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Sample records for abdominal aorta morphometric

  1. [Abdominal aorta injury secondary to closed trauma].

    PubMed

    Frizza, J I; Fainstein, D; Lasdica, S; Ontivero, M; Mele, J I; Vilariño, E

    2007-04-01

    Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta with total interruption of blood flow is uncommon. When there is total obstruction of the artery, the clinical picture is dramatic. The most frequent mechanism is compression due to the safety belt during a car accident. The patients have absent femoral and distal pulses, associated to neuropathy in the lower limbs. We present a case of abdominal aorta injury secondary to closed trauma and review the causes, presentation forms and management of the injury. PMID:17439771

  2. Abdominal aorta transplantation after programmed cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Song; Liu, Chang-Jian; Qiao, Tong; Sun, Xue-Mei; Chen, Jun-Hao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the morphologic and cellular immunologic changes after homologous transplantation of the abdominal aorta in rats after programmed cryopreservation (-196 C). METHODS: Abdominal aorta was harvested from anesthetized Spraque Dawley (SD) rats for cryopreservation (group B) or immediate implantation (group A). The survival rates and apoptotic rates of aortic endothelial cells (ECs) were examined. The patency rates, histology and cellular immunologic changes of the abdominal aorta were examined on days 1, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60 after transplantation respectively. RESULTS: The survival rate of ECs after programmed cryopreservation was 90.1% 1.79%, about 3.4% lower than that of uncryopreservation (93.5% 1.96%). The apoptotic rates of ECs was increased after cryopreservation (7.15% vs 4.86%, P < 0.05). The patency rate of group B was significantly higher than that of group A (91.6% 12.9% vs 62.5% 26.2%, P < 0.01). CD4/CD8 ratio, TCR ? ? and CD11b/ CD18 ratio of group B were significantly lower than those of group A (P < 0.05). Revivification of the cryopreserved abdominal aorta showed normal adventitia and intact smooth muscle cells. CONCLUSION: Cryopreservation can reduce homologous abdominal aortic antigenecity. Even if without administration of immunosuppressive agents, it is still feasible to implement homologous artery grafting in rats. PMID:14966916

  3. Interrenal Coarctation of the Abdominal Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Sokolić, Josip; Luetic, V.; Šoša, T.; Fabečić-Sabadi, V.; Lovrenčić, M.; Grabić-Hančević, D.

    1984-01-01

    We report a case of congenital, segmental, hypoplastic interrenal abdominal aortic coarctation with inadequate collateral circulation. After preoperatively evaluating renal function and intraoperatively measuring vascular pressure, the coarctation was bridged with an aortico-aorta bypass; and an additional bypass graft was placed between the prosthesis and superior mesenteric artery. In this way, besides the successful surgical correction of coarctation, the inverse blood flow in the superior mesenteric artery was reversed to normal. Images PMID:15226879

  4. [Unusual injuries of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Simána, J; Manhal, J; Chytra, I

    1995-04-01

    A 23-year-old patient was admitted after a car accident with multiple fractures of the extremities, contusion of the brain and a sonographically confirmed haematoma in the retroperitoneum. After 24 hours laparotomy was indicated on account of suddenly developed hypotension. On operation a haemoperitoneum was found and an extensive haematoma in the retroperitoneum, the cause of which was injury of the abdominal aorta due to rupture of the lower mesenteric and lumbar artery. The authors demonstrate the not quite typical picture of an injury of a major artery and recommended early angiography. PMID:7652615

  5. Anomalous Posterior Intercostal Arterial Trunk Arising From the Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Jie, Bing; Yu, Dong; Jiang, Sen

    2016-04-01

    A common trunk of the ipsilateral posterior intercostal artery (PIA) arising from the thoracic aorta is usually an anatomical variation. However, a common trunk of bilateral posterior intercostal arterial trunk (PIAT) arising from the abdominal aorta is rare. It is important to recognize this anatomical variation of PIA when performing interventional radiological procedures. We present a rare case of an anomalous PIAT that originated from the abdominal aorta in a patient with hemoptysis caused by tuberculosis sequelae. Bilateral 4th to 11th PIAs arose from a common trunk and the trunk arising from the posterior aspect of the abdominal aorta at the level of T12/L1 intervertebral space. The pathological right 4th and 5th PIAs and bronchial arteries were embolized. Hemoptysis has been controlled for 3 months. PMID:26253781

  6. [Minimally invasive access to the abdominal aorta in pigs].

    PubMed

    Gnus, Jan; Czerski, Albert; Janeczek, Maciej; Hauzer, Willy; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Ratajczak, Kornel; Rusiecka, Agnieszka; Ferenc, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on 10 sows weighing 50-60 kg. Animals were randomly divided into two experimental groups comprising 5 individuals each. Surgical procedure of reaching the abdominal aorta below the renal arteries was performed using two different methods. In animals from the first group the procedure involved cutting the linea alba in order to obtain access to the abdominal aorta through the abdominal cavity. In the second group the access to the abdominal aorta was obtained by retroperitoneal approach. The approach was made in lower lateral one-third of the abdomen cutting through the muscles and without opening the peritoneal cavity. The study showed superiority of the second surgical method over the median approach along the linea alba in the form of: better animal survival (100% of animals), shorter procedure time, lack of postoperative complications, shorter recovery period and better general postoperative condition PMID:24003662

  7. Blunt injury of the abdominal aorta: a review.

    PubMed

    Roth, S M; Wheeler, J R; Gregory, R T; Gayle, R G; Parent, F N; Demasi, R; Riblet, J; Weireter, L J; Britt, L D

    1997-04-01

    Injury to the abdominal aorta after blunt trauma occurs much less frequently than injury to the thoracic aorta. Although presentations vary, common themes continue to emerge with each patient. Within a 6-month period, our trauma unit diagnosed and treated two cases of blunt abdominal aortic trauma. Both patients were restrained passengers in motor vehicle crashes with resultant abdominal aortic injuries and demonstrated some of the most common associated injuries. Our two cases bring the number found in the literature to 62 and demonstrate the need for rapid recognition and treatment of this potentially lethal injury. This article is a comprehensive review of the management of abdominal aortic injury from blunt trauma. PMID:9137272

  8. Computed tomography of the postoperative abdominal aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, S.; Megibow, A.J.; Naidich, D.P.; Bosniak, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was performed on 46 patients who had undergone graft replacement of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Twelve post-operative complications were found in nine patients. They included hemorrhage, infection, anastomotic pseudoaneurysms, major vessel occlusion, postoperative pancreatitis, and others. The varied apperance of the normal postoperative graft is also presented. It is concluded that CT is a rapid, sensitive, and noninvasive method for detecting or excluding postoperative complications of abdominal aortic surgery.

  9. Computed Tomographic Angiography of the Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) angiography (CTA) has become the preferred imaging test of choice for various aortic conditions because of its excellent spatial resolution, rapid image acquisition, and its wide availability. CTA provides a robust tool for planning aortic interventions and diagnosing acute and chronic vascular diseases in the abdomen. CTA is the standard for imaging aneurysms before intervention and evaluating the aorta in the acute setting to assess traumatic injury, dissection, and aneurysm rupture. Knowledge of the imaging features of these disease processes, inflammatory vasculitides, and occlusive atherosclerotic disease is essential for guiding surgical and medical management of patients. PMID:26654390

  10. Axial prestretch and circumferential distensibility in biomechanics of abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Horn, Luk; Netuil, Marek; Vo?avkov, Tereza

    2014-08-01

    Elastic arteries are significantly prestretched in an axial direction. This property minimises axial deformations during pressure cycle. Ageing-induced changes in arterial biomechanics, among others, are manifested via a marked decrease in the prestretch. Although this fact is well known, little attention has been paid to the effect of decreased prestretch on mechanical response. Our study presents the results of an analytical simulation of the inflation-extension behaviour of the human abdominal aorta treated as nonlinear, anisotropic, prestrained thin-walled as well as thick-walled tube with closed ends. The constitutive parameters and geometries for 17 aortas adopted from the literature were supplemented with initial axial prestretches obtained from the statistics of 365 autopsy measurements. For each aorta, the inflation-extension response was calculated three times, with the expected value of the initial prestretch and with the upper and lower confidence limit of the initial prestretch derived from the statistics. This approach enabled age-related trends to be evaluated bearing in mind the uncertainty in the prestretch. Despite significantly decreased longitudinal prestretch with age, the biomechanical response of human abdominal aorta changes substantially depending on the initial axial stretch was used. In particular, substituting the upper limit of initial prestretch gave mechanical responses which can be characterised by (1) low variation in axial stretch and (2) high circumferential distensibility during pressurisation, in contrast to the responses obtained for their weakly prestretched counterparts. The simulation also suggested the significant effect of the axial prestretch on the variation of axial stress in the pressure cycle. Finally, the obtained results are in accordance with the hypothesis that circumferential-to-axial stiffness ratio is the quantity relatively constant within this cycle. PMID:24136338

  11. An Abdominal Aorta Wall Extraction for Liver Cirrhosis Classification Using Ultrasonic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takaya; Fujita, Yusuke; Mitani, Yoshihiro; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Segawa, Makoto; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method to extract an abdominal aorta wall from an M-mode image. Furthermore, we propose the use of a Gaussian filter in order to improve image quality. The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter is effective in the abdominal aorta wall extraction.

  12. Simultaneous inflammatory pseudotumors of the coronary arteries and abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Wada, Tomoyuki; Anai, Hirofumi; Morita, Masato; Shuto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    We herein report a rare case of cardiac and abdominal aortic inflammatory pseudotumors (IPTs). A 64-year-old male presented with a loss of appetite, abdominal distension and general fatigue. A cardiac tumor was suspected on the basis of computed tomography scans. A needle biopsy was performed, but it did not lead to a definitive diagnosis. At the same time, a 70-mm abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was also detected. A full sternotomy was performed, and a huge, elastic hard tumor was found around the bilateral coronary arteries, anterior side of the right atria, ascending aorta and pulmonary artery. The pathological diagnosis was IPT, which was judged to be inoperable because of its anatomical location and the fact that the patient was a Jehovah's Witness, which precluded the administration of heterologous blood transfusions. The AAA was surgically treated, and the pathological diagnosis of the aneurysmal tissue also revealed IPT. Perioral steroid therapy was initiated, and the size of the tumor did not change for 1-2 years, but then gradually increased. The patient eventually died 8 years later, and the cause of his sudden death was considered to be heart failure caused by the pressure on the right atrium and ventricle due to the enlarged cardiac tumor. PMID:24254060

  13. A stress-strain relation for a rat abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Demiray, H; Weizscker, H W; Pascale, K; Erbay, H A

    1988-01-01

    Assuming the arterial wall is homogeneous, incompressible, isotropic and elastic, a stress-strain relation has been presented for a rat's abdominal aorta. As an illustrating example, the problem of simultaneous inflation and the axial stretch of a cylindrical artery under physiological loading has been solved and then the material coefficients are determined by comparing theoretical results with the existing experiments. The result indicates that the maximum deviation between the theory and experiment for various pressure levels is 3.7% which seems to be a good approximation of theory to the experiments. The variation of circumferential stress and the incremental pressure modulus with inner pressure are also depicted in the work. PMID:3417689

  14. Pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta diagnosed by color duplex Doppler sonography.

    PubMed

    Ertrk, H; Erden, A; Yurdakul, M; Caliko?lu, U; Oler, T; Cumhur, T

    1999-05-01

    A pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta is rare, accounting for only 1% of all abdominal aneurysms. More than 1 imaging method may be needed to demonstrate an abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm. We report a case in which the presence of continuous bidirectional flow in the neck of a pseudoaneurysm on color duplex Doppler sonography confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:10323192

  15. Traumatic dissection and rupture of the abdominal aorta as a complication of the Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shaun C; Chute, Dennis J; Desai, Bharati C; Koloski, Eugene R

    2008-11-01

    Although the Heimlich maneuver is considered the best intervention for relieving acute upper airway obstruction, several complications have been reported in the literature. These complications can occur as a result of an increase in abdominal pressure leading to a variety of well-documented visceral injuries, including the great vessels. Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis after the Heimlich maneuver is a rare but recognized event; however, to date no case of traumatic dissection and rupture of the abdominal aorta has been described. We report the first known case, to our knowledge, of a traumatic dissection and rupture of the abdominal aorta after a forcefully applied Heimlich maneuver. PMID:18971040

  16. Aberrant heartworm migration to the abdominal aorta and systemic arteriolitis in a dog presenting with vomiting and hemorrhagic diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Janet A; Scott, Katherine D; Edwards, John F

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year-old Dachshund was presented for vomiting and diarrhea. Abdominal ultrasound revealed Dirofilaria immitis in the abdominal aorta and an avascular segment of small intestine. The dog was euthanized. Necropsy revealed D. immitis in the abdominal aorta and widespread necrotizing arteriolitis. This is a unique presentation of aberrant migration of D. immitis. PMID:26740703

  17. [A men with a Salmonella dublin-infected aneurysm of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Jacobs, P P M; van Elsacker-Niele, A M W; Visser, I J R

    2002-03-16

    A 71-year-old male was diagnosed with a Salmonella dublin infection. He presented with abdominal pain with no diarrhoea, and sepsis, and was found to have an infected aneurysm of the infrarenal abdominal aorta. He was treated surgically with resection of the aneurysm and implantation of an extra-anatomic axillobifemoral bypass, followed by long-term antibiotic treatment. Nine months after the primary treatment, the patient died as a result of rupture of the aortic stump. S. dublin-infected aneurysm of the abdominal aorta is a rare condition with high mortality. Human S. dublin infections are associated with the consumption of unpasteurised dairy products from infected animals. PMID:11925803

  18. Diagnosis of High Bifurcation of the Abdominal Aorta with Associated Vascular Variations: Case Report with Multidedector Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Atalar, Mehmet Haydar; Salk, Ismail; Bozbiyik, Nisa; Cetin, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Variations of the branches and bifurcation of the abdominal aorta and their relations with other abdominal structures and organs are important concerning abdominal and spinal surgery. Case Report In this report, authors present a high -positioned bifurcation of the abdominal aorta at the level of the L3 vertebral body and its associations with multiple variations of other abdominal arteries during contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) examination of the abdomen. Conclusions We reported on a unique clinically and surgically significant case of variations of the abdominal aorta as related to the location and type of bifurcation. The awareness of the variations of the abdominal aorta is of great importance for surgeons in order to reduce complications during abdominal and spinal interventions, as well as for radiologists for precise interpretation of angiograms. PMID:26688701

  19. Multiple Mycotic Aneurysms of the Abdominal Aorta Illustrated on MDCT Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Amit Nandan Dhar; Srinivasan, Ananthakrishnan; Jain, Shivi

    2015-01-01

    Infective mycotic aneurysm of the aorta is a rare and life-threatening disease. A patient presenting with constitutional symptoms and pulsatile abdominal mass should raise a suspicion of mycotic aneurysm. Early detection of aortic mycotic lesions in such patients should play a key role in the treatment of aortic aneurysms. Multiple mycotic aneurysms of abdominal aorta in a young male are a rare manifestation of the disease. Multidetector computerized tomography (CT) is an essential tool in identifying the etiology, pathogenesis, protean manifestations of systemic tuberculosis, and ultimately deciding the course of treatment. PMID:26430542

  20. Acute Total Occlusion of the Abdominal Aorta in an Elderly Patient with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaoye; Hu, Yu

    2013-01-01

    A 76-year-old man without regular anticoagulation therapy for his atrial fibrillation was found to have a complete occlusion of the abdominal aorta and bilateral iliac and femoral arteries, confirmed by multi-slice computed tomography angiography. Prompt diagnosis and immediate intervention are important to minimize complications and avoid fatal outcome whenever arterial occlusion is suspected or diagnosed.

  1. Anatomic study of the collateral branches of the abdominal aorta of primate species Saguinus niger.

    PubMed

    Andrade, L C; Branco, ; Lima, A R

    2015-02-01

    Saguinus niger is a primate of the family Callitrichidae, with a geographical distribution limited to northern Brazil, Guyanas, Suriname and Venezuela, where it inhabits rainforests along the coast. Three adult females from the Paragominas Bauxite Mine--PA were used, donated to the Laboratory of Animal Morphology Research (LAMR) of the Federal Rural University of Amazonia. These animals had died of natural causes. The arterial system was filled with latex, and the animals were fixed in 10% formalin. Afterwards, the abdominal aorta and its collateral branches were dissected. The arrangement of the abdominal aorta branches in this species showed a similar arrangement as domestic animals but differing in the formation of the coeliac trunk. The coeliac trunk originates from the abdominal aorta, and from this trunk, we found the hepatic, left gastric and splenic arteries, where the origin of these vessels was variable. These arteries originate from the coliac trunk or a common trunk originating from the coeliac trunk, a characteristic not described in other species. The other branches of the abdominal aorta from S. niger did not show great differences in origin when compared to other species. PMID:24597769

  2. Thoraco-abdominal Aorta Dissection: Look Again Before You Leap

    PubMed Central

    Zeina, Abdel-Rauf; Trachtengerts, Victoria; Abadi, Sobhi; Jarchowsky, Jacob; Soimu, Uri; Nachtigal, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    Aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition that might require immediate assessment and therapy. We present the case of a 71-year-old woman with essential hypertension complaining about low back pain; unenhanced thoracic-lumbar spine computed tomography examination (CT) revealed a hyperdense thin line across the aorta with an appearance of "double aortic lumen". Enhanced CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of type B aortic dissection. Radiologists should be familiar with this finding that could be considered a new radiological sign of aortic dissection on unenhanced CT examination. PMID:22470686

  3. Thoracic and abdominal aortas stiffen through unique extracellular matrix changes in intrauterine growth restricted fetal sheep

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, R. Blair; Rozance, Paul J.; Petrash, Carson C.; Hunter, Kendall S.

    2013-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a fetal complication of pregnancy epidemiologically linked to cardiovascular disease in the newborn later in life. However, the mechanism is poorly understood with very little research on the vascular structure and function during development in healthy and IUGR neonates. Previously, we found vascular remodeling and increased stiffness in the carotid and umbilical arteries, but here we examine the remodeling and biomechanics in the larger vessels more proximal to the heart. To study this question, thoracic and abdominal aortas were collected from a sheep model of placental insufficiency IUGR (PI-IUGR) due to exposure to elevated ambient temperatures. Aortas from control (n = 12) and PI-IUGR fetuses (n = 10) were analyzed for functional biomechanics and structural remodeling. PI-IUGR aortas had a significant increase in stiffness (P < 0.05), increased collagen content (P < 0.05), and decreased sulfated glycosaminoglycan content (P < 0.05). Our derived constitutive model from experimental data related increased stiffness to reorganization changes of increased alignment angle of collagen fibers and increased elastin (P < 0.05) in the thoracic aorta and increased concentration of collagen fibers in the abdominal aorta toward the circumferential direction verified through use of histological techniques. This fetal vascular remodeling in PI-IUGR may set the stage for possible altered growth and development and help to explain the pathophysiology of adult cardiovascular disease in previously IUGR individuals. PMID:24322609

  4. Endovascular Repair of a Pseudoaneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta Secondary to Translumbar Aortography

    SciTech Connect

    Mir, Naheed; Nunzio, Mario De; Pollock, John G

    2006-12-15

    This report describes an incidental finding of a pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta on a computed tomography (CT) renal angiogram during investigation of chronic renal failure in a 73-year-old man. The patient had undergone a translumbar aortogram 20 years previously. An increase in the size of the aneurysm by 7 mm over 6 months prompted treatment and the aneurysm underwent successful endovascular repair with a custom-made stent-graft.

  5. Thymoquinone protects end organs from abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kocarslan, Sezen; Kucuk, Ahmet; Eser, ?rfan; Sezen, Hatice; Buyukfirat, Evren; Hazar, Abdussemet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have demonstrated that thymoquinone has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs like lungs, kidneys and liver in different experimental models. Objective We aimed to determine whether thymoquinone has favorable effects on lung, renal, heart tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (n=10), control (n=10) and thymoquinone (TQ) treatment group (n=10). Control and TQ-treatment groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 45 minutes followed by a 120-min period of reperfusion. In the TQ-treatment group, thymoquinone was given 5 minutes. before reperfusion at a dose of 20 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in blood serum were measured and lung, kidney, and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. Results Total oxidative status and oxidative stress index activity in blood samples were statistically higher in the control group compared to the sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for TOS and OSI). Control group injury scores were statistically higher compared to sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion Thymoquinone administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and histopathologic injury in an acute abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion rat model. PMID:25859871

  6. Role of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in endothelium-dependent contraction of atherosclerotic mouse abdominal aortas.

    PubMed

    Li, Shasha; Liu, Bin; Luo, Wenhong; Zhang, Yingzhan; Li, Hui; Huang, Dongyang; Zhou, Yingbi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or -2 in endothelium-dependent contraction under atherosclerotic conditions. Atherosclerosis was induced in apoE knockout (apoE(-/-) ) mice and those with COX-1(-/-) (apoE(-/-) -COX-1(-/-) ) by feeding with high fat and cholesterol food. Aortas (abdominal or the whole section) were isolated for functional and/or biochemical analyses. As in non-atherosclerotic conditions, the muscarinic receptor agonist acetylcholine (ACh) evoked an endothelium-dependent, COX-mediated contraction following NO synthase (NOS) inhibition in abdominal aortic rings from atherosclerotic apoE(-/-) mice. Interestingly, COX-1 inhibition not only abolished such a contraction in rings showing normal appearance, but also diminished that in rings with plaques. Accordingly, only a minor contraction (<30% that of apoE(-/-) counterparts) was evoked by ACh (following NOS inhibition) in abdominal aortic rings of atherosclerotic apoE(-/-) -COX-1(-/-) mice with plaques, and none was evoked in those showing normal appearance. Also, the contraction evoked by ACh in apoE(-/-) -COX-1(-/-) abdominal aortic rings with plaques was abolished by non-selective COX inhibition, thromboxane-prostanoid (TP) receptor antagonism, or endothelial denudation. Moreover, it was noted that ACh evoked a predominant production of the prostacyclin (PGI2 , which mediates abdominal aortic contraction via TP receptors in mice) metabolite 6-keto-PGF1? , which was again sensitive to COX-1 inhibition or COX-1(-/-) . Therefore, in atherosclerotic mouse abdominal aortas, COX-1 can still be the major isoform mediating endothelium-dependent contraction, which probably results largely from PGI2 synthesis as in non-atherosclerotic conditions. In contrast, COX-2 may have only a minor role in such response limited to areas of plaques under the same pathological condition. PMID:26444418

  7. Ascending to Abdominal Aorta Extraanatomic Bypass for Descending Aortic Coarctation: A Reconstruction Technique without Laparotomy or Left Thoracotomy

    PubMed Central

    Yuasa, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masahiko; Horiuchi, Kazutaka; Nakata, Shunsuke; Yasuura, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    The descending aortic coarctation is often difficult to anatomically reconstruct. We report two cases of ascending aorta to abdominal aorta bypass without laparotomy or thoracotomy. This approach enabled us to avoid anastomosis close to the inflammatory lesion and left thoracotomy causing bleeding from the collateral vessels, and to allow concomitant cardiac procedures to be performed. The graft contact with the intestines can be preventable by the retroperitoneal approach. This technique is useful for the selective patients. PMID:25298846

  8. Abdominal aorta anastomosis in rats and stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, prophylaxis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Hrelec, M; Klicek, R; Brcic, L; Brcic, I; Cvjetko, I; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P

    2009-12-01

    We focused on abdominal aorta, clamped and transected bellow renal arteries, and aortic termino-terminal anastomosis created in Albino male rats. We suggested stomach cytoprotection theory holding endothelium protection and peptidergic anti-ulcer cytoprotection therapy to improve management of abdominal aorta anastomosis and thrombus formation. The stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419) is a small anti-ulcer peptide efficient in inflammatory bowel disease trials (PL 14736) and various wound treatment, no toxicity reported. After 24 h following aortic termino-terminal anastomosis, we shown that BPC 157 (10 microg/kg) may also decrease formation of cloth after aortic termino-terminal anastomosis and preserved walking ability and muscle strength when given as a bath immediately after aortic anastomosis creation. This may be important since aortic termino-terminal anastomosis is normally presenting in rats with a formed cloth obstructing more than third of aortic lumen, severely impaired walking ability, painful screaming and weak muscle strength. Thereby, the effect of BPC 157 (10 microg/kg) was additionally studied at 24 h following aortic termino-terminal anastomosis. Given at the that point, intraperitoneally, within 3 minutes post-application interval the pentadecapeptide BPC 157 rapidly recovered the function of lower limbs and muscle strength while no cloth could be seen in those rats at the anastomosis site. PMID:20388960

  9. An animal-specific FSI model of the abdominal aorta in anesthetized mice.

    PubMed

    Trachet, Bram; Bols, Joris; Degroote, Joris; Verhegghe, Benedict; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Vierendeels, Jan; Segers, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has revealed that angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice can be related to medial ruptures occurring in the vicinity of abdominal side branches. Nevertheless a thorough understanding of the biomechanics near abdominal side branches in mice is lacking. In the current work we present a mouse-specific fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of the abdominal aorta in ApoE(-/-) mice that incorporates in vivo stresses. The aortic geometry was based on contrast-enhanced in vivo micro-CT images, while aortic flow boundary conditions and material model parameters were based on in vivo high-frequency ultrasound. Flow waveforms predicted by FSI simulations corresponded better to in vivo measurements than those from CFD simulations. Peak-systolic principal stresses at the inner and outer aortic wall were locally increased caudal to the celiac and left lateral to the celiac and mesenteric arteries. Interestingly, these were also the locations at which a tear in the tunica media had been observed in previous work on angiotensin II-infused mice. Our preliminary results therefore suggest that local biomechanics play an important role in the pathophysiology of branch-related ruptures in angiotensin-II infused mice. More elaborate follow-up research is needed to demonstrate the role of biomechanics and mechanobiology in a longitudinal setting. PMID:25824368

  10. Primary Self-Expandable Nitinol Stent Placement in Focal Lesions of Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta: Long Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Lastovickova, Jarmila Peregrin, Jan H.

