse into a tetanus. Spontaneous rhythmical activity was infrequently observed in TA from WKY. However, addition of phorbol 12-myristate-13 acetate (TPA), frequently induced spontaneous rhythmic oscillations associated with tension development in TA from WKY. TPA contracted the SHR TA and increased the frequency of oscillations. SHR TA were more sensitive to TPA than WKY. This study demonstrates (1) spontaneous rhythmical activity, independent of agonist stimulation in TA from 6-week old SHR and (2) TPA induced spontaneous oscillatory activity. The mechanism underlying the spontaneous oscillatory activity may involve membrane coupling events and Na-pump difference between SHR and WKY.

Moisey, D.M.; Cox, R.H.

1986-03-01

285

Hemodynamic Predictors of Atherosclerosis in the Thoracic Aorta.  

PubMed

We sought to identify atherosclerotic plaques and measured flow parameters in the descending aorta (DA) of 83 consecutive patients (40 years and older) studied with transesophageal echocardiography. Patients with atherosclerotic plaques in the DA were older (68 +/- 10 vs 58 +/- 12 years [P = 0.0001]), had a higher proportion of spontaneous echo contrast in the DA (15/46 [33%] vs 3 of 37 [8%] P = 0.02), had larger aortic diameters (2.52 +/- 0.35 vs 2.37 +/- 0.36 cm [P = 0.06]), had a lower maximal velocity in the DA (54.2 +/- 21.5 vs 73.8 +/- 33.0 cm/sec [P = 0.02]), and had a lower calculated maximal shear rate (SR) (88.0 +/- 37.6 vs 129.0 +/- 67.0 sec(-1) [P = 0.002]). There was no significant difference between groups with respect to sex, hypertension, diabetes, total cholesterol, and smoking. In multivariate analysis only age (P = 0.002) and maximal SR (P = 0.03) were identified as independent predictors of atherosclerosis in the DA. We conclude that low SR is associated with aortic atherosclerosis. PMID:11175024

Sukernik, Mikhail R.; West, Oscar D.; Chittivelu, Babu; Vanderbush, Eric J.; Francis, Charles K.

1998-02-01

286

Hemodynamic correlates of spontaneous echo contrast in the descending aorta.  

PubMed

To identify the hemodynamic association of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) in the descending aorta (DA), we measured aortic flow parameters in 102 consecutive patients studied with transesophageal echocardiography. SEC in the DA was identified in 19 of 102 patients (19%). Patients with SEC in the DA were older (67 +/- 9 vs 57 +/- 17 years; p = 0.001), had a higher proportion of chronic atrial arrhythmia (13 of 19 vs 11 of 83; p = 0.000001), and had a higher frequency of decreased left ventricular performance (10 of 19 vs 19 of 83; p = 0.01). Patients with SEC in the DA had larger aortic diameters (2.9 +/- 0.5 vs 2.3 +/- 0.4 cm; p = 0.0001), lower maximal velocity in the DA (42.6 +/- 12.8 vs 75.6 +/- 34.4 cm/s; p = 0.0001), and lower maximal shear rate (61.6 +/- 20.3 vs 139.9 +/- 78.8 s-1; p = 0.0001). There was no difference in volumetric flow in the DA between groups. In multivariate analysis, only arrhythmia (p = 0.008) and maximal shear rate (p = 0.002) were identified as significant independent predictors of SEC in the DA. We conclude that SEC in the DA is related to chronic atrial arrhythmia and shear rate but not to volumetric flow. PMID:8546089

Sukernik, M R; West, O; Lawal, O; Chittivelu, B; Henderson, R; Sherzoy, A A; Vanderbush, E J; Francis, C K

1996-01-15

287

Effect of coarctation of the aorta and bicuspid aortic valve on flow dynamics and turbulence in the aorta using particle image velocimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood flow in the aorta has been of particular interest from both fluid dynamics and physiology perspectives. Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a congenital heart disease corresponding to a severe narrowing in the aortic arch. Up to 85 % of patients with COA have a pathological aortic valve, leading to a narrowing at the valve level. The aim of the present work was to advance the state of understanding of flow through a COA to investigate how narrowing in the aorta (COA) affects the characteristics of the velocity field and, in particular, turbulence development. For this purpose, particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted at physiological flow and pressure conditions, with three different aorta configurations: (1) normal case: normal aorta + normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + normal aortic valve and (3) complex COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + pathological aortic valve. Viscous shear stress (VSS), representing the physical shear stress, Reynolds shear stress (RSS), representing the turbulent shear stress, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), representing the intensity of fluctuations in the fluid flow environment, were calculated for all cases. Results show that, compared with a healthy aorta, the instantaneous velocity streamlines and vortices were deeply changed in the presence of the COA. The normal aorta did not display any regions of elevated VSS, RSS and TKE at any moment of the cardiac cycle. The magnitudes of these parameters were elevated for both isolated COA and complex COA, with their maximum values mainly being located inside the eccentric jet downstream of the COA. However, the presence of a pathologic aortic valve, in complex COA, amplifies VSS (e.g., average absolute peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 36 N/m2; isolated COA = 19 N/m2), RSS (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 84.6 N/m2; isolated COA = 44 N/m2) and TKE (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 215 N/m2; isolated COA = 100 N/m2). This demonstrates that the pathological aortic valve strongly interacts with the COA. Findings of this study indicate that the presence of both a COA and a pathological aortic valve significantly alters hemodynamics in the aorta and thus might contribute to the progression of the disease in this region. This study can partially explain the complications associated in patients with COA, in the presence of a pathological aortic valve and the consequent adverse outcome post-surgery.

Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Gaillard, Emmanuel; Maftoon, Nima; Di Labbio, Giuseppe; Cloutier, Guy; Kadem, Lyes

2014-03-01

288

THE INFLUENCE OF FRESHWATER RUNOFF ON BIOMASS, MORPHOMETRICS, AND PRODUCTION OF THALASSIA TESTUDINUM. (R827453)  

EPA Science Inventory

Efforts to restore more natural freshwater flows in South Florida will impact Biscayne Bay. In order to evaluate possible effects of decreased freshwater discharge on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum , we determined the biomass, density, morphometrics (width, length, nu...

289

Morphology and morphometrics of hematological cells from eastern sarus crane, Grus antigone sharpii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of the eastern sarus crane (Grus antigone sharpii) has been greatly reduced both in distribution and number, and documents presenting the blood cell characteristics and morphometric\\u000a data of blood cells in this kind of bird are limited. The objective of this study was to examine the morphometric and morphological\\u000a aspects of the blood cells of the eastern sarus

N.-A. Narkkong; Worapol Aengwanich; A. Tanomthong

2011-01-01

290

Morphometric sex determination of young Ospreys Pandion haliaetus using discriminant analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule Discriminant functions based on morphometric variables provide a reliable method for sex identification of free?living and hacked young Ospreys.Aims To describe an easy, accurate and low?cost method for sex determination of fully grown nestling and fledgling Ospreys Pandion haliaetus based on morphometric measurements.Methods Four different measurements were taken in 114 birds (40–73 days old) and a DNA analysis, using

Roberto Muriel; Eva Casado; Daniel Schmidt; Cecilia P. Calabuig; Miguel Ferrer

2010-01-01

291

Different Long-Term Outcomes of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and Intracranial Aneurysm Models: Hemodynamic Change may also Play an Essential Role in the Initiation and Progression of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Rabbits.  

PubMed

Self-healing phenomenon was found in the periarterial elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in rabbit. This kind of aneurysm model does not progress and heals spontaneously in the long term, which is quite different from the performance of AAA disease in human. In order to better mimic human AAA and overcome this shortcoming of traditional AAA model in rabbit, we studied the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysm (CA) model in small animal, which shows an excellent long-term patency and progressive enlargement. We found that hemodynamic conditions, such as turbulence flow, high blood flow, and shear stress, play an important role in the formation and progression of CA. So, we hypothesize that hemodynamic change may also play an essential role in the initiation and progression of rabbit AAA, and self-healing will be overcome if hemodynamic condition changes by coarctation of infra-renal aorta after elastase incubation. PMID:24801772

Bi, Yonghua; Han, Xinwei; Zhong, Hongshan; Xu, Ke; Qi, Xun; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Weixiao

2014-11-01

292

Endovascular Stenting for Unsuccessful Angioplasty of the Aorta in Aortoarteritis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The efficacy and safety of endovascular stent implantation to correct dissection or a suboptimal result after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was evaluated in patients suffering from aortic stenosis due to aortoarteritis. Methods: Twelve children and young adults [aged (mean {+-} SD) 18.2 {+-} 8.7 years] underwent stent implantation after PTA of the aorta, seven for obstructive dissection, four for ineffective balloon dilatation, and one for recurrent restenosis. Nine patients underwent implantation of self-expandable stents and three received balloon-expandable Palmaz stents. Results: Stent implantation could be successfully performed in all 12 patients. After stent implantation, the peak systolic pressure gradient decreased from 91 {+-} 33.5 mmHg to 12.4 {+-} 12.5 mmHg (p < 0.001). The diameter of the stenosed segment increased from 4.6 {+-} 0.8 mm to 11.1 {+-} 1.9 mm (p < 0.001). The dissection was completely covered in all seven patients with dissection. Except for epigastric pain with vomiting in one patient, there was no complication. On follow-up, over 12-57 months (mean 26.8 {+-} 10.8 months), 11 patients (91.6%) had marked improvement in their blood pressure. Patients with congestive heart failure and claudication also showed improvement. Repeat catheterization in five patients, between 6-30 months (mean 16.8 {+-} 9.1 months) after stent implantation, showed sustained improvement in four and a fusiform, long segment, intrastent restenosis after 30 months in one child. The stenosis was safely redilated. Conclusion: Endovascular aortic stent implantation is safe and provides good immediate relief in patients with unsatisfactory results after balloon angioplasty. Improvement is sustained in most patients on intermediate-term follow-up.

Tyagi, Sanjay; Kaul, Upkar A.; Arora, Ramesh [Department of Cardiology, G. B. Pant Hospital and Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi 110002 (India)

1999-11-15

293

Jejunal perforation caused by abdominal angiostrongyliasis.  

PubMed

The authors describe a case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in an adult patient presenting acute abdominal pain caused by jejunal perforation. The case was unusual, as this affliction habitually involves the terminal ileum, appendix, cecum or ascending colon. The disease is caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis, whose definitive hosts are forest rodents while snails and slugs are its intermediate hosts. Infection in humans is accidental and occurs via the ingestion of snail or slug mucoid secretions found on vegetables, or by direct contact with the mucus. Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is clinically characterized by prolonged fever, anorexia, abdominal pain in the right-lower quadrant, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Although usually of a benign nature, its course may evolve to more complicated forms such as intestinal obstruction or perforation likely to require a surgical approach. Currently, no efficient medication for the treatment of abdominal angiostrongyliasis is known to be available. In this study, the authors provide a review on the subject, considering its etiopathogeny, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:10602548

Waisberg, J; Corsi, C E; Rebelo, M V; Vieira, V T; Bromberg, S H; dos Santos, P A; Monteiro, R

1999-01-01

294

Postoperative abdominal complications after cardiopulmonary bypass  

PubMed Central

Background To summarize the diagnostic and therapeutic experiences on the patients who suffered abdominal complications after cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB). Methods A total of 2349 consecutive patients submitted to cardiovascular surgery with CPB in our hospital from Jan 2004 to Dec 2010 were involved. The clinical data of any abdominal complication, including its incidence, characters, relative risks, diagnostic measures, medical or surgical management and mortality, was retrospectively analyzed. Results Of all the patients, 33(1.4%) developed abdominal complications postoperatively, including 11(33.3%) cases of paralytic ileus, 9(27.3%) of gastrointestinal haemorrhage, 2(6.1%) of gastroduodenal ulcer perforation, 2(6.1%) of acute calculus cholecystitis, 3(9.1%) of acute acalculus cholecystitis, 4(12.1%) of hepatic dysfunction and 2(6.1%) of ischemia bowel diseases. Of the 33 patients, 26 (78.8%) accepted medical treatment and 7 (21.2%) underwent subsequent surgical intervention. There were 5(15.2%) deaths in this series, which was significantly higher than the overall mortality (2.7%). Positive history of peptic ulcer, advanced ages, bad heart function, preoperative IABP support, prolonged CPB time, low cardiac output and prolonged mechanical ventilation are the risk factors of abdominal complications. Conclusions Abdominal complications after cardiovascular surgery with CPB have a low incidence but a higher mortality. Early detection and prompt appropriate intervention are essential for the outcome of the patients. PMID:23046511

2012-01-01

295

Current Evidence and Insights about Genetics in Thoracic Aorta Disease  

PubMed Central

Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also sporadic forms have been found to be potentially associated with genetic disorders, as highlighted by the analysis of rare variants and expression of specific microRNAs. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive review of the role of genetic causes in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms, by analyzing in detail the current evidence of genetic alterations in syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehler-Danlos, familial or sporadic forms, or forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve. PMID:24453931

Muneretto, Claudio

2013-01-01

296

Transverse abdominal plane neurostimulation for chronic abdominal pain: a novel technique.  

PubMed

Management of chronic abdominal pain can be challenging. Sometimes patients fail to get adequate response from multiple medications and nerve blocks. We present a patient case report of chronic abdominal pain with a history of multiple surgeries managed successfully by neuromodulation of the transverse abdominis plane (TAP). The TAP block is a procedure in which local anesthetic is injected into the abdominal fascial plane that carries sensory nerves to the abdominal wall in order to block pain sensation. It has been shown to reduce postoperative pain and analgesic dependence after abdominal and gynecological surgeries. A 60-year-old woman presented to us for chronic abdominal pain for which medications provided little relief. She had an extensive history of abdominal surgeries and was also treated for lower back pain with surgery and less invasive procedures in the past. Under our care, she underwent 2 TAP blocks with almost complete resolution of her abdominal pain. Her pain, however, came back within a few of weeks of the procedures. Since our patient found pain relief from the TAP blocks, we proceeded with neurostimulation of the TAP for long-term pain relief. We placed a dorsal column stimulator 16 contact lead for lower back and leg pain and 8 contact leads placed in the TAP under ultrasound guidance. She has had multiple follow-ups since her TAP lead placement procedure with continued and near complete resolution of her abdominal pain. The TAP lead stimulation was helping her abdominal pain and the dorsal column lead stimulation was helping her back and leg pain. PMID:25247911

Gupta, Mayank; Goodson, Robert

2014-01-01

297

Quantitative expression and localization of cysteine and aspartic proteases in human abdominal aortic aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Cysteine and aspartic proteases possess high elastolytic activity and might contribute to the degradation of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall. The aim of this study was to analyze, in detail, the proteases (cathepsins B, D, K, L and S, and inhibitor cystatin C) found in human AAA and healthy aortic tissue samples. The vessel walls from AAA patients (n=36) and nonaneurysmal aortae (n=10) were retrieved using conventional surgical repair and autopsy methods. Serum samples from the same AAA patients and 10 healthy volunteers were also collected. Quantitative expression analyses were performed at the mRNA level using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT–PCR). Furthermore, analyses at the protein level included western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses. Cellular sources of cysteine/aspartic proteases and cystatin C were identified by immunohistochemistry (IHC). All cysteine/aspartic proteases and cystatin C were detected in the AAA and control samples. Using quantitative RT–PCR, a significant increase in expression was observed for cathepsins B (P=0.021) and L (P=0.018), compared with the controls. Cathepsin B and cystatin C were also detected in the serum of AAA patients. Using IHC, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and macrophages were positive for all of the tested cathepsins, as well as cystatin C; in addition, the lymphocytes were mainly positive for cathepsin B, followed by cathepsins D and S. All cysteine/aspartic proteases analyzed in our study were detected in the AAA and healthy aorta. The highest expression was found in macrophages and SMCs. Consequently, cysteine/aspartic proteases might play a substantial role in AAA. PMID:24833013

Lohoefer, Fabian; Reeps, Christian; Lipp, Christina; Rudelius, Martina; Haertl, Felix; Matevossian, Edouard; Zernecke, Alma; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Pelisek, Jaroslav

2014-01-01

298

Spontaneous hemopneumothorax simulating acute abdominal affections.  

PubMed

Spontaneous hemopneumothorax (SHP) is a rare potentially life-threatening condition that occurs in predominantly young adolescents. The resultant massive hemorrhage leading to hypovolemic shock can be a surgical emergency. It constitutes 1-12% of all spontaneous pneumothoraces and presents with two cardinal features, chest pain and dyspnea. However, the pain of SHP may be confined to the abdomen secondary to the irritation of diaphragmatic pleura, which produces signs simulating an acute abdomen. SHP masquerading as an abdominal affection is apparently regarded as extremely rare. We present a case of a 16-year-old male with SHP presenting features simulating acute gallbladder disease. After prompt diagnosis with appropriate surgical intervention, he had an uneventful recovery. Our experience emphasizes the importance of careful and thorough chest examination for each child with atypical pictures for abdominal pain to exclude possible extra-abdominal lesions, even rare as SHP. PMID:23169600

Chen, Tai-Heng; Tseng, Yung-Hao; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Chiang, Hung-Hsing; Lin, Tzeng-Jih

2014-01-01

299

Morphometric analysis of sinkholes in a karst coastal area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salento, the southern portion of Apulia region (SE Italy) is a narrow and elongated peninsula in carbonate rocks, with prevailing low coastlines, locally interrupted by high rock cliffs. The long stretches of low coasts are marked by typical karst landforms consisting of collapse sinkholes. These are locally designated with the dialectal term "spunnulate" (deriving from the verb "spunnare", which means to break, to sink; PARISE et al., 2003). As observed in many other karst coastal settings worldwide (FORTH et al., 1999), development of sinkholes may be particularly severe along the coast, where both natural and anthropogenic processes contribute to accelerate the dissolution of carbonate rocks and subsidence processes, influencing the coastline evolution. Following a previous study, where the main features of sinkholes at Torre Castiglione (Taranto province) were investigated and described, and a preliminary susceptibility map produced (BRUNO et al., 2008), in the present paper we perform a detailed morphometric analysis on the sample of identified sinkholes. The main morphometric parameters generally used for sinkhole characterization have been considered in this study: shape of the sinkhole, azimuth and length of major and minimum axes, depth, elongation ratio, distance from the shorelines. Each of them is described, both as individual parameter and in conjunction with the others, in the attempt to identify the main factors controlling development of sinkholes in the area, and their evolution as well. As regards this latter aspect, beside simple morphometry of the sample of sinkholes at Torre Castiglione, we also focused our attention on the likely relationships existing between distribution and shape of the sinkholes and the tectonic discontinuities. The role played by discontinuities in controlling both distribution and evolution of sinkholes has been pointed out by several authors (WHITE & WHITE, 1987; DENIZMAN, 2003; FLOREA, 2005). To investigate the matter, a three-stage analysis has been carried out in this study by means of: field measurements of the fractures bounding the sinkholes; field measurement of the long axes azimuth of the elongated sinkholes; comparison of the previously described sets with the strikes of the main regional geological structures. Eventually, the approach here presented may be applied in other karst coastal sinkhole-prone areas, to gain new knowledge on the genesis and evolution of coastal sinkholes, and to properly evaluate the hazard they pose to the anthropogenic environment.

Basso, A.; Bruno, E.; Parise, M.; Pepe, M.

2012-04-01

300

Morphometric characterization of microglial phenotypes in human cerebral cortex  

PubMed Central

Background Microglia can adopt different morphologies, ranging from a highly ramified to an amoeboid-like phenotype. Although morphological properties of microglia have been described in rodents, little is known about their fine features in humans. The aim of this study was to characterize the morphometric properties of human microglia in gray and white matter of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), a region implicated in behavioral adaptation to neuroinflammation. These properties were compared to those of murine microglia in order to gain a better appreciation of the differences displayed by these cells across species. Methods Postmortem dACC samples were analyzed from 11 individuals having died suddenly without any history of neuroinflammatory, neurodegenerative, nor psychiatric illness. Tissues were sectioned and immunostained for the macrophage marker Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA1). Randomly selected IBA1-immunoreactive (IBA1-IR) cells displaying features corresponding to commonly accepted microglial phenotypes (ramified, primed, reactive, amoeboid) were reconstructed in 3D and all aspects of their morphologies quantified using the Neurolucida software. The relative abundance of each morphological phenotype was also assessed. Furthermore, adult mouse brains were similarly immunostained, and IBA1-IR cells in cingulate cortex were compared to those scrutinized in human dACC. Results In human cortical gray and white matter, all microglial phenotypes were observed in significant proportions. Compared to ramified, primed microglia presented an average 2.5 fold increase in cell body size, with almost no differences in branching patterns. When compared to the primed microglia, which projected an average of six primary processes, the reactive and amoeboid phenotypes displayed fewer processes and branching points, or no processes at all. In contrast, the majority of microglial cells in adult mouse cortex were highly ramified. This was also the case following a postmortem interval of 43 hours. Interestingly, the morphology of ramified microglia was strikingly similar between species. Conclusions This study provides fundamental information on the morphological features of microglia in the normal adult human cerebral cortex. These morphometric data will be useful for future studies of microglial morphology in various illnesses. Furthermore, this first direct comparison of human and mouse microglia reveals that these brain cells are morphologically similar across species, suggesting highly conserved functions. PMID:24447857

2014-01-01

301

Use of cardiovascular computed tomography in the diagnosis and management of coarctation of the aorta.  

PubMed

Coarctation of the aorta is a common malformation accounting for 5% to 8% of all congenital heart defects. Although echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging are most frequently used in the diagnosis and management of coarctation of the aorta, the role of multidetector computed tomography in congenital heart defects has been expanding and its use has been increasing over the last few years. Multidetector computed tomography with its high spatial and temporal resolution, multiplanar reconstruction capabilities, and wide field of view is an excellent tool for the detection and characterization of coarctation of the aorta, and the identification of associated anomalies of the heart and pulmonary vasculature. It is particularly useful and indicated in patients with contraindications for cardiac magnetic resonance (eg, patients with aortic or coronary artery stents, pacemakers or implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and mechanical heart valves). Knowledge of the cardiac computed tomography appearance of coarctation of the aorta and associated abnormalities is critical for accurate diagnosis and management, which includes providing information to plan surgical or percutaneous therapy. We present various forms of coarctation of the aorta on cardiac computed tomography. PMID:23395099

Budoff, Matthew J; Shittu, Adekunle; Roy, Sion

2013-07-01

302

Polydimethylsiloxane embedded mouse aorta ex vivo perfusion model: proof-of-concept study focusing on atherosclerosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing mouse artery ex vivo perfusion models have utilized arteries such as carotid, uterine, and mesenteric arteries, but not the aorta. However, the aorta is the principal vessel analyzed for atherosclerosis studies in vivo. We have devised a mouse aorta ex vivo perfusion model that can bridge this gap. Aortas from apoE(-/-) mice are embedded in a transparent, gas-permeable, and elastic polymer matrix [polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)] and artificially perfused with cell culture medium under cell culture conditions. After 24 h of artificial ex vivo perfusion, no evidence of cellular apoptosis is detected. Utilizing a standard confocal microscope, it is possible to image specific receptor targeting of cells in atherosclerotic plaques during 24 h. Imaging motion artifacts are minimal due to the polymer matrix embedding. Re-embedding of the aorta enables tissue sectioning and immuno-histochemical analysis. The ex vivo data are validated by comparison with in vivo experiments. This model can save animal lives via production of multiple endpoints in a single experiment, is easy to apply, and enables straightforward comparability with pre-existing atherosclerosis in vivo data. It is suited to investigate atherosclerotic disease in particular and vascular biology in general.

Wang, Xueya; Wolf, Marc P.; Keel, Rahel Bänziger; Lehner, Roman; Hunziker, Patrick R.

2012-07-01

303

Composition of proteoglycans in the aortas of copper-deficient rats  

SciTech Connect

Copper deficiency adversely affects the extracellular matrix of the arterial wall, leading to cardiovascular lesions. To study the lesions resulting from copper deficiency, the composition of proteoglycans from aortas of copper-deficient rats was compared with proteoglycans of aortas from copper-supplemented rats. Copper deficiency in rats was verified by copper levels in adrenal glands (mean {plus minus} SE, 0.37 {plus minus} 0.07 vs 1.03 {plus minus} 0.17 {mu}g/g wet wt in supplemented rats). Total uronate in the aortas from copper-deficient rats was 25% greater than in aortas from copper-supplemented rats, and the proteoglycans from copper-deficient rat aortas were of greater molecular size. Among the glycosaminoglycans the concentration ({mu}g/mg tissue) of isomeric chondroitin sulfates, particularly dermatan sulfate, was greater in copper-deficient animals than in copper-supplemented animals. These observations are similar to earlier findings in experimental atherosclerosis and to a response of cardiovascular connective tissue to injury.

Radhakrishnamurthy, B.; Ruiz, H.; Dalferes, E.R. Jr.; Klevay, L.M. (Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans (USA)); Berenson, G. (Department of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (USA))

1989-01-01

304

An abdominal extraskeletal osteosarcoma: A case report  

PubMed Central

Primary abdominal extraskeletal osteosarcoma (EOS) is a rare carcinoma. The present study reports a case of a primary abdominal EOS involving the greater omentum and also presents a review of the literature on the etiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, pathological features, treatment and prognosis of the disease. The patient in the present study underwent laparoscopic surgery. A pathological examination revealed that the tumor tissues contained malignant and primitive spindle cells with varying amounts of neoplastic osteoid and osseous or cartilaginous tissue. The post-operative follow-up appointments were scheduled at three-month intervals for two years. The tumor recurred three months after the surgery. PMID:24137451

WU, ZHIMING; CHU, XIUFENG; MENG, XINGCHENG; XU, CHAOYANG

2013-01-01

305

Morphometric Changes of the Corpus Callosum in Congenital Blindness  

PubMed Central

We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender. There was no overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus callosum are in line with the well-described cross-modal functional and structural neuroplastic changes in congenital blindness. PMID:25255324

Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D. Louis; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Sartori, Giuseppe; Pietrini, Pietro; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

2014-01-01

306

Morphometric Analysis of Anguina amsinckiae from Three Host Species  

PubMed Central

Amsinckia species (fiddleneck) in the South Coast Ranges of California were surveyed to determine if any of the 12 different California species of Amsinckia are hosts of the nematode, Anguina amsinckiae (Steiner and Scott, 1935) Thorne, 1961. Previously only Amsinckia intermedia Fischer and Meyer was reported as a host of Anguina amsinckiae. The survey established that there are at least two additional hosts of Anguina amsinckiae: Amsinckia lycopsoides Lehmann and Amsinckia gloriosa Suksdorf. Seven sites containing nematode-infected Amsinckia plants were discovered. Every site contained two or more species of Amsinckia; however, only one site contained more than one species of Amsinckia that was galled. Nematode specimens from A. intermedia, A. lycopsoides, and A. gloriosa were used in a morphometric analysis of 14 morphological variables. Stepwise discriminant analysis of the variables to separate the populations by host were successful for females, and the pairwise F-tests showed all three populations to have different group means (P < 0.05). Males from the three hosts were not always separable, however, as only the nematodes from Amsinckia gloriosa had a different group mean (P < 0.05). PMID:19290124

Pantone, Dan James; Griesbach, John A.; Maggenti, A. R.

1987-01-01

307

Morphometric Analysis of Anguina amsinckiae from Three Host Species.  

PubMed

Amsinckia species (fiddleneck) in the South Coast Ranges of California were surveyed to determine if any of the 12 different California species of Amsinckia are hosts of the nematode, Anguina amsinckiae (Steiner and Scott, 1935) Thorne, 1961. Previously only Amsinckia intermedia Fischer and Meyer was reported as a host of Anguina amsinckiae. The survey established that there are at least two additional hosts of Anguina amsinckiae: Amsinckia lycopsoides Lehmann and Amsinckia gloriosa Suksdorf. Seven sites containing nematode-infected Amsinckia plants were discovered. Every site contained two or more species of Amsinckia; however, only one site contained more than one species of Amsinckia that was galled. Nematode specimens from A. intermedia, A. lycopsoides, and A. gloriosa were used in a morphometric analysis of 14 morphological variables. Stepwise discriminant analysis of the variables to separate the populations by host were successful for females, and the pairwise F-tests showed all three populations to have different group means (P < 0.05). Males from the three hosts were not always separable, however, as only the nematodes from Amsinckia gloriosa had a different group mean (P < 0.05). PMID:19290124

Pantone, D J; Griesbach, J A; Maggenti, A R

1987-04-01

308

Functional Morphometric Analysis of the Furcula in Mesozoic Birds  

PubMed Central

The furcula displays enormous morphological and structural diversity. Acting as an important origin for flight muscles involved in the downstroke, the form of this element has been shown to vary with flight mode. This study seeks to clarify the strength of this form-function relationship through the use of eigenshape morphometric analysis coupled with recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs), including phylogenetic Flexible Discriminant Analysis (pFDA). Additionally, the morphospace derived from the furculae of extant birds is used to shed light on possible flight adaptations of Mesozoic fossil taxa. While broad conclusions of earlier work are supported (U-shaped furculae are associated with soaring, strong anteroposterior curvature with wing-propelled diving), correlations between form and function do not appear to be so clear-cut, likely due to the significantly larger dataset and wider spectrum of flight modes sampled here. Interclavicular angle is an even more powerful discriminator of flight mode than curvature, and is positively correlated with body size. With the exception of the close relatives of modern birds, the ornithuromorphs, Mesozoic taxa tend to occupy unique regions of morphospace, and thus may have either evolved unfamiliar flight styles or have arrived at similar styles through divergent musculoskeletal configurations. PMID:22666324

Close, Roger A.; Rayfield, Emily J.

2012-01-01

309

Does geometric morphometrics serve the needs of plasticity research?  

PubMed

The study of human craniofacial variation exemplifies general problems associated with the analysis of morphological plasticity that owe to the dependence of results on the methods by which phenotypic variation is quantified. We suggest a definition of plasticity that does not subordinate the developmental to the evolutionary: A process model in which changes are not a function of any mean or average, but only of the current state. Geometric morphometrics, a toolkit for assessing and visualizing biological form and its covariates, avoids some of the traditional pitfalls by focusing directly on the analysis of the two- and three-dimensional coordinates of anatomical landmarks. We discuss its potential relevance to phenotypic and developmental plasticity research, as well as some of its limitations, and demonstrate two useful analyses: assessment of asymmetry, and appraisal of integration. We itemize some of our previous studies on causes (inbreeding, environmental circumstances, etc.) and consequences (attractiveness perception) of asymmetry in humans, present some findings relating to the impact of sex on shape, and speculate about the adaptive relevance of one of these processes in particular. A closing argument points out that such considerations are possible only because of the careful separation of assumptions from empirical evidence entailed in the course of this type of data analysis. PMID:19920343

Schaefer, Katrin; Bookstein, Fred L

2009-10-01

310

Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in aneurysmatic thoracic aortas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomographic images of ascending thoracic human aortas from aneurysms exhibit disorders on the smooth muscle cell structure of the media layer of the aortic vessel as well as elastin degradation. Ex-vivo measurements of human samples provide results that correlate with pathologist diagnosis in aneurysmatic and control aortas. The observed disorders are studied as possible hallmarks for aneurysm diagnosis. To this end, the backscattering profile along the vessel thickness has been evaluated by fitting its decay against two different models, a third order polynomial fitting and an exponential fitting. The discontinuities present on the vessel wall on aneurysmatic aortas are slightly better identified with the exponential approach. Aneurysmatic aortic walls present uneven reflectivity decay when compared with healthy vessels. The fitting error has revealed as the most favorable indicator for aneurysm diagnosis as it provides a measure of how uniform is the decay along the vessel thickness.

Real, Eusebio; Eguizabal, Alma; Pontón, Alejandro; Val-Bernal, J. Fernando; Mayorga, Marta; Revuelta, José M.; López-Higuera, José; Conde, Olga M.

2013-06-01

311

FSI analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta. The FSI is handled with the sequentially-coupled arterial FSI technique. The fluid mechanics equations are solved with the ST-VMS method, which is the variational multiscale version of the deforming-spatial-domain/stabilized space-time (DSD/SST) method. We focus on the relationship between the centerline geometry of the aorta and the flow field, which influences the wall shear stress distribution. The centerlines of the aorta models we use in our analysis are extracted from the CT scans, and we assume a constant diameter. Torsion-free model geometries are generated by projecting the original centerline to its averaged plane of curvature. The flow fields for the original and projected geometries are compared to examine the influence of the torsion.

Suito, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Kenji; Huynh, Viet Q. H.; Sze, Daniel; Ueda, Takuya

2014-10-01

312

[Mechanisms of NO-dependent relaxation in smooth muscles of the rat aorta with nitro compounds].  