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the technical and clinical success, safety and long term results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty/self-expandable nitinol stent placement of infrarenal abdominal aorta focal lesions. Materials and Methods. Eighteen patients underwent PTA of focal atherosclerotic occlusive disease of distal abdominal aorta. Two symptomatic occlusions and 16 stenoses in 10 male and 8 female patients (mean age 68.2 years) were treated with primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement. Results. Primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement was technically successful in all 18 procedures; clinical success was achieved in 100% of patients. No complications associated with the procedure occurred. During the 49.4 months of mean follow up (range 3-96, 4 months) all treated aortic segments remained patent. Conclusions. Endovascular treatment (primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement) of focal atherosclerotic lesions of distal abdominal aorta is a safe method with excellent primary technical and clinical success rates and favourable Long term results.

  11. Limiting extensibility constitutive model with distributed fibre orientations and ageing of abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Horn, Luk; Netuil, Marek; Daniel, Mat?j

    2014-10-01

    The abdominal aorta is susceptible to age-related pathological changes (arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, aneurysm, and tortuosity). Computational biomechanics and mechanobiology provide models capable of predicting mutual interactions between a changing mechanical environment and patho-physiological processes in ageing. However, a key factor is a constitutive equation which should reflect the internal tissue architecture. Our study investigates three microstructurally-motivated invariant-based hyperelastic anisotropic models suitable for description of the passive mechanical behaviour of the human abdominal aorta at a multiaxial state of stress known from recent literature. The three adopted models have also been supplemented with a newly proposed constitutive model (limiting extensibility with fibre dispersion). All models additively decouple the mechanical response of the isotropic (elastin and smooth muscle cells represented by the neo-Hookean term) and the anisotropic (collagen) parts. Two models use exponential functions to capture large strain stiffening ascribed to the engagement of collagen fibres into the load-bearing process. The other two models are based on the concept of limiting extensibility. Perfect alignment of reinforcing fibres with two preferred directions as well as fibre dispersion are considered. Constitutive models are calibrated to the inflation-extension response adopted from the literature based on the computational model of the residually-stressed thick-walled tube. A correlation analysis of determined material parameters was performed to reveal dependence on the age. The results of the nonlinear regression suggest that limiting fibre extensibility is the concept which is suitable to be used for the constitutive description of the aorta at multiaxial stress states and is highly sensitive to ageing-induced changes in mechanical response. PMID:25016175

  12. Effects of hindlimb unweighting on the mechanical and structure properties of the rat abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Anthony; Delp, Michael D

    2003-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that hindlimb unweighting of rats, a model of microgravity, reduces evoked contractile tension of peripheral conduit arteries. It has been hypothesized that this diminished contractile tension is the result of alterations in the mechanical properties of these arteries (e.g., active and passive mechanics). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the reduced contractile force of the abdominal aorta from 2-wk hindlimb-unweighted (HU) rats results from a mechanical function deficit resulting from structural vascular alterations or material property changes. Aortas were isolated from control (C) and HU rats, and vasoconstrictor responses to norepinephrine (10(-9)-10(-4) M) and AVP (10(-9)-10(-5) M) were tested in vitro. In a second series of tests, the active and passive Cauchy stress-stretch relations were determined by incrementally increasing the uniaxial displacement of the aortic rings. Maximal Cauchy stress in response to norepinephrine and AVP were less in aortic rings from HU rats. The active Cauchy stress-stretch response indicated that, although maximum stress was lower in aortas from HU rats (C, 8.1 +/- 0.2 kPa; HU, 7.0 +/- 0.4 kPa), it was achieved at a similar hoop stretch. There were also no differences in the passive Cauchy stress-stretch response or the gross vascular morphology (e.g., medial cross-sectional area: C, 0.30 +/- 0.02 mm(2); HU, 0.32 +/- 0.01 mm(2)) between groups and no differences in resting or basal vascular tone at the displacement that elicits peak developed tension between groups (resting tension: C, 1.71 +/- 0.06 g; HU, 1.78 +/- 0.14 g). These results indicate that HU does not alter the functional mechanical properties of conduit arteries. However, the significantly lower active Cauchy stress of aortas from HU rats demonstrates a true contractile deficit in these arteries. PMID:12391084

  13. Effects of hindlimb unweighting on the mechanical and structure properties of the rat abdominal aorta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, Anthony; Delp, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that hindlimb unweighting of rats, a model of microgravity, reduces evoked contractile tension of peripheral conduit arteries. It has been hypothesized that this diminished contractile tension is the result of alterations in the mechanical properties of these arteries (e.g., active and passive mechanics). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the reduced contractile force of the abdominal aorta from 2-wk hindlimb-unweighted (HU) rats results from a mechanical function deficit resulting from structural vascular alterations or material property changes. Aortas were isolated from control (C) and HU rats, and vasoconstrictor responses to norepinephrine (10(-9)-10(-4) M) and AVP (10(-9)-10(-5) M) were tested in vitro. In a second series of tests, the active and passive Cauchy stress-stretch relations were determined by incrementally increasing the uniaxial displacement of the aortic rings. Maximal Cauchy stress in response to norepinephrine and AVP were less in aortic rings from HU rats. The active Cauchy stress-stretch response indicated that, although maximum stress was lower in aortas from HU rats (C, 8.1 +/- 0.2 kPa; HU, 7.0 +/- 0.4 kPa), it was achieved at a similar hoop stretch. There were also no differences in the passive Cauchy stress-stretch response or the gross vascular morphology (e.g., medial cross-sectional area: C, 0.30 +/- 0.02 mm(2); HU, 0.32 +/- 0.01 mm(2)) between groups and no differences in resting or basal vascular tone at the displacement that elicits peak developed tension between groups (resting tension: C, 1.71 +/- 0.06 g; HU, 1.78 +/- 0.14 g). These results indicate that HU does not alter the functional mechanical properties of conduit arteries. However, the significantly lower active Cauchy stress of aortas from HU rats demonstrates a true contractile deficit in these arteries.

  14. On constitutive descriptors of the biaxial mechanical behaviour of human abdominal aorta and aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Ferruzzi, J.; Vorp, D. A.; Humphrey, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) in older individuals can develop an aneurysm, which is of increasing concern in our ageing population. The structural integrity of the ageing aortic wall, and hence aneurysm, depends primarily on effective elastin and multiple families of oriented collagen fibres. In this paper, we show that a structurally motivated phenomenological four-fibre family constitutive relation captures the biaxial mechanical behaviour of both the human AA, from ages less than 30 to over 60, and abdominal aortic aneurysms. Moreover, combining the statistical technique known as non-parametric bootstrap with a modal clustering method provides improved confidence intervals for estimated best-fit values of the eight associated constitutive parameters. It is suggested that this constitutive relation captures the well-known loss of structural integrity of elastic fibres owing to ageing and the development of abdominal aneurysms, and that it provides important insight needed to construct growth and remodelling models for aneurysms, which in turn promise to improve our ability to predict disease progression. PMID:20659928

  15. Arterial hypertension and neurofibromatosis: renal artery stenosis and coarctation of abdominal aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Schürch, W.; Messerli, F. H.; Genest, J.; Lefebvre, R.; Roy, P.; Carter, P.; Rojo-Ortega, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl had arterial hypertension, generalized neurofibromatosis, coarctation of the abdominal aorta and multiple stenoses at the origin of each renal artery. After resection of the stenotic areas and reimplantation of the renal arteries in the aorta, her arterial pressure decreased substantially. However, hypertension recurred and radiologic follow-up 4 1/2 years later showed distinct progression of the coarctation and renewed stenosis of all renal arteries at their origin. The stenotic areas showed eccentric intimal proliferation, frequently bulging into the lumen, with small nodular aggregates of smooth muscle cells and proliferation of fibrous tissue containing spindle-shaped nuclei in a palisading pattern. Hypertension associated with neurofibromatotic vascular disease has been described in 47 other patients in the literature. These patients have been young (mean age, 14 years) and predominantly male. In contrast to fibromuscular dysplasia, in which 95% of all stenoses are found in the distal two thirds of the renal arteries, in vascular neurofibromatosis more than 50% of the stenoses are found at the origin. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:810239

  16. Analysis of axial prestretch in the abdominal aorta with reference to post mortem interval and degree of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Horny, Lukas; Adamek, Tomas; Kulvajtova, Marketa

    2014-05-01

    It is a well-known fact that the length of an artery in situ and the length of an excised artery differs. Retraction of blood vessels is usually observed. This prestretch plays an important role in arterial physiology. We have recently determined that the decrease of axial prestretch in the human abdominal aorta is so closely correlated with age that it is suitable for forensic applications (estimation of the age at time of death for cadavers of unknown identity). Since post mortem autolysis may affect the reliability of an estimate based on axial prestretch, the present study aims to detail analysis of the effect of post mortem time. The abdominal aorta is a prominent site of atherosclerotic changes (ATH), which may potentially affect longitudinal prestretch. Thus ATH was also involved in the analysis. Axial prestretch in the human abdominal aorta, post mortem interval (PMI), and the degree of ATH were documented in 365 regular autopsies. The data was first age adjusted to remove any supposed correlation with age. After the age adjustment of the sample, the correlation analysis showed no significant PMI effects on the prestretch in non-putrefied bodies. Analysis of the prestretch variance with respect to ATH suggested that ATH is not a suitable factor to explain the prestretch variability remaining after the age adjustment. It was concluded that, although atherosclerotic plaques may certainly change the biomechanics of arteries, they do not significantly affect the longitudinal prestretch in the human abdominal aorta. PMID:23676503

  17. Endovascular Repair of an Actively Hemorrhaging Stab Wound Injury to the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Qasim; Maleux, Geert Heye, Sam; Fourneau, Inge

    2008-09-15

    Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta is rare and potentially lethal (Yeh et al., J Vasc Surg 42(5):1007-1009, 2005; Chicos et al., Chirurgia (Bucur) 102(2):237-240, 2007) as it can result in major retroperitoneal hemorrhage, requiring an urgent open surgery. In case of concomitant bowel injury or other conditions of hostile abdomen, endovascular repair can be an alternative treatment. This case report deals with a 50-year-old man presenting at the emergency ward with three stab wounds: two in the abdomen and one in the chest. During explorative laparotomy, liver laceration and bowel perforation were repaired. One day later, abdominal CT-scan revealed an additional retroperitoneal hematoma associated with an aortic pseudoaneurysm, located anteriorly 3 cm above the aortic bifurcation. Because of the risk of graft infection, an endovascular repair of the aortic injury using a Gore excluder stent-graft was performed. Radiological and clinical follow-up revealed a gradual shrinkage of the pseudo-aneurysm and no sign of graft infection at two years' follow-up.

  18. Paraanastomotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta: a 15-year experience review.

    PubMed

    Locati, P; Socrate, A M; Costantini, E

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the study is a retrospective review of clinical presentation and management of paraanastomotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (PAAA) surgically treated in our Department. From January 1984 to December 1998, 2183 aortic prosthetic grafts were implanted. During the same period, 24 patients were treated for PAAA, 19 false and five true aneurysms. Symptoms were present in 10 patients. Surgical management included tube grafting interposition (14), aortobifemoral bypass (2), graft removal with extraanatomic bypass (2) and with in situ revascularization by arterial homograft (4). Nine patients died during operation or in the early postoperative period, six died during follow-up. Mortality in symptomatic patients was 70%, while in asymptomatic group was 14% (P=0.01). Rupture of false PAAA was very frequent (47% of cases). PAAA are infrequent complications of proximal aortic graft revascularization and tend to be asymptomatic until rupture occurs. The incidence of mortality is very different in asymptomatic versus symptomatic group; rupture is particularly frequent in false PAAA, which must soon undergo surgery when diagnosed. Since PAAA may develop at any time after surgery, their incidence increase in relationship with the length of postoperative interval: therefore, all patients submitted to abdominal graft revascularization need a lifetime surveillance program. PMID:10840204

  19. [Diameter decrement of abdominal aorta and redistribution of systemic blood flow in non-ambulant Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients].

    PubMed

    Shinoe, T; Kawai, M

    1996-10-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a major life-threatening complication in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Cardiac output is always low in advanced stage patients. Impaired muscles presumably require extremely low circulation, while blood flow to brain and internal organs is probably maintained. Therefore, the redistribution of systemic circulation must be another important factor which determines whether or not the cardiomyopathy results in fatal heart failure. Although great efforts have been focused on the cardiac function, this problem has seldom attracted attentions. Assuming that diameter of blood vessels reflects blood flow, we measured the diameter of abdominal aorta on CT at four levels: 1) beginning of the abdominal aorta, 2) before and 3) after the branching of renal arteries, 4) before bifurcation of the common iliac arteries. Six bed-ridden DMD patients were compared with 10 ambulant patients suffering from other neurological and non-neurological diseases. We obtained following results. First, the diameter of abdominal aorta is significantly smaller in DMD patients. Second, the decrement is most prominent between before and after the branching of the renal arteries. These results clearly showed predilection of renointestinal circulation at the sacrifice of lower extremities. This narrowing of distal aorta was also observed in Kugelberg-Welander disease and understood as a sequelae of longstanding abolition of lower extremity functions. PMID:8997143

  20. Abdominal aorta as a recipient artery: Using a free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap to close hip and pelvic defects

    PubMed Central

    Grieb, Gerrit; Alharbi, Ziyad; Simons, David; Tsolakidis, Savas; Stromps, Jan-Philipp; Piatkowski, Andrzej; Fuchs, Paul; Pallua, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Free tissue transfer (FTT) is now a common procedure in many surgical centres around the world and it has shown well established results especially in the field of reconstructive surgery. The choice of FTT depends on the size of defect, nature of tissue, length of pedicle and donor site morbidity. Notwithstanding, FTT is complex and always depending on a sufficient recipient vessel. PRESENTATION OF CASE Herein, we report a case in which the abdominal aorta was used as arterial recipient vessel for microvascular transfer of a free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. It was utilized to reconstruct an extensive pelvic and hip defect following a massive gas gangrene with a prior debridement of other potential recipient vessels. DISCUSSION In this case, the patient had a large defect that demanded a choice of a large flap such as the free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. The iliac system has been sacrificed during the debridement procedure together with other potential recipient vessels. In the presented case, arterial anastomosis of the free latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap was performed to the distal part of the aorta without complications. CONCLUSION Using the abdominal aorta as a recipient arterial vessel seems to be a reliable alternative that should be considered in difficult reconstructive scenarios such as the vessel-depleted pelvis. PMID:23103629

  1. Determination of the layer-specific distributed collagen fibre orientations in human thoracic and abdominal aortas and common iliac arteries

    PubMed Central

    Schriefl, Andreas J.; Zeindlinger, Georg; Pierce, David M.; Regitnig, Peter; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2012-01-01

    The established method of polarized microscopy in combination with a universal stage is used to determine the layer-specific distributed collagen fibre orientations in 11 human non-atherosclerotic thoracic and abdominal aortas and common iliac arteries (63 ± 15.3 years, mean ± s.d.). A dispersion model is used to quantify over 37 000 recorded fibre angles from tissue samples. The study resulted in distinct fibre families, fibre directions, dispersion and thickness data for each layer and all vessels investigated. Two fibre families were present for the intima, media and adventitia in the aortas, with often a third and sometimes a fourth family in the intima in the respective axial and circumferential directions. In all aortas, the two families were almost symmetrically arranged with respect to the cylinder axis, closer to the axial direction in the adventitia, closer to the circumferential direction in the media and in between in the intima. The same trend was found for the intima and adventitia of the common iliac arteries; however, there was only one preferred fibre alignment present in the media. In all locations and layers, the observed fibre orientations were always in the tangential plane of the walls, with no radial components and very small dispersion through the wall thickness. A wider range of in-plane fibre orientations was present in the intima than in the media and adventitia. The mean total wall thickness for the aortas and the common iliac artery was 1.39 and 1.05 mm, respectively. For the aortas, a slight thickening of the intima and a thinning of the media in increasingly distal regions were observed. A clear intimal thickening was present distal to the branching of the celiac arteries. All data, except for the media of the common iliac arteries, showed two prominent collagen fibre families for all layers so that two-fibre family models seem most appropriate. PMID:22171063

  2. Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer of the Abdominal Aorta Involving the Celiac Trunk Origin and Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G. Petrocelli, Francesco; Seitun, Sara; Robaldo, Alessandro; Mazzei, Raffaele

    2011-02-15

    We describe a case of endovascular treatment in a 64-year-old woman affected by a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) of the abdominal aorta with a 26-mm pseudoaneurysm involving the celiac trunk (CT) origin and with superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion in the first 30 mm. The patient underwent stenting to treat the SMA occlusion and subsequent deployment of a custom-designed fenestrated endovascular stent-graft to treat the PAU involving the CT origin. Follow-up at 6 months after device placement demonstrated no complications, and there was complete thrombosis of the PAU and patency of the two branch vessels.

  3. Gradient Echo MRI Characterization of Development of Atherosclerosis in the Abdominal Aorta in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J. Kuribayashi, Hideto; Wagberg, Maria; Holmes, Andrew P.; Tessier, Jean J.; Waterton, John C.

    2006-08-15

    Purpose. The Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit provides an important model of spontaneous atherosclerosis. With a strain of WHHL rabbits which do not develop abdominal aorta lumen stenosis even with advanced atherosclerosis, we studied the MRI-histology correlation, and the natural progression of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta. In addition, intra-reader segmentation repeatability and scan-rescan reproducibility were assessed. Methods. Two batches of female WHHL rabbits were used. The first batch of 6 rabbits was scanned at 20 weeks old. A second batch of 17 rabbits was scanned at 50 weeks old and then randomly divided into two subgroups: 8 were killed for histologic investigation; 9 were kept alive for follow-up, with repeat scanning a week later to assess scan-rescan reproducibility, and again at 73 weeks old to assess disease progression. MR images were acquired at 4.7 T using a chemical shift selective fat suppression gradient echo with a saturation band suppressing blood signal within the aortic lumen. Five slices per animal were acquired, centered around the renal artery region of the abdominal aorta, with in-plane resolution of 0.195 mm and slice thickness of 3 mm. Results. The coefficient of variation for intra-reader reproducibility for aortic wall thickness measurements was 2.5% for repeat segmentations of the same scans on the same day, but segmentations of these same scans made 8 months later showed a systematic change, suggesting that intra-reader bias as well as increased variability could compromise assessments made over time. Comparative analyses were therefore performed in one postprocessing session. The coefficient of variation for scan-rescan reproducibility for aortic wall thickness was 5.5% for nine pairs of scans acquired a week apart and segmented on the same day. Good MRI-histology correlation was obtained. The MRI-measured mean aortic wall thickness of animals at 20 weeks of age was 76% that of animals at 50 weeks of age (p < 0.001). There was a small increase in aortic wall thickness between 50 and 73 weeks of age, but this was not significant (p > 0.05). The corresponding differences in lumen cross-sectional areas at 20, 50, and 73 weeks of age were not significant. These results were consistent with in-house historical histology data on this strain of rabbits. Conclusions. High-resolution gradient echo MRI can follow disease progression in the WHHL rabbit spontaneous atherosclerosis disease model.

  4. Antioxidant Effect of Captopril and Enalapril on Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction in the Rabbit Abdominal Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Young Hak; Chung, Won-Sang; Suh, Jung Kook; Kim, Sung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be related to cardiovascular diseases. Many studies have demonstrated that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have beneficial effects against ROS. We investigated the antioxidant effect of captopril and enalapril in nitric oxide mediated vascular endothelium-dependent relaxations. Materials and Methods Isolated rabbit abdominal aorta ring segments were exposed to ROS by electrolysis of the organ bath medium (Krebs-Henseleit solution) after pretreatment with various concentrations (range, 10-5 to 310-4 M) of captopril and enalapril. Before and after electrolysis, the endothelial function was measured by preconstricting the vessels with norepinephrine (10-6 M) followed by the cumulative addition of acetylcholine (range, 310-8 to 10-6 M). The relevance of the superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide scavenging effect of captopril and enalapril was investigated using additional pretreatments of diethyldithiocarbamate (DETCA, 0.5 mM), an inhibitor of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT, 50 mM), an inhibitor of catalase. Results Both captopril and enalapril preserved vascular endothelium-dependent relaxation after exposure to ROS in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.0001). Pretreatment with DETCA attenuated the antioxidant effect of captopril and enalapril (p<0.0001), but pretreatment with 3AT did not have an effect. Conclusion Both captopril and enalapril protect endothelium against ROS in a dose-dependent fashion in isolated rabbit abdominal aortas. This protective effect is related to superoxide anion scavenging. PMID:23422724

  5. Biaxial mechanical properties of the human thoracic and abdominal aorta, common carotid, subclavian, renal and common iliac arteries.