PubMed

The membrane potential and smooth muscle tension in rat aorta were studied by the method of sucrose gap junction. It was found that sodium nitroprusside and nitroglycerin produced a dose-dependent membrane repolarization and smooth muscle cell relaxation in rat aorta preliminarily contracted and depolarized by hyperpotassium (40 mM) or phenylephrine solutions. The relaxation effect of sodium nitroprusside was more pronounced on the phenylephrine background. The effect of nitroglycerin showed a different kinetics in time and led to the tolerance development. The effects of both nitro compounds were inhibited by pretreatment with Methylene Blue or potassium channel blockers. It is suggested that nitro vasodilators are involved in the NO-dependent processes in smooth muscle cells of aorta through cGMP-mediated activation of the potassium conductivity and by changing the efficiency of operation of the protein kinase C branch of the Ca2+ signal system. PMID:11558436

Kovalev, I V; Popov, A G; Panov, A A; Borodin, Iu L; Afinogenova, Ia D; Kapilevich, L V; Baskakov, M B; Medvedev, M A

2001-01-01

313

Delayed retrograde type A aortic dissection after endografting of descending thoracic aorta.  

PubMed

We report a case of a delayed retrograde dissection occurred after endovascular repair of ruptured type B aortic dissection. A 75-year-old male, presented with acute hemothorax and aortic arch fissuration. He was successfully treated with descending aorta and aortic arch stenting. After six days, he developed retrograde type A dissection with aortic root involvement and aortic valve incompetence. The entire ascending aorta and the ventral part of the arch were successfully replaced by a composite graft; in addition, aortic valve was replaced with prosthesis. Patient had an uncomplicated course and radiologic follow-up at one month revealed a sealed fissuration and no signs of endoleak. Endovascular repair of acute ruptured aorta, although life saving may be associated with potentially lethal complications, and it requires close monitoring with prolonged hospital stay to recognize and treat promptly these fatal complications. PMID:21485604

Tiwari, K K; Mariani, M; Murzi, M; Glauber, M

2010-01-01

314

Tuberculous Aortitis Complicated with Pseudoaneurysm Formation in the Descending Thoracic Aorta: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A 51-year-old male with sustained fever was diagnosed with military tuberculosis and tuberculous aortitis complicated with pseudoaneurysm formation at the proximal descending aorta. A follow-up computed tomography evaluation showed an increased size of the pseudoaneurysm in this area, suggestive of a contained rupture. Consequently, the patient underwent emergency excision and replacement of the aorta using a left heart bypass. The patient was discharged without postoperative complications on post-operative day 12. During the one-year follow-up period, the patient was free of any complications or recurrence of tuberculosis. We report a case of pseudoaneurysm of the descending aorta that was successfully surgically repaired. PMID:23275925

Seo, Dong Ju

2012-01-01

315

FSI analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta. The FSI is handled with the sequentially-coupled arterial FSI technique. The fluid mechanics equations are solved with the ST-VMS method, which is the variational multiscale version of the deforming-spatial-domain/stabilized space-time (DSD/SST) method. We focus on the relationship between the centerline geometry of the aorta and the flow field, which influences the wall shear stress distribution. The centerlines of the aorta models we use in our analysis are extracted from the CT scans, and we assume a constant diameter. Torsion-free model geometries are generated by projecting the original centerline to its averaged plane of curvature. The flow fields for the original and projected geometries are compared to examine the influence of the torsion.

Suito, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Kenji; Huynh, Viet Q. H.; Sze, Daniel; Ueda, Takuya

2014-04-01

316

Ovariectomy Increases the Participation of Hyperpolarizing Mechanisms in the Relaxation of Rat Aorta  

PubMed Central

This study examines the downstream NO release pathway and the contribution of different vasodilator mediators in the acetylcholine-induced response in rat aorta 5-months after the loss of ovarian function. Aortic segments from ovariectomized and control female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to measure: the levels of superoxide anion, the superoxide dismutases (SODs) activity, the cGMP formation, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) activity and the involvement of NO, cGMP, hydrogen peroxide and hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the ACh-induced relaxation. The results showed that ovariectomy did not alter ACh-induced relaxation; incubation with L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor, decreased the ACh-induced response to a lesser extent in aorta from ovariectomized than from control rats, while ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, decreased that response to a similar extent; the blockade of hyperpolarizing mechanisms, by precontracting arteries with KCl, decreased the ACh-induced response to a greater extent in aortas from ovariectomized than those from control rats; catalase, that decomposes hydrogen peroxide, decreased the ACh-induced response only in aorta from ovariectomized rats. In addition, ovariectomy increased superoxide anion levels and SODs activity, decreased cGMP formation and increased PKG activity. Despite the increased superoxide anion and decreased cGMP in aorta from ovariectomized rats, ACh-induced relaxation is maintained by the existence of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in which hydrogen peroxide participates. The greater contribution of hydrogen peroxide in ACh-induced relaxation is due to increased SOD activity, in an attempt to compensate for increased superoxide anion formation. Increased PKG activity could represent a redundant mechanism to ensure vasodilator function in the aorta of ovariectomized rats. PMID:24058477

Sagredo, Ana; del Campo, Lara; Martorell, Aina; Navarro, Rocio; Martin, Maria C.; Blanco-Rivero, Javier; Ferrer, Mercedes

2013-01-01

317

Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.  

PubMed

Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation. PMID:19767790

Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

2009-08-01

318

Embarazo abdominal secundario tras una esterilización tubárica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ectopic pregnancy appears in the 10-12% of cases after tubal sterilization and it is usually located in the tube. 1% of ectopic pregnancies are abdominal and the implantation in omentum is a rare condition with only 16 described cases. According to Studdiford, they can be classified as primary or secondary depending on whether they are originated or not in

Elena M. Losa Pajares; Marco A. Arones Collantes; Leyre Gil Martínez-Acacio; Alejandro Pascual Martín; Vicente Almodóvar Rico; Gaspar González de Merlo

2007-01-01

319

Pathophysiology and epidemiology of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are found in up to 8% of men aged >65 years, yet usually remain asymptomatic until they rupture. Rupture of an AAA and its associated catastrophic physiological insult carries overall mortality in excess of 80%, and 2% of all deaths are AAA-related. Pathologically, AAAs are associated with inflammation, smooth muscle cell apoptosis, and matrix degradation. Once

Ian M. Nordon; Robert J. Hinchliffe; Ian M. Loftus; Matt M. Thompson

2010-01-01

320

Abdominal Adhesion Prevention: Still a Sticky Subject?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Adhesion formation remains an almost inevitable consequence of abdominal procedures, potentially resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. There is an ongoing need to evaluate current understanding of adhesion formation and products aimed at prevention. Failure to keep up to date with adhesion treatment may subject clinicians to a greater medico-legal risk. Design: Review of published studies exploring the problem

Chris I. W. Lauder; Giuseppe Garcea; Andrew Strickland; Guy J. Maddern

2010-01-01

321

by Abdominal Obesity versus Overall Obesity  

E-print Network

?The authors have no financial conflicts of interest. Purpose: This research compares the predictive value of the abdominal obesity indicator, waist circumference (WC), and the overall obesity indicator, body mass index (BMI), among men and women with regard to type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This study used data collected from 4,400 households selected by a stratified multistage probability sampling method during the 2001 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The final study sample included 4,684 subjects over 30 years of age who had completed the health examination required for the analysis of the health interview and health behavior surveys. Results: Both men and women showed significant differences in fasting blood glucose (FBG) or HbA1c levels based on abdominal obesity irrespective of BMI. However, the presence of overall obesity among men with abdominal obesity was not significantly correlated with FBG or HbA1c levels, while the presence of overall obesity among women with abdominal obesity was significantly different in

Kyung-won Paek; Ki-hong Chun

2010-01-01

322

Subarachnoid Fluid Lactate and Paraplegia after Descending Aorta Aneurysmectomy: Two Compared Case Reports  

PubMed Central

We report a comparison of two cases regarding subjects who underwent thoracoabdominal aorta aneurysmectomy. During the procedure we monitored cerebrospinal fluid lactate concentration. One patient experienced postoperative paraplegia and his cerebrospinal fluid lactate concentration was much higher than that in the other case, whose postoperative outcome was uneventful. Consequently we consider that monitoring the lactate concentration in cerebrospinal fluid during thoracic aorta surgical procedures may be a helpful tool to predict the ischemic spine-cord injury allowing for trying to recover it precociously. PMID:24198975

Malossini, Silvia Eleonora; Pellegrino, Francesco; Cancellieri, Franco

2013-01-01

323

Vasoactive effects of aqueous extracts from five Mexican medicinal plants on isolated rat aorta.  

PubMed

The present investigation describes the effects of aqueous extracts from Chiranthodendron pentadactylon flowers, Galphimia glauca leaves and flowers, Ipomoea stans roots, Juglans regia leaves and Taxodium mucronatum aerial parts on isolated rat thoracic aorta precontracted by noradrenaline (NA). In all cases, the aqueous extracts (0.5-12 mg/ml) significantly inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the maximal contractile response induced by NA in rat aorta. The most active extract was that of G. glauca flowers. These findings indicate that the active principle(s) present in the crude extracts can exert a vasorelaxant effect. PMID:7475125

Perusquía, M; Mendoza, S; Bye, R; Linares, E; Mata, R

1995-04-01

324

[Total arch replacement for spontaneous rupture of the thoracic aorta;report of a case].  

PubMed

A 75-year-old man without history of trauma and aortic aneurysm presented with chest discomfort. A computed tomography (CT) revealed massive mediastinal hematoma without intimal flap in the aorta. Under hypothermic circulatory arrest, total arch replacement was performed. A transmural tear was found just distal to the left subclavian artery. Aortic dissection was not found macroscopically. When we encounter massive hematoma in the anterior mediastinum or the left thoracic cavity, spontaneous rupture of the thoracic aorta should be suspected, and emergency operation should be performed via optimal surgical approach. PMID:23023549

Sasaki, Hideki; Takayanagi, Yuki; Uematsu, Keigo; Yamada, Yukiko; Isshiki, Shingo; Tominaga, Takashi; Ishitoya, Hiroshi; Hiratani, Katsuhiko

2012-10-01

325

Single origin of right and left pulmonary arteries from ascending aorta, with main pulmonary artery from right ventricle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously undescribed anomaly is presented in which right and left pulmonary arteries arise via a single vessel from the ascending aorta while the main pulmonary artery arises normally from the right ventricle. This main pulmonary artery has no branches supplying the lungs and connects via a ductus arteriosus to the descending aorta. Additional anomalies were an atrial septal defect

A Beitzke; E A Shinebourne

1980-01-01

326

Endovascular management of traumatic ruptures of the thoracic aorta: A retrospective multicenter analysis of 28 cases in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Minimally invasive endovascular treatment of a traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta is a new strategy in the care of multitrauma patients. We report the experience in The Netherlands with endovascular management of patients with acute traumatic ruptures of the thoracic aorta. Methods. We reviewed 28 patients with a traumatic thoracic aortic rupture treated with a thoracic aortic endograft

Liselot L. Hoornweg; Maarten K. Dinkelman; J. Carel Goslings; Jim A. Reekers; Hence J. M. Verhagen; Eric L. Verhoeven; Geert Willem H. Schurink; Ron Balm

2006-01-01

327

Combined Two-Photon Luminescence Microscopy and OCT for Macrophage Detection in the Hypercholesterolemic Rabbit Aorta Using Plasmonic Gold Nanorose  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives The macrophage is an important early cellular marker related to risk of future rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Two-channel two-photon luminescence (TPL) microscopy combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to detect, and further characterize the distribution of aorta-based macrophages using plasmonic gold nanorose as an imaging contrast agent. Study Design/Materials and Methods Nanorose uptake by macrophages was identified by TPL microscopy in macrophage cell culture. Ex vivo aorta segments (8 × 8 × 2 mm3) rich in macrophages from a rabbit model of aorta inflammation were imaged by TPL microscopy in combination with OCT. Aorta histological sections (5 µm in thickness) were also imaged by TPL microscopy. Results Merged two-channel TPL images showed the lateral and depth distribution of nanorose-loaded macrophages (confirmed by RAM-11 stain) and other aorta components (e.g., elastin fiber and lipid droplet), suggesting that nanorose-loaded macrophages are diffusively distributed and mostly detected superficially within 20 µm from the luminal surface of the aorta. Moreover, OCT images depicted detailed surface structure of the diseased aorta. Conclusions Results suggest that TPL microscopy combined with OCT can simultaneously reveal macrophage distribution with respect to aorta surface structure, which has the potential to detect vulnerable plaques and monitor plaque-based macrophages overtime during cardiovascular interventions. PMID:22246984

Wang, Tianyi; Mancuso, J. Jacob; Kazmi, S.M. Shams; Dwelle, Jordan; Sapozhnikova, Veronika; Willsey, Brian; Ma, Li L.; Qiu, Jinze; Li, Xiankai; Dunn, Andrew K.; Johnston, Keith P.; Feldman, Marc D.; Milner, Thomas E.

2013-01-01

328

Acceleration time in the aorta and pulmonary artery measured by Doppler echocardiography in the midtrimester normal human fetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time to peak velocity was measured by Doppler echocardiography in the pulmonary artery in 102 normal human fetuses (gestational age 16-30 weeks). Time to peak velocity in the aorta was measured in 72. In 58 both measurements could be made in the same fetus. The time to peak velocity was shorter in the pulmonary artery than in the aorta.

M V Machado; S C Chita; L D Allan

1987-01-01

329

Descending thoracic aorta to iliofemoral artery bypass grafting: A role for primary revascularization for aortoiliac occlusive disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Bypass grafts that originate from the descending thoracic aorta to the iliac or femoral arteries are well described but are not commonly used as primary procedures, and the long-term results remain unknown. A 15-year experience with 50 descending thoracic aorta to iliofemoral artery bypass grafts for aortoiliac occlusive disease is the basis of this report. Methods: From January 1983

Marc A. Passman; Mark A. Farber; Enrique Criado; William A. Marston; Steven J. Burnham; Blair A. Keagy

1999-01-01

330

Frequency of Ascending Aorta Replacement: A Description of 105 Patients with Bicuspid Aortic Valve Undergoing Aortic Valve Replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It has been well documented that patients with a congenital bicuspid aortic valve suffer from earlier valve dysfunction and abnormalities of the ascending aorta, frequently requiring aortic valve replacement and some requiring replacement of the ascending aorta. There have been a few reports with variable data on the frequency of aortic complications, including dilation, aneurysm and dissection, at the

Elizabeth C. Mitchell

2006-01-01

331

Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

... Aortic Aneurysm Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The Basics Take Action! Ver en español Content ... with your doctor about your risk for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). If AAA isn't found and treated ...

332

Morphometric and genetic changes in a population of Apis mellifera after 34 years of Africanization.  

PubMed

Though the replacement of European bees by Africanized honey bees in tropical America has attracted considerable attention, little is known about the temporal changes in morphological and genetic characteristics in these bee populations. We examined the changes in the morphometric and genetic profiles of an Africanized honey bee population collected near where the original African swarms escaped, after 34 years of Africanization. Workers from colonies sampled in 1968 and in 2002 were morphometrically analyzed using relative warps analysis and an Automatic Bee Identification System (ABIS). All the colonies had their mitochondrial DNA identified. The subspecies that mixed to form the Africanized honey bees were used as a comparison for the morphometric analysis. The two morphometric approaches showed great similarity of Africanized bees with the African subspecies, Apis mellifera scutellata, corroborating with other markers. We also found the population of 1968 to have the pattern of wing venation to be more similar to A. m. scutellata than the current population. The mitochondrial DNA of European origin, which was very common in the 1968 population, was not found in the current population, indicating selective pressure replacing the European with the African genome in this tropical region. Both morphometric methodologies were very effective in discriminating the A. mellifera groups; the non-linear analysis of ABIS was the most successful in identifying the bees, with more than 94% correct classifications. PMID:19554770

Francoy, T M; Wittmann, D; Steinhage, V; Drauschke, M; Müller, S; Cunha, D R; Nascimento, A M; Figueiredo, V L C; Simões, Z L P; De Jong, D; Arias, M C; Gonçalves, L S

2009-01-01

333

Effect of treatment with cholecalciferol on the membrane potential and contractility of aortae from spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed Central

1. The diet of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar rats (NWR) was supplemented with 12.5 micrograms cholecalciferol per 100 g body weight daily, by gavage, for 4 weeks. 2. The amplitude of the contractile responses of aortic rings from SHR to potassium and adrenaline, which was smaller than in NWR aortae, was increased after treatment with cholecalciferol. No further changes were observed in the responses of NWR and SHR aortae in the presence of 100 nM apamin. 3. The membrane potentials of aortae from SHR, which were higher than those of aortae from NWR, decreased after treatment with cholecalciferol. Further depolarization was observed in aortic rings from NWR, but not in aortic rings from SHR, after their preincubation with 100 nM apamin. 4. It is concluded that cholecalciferol normalizes the membrane potential and contractility of aortae from SHR, probably through an effect on lipid composition and structure of the plasma membrane. PMID:8832058

Silva, E. G.; Vianna, L. M.; Okuyama, P.; Paiva, T. B.

1996-01-01

334

Abdominal separation in an adult male patient with acute abdominal pain  

PubMed Central

We report a male patient with prolonged post-prandial abdominal distension and a sudden onset of epigastric pain initially diagnosed as acute abdomen. The patient had no history of surgery. Physical examination revealed peritonitis and abdominal computed tomography scan showed upper abdominal mesentery intorsion. The patient then underwent surgical intervention. It was found that the descending mesocolon dorsal root was connected to the ascending colon and formed a membrane encapsulating the small intestine. The membrane also formed an orifice in the ileal pars caeca, from which a 30 cm herniated ileum formed a “C”-shaped loop which was strangulated by the orifice. An abdominal separation was diagnosed after surgery. We liberated the membranous peritoneum which incarcerated the intestinal canal from the root of ileocecal junction to Treitz ligament, and reduced the small intestinal malrotation. The patient had an uneventful recovery after operation with his abdominal distention disappeared during the follow-up. Abdominal separation is a rare situation, which may be related with embryo development. Surgery is a choice of treatment for it. PMID:20614494

Liu, Bao-Lin; Chen, Yang; Liu, Shi-Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Cui, Dong-Xu; Dai, Xian-Wei

2010-01-01

335

Distribution and length of osteophytes in the lumbar vertebrae and risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a study of dry bones from Chiang Mai, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Vertebral osteophytes are a characteristic feature of intervertebral disc degeneration. In the lumbar spinal region, the two major structures in close proximity anterior to the spine are the inferior vena cava and the abdominal aorta, both of which have been reported to be affected by osteophytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution, classification and lengths of osteophytes in the lumbar vertebrae. One hundred and eighty lumbar columns of 90 males and 90 females from Chiang Mai, Thailand, in the age range 15 to 96 years (mean age, 63 years) were collected. The measuring length of osteophytes was assessed on vertebral body and articular facet. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive analysis, chi-square and Pearson Correlation. Lumbar osteophytes were presented in 175 specimens (97.2%), 88 males and 87 females. The highest frequency was at L4, most were on the superior, inferior surface of body and articular facet (39.7%, 38.4%, and 22%), respectively. The greatest mean length was 3.47±2.21 mm at L5, and the longest length of anterior superior surface of body was 28.56 mm. The osteophyte length was significantly correlated directly with age (P<0.01), and males were significantly greater than females (P<0.05). The highest prevalence of osteophytes was on the anterior side of superior surface of body (30.4%), and the classification was traction. It can be proposed that the abdominal aorta could be damaged, especially a risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm. PMID:25276474

Chanapa, Patcharin; Yoshiyuki, Tohno

2014-01-01

336

The Terminal Abdominal Ganglion of the Wood Cricket Nemobius sylvestris  

E-print Network

The Terminal Abdominal Ganglion of the Wood Cricket Nemobius sylvestris Teresita C. Insausti ­ Universite´ Franc¸ois Rabelais, Tours, France ABSTRACT The abdominal cerci of the wood cricket, Nemobius WORDS: cricket; neuroanatomy; giant interneurons; mechanoreceptor projections; terminal abdominal

Giron, David - Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l'Insecte, Université François Rabelais

337

Morphometric analysis of maxillary alveolar regions for immediate implantation  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to provide an actual guideline in determining the shape, diameter, and position of the implant in immediate implantation by the measurement of the thickness of facial and palatal plate, the thickness of cortical bone on the facial and palatal plate, the diameter of the root, and the distance between the roots in the cadavers. MATERIALS AND METHODS The horizontal sections of 20 maxillae were measured and analyzed to obtain the average values. Resin blocks were produced and cut serially at 1 mm intervals from the cervical line to the root apex. Images of each section were obtained and the following measurements were performed: The thickness of the facial and palatal residual bone at each root surface, the thickness of the facial and palatal cortical bone at the interdental region, the diameter of all roots of each section on the faciopalatal and mesiodistal diameter, and the interroot distance. Three specimens with measurements close to the average values were chosen and 3-dimensional images were reconstructed. RESULTS The thickness of the facial and palatal cortical bone at the interdental region in the maxilla, the buccal cortical bone was thicker in the posterior region compared to the anterior region. The interroot distance of the alveolar bone thickness between the roots increased from anterior to posterior region and from coronal to apical in the maxilla. CONCLUSION In this study, the limited results of the morphometric analysis of the alveolar ridge using the sections of maxilla in the cadavers may offer the useful information when planning and selecting optimal implant for immediate implantation in the maxilla. PMID:24353891

Park, Man-Soo; Park, Young-Bum; Choi, Hyunmin; Moon, Hong-Seok; Chung, Moon-Kyu; Cha, In-Ho

2013-01-01

338

Bupivacaine-induced Vasodilation Is Mediated by Decreased Calcium Sensitization in Isolated Endothelium-denuded Rat Aortas Precontracted with Phenylephrine  

PubMed Central

Background A toxic dose of bupivacaine produces vasodilation in isolated aortas. The goal of this in vitro study was to investigate the cellular mechanism associated with bupivacaine-induced vasodilation in isolated endotheliumdenuded rat aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. Methods Isolated endothelium-denuded rat aortas were suspended for isometric tension recordings. The effects of nifedipine, verapamil, iberiotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, barium chloride, and glibenclamide on bupivacaine concentration-response curves were assessed in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. The effect of phenylephrine and KCl used for precontraction on bupivacaine-induced concentration-response curves was assessed. The effects of verapamil on phenylephrine concentration-response curves were assessed. The effects of bupivacaine on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and tension in aortas precontracted with phenylephrine were measured simultaneously with the acetoxymethyl ester of a fura-2-loaded aortic strip. Results Pretreatment with potassium channel inhibitors had no effect on bupivacaine-induced relaxation in the endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine, whereas verapamil or nifedipine attenuated bupivacaine-induced relaxation. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced relaxation was enhanced in the 100 mM KCl-induced precontracted aortas compared with the phenylephrine-induced precontracted aortas. Verapamil attenuated the phenylephrine-induced contraction. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced relaxation was higher than that of the bupivacaine-induced [Ca2+]i decrease in the aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that toxic-dose bupivacaine-induced vasodilation appears to be mediated by decreased calcium sensitization in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. In addition, potassium channel inhibitors had no effect on bupivacaine-induced relaxation. Toxic-dose bupivacaine- induced vasodilation may be partially associated with the inhibitory effect of voltage-operated calcium channels. PMID:25031808

Ok, Seong Ho; Bae, Sung Il; Kwon, Seong Chun; Park, Jung Chul; Kim, Woo Chan; Park, Kyeong Eon; Shin, Il Woo; Lee, Heon Keun; Chung, Young Kyun; Choi, Mun Jeoung

2014-01-01

339

Multiatlas segmentation of thoracic and abdominal anatomy with level set-based local search.  

PubMed

Segmentation of organs at risk (OARs) remains one of the most time-consuming tasks in radiotherapy treatment planning. Atlas-based segmentation methods using single templates have emerged as a practical approach to automate the process for brain or head and neck anatomy, but pose significant challenges in regions where large interpatient variations are present. We show that significant changes are needed to autosegment thoracic and abdominal datasets by combining multi-atlas deformable registration with a level set-based local search. Segmentation is hierarchical, with a first stage detecting bulk organ location, and a second step adapting the segmentation to fine details present in the patient scan. The first stage is based on warping multiple presegmented templates to the new patient anatomy using a multimodality deformable registration algorithm able to cope with changes in scanning conditions and artifacts. These segmentations are compacted in a probabilistic map of organ shape using the STAPLE algorithm. Final segmentation is obtained by adjusting the probability map for each organ type, using customized combinations of delineation filters exploiting prior knowledge of organ characteristics. Validation is performed by comparing automated and manual segmentation using the Dice coefficient, measured at an average of 0.971 for the aorta, 0.869 for the trachea, 0.958 for the lungs, 0.788 for the heart, 0.912 for the liver, 0.884 for the kidneys, 0.888 for the vertebrae, 0.863 for the spleen, and 0.740 for the spinal cord. Accurate atlas segmentation for abdominal and thoracic regions can be achieved with the usage of a multi-atlas and perstructure refinement strategy. To improve clinical workflow and efficiency, the algorithm was embedded in a software service, applying the algorithm automatically on acquired scans without any user interaction. PMID:25207393

Schreibmann, Eduard; Marcus, David M; Fox, Tim

2014-01-01

340

CFD and PTV steady flow investigation in an anatomically accurate abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

There is considerable interest in computational and experimental flow investigations within abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). This task stipulates advanced grid generation techniques and cross-validation because of the anatomical complexity. The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of velocity measurements by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) in realistic AAA models. Computed tomography and rapid prototyping were combined to digitize and construct a silicone replica of a patient-specific AAA. Three-dimensional velocity measurements were acquired using PTV under steady averaged resting boundary conditions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were subsequently carried out with identical boundary conditions. The computational grid was created by splitting the luminal volume into manifold and nonmanifold subsections. They were filled with tetrahedral and hexahedral elements, respectively. Grid independency was tested on three successively refined meshes. Velocity differences of about 1% in all three directions existed mainly within the AAA sack. Pressure revealed similar variations, with the sparser mesh predicting larger values. PTV velocity measurements were taken along the abdominal aorta and showed good agreement with the numerical data. The results within the aneurysm neck and sack showed average velocity variations of about 5% of the mean inlet velocity. The corresponding average differences increased for all velocity components downstream the iliac bifurcation to as much as 15%. The two domains differed slightly due to flow-induced forces acting on the silicone model. Velocity quantification through narrow branches was problematic due to decreased signal to noise ratio at the larger local velocities. Computational wall pressure and shear fields are also presented. The agreement between CFD simulations and the PTV experimental data was confirmed by three-dimensional velocity comparisons at several locations within the investigated AAA anatomy indicating the feasibility of this approach. PMID:19045924

Boutsianis, Evangelos; Guala, Michele; Olgac, Ufuk; Wildermuth, Simon; Hoyer, Klaus; Ventikos, Yiannis; Poulikakos, Dimos

2009-01-01

341

Histologic abnormalities of the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease: Clinical relevance to the ross procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Bicuspid aortic valve disease is often associated with dilation of the aortic root and ascending aorta. This study examines the histologic features of the ascending aorta and main pulmonary artery of patients with and without aortic valve disease. Methods: Samples from ascending aorta and main pulmonary artery were obtained at the time of the operation from 20 patients with

Mauro de Sa; Yaron Moshkovitz; Jagdish Butany; Tirone E. David

1999-01-01

342

Morphometric and meristic variation between stocks of Bluefish ( Pomatomus saltatrix) in the Black, Marmara, Aegean and northeastern Mediterranean Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic and morphological variation of Pomatomus saltatrix were studied based on morphometric and meristic analyses of samples collected throughout the Black Seas, Marmara, Aegean and eastern Mediterranean Seas. In discriminant function analysis, plotting first and second discriminant functions explained 61 and 77% of the between-group variation for morphometric and meristic analyses, respectively, and indicated existence of three morphologically differentiated

Cemal Turan; Mustafa Oral; Bayram Öztürk; Ertu? Düzgüne?

2006-01-01

343

Evaluation of chemical preparation on insect wing shape for geometric morphometrics.  

PubMed

Geometric morphometrics is an approach that has been increasingly applied in studies with insects. A limiting factor of this technique is that some mosquitoes have wings with dark spots or many scales, which jeopardizes the visualization of landmarks for morphometric analysis. Recently, in some studies, chemically treatment (staining) of the wings was used to improve the viewing of landmarks. In this study, we evaluated whether this method causes deformation of the wing veins and tested whether it facilitates the visualization of the most problematic landmarks. In addition, we tested whether mechanical removal of the scales was sufficient for this purpose. The results showed that the physical and chemical treatments are equally effective in improving visualization of the landmarks. The chemical method did not cause deformation of the wing. Thus, some of these treatments should be performed before beginning geometric morphometric analysis to avoid erroneous landmark digitizing. PMID:24019438

Lorenz, Camila; Suesdek, Lincoln

2013-11-01

344

Evaluation of Chemical Preparation on Insect Wing Shape for Geometric Morphometrics  

PubMed Central

Geometric morphometrics is an approach that has been increasingly applied in studies with insects. A limiting factor of this technique is that some mosquitoes have wings with dark spots or many scales, which jeopardizes the visualization of landmarks for morphometric analysis. Recently, in some studies, chemically treatment (staining) of the wings was used to improve the viewing of landmarks. In this study, we evaluated whether this method causes deformation of the wing veins and tested whether it facilitates the visualization of the most problematic landmarks. In addition, we tested whether mechanical removal of the scales was sufficient for this purpose. The results showed that the physical and chemical treatments are equally effective in improving visualization of the landmarks. The chemical method did not cause deformation of the wing. Thus, some of these treatments should be performed before beginning geometric morphometric analysis to avoid erroneous landmark digitizing. PMID:24019438

Lorenz, Camila; Suesdek, Lincoln

2013-01-01

345

Blunt traumatic aortic rupture of the proximal ascending aorta repaired by resection and direct anastomosis.  

PubMed

Traumatic aortic injury represents 15% of motor vehicle related deaths with death occurring at the scene in 85% of the cases. Aortic disruptions usually occur at the isthmus in a transverse fashion with all three of the aortic layers being involved. Herein, we report the case of a 68-year old man with no prior medical history who was struck by a vehicle while riding his bicycle. The ruptured segment of aorta was resected circumferentially and interrupted horizontal mattress pledgeted prolene sutures were used to ensure full thickness aortic integrity of the proximal and distal aortic segments. The aorta was closed with a single-layer technique using 4/0 prolene suture. There were no postoperative complications and patient was discharged on Day 44. The case here discussed demonstrates a rare presentation of blunt aortic injury. The proximal ascending aorta is an unusual site of transection following blunt trauma with few reports in the literature. We were able to repair the aorta with direct suture, thus avoiding the use of artificial material. PMID:23838337

Harmouche, Majid; Slimani, Eric Karim; Heraudeau, Adeline; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe

2013-10-01

346

High level cross of the esophagus with the descending aorta in scoliosis: CT study  

SciTech Connect

The esophagus occasionally crosses the descending aorta at an unusually high level (3-5 cm inferior to the carina) in right-sided scoliosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mechanism of this finding. We prospectively evaluated thoracic CT scans in 30 patients with right-sided scoliosis. We assessed the alterations in the positions of the esophagus and the descending aorta by the thoracic deformity. The descending aorta followed the scoliotic curve of the spine in 26 (87%) patients. The esophagus followed the scoliotic curve of the spine in 14 (47%) patients and did not in 16 (53%). The anteroposterior diameter of the thorax in the former group was significantly smaller than that in the latter (p < 0.01). High level cross of both structures was identified in 14 (47%) patients, and all of them belonged to the group in which the esophagus did not follow the scoliotic curve of the spine. The unusual high level cross of the esophagus with the descending aorta occasionally seen in scoliosis is due to a difference in the positional alterations of the two structures resulting from the scoliosis. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Takahashi, Koji; Kikuno, Motoyuki; Hyodoh, Hideki [Jichi Medical School Hospital, Minamikawachi-machi, Tochigi-ken (Japan)] [and others] [Jichi Medical School Hospital, Minamikawachi-machi, Tochigi-ken (Japan); and others

1996-05-01

347

Vasoconstrictor effect of Africanized honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) venom on rat aorta  

PubMed Central

Background Apis mellifera stings are a problem for public health worldwide, particularly in Latin America due to the aggressiveness of its Africanized honeybees. Massive poisoning by A. mellifera venom (AmV) affects mainly the cardiovascular system, and several works have described its actions on heart muscle. Nevertheless, no work on the pharmacological action mechanisms of the AmV in isolated aorta has been reported. Thus, the present work aimed to investigate the actions of AmV and its main fractions, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and melittin, on isolated aorta rings and a probable action mechanism. Results AmV and the complex PLA2 + melittin (0.1-50 ?g/mL) caused contraction in endothelium-containing aorta rings, but neither isolated PLA2 nor melittin were able to reproduce the effect. Endothelium removal did not change the maximum vasoconstrictor effect elicited by AmV. Ca2+-free medium, as well as treatment with phentolamine (5 ?M), verapamil (10 ?M), losartan (100 ?M), and U-73122 (10 ?M, a phospholipase C inhibitor), eliminated the AmV-induced contractile effects. Conclusions In conclusion, AmV caused contractile effect in aorta rings probably through the involvement of voltage-operated calcium channels, AT1 and ?-adrenergic receptors via the downstream activation of phospholipase C. The protein complex, PLA2 + melittin, was also able to induce vasoconstriction, whereas the isolated proteins were not. PMID:24066982

2013-01-01

348

Nitric Oxide Transport in Normal Human Thoracic Aorta: Effects of Hemodynamics and Nitric Oxide Scavengers  

PubMed Central

Despite the crucial role of nitric oxide (NO) in the homeostasis of the vasculature, little quantitative information exists concerning NO transport and distribution in medium and large-sized arteries where atherosclerosis and aneurysm occur and hemodynamics is complex. We hypothesized that local hemodynamics in arteries may govern NO transport and affect the distribution of NO in the arteries, hence playing an important role in the localization of vascular diseases. To substantiate this hypothesis, we presented a lumen/wall model of the human aorta based on its MRI images to simulate the production, transport and consumption of NO in the arterial lumen and within the aortic wall. The results demonstrated that the distribution of NO in the aorta was quite uneven with remarkably reduced NO bioavailability in regions of disturbed flow, and local hemodynamics could affect NO distribution mainly via flow dependent NO production rate of endothelium. In addition, erythrocytes in the blood could moderately modulate NO concentration in the aorta, especially at the endothelial surface. However, the reaction of NO within the wall could only slightly affect NO concentration on the luminal surface, but strongly reduce NO concentration within the aortic wall. A strong positive correlation was revealed between wall shear stress and NO concentration, which was affected by local hemodynamics and NO reaction rate. In conclusion, the distribution of NO in the aorta may be determined by local hemodynamics and modulated differently by NO scavengers in the lumen and within the wall. PMID:25405341

Liu, Xiao; Wang, Zhenze; Zhao, Ping; Fan, Zhanming; Sun, Anqiang; Zhan, Fan; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Xiaoyan

2014-01-01

349

AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS  

E-print Network

in CTA scans would allow an imaging protocol without a CT scan, thus reducing scanning time and radiationAUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS R enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) scans. This CT scan is generally followed by a contrast enhanced

van Vliet, Lucas J.