    PubMed

    Kamenskiy, Alexey V; Dzenis, Yuris A; Kazmi, Syed A Jaffar; Pemberton, Mark A; Pipinos, Iraklis I; Phillips, Nick Y; Herber, Kyle; Woodford, Thomas; Bowen, Robert E; Lomneth, Carol S; MacTaggart, Jason N

    2014-11-01

    The biomechanics of large- and medium-sized arteries influence the pathophysiology of arterial disease and the response to therapeutic interventions. However, a comprehensive comparative analysis of human arterial biaxial mechanical properties has not yet been reported. Planar biaxial extension was used to establish the passive mechanical properties of human thoracic (TA, [Formula: see text]) and abdominal (AA, [Formula: see text]) aorta, common carotid (CCA, [Formula: see text]), subclavian (SA, [Formula: see text]), renal (RA, [Formula: see text]) and common iliac (CIA, [Formula: see text]) arteries from 11 deceased subjects ([Formula: see text] years old). Histological evaluation determined the structure of each specimen. Experimental data were used to determine constitutive parameters for a structurally motivated nonlinear anisotropic constitutive model. All arteries demonstrated appreciable anisotropy and large nonlinear deformations. Most CCA, SA, TA, AA and CIA specimens were stiffer longitudinally, while most RAs were stiffer circumferentially. A switch in anisotropy was occasionally demonstrated for all arteries. The CCA was the most compliant, least anisotropic and least frequently diseased of all arteries, while the CIA and AA were the stiffest and the most diseased. The severity of atherosclerosis correlated with age, but was not affected by laterality. Elastin fibers in the aorta, SA and CCA were uniformly and mostly circumferentially distributed throughout the media, while in the RA and CIA, elastin was primarily axially aligned and concentrated in the external elastic lamina. Constitutive modeling provided good fits to the experimental data for most arteries. Biomechanical and architectural features of major arteries differ depending on location and functional environment. A better understanding of localized arterial mechanical properties may support the development of site-specific treatment modalities for arterial disease. PMID:24710603

  6. Loss of endothelium-dependent relaxation in abdominal aorta preserved in a co-storage system.

    PubMed

    Knes, Jane M; Hansen, Thomas N; Gilligan, Barbara; Woo, Heung; Mangino, Martin; Haworth, Robert A; Southard, James H

    2005-01-01

    The potentially detrimental influence of parenchymal cells on endothelial function during preservation in UW solution was examined by co-storage of rat abdominal aortic rings with isolated liver cells. Cold storage of rings in UW solution alone for up to 96 h had no effect on the response to acetylcholine, though constriction was progressively lost. Co-storage of rings with liver cells resulted in no loss of sodium nitroprusside response, but the relaxation response to acetylcholine was reduced. The loss of acetylcholine response could not be attributed to Kupffer cells, the lowering of pH, oxygen depletion, or the loss of constriction. A similar loss of endothelial function was observed in rings stored in pieces of liver, kidney or heart. We conclude that parenchymal cells exude factors during preservation by cold storage which reversibly inhibit vascular NO production. These factors could significantly impair whole organ function on reperfusion. PMID:15551051

  7. Multiple absences of the branches of abdominal aorta with congenital absence of the portal vein, unilateral adrenal agenesis and persistent ductus arteriosus in a female cadaver

    PubMed Central

    Foghi, Khadijeh

    2014-01-01

    We report on an extremely rare case of multiple absences of the branches of abdominal aorta with congenital absence of the portal vein, unilateral adrenal agenesis and persistent ductus arteriosus in an adult female cadaver. Specifically, instead of celiac trunk, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, solely a single arterial trunk aroused from the anterior aspect of abdominal aorta, inferior phrenic and ovarian arteries were absent in both sides. Left kidneys drained by two veins. There were not superior, splenic and mesenteric veins, while left renal vein received an additional vein, which run downward and drained primarily all parts of digestive tract and its associated glands (portal vein did not exist). Right adrenal gland was absent. To the best of our knowledge, it is the only reported case with such widespread anomalies. We think the importance of this case is beyond the surgical consideration and needs more profound developmental studies. PMID:25548727

  8. Influence of Selective Biochemical and Morphological Agents on Natural History of Aneurysm of Abdominal Aorta Development.

    PubMed

    Wo?oszko, Tomasz; Skrski, Maciej; Kwasiborski, Przemys?aw; Kmin, Ewelina; Ga??zka, Zbigniew; Pogorzelski, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is probably influenced by many factors. The role of some of these factors, such as intraluminal thrombus (ILT) or cystatin C serum levels, remains controversial. Proving their influence could have therapeutic implications for some patients with AAA. Associations between the rate of increase in diameter of an aneurysm and ILT, as well as other factors, including biochemical factors (C-Reactive Protein - CRP, cystatin C), age, sex, and comorbidities, could predict disease progression in individual patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventy patients with small AAA were included into the study. The patients were followed using ultrasound and CT imaging. We evaluated aneurysm dimensions and aneurysm wall thickness, as well as ILT and its dimensions, aneurysm wall morphology, CRP, and cystatin C. RESULTS We observed significant growth of AAA and thinning of aneurysmal wall. Aneurysms over 4 cm grew significantly faster in the second year of observation. ILT grew together with AAA size. Age, sex, smoking, dyslipidemias, or controlled arterial hypertension had no influence on aneurysm progression rate. Changes in serum of CRP concentration did not reach statistical significance, but cystatin C levels did. CONCLUSIONS Presence and size of ILT, wall thickness, and cystatin C levels may be considered in prediction of AAA progression. ILT might exert a protective influence on the risk of aneurysm rupture. However, larger aneurysms containing larger thrombi grow faster and their walls undergo more rapid degradation, which in turn increases the risk of rupture. This matter requires further studies. PMID:26859744

  9. Influence of Selective Biochemical and Morphological Agents on Natural History of Aneurysm of Abdominal Aorta Development

    PubMed Central

    Wołoszko, Tomasz; Skórski, Maciej; Kwasiborski, Przemysław; Kmin, Ewelina; Gałązka, Zbigniew; Pogorzelski, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is probably influenced by many factors. The role of some of these factors, such as intraluminal thrombus (ILT) or cystatin C serum levels, remains controversial. Proving their influence could have therapeutic implications for some patients with AAA. Associations between the rate of increase in diameter of an aneurysm and ILT, as well as other factors, including biochemical factors (C-Reactive Protein – CRP, cystatin C), age, sex, and comorbidities, could predict disease progression in individual patients. Material/Methods Seventy patients with small AAA were included into the study. The patients were followed using ultrasound and CT imaging. We evaluated aneurysm dimensions and aneurysm wall thickness, as well as ILT and its dimensions, aneurysm wall morphology, CRP, and cystatin C. Results We observed significant growth of AAA and thinning of aneurysmal wall. Aneurysms over 4 cm grew significantly faster in the second year of observation. ILT grew together with AAA size. Age, sex, smoking, dyslipidemias, or controlled arterial hypertension had no influence on aneurysm progression rate. Changes in serum of CRP concentration did not reach statistical significance, but cystatin C levels did. Conclusions Presence and size of ILT, wall thickness, and cystatin C levels may be considered in prediction of AAA progression. ILT might exert a protective influence on the risk of aneurysm rupture. However, larger aneurysms containing larger thrombi grow faster and their walls undergo more rapid degradation, which in turn increases the risk of rupture. This matter requires further studies. PMID:26859744

  10. Segmental and age differences in the elastin network, collagen, and smooth muscle phenotype in the tunica media of the porcine aorta.

    PubMed

    Tonar, Zbyn?k; Kubkov, Tereza; Prior, Claudia; Demjn, Erna; Lika, Vclav; Krl?kov, Milena; Witter, Kirsti

    2015-09-01

    The porcine aorta is often used in studies on morphology, pathology, transplantation surgery, vascular and endovascular surgery, and biomechanics of the large arteries. Using quantitative histology and stereology, we estimated the area fraction of elastin, collagen, alpha-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and desmin within the tunica media in 123 tissue samples collected from five segments (thoracic ascending aorta; aortic arch; thoracic descending aorta; suprarenal abdominal aorta; and infrarenal abdominal aorta) of porcine aortae from growing domestic pigs (n=25), ranging in age from 0 to 230 days. The descending thoracic aorta had the greatest elastin fraction, which decreased proximally toward the aortic arch as well as distally toward the abdominal aorta. Abdominal aortic segments had the highest fraction of actin, desmin, and vimentin positivity and all of these vascular smooth muscle markers were lower in the thoracic aortic segments. No quantitative differences were found when comparing the suprarenal abdominal segments with the infrarenal abdominal segments. The area fraction of actin within the media was comparable in all age groups and it was proportional to the postnatal growth. Thicker aortic segments had more elastin and collagen with fewer contractile cells. The collagen fraction decreased from ascending aorta and aortic arch toward the descending aorta. By revealing the variability of the quantitative composition of the porcine aorta, the results are suitable for planning experiments with the porcine aorta as a model, i.e. power test analyses and estimating the number of samples necessary to achieving a desirable level of precision. The complete primary morphometric data, in the form of continuous variables, are made publicly available for biomechanical modeling of site-dependent distensibility and compliance of the porcine aorta. PMID:26232584

  11. Intimal cell masses in the abdominal aortas of swine fed a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet for up to twelve years of age.

    PubMed

    Kim, D N; Schmee, J; Lee, K T; Thomas, W A

    1985-05-01

    The normal subendothelial intima of large arteries in man, swine and most other species is a variegated structure from birth onwards. In some regions it contains only a few scattered cells; in others there may be a continuous single layer of cells; and in still others the cells pile up to form what we have called intimal cell masses (ICM). The cells in the normal ICM are mostly smooth muscle cells although there is also a small resident population of monocyte-like cells. We have been studying the ICM in swine with emphasis on the abdominal aorta. We have found that atherosclerotic lesions in the abdominal aorta of swine induced by high-fat high-cholesterol diets begin by a hyperplastic reaction of the smooth muscle cells in the ICM and progress to form large lesions characterized by extensive regions of lipid-rich calcific necrotic debris similar to advanced lesions in man. Because of the putative key role of the ICM in atherogenesis we think that it is important to learn as much as possible about their natural history under conditions as normal as possible. In this report we present data on ICM in the abdominal aortas of 34 male and female Hormel miniature swine maintained on a low-fat low-cholesterol diet for up to 12 years of age. The ICM grow slowly with aging and in the distal portion of the aorta account for an average of 9% in the male and 15% in the female of the total cells in the aortic wall (intima + media).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4004988

  12. Inhibition of intimal hyperplasia via local delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor cDNA nanoparticles in a rabbit model of restenosis induced by abdominal aorta balloon injury

    PubMed Central

    XIE, HONGZHI; YANG, JING; HAN, YECHEN; ZHU, XUEQING; FANG, QUAN

    2015-01-01

    In-stent restenosis (ISR) is one of the major factors affecting long-term outcomes of percutaneous coronary interventions. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been hypothesized to have a positive role in preventing ISR, however, this remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to assess whether nanoparticles can be used to deliver VEGF to injured arteries and whether this is beneficial in preventing restenosis. New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into a control group, an empty nanoparticles group and a VEGF nanoparticles group (n=6 in each group). Polylactic-polyglycolic acid VEGF nanoparticles were prepared using a phacoemulsification method. A rabbit model of restenosis was established following abdominal aorta balloon injury, and VEGF gene nanoparticles, empty nanoparticles or normal saline were delivered locally at the site of injury via a GENIE Catheter perfusion balloon. Intimal proliferation determination and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed at day 28 following arterial injury. Compared with the control and empty nanoparticle groups, the neointima area (0.490.09, 0.480.08 and 0.190.11 mm2, respectively; P<0.001) and proliferation index (0.320.03, 0.320.05 and 0.130.06, respectively; P<0.001) were significantly lower in the VEGF nanoparticles group. In addition, in the VEGF nanoparticles group, the immunoreactivity of ?-actin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were significantly lower (P?0.001), while the immunoreactivity of VEGF was higher (P=0.01). Therefore, the results revealed that local delivery of VEGF gene nanoparticles reduced intimal thickening and cell proliferation following abdominal aorta balloon injury in a rabbit model, demonstrating the efficacy of this therapy against restenosis. PMID:26170912

  13. New approach of assessing hypovolemic shock class 1 during acute emergencies: Ultrasonographic inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta diameter ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Rashidi; Kunji, Mohamad Iqhbal; Hj Abd Kareem, Meera Mohaideen; Halim, Shamimi A.

    2013-09-01

    In a patient with hypovolemic shock class 1, the vital signs and biochemical properties are almost normal. The alteration of hemodynamic parameters and biochemical values occurs mainly in advanced hypovolemia state (neuroendocrine response). The availability of ultrasound machine at healthcare centers makes the measurement of vascular calibre feasible and possible. Inspiration and expiration inferior vena cava diameter changes predict hypovolemic shock class 1 but in acute emergencies this method is impractical. The purpose of this study is to develop a new approach in identifying hypovolemic shock at early phase by measuring the inferior vena cava and aorta diameter ratio using bedside ultrasound machine.

  14. Antioxidant effect of lidocaine and procaine on reactive oxygen species-induced endothelial dysfunction in the rabbit abdominal aorta

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Myeong; Jeong, Ji Seon; Cho, Sang Yun; Kim, Dong Won

    2010-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce lipid peroxidation and tissue damage in the endothelium. We tested the antioxidant effect of lidocaine and procaine on ROS-induced endothelial damage in the rabbit aorta. Methods Aortic rings isolated from rabbits were suspended in an organ bath filled with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution bubbled with 5% CO2 and 95% O2 at 37.5?. After precontraction with phenylephrine (PE, 10-6 M), changes in tension were recorded following a cumulative administration of acetylcholine (ACh 3 10-8 to 10-6 M). Differences were measured as percentages of ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings before and after exposure to ROS as generated by electrolysis of the K-H solution. The aortic rings were pretreated with lidocaine or procaine (10-5 M to 3 10-3 M) to compare their effects, as well as ROS scavengers, catalase, mannitol, sodium salicylate, and deferoxamine, and a catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT). Results Lidocaine and procaine dose-dependently maintained endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by ACh despite ROS activity (P < 0.05 vs control value). The 3AT pretreated procaine (3 10-3 M) group decreased more significantly than the un-pretreated procaine group (P < 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that lidocaine and procaine dose-dependently preserve endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation against ROS attack, potentially via hydrogen peroxide scavenging. PMID:20740215

  15. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ... High blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often seen in males over age ...

  16. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Overview What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)? The main blood vessel in your body is the aorta ( ... burst. Symptoms What are the symptoms of an AAA? As the aneurysm develops, there are usually no ...

  17. Effect of ketorolac and diclofenac on the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by reactive oxygen species in rabbit abdominal aorta

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Yoon; Choi, Jin Hwa; Jeon, Woo Jae; Cheong, Mi Ae

    2010-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce lipid peroxidation and tissue damage in endothelium. We studied the influences of ketorolac and diclofenac on ROS effects using the endothelium of rabbit abdominal aorta. Methods Isolated rabbit aortic rings were suspended in an organ bath filled with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution bubbled with 5% CO2 and 95% O2 at 37.5?. After being stimulated to contract with phenylephrine (PE, 10-6 M), changes in arterial tension were recorded following the cumulative administration of acetylcholine (ACh, 3 10-8 to 10-6 M). The percentages of ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings before and after exposure to ROS, generated by electrolysis of K-H solution, were used as the control and experimental values, respectively. The aortic rings were pretreated with ketorolac or diclofenac at the same concentrations (10-5 M to 3 10-4 M), and the effects of these agents were compared with the effects of ROS scavengers: catalase, mannitol, sodium salicylate and deferoxamine and the catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT). Results Both ketorolac and diclofenac maintained endothlium-dependent relaxation induced by ACh in a dose-related manner inspite of ROS attack (P < 0.05 vs. control value). The 3AT pretreated ketorolac (3 10-3 M) group was decreased more significantly than un-pretreated ketorolac (P < 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that ketorlac and diclofenac preserve the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation against the attack of ROS, in a concentration-related manner. One of the endothelial protection mechanisms of ketorolac may be hydrogen peroxide scavenging. PMID:20877705

  18. Effect of a single treatment with tadalafil on blood flow in lower urinary tract tissues in rat models of bladder overdistension/emptying and abdominal aorta clamping/release.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Ryohei; Kawai, Yuko; Oka, Michiko; Fuchikami, Chiaki; Oyama, Tatsuya

    2015-05-01

    Impaired blood flow in lower urinary tract (LUT) tissues is a pathophysiological cause of LUT symptoms. We investigated the effects of the phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor tadalafil on the sustained decrease in bladder blood flow (BBF) and time-dependent changes in BBF and prostate blood flow (PBF) resulting from ischemia/reperfusion in two rat models. In a rat model of bladder overdistension/emptying (O/E), the bladder was overdistended by saline infusion and emptied after 2h. Tadalafil was administered intraduodenally immediately after emptying. In a rat model of clamping/release (C/R), the abdominal aorta was clamped for 2h after a single oral dose of tadalafil and then the clamp was released. BBF in O/E and C/R rats and PBF in C/R rats were measured by laser Doppler flow imaging. BBF decreased on overdistension and partially recovered after emptying. A progressive decrease in BBF was observed after O/E, and this was prevented by tadalafil treatment. Both BBF and PBF decreased during clamping of the abdominal aorta and partially recovered after clamp removal. Oral pretreatment with tadalafil partially or completely prevented the decreases in BBF and PBF not only after clamp removal but also during clamping. PDE5 mRNA was highly expressed in the bladder and the supporting vasculature. Tadalafil inhibited the O/E-induced decrease in BBF and the C/R-induced time-dependent decreases in BBF and PBF. PDE5 inhibition by tadalafil may improve both BBF and PBF. PMID:25697472

  19. Self-Expandable Nitinol Stent Placement in Homocysteinemic Porcine Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Frana, Lus Henrique Gil; Pereira, Adamastor Humberto; Perini, Slvio Csar

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare aortic intimal thickening of normal and hyperhomocysteinemic pigs (induced with a methionine-rich diet) following placement of a self-expanding nitinol stent. METHODS Eighteen Macau pigs were used. They were older than eight weeks in age and had an average weight of 30 kg. Pigs were randomly divided into two groups. The first, Group C (control), was fed a regular diet, and the second group, Group M, was fed a methionine-rich diet for 30 days to induce hyperhomocysteinemia. The self-expandable nitinol stents were 25mm in length and 8 mm in diameter after expansion. Blood samples were collected to measure total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and homocysteine concentrations. All animals were subjected to angiography. Thirty days after the procedure, the animals were sacrificed, and the abdominal aorta was removed for histological and digital morphometry analysis. RESULTS Under microscopic evaluation, the intima was significantly thicker in Group C than in Group M. When groups were compared by digital morphometric analysis, intimal thickening of the vessel wall was higher in Group C than in Group M. There was no significant change in total cholesterol, triglycerides or HDL concentrations in either group. In group C the levels of plasma homocysteine ranged from 14,40 to 16,73?mol/l; in Group M, plasma homocysteine levels ranged from 17.47 to 59.80 ?mol/l after 30 days of a methionine-rich diet. CONCLUSION Compared to normal pigs, less intimal hyperplasia was observed in the abdominal aortas of hyperhomocysteinemic pigs thirty days after the insertion of a self-expandable nitinol stent. PMID:18438578

  20. Characterization of the time course of the superior mesenteric, abdominal aorta, internal carotid and vertebral arteries blood flow response to the oral glucose challenge test using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Totman, J J; Marciani, L; Foley, S; Campbell, E; Hoad, C L; Macdonald, I A; Spiller, R C; Gowland, P A

    2009-10-01

    Blood flow to the splanchnic circulation increases postprandially which may cause a reduction in systemic and cerebral perfusion leading to postprandial syncope in the elderly who lack adequate cardiovascular reserve. We used multi-station 2D phase contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) with the aim of characterizing the time course of the haemodynamic response to an oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) in the large arteries perfusing the splanchnic, systemic and cerebral circulations (superior mesenteric artery SMA, abdominal aorta AA, internal carotid arteries, ICA and vertebral arteries VA). In this study nine fasted healthy volunteers were studied. Separate cine PC-MRI scans were acquired in the neck and in the abdomen every 88 s, these two measurements being interleaved for ten baseline scans at each station with the scanner automatically moving the subject between the two stations. After ingestion of the OGCT, a further 30 cine PC-MRI scans were acquired at each station. Using this technique we were able to characterize with frequent sampling of volumetric blood flow the time course of blood flow response to the OGCT of the SMA, AA and both VA and ICA. We found a substantial variation between individuals in the amplitude and the time to the peak of the SMA blood flow response to the OGCT which correlated positively with body mass index. MRI provides a robust, non-invasive method of studying normal physiology that could be valuable in studies of diseases such as postprandial hypotension. PMID:19759401

  1. Comparison of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Computed Tomography in Classifying Endoleaks After Endovascular Treatment of Abdominal Aorta Aneurysms: Preliminary Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo Lagana, Domenico; Recaldini, Chiara; Mangini, Monica; Bertolotti, Elena; Caronno, Roberto; Tozzi, Matteo; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Annibale Genovese, Eugenio; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in endoleak classification after endovascular treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to computed tomography angiography (CTA). From May 2001 to April 2003, 10 patients with endoleaks already detected by CTA underwent CEUS with Sonovue (registered) to confirm the CTA classification or to reclassify the endoleak. In three conflicting cases, the patients were also studied with conventional angiography. CEUS confirmed the CTA classification in seven cases (type II endoleaks). Two CTA type III endoleaks were classified as type II using CEUS and one CTA type II endoleak was classified as type I by CEUS. Regarding the cases with discordant classification, conventional angiography confirmed the ultrasound classification. Additionally, CEUS documented the origin of type II endoleaks in all cases. After CEUS reclassification of endoleaks, a significant change in patient management occurred in three cases. CEUS allows a better attribution of the origin of the endoleak, as it shows the flow in real time. CEUS is more specific than CTA in endoleak classification and gives more accurate information in therapeutic planning.

  2. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    MedlinePLUS

    Open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is surgery to fix a widened part in your aorta. This is called an aneurysm. The ... Open surgery to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm is sometimes ... is bleeding inside your body from the aneurysm. You may have an ...

  3. Coarctation of the Aorta

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cases, doctors might do a procedure known as balloon dilation (also called balloon angioplasty ). For this procedure, a cardiologist inserts a ... the aorta. This specialized catheter has a deflated balloon inside. When the catheter is in the aorta, ...

  4. Prenatal Diagnosis of Aorta-Porto-Umbilical Vein Fistulas with Left-Sided Inferior Vena Cava.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiawei; Zhou, Qichang; Peng, Qianghai; Zeng, Shi

    2016-03-01

    Congenital arteriovenous fistulas involved with the abdominal aorta are very rare. Left-sided subrenal inferior vena cava (IVC) with normal connection to the heart is also rare and has not been reported prenatally. In this article, we described a fetus with aorta-porto-umbilical vein fistulas combined with a left-sided IVC. PMID:26929871

  5. Percutaneous angioscopy of aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Michihiko

    1993-05-01

    Percutaneous angioscopic observation of the aortic luminal surface and aortic valve has not been established. Therefore, we performed percutaneous fiberoptic angioscopy of aorta and aortic valve using a balloon-tipped guiding catheter.

  6. Skeleton Graph Matching vs. Maximum Weight Cliques aorta registration techniques.

    PubMed

    Czajkowska, Joanna; Feinen, C; Grzegorzek, M; Raspe, M; Wickenhfer, R

    2015-12-01

    Vascular diseases are one of the most challenging health problems in developed countries. Past as well as ongoing research activities often focus on efficient, robust and fast aorta segmentation, and registration techniques. According to this needs our study targets an abdominal aorta registration method. The investigated algorithms make it possible to efficiently segment and register abdominal aorta in pre- and post-operative Computed Tomography (CT) data. In more detail, a registration technique using the Path Similarity Skeleton Graph Matching (PSSGM), as well as Maximum Weight Cliques (MWCs) are employed to realise the matching based on Computed Tomography data. The presented approaches make it possible to match characteristic voxels belonging to the aorta from different Computed Tomography (CT) series. It is particularly useful in the assessment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm treatment by visualising the correspondence between the pre- and post-operative CT data. The registration results have been tested on the database of 18 contrast-enhanced CT series, where the cross-registration analysis has been performed producing 153 matching examples. All the registration results achieved with our system have been verified by an expert. The carried out analysis has highlighted the advantage of the MWCs technique over the PSSGM method. The verification phase proves the efficiency of the MWCs approach and encourages to further develop this methods. PMID:26099640

  7. Diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm using 67-gallium citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Blumoff, R.L.; McCartney, W.; Jaques, P.; Johnson, G. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta are uncommon, but potentially lethal problems. Clinical subtleties may suggest their presence, but in the past, definitive diagnosis has been dependent on surgical exploration or autopsy findings. A case is presented in which 67-gallium citrate abdominal scanning localized the site of sepsis in an abdominal aortic aneurysm and allowed for prompt and successful surgical therapy. This noninvasive technique is recommended as a adjunct in the diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  8. [Embolism of aorta bifurcation].

    PubMed

    Mel'nikov, M V; Barsukov, A E; Kariakin, A M

    2002-01-01

    Results of treatment of 146 patients with embolism of aorta bifurcation have been analyzed and compared to that of extremity arteries. The severity of general condition of the patient, ischemic intoxication, postoperative complications are responsible for high death rate: postoperative mortality--53.7%, general--60.9%. The main measures of improving the treatment results are as follows: early hospitalization to a specialized vascular surgery unit, urgent operation, treatment of ischemic intoxication and adequate postoperative rehabilitation. PMID:12661242

  9. [The small aorta syndrome].

    PubMed

    Velimirovi?, D; Anojci?, S; Djordjevi?, M; Davidovi?, L; Savi?, D

    1990-01-01

    Angiograms of 956 patients (94.7% of males and females) with aortoiliac occlusive disease were analyzed retrospectively. The existence of small aorta syndrome (SAS) was documented in 9 female patients with a mean age of 41.1 yrs. In this population the incidence was 0.9%; however, in the female patients the incidence was higher (18%). Clinical signs of arterial insufficiency of the lower limbs included: claudication in 8 pts and digital gangrene in 1 patient. Risk factor status was as follows: cigarette smoking was present in 100%, hypertension in 33%, obesitas in 25% and hyperlipidemia in 20% of cases. Dimensions of aortoiliac segments on angiograms and belongs to SAS were made by De Laurentis classification. Aortoiliac segment dimensions of SAS determined on angiograms were compared with operative findings. The mean cross sectional area of the infrarenal aorta was 14.1 mm, at the bifurcation 10 mm, common iliac artery 8 mm, and external iliac artery 4.3 mm. Of 9 female patients with small aorta syndrome 8 were operated by bypass technique. The mean follow-up time was 12.3 months. In 7 pts the reconstructive vascular procedure was successful. In one patient the graft became occluded, 3 month after operation, due to poor run-off. This necessitated limb amputation. PMID:2075538

  10. Tenascin C protects aorta from acute dissection in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Taizo; Shiraishi, Kozoh; Furusho, Aya; Ito, Sohei; Hirakata, Saki; Nishida, Norifumi; Yoshimura, Koichi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Takanobu; Ueno, Takafumi; Hamano, Kimikazu; Hiroe, Michiaki; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Aoki, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is caused by the disruption of intimomedial layer of the aortic walls, which is immediately life-threatening. Although recent studies indicate the importance of proinflammatory response in pathogenesis of AAD, the mechanism to keep the destructive inflammatory response in check is unknown. Here, we report that induction of tenascin-C (TNC) is a stress-evoked protective mechanism against the acute hemodynamic and humoral stress in aorta. Periaortic application of CaCl2 caused stiffening of abdominal aorta, which augmented the hemodynamic stress and TNC induction in suprarenal aorta by angiotensin II infusion. Deletion of Tnc gene rendered mice susceptible to AAD development upon the aortic stress, which was accompanied by impaired TGFβ signaling, insufficient induction of extracellular matrix proteins and exaggerated proinflammatory response. Thus, TNC works as a stress-evoked molecular damper to maintain the aortic integrity under the acute stress.

  11. Tenascin C protects aorta from acute dissection in mice.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Taizo; Shiraishi, Kozoh; Furusho, Aya; Ito, Sohei; Hirakata, Saki; Nishida, Norifumi; Yoshimura, Koichi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Takanobu; Ueno, Takafumi; Hamano, Kimikazu; Hiroe, Michiaki; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Aoki, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is caused by the disruption of intimomedial layer of the aortic walls, which is immediately life-threatening. Although recent studies indicate the importance of proinflammatory response in pathogenesis of AAD, the mechanism to keep the destructive inflammatory response in check is unknown. Here, we report that induction of tenascin-C (TNC) is a stress-evoked protective mechanism against the acute hemodynamic and humoral stress in aorta. Periaortic application of CaCl? caused stiffening of abdominal aorta, which augmented the hemodynamic stress and TNC induction in suprarenal aorta by angiotensin II infusion. Deletion of Tnc gene rendered mice susceptible to AAD development upon the aortic stress, which was accompanied by impaired TGF? signaling, insufficient induction of extracellular matrix proteins and exaggerated proinflammatory response. Thus, TNC works as a stress-evoked molecular damper to maintain the aortic integrity under the acute stress. PMID:24514259

  12. Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis following the Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Ayerdi, Juan; Gupta, Sushil K; Sampson, Lawrence N; Deshmukh, Narayan

    2002-04-01

    Complications from the Heimlich maneuver are relatively infrequent. Two fatal cases of abdominal aortic thrombosis have been reported following this technique. We report on the first patient that suffered an acute thrombosis of the abdominal aorta and survived. Prompt recognition of this complication provides the only hope of survival from this rare and catastrophic complication. PMID:11888745

  13. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePLUS

    Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  14. Calcific aorta and coronary artery: two cases of calcific ascending aorta and descending aorta

    PubMed Central

    Idhrees, A Mohammed; Radhakrishnan, Bineesh K; Panicker, Vargheese T; Pillai, Vivek; Karunakaran, Jayakumar

    2015-01-01

    Calcific aorta is a disease of old age and is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Here, we present two patients with calcific aorta at different levels. One with a descending porcelain aorta, and modified Bentall's procedure was done. Second is a patient who is having a calcific ascending aorta and coronary artery. Coronary artery bypass grafting from left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending was done for the patient. The calcification and its morbidity had been discussed briefly. PMID:25678909

  15. Abdominal Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Deborah; Weilitz, Pamela Becker

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints by patients, and assessment of abdominal pain and associated symptoms can be challenging for home healthcare providers. Reasons for abdominal pain are related to inflammation, organ distention, and ischemia. The history and physical examination are important to narrow the source of acute or chronic problems, identify immediate interventions, and when necessary, facilitate emergency department care. PMID:26925941

  16. Clostridium septicum Aortitis of the Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Shah, Aditya; Yousuf, Tariq; Rachid, Mohammed; Ali, Naureen; Tabriz, Muhammad; Loughry, Kevin

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium septicum aortitis is a rare infection that has a strong association with occult colonic malignancy. There is also emerging evidence to support the combination of medical and surgical management over medical management alone. To the best of our knowledge, we report the 40th known case of C. septicum aortitis. PMID:26767087

  17. Clostridium septicum Aortitis of the Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Aditya; Yousuf, Tariq; Rachid, Mohammed; Ali, Naureen; Tabriz, Muhammad; Loughry, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium septicum aortitis is a rare infection that has a strong association with occult colonic malignancy. There is also emerging evidence to support the combination of medical and surgical management over medical management alone. To the best of our knowledge, we report the 40th known case of C. septicum aortitis. PMID:26767087

  18. [Results of treating inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Michalak, T; Gutowski, P; Szumiłowicz, G; Kładny, J

    1993-05-01

    The authors present the results of treatment of six inflammatory aneurysms in the material of 53 aneurysms treated surgically in the years 1987-1992. Direct results of surgical treatment, hospitalization period, and peri-operational complications are the subject of analysis. Peri-operational mortality of the patients with inflammatory aneurysm was higher than that of patients with non-inflammatory aneurysm, undergoing elective surgery. Higher incidence of peri-operational complications indicates higher operational risk of inflammatory aneurysm. PMID:8236990

  19. Abdominal splenosis

    PubMed Central

    Pirozynski, W. J.; Allan, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Abdominal splenosis was an incidental finding at laparotomy for acute appendicitis in a 39-year-old man who had had splenectomy for traumatic rupture of the spleen nine years previously. Similar cases of abdominal and intrathoracic splenosis are reviewed. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4841838

  20. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Patient with Renal Transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.; Arya, N. Lee, B.; Hannon, R.J.; Loan, W.; Soong, C.V.

    2004-09-15

    Patients with functioning renal transplant who develop abdominal aortic aneurysm can safely be treated with endovascular repair. Endovascular repair of aneurysm avoids renal ischemia associated with cross-clamping of aorta.

  1. [Aneurysm in the aorta. Diagnostic confirmation by means of a helicoidal CAT scan].

    PubMed

    Lema Garrido, Fernando; Moya Merino, Mariano; Jordn Lpez, Cristbal

    2004-09-01

    A helicoidal radiological CAT Scan, which produces reconstructions in varying planes and makes use of an injected contrasting liquid, confirms a diagnosis of an abdominal aorta aneurysm in the shortest time possible, whether this aneurysm is broken or dried, in order to facilitate a patient's treatment to the highest degree. PMID:15526579

  2. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePLUS

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

  3. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can I find more information and related topics? Functional Abdominal Pain (English, French or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN). Gastro Kids , a site for kids with ...

  4. Abdominal aortic aneurysm in giant cell arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyunwook; Han, Youngjin; Son, Da Hye; Cho, Yong-Pil

    2015-01-01

    Aortic complications of giant cell arteritis are a rare cause of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Here, we describe a case of a ruptured aortic aneurysm in a patient with giant call arteritis (GCA) who was preoperatively suspected of having an infectious aortic aneurysm. Intraoperative inspection revealed infectious granulation tissue on the anterior wall of the abdominal aorta. GCA was finally confirmed by pathological diagnosis. Our findings suggest that the surgical and postoperative treatment of nonatheromatous aortic aneurysm should be based on accurate diagnosis. PMID:26448922

  5. Coronal sonography: a review of abdominal applications.

    PubMed

    Cubberley, D A; Gosink, B B; Forsythe, J

    1985-01-01

    Many abdominal structures are optimally imaged in the coronal plane because of their unique shape or environment. Routine application of coronal ultrasound scanning to the spleen, kidneys, and liver is advocated. Adjunctive coronal images of the biliary tract, inferior vena cava, aorta, and retroperitoneum complement or frequently provided diagnostic information unavailable in routine views. Inadequacy of acoustic windows or limitations of tissue-beam interaction encountered in transverse and sagittal projections may be overcome with coronal scans. PMID:3156253

  6. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  7. Clear Depiction of Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Orta Kilickesmez, Kadriye; Kilickesmez, Ozgur

    2010-04-15

    We report the case of an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm incidentally detected clearly with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) during the examination of a patient with myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia that later converted to acute myeloid leukemia. DW-MRI revealed a hyperintense halo surrounding the abdominal aorta with aneurysmatic dilatation, establishing the diagnosis.

  8. Morphometrics for cephalometric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Halazonetis, Demetrios J

    2004-05-01

    This article demonstrates morphometric methods by applying them to an orthodontic sample. A total of 150 pretreatment cephalograms of consecutive patients (84 female, 66 male) were traced and digitized. Fifteen points were used for the analysis. The tracings were superimposed by the Procrustes method, and shape variability was assessed by principal component analysis. Approximately 70% of the total sample variability was incorporated in the first 5 principal components. The most significant principal component, accounting for 29% of shape variability, was the divergence of skeletal pattern; the second principal component, accounting for 20% of shape variability, was the anteroposterior maxillary relationship. It is recommended that Procrustes superimposition and principal component analysis be incorporated into routine cephalometric analysis for more valid and comprehensive shape assessment. PMID:15127026

  9. Abdominal cocoon

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Christian B S; Diggory, Robert T; Samee, Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction secondary to cocoon formation is not common. We report a case of a patient who had presented with abdominal pain and distension accompanied by vomiting. Investigations, laparotomy and histology together revealed primary peritoneal carcinoma as the cause of the patient's symptoms. PMID:24682136

  10. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... found that eating, diet, and nutrition play a role in causing or preventing abdominal adhesions. A person with a partial intestinal obstruction may relieve symptoms with a liquid or low-fiber diet, which is more easily broken down into smaller ...

  11. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  12. Feasibility of low contrast media volume in CT angiography of the aorta

    PubMed Central

    Seehofnerov, Anna; Kok, Madeleine; Mihl, Casper; Douwes, Dave; Sailer, Anni; Nijssen, Estelle; de Haan, Michiel J.W.; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Das, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Using smaller volumes of contrast media (CM) in CT angiography (CTA) is desirable in terms of cost reduction and prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of low CM volume in CTA of the aorta. Methods 77 patients referred for CTA of the aorta were scanned using a standard MDCT protocol at 100kV. A bolus of 50ml CM (Iopromide 300mg Iodine/ml) at a flow rate of 6ml/s was applied (Iodine delivery rate IDR=1.8g/s; Iodine load 15g) followed by a saline bolus of 40ml at the same flow rate. Scan delay was determined by the test bolus method. Subjective image quality was assessed and contrast enhancement was measured at 10 anatomical levels of the aorta. Results Diagnostic quality images were obtained for all patients, reaching a mean overall contrast enhancement of 32428HU. Mean attenuation was 35060HU at the thoracic aorta and 31583HU at the abdominal aorta. Conclusions A straightforward low volume CM protocol proved to be technically feasible and led to CTA examinations reaching diagnostic image quality of the aorta at 100kV. Based on these findings, the use of a relatively small CM bolus can be incorporated into routine clinical imaging.

  13. Thoracic aorta cardiac-cycle related dynamic changes assessed with a 256-slice CT scanner

    PubMed Central

    Carrascosa, Patricia; Capuay, Carlos; Deviggiano, Alejandro; Rodrguez-Granillo, Gastn A.; Sagarduy, Mara Ins; Cortines, Patricio; Carrascosa, Jorge; Parodi, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to demonstrate whether the dynamic changes previously documented at the ascending and abdominal aorta are replicated at the thoracic aorta. Methods and results A consecutive series of thirty patients referred to our institution to undergo CT angiography of the thoracic aorta (CTA) constituted the study population. Patients with diffuse aortic atherosclerosis were excluded from the analysis. All studies were acquired with a 256-MDCT scanner and ECG-gating was performed in all cases. Two orthogonal imaging planes (maximal and minimal diameters) were obtained at three different levels of the descending thoracic aorta, using the distance from the left subclavian artery as proximal landmark: 10, 40, and 80 mm distance. The mean age was 58.915.7 years and 16 (53%) patients were male. Descending aorta measurements at 10, 40, and 80 mm distance from the left subclavian artery were all significantly larger within the systolic window (P<0.01 for all comparisons). Measurements of the maximal diameter were systematically larger than the minimal diameters among all aortic positions including ungated, systolic, and diastolic measurements (P<0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusions The main finding of our pilot investigation was that the thoracic descending aorta undergoes significant conformational changes during the cardiac cycle, irrespective from the distance from the left subclavian artery. PMID:24282760

  14. Elastin and collagen fibre microstructure of the human aorta in ageing and disease: a review

    PubMed Central

    Tsamis, Alkiviadis; Krawiec, Jeffrey T.; Vorp, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Aortic disease is a significant cause of death in developed countries. The most common forms of aortic disease are aneurysm, dissection, atherosclerotic occlusion and ageing-induced stiffening. The microstructure of the aortic tissue has been studied with great interest, because alteration of the quantity and/or architecture of the connective fibres (elastin and collagen) within the aortic wall, which directly imparts elasticity and strength, can lead to the mechanical and functional changes associated with these conditions. This review article summarizes the state of the art with respect to characterization of connective fibre microstructure in the wall of the human aorta in ageing and disease, with emphasis on the ascending thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta where the most common forms of aortic disease tend to occur. PMID:23536538

  15. Genetic and Environmental Effects on the Abdominal Aortic Diameter Development

    PubMed Central

    Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Littvay, Levente; Garami, Zsolt; Karlinger, Kinga; Berczi, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Background Configuration of the abdominal aorta is related to healthy aging and a variety of disorders. Objectives We aimed to assess heritable and environmental effects on the abdominal aortic diameter. Methods 114 adult (69 monozygotic, 45 same-sex dizygotic) twin pairs (mean age 43.6 16.3 years) underwent abdominal ultrasound with Esaote MyLab 70X ultrasound machine to visualize the abdominal aorta below the level of the origin of the renal arteries and 1-3 cm above the bifurcation. Results Age- and sex-adjusted heritability of the abdominal aortic diameter below the level of the origin of the renal arteries was 40% [95% confidence interval (CI), 14 to 67%] and 55% above the aortic bifurcation (95% CI, 45 to 70%). None of the aortic diameters showed common environmental effects, but unshared environmental effects were responsible for 60% and 45% of the traits, respectively. Conclusions Our analysis documents the moderate heritability and its segment-specific difference of the abdominal aortic diameter. The moderate part of variance was explained by unshared environmental components, emphasizing the importance of lifestyle factors in primary prevention. Further studies in this field may guide future gene-mapping efforts and investigate specific lifestyle factors to prevent abdominal aortic dilatation and its complications. PMID:26559855

  16. Topographical mapping of sites of enhanced HRP permeability in the normal rabbit aorta.

    PubMed

    Barakat, A I; Uhthoff, P A; Colton, C K

    1992-08-01

    The spatial distribution of sites of enhanced permeability to the macromolecule horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the normal rabbit aorta after one min circulation was studied using image analysis. These sites, referred to as "HRP spots," exhibit a nonuniform distribution that is qualitatively similar in all rabbits studied. The density of HRP spots is highest in the aortic arch, decreases distally, reaches a minimum in the lower descending thoracic aorta, and then increases again in the abdominal aorta. The region of highest spot density follows a clockwise helical pattern in the aortic arch and outside the arch occurs in streaks largely oriented in the bulk flow direction. The streaks in the abdominal aorta localize along the anatomical right lateral wall and occasionally along the left lateral wall proximal to the celiac artery and along the ventral wall between the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. The density of spots is high in the immediate vicinity of aortic ostia with the most elevated density being distal to ostia in most cases. At a short distance from the ostium edge of the celiac and superior mesenteric branches the proximal density is comparably high, and no preferred spot orientation is observed around the brachiocephalic vessel. These results are consistent with an influence of localizing factors such as detailed hemodynamic phenomena and/or arterial wall structural and/or functional variations. PMID:1522721

  17. Mechanical contribution of lamellar and interlamellar elastin along the mouse aorta.

    PubMed

    Clark, T E; Lillie, M A; Vogl, A W; Gosline, J M; Shadwick, R E

    2015-10-15

    The mechanical properties of aortic elastin vary regionally, but the microstructural basis for this variation is unknown. This study was designed to identify the relative contributions of lamellar and interlamellar elastin to circumferential load bearing in the mouse thoracic and abdominal aortas. Forces developed in uniaxial tests of samples of fresh and autoclaved aorta were correlated with elastin content and morphology obtained from histology and multiphoton laser scanning microscopy. Autoclaving should render much of the interlamellar elastin mechanically incompetent. In autoclaved tissue force per unit sample width correlated with lamellar elastin content (P?0.001) but not total elastin content. In fresh tissue at low strain where elastin dominates the mechanical response, forces were higher than in the autoclaved tissue, but force did not correlate with total elastin content. Therefore although interlamellar elastin likely contributed to the stiffness in the fresh aorta, its contribution appeared not in proportion to its quantity. In both fresh and autoclaved tissue, elastin stiffness consistently decreased along the abdominal aorta, a key area for aneurysm development, and this difference could not be fully accounted for on the basis of either lamellar or total elastin content. These findings are relevant to the development of mathematical models of arterial mechanics, particularly for mouse models of arterial diseases involving elastic tissue. In microstructural based models the quantity of each mural constituent determines its contribution to the total response. This study shows elastin's mechanical response cannot necessarily be accounted for on the basis of fibre quantity, orientation, and modulus. PMID:26321365

  18. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal wall surgery is a procedure that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. ... mini-tummy tuck to more extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which ...

  19. Morphological and molecular characterization of healthy human ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Forte, A; Della Corte, A; Grossi, M; Finicelli, M; Bancone, C; Provenzano, R; Pepino, P; Nappi, G A; De Feo, M; Galderisi, U; Cotrufo, M; Cipollaro, M

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the characteristics of the normal human aorta has been constrained by lack of data on fresh aortic tissue, especially from healthy individuals. In this study, the gene expression and morphological characteristics of the thoracic ascending aorta (AA) of healthy organ donors have been evaluated, with the aim of providing reference data for the analysis of pathological AAs. We analysed by RT-PCR the differential expression of mRNAs coding for myocardin, smoothelin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and the ED-A isoform of fibronectin (ED-A FN) in AA specimens from donors, integrating the results with immunohistochemical analysis of the same targets. Morphological and morphometric characteristics of the AAs were also evaluated. In order to account for possible regional variations in wall structure, the convexity of the aortic profile was compared to the concavity. No differences in gene expression occurred for any of the target genes between the concavity and the convexity of AAs. Immunohistochemistry revealed a different distribution of total FN and of its ED-A isoform in the media and in the intima. Smoothelin is expressed by the majority of cells in the media, with some positive cells also in the intima. Alpha-SMA is expressed in all the tunicae. Immunohistochemistry also revealed in the convexity of 50% of AAs the presence of discrete areas in the subadventital media with altered structure and cell morphology and with altered gene expression, resulting positive for ED-A FN and alpha-SMA, but not for smoothelin, indicating the occurrence of early lesions also in macroscopically healthy AAs. PMID:22127602

  20. Thoracic aortic cannulation with antegrade perfusion for the procurement of abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez Rodrguez, Francisco Javier; Fernndez Prez, Aquilino; Conde Freire, Rogelio; Martnez, Jorge; Prez, Evaristo Varo; Bustamante Montalvo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The definitive acceptance of an organ as valid for transplant depends on the surgical team performing the multiorgan recovery; and unexpected difficulties can occur. The demographic characteristics of donors has changed, and some accepted donors can present difficulties in surgical technique and risky decisions on the validity of the retrieved organ or organs. An alternative method to the cannulation of the abdominal aorta is proposed when there is evidence of disease in the infrarenal aorta during the multiorgan procurement. The retrocardiac descending thoracic aorta is cannulated using an antegrade perfusion; this technique allows an increase in organ recovery. PMID:25139555

  1. Human abdominal aortic aneurysms. Immunophenotypic analysis suggesting an immune-mediated response.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, A. E.; Haines, G. K.; Rizzo, R. J.; Radosevich, J. A.; Pope, R. M.; Robinson, P. G.; Pearce, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    Cellular immunity may play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this report the potential role of these cells in the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms by immunohistochemistry was investigated. Aortic tissues from 32 patients were examined: 4 normal aortas, 6 aortas with occlusive atherosclerotic disease, 17 abdominal aortic aneurysms, and 5 inflammatory abdominal aneurysms. Using monoclonal anti-CD3 (T cells), anti-CD19 (B cells), anti-CD11c (macrophages), anti-CD4 (T helper cells), and anti-CD8 (T suppressor cells), several distinctions among these groups were found. The amount of inflammatory cell infiltrate was as follows: inflammatory aneurysms more than abdominal aortic aneurysms more than occlusive aortas more than normal aortas. CD3-positive T lymphocytes rarely were found in the adventitia of normal or occlusive aortas. In contrast, abdominal aortic aneurysms and inflammatory aneurysms exhibited most of the CD3-positive infiltrates in the adventitia. CD19-positive B lymphocytes were present mainly in the adventitia of all pathologic tissues. The CD4-positive:CD8-positive ratio was greater in abdominal aortic aneurysms and inflammatory aneurysms than in the other groups, both in the adventitia and in the media of the aortas. CD11c-positive macrophages were present throughout the diseased tissues, often surrounded by lymphoid aggregates; the greatest numbers of macrophages were found in the inflammatory aneurysm group. Our data suggests that the aneurysmal disease may progress from occlusive disease and is accompanied by an increase in chronic inflammatory cells as well as a redistribution of these cell types. Therefore it is suggested that aneurysmal disease may represent an immune-mediated event. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 6 PMID:1700620

  2. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination.