350

Successful treatment of acute dissection of the donor aorta after orthotopic heart transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute aortic dissection is one of the rare aortic complications that occur after orthotopic heart transplantation. We report the second case of successful surgical treatment of aortic dissection confined to the donor aorta in a recipient of an orthotopic cardiac allograft. A 68-year-old patient was admitted with chest pain and shortness of breath 7 years after orthotopic heart transplantation. He

Ali Kubilay Korkut; Francis Wellens; Luc Foubert; Marc Goethals

2003-01-01

351

[Knife injury to the thoracic aorta and spinal cord. Report on an"almost-mistake"].  

PubMed

We report the surgical treatment of a thoracic knife injury with lesions of the aorta and the myelon. An initially incomplete revision of the wound nearly resulted in a critical situation. Complete revision of a wound is obligatory in a penetrating injury, when a relevant structure is possibly injured. PMID:21909900

Gitei, E; Akkermann, O; Jagoda, S; Steinhoff, J; Krüger, V; Gerdes, B

2011-09-01

352

Ultrasound-enhanced delivery of targeted echogenic liposomes in a novel ex vivo mouse aorta model  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to determine whether targeted, Rhodamine-labeled echogenic liposomes (Rh-ELIP) containing nanobubbles could be delivered to the arterial wall, and whether 1 MHz continuous wave ultrasound would enhance this delivery profile. Aortae excised from apolipoprotein-E-deficient (n = 8) and wild-type (n = 8) mice were mounted in a pulsatile flow system through which Rh-ELIP were delivered in a stream of bovine serum albumin. Half the aortae from each group were treated with 1-MHz continuous wave ultrasound at 0.49 MPa peak-to-peak pressure, and half underwent sham exposure. Ultrasound parameters were chosen to promote stable cavitation and avoid inertial cavitation. A broadband hydrophone was used to monitor cavitation activity. After treatment, aortic sections were prepared for histology and analyzed by an individual blinded to treatment conditions. Delivery of Rh-ELIP to the vascular endothelium was observed, and subendothelial penetration of Rh-ELIP was present in five of five ultrasound-treated aortae and was absent in those not exposed to ultrasound. However, the degree of penetration in the ultrasound-exposed aortae was variable. There was no evidence of ultrasound-mediated tissue damage in any specimen. Ultrasound-enhanced delivery within the arterial wall was demonstrated in this novel model, which allows quantitative evaluation of therapeutic delivery. PMID:20202474

Hitchcock, Kathryn E.; Caudell, Danielle N.; Sutton, Jonathan T.; Klegerman, Melvin E.; Vela, Deborah; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J.; Abruzzo, Todd; Cyr, Peppar E. P.; Geng, Yong-Jian; McPherson, David D.; Holland, Christy K.

2010-01-01

353

[Effect of aortic clamping on hemodynamics at reconstruction of the thoracoabdominal aorta].  

PubMed

This paper describes an experience with monitoring and computerized follow up of the hemodynamic status in 60 patients at and right after reconstruction of the thoracoabdominal aorta. In addition to the routine control, measurements were made of the pressure in the large vessels and cavities of the heart, duration of each heart contraction and CI. The following parameters were computed automatically: the status of the ventricles for each heart contraction, resistance of the greater end pulmonary circulation, elasticity of the arterial, venous, pulmonary arterial and pulmonary venous reservoirs, also for each cardiac cycle. At the generally accepted monitoring the hemodynamic responses to the surgeon's manipulations on the aorta appear smoothed or are not visualized at all. The control of each heart contraction reveals the responses to application of the clamp and its removal from the aorta, with their hemodynamic significance being not questionable. Aortic clamping and clamp removal from the aorta are associated with the generalized response of the regulatory systems of the body. The slow and thoroughly controlled aortic clamping and graded, controlled blood flow restoration due to clamp removal as well as the use of sodium nitroprusside (trimetafan or isofluran are preferable) allow to avoid an abrupt stroke load of the left ventricle of the heart and, respectively, the generalized response of the regulatory systems of the body. PMID:15163999

Bokeriia, L A; Lishchuk, V A; Spiridonov, A A; Tutov, E G; Gazizova, D Sh; Arakelian, V S; Sazykina, L V; Nasyrov, E M; Ovchinnikov, R S

2004-01-01

354

Dilatation of the aorta in pure, severe, bicuspid aortic valve stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAortic complications are more frequent after bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) replacement (AVR), than tricuspid aortic valve replacement. We studied the size of the proximal thoracic aorta in patients with BAV undergoing AVR for pure, severe aortic stenosis, looking for dilatation in comparison with patients with a matched tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) and normograms of aortic size.

Gareth J Morgan-Hughes; Carl A Roobottom; Patrick E Owens; Andrew J Marshall

2004-01-01

355

Distal thoracic aorta hemodynamics during exercise with continuous flow left ventricular assist system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Continuous flow left ventricular assist systems (LVAS) are being discussed as a destination therapy. LVAS patients will have expanded activity of daily life, including exercise. In this study, we analyzed the effects of exercise on blood flow in the distal thoracic aorta of LVAD implanted animals. Methods: Five calves with a continuous flow LVAS exercised on treadmill at two

Shin' ichiro Kihara; Kenji Yamazaki; Kenneth N. Litwak; Marina V. Kameneva; Bartley P. Griffith; Robert L. Kormos

2010-01-01

356

Heart and aorta morphology of the deep-diving hooded seal (Cystophora cristata)  

E-print Network

and Jennifer M. Burns Abstract: An investigation of the heart morphology of 8 male and 15 female hooded seals development and im- plementation of heart-rate transmitters, time­depth recorders (TDRs), and other dataHeart and aorta morphology of the deep-diving hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) Charles M. Drabek

Burns, Jennifer M.

357

Curcumin Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm by Inhibition of Inflammatory Response and ERK Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives. Curcumin has long been used to treat age-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In this study, we explored the effects of curcumin on the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods. ApoE?/? mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: AngII group, AngII + curcumin (AngII + Cur) group (100?mg/kg/d), and the control group. Miniosmotic pumps were implanted subcutaneously in ApoE?/? mice to deliver AngII for 28 days. After 4-week treatment, abdominal aortas with AAA were obtained for H&E staining, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Results. The results showed that curcumin treatment significantly decreased the occurrence of AAA. The levels of macrophage infiltration, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factors-? (TNF-?) were significantly lower in AngII + Cur group than those in AngII group (all P < 0.01). The level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly higher in AngII + Cur group than those in AngII group (P < 0.01). The ERK1/2 phosphorylation in AngII + Cur group was significantly lower than that in AngII group (P < 0.01). Conclusions. These results suggested that curcumin can inhibit the AngII-induced AAA in ApoE?/? mice, whose mechanisms include the curcumin anti-inflammation, antioxidative stress, and downregulation of ERK signaling pathway.

Hao, QingQing; Chen, Xu; Wang, XiaoYu; Yang, ChuanHua

2014-01-01

358

Prioritization of sub-watersheds based on morphometric analysis using geospatial technique in Piperiya watershed, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological investigation and behavior of watershed depend upon geo-morphometric characteristics of catchment. Morphometric analysis is commonly used for development of regional hydrological model of ungauged watershed. A critical valuation and assessment of geo-morphometric constraints has been carried out. Prioritization of watersheds based on water plot capacity of Piperiya watershed has been evaluated by linear, aerial and relief aspects. Morphometric analysis has been attempted for prioritization for nine sub-watersheds of Piperiya watershed in Hasdeo river basin, which is a tributary of the Mahanadi. Sub-watersheds are delineated by ArcMap 9.3 software as per digital elevation model (DEM). Assessment of drainages and their relative parameters such as stream order, stream length, stream frequency, drainage density, texture ratio, form factor, circulatory ratio, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio and compactness ratio has been calculated separately for each sub-watershed using the Remote Sensing (RS) and Geospatial techniques. Finally, the prioritized score on the basis of morphometric behavior of each sub-watershed is assigned and thereafter consolidated scores have been estimated to identify the most sensitive parameters. The analysis reveals that stream order varies from 1 to 5; however, the first-order stream covers maximum area of about 87.7 %. Total number of stream segment of all order is 1,264 in the watershed. The study emphasizes the prioritization of the sub-watersheds on the basis of morphometric analysis. The final score of entire nine sub-watersheds is assigned as per erosion threat. The sub-watershed with the least compound parameter value was assigned as highest priority. However, the sub-watersheds has been categorized into three classes as high (4.1-4.7), medium (4.8-5.3) and low (>5.4) priority on the basis of their maximum (6.0) and minimum (4.1) prioritized score.

Chandniha, Surendra Kumar; Kansal, Mitthan Lal

2014-11-01

359

A case report of abdominal distention caused by herpes zoster.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal complications caused by herpes zoster are extremely rare. Here, we described a case of abdominal distention caused by herpes zoster. The patient was a 59-year-old female who suffered from unexplained paroxysmal and a burning pain on the right part of her waist and abdomen, accompanied by abdominal distention. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction was diagnosed by abdominal radiography. Distention of the right abdominal wall was still apparent after one month. In this report, we found that recovery from abdominal distention caused by herpes zoster is difficult and may require surgical intervention. PMID:22969239

Zhou, Su-Rong; Liu, Chuan-Yu

2012-09-01

360

Anesthetic Considerations for Abdominal Wall Reconstructive Surgery  

PubMed Central

Anesthesia considerations for abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) are numerous and depend upon the medical status of the patient and the projected procedure. Obesity, sleep apnea, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease are not uncommon in patients with abdominal wall defects; pulmonary functions and cardiac output can be affected by the surgical procedure. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are also at a higher risk of coughing during the postoperative awakening process, which can compromise the reconstruction of the fascia. Given the increased complexity of the patients presenting for AWR, and the importance of the anesthesia for these specific procedures, it is important that surgeons are aware of the challenges that anesthesiologists face when treating these patients. Some of these challenges and their resolution are reviewed here. PMID:23372453

Slabach, Rachel; Suyderhoud, Johan P.

2012-01-01

361

Retroperitoneal lymphocele after abdominal aortic surgery.  

PubMed

Lymphoceles may occur as a result of lymphatic injury during abdominal aortic surgery. These lymphatic collections may occur as a retroperitoneal mass or as groin lymphoceles. Four cases are presented in which persistent retroperitoneal lymphoceles were discovered 2 to 8 years after surgery. Reexploration of the groin and repeated aspirations of lymphatic fluid failed to control the drainage. Reexploration of the retroperitoneum documented lymphatic injury, which was controlled by ligation of the lymphatics with suture. A review of the literature discloses five similar reported cases of retroperitoneal lymphocele and 12 cases of chylous ascites after abdominal aortic surgery. Clearly, avoiding lymphatic injury or immediate repair of any lymphatic injuries will prevent this problem. Once a persistent lymphocele has developed, aspiration will establish the diagnosis. Our experience would suggest that reexploration of the retroperitoneum is required to control the drainage and to prevent possible graft infection. PMID:2778887

Garrett, H E; Richardson, J W; Howard, H S; Garrett, H E

1989-09-01

362

[Surgery of the descending thoracic and thoraco-abdominal arteries. Report of 105 cases].  

PubMed

The Authors show their casistic of about 105 cases of thoracic descending and thoraco-abdominal aorta pathologies between 1.1.1993 and 30.12.1995. After a short introduction about the improvements in anesthesia and reanimation of these pathologies as well as the good reliability of diagnostic and currently available instruments, mortality and mobility parameters are taken into account, the last one referring to paraplegia and ARF. The casistic is evaluated splitting the cases into 2 groups, urgent surgery and election surgery, and differentiating the aneurysm type from the dissection type. Besides, the mortality and mobility are reported for any pathology, with a discussion of the parameters which drove the choice of the most suitable methodology to be adopted (ECC femoro-subclavian shunt, simple clamping). The results achieved show a mortality of 40% in urgency, between 5 and 15% in election, with a rate of paraplegia around 8-10% and a ARF between 5 and 15%. These data match the literature statistics and support the quality of the adopted methodologies. PMID:9303858

Zanetti, P P; Rosa, G; Sorisio, V; Cavanenghi, D; Amerio, G M; Stillo, R; Zappa, A; Cardellino, S; Franco, M; Muncinelli, M

1997-07-01

363

Endovascular Treatment of Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Lesions With or Without Common Iliac Artery Involvement  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the results of stent placement for obstructive atherosclerotic aortic disease with or without involvement of the common iliac artery. Forty patients had self-expanding stents primarily or after balloon dilatation in the abdominal aorta between January 2005 and May 2011. All patients had trouble walking. Follow-up examinations were performed with clinical visits; these included color Doppler ultrasonography and computed tomographic angiography. Technical, clinical, and hemodynamic success was achieved in all patients. None of the patients underwent reintervention during the follow-up period, which ranged from 3 months to 6 years (median 24 months). Nine complications occurred in six patients. Of the nine complications, four were distal thromboembolisms, which were successfully treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis or anticoagulation therapy. Endovascular treatment of the obstructive aortic disease using self-expanding stents was safe and effective, with high technical success and long-term patency. Thromboembolic complications were high even though direct stenting was considered protective for thromboembolism formation. Particularly for infrarenal aortic stenosis, it can be recommended as the first-line treatment option for patients with obstructive atherosclerotic aortic disease.

Oender, Hakan, E-mail: drhakanonder@hotmail.com [Dicle University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Dicle University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Oguzkurt, Levent [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Guer, Serkan [Sifa University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Sifa University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Tekbas, Gueven [Dicle University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Dicle University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Guerel, Kamil [Abant Izzet Baysal University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Abant Izzet Baysal University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Coskun, Isa [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Turkey)] [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Turkey); Oezkan, Ugur [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2013-02-15

364

Protease inhibitor 15, a candidate gene for abdominal aortic internal elastic lamina ruptures in the rat  

PubMed Central

The inbred Brown Norway (BN) rat develops spontaneous ruptures of the internal elastic lamina (RIEL) of the abdominal aorta (AA) and iliac arteries. Prior studies with crosses of the BN/Orl RJ (susceptible) and LOU/M (resistant) showed the presence of a significant QTL on chromosome 5 and the production of congenic rats proved the involvement of this locus. In this study, we further dissected the above-mentioned QTL by creating a new panel of LOU.BN(chr5) congenic and subcongenic lines and reduced the locus to 5.2 Mb. Then we studied 1,002 heterogeneous stock (HS) rats, whose phenotyping revealed a low prevalence and high variability for RIEL. High-resolution mapping in the HS panel detected the major locus on chromosome 5 (log P > 35) and refined it to 1.4 Mb. Subsequently, RNA-seq analysis on AA of BN, congenics, and LOU revealed expression differences for only protease inhibitor 15 (Pi15) gene and a putative long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) within the linkage region. The high abundance of lincRNA with respect to reduced Pi15 expression, in conjunction with exertion of longitudinal strain, may be related to RIEL, indicating the potential importance of proteases in biological processes related to defective aortic internal elastic lamina structure. Similar mechanisms may be involved in aneurysm initiation in the human AA. PMID:24790086

Falak, Samreen; Schafer, Sebastian; Baud, Amelie; Hummel, Oliver; Schulz, Herbert; Gauguier, Dominique; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary

2014-01-01

365

A Literature Review of the Numerical Analysis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Treated with Endovascular Stent Grafts  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to present the basic principles and relevant advances in the computational modeling of abdominal aortic aneurysms and endovascular aneurysm repair, providing the community with up-to-date state of the art in terms of numerical analysis and biomechanics. Frameworks describing the mechanical behavior of the aortic wall already exist. However, intraluminal thrombus nonhomogeneous structure and porosity still need to be well characterized. Also, although the morphology and mechanical properties of calcifications have been investigated, their effects on wall stresses remain controversial. Computational fluid dynamics usually assumes a rigid artery wall, whereas fluid-structure interaction accounts for artery compliance but is still challenging since arteries and blood have similar densities. We discuss alternatives to fluid-structure interaction based on dynamic medical images that address patient-specific hemodynamics and geometries. We describe initial stresses, elastic boundary conditions, and statistical strength for rupture risk assessment. Special emphasis is accorded to workflow development, from the conversion of medical images into finite element models, to the simulation of catheter-aorta interactions and stent-graft deployment. Our purpose is also to elaborate the key ingredients leading to virtual stenting and endovascular repair planning that could improve the procedure and stent-grafts. PMID:22997538

Roy, David; Kauffmann, Claude; Delorme, Sebastien; Lerouge, Sophie; Cloutier, Guy; Soulez, Gilles

2012-01-01

366

Microfibrils provide non-linear elastic behaviour in the abdominal artery of the lobster Homarus americanus.  

PubMed Central

1. Microfibrils are becoming increasingly recognized as an important component of the extra-cellular matrix. However, almost nothing is known about their mechanical role in the diversity of tissues in which they are found. 2. Microfibrils form the principal structural component in the wall of the abdominal artery of the lobster Homarus americanus. We have used previous estimates of the mechanical properties of these microfibrils, estimates of the fraction of the aorta wall volume occupied by the microfibrils, and their angular distribution as a function of strain in a numerical model that predicts the macroscopic mechanical properties of the whole tissue. 3. Microfibrils alone, when their reorientation and deformation are accounted for, characterize the stress-strain behaviour of the vessel. Evidence of the evolutionary conservation of fibrillin between medusans, echinoderms and vertebrates implies that the mechanical properties of lobster microfibrils may apply to microfibrillar function in other taxa. This will have profound implications on the perceived roles of microfibrils in development, physiology and disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9080378

McConnell, C J; DeMont, M E; Wright, G M

1997-01-01

367

Effects of Thoratec pulsatile ventricular assist device timing on the abdominal aortic wave intensity pattern.  

PubMed

Arterial waves are seen as possible independent mediators of cardiovascular risks, and the wave intensity analysis (WIA) has therefore been proposed as a method for patient selection for ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation. Interpreting measured wave intensity (WI) is challenging, and complexity is increased by the implantation of a VAD. The waves generated by the VAD interact with the waves generated by the native heart, and this interaction varies with changing VAD settings. Eight sheep were implanted with a pulsatile VAD (PVAD) through ventriculoaortic cannulation. The start of PVAD ejection was synchronized to the native R wave and delayed between 0 and 90% of the cardiac cycle in 10% steps or phase shifts (PS). Pressure and velocity signals were registered, with the use of a combined Doppler and pressure wire positioned in the abdominal aorta, and used to calculate the WI. Depending on the PS, different wave interference phenomena occurred. Maximum unloading of the left ventricle (LV) coincided with constructive interference and maximum blood flow pulsatility, and maximum loading of the LV coincided with destructive interference and minimum blood flow pulsatility. We believe that noninvasive WIA could potentially be used clinically to assess the mechanical load of the LV and to monitor the peripheral hemodynamics such as blood flow pulsatility and risk of intestinal bleeding. PMID:25320334

Jahren, Silje Ekroll; Amacher, Raffael; Weber, Alberto; Most, Henriette; Flammer, Shannon Axiak; Traupe, Tobias; Stoller, Michael; de Marchi, Stefano; Vandenberghe, Stijn

2014-10-15

368

Smokers: Risks and Complications in Abdominal Dermolipectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoke has many detrimental effects on health, with consequences such as cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases,\\u000a and tumors. In plastic surgery, these effects appear during the wound healing process. This retrospective study showed wound\\u000a healing in 57 patients who had undergone abdominal dermolipectomy surgery. The patients were divided into two groups: smokers\\u000a and nonsmokers. According to the results, smokers face

M. Rogliani; L. Labardi; E. Silvi; F. Maggiulli; M. Grimaldi; V. Cervelli

2006-01-01

369

Cameraless Peritoneal Entry in Abdominal Laparoscopy  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Despite significant advances in laparoscopic instrumentation and techniques, injury to intraabdominal structures remains a potentially serious complication of peritoneal access. Consensus on the best method to obtain peritoneal access is lacking. A safe technique that does not rely on direct visualization of the abdominal layers could shorten the learning curve for surgeons and potentially be adopted by other physicians for a variety of nonsurgical indications for peritoneal entry. Methods: A prospective series of 99 consecutive patients who underwent upper-abdominal laparoscopic surgery performed by a single surgeon between January 2009 and June 2010 was reviewed. The method used to obtain peritoneal access was the fluid-based peritoneal entry indication technique (C-PET) with the EndoTIP trocar. Results: Successful abdominal entry using C-PET was achieved in 90 (90.9%) of the patients; no trocar-related injuries or other injuries associated with peritoneal access occurred. The mean time from incision to confirmed peritoneal access was 21.4 s (range, 12 to 65). Of the 9 cases in which C-PET did not successfully gain entry, 6 occurred during the first 20 surgeries and only 3 in the final 79. Conclusions: C-PET is simple, safe, timely, and effective for gaining peritoneal access during laparoscopic abdominal surgeries. In this series, C-PET produced no complications and proved effective across a wide variety of patients, including the obese and those who had had previous surgery. Furthermore, C-PET does not require visual recognition of anatomic layers and potentially could easily be taught to nonsurgeon physicians who perform peritoneal access. PMID:23484564

Carlson, William H.; Tully, Griffeth; Rajguru, Amit; Burnett, Dan R.

2012-01-01

370

Elective treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 20 years at the Massachusetts General Hospital the mortality rate for elective resection and grafting of abdominal\\u000a aortic aneurysms (AAA) has fallen from 9.6% to 1.7% in a series of over 1000 patients. The improvement in mortality rate is\\u000a partially the result of earlier diagnosis, better preoperative preparation, routine use of aortography, and increased technical\\u000a experience. Improvements

R. Clement Darling; David C. Brewster

1980-01-01

371

Dextromethorphan and pain after total abdominal hysterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Dextromethorphan is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist which has been shown to inhibit the development of cutaneous secondary hyperalgesia after tissue trauma. We studied 60 ASA I-II patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients received either dextromethorphan 27 mg cap- sules, two doses before operation and three doses in the first 24 h after

P. M. MCCONAGHY; P. MCSORLEY; W. MCCAUGHEY; W. I. CAMPBELL

1998-01-01

372

Surgery for Abdominal Metastases of Cutaneous Melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The objective of this study was to support our hypothesis that surgical resection of abdominal metastases of melanoma, regardless\\u000a of symptomatology, could provide prolonged palliation and improved survival. We performed a retrospective chart review at\\u000a M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. A series of 251 melanoma patients (stages I, II, or III at registration) who developed intraabdominal\\u000a metastases during follow-up were

Haim Gutman; Kenneth R. Hess; John A. Kokotsakis; Merrick I. Ross; Vincent F. Guinee; Charles M. Balch

2001-01-01

373

Endovascular Repair of Localized Pathological Lesions of the Descending Thoracic Aorta: Midterm Results  

SciTech Connect

The endoluminal stent-graft represents an attractive and a less invasive technique for treatment of various diseases of the descending thoracic aorta. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Talent endovascular stent-graft for the treatment of various localized diseases of the descending thoracic aorta. Over a 3-year period, Talent thoracic endografts were placed in 40 patients with a high surgical risk, presenting a localized lesion of the descending thoracic aorta: degenerative aneurysm (n = 13), acute traumatic rupture (n = 11), acute Stanford type B aortic dissection (n = 6), false aneurysm (n = 7), and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (n = 3). Fifteen patients (37.5%) were treated as emergencies. The feasibility of endovascular treatment and sizing of the aorta and stent-grafts were determined preoperatively by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and intraoperative angiography. Immediate and mid-term technical and clinical success was assessed by clinical and MRA follow-up. Endovascular treatment was completed successfully in all 40 patients, with no conversion to open repair or intraoperative mortality. The mean operative time was 37.5 {+-} 7 min. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 10% (n = 4), all in emergency cases, for causes not related to the endograft. The primary technical success was 92.5%. The mean follow-up period was 15 {+-} 5 months. The survival rate was 95% (n = 35). Diminution of the aneurismal size was observed in 47.5% (n = 19). We conclude that endovascular treatment of the various localized diseases of the descending thoracic aorta is a promising, feasible, alternative technique to open surgery in well-selected patients.

Attia, Cherif; Villard, Jacques [University Hospital Louis Pradel, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (France); Boussel, Loic [University Hospital Louis Pradel, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Farhat, Fadi; Robin, Jacques [University Hospital Louis Pradel, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (France); Revel, Didier; Douek, Philippe [University Hospital Louis Pradel, Department of Interventional Radiology (France)], E-mail: Philippe.Douek@creatis.univ-lyon1.fr

2007-07-15

374

Dexmedetomidine-induced Contraction Involves Phosphorylation of Caldesmon by JNK in Endothelium-denuded Rat Aortas  

PubMed Central

Caldesmon, an inhibitory actin binding protein, binds to actin and inhibits actin-myosin interactions, whereas caldesmon phosphorylation reverses the inhibitory effect of caldesmon on actin-myosin interactions, potentially leading to enhanced contraction. The goal of this study was to investigate the cellular signaling pathway responsible for caldesmon phosphorylation, which is involved in the regulation of the contraction induced by dexmedetomidine (DMT), an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist, in endothelium-denuded rat aortas. SP600125 (a c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase [JNK] inhibitor) dose-response curves were generated in aortas that were pre-contracted with DMT or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator. Dose-response curves to the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine were generated in rat aortas pre-contracted with DMT. The effects of SP600125 and rauwolscine (an alpha-2 adrenoceptor inhibitor) on DMT-induced caldesmon phosphorylation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were investigated by western blot analysis. PDBu-induced caldesmon and DMT-induced PKC phosphorylation in rat aortic VSMCs was investigated by western blot analysis. The effects of GF109203X (a PKC inhibitor) on DMT- or PDBu-induced JNK phosphorylation in VSMCs were assessed. SP600125 resulted in the relaxation of aortas that were pre-contracted with DMT or PDBu, whereas rauwolscine attenuated DMT-induced contraction. Chelerythrine resulted in the vasodilation of aortas pre-contracted with DMT. SP600125 and rauwolscine inhibited DMT-induced caldesmon phosphorylation. Additionally, PDBu induced caldesmon phosphorylation, and GF109203X attenuated the JNK phosphorylation induced by DMT or PDBu. DMT induced PKC phosphorylation in rat aortic VSMCs. These results suggest that alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated, DMT-induced contraction involves caldesmon phosphorylation that is mediated by JNK phosphorylation by PKC. PMID:25332685

Baik, Jiseok; Ok, Seong-Ho; Cho, Hyunhoo; Yu, Jongsun; Kim, Woochan; Nam, In-Koo; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Lee, Heon-Keun; Sohn, Ju-Tae

2014-01-01

375

Fibre orientation of fresh and frozen porcine aorta determined non-invasively using diffusion tensor imaging.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging analysis was applied to fresh and frozen porcine aortas in order to determine fibre orientation. Fresh and stored frozen porcine aortas were imaged in a 7 T scanner with a diffusion weighted spin echo sequence (six gradient directions, matrix 128×128 pixels, 2.8 cm×2.8 cm field of view). The images were taken for different b values, ranging from 200 s/mm(2) to 1600 s/mm(2). For each dataset the diffusion tensor was evaluated, fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were calculated, and the fibres mapped. The arterial fibres resulting were postprocessed and their fibre angle evaluated. The FA maps, the dominant fibre angle, and the fibre pattern in the arterial wall thickness were compared in the fresh and in the stored frozen aortas. The technique was able to determine a fibre pattern in the fresh healthy aorta that is in accordance with the data available in literature and to identify an alteration in the fibre pattern caused by freezing. This study shows that this technique has potential for studying fibre orientation and fibre distribution in humans and could be further developed to diagnose fibre alterations due to cardiovascular diseases. In fact, our results suggest that DTI has the potential to determine the fibrous structure of arteries non-invasively. This capability could be further developed to study the natural remodelling of the aorta in vivo due to age and/or gender or to obtain information on aortic diseases at an early stage of their evolution. PMID:22998893

Flamini, Vittoria; Kerskens, Christian; Simms, Ciaran; Lally, Caitríona

2013-06-01

376

Association between the rotation and three-dimensional tortuosity of the proximal ascending aorta.  

PubMed

Age-related morphological changes of the aorta, including dilatation and elongation, have been reported. However, rotation has not been fully investigated. We focused on the rotation of the ascending aorta and investigated its relationship with tortuosity. One hundred and two consecutive patients who underwent computed tomography coronary angiography were studied. The angle at which the en face view of the volume-rendered image of the right coronary aortic sinus (RCS) was obtained without foreshortening was defined as the rotation index. It was defined as zero if the RCS was squarely visible in the frontal view, positive if it rotated clockwise toward the left anterior oblique (LAO) direction, and negative if it rotated counter-clockwise toward the right anterior oblique (RAO) direction. The tortuosity was evaluated by measuring the biplane tilt angles formed between the ascending aorta and the horizontal line. The mean rotation index, posterior tilt angle viewed from the RAO direction (?RAO ), and anterior tilt angle viewed from the LAO direction (?LAO ) were 4.8?±?16.3, 60.7?±?7.0°, and 63.6?±?9.0°, respectively. Although no correlation was observed between the rotation index and the ?LAO (??=?-0.0761, P?=?0.1651), there was a significant negative correlation between the rotation index and ?RAO (??=?-0.1810, P?aorta exacerbates the tortuosity by tilting the aorta toward the posterior direction. Clin. Anat. 27:1200-1211, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25091125

Mori, Shumpei; Yamashita, Tomoya; Takaya, Tomofumi; Kinugasa, Mitsuo; Takamine, Sachiko; Shigeru, Mayumi; Ito, Tatsuro; Fujiwara, Sei; Nishii, Tatsuya; Kono, Atsushi K; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

2014-11-01

377

Calcifications of the Thoracic Aorta on Extended Non-Contrast-Enhanced Cardiac CT  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of calcified atherosclerosis in different vascular beds has been associated with a higher risk of mortality. Thoracic aorta calcium (TAC) can be assessed from computed tomography (CT) scans, originally aimed at coronary artery calcium (CAC) assessment. CAC screening improves cardiovascular risk prediction, beyond standard risk assessment, whereas TAC performance remains controversial. However, the curvilinear portion of the thoracic aorta (TA), that includes the aortic arch, is systematically excluded from TAC analysis. We investigated the prevalence and spatial distribution of TAC all along the TA, to see how those segments that remain invisible in standard TA evaluation were affected. Methods and Results A total of 970 patients (77% men) underwent extended non-contrast cardiac CT scans including the aortic arch. An automated algorithm was designed to extract the vessel centerline and to estimate the vessel diameter in perpendicular planes. Then, calcifications were quantified using the Agatston score and associated with the corresponding thoracic aorta segment. The aortic arch and the proximal descending aorta, “invisible” in routine CAC screening, appeared as two vulnerable sites concentrating 60% of almost 11000 calcifications. The aortic arch was the most affected segment per cm length. Using the extended measurement method, TAC prevalence doubled from 31% to 64%, meaning that 52% of patients would escape detection with a standard scan. In a stratified analysis for CAC and/or TAC assessment, 111 subjects (46% women) were exclusively identified with the enlarged scan. Conclusions Calcium screening in the TA revealed that the aortic arch and the proximal descending aorta, hidden in standard TA evaluations, concentrated most of the calcifications. Middle-aged women were more prone to have calcifications in those hidden portions and became candidates for reclassification. PMID:25302677

Craiem, Damian; Chironi, Gilles; Casciaro, Mariano E.; Graf, Sebastian; Simon, Alain

2014-01-01

378

Dexmedetomidine-induced Contraction Involves Phosphorylation of Caldesmon by JNK in Endothelium-denuded Rat Aortas.  