    PubMed

    Veronese, E; Tarroni, G; Visentin, S; Cosmi, E; Linguraru, M G; Grisan, E

    2014-11-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data.The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed.Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%).The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. PMID:25295390

  3. Obstruction of the Superior Mesenteric Artery Due to Emboli from the Thoracic Aorta in a Patient with Thromboangiitis Obliterans

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Chiaki; Kitaoka, Tadashi; Suzuki, Jun; Abe, Keiko; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman presented at our hospital with acute abdominal pain 3 years after being diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO). Computed tomography revealed occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and multiple kidney infarction with thrombus floating in the thoracic aorta connected with the intercostal artery. Despite emergency embolectomy, further thromboembolism eventually required massive resection of the intestine with jejunostomy and colostomy and permanent intravenous hyper-alimentation therapy. Although TAO rarely involves the large artery, the aorta could be the source of embolization in patients with TAO. PMID:25298837

  4. Frozen Elephant Trunk: A technique which can be offered in complex pathology to fix the whole aorta in one setting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of treating complex aortic pathology with the use of the Frozen Elephant Trunk technique in a patient with chronic type B aortic dissecting aneurysm associated with arch and ascending aorta dilatation, proximal aortic disease and coronary disease. The case was further complicated due to the involvement of the abdominal vessels and preexisting femoral to femoral crossover bypass. In addition the patient had a tracheostomy for laryngeal cancer. We emphasize the role of the Frozen Elephant Trunk to fix the whole aorta in one setting with special attention given to the changes taking place in vascular perfusion following correction and reconstitution of the true lumen. PMID:21548999

  5. Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening during transthoracic echocardiography: Cardiologist and vascular medicine specialist interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Navas, E Viviana; McCalla-Lewis, Andrea; Fernandez Jr, Bernardo B; Pinski, Sergio L; Novaro, Gian M; Asher, Craig R

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study the interobserver variability between a cardiologist and vascular medicine specialist in the screening of the abdominal aorta during transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). METHODS: Consecutive patients, > 55 years of age, underwent abdominal aortic imaging following standard TTE. Two cardiologists and one vascular medicine specialist performed a blinded review of the images. Interobserver agreement of abdominal aortic size was determined by the correlation coefficient and paired t test. Interobserver reliability for each cardiologist was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS: Ninety patients were studied. The mean age of patients was 72 10 years and 48% were male. The mean aortic diameter was 2.31 0.50 cm and 5 patients (5.5%) had an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The additional time required for the abdominal aortic images was 4.4 0.9 min per patient. Interobserver agreement between the 2 cardiologist interpreters and the vascular medicine specialist was excellent (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). On Bland-Altman analysis of interobserver reliability, the 95% lower and upper limits for measurement by the cardiologists were 84% and 124% of that of the vascular specialist. CONCLUSION: The assessment of the abdominal aorta during a routine TTE performed by a cardiologist is accurate in comparison to that of a vascular medicine specialist. In selected patients undergoing TTE, the detection rate of AAA is significant. Additional time and effort required to perform imaging of the abdominal aorta after TTE is less than 5 min. PMID:22379535

  6. Aneurysm or occlusive disease--factors determining the clinical course of atherosclerosis of the infrarenal aorta.

    PubMed

    McGee, G S; Baxter, B T; Shively, V P; Chisholm, R; McCarthy, W J; Flinn, W R; Yao, J S; Pearce, W H

    1991-08-01

    Atherosclerosis of the infrarenal aorta results in distinct clinical entities--aortoiliac occlusive disease (AOD) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Although loss of collagen has been implicated in AAA, collagen accumulation plays a role in AOD. In vivo collagen-gene expression can be assessed using complementary DNA for collagen types I and III alpha-chains. The purpose of this study is to compare total collagen (type I + III) and collagen types I and III messenger RNA in AAA, AOD and normal aorta. Specimens were collected from the infrarenal aorta during operation for AOD (n = 7), AAA (n = 7), autopsy, or organ procurement (normal; n = 7). Northern transfer analysis of total RNA was used to compare mRNA levels for type I and III collagen. After preliminary extraction, specimens were hydrolyzed for hydroxyproline analysis used to calculate total collagen (type I + III). Relative levels of type I (pro-a1[1]) mRNA were greater in both AOD (0.77 +/- 0.35) and AAA tissue (0.94 +/- 0.24; p = 0.6) than in normal aorta (0.02 +/- 0.03). Type III (pro-a1[III]) mRNA levels were also greater in AOD (2.52 +/- 0.19; p = 0.09) and AAA tissue (3.15 +/- 1.3) than in normals (0.97 +/- 0.47). Total collagen concentration was increased in AOD (45.6% +/- 3.1% dry weight; p less than 0.05) but not AAA tissue (27.8% +/- 4%) when compared to normal aorta (34.7% +/- 2.3%). Collagen type I and III gene expression is greater in older, diseased aorta, yet collagen accumulated only in AOD. This implies a similar synthetic response in both AOD and AAA. Thus, proteolytic degradation in AAA appears to determine collagen content and possibly the clinical course of the atherosclerotic process. PMID:1858045

  7. Morphometric analysis of the sternum.

    PubMed

    Selthofer, Robert; Nikoli?, Vasilije; Mrcela, Tomislav; Radi?, Radivoje; Leksan, Igor; Rudez, Igor; Selthofer, Kristina

    2006-03-01

    Sternum has a great clinical significance, considering that median sternotomy is the most common surgical approach used in cardiac surgery. The aim of this study is to standardize the sternum according to size, shape and sex and to obtain ranges of the "standard sternum". The study was done on 55 male and 35 female sterna of the average age of 65. Complex morphometric analysis of breadth, length and thickness of the sterna were performed on sternal segments which were defined by costal notches. Morphometric analysis shows that the general sternum structure in the females and in the males is equal. The standard dimensions of female and male sternum were determined. Standardization according to shape suggests that there is one standard sternum shape present in more than 2/3 of analysed samples of both sexes. PMID:16617574

  8. Human Aorta Is a Passive Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    Impedance pump is a simple valveless pumping mechanism that operates based on the principles of wave propagation and reflection. It has been shown in a zebrafish that a similar mechanism is responsible for the pumping action in the embryonic heart during early stages before valve formation. Recent studies suggest that the cardiovascular system is designed to take advantage of wave propagation and reflection phenomena in the arterial network. Our aim in this study was to examine if the human aorta is a passive pump working like an impedance pump. A hydraulic model with different compliant models of artificial aorta was used for series of in-vitro experiments. The hydraulic model includes a piston pump that generates the waves. Our result indicates that wave propagation and reflection can create pumping mechanism in a compliant aorta. Similar to an impedance pump, the net flow and the flow direction depends on the frequency of the waves, compliance of the aorta, and the piston stroke.

  9. Coarctation of the Aorta (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Heart and Circulatory System ECG (Electrocardiogram) Congenital Heart Defects The Heart Your Heart & Circulatory System Heart Murmurs Arrhythmias Coarctation of the Aorta Atrial ...

  10. In vivo determination of elastic properties of the human aorta based on 4D ultrasound data.

    PubMed

    Wittek, Andreas; Karatolios, Konstantinos; Bihari, Peter; Schmitz-Rixen, Thomas; Moosdorf, Rainer; Vogt, Sebastian; Blase, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Computational analysis of the biomechanics of the vascular system aims at a better understanding of its physiology and pathophysiology. To be of clinical use, however, these models and thus their predictions, have to be patient specific regarding geometry, boundary conditions and material. In this paper we present an approach to determine individual material properties of human aortae based on a new type of in vivo full field displacement data acquired by dimensional time resolved three dimensional ultrasound (4D-US) imaging. We developed a nested iterative Finite Element Updating method to solve two coupled inverse problems: The prestrains that are present in the imaged diastolic configuration of the aortic wall are determined. The solution of this problem is integrated in an iterative method to identify the nonlinear hyperelastic anisotropic material response of the aorta to physiologic deformation states. The method was applied to 4D-US data sets of the abdominal aorta of five healthy volunteers and verified by a numerical experiment. This non-invasive in vivo technique can be regarded as a first step to determine patient individual material properties of the human aorta. PMID:23668998

  11. Thoracic renal artery: a rare case of the renal artery originating from the thoracic aorta and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Masanori; Namiki, Yoko; Watanabe, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    We report a very rare case of the right renal artery originating from the thoracic aorta. A 37-year-old man visited our hospital for follow-up regarding a gallbladder polyp that had been detected incidentally via ultrasonography as part of a clinical survey. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed incidentally that the right renal artery originated from the thoracic aorta at the level of the 11th thoracic vertebra. No excess right renal artery was found arising from the abdominal aorta, and a normal left renal artery was observed. Although this anomaly is very rare, urological and thoracic surgeons should be aware of this condition, in order to provide appropriate surgical interventions. PMID:26173984

  12. Thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm branched repair.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, E L G; Tielliu, I F J; Ferreira, M; Zipfel, B; Adam, D J

    2010-04-01

    Open thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is a demanding procedure with high impact on the patient and the operating team. Results from expert centres show mortality rates between 3-21%, with extensive morbidity including renal failure and paraplegia. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms initially required an undilated portion of the aorta below the renal arteries to safely fixate the stent-graft. More complex abdominal artic aneurysms (i.e., short-necked, juxta- and suprarenal aneurysms) were later successfully treated with fenestrated grafts. The development of branched grafts opened the way to treat thoraco-abdominal aneurysms endovascularly. In this review, a comprehensive overview of technical aspects and results of the available literature is given. Mortality rates are below 10%, with spinal cord ischemia reported between 2.7% and 20%. Target vessel branch patency invariably has been reported between 95% and 100%, with first mid-term results demonstrating evidence for durability. Most series included high-risk patients, who were denied open repair. Nevertheless, risks associated with endovascular repair of thoraco-abdominal aneurysm should be acknowledged. Technique-specific complications including perforation of small vessels due to multiple catheterization resulting in retroperitoneal hematoma, and compartment syndrome of the lower limbs should be mentioned. Technical evolution of branched grafts is ongoing. Tapering down the main graft to allow for room for the branches has resulted in easier catheterization of target vessels and insertion of bridging stent-grafts. For the same reason, the branches for celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery are deliberately off-set in position. To stabilise the usually long devices, additional spiral wires have been added, to facilitate deployment in the correct orientation. Endovascular repair of thoraco-abdominal aneurysms will continue to evolve and gradually take over from open repair, in view of the much lower physical impact on the patient. PMID:20354484

  13. [Management of seat-belt aorta in severe polytrauma: a review].

    PubMed

    Hornez, E; Bourgouin, S; Baudoin, Y; Prunet, B; Monchal, T; Schlienger, G; Meyrat, L; Thouard, H

    2011-07-01

    Blunt trauma of the abdominal aorta is rare. Secondary to high-energy trauma, it is observed mainly in association with complex lesions. Evaluation of injury to the aorta must be a priority due to the risk of life-threatening massive hemorrhage. The clinical presentation can be quite obvious but also variable and often misleading. If in doubt, a systematic injected whole body scan is essential to diagnose aortic lesions. Hemorrhage or ischemia dictates emergency laparotomy. Opening the retroperitoneum increases the risk of infection if there is an associated gastrointestinal tract injury and may contraindicate use of arterial prostheses. Endovascular treatment can be proposed for less symptomatic lesions, including intimal dissection. Stents can be inserted via a femoral approach. In the event of juxtarenal dissection, there is a risk of renal artery thrombosis. Endovascular treatment is currently not recommended. This treatment can be delayed for a few days if necessary. Morbidity is low and long-term results are good. PMID:21684701

  14. Sizing the Shape: Understanding Morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: One of the most fundamental limitations associated with the conventional cephalometrics is its inability to delineate size from shape as it depends mainly on linear and angular measurements. However, the biological structures warrant greater description in terms of shape and form for better comparison of variation in a particular population. To overcome these shortcomings, morphometrics are now being employed for describing the biological structures in terms of quantifying the shape and form. Also, statistical analysis is being applied to find the variability of this form in the population. The present paper assesses the use of the Procuste superimposition technique and the subsequent form analysis by the principal component analysis (PCA). Materials and Methods: The lateral cephalograms of 10 adult females were taken from existing records, traced & digitized & then superimposed by means of procuste superimposition. A comparison was made with the conventional superimposition methods based on arbitrary reference planes like cranial base, FHP, SN. The statistical analysis for assessment of shape variability of the structures seen on the lateral cephalogram was done by calculating the principal components for 3 out of these 10 samples. Results: The conventional superimposition methods do not provide realistic picture of variation in the biological structures as they themselves are prone to variability even in a particular population. Conclusion: Concepts in Morphometrics can be applied for the purpose of orthodontic assessment of a particular patient with regards to his craniofacial morphology. With the help of morphometrics, norms for a population can be determined based on all the kinds of variations present naturally in that particular population & individuals can thus be compared more realistically regarding the morphological variations. PMID:25738080

  15. Post trauma abdominal cocoon

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Supreet; Doley, Rudra Prasad; Chabbhra, Mohinish; Kapoor, Rajeev; Wig, Jaidev

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane. PMID:25590647

  16. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veronese, E.; Tarroni, G.; Visentin, S.; Cosmi, E.; Linguraru, M. G.; Grisan, E.

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data. The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed. Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%). The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. Preliminary results have been presented in E Veronese, E Cosmi, S Visentin, E Grisan: 'Semiautomatic estimation of fetal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination', MICCAI Workshop on Perinatal and Paediatric Imaging: PaPI 2012.

  17. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness in ultrasound examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veronese, Elisa; Poletti, Enea; Cosmi, Erich; Grisan, Enrico

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction have been shown to be associated with an increased thickness of abdominal aorta in the fetus. Therefore the measurement of abdominal aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) has been recently considered a sensitive marker of artherosclerosis risk. To date measure of aortic diameter and of aIMT has been performed manually on US fetal images, thus being susceptible to intra- and inter- operator variability. This work introduces an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from videos recorded during routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal biometry. Firstly, in each frame, the algorithm locates and segments the region corresponding to aorta by means of an active contour driven by two different external forces: a static vector field convolution force and a dynamic pressure force. Then, in each frame, the mean diameter of the vessel is computed, to reconstruct the cardiac cycle: in fact, we expect the diameter to have a sinusoidal trend, according to the heart rate. From the obtained sinusoid, we identify the frames corresponding to the end diastole and to the end systole. Finally, in these frames we assess the aIMT. According to its definition, we consider as aIMT the distance between the leading edge of the blood-intima interface, and the leading edge of the media-adventitia interface on the far wall of the vessel. The correlation between end-diastole and end-systole aIMT automatic and manual measures is 0.90 and 0.84 respectively.

  18. Can proteomics yield insight into aging aorta?

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zongming; Wang, Mingyi; Everett, Allen; Lakatta, Edward; Van Eyk, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The aging aorta exhibits structural and physiological changes that are reflected in the proteome of its component cells types. The advance in proteomic technologies has made it possible to analyze the quantity of proteins associated with the natural history of aortic aging. These alterations reflect the molecular and cellular mechanisms of aging and could provide an opportunity to predict vascular health. This paper focuses on whether discoveries stemming from the application of proteomic approaches of the intact aging aorta or vascular smooth muscle cells can provide useful insights. Although there have been limited studies to date, a number of interesting proteins have been identified that are closely associated with aging in the rat aorta. Such proteins, including milk fat globule-EGF factor 8(MFG-E8), matrix metalloproteinase type-2 (MMP2), and vitronectin, could be used as indicators of vascular health, or even explored as therapeutic targets for aging-related vascular diseases. PMID:23788441

  19. Quantification of regional aortic stiffness using MR elastography: A phantom and ex-vivo porcine aorta study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Chen, Jun; Yin, Meng; Glaser, Kevin J; Xu, Lei; Ehman, Richard L

    2016-02-01

    MR Elastography (MRE) is a noninvasive technique for measuring tissue stiffness that has been used to assess the average stiffness of the abdominal aorta. The utility of aortic MRE would be improved if it could provide information about local variations in aortic stiffness. We hypothesize that regional variations in aortic stiffness can also be measured with MRE and the purpose of this work was to demonstrate that MRE can measure regional stiffness variations in a vascular phantom and in ex vivo porcine aortas. A vascular phantom was fabricated, containing two silicone tubes embedded in gel. A segment of one of the tubes was modified to increase its stiffness. MRE was performed on the phantom with a continuous flow of water through the tubes. The stiffness distribution along the modified tube was measured and compared to the reference tube. MRE was also performed in porcine aortas embedded in gel with segments treated with saline or formalin for 4days. The stiffness difference between saline- and formalin-treated aortic segments was measured by MRE and mechanical tests. A positive correlation was found between the regional stiffnesses measured by MRE and mechanical tests. The results indicate that MRE can be used to evaluate the local stiffness distribution in silicone tubes and ex vivo porcine aortas. It may therefore be possible to apply MRE to measure regional stiffness variations of the aorta in vivo. PMID:26597836

  20. Effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm during echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Aboyans, Victor; Bataille, Vincent; Bliscaux, Pascale; Ederhy, Stphane; Filliol, Didier; Honton, Benjamin; Kurtz, Baptiste; Messas, Emmanuel; Mohty, Dania; Brochet, Eric; Kownator, Serge

    2014-10-01

    Screening patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is associated with reduced AAA-related mortality, but population screening is poorly implemented. Opportunistic screening during imaging for other indications might be efficient. Single-center series reported AAA rates of 0.8% to 6.5% in patients undergoing transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), with disparities due to selection bias. In this first multicenter study, we aimed to assess the feasibility and criteria for screening AAA during TTE in real-life practice. During a week of May 2011, 79 centers participated in a nationwide survey. All patients aged ?65 years requiring TTE for any indication were eligible, except for those with operated abdominal aorta. We defined AAA by an anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal aorta?30 mm. Of 1,382 consecutive patients, abdominal aorta imaging was feasible in 96.7%, with a median delay of 1.7 minutes (>3 minutes in 3.6% of cases). We found AAA in 50 patients (3.7%). Unknown AAA (2.7%) was more frequent in men than women (3.7% vs 1.3%, respectively, p=0.007) and increased by age at 2.2%, 2.5%, and 5.8% in age bands of 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85+ years, respectively. None of the female participants aged <75 years had AAA. Smoking status and family history of AAA were significantly more frequent among patients with AAA. The ascending aorta was larger in those with AAA (36.24.7 vs 34.05.2 mm, p=0.006), and bicuspid aortic valve and/or major aortic regurgitation were also more frequent (8% vs 2.6%, p=0.017). In conclusion, rapid AAA screening during TTE is feasible and should be limited to men ?65 years and women?75 years. PMID:25127549

  1. Abdominal Compartment Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maluso, Patrick; Olson, Jody; Sarani, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare but potentially morbid diagnoses. Clinical index of suspicion for these disorders should be raised following massive resuscitation, abdominal wall reconstruction/injury, and in those with space-occupying disorders in the abdomen. Gold standard for diagnosis involves measurement of bladder pressure, with a pressure greater than 12 mm Hg being consistent with IAH and greater than 25 mm Hg being consistent with ACS. Decompressive laparotomy is definitive therapy but paracentesis can be equally therapeutic in properly selected patients. Left untreated, ACS can lead to multisystem organ failure and death. PMID:27016163

  2. Digital subtraction angiography of the thoracic aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, L.B.; Buonocore, E.; Modic, M.T.; Meaney, T.F.

    1984-02-01

    Forty-three patients with acquired and congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta were studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after an intravenous bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast material. Abnormalities studied included coarctation, pseudocoarctation, Marfan syndrome, cervical aorta, double aortic arch, aneurysm, dissection, and tumor. Twenty-four patients also had conventional angiography. DSA was accurate in 95% of cases; in the other 5%, involving patients with acute type I dissection, the coronary arteries could not be seen. The authors concluded that in 92% of their patients, DSA could have replaced the standard aortogram.