PubMed

Caldesmon, an inhibitory actin binding protein, binds to actin and inhibits actin-myosin interactions, whereas caldesmon phosphorylation reverses the inhibitory effect of caldesmon on actin-myosin interactions, potentially leading to enhanced contraction. The goal of this study was to investigate the cellular signaling pathway responsible for caldesmon phosphorylation, which is involved in the regulation of the contraction induced by dexmedetomidine (DMT), an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist, in endothelium-denuded rat aortas. SP600125 (a c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase [JNK] inhibitor) dose-response curves were generated in aortas that were pre-contracted with DMT or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator. Dose-response curves to the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine were generated in rat aortas pre-contracted with DMT. The effects of SP600125 and rauwolscine (an alpha-2 adrenoceptor inhibitor) on DMT-induced caldesmon phosphorylation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were investigated by western blot analysis. PDBu-induced caldesmon and DMT-induced PKC phosphorylation in rat aortic VSMCs was investigated by western blot analysis. The effects of GF109203X (a PKC inhibitor) on DMT- or PDBu-induced JNK phosphorylation in VSMCs were assessed. SP600125 resulted in the relaxation of aortas that were pre-contracted with DMT or PDBu, whereas rauwolscine attenuated DMT-induced contraction. Chelerythrine resulted in the vasodilation of aortas pre-contracted with DMT. SP600125 and rauwolscine inhibited DMT-induced caldesmon phosphorylation. Additionally, PDBu induced caldesmon phosphorylation, and GF109203X attenuated the JNK phosphorylation induced by DMT or PDBu. DMT induced PKC phosphorylation in rat aortic VSMCs. These results suggest that alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated, DMT-induced contraction involves caldesmon phosphorylation that is mediated by JNK phosphorylation by PKC. PMID:25332685

Baik, Jiseok; Ok, Seong-Ho; Cho, Hyunhoo; Yu, Jongsun; Kim, Woochan; Nam, In-Koo; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Lee, Heon-Keun; Sohn, Ju-Tae

2014-01-01

379

Multidetector CT of blunt abdominal trauma.  

PubMed

The morbidity, mortality, and economic costs resulting from trauma in general, and blunt abdominal trauma in particular, are substantial. The "panscan" (computed tomographic [CT] examination of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis) has become an essential element in the early evaluation and decision-making algorithm for hemodynamically stable patients who sustained abdominal trauma. CT has virtually replaced diagnostic peritoneal lavage for the detection of important injuries. Over the past decade, substantial hardware and software developments in CT technology, especially the introduction and refinement of multidetector scanners, have expanded the versatility of CT for examination of the polytrauma patient in multiple facets: higher spatial resolution, faster image acquisition and reconstruction, and improved patient safety (optimization of radiation delivery methods). In this article, the authors review the elements of multidetector CT technique that are currently relevant for evaluating blunt abdominal trauma and describe the most important CT signs of trauma in the various organs. Because conservative nonsurgical therapy is preferred for all but the most severe injuries affecting the solid viscera, the authors emphasize the CT findings that are indications for direct therapeutic intervention. PMID:23175542

Soto, Jorge A; Anderson, Stephan W

2012-12-01

380

Abdominal cystic lymphangiomas: US and CT findings.  

PubMed

We retrospectively analyzed six cases of abdominal cystic lymphangiomas (CL), who had undergone surgical resection. These cases had been evaluated by several modalities: ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), angiography and fine needle aspiration. No age predilection was found. All patients were symptomatic. The most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (66%), palpable mass (66%), fever (50%) and vomiting (30%). US showed septations (85%) and unicameral mass (15%); in three cases (50%) echogenic material within the cyst was found, probably due to hemorrhage and infection. CT showed capsular enhancement in all cases. Capsular and septation thickness were slightly increased in cases of infection or bleeding. At CT the contents were usually of fluid attenuation (66%); in 33% the attenuation values were higher, probably because of internal bleeding and infection. US was superior to CT in the demonstration of septations and the internal nature of the cysts. The major role of imaging is to demonstrate the cystic nature of these abdominal masses, because they do not have specific signs or symptoms that could allow a clinical diagnosis. PMID:7601168

Vargas-Serrano, B; Alegre-Bernal, N; Cortina-Moreno, B; Rodriguez-Romero, R; Sanchez-Ortega, F

1995-03-01

381

CT of hemodynamically unstable abdominal trauma.  

PubMed

This article is an appraisal of the use of CT in the management of patients with unstable abdominal trauma. We examined 41 patients with abdominal trauma using noncontrast dynamic CT. In 17 patients a postcontrast dynamic CT was also carried out. On CT, 25 patients had hemoperitoneum. Thirteen patients had splenic, 12 hepatic, 6 pancreatic, 8 bowel and mesenteric, 12 renal and 2 vascular injuries. Seven patients had retroperitoneal and 2 patients adrenal hematomas. All but five lesions (three renal, one pancreatic, and one splenic) were hypodense when CT was performed earlier than 8 h following the injury. Postcontrast studies (n = 17), revealed 4 splenic, 3 hepatic, 1 pancreatic, 3 renal, and 2 bowel and mesenteric injuries beyond what was found on noncontrast CT. Surgical confirmation (n = 21) was obtained in 81.81% of splenic, 66.66% of hepatic, 83.33% of pancreatic, 100% of renal, 100% of retroperitoneal, and 85.71% of bowel and mesenteric injuries. The majority of false diagnoses was obtained with noncontrast studies. Computed tomography is a remarkable method for evaluation and management of patients with hemodynamically unstable abdominal trauma, but only if it is revealed in the emergency room. Contrast injection, when it could be done, revealed lesions that were not suspected on initial plain scans. PMID:10101646

Petridis, A; Pilavaki, M; Vafiadis, E; Palladas, P; Finitsis, S; Drevelegas, A

1999-01-01

382

Non-traumatic lateral abdominal wall hernia.  

PubMed

A rare lateral abdominal wall hernia is described in an adult patient. This was diagnosed in a patient with a prominent right lateral abdominal wall deformity. The patient had been experiencing pain that increased progressively in severity over time. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed the location of the lateral abdominal wall defect. The hernia defect was through the transversus abdominis and the internal oblique, with the inferior aspect of the 11th rib forming part of the superior border of the defect. A 4-cm bony spur from the inferior aspect of the rib formed part of the lateral margin of the defect. The hernia sac was contained within a space underneath the external oblique muscle. The association of the hernia defect with a bony spur was highly suggestive of a congenital etiology. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically with Parietex mesh (Sofradim, Lyons, France), and the patient had resolution of the symptoms on discharge and follow-up visits. PMID:18949442

Castillo-Sang, M; Gociman, B; Almaroof, B; Fath, J; Cason, F

2009-06-01

383

Abdominal tuberculosis--a disease revived.  

PubMed Central

Abdominal tuberculosis was common in the United Kingdom in the 18th and 19th centuries and in the first half of the 20th century. During the 1950's the recognition of Crohn's disease, the use of streptomycin and other drugs, and the pasteurisation of milk led to the virtual disappearance of abdominal tuberculosis in the western world. During the last two decades a new type, mycobacterium tuberculosis hominis, has appeared mainly in the immigrant population, especially in those from the Indian subcontinent. A retrospective review of 68 patients with abdominal tuberculosis is presented. The pathology, diagnosis and management of these cases is discussed, together with the differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease. It is suggested that the immigrant brings the disease into the United Kingdom in his mesenteric glands and that the disease is reactivated or 'revived' at some later date due to some modification of the immune process. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6338801

Addison, N. V.

1983-01-01

384

Ferulic acid enhances the vasorelaxant effect of epigallocatechin gallate in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced inflammatory rat aorta.  

PubMed

Previously, we demonstrated synergistic enhancement of vasorelaxation by combination treatment with Trp-His and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) in intact rat aorta. The aim of the present study was to determine whether this vasorelaxant synergy could be recapitulated in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)-induced inflammatory rat aorta, and to determine the extent of its modulation by anti-inflammatory phenolic acids. Synergistic enhancement of vasorelaxation in rat aorta by Trp-His and EGCg was significantly attenuated in the presence of TNF-?, an effect that was reversed by the addition of ferulic acid (FA, 250 ?M). Moreover, FA markedly enhanced EGCg-induced vasorelaxation, but not Trp-His-induced vasorelaxation, in TNF-?-treated aorta. Structure-activity analysis showed that the unsaturated 2-propenoic moiety and the methoxy group of FA were important for the enhancement of vasorelaxation by EGCg. The stimulation of EGCg-induced vasorelaxation by FA was antagonized by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate, while FA enhanced vasorelaxant properties of the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase activator acetylcholine in TNF-?-treated inflammatory aorta. Moreover, the EGCg-stimulated NO production was also enhanced by FA in TNF-?-treated aorta. These data indicate that stimulation of NO production by FA enhances the vasorelaxant properties of EGCg in TNF-?-induced inflammatory aorta. PMID:24794014

Zhao, Jian; Suyama, Aki; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro

2014-07-01

385

Measurements of the dimensions of the aortic and pulmonary pathways in the human fetus: a correlative echocardiographic and morphometric study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty normal hearts from fetuses aborted at 10-33 weeks' gestation were measured directly and the results were compared with echocardiographic measurements in 20 normal live fetuses of 23-27 weeks' gestation. The diameters of the aorta, aortic isthmus, pulmonary arteries, and arterial duct were measured at standard levels and expressed as a ratio of the diameter of the ascending aorta. The

A Angelini; L D Allan; R H Anderson; D C Crawford; S K Chita; S Y Ho

1988-01-01

386

Anomalous Right Coronary Artery from Left Main Coronary Artery and Subsequent Coursing between Aorta and Pulmonary Trunk  

PubMed Central

Anomalous origin of left main coronary artery or right coronary artery from the aorta with subsequent coursing between the aorta and pulmonary trunk is rare and can be sometimes life threatening. After hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery anomalies are the second most common cause of sudden cardiac deaths among young athletes. This is a case presentation of an anomalous origin of right coronary artery from left main coronary artery coursing between the pulmonary trunk and aorta. Patient presented with STEMI and had coronary bypass surgery. PMID:24454391

Panikkath, Ragesh; Strefling, Jason; Rosales, Alvaro; Narayanan, Roshni; Wischmeyer, Jason

2013-01-01

387

Corpus Callosum Morphology in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Morphometric Analysis of MRI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed that, compared to nondisabled controls, the seven children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had a smaller corpus callosum. Results suggest that subtle differences may exist in the brains of these children and that deviations in normal corticogenesis may underlie the…

Hynd, George W.; And Others

1991-01-01

388

Morphometric analysis of lateral ventricles in schizophrenia and healthy controls regarding  

E-print Network

Morphometric analysis of lateral ventricles in schizophrenia and healthy controls regarding genetic schizophrenia. This paper explores the effects of heritability and genetic risk for schizophrenia reflected, and healthy nonrelated subject pairs. Heritability and effect due to disease were analyzed in two tests. First

Gerig, Guido

389

CRANIAL MORPHOMETRIC AND EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS IN THE NORTHERN RANGE OF OVIS CANADENSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Univariate and multivariate statistical methods were used to examine geographic variation in skull and horn characters of 694 bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) specimens from the Great Basin north to British Columbia and Alberta to test previous taxonomic hypotheses. Substantially more morphometric variation in skull and horn size and shape was found west of the Rocky Mountains than within the Rocky

John D. Wehausen; ROB ROY RAMEY II

2000-01-01

390

Morphometrics and the role of the phenotype in studies of the evolution of developmental mechanisms.  

PubMed

Developmental mechanisms are usually assumed to evolve by natural selection of the morphological traits they produce. Therefore, information on phenotypic traits is an important component of comparative studies of development. Morphometrics permits the rigorous quantitative analysis of variation in organismal size and shape, and is increasingly being used in developmental contexts. The new methods of morphometrics combine a geometric concept of shape with the procedures of multivariate statistics, and constitute a powerful and flexible set of tools for analyzing morphological variation. This paper briefly reviews these methods and provides examples of their application in studies of genetic variation and developmental modularity. The results of morphometric analyses can be readily interpreted in relation to the geometry and anatomical structure of the parts under study. Genetic studies of shape in the mouse mandible found two recurrent patterns in environmental and genetic variation from different origins, suggesting that the development system 'channels' the phenotypic expression of variation in similar ways. Moreover, by analyzing the correlations of left-right asymmetries of morphometric traits, it is possible to delimit the spatial extent of developmental modules. These methods complement the experimental approaches of developmental biology and genetics, and can be expected to be especially fruitful in combination with them. PMID:11992717

Klingenberg, Christian Peter

2002-04-01

391

Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly G562 Geometric Morphometrics  

E-print Network

and Anthropology) University, 1001 E. 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA pdpolly@indiana.edu http tutorial. Day 2 · Adams, D. C. and E. Otárola-Castillo. 2013. Geomorph: an R package for the collection. Pp. 131-159 in L.F. Marcus and E. Garcia-Valdecasas (eds.), Contributions to Morphometrics. Museu

Polly, David

392

Geometric morphometrics and paleoneurology: brain shape evolution in the genus Homo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoneurology concerns the study and analysis of fossil endocasts. Together with cranial capacity and discrete anatomical features, shape can be analysed to consider the spatial relationships between structures and to investigate the endocranial structural system. A sample of endocasts from fossil specimens of the genus Homo has been analysed using traditional metrics and 2D geometric morphometrics based on lateral projections

Emiliano Bruner

2004-01-01

393

Preliminary Morphometrics of Spleen and Kidney Macrophage Aggregates in Clinically Normal Blue Gourami Trichogaster  

E-print Network

Preliminary Morphometrics of Spleen and Kidney Macrophage Aggregates in Clinically Normal Blue of this study was to characterize a ``normal'' morphometry baseline of spleen and kidney MAs in blue gourami arbitrarily selected fields of view from each spleen and kidney. In clinically normal blue gourami, increases

Watson, Craig A.

394

MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CELLS IN THE ALVEOLAR REGION OF MAMMALIAN LUNGS  

EPA Science Inventory

Morphometric procedures have been used to study the characteristics of cells in the alveolar region of the lungs of rats, dogs, baboons, and humans. Compared with the other species, human lungs were found to contain greater numbers of macrophages and to have larger alveolar type ...

395

MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF LARGE FALCO SPECIES AND THEIR HYBRIDS WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTPACT.---Morphometric examination of several large falcon species and their hybrids was conducted to ascertain whether phenotype was an accurate indicator of hybrid parentage. Six external body measure- ments were recorded from 167 Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), Saker (E chefrug), Peregrine (E peregrinus), and New Zealand Falcons (E novaezeelandiae) and from 100 F1, F2, and backcross hybrids of these species. Principal Component

CHRIS P. EASTHAM; MIKE K. NICHOLLS

396

Use of morphometric measurements to differentiate between species and sex of king and clapper rails  

USGS Publications Warehouse

King Rails (Rallus elegans) and Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris) are large, secretive waterbirds whose ranges overlap in brackish marshes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. King and Clapper Rails are difficult to separate by physical appearance and there is currently no reliable method to distinguish between the two species. Here, the relative effectiveness of using discriminant analysis of morphometric measurements to identify and sex King and Clapper Rails was examined. Mean measurements of wing, tarsus, and weight were different between male King and Clapper Rails and between female King and Clapper Rails. However, for all measurements except culmen, male Clapper Rails and female King Rails were not different. Discriminate analysis of morphometric measurements revealed that wing, tarsus, and culmen measurements differentiated between King and Clapper Rails, but cross-validation results for male Clapper Rails were only 73%. Male King Rails were larger than female King Rails for all morphometric measurements and male Clapper Rails were larger than female Clapper Rails for all morphometric measurements except for the tail. Wing and tarsus measurements differentiated between male and female King Rails and wing, tarsus, and culmen measurements differentiated between male and female Clapper Rails.

Perkins, M.; King, S. L.; Travis, S. E.; Linscombe, J.

2009-01-01

397

Inversion of Crater Morphometric Data to Gain Insight on the Cratering Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, morphometric data for Venus and several outer planet satellites have been collected, so we now have observational data of complex Craters formed in a large range of target properties. We present general inversion techniques that can utilize the morphometric data to quantitatively test various models of complex crater formation. The morphometric data we use in this paper are depth of a complex crater, the diameter at which the depth-diameter ratio changes, and onset diameters for central peaks, terraces, and peak rings. We tested the roles of impactor velocities and hydrostatic pressure vs. crustal strength, and we tested the specific models of acoustic fluidization (Melosh, 1982) and nonproportional growth (Schultz, 1988). Neither the acoustic fluidization model nor the nonproportional growth in their published formulations are able to successfully reproduce the data. No dependence on impactor velocity is evident from our inversions. Most of the morphometric data is consistent with a linear dependence on the ratio of crustal strength to hydrostatic pressure on a planet, or the factor c/pg.