  3. Abdominal Circulatory Interactions.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Gaurav; Taneja, Amit; Nanchal, Rahul S

    2016-04-01

    The abdominal compartment is separated from the thoracic compartment by the diaphragm. Under normal circumstances, a large portion of the venous return crosses the splanchnic and nonsplanchnic abdominal regions before entering the thorax and the right side of the heart. Mechanical ventilation may affect abdominal venous return independent of its interactions at the thoracic level. Changes in pressure in the intra-abdominal compartment may have important implications for organ function within the thorax, particularly if there is a sustained rise in intra-abdominal pressure. It is important to understand the consequences of abdominal pressure changes on respiratory and circulatory physiology. This article elucidates important abdominal-respiratory-circulatory interactions and their clinical effects. PMID:27016167

  4. Opposing changes in thoracic and abdominal aortic biomechanical properties in rodent models of vascular calcification and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ameer, Omar Z; Salman, Ibrahim M; Avolio, Alberto P; Phillips, Jacqueline K; Butlin, Mark

    2014-07-15

    This study investigated the effects of hypertension on regional aortic biomechanical and structural properties in three rat models of vascular calcification: the hypertensive Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK; n = 13) model of chronic kidney disease, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs; n = 12), and calcification in normotensive Lewis rats induced by vitamin D3 and nicotine (VDN; n = 8). Lewis and Wistar-Kyoto rats were controls. Thoracic and abdominal aortic stiffness parameters were assessed by tensile testing. In models where aortic stiffness differences compared with controls existed in both thoracic and abdominal segments, an additional cohort was quantified by histology for thoracic and abdominal aortic elastin, collagen, and calcification. LPK and VDN animals had higher thoracic breaking strain than control animals (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) and lower energy absorption within the tensile curve of the abdominal aorta (P < 0.05). SHRs had a lower abdominal breaking stress than Wistar-Kyoto rats. LPK and VDN rats had more elastic lamellae fractures than control rats (P < 0.001), which were associated with calcium deposition (thoracic R = 0.37, P = 0.048; abdominal: R = 0.40, P = 0.046). LPK rats had higher nuclear density than control rats (P < 0.01), which was also evident in the thoracic but not abdominal aorta of VDN rats (P < 0.01). In LPK and VDN rats, but not in control rats, media thickness and cross-sectional area were at least 1.5-fold greater in thoracic than abdominal regions. The calcification models chronic kidney disease and induced calcification in normotension caused differences in regional aortic stiffness not seen in a genetic form of hypertension. Detrimental abdominal aortic remodeling but lower stiffness in the thoracic aorta with disease indicates possible compensatory mechanisms in the proximal aorta. PMID:24838503

  5. Combining two potential causes of metalloproteinase secretion causes abdominal aortic aneurysms in rats: a new experimental model

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Karina M; Prudente, Paula S; Rocha, Fabio S; Prado, Cibele M; Floriano, Elaine M; Elias, Jorge; Rizzi, Elen; Gerlach, Raquel F; Rossi, Marcos A; Ramos, Simone G

    2011-01-01

    Progress in understanding the pathophysiology of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is dependent in part on the development and application of effective animal models that recapitulate key aspects of the disease. The objective was to produce an experimental model of AAA in rats by combining two potential causes of metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion: inflammation and turbulent blood flow. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided in four groups: Injury, Stenosis, Aneurysm and Control (40/group). The Injury group received a traumatic injury to the external aortic wall. The Stenosis group received an extrinsic stenosis at a corresponding location. The Aneurysm group received both the injury and stenosis simultaneously, and the Control group received a sham operation. Animals were euthanized at days 1, 3, 7 and 15. Aorta and/or aneurysms were collected and the fragments were fixed for morphologic, immunohistochemistry and morphometric analyses or frozen for MMP assays. AAAs had developed by day 3 in 6070% of the animals, reaching an aortic dilatation ratio of more than 300%, exhibiting intense wall remodelling initiated at the adventitia and characterized by an obvious inflammatory infiltrate, mesenchymal proliferation, neoangiogenesis, elastin degradation and collagen deposition. Immunohistochemistry and zymography studies displayed significantly increased expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in aneurysm walls compared to other groups. The haemo-dynamic alterations caused by the stenosis may have provided additional contribution to the MMPs liberation. This new model illustrated that AAA can be multifactorial and confirmed the key roles of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in this dynamic remodelling process. PMID:21039990

  6. Modeling Blood Flow in the Aorta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Colin J.; Carmichael, Jonathan B.; DeMont, M. Edwin

    1997-01-01

    Presents an exercise to demonstrate two fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics: the Reynolds number and the Principle of Continuity. The exercise demonstrates flow in a major blood vessel, such as the aorta, with and without a stenosis. Students observe the transition from laminar to turbulent flow as well as downstream persistence of turbulence.

  7. Endovascular management of lap belt-related abdominal aortic injury in a 9-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Konstantinos O; Karkos, Christos D; Kalogirou, Thomas E; Giagtzidis, Ioakeim T

    2015-02-01

    Blunt abdominal aortic trauma is a rare occurrence in children with only a few patients having been reported in the literature. Most such cases have been described in the context of lap belt injuries. We report a 9-year-old boy who suffered lap belt trauma to the abdomen during a high-speed road traffic accident resulting to the well-recognized pattern of blunt abdominal injury, that is, the triad of intestinal perforation, fractures of the lumbar spine, and abdominal aortic injury. The latter presented with lower limb ischemia due to dissection of the infrarenal aorta and right common iliac artery. Revascularization was achieved by endovascular means using 2 self-expanding stents in the infrarenal aorta and the right common iliac artery. This case is one of the few reports of lap belt-related acute traumatic abdominal aortic dissection in a young child and highlights the feasibility of endovascular management in the pediatric population. PMID:25463338

  8. Aorta Structural Alterations in Term Neonates: The Role of Birth and Maternal Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Salerno, Christian; Filippucci, Lucia; Angrisani, Lucia; Schettini, Federico; Laforgia, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the influence of selected maternal and neonatal characteristics on aorta walls in term, appropriately grown-for-gestational age newborns. Methods. Age, parity, previous abortions, weight, height, body mass index before and after delivery, smoking, and history of hypertension, of diabetes, of cardiovascular diseases, and of dyslipidemia were all assessed in seventy mothers. They delivered 34 males and 36 females healthy term newborns who underwent ultrasound evaluation of the anteroposterior infrarenal abdominal aorta diameter (APAO), biochemical profile (glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, and D-dimers homeostasis model assessment [HOMAIR]index), and biometric parameters. Results. APAO was related to newborn length (r = +0.36; P = 0.001), head circumference (r = +0.37; P = 0.001), gestational age (r = +0.40, P = 0.0005), HOMA index (r = +0.24; P = 0.04), and D-dimers (r = +0.33, P = 0.004). Smoke influenced APAO values (odds ratio: 1.80; confidence interval 95%: 1.053.30), as well as diabetes during pregnancy (r = +0.42, P = 0.0002). Maternal height influenced neonatal APAO (r = +0.47, P = 0.00003). Multiple regression analysis outlined neonatal D-dimers as still significantly related to neonatal APAO values. Conclusions. Many maternal and neonatal characteristics could influence aorta structures. Neonatal D-dimers are independently related to APAO. PMID:23984364

  9. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... renal disease Infertility Liver disease Needle biopsy Osteoporosis Pediatrics Pelvic pain ... Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  10. [Ultrasound of the large abdominal vessels.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Garca, A A; Algaba-Montes, M; Segura-Grau, A; Rodrguez-Lorenzo, A

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound has recently become an indispensable tool for the family physician, whether exercised in primary care and emergency department; and likewise it has spread to many other specialties: internal medicine, critical care, neurology, pneumology, digestive, etc. and that ultrasound has proven to be a safe diagnostic tool and have great capacity. We firmly believe that ultrasound done to bedside the patient by the family doctor, can greatly complement the physical examination and greatly improve clinical effectiveness, allowing the browser an immediate view of the anatomy and physiology of certain structures. It is within this context is particularly relevant ultrasonography of the Aorta and large abdominal vessels, made by the family doctor or the emergency itself, which will develop along this chapter. PMID:25475534

  11. Morphometrics, 3D Imaging, and Craniofacial Development.

    PubMed

    Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Percival, Christopher J; Green, Rebecca; Young, Nathan M; Mio, Washington; Marcucio, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown how volumetric imaging and morphometrics can add significantly to our understanding of morphogenesis, the developmental basis for variation, and the etiology of structural birth defects. On the other hand, the complex questions and diverse imaging data in developmental biology present morphometrics with more complex challenges than applications in virtually any other field. Meeting these challenges is necessary in order to understand the mechanistic basis for variation in complex morphologies. This chapter reviews the methods and theory that enable the application of modern landmark-based morphometrics to developmental biology and craniofacial development, in particular. We discuss the theoretical foundations of morphometrics as applied to development and review the basic approaches to the quantification of morphology. Focusing on geometric morphometrics, we discuss the principal statistical methods for quantifying and comparing morphological variation and covariation structure within and among groups. Finally, we discuss the future directions for morphometrics in developmental biology that will be required for approaches that enable quantitative integration across the genotype-phenotype map. PMID:26589938

  12. Ultrasonography Performed by Primary Care Residents for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Screening

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Raymond P; Ault, Mark; Greengold, Nancy L; Rosendahl, Thomas; Cossman, David

    2001-01-01

    A prospective pilot study was undertaken to assess a protocol to educate primary care residents in how to personally perform ultrasonography for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening. Resident exams were proctored by a primary care physician trained in ultrasonography and were scored on the level of competence in doing the examination. Patients had ultrasound performed by a resident, followed by repeat examination by the vascular lab. Primary care resident abdominal aortic imaging was achieved in 79 of 80 attempts. Four abdominal aortic aneurysms were identified. There were 75 normal examinations; resident ultrasonography results were consistent with the results of the vascular lab. Ten residents achieved an abdominal aortic ultrasound-independent competence level after an average of 3.4 proctored exams. The main outcome of this study is that a primary care resident, with minimal training in ultrasonography imaging, is able to rapidly learn the technique of ultrasonography imaging of the abdominal aorta. PMID:11903764

  13. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols

  14. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9737070

  15. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  16. Mechanical behavior of human aortas: Experiments, material constants and 3-D finite element modeling including residual stress.

    PubMed

    Labrosse, Michel R; Beller, Carsten J; Mesana, Thierry; Veinot, John P

    2009-05-29

    Segments of fresh human ascending, thoracic descending and abdominal aortas from eight male sexagenarians were pressurized under closed-end and free extension conditions. The median unpressurized inner radii for the ascending, thoracic and abdominal locations were 14.21, 9.67 and 7.16mm, respectively. The median thickness was similar in the ascending and thoracic regions, at about 1.6mm, while it was 1.2mm in the abdominal region. The opening angle was not statistically different between regions, with a median of -38 degrees . Under 13.3kPa pressure, the median circumferential stretch ratio was about 1.26 in all three aortic locations; the median longitudinal stretch ratio was similar in the ascending and thoracic regions, at about 1.13, while it was 1.05 in the abdominal region. Material constants for a three-dimensional hyperelastic anisotropic constitutive model were determined. Experimental, analytical and finite element results showed excellent agreement, validating the novel experimental approach and the numerical methods used. When residual stress was not taken into account, stresses were highest on the inside of the aorta, with a gradient across the wall of about 200 and 50kPa in the circumferential and longitudinal directions, respectively. When residual stress was included as described by negative opening angles, stresses were highest on the outside of the aorta, with a gradient across the wall in excess of 400kPa for the circumferential direction, and on the order of 150kPa for the longitudinal direction. The mechanical consequences of negative opening angles had not been appreciated so far, and deserve further investigation. PMID:19345356

  17. Imaging of mouse aorta using OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateasik, Anton; Uherek, Frantisek; Chorvat, Dusan, Jr.; Tazka, D.; Kyselovic, J.

    2001-05-01

    There are many fields in medicine and biology where optical coherence tomography (OCT) is starting to be used for diagnostics imaging. In our work, OCT imaging has been applied to obtain 3D structure and geometry of mouse aorta and atherosclerotic plaques in it. Differences in plaque formation have been detected between mice fed with cholesterol rich food, and mice kept on special diet. The results of OCT measurements have been confirmed with optical microscopy.

  18. Abdominal hernias: Radiological features

    PubMed Central

    Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

  19. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantify Collagen and Elastin in an In Vitro Model of Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Cheheltani, Rabee; McGoverin, Cushla M.; Rao, Jayashree; Vorp, David A.; Kiani, Mohammad F.; Pleshko, N.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key component and regulator of many biological tissues including aorta. Several aortic pathologies are associated with significant changes in the composition of the matrix, especially in the content, quality and type of aortic structural proteins, collagen and elastin. The purpose of this study was to develop an infrared spectroscopic methodology that is comparable to biochemical assays to quantify collagen and elastin in aorta. Enzymatically degraded porcine aorta samples were used as a model of ECM degradation in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). After enzymatic treatment, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the aortic tissue were acquired by an infrared fiber optic probe (IFOP) and FTIR imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS). Collagen and elastin content were quantified biochemically and partial least squares (PLS) models were developed to predict collagen and elastin content in aorta based on FTIR spectra. PLS models developed from FT-IRIS spectra were able to predict elastin and collagen content of the samples with strong correlations (RMSE of validation = 8.4% and 11.1% of the range respectively), and IFOP spectra were successfully used to predict elastin content (RMSE = 11.3% of the range). The PLS regression coefficients from the FT-IRIS models were used to map collagen and elastin in tissue sections of degraded porcine aortic tissue as well as a human AAA biopsy tissue, creating a similar map of each component compared to histology. These results support further application of FTIR spectroscopic techniques for evaluation of AAA tissues. PMID:24761431

  20. Spice up the hypertension diet - curcumin and piperine prevent remodeling of aorta in experimental L-NAME induced hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increase of blood pressure is accompanied by functional and morphological changes in the vascular wall. The presented study explored the effects of curcuma and black pepper compounds on increased blood pressure and remodeling of aorta in the rat model of experimental NO-deficient hypertension. Methods Wistar rats were administered for 6 weeks clear water or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) dissolved in water, piperine (20 mg/kg/day), curcumin (100 mg/kg/day) or their combination in corn oil by oral gavage. The systolic blood pressure was measured weekly. Histological slices of thoracic aorta were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Mallory's phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH), orcein, picrosirius red and van Gieson staining and with antibodies against smooth muscle cells actin. Microscopic pictures were digitally processed and morphometrically evaluated. Results The increase of blood pressure caused by L-NAME was partially prevented by piperine and curcumin, but the effect of their combination was less significant. Animals with hypertension had increased wall thickness and cross-sectional area of the aorta, accompanied by relative increase of PTAH positive myofibrils and decrease of elastin, collagen and actin content. Piperine was able to decrease the content of myofibrils and slightly increase actin, while curcumin also prevented elastin decrease. The combination of spices had similar effects on aortic morphology as curcumin itself. Conclusions Administration of piperine or curcumin, less their combination, is able to partially prevent the increase of blood pressure caused by chronic L-NAME administration. The spices modify the remodeling of the wall of the aorta induced by hypertension. Our results show that independent administration of curcumin is more effective in preventing negative changes in blood vessel morphology accompanying hypertensive disease. PMID:22005253

  1. Unusual Presentation of Melioidosis in a Case of Pseudoaneurysm of Descending Thoracic Aorta: Review of Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Padmaja, Kanne; Lakshmi, Vemu; Sudhaharan, Sukanya; Venkata Surya Malladi, Subbalaxmi; Gopal, Palanki; Venkata Ravinuthala, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Melioidosis is a rapidly fatal infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, an agent of potential biothreat, endemic in several parts of India. Most melioidosis-induced infected aneurysms are located in the abdominal or thoracic aorta. Case Presentation: We reported two unusual cases of melioidosis resulting in pseudoaneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta. In both cases, blood cultures yielded B. pseudomallei. The first patient was managed with resection of aneurysm and reconstruction with Dacron graft followed by medical treatment and was discharged uneventfully. The second patient died within one week of admission before the infecting etiological agent was identified and aneurysmal repair was planned. Conclusions: A high clinical index of suspicion, especially in areas of endemicity is essential for timely management of intracavitary infected pseudoaneurysms caused by B. pseudomallei and use of rapid microbiological techniques, such as bact/alert 3D system, which enables rapid and early recovery of the etiological agent. PMID:26380820

  2. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  3. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problems: Mesenteric vascular insufficiency (blocked arteries or veins) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (swelling of the main artery in the belly) Inflammatory conditions in the mid- and lower abdomen: Enteritis (infections of the small bowel, Crohn's disease) ...

  4. Abdominal exploration - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The abdomen contains many vital organs: the stomach, the small intestine (jejunum and ileum), the large intestine (colon), the ... The surgical exploration of the abdomen, also called an ... abdominal disease from an unknown cause (to diagnose), or trauma ...

  5. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Setacci, Francesco; Galzerano, Giuseppe; DE Donato, Gianmarco; Benevento, Domenico; Guerrieri, Massimiliano W; Ruzzi, Umberto; Borrelli, Maria P; Setacci, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms has become a milestone in the treatment of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. Technological improvement allows treatment in more and more complex cases. This review summarizes all grafts available on the market. A complete review of most important trial on this topic is provided to the best of our knowledge, and technical tips and tricks for standard cases are also included. PMID:26771730

  6. [Pathobiological determinants of atherosclerosis in youths: data from a macromorphometric and histomorphometric investigation of the aorta and coronary arteries].

    PubMed

    Lesauskaite, Vaiva; Stalioraityte, Elena; Tanganelli, Piero; Epistolato, Maria Carmela

    2004-01-01

    We present a review of data from epidemiological and morphological studies carried out in Kaunas of atherosclerosis in youths. Since 1985, Kaunas has been a Collaborating Center involved with the World Health Organization and International Society and Federation of Cardiology studying the pathobiological determinants of atherosclerosis in youth. During the pilot study (1985-1987), we estimated the prevalence and extent of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta and coronary arteries correlated to various risk factors in Kaunas residents aged 5 to 44 years. Within the framework of this international study, we compared histomorphometric characteristics of arteries collected from trauma victims aged 5 to 34 years in Budapest (Hungary), Heidelberg (Germany), Kaunas (Lithuania), Yaounde (Cameroon), and Mexico City (Mexico). These data revealed that males from countries with a high mortality from ischemic heart disease (Hungary, Lithuania, Germany) tended to have thicker intima in the thoracic and abdominal aorta and left anterior descending coronary artery than did males from countries with low mortality from ischemic heart disease (Mexico, Cameroon). We detected an increased mean intimal thickness of the abdominal aorta in male smokers aged 25-34 years. Males with hypertension aged 15-24 and 25-34 years had a thicker intima in the aorta and left anterior descending coronary artery than normotensive males. The morphological and epidemiological studies of atherosclerosis in youths carried out in Kaunas demonstrated that aortic and coronary atherosclerotic lesions appeared as early as childhood and advanced until the lesions become clinically apparent in adulthood. Histomorphometric findings support the postulate that increased intimal thickness can be considered a structural determinant of atherogenesis. These data draw attention to the means for the primary prevention of atherosclerosis in youth. PMID:15252227

  7. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society update. Ultrasound examination of the aorta and arteries of the lower extremities

    PubMed Central

    Elwertowski, Micha?; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    A Doppler ultrasound examination has an advantage over other vessel imaging methods as it can be carried out by the patient's bedside and allows to make a diagnosis without exposing the patient to the inconveniency of transportation or an X-ray scan. The purpose of testing the lower extremities and the aorta is to objectively confirm a preliminary clinical diagnosis, localize lesions responsible for the symptoms of the disease, determine their severity and nature (e.g., if they are calcifications or soft lesions), and finally evaluate the hemodynamic criteria. In assessment of the aorta attention is paid not only to aortic diameter measurements, but also to the vascular lumen (dissections with the formation of two flow channels, detachments, balloting of atherosclerotic plaques, etc.) and the presence of atherosclerotic plaques with influx into them (PAU penetrating ulcer in the plaque or lesions surrounding the aorta, such as retroperitoneal fibrosis or mycotic aneurysm). A correct diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm requires repeated measurements of the abdominal aorta diameter, and in particular its transverse dimension. When assessing the degree of peripheral arterial stenosis on the basis of hemodynamic parameters, degree of morphological stenosis must be taken into consideration. Collateral circulation may reduce the flow through the main vessel, and thus, the achieved systolic velocities are lower and may understate the degree of the assessed stenosis. Calf vessels are difficult to detect, which results both from the thickness of the muscle and the presence of calcifications. This article has been prepared on the basis of Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society (2011) and updated on the basis of the latest reports from relevant literature. PMID:26673404

  8. Implications of interface conventions for morphometric thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Reindl, Andreas; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S

    2015-02-01

    Several model fluids in contact with planar, spherical, and cylindrical walls are investigated for small number densities within density functional theory. The dependence of the solid-fluid interfacial tension on the curvature of spherical and cylindrical walls is examined and compared with the corresponding expression derived within the framework of morphometric thermodynamics. Particular attention is paid to the implications of the choice of the interface location, which underlies the definition of the interfacial tension. We find that morphometric thermodynamics is never exact for the considered systems and that its quality as an approximation depends sensitively on the choice of the interface location. PMID:25768517

  9. Implications of interface conventions for morphometric thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reindl, Andreas; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S.

    2015-02-01

    Several model fluids in contact with planar, spherical, and cylindrical walls are investigated for small number densities within density functional theory. The dependence of the solid-fluid interfacial tension on the curvature of spherical and cylindrical walls is examined and compared with the corresponding expression derived within the framework of morphometric thermodynamics. Particular attention is paid to the implications of the choice of the interface location, which underlies the definition of the interfacial tension. We find that morphometric thermodynamics is never exact for the considered systems and that its quality as an approximation depends sensitively on the choice of the interface location.

  10. Hydroelastic effects in the aorta bifurcation zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volmir, A. S.; Gersheyn, M. S.; Purinya, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of the vessels and blood is mathematically analyzed at the point of aortic bifurcation using a homogeneous single layer channel as a model of the aorta. Allowance is made for the fact that the aortic intima is considerably less rigid than the other layers. For analysis of blood flow in the major arteries, the blood is treated as a viscous Newtonian fluid whose movements are described by Navier-Stokes equations and a continuity equation. Blood flow dynamics at the aortic bifurcation are discussed on the basis of the results.

  11. Current management of coarctation of the aorta

    PubMed Central

    Suradi, Hussam; Hijazi, Ziyad M.

    2015-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (C) is the sixth most common lesion in congenital heart disease and represents a spectrum of aortic narrowing that varies from a discrete entity to tubular hypoplasia. This condition was once thought to be a relatively simple lesion that would be “cured” upon repair of the narrowing, however, despite relief of the anatomical obstruction the subsequent risk of early morbidity and death persists. This review outlines the optimal management strategy of this disease from neonatal to adult life and provides insights to approach this straightforward but challenging condition. PMID:26779519

  12. 3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a method for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm from computed tomography angiography images. The proposed method is automatic and requires minimal user assistance. Segmentation is performed in two steps. First inner and then outer aortic border is segmented. Those two steps are different due to different image conditions on two aortic borders. Outputs of these two segmentations give a complete 3-D model of abdominal aorta. Such a 3-D model is used in measurements of aneurysm area. The deformable model is implemented using the level-set algorithm due to its ability to describe complex shapes in natural manner which frequently occur in pathology. In segmentation of outer aortic boundary we introduced some knowledge based preprocessing to enhance and reconstruct low contrast aortic boundary. The method has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

  13. Inhibition of PKC-dependent extracellular Ca2+ entry contributes to the depression of contractile activity in long-term pressure-overloaded endothelium-denuded rat aortas

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, J.; López, R.M.; López, P.; Castillo, M.C.; Querejeta, E.; Ruiz, A.; Castillo, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the contractile responsiveness of rat thoracic aortas under pressure overload after long-term suprarenal abdominal aortic coarctation (lt-Srac). Endothelium-dependent angiotensin II (ANG II) type 2 receptor (AT2R)-mediated depression of contractions to ANG II has been reported in short-term (1 week) pressure-overloaded rat aortas. Contractility was evaluated in the aortic rings of rats subjected to lt-Srac or sham surgery (Sham) for 8 weeks. ANG I and II levels and AT2R protein expression in the aortas of lt-Srac and Sham rats were also evaluated. lt-Srac attenuated the contractions of ANG II and phenylephrine in the aortas in an endothelium-independent manner. However, lt-Srac did not influence the transient contractions induced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings by ANG II, phenylephrine, or caffeine in Ca2+-free medium or the subsequent tonic constrictions induced by the addition of Ca2+ in the absence of agonists. Thus, the contractions induced by Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca2+ influx through stored-operated channels were not inhibited in the aortas of lt-Srac rats. Potassium-elicited contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats remained unaltered compared with control tissues. Consequently, the contractile depression observed in aortic tissues of lt-Srac rats cannot be explained by direct inhibition of voltage-operated Ca2+ channels. Interestingly, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats were depressed in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Neither levels of angiotensins nor of AT2R were modified in the aortas after lt-Srac. The results suggest that, in rat thoracic aortas, lt-Srac selectively inhibited protein kinase C-mediated activation of contraction that is dependent on extracellular Ca2+ entry. PMID:25098618

  14. Anatomical and morphometric variations in the arterial system of the domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, V H; Ball, S; Cramer, R; Smith, A

    2015-12-01

    We document the anatomical architecture and frequency of occurrence of variations in the branching pattern of the brachiocephalic artery and the origin of the internal iliac arteries in the domestic cat, a widely used model organism in both anatomical training and research. Based on the study of 56 preserved specimens, we observed three distinct arrangements in the branching pattern of the brachiocephalic artery. The most common pattern (52% of the examined specimens) was that in which the brachiocephalic artery was divided into two branches, the left common carotid artery and a common branch for the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery. The frequency of occurrence of each variation type was independent of the gender and body size. The internal iliac arteries originated caudal to the point at which the external iliac arteries branched off from the abdominal aorta. However, the portion of the abdominal aorta between the external and internal iliac arteries varied greatly in length and was not significantly correlated with its width, nor with body size or gender. This study is the first to report and quantify the occurrence of such variations in North American cats. Given the anatomical similarity between the cat and other felids, the results of this study can be applied to other species, including endangered species. PMID:25318975

  15. Subtype-Specific Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Vasodilator Activity in the Cephalic, Thoracic and Abdominal Vasculature of Female Rat

    PubMed Central

    Reslan, Ossama M.; Yin, Zongzhi; do Nascimento, Graciliano R. A.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate genomic and nongenomic vasodilator effects, but estrogen therapy may not provide systemic vascular protection. To test whether this is due to regional differences in ER distribution or vasodilator activity, cephalic (carotid), thoracic (thoracic aorta, pulmonary) and abdominal arteries (abdominal aorta, mesenteric, renal) from female Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared to measure contraction to phenylephrine (Phe), and relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and the ER activators 17?-estradiol (E2) (all ERs), PPT (ER?), DPN (ER?) and G1 (GPR30). Phe caused contraction that was enhanced in endothelium-denuded aorta, supporting endothelial release of vasodilators. In cephalic and thoracic arteries, ACh relaxation was abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, suggesting a role of NO. In mesenteric vessels, ACh-induced relaxation was partly inhibited by L-NAME+COX inhibitor indomethacin and blocked by the K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA), suggesting a hyperpolarization pathway. E2 and PPT caused similar relaxation in all vessels. DPN and G1 caused smaller relaxation that was more prominent in abdominal vessels. RT-PCR revealed variable ER? mRNA expression, and increased ER? in carotid artery and GPR30 in abdominal arteries. Western blots revealed greater amounts of ER?, ER? and GPR30 in abdominal arteries. In thoracic aorta, E2, PPT and DPN-induced relaxation was blocked by L-NAME, and was associated with increased nitrite/nitrate production, suggesting a role of NO. In abdominal vessels, E2, PPT, DPN and G1-induced relaxation persisted in L-NAME+indomethacin+TEA-treated or endothelium-denuded arteries, suggesting direct effect on vascular smooth muscle (VSM). E2, PPT, DPN, and G1 caused greater relaxation of KCl-induced contraction in abdominal vessels, suggesting inhibitory effects on Ca2+ entry. Thus, E2 and ER? stimulation produce similar relaxation of the cephalic, thoracic and abdominal arteries. In the cephalic and thoracic arteries, particularly the thoracic aorta, E2-induced and ER?- and ER?-mediated vasodilation involve NO production. ER?- and GPR30-mediated relaxation is greater in the abdominal arteries, and appears to involve hyperpolarization and inhibition of VSM Ca2+ entry. Specific ER agonists could produce vasodilation in specific vascular beds without affecting other vessels in systemic circulation. PMID:23429596

  16. A segmentation method for stentgrafts in the abdominal aorta from ECG-gated CTA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Almar; Renema, W. KlaasJan; Oostveen, Luuk J.; Schultze Kool, Leo J.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2008-03-01

    Endovascular aortic replacement (EVAR) is an established technique, which uses stentgrafts to treat aortic aneurysms in patients at risk of aneurysm rupture. The long-term durability of a stentgraft is affected by the stresses and hemodynamic forces applied to it, and may be reflected by the movements of the stentgraft itself during the cardiac cycle. A conventional CT scan (which results in a 3D volume) is not able to visualize these movements. However, applying ECG-gating does provide insight in the motion of the stentgraft caused by hemodynamic forces at different phases of the cardiac cycle. The amount of data obtained is a factor of ten larger compared to conventional CT, but the radiation dose is kept similar for patient safety. This causes the data to be noisy, and streak artifacts are more common. Algorithms for automatic stentgraft detection must be able to cope with this. Segmentation of the stentgraft is performed by examining slices perpendicular to the centreline. Regions with high CT-values exist at the locations where the metallic frame penetrates the slice. These regions are well suited for detection and sub-pixel localization. Spurious points can be removed by means of a clustering algorithm, leaving only points on the contour of the stent. We compare the performance of several different point detection methods and clustering algorithms. The position of the stent's centreline is calculated by fitting a circle through these points. The proposed method can detect several stentgraft types, and is robust against noise and streak artifacts.

  17. Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris; Pomoni, Maria; Andrikopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-07-15

    We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

  18. Novel pathways in the pathobiology of human abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hinterseher, Irene; Erdman, Robert; Elmore, James R; Stahl, Elizabeth; Pahl, Matthew C; Derr, Kimberly; Golden, Alicia; Lillvis, John H; Cindric, Matthew C; Jackson, Kathryn; Bowen, William D; Schworer, Charles M; Chernousov, Michael A; Franklin, David P; Gray, John L; Garvin, Robert P; Gatalica, Zoran; Carey, David J; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), a dilatation of the infrarenal aorta, typically affects males > 65 years. The pathobiological mechanisms of human AAA are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to identify novel pathways involved in the development of AAAs. Methods A custom-designed AAA-chip was used to assay 43 of the differentially expressed genes identified in a previously published microarray study between AAA (n = 15) and control (n = 15) infrarenal abdominal aorta. Protein analyses were performed on selected genes. Results Altogether 38 of the 43 genes on the AAA-chip showed significantly different expression. Novel validated genes in AAA pathobiology included ADCY7, ARL4C, BLNK, FOSB, GATM, LYZ, MFGE8, PRUNE2, PTPRC, SMTN, TMODI and TPM2. These genes represent a wide range of biological functions, such as calcium signaling, development and differentiation, as well as cell adhesion not previously implicated in AAA pathobiology. Protein analyses for GATM, CD4, CXCR4, BLNK, PLEK, LYZ, FOSB, DUSP6, ITGA5 and PTPRC confirmed the mRNA findings. Conclusion The results provide new directions for future research into AAA pathogenesis to study the role of novel genes confirmed here. New treatments and diagnostic tools for AAA could potentially be identified by studying these novel pathways. PMID:22797469

  19. Computer-assisted diagnosis in CT angiography of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebich, Martin; Tomiak, Myrosia M.; Engelmann, Roger M.; McGill, James; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop methods for automatic 3D-segmentation and automatic quantification of vascular structures in CT angiographic studies, e.g., abdominal aortic aneurysms. Methods for segmentation were developed based on thresholding, maximum gradient, and second derivative techniques. All parameters for the segmentation are generated automatically, i.e. no user interaction is necessary for this process. Median filtering of all images is initially performed to reduce the image noise. The algorithm then automatically identifies the starting point inside the aorta for the volume growing. The segmentation of the vascular tree is achieved in two steps. First, only the aorta and small parts of branch vessels are segmented by using strong restrictions in the parameters for threshold and gradient. A description of the aorta is generated by fitting the detected outer border of the aorta with an ellipse. This description includes centerline, direction, contour, eccentricity, and area. In the second step, segmentation parameters are changed automatically for segmentation of branch vessels. A shaded surface display of the segmented structures is then generated. The segmentation of the aorta appears accurate, is fast, and the 3D display can be manipulated in real time. The quantitative description of the aorta is reliable giving reproducible information. Total CPU time for the segmentation and description is less than five minutes on a standard workstation. Time-consuming manual segmentation and parameterization of vascular structures are obviated, with 3D visualization and quantitative results available in minutes instead of hours. This technique for segmentation and description of the aorta and renal arteries shows the feasibility of computer assisted diagnosis in CT angiographic studies without user interaction. Besides the description, a rapid 3D view of the vessels is generated, often needed by the physician and normally only achievable by time consuming manual segmentation.

  20. The coral reef aorta a single centre experience in 70 patients

    PubMed Central

    Grotemeyer, Dirk; Pourhassan, Siamak; Rehbein, Hermann; Voiculescu, Adina; Reinecke, Petra; Sandmann, Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    Coral reef aorta (CRA) is described as rock-hard calcifications in the visceral part of the aorta. These heavily calcified plaques grow into the lumen and can cause significant stenoses, which may lead to malperfusion of the lower limbs, visceral ischemia or hypertension due to renal ischemia. From January 1984 to February 2007, 70 patients (24 men, 46 women, mean age 59.5 years, range 14 to 81 years) underwent treatment in the Department of Vascular Surgery and Renal Transplantation, University Hospital, Heinrich-Heine-University (Dsseldorf, Germany) for CRA. The present study is based on a review of patients records and the prospective follow-up in the outpatient clinic. The most frequent finding was renovascular arterial hypertension (44.3%) causing headache, vertigo and visual symptoms. Intermittent claudication due to peripheral arterial occlusive disease was found in 28 patients (40.0%). Seventeen patients (24.3%) presented with chronic visceral ischemia causing diarrhea, weight loss and abdominal pain. Sixty-nine of the 70 patients (98.6%) underwent surgery; in 57 patients, aortic reconstruction was achieved with thromboendarterectomy, performed on an isolated suprarenal segment in six cases (8.7%), an infrarenal segment in 15 cases (21.7%), and the supra- and infrarenal aorta in 43 cases (62.3%). Eight patients (11.6%) died during or soon after surgery. Postoperative complications requiring corrective surgery occurred in 11 patients (15.9%). Almost one-third of the patients (n=19, 27.5%) returned for follow-up after a mean of 52.6 months (range six to 215 months). Of the 19 patients, there was significant clinical and diagnostic improvement in 16 patients (84.2%) and three patients (15.8%) were unchanged. Impairment was not observed. Despite the existing and improving surgical techniques for the treatment of CRA, its pathophysiological basis and genesis is not yet understood. PMID:22477301

  1. Aorta-Left Renal Vein Fistula Complicating an Aortic Aneurysm: Preoperative and Postoperative Multislice CT Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Barrier, Pierre Otal, Philippe; Garcia, Olivier; Vahdat, Olivier; Domenech, Brice; Lannareix, Valerie; Joffre, Francis; Rousseau, Herve

    2007-06-15

    Fistulas complicating an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are rare, and fistulas involving the left renal vein are particularly uncommon. We highlight here a fistula between an infrarenal aortic aneurysm and a retroaortic left renal vein, revealed by left flank pain associated with hematuria and acute renal failure. The multislice CT angiography performed in this 68-year-old patient revealed communication and equal enhancement between the aorta and the left gonadic vein, suggesting the presence of a fistula. The three-dimensional VRT reconstructions presented in this case were of great value in the preoperative planning, enabling immediate visualization of this unusual feature. Alternative diagnoses to consider when encountering this clinical presentation are reviewed.

  2. In vivo monitoring of the inflammatory response in a stented mouse aorta model.

    PubMed

    Kapnisis, Konstantinos K; Pitsillides, Costas M; Prokopi, Marianna S; Lapathitis, George; Karaiskos, Christos; Eleftheriou, Polyvios C; Brott, Brigitta C; Anderson, Peter G; Lemons, Jack E; Anayiotos, Andreas S

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of vascular stents continues to increase for a variety of applications, including coronary, lower limb, renal, carotid, and neurovascular disorders. However, their clinical effectiveness is hindered by numerous postdeployment complications, which may stimulate inflammatory and fibrotic reactions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vessel inflammatory response via in vivo imaging in a mouse stent implantation model. Corroded and noncorroded self-expanding miniature nitinol stents were implanted in mice abdominal aortas, and novel in vivo imaging techniques were used to assess trafficking and accumulation of fluorescent donor monocytes as well as cellular proliferation at the implantation site. Monocytes were quantitatively tracked in vivo and found to rapidly clear from circulation within hours after injection. Differences were found between the test groups with respect to the numbers of recruited monocytes and the intensity of the resulting fluorescent signal. Image analysis also revealed a subtle increase in matrix metalloproteinase activity in corroded compared with the normal stented aortas. In conclusion, this study has been successful in developing a murine stent inflammation model and applying novel in vivo imaging tools and methods to monitor the complex biological processes of the host vascular wall response. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 227-238, 2016. PMID:26362825

  3. [Endovascular interventions of the descending thoracic aorta].

    PubMed

    Doss, Mirko; Wood, Jeffrey P; Balzer, Joern; Thalhammer, Alex; Martens, Sven; Wimmer-Greinecker, Gerhard; Vogl, Thomas; Moritz, Anton

    2006-08-01

    Endovascular interventions of the descending thoracic aorta have been established as an alternative to conventional open surgery. Initially, they were limited to elective patients with a high risk profile for open surgery, but soon their use was extended to emergencies as well. In the elective setting, endovascular interventions significantly lowered short-term morbidity and mortality. These excellent perioperative results were reproducible in the emergency setting, thereby leading to superior outcomes for patients treated by endovascular stent grafts when compared to the conventional open surgical approach. However, some questions regarding long-term durability of these devices remain unanswered. Stent-graft failures at mid and long-term follow-up have been reported in the literature. The progressive nature of stent graft-related mid- and long-term complications stresses the need for continued surveillance of these patients. PMID:16944062

  4. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Zaffer; Brenner, Megan; Menaker, Jay; Scalea, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The management of non-compressible torso hemorrhage can be problematic. Current therapy requires either open or interventional radiologic control of bleeding vessels and/or organs. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a new tool to stabilize patients in shock by achieving temporary inflow occlusion of non-compressible torso hemorrhage. This proactive technique represents a paradigm shift in achieving hemodynamic stability in patients as a bridge to definitive hemostasis. REBOA is applicable by trauma professionals, including emergency physicians, at the bedside in the emergency department, but its use needs to be considered within the context of available evidence and a robust system encompassing training, accreditation, multidisciplinary involvement and quality assurance. We review the evolving role of REBOA and discuss unanswered questions and future applications. PMID:26386370

  5. Radiographic findings in aneurysms of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Beachley, M C; Ranniger, K

    1976-05-01

    The use of specific radiographic criteria in the investigation of an aneurysm of the aorta will enable the physician to determine its etiology with a high degree of accuracy. The etiology, location, type, and extent of an aneurysm determine the proper mode of therapy. Aortography, therefore, is the single most important examination for the diagnosis, and will predict the ultimate prognosis in a patient with an aortic aneurysm. This review critically evaluates major recent articles on aortic aneurysms, emphasizing radiographic findings which have a high degree of reliability and cautioning the reader about nonspecific signs which have been reported. Each type of aortic aneurysm is described in detail, stressing criteria which allow the radiologist to be as specific as possible in determining the etiology and extent of the aneurysm. PMID:776531

  6. Intra-abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Holliday, R L

    1976-01-01

    Intra-abdominal sepsis remains one of the major challenges to the surgeon. With a proper appreciation of the bacteriology and pathophysiology involved and an awareness of new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, hopefully, mortality and morbidity rates can be reduced. PMID:1048948

  7. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers a one-time abdominal aortic aneurysm ultrasound. You must get a referral for it ...

  8. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation ...

  9. Geometric Morphometrics of Rodent Sperm Head Shape

    PubMed Central

    Varea Snchez, Mara; Bastir, Markus; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa, particularly those of rodent species, are extremely complex cells and differ greatly in form and dimensions. Thus, characterization of sperm size and, particularly, sperm shape represents a major challenge. No consensus exists on a method to objectively assess size and shape of spermatozoa. In this study we apply the principles of geometric morphometrics to analyze rodent sperm head morphology and compare them with two traditional morphometry methods, that is, measurements of linear dimensions and dimensions-derived parameters calculated using formulae employed in sperm morphometry assessments. Our results show that geometric morphometrics clearly identifies shape differences among rodent spermatozoa. It is also capable of discriminating between size and shape and to analyze these two variables separately. Thus, it provides an accurate method to assess sperm head shape. Furthermore, it can identify which sperm morphology traits differ between species, such as the protrusion or retraction of the base of the head, the orientation and relative position of the site of flagellum insertion, the degree of curvature of the hook, and other distinct anatomical features and appendices. We envisage that the use of geometric morphometrics may have a major impact on future studies focused on the characterization of sperm head formation, diversity of sperm head shape among species (and underlying evolutionary forces), the effects of reprotoxicants on changes in cell shape, and phenotyping of genetically-modified individuals. PMID:24312234

  10. Classification of Tumor Histology via Morphometric Context *

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hang; Borowsky, Alexander; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Image-based classification of tissue histology, in terms of different components (e.g., normal signature, categories of aberrant signatures), provides a series of indices for tumor composition. Subsequently, aggregation of these indices in each whole slide image (WSI) from a large cohort can provide predictive models of clinical outcome. However, the performance of the existing techniques is hindered as a result of large technical and biological variations that are always present in a large cohort. In this paper, we propose two algorithms for classification of tissue histology based on robust representations of morphometric context, which are built upon nuclear level morphometric features at various locations and scales within the spatial pyramid matching (SPM) framework. These methods have been evaluated on two distinct datasets of different tumor types collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the experimental results indicate that our methods are (i) extensible to different tumor types; (ii) robust in the presence of wide technical and biological variations; (iii) invariant to different nuclear segmentation strategies; and (iv) scalable with varying training sample size. In addition, our experiments suggest that enforcing sparsity, during the construction of morphometric context, further improves the performance of the system. PMID:24319324

  11. Congenital aneurysm of the descending aorta in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Lilje, C; Wilhelm, C; Gildein, H P

    1999-08-15

    A large aneurysm of the descending aorta of unknown etiology was diagnosed in utero. Medical treatment with propranolol was continued after surgery which was performed at the age of 2 months. PMID:10468100

  12. Flow Cytometric Analysis of Immune Cells Within Murine Aorta.

    PubMed

    Gjurich, Breanne N; Taghavie-Moghadam, Parsa L; Galkina, Elena V

    2015-01-01

    The immune system plays a critical role in the modulation of atherogenesis at all stages of the disease. However, there are many technical difficulties when studying the immune system within murine aortas. Common techniques such as PCR and immunohistochemistry have answered many questions about the presence of immune cells and mediators of inflammation within the aorta yet many questions remain unanswered due to the limitations of these techniques. On the other hand, cumulatively the flow cytometry approach has propelled the immunology field forward but it has been challenging to apply this technique to aortic tissues. Here, we describe the methodology to isolate and characterize the immune cells within the murine aorta and provide examples of functional assays for aortic leukocytes using flow cytometry. The method involves the harvesting and enzymatic digestion of the aorta, extracellular and intracellular protein staining, and a subsequent flow cytometric analysis. PMID:26445788

  13. Flow Cytometric Analysis of Immune Cells Within Murine Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Gjurich, Breanne N.; Taghavie-Moghadam, Parsa L.; Galkina, Elena V.

    2015-01-01

    The immune system plays a critical role in the modulation of atherogenesis at all stages of the disease. However, there are many technical difficulties when studying the immune system within murine aortas. Common techniques such as PCR and immunohistochemistry have answered many questions about the presence of immune cells and mediators of inflammation within the aorta yet many questions remain unanswered due to the limitations of these techniques. On the other hand, cumulatively the flow cytometry approach has propelled the immunology field forward but it has been challenging to apply this technique to aortic tissues. Here, we describe the methodology to isolate and characterize the immune cells within the murine aorta and provide examples of functional assays for aortic leukocytes using flow cytometry. The method involves the harvesting and enzymatic digestion of the aorta, extracellular and intracellular protein staining, and a subsequent flow cytometric analysis. PMID:26445788

  14. The abdominal circulatory pump.

    PubMed

    Aliverti, Andrea; Bovio, Dario; Fullin, Irene; Dellac, Raffaele L; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, Peter T

    2009-01-01

    Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50-75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4-6% and an output of 750-1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61+/-0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57+/-0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart. PMID:19440240

  15. The Abdominal Circulatory Pump

    PubMed Central

    Aliverti, Andrea; Bovio, Dario; Fullin, Irene; Dellac, Raffaele L.; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 5075 ml with an ejection fraction of 46% and an output of 7501500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.610.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.570.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart. PMID:19440240

  16. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M

    2010-06-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management. PMID:20668419

  17. Trans-Iliac Rat Aorta Stenting: A Novel High Throughput Preclinical Stent Model for Restenosis and Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Oyamada, Shizu; Ma, Xiaodong; Wu, Tim; Robich, Michael P.; Wu, Hao; Wang, Xingwei; Buchholz, Bryan; McCarthy, Stephen; Bianchi, Cesario F.; Sellke, Frank W.; Laham, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently, preclinical stent development requires elaborate large animal models which are time consuming and expensive. We herein report a high throughput rat aorta stenting model which could provide a rapid and low-cost platform for preclinical stent development. Methods A total of 86 metal stents (316L stainless steel 13mm, VasoTech, Inc.) coated with poly (D, L-lactide -co-glycolide) / amorphous calcium phosphate (PLGA/ACP) copolymer were pre-mounted on 1.5mm 15mm balloon catheters and were implanted into aspirin treated Sprague-Dawley rats (500-700g) initially using either direct placement in the abdominal aorta (Group A, n = 7) or a trans-iliac approach (cut-down, Group B, n = 79). The surviving rats were sacrificed at 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 12 weeks post implantation and the stented arteries were analyzed histopathologically Results Four rats died in group A and nine rats died in group B within 48 hours post stent implantation (mortality: 57% vs. 11%, P<0.05). All animals that died had stent thrombosis/paralysis with visible thrombus on necropsy. Histologically, neointimal growth peaked at approximately 4 weeks post implantation. Conclusion This result suggests that human-sized stents can be successfully implanted into the rat aorta via iliac artery insertion with a significantly higher survival rate than trans-aorta implantation. The model system allows rapid (4-12 weeks) assessment of stent biocompatibility with mortality/paralysis used as an indicator of stent thrombosis. PMID:21195423

  18. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. PMID:26527261

  19. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, IA; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. Case report. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Conclusion. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated. PMID:25914739

  20. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  1. PIV and MRV Measurements in Human Thoracic Aorta Phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyengar, Ananth; Elkins, Christopher; Draney, Mary; Medina, Francisco; Wicker, Ryan

    2004-11-01

    Aortic dissection is a non-traumatic injury to the aorta in which a flap is created inside the aorta by the separation of the inner lining of the vessel wall from its outer layers. It is hypothesized that dissections start as tears in vessels' inner lining and propagate as blood impinges through the tear into the separated part of the vessel wall. No two dissections are alike, but many share common characteristics, one of which is that tear sites occur in similar places in the aorta. In an effort to understand the origins of these tear sites and the propagation of dissections, we are studying blood flow in human aortas. To begin, we are using rigid aorta phantoms based on anatomies of healthy adults extracted from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) medical scans. Clear polyurethane phantoms are created by casting around water-soluble positive molds manufactured using rapid prototyping. We study steady flows with Reynolds numbers comparable to those present in the aorta during the systolic pulse and physiologically pulsatile flows. The entire three-dimensional flow is measured using magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV), a technique based on MRI principles capable of measuring three-component mean velocities. MRV results are compared to the instantaneous and average two-component velocity fields measured in a few 2D planes with particle image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV results provide validation for the MRV and insight into the instantaneous flow structures that may possibly lead to aortic dissection through fluid structure wall interaction.