Herrick, Robert R.; Lyons, Suzane N.

1998-01-01

398

Morphometric Analysis of Hippocampal Shape in Mild Cognitive Impairment: An Imaging Genetics Study  

E-print Network

Morphometric Analysis of Hippocampal Shape in Mild Cognitive Impairment: An Imaging Genetics Study is applied in a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) study to examine hippocampal shape changes related phenotypes and genetic profiles has the po- tential to elucidate biological pathways for better understanding

Chung, Moo K.

399

Reconstruction and Morphometric Analysis of the Nasal Airway of the Dog  

E-print Network

Reconstruction and Morphometric Analysis of the Nasal Airway of the Dog (Canis familiaris of the nasal airway of a large dog, using magnetic resonance imaging scans. Representative airway sections The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) displays the larg- est variation in body size of all terrestrial

Settles, Gary S.

400

J. AMER. SOC. HORT. SCI. 134(1):7787. 2009. Tomato Fruit Shape Analysis Using Morphometric  

E-print Network

J. AMER. SOC. HORT. SCI. 134(1):77­87. 2009. Tomato Fruit Shape Analysis Using Morphometric and Morphology Attributes Implemented in Tomato Analyzer Software Program Maria Jose Gonzalo Department segregating tomato (Solanum spp.) F2 populations using the software program, Tomato Analyzer. The first method

van der Knaap, Esther

401

Predictive Morphometric Relationships for Estimating Fecundity of Sea Lampreys from Lake Champlain and Other  

E-print Network

Predictive Morphometric Relationships for Estimating Fecundity of Sea Lampreys from Lake Champlain lampreys in Lake Champlain, we sampled 29 female sea lampreys (mean length ¼ 456 mm [range ¼ 364­550 mm based on wet weight alone. Sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus are a nuisance species in Lake Champlain

Marsden, Ellen

402

Morphometrical and intracellular changes in rat ovaries following chronic administration of ghrelin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our investigation was to examine the influence of chronic administration of ghrelin on the rat ovarian state. Morphometrical and intracellular changes in the ovary of 35-d female Wistar rats after sc injection of 1nmol of ghrelin for 10 consecutive days were studied. Control animals (n=10) were injected with normal saline using similar method. The ovaries were collected

A. Kheradmand; L. Roshangar; M. Taati; A. V. Sirotkin

2009-01-01

403

Endothelium-dependent relaxations in the aorta from K2p6.1 knockout mice  

PubMed Central

K2P6.1 or TWIK-2, a two-pore domain K channel, is an important regulator of cardiovascular function. K2P6.1 is highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. Mice (8–12 wk) lacking functional K2P6.1 (K2P6.1?/?) are hypertensive and have enhanced vascular contractility. It is not known whether the lack of functional K2P6.1 in endothelium has a role in the vascular dysfunction in K2P6.1?/? mice. We tested the hypothesis: K2P6.1?/? mice have impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations. K2P6.1?/? mice were ?35 mmHg more hypertensive than WT mice at both 8–12 wk (young adult) and 20–24 wk (mature mice, P < 0.01; n = 8–10). Endothelium-dependent relaxations of the thoracic aorta were evaluated by isometric myography after contraction with phenylephrine (10?6 M). Maximal ACh-dependent relaxations were increased from 65 ± 1% to 73 ± 1% in the aorta from young adult (P < 0.01; n = 6) and from 45 ± 1% to 74 ± 1% in the aorta from mature (P < 0.001; n = 5) K2P6.1?/? mice compared with K2P6.1+/+ littermates. However, in the aorta from young adult and mature K2P6.1+/+ mice, 10?5 M indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, increased maximal ACh relaxations to knockout levels. Enhanced relaxation was also seen with ATP, a P2Y purinergic agonist, and A23187, a nonreceptor-based agonist in mature K2P6.1?/? mice. Mature adult aorta from K2P6.1?/? showed an attenuated ACh-mediated contraction in the presence of nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and without precontraction of 0.97 mN vs. 7.5 mN in K2P6.1?/? and K2P6.1+/+ (P < 0.001; n = 5). In summary, K2P6.1?/? mice, which are hypertensive, have enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxations in the aorta due to the suppression of an indomethacin-sensitive constrictor component. PMID:23637138

Pandit, Lavannya M.; Crossland, Randy F.; Marrelli, Sean P.; Bryan, Robert M.

2013-01-01

404

Endothelium-dependent relaxations in the aorta from K(2p)6.1 knockout mice.  

PubMed

K2P6.1 or TWIK-2, a two-pore domain K channel, is an important regulator of cardiovascular function. K2P6.1 is highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. Mice (8-12 wk) lacking functional K2P6.1 (K2P6.1(-/-)) are hypertensive and have enhanced vascular contractility. It is not known whether the lack of functional K2P6.1 in endothelium has a role in the vascular dysfunction in K2P6.1(-/-) mice. We tested the hypothesis: K2P6.1(-/-) mice have impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations. K2P6.1(-/-) mice were ?35 mmHg more hypertensive than WT mice at both 8-12 wk (young adult) and 20-24 wk (mature mice, P < 0.01; n = 8-10). Endothelium-dependent relaxations of the thoracic aorta were evaluated by isometric myography after contraction with phenylephrine (10(-6) M). Maximal ACh-dependent relaxations were increased from 65 ± 1% to 73 ± 1% in the aorta from young adult (P < 0.01; n = 6) and from 45 ± 1% to 74 ± 1% in the aorta from mature (P < 0.001; n = 5) K2P6.1(-/-) mice compared with K2P6.1(+/+) littermates. However, in the aorta from young adult and mature K2P6.1(+/+) mice, 10(-5) M indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, increased maximal ACh relaxations to knockout levels. Enhanced relaxation was also seen with ATP, a P2Y purinergic agonist, and A23187, a nonreceptor-based agonist in mature K2P6.1(-/-) mice. Mature adult aorta from K2P6.1(-/-) showed an attenuated ACh-mediated contraction in the presence of nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and without precontraction of 0.97 mN vs. 7.5 mN in K2P6.1(-/-) and K2P6.1(+/+) (P < 0.001; n = 5). In summary, K2P6.1(-/-) mice, which are hypertensive, have enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxations in the aorta due to the suppression of an indomethacin-sensitive constrictor component. PMID:23637138

Lloyd, Eric E; Pandit, Lavannya M; Crossland, Randy F; Marrelli, Sean P; Bryan, Robert M

2013-07-01

405

Dose-Effects of Aorta-Infused Clenbuterol on Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Background The ?2 adrenergic receptor (?2AR) plays an important role in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in various organs. Recently, a selective ?2AR agonist clenbuterol was suggested to protect against cerebral I/R injury. This study was designed to investigate changes of ?2ARs after spinal cord I/R injury and dose-effects of aorta-infused clenbuterol on spinal cord I/R injury in rabbits. Methods Spinal cord ischemia was induced in New Zealand white rabbits by infrarenal abdominal aortic occlusion with a balloon catheter for 30 minutes except the sham group. During occlusion, nothing (I/R group), normal saline (NS group) or clenbuterol at different doses of 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 mg/kg (C0.005, C0.01, C0.05, C0.1, C0.5, and C1 groups) was infused into the occluded aortic segments. The hemodynamic data, blood glucose and serum electrolytes were measured during experimental period. Neurological function was assessed according to the modified Tarlov scales until 48 hours after reperfusion. After that, the lumbar spinal cord was harvested for ?2AR immunohistochemistry and histopathologic evaluation in the anterior horns. Results The ?2AR expression in the anterior horns of the spinal cord was significantly higher in the I/R group than in the sham group. Tarlov scores and the number of viable ?-motor neurons were higher in C0.01-C0.5 groups than in the NS group, C0.005 and C1 groups and were highest in the C0.1 group. Hypotension and hyperglycemia were found in the C1 group. Conclusion ?2ARs in the anterior horn were upregulated after spinal cord I/R injury. Aortic-infused clenbuterol (0.01–0.5 mg/kg) can attenuate spinal cord I/R injury dose-dependently during the ischemic period. The Optimal dosage was 0.1 mg/kg. Activation of ?2AR could be a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of spinal cord I/R injury. PMID:24391890

Chen, Binbin; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lianhua; Huang, Shiwei; Li, Shitong; Yao, Junyan

2013-01-01

406

Mycobacterium fortuitum abdominal wall abscesses following liposuction  

PubMed Central

We describe here a case of abdominal abscesses due to Mycobacterium fortuitum following liposuction. The abscesses developed three months after the procedure and diagnosis was delayed for five months. The clues for diagnosis were persistent pus discharge in spite of broad spectrum antibiotics and failure to grow any organisms on routine culture. This condition has been rarely reported; however, the increasing number of liposuction procedures done and awareness among physicians will probably result in the identification of more cases. Combination antibiotic therapy with surgical drainage in more extensive diseases is essential for cure. PMID:19753203

Al Soub, Hussam; Al-Maslamani, Eman; Al-Maslamani, Mona

2008-01-01

407

Standing diagnostic and therapeutic equine abdominal surgery.  

PubMed

The widespread use of laparoscopy in equine surgery has increased interest in the standing approach to a wide range of procedures typically regarded as feasible only through a ventral midline incision. Although a commonly cited benefit of standing surgery relates to avoiding costs of general anesthesia and risks associated with it, some procedures and horses are not suitable candidates for standing abdominal procedures. Some procedures, such as nephrectomy, colostomy, and closure of the nephrosplenic space, are not only suitable for standing surgery but are performed more easily and more safely through this approach than with general anesthesia. PMID:24680210

Graham, Sarah; Freeman, David

2014-04-01

408

Pathology Case Study: Anemia and Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman found a large left adrenal mass after a history of abdominal pain. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Horn, Kevin D.; Sholehvar, David

2009-09-29

409

Unusual presentations of abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed

A review of the records of 100 consecutive patients undergoing surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms disclosed two individuals who presented in a fashion sufficiently rare as to warrant detailed discussion. The first had concomitant rupture and thrombosis manifested by lower extremity paraplegia and anesthesia, and the second had documented DIC in conjunction with a stable aneurysm. The latter completely resolved with heparin and subsequent surgical repair. Each of these presentations has had documentation in the surgical literature in less than five instances, and both case histories are given, followed by a review of the literature and theories as to the underlying pathophysiology. PMID:7217187

Keagy, B A; Pharr, W F; Bowes, D E

1981-01-01

410

Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is an exciting new minimally invasive treatment option for patients with this disease. Ochsner Clinic has been the only institution in the Gulf South participating in FDA clinical trials of these investigational devices. Early results with endovascular AAA repair demonstrate a trend towards lower mortality and morbidity when compared with traditional open surgery. Length of stay has been reduced by two-thirds with a marked reduction in postoperative pain and at-home convalescence. If the long-term data on efficacy and durability of these devices are good, most AAAs in the future will be treated with this minimally invasive technique. PMID:21845135

Sternbergh, W. Charles; Yoselevitz, Moises; Money, Samuel R.

1999-01-01

411

Isolated Abdominal Wall Metastasis of Endometrial Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

A woman in her mid-60s presented with a bulky mass on the anterior abdominal wall. She had a previous incidental diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma FIGO stage IB following a vaginal hysterectomy. Physical exam and imaging revealed a well circumscribed bulging tumour at the umbilical region, measuring 10 × 9 × 9?cm, with overlying intact skin and subcutaneous tissue. Surgical resection was undertaken, and histological examination showed features of endometrial carcinoma. She began chemotherapy and is alive with no signs of recurrent disease one year after surgery. This case brings up to light an atypical location of a solitary metastasis of endometrial carcinoma.

Simoes, Jorge; Goncalves, Matilde; Matos, Isabel

2014-01-01

412

Pathology Case Study: Postoperative Abdominal Discomfort  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a clinical microbiology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 22 year old male is experiencing postoperative abdominal discomfort. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology and related medicine.

Kulich, Scott; Pasculle, A. W.

2008-10-27

413

Emergency laparoscopy for abdominal stab wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Management strategies for abdominal stab wounds (ASW) in initially asymptomatic patients range from mandatory explorative\\u000a laparotomy (EL) to conservative approaches with observation alone. Emergency diagnostic laparoscopy (DL) may play a potential\\u000a role between these two extremes—hence lowering the rate of unnecessary laparotomies and keeping the rate of missed injuries\\u000a to a minimum.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods: At our institution mandatory

K. K. J. Hallfeldt; A. W. Trupka; J. Erhard; H. Waldner; L. Schweiberer

1998-01-01

414

Pathology Case Study: Progressive Abdominal / Pelvic Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman presented with progressively worsening abdominal/pelvic pain over a period of 6 weeks. She experienced minor intermittent pain. Visitors can view both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of pathology.

Mcfadden, Kathryn

2009-03-06

415

[Surgical treatment for traumatic injury of the ascending aorta and aortic arch;report of a case].  

PubMed

We herein report a rare case of surgical treatment for blunt traumatic injury of the ascending aorta and aortic arch. A 60-year-old male was crushed by an arm of a forklift while working. He suffered from multiple thoracic traumas, including injury of the ascending aorta and aortic arch, multiple fractures of the ribs and bilateral hemopneumothorax. An emergency surgery for aortic repair was performed because there were no other severe hemorrhagic compilations due to organ injures. There was a massive hematoma around the aortic arch, and the intimae of several parts of the distal ascending aorta and aortic arch were disrupted circumferentially. The aorta was replaced with a prosthetic graft from sinotubular junction to the aortic arch, between the left common carotid artery and the left subclavian artery. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and he was transferred to a rehabilitation facility on the 13th day after surgery. PMID:24917405

Kanamori, Taro; Ichihara, Tetsuya; Sakaguchi, Hidehito; Inoue, Takehiko

2014-06-01

416

Fluid structure interaction (FSI) simulation of bileaflet mechanical heart valve in an anatomic aorta geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FSI simulation of a medical quality BMHV implanted in the aortic position is studied. The valve is implanted in an anatomic non-compliant aorta geometry, which is reconstructed from MRI data acquired from a healthy volunteer. A physiological incoming flow waveform is specified at the inlet with the peak systolic Reynolds number equal to 6000. The flow solver is based on the CURVIB (curvilinear immersed boundary method) of Ge and Sotiropoulos, 2007 (JCP) and the FSI problem is solved with strong coupling partitioned approach. Direct numerical simulation is carried out on a grid system consisting of 10M grid nodes. The impact on hemodynamics by valve implantation is studied by considering different valve implantation angles. The calculated numerical results are analyzed in terms of leaflet kinematics and flow physics, and compared with data from our previous work, where the same valve is implanted in a simplified straight aorta geometry.

Ge, Liang; Borazjani, Iman; Dasi, Lakshmi; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit

2007-11-01

417

A Case of Fetal Diagnosis of Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy and Coarctation of the Aorta  

PubMed Central

Background?Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) cardiomyopathy is a rare form of cardiomyopathy. It is difficult to diagnose prenatally and therefore not well described in the fetal population. There have been a few reports in the literature detailing isolated cases of fetal and neonatal LVNC cardiomyopathy. Case Report?We present a case of LVNC cardiomyopathy and coarctation of the aorta detected prenatally at 29?+?6 weeks of gestation with survival in infancy. This is the first case report in the literature describing the fetal diagnosis of noncompaction cardiomyopathy and associated coarctation of the aorta; a rare combination. Conclusion? With a high index of suspicion, the antenatal diagnosis of noncompaction cardiomyopathy may improve neonatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:25032060

Jacobs, Katherine; Giacobbe, Lauren; Aguilera, Marijo; Ramin, Kirk; Sivanandam, Shanthi

2014-01-01

418

Mediastinitis and Mycotic Aneurysm of the Aorta after Orthotopic Heart Transplantation  

PubMed Central

After cardiac transplantation, bacterial mediastinitis is a rare but dangerous early complication. Of the 113 patients who underwent heart or heart-lung transplantation at our hospital from August 1981 to April 1989, 8 developed purulent mediastinitis. Treatment involved surgical débridment, local irrigation, drainage, and high-dose systemic antibiotics. No patient died of an acute mediastinal infection. In 2 cases, however, chronic mediastinitis led to the formation of a huge mycotic aneurysm of the ascending aorta. Eleven days after surgical intervention for rupture, 1 patient died of aneurysmal rerupture; the 2nd patient remains well 16 months after prosthetic replacement of the ascending aorta and reconstruction of the necrotic proximal portion of the left coronary artery with a saphenous vein patch. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991;18:186-93) Images PMID:15227478

Anthuber, Matthias; Kemkes, Bernhard M.; Kreuzer, Ekkehard; Gokel, Michael; Schuetz, Albert; Kugler, Christian; Sudhoff, Frank

1991-01-01

419