  2. Innovative Chimney-Graft Technique for Endovascular Repair of a Pararenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Galianes, Edgar Luis; Hernandez-Vila, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    After abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, progressive degeneration of the aneurysm can be challenging to treat. Multiple comorbidities and previous operations place such patients at high risk for repeat surgery. Endovascular repair is a possible alternative; however, challenging anatomy can push the limits of available technology. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a 5.3-cm pararenal aneurysm 4 years after undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. To avoid reoperation, we excluded the aneurysm by endovascular means, using visceral-artery stenting, a chimney-graft technique. Low-profile balloons on a monorail system enabled the rapid exchange of coronary wires via a buddy-wire technique. This novel approach facilitated stenting and simultaneous angioplasty of multiple visceral vessels and the abdominal aorta. PMID:25873796

  3. Innovative chimney-graft technique for endovascular repair of a pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Galianes, Edgar Luis; Hernandez-Vila, Eduardo A; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2015-02-01

    After abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, progressive degeneration of the aneurysm can be challenging to treat. Multiple comorbidities and previous operations place such patients at high risk for repeat surgery. Endovascular repair is a possible alternative; however, challenging anatomy can push the limits of available technology. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a 5.3-cm pararenal aneurysm 4 years after undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. To avoid reoperation, we excluded the aneurysm by endovascular means, using visceral-artery stenting, a chimney-graft technique. Low-profile balloons on a monorail system enabled the rapid exchange of coronary wires via a buddy-wire technique. This novel approach facilitated stenting and simultaneous angioplasty of multiple visceral vessels and the abdominal aorta. PMID:25873796

  4. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms and Risk Factors for Adverse Events.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Raheel; Ghoorah, Kuldeepa; Kunadian, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a focal full thickness dilatation of the abdominal aorta, greater than 1.5 times its normal diameter. Although some patients with AAA experience back or abdominal pain, most remain asymptomatic until rupture. The prognosis after AAA rupture is poor. Management strategies for patients with asymptomatic AAAs include risk factor reduction, such as smoking cessation, optimizing antihypertensive treatment, and treating dyslipidemia, as well as surveillance by ultrasound. Currently, aneurysm diameter alone is often used to assess risk of rupture. Once the aneurysm diameter reaches 5.5 cm, the risk of rupture is considered greater than the risk of intervention and elective aneurysm repair is undertaken. There is increasing interest in detecting AAAs early, and national screening programs are now in place. Furthermore, there is increasing research interest in biomarkers, genetics, and functional imaging to improve detection of AAAs at risk of progression and rupture. In this review, we discuss risk factors for AAA rupture, which should be considered during the management process, to advance current deficiencies in management pathways. PMID:25580705

  5. Surgical Site Infection and Analytic Morphometric Assessment of Body Composition in Patients Undergoing Midline Laparotomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jay S; Terjimanian, Michael N; Tishberg, Lindsay M; Alawieh, Abbas Z; Harbaugh, Calista M; Sheetz, Kyle H; Holcombe, Sven A; Wang, Stewart C; Sonnenday, Christopher J; Englesbe, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is a known risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI). Our hypothesis is that morphometric measures of midline subcutaneous fat will be associated with increased risk of SSI, and will predict SSI better than conventional measures of obesity. Study Design We identified 655 patients who underwent midline laparotomy (2006 - 2009) using the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative database. Using novel, semi-automated analytic morphometric techniques, the thickness of subcutaneous fat along the linea alba was measured between T12 and L4. To adjust for variations in patient size, subcutaneous fat was normalized to the distance between the vertebrae and anterior skin. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors independently associated with the incidence of SSI. Results Overall, SSIs were observed in 12.5% (n = 82) of the population. Logistic regression revealed that patients with increased subcutaneous fat had significantly greater odds of developing a superficial incisional SSI (OR = 1.76 per 10% increase, 95% CI: 1.10 2.83, p = 0.019). Smoking, steroid use, ASA classification, and incision-to-close operative time were also significant independent risk factors for superficial incisional SSI. When comparing subcutaneous fat and body mass index (BMI) as the only model variables, subcutaneous fat significantly improved model predictions of superficial incisional SSI (AUC: 0.60, p = 0.023) while BMI did not (AUC = 0.52, p = 0.73). Conclusions Abdominal subcutaneous fat is an independent predictor of superficial incisional SSI following midline laparotomy. Novel morphometric measures may improve risk stratification and help elucidate the pathophysiology of surgical complications. PMID:21601491

  6. Zinc Prevents Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation by Induction of A20-Mediated Suppression of NF-κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ya-Wei; Fan, Jun; Bai, Shu-Ling; Hou, Wei-Jian; Li, Xiang; Tong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and degradation of elastin are the main processes in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Recent studies show that zinc has an anti-inflammatory effect. Based on these, zinc may render effective therapy for the treatment of the AAA. Currently, we want to investigate the effects of zinc on AAA progression and its related molecular mechanism. Rat AAA models were induced by periaortic application of CaCl2. AAA rats were treated by daily intraperitoneal injection of ZnSO4 or vehicle alone. The aorta segments were collected at 4 weeks after surgery. The primary rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were stimulated with TNF-α alone or with ZnSO4 for 3 weeks. The results showed that zinc supplementation significantly suppressed the CaCl2-induced expansion of the abdominal aortic diameter, as well as a preservation of medial elastin fibers in the aortas. Zinc supplementation also obviously attenuated infiltration of the macrophages and lymphocytes in the aortas. In addition, zinc reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 production in the aortas. Most importantly, zinc treatment significantly induced A20 expression, along with inhibition of the NF-κB canonical signaling pathway in vitro in VSMCs and in vivo in rat AAA. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that zinc supplementation could prevent the development of rat experimental AAA by induction of A20-mediated inhibition of the NF-κB canonical signaling pathway. PMID:26918963

  7. Zinc Prevents Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation by Induction of A20-Mediated Suppression of NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Shu-Ling; Hou, Wei-Jian; Li, Xiang; Tong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and degradation of elastin are the main processes in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Recent studies show that zinc has an anti-inflammatory effect. Based on these, zinc may render effective therapy for the treatment of the AAA. Currently, we want to investigate the effects of zinc on AAA progression and its related molecular mechanism. Rat AAA models were induced by periaortic application of CaCl2. AAA rats were treated by daily intraperitoneal injection of ZnSO4 or vehicle alone. The aorta segments were collected at 4 weeks after surgery. The primary rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were stimulated with TNF-α alone or with ZnSO4 for 3 weeks. The results showed that zinc supplementation significantly suppressed the CaCl2-induced expansion of the abdominal aortic diameter, as well as a preservation of medial elastin fibers in the aortas. Zinc supplementation also obviously attenuated infiltration of the macrophages and lymphocytes in the aortas. In addition, zinc reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 production in the aortas. Most importantly, zinc treatment significantly induced A20 expression, along with inhibition of the NF-κB canonical signaling pathway in vitro in VSMCs and in vivo in rat AAA. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that zinc supplementation could prevent the development of rat experimental AAA by induction of A20-mediated inhibition of the NF-κB canonical signaling pathway. PMID:26918963

  8. Abdominal imaging: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures.

  9. [Abdominal penetrating trauma].

    PubMed

    Kring, Sren; Helligse, Per; Kg, Lise

    2009-06-22

    A 19-year-old female was brought to the Emergency Room as a trauma patient. During a tilting contest she fell off the horse and was penetrated by a spear used for tilting the ring. She was respiratorically as well as haemodynamically stable. The spear was supported but not removed by the paramedics. The spear penetrated the patient near the left iliac crest pointing at the heart. Further investigation at the Emergency Room is described briefly and guidelines for penetrating, impaled foreign bodies in the (thoraco)abdominal region are outlined. PMID:19671404

  10. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain. PMID:26331201

  11. Method for extracting the aorta from 3D CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2007-03-01

    Bronchoscopic biopsy of the central-chest lymph nodes is vital in the staging of lung cancer. Three-dimensional multi-detector CT (MDCT) images provide vivid anatomical detail for planning bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, many lymph nodes are situated close to the aorta, and an inadvertent needle biopsy could puncture the aorta, causing serious harm. As an eventual aid for more complete planning of lymph-node biopsy, it is important to define the aorta. This paper proposes a method for extracting the aorta from a 3D MDCT chest image. The method has two main phases: (1) Off-line Model Construction, which provides a set of training cases for fitting new images, and (2) On-Line Aorta Construction, which is used for new incoming 3D MDCT images. Off-Line Model Construction is done once using several representative human MDCT images and consists of the following steps: construct a likelihood image, select control points of the medial axis of the aortic arch, and recompute the control points to obtain a constant-interval medial-axis model. On-Line Aorta Construction consists of the following operations: construct a likelihood image, perform global fitting of the precomputed models to the current case's likelihood image to find the best fitting model, perform local fitting to adjust the medial axis to local data variations, and employ a region recovery method to arrive at the complete constructed 3D aorta. The region recovery method consists of two steps: model-based and region-growing steps. This region growing method can recover regions outside the model coverage and non-circular tube structures. In our experiments, we used three models and achieved satisfactory results on twelve of thirteen test cases.

  12. Modification of an endovascular stent graft for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moloye, Olajompo Busola

    Endovascular surgery is currently used to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). A stent graft is deployed to exclude blood flow from the aneurysm sac. It is an effective procedure used in preventing aneurysm rupture, with reduced patient morbidity and mortality compared to open surgical repair. Migration and leakage around the device ("endoleak") due to poor sealing of the stent graft to the aorta have raised concerns about the long-term durability of endovascular repair. A preliminary study of cell migration and proliferation is presented as a prelude to a more extensive in vivo testing. A method to enhance the biological seal between the stent graft and the aorta is proposed to eliminate this problem. This can be achieved by impregnating the stent graft with 50/50 poly (DL-lactide co glycolic acid) (PLGA) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), at the proximal and distal ends. It is hypothesized that as PLGA degrades it will release the growth factors that will promote proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells to the coated site, leading to a natural seal between the aorta and the stent graft. In addition, growth factor release should promote smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction that will help keep the stent graft in place at the proximal and distal ends. It is shown that a statistically significant effect of increased cell proliferation and migration is observed for CTGF release. Less of an effect is noted for bFGF or just the PLGA. The effect is estimated to be large enough to be clinically significant in a future animal study. The long term goal of this study is to reduce migration encounter after graft deployment and to reduce secondary interventions of EVAR especially for older patients who are unfit for open surgical treatment.

  13. Abdominal MR Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Meng; Chen, Jun; Glaser, Kevin J.; Talwalkar, Jayant A.; Ehman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    MR Elastography (MRE) is an MRI-based technique for quantitatively assessing the mechanical properties of tissues, based on the propagation of shear waves. Multiple studies have described many potential applications of MRE, from characterizing tumors to detecting diffuse disease processes. Studies have shown that MRE can be successfully implemented to assess abdominal organs. The first clinical application MRE to be well documented is the detection and characterization of hepatic fibrosis, which systematically increases the stiffness of liver tissue. In this diagnostic role, offers a safer, and less expensive, and potentially more accurate alternative to invasive liver biopsy. Emerging results suggest that measurements of liver and spleen stiffness may provide an indirect way to assess portal hypertension. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that is possible to use MRE to evaluate the mechanical properties of other abdominal structures, such as the pancreas and kidneys. Steady technical progress in developing practical protocols for applying MRE in the abdomen and pelvis provides opportunities to explore many other potential applications of this emerging technology. PMID:20010062

  14. [Pathophysiology of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Michele

    2011-08-01

    Abdominal pain can be induced by stimulation of visceral nociceptors. Activation of nociceptors usually requires previous sensitization by pathological events, such as inflammation, ischemia or acidosis. Although abdominal pain can obviously be caused by pathology of a visceral structure, clinicians frequently observe that such a pathology explains only part of the pain complaints. Occasionally, there is lack of objective signs of visceral lesions. There is clear evidence that pain states are associated with profound changes of the central processing of the sensory input. The main consequences of such alterations for patients are twofold: 1) a central sensitization, i.e. an increased excitability of the central nervous system; 2) an alteration of the endogenous pain modulation, which under normal conditions inhibits the processing of nociceptive signals in the central nervous system. Both phenomena lead to a spread of pain to other body regions and an amplification of the pain perception. The interactions between visceral pathology and alterations of the central pain processes represent an at least partial explanation for the discrepancy between objective signs of peripheral lesions and severity of the symptoms. Today, both central hypersensitivity and alteration in endogenous pain modulation can be measured in clinical practice. This information can be used to provide the patients with an explanatory model for their pain. Furthermore, first data suggest that alterations in central pain processing may represent negative prognostic factors. A better understanding of the individual pathophysiology may allow in the future the development of individual therapeutic strategies. PMID:21796591

  15. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and histological, clinical, radiological correlation.

    PubMed

    Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita; Bonomini, Francesca; Peroni, Michele; Cocchi, Marco Angelo; Hirtler, Lena; Bonardelli, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    To date, the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA) still remains unclear. As such, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes of the aortic structure during AAA. We analysed the microscopic frame of vessels sections, starting from the primum movens leading to abnormal dilatation. AAA samples were collected and processed through various staining methods (Verhoeff-Van Gieson, Masson Goldner, Sirius Red). Subsequently, the vessel morphology and collagenic web of the tunica media and adventitia were determined and the amount of type I and type III collagen was measured. We also applied immune-histochemistry markers for CD34 and PGP 9.5 in order to identify vascular and nerve structures in the aorta. Immune-positivity quantification was used to calculate the percentage of the stained area. We found increasing deposition of type I collagen and reduced type III collagen in both tunica media and adventitia of AAA. The total amount of vasa vasorum, marked with CD34, and nerva vasorum, marked with PGP 9.5, was also higher in AAA samples. Cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking) and radiological data (maximum aneurism diameter, intra-luminal thrombus, aortic wall calcification) increased these changes. These results suggest that the tunica adventitia may have a central role in the pathogenesis of AAA as clearly there are major changes characterized by rooted inflammatory infiltration. The presence of immune components could explain these modifications within the framework of the aorta. PMID:26858185

  16. Elastic fibers and collagen distribution in human aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira-Damiani, G.; Ferro, D. P.; Adam, R. L.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Pelegati, V.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, K.

    2011-03-01

    Elastic and collagen fibers are essential components of the aorta, the remodeling of these structures is accompanied with aging in various diseases and life-threatening events. While the elastic fibers confer resilience to major blood vessels collagen confers resistance to the same. Elastic fibers are easily visualized in the fluorescent light when stained with hematoxylin eosin. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) is a non linear signal that occurs only in molecules without inversion symmetry and is particularly strong in the collagen fibers arranged in triple helices. The aim of this paper is to describe the distribution of collagen in the thickness of the thoracic aorta, and to demonstrate the distribution of between elastic fibers. The images were acquired in a multifoton microscopy and both signals, Two-phtoton excitaded fluorescence (TPEF) and SHG, were excited by a Ti:Sapphire laser. We used a band pass filter to filter the SHG signal from the TPEF signal. The thickness of the aorta varies 2-3 mm, and the image was composed of the juxtaposition of images of 220 x 220 microns. We acquired images of a histological slide of the thoracic aorta stained with picrosirius red (specific for collagen) at a wavelength of 670nm SHG subsequently acquired images with the same region and observed that the images are overlapping. Therefore, the following images were acquired by confocal microscopy (fluorescence of eosin for visualization of elastic fibers) and for collagen SHG. After reconstruction of the images, we observed the distribution of collagen along the aorta.

  17. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor protects against abdominal aortic aneurysm in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Fukuda, Yamato; Takayanagi, Takehiko; Taro, Yoshinori; Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; Elliott, Katherine J; Choi, Eric; Daugherty, Alan; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been implicated in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), Ang II activates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediating growth promotion. We hypothesized that inhibition of EGFR prevents Ang II-dependent AAA. C57BL/6 mice were co-treated with Ang II and β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) to induce AAA with or without treatment with EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib. Without erlotinib, 64.3% of mice were dead due to aortic rupture. All surviving mice had AAA associated with EGFR activation. Erlotinib-treated mice did not die and developed far fewer AAA. The maximum diameters of abdominal aortas were significantly shorter with erlotinib treatment. In contrast, both erlotinib-treated and non-treated mice developed hypertension. The erlotinib treatment of abdominal aorta was associated with lack of EGFR activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, interleukin-6 induction and matrix deposition. EGFR activation in AAA was also observed in humans. In conclusion, EGFR inhibition appears to protect mice from AAA formation induced by Ang II plus BAPN. The mechanism seems to involve suppression of vascular EGFR and ER stress. PMID:25531554

  18. Electroosmotic Characteristics of Canine Aorta and Vena Cava Wall

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Philip N.; Harshaw, David H.

    1966-01-01

    Experiments in which canine aorta and vena cava walls are subjected to electroosmosis in an open system at constant pressure are described. Electroosmosis reveals that the blood vessel walls studied have a negative zeta potential. The calculated zeta potentials are different for aorta and vena cava, -9.0 5.0 mv compared with -4.7 1.2 mv, respectively, and again of different magnitude with different bathing solutions. The calculated membrane pore charge per centimeter of effective pore surface in statcoulombs is approximately 6.2 103 for aorta compared with 3.5 103 for vena cava. The implications of the negative electroosmotic zeta potential in terms of the surrounding electric double layer, ion transport, and thrombosis are briefly discussed. PMID:5970568

  19. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  20. CT of abdominal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.

  1. Demonstration of coarctation of the aorta by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Amparo, E.; Higgins, C.B.; Shafton, E.P.

    1984-12-01

    The physical findings in coarctation of the aorta are sufficiently characteristic to allow a reasonably accurate clinical diagnosis. The preoperative evaluation has been accomplished by catheterization, aortography, intravenous digital subtraction angiography, computed tomography (CT), and two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography. The authors report a case of coarctation of the aorta clinically suspected in a 29-year-old man. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was the initial preoperative imaging technique. In retrospect, it provided sufficient information for preoperative evaluation so that other imaging techniques would not have been required.

  2. Frequent neurally mediated reflex syncope in a young patient with dextrocardia: Efficacy of catheter ablation of the superior vena cavaaorta ganglionated plexus

    PubMed Central

    Suenaga, Hidetaka; Murakami, Masato; Tani, Tomoyuki; Saito, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Neurally mediated reflex syncope is the most common cause of syncope in young individuals without cardiac or neurological pathology. We report a case of successful catheter ablation in a 17-year-old male with neurally mediated syncope (NMS) of the cardioinhibitory type. The patient had dextrocardia situs inversus totalis with a mirror-image reversal of the thoracic and abdominal organs. Because he experienced multiple syncope episodes despite pharmacological intervention, we performed endocardial ablation of the superior vena cavaaorta ganglionated plexus. Shortly afterwards, his heart rate increased from 40 to 76 beats per minutes. He has not experienced syncope during the 1-year follow-up. PMID:26336554

  3. Abdominal wall extraction using constrained deformable model and abdominal context.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weimin; Quan, Lijie; Lin, Zhiping; Duan, Yuping; Zhou, Jiayin; Yang, Yongzhong; Xiong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Information about abdominal wall can be used for many applications from organ segmentation, registration, and surgical simulation. The challenges exist in abdominal wall extraction due to its varieties in shapes, connection to the internal organs and anterior layer edge formed between the muscle and fascia/fatty layer, which may distract the shape model. In this paper we present an approach to the posterior abdominal wall extraction using the shape model and other abdominal context, particularly with the rib-spine bone information and the wall image features. The shape model is constructed based on the training abdominal walls that are delineated manually. After bone information being extracted, the wall shape deforms from the prior shape model using the snake, which is constrained by the bone context and guided by the processed image energy map with the aim of removing distracted image features of anterior abdominal wall and the outer region from the original map. Meanwhile, an overall convex shape is maintained by limiting the angles of the contour points. The proposed approach is tested on abdominal CT data which provides encouraging results. PMID:25571041

  4. Numerical analysis of the hemodynamics of an abdominal aortic aneurysm repaired using the endovascular chimney technique.

    PubMed

    Ben Gur, Hila; Kosa, Gabor; Brand, Moshe

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the hemodynamics in an abdominal aorta (AA) with an aneurysm repaired by a stent graft (SG) system using the chimney technique. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in a model of an AA repaired with a chimney stent graft (CSG) inserted into a renal artery parallel to an aortic SG and a model of a healthy AA. Comparing the simulation results of these two cases suggests that the presence of the CSG in the AA causes changes in average wall shear stress (WSS), potentially damaging recirculation zones, and additional changes in flow patterns. PMID:26736427

  5. Fatal dissecting aneurysm of the aorta in a diver.

    PubMed

    James, R; Hayman, J A

    1986-07-01

    A 20-yr-old trained sports diver developed severe chest pain shortly after decompressing from a 40 m repetitive freshwater sinkhole dive, and died 6 h later. An autopsy examination showed a dissecting aneurysm of the aorta with rupture into the left pleural cavity. The relationship between the fatal event and the diving is discussed. PMID:3785985

  6. Marfanoid hypermobility syndrome associated with coarctation of the aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Daneshwar, A; Tavakoli, D; Nazarian, J

    1979-01-01

    There are intimate interrelations between various elements of connective tissue, viz. collagen, elastin, and glycoproteins. It is not unexpected that Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes share common features. The condition is labelled as Marfanoid hypermobility syndrome. In the patient described here, the Marfanoid hypermobility syndrome was associated with coarctation of the aorta which was corrected surgically. Images PMID:465233

  7. Updates in abdominal wall management.

    PubMed

    Hope, W W; Williams, Z

    2015-10-01

    The field of abdominal wall hernia surgery continues to evolve at a rapid pace. Surgeons dealing with abdominal wall hernias must constantly stay abreast as new biomaterials and surgical techniques evolve. Increasing knowledge related to hernia formation and factors affecting outcomes will help surgeons prevent hernias and individualize hernia repair techniques and biomaterials based on specific clinical situations and patient characteristics. This review outlines some new advances in abdominal wall hernia management focusing on hernia prevention, preoperative strategies to improve outcomes, available biomaterials and mesh products used in hernia repair, new surgical techniques, and improving ways to evaluate outcomes and perform continuous quality improvement in hernia repair. PMID:26149522

  8. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  9. MORPHOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN ENGLISH SOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present an application of the powerful thin plate spline method of morphometric analysis to demonstrate its utility for detecting environmental stress in an estuarine flatfish. Juvenile English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) were captured from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, photographed w...

  10. Analysis of the strain and stress distribution in the wall of the developing and mature rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Rachev, A; Greenwald, S E; Kane, T P; Moore, J E; Meister, J J

    1995-01-01

    The variation of wall stress distribution with age in the thoracic and abdominal aortas of normotensive rats was studied. Dimensions of the zero-stress configurations were measured at the ages of 4, 8, 12, 20, and 52 weeks. Using data from previously published inflation tests, the circumferential stress-strain relationship was obtained in each age group. The calculated stress distribution showed that the average circumferential stress remained practically constant after the age of 20 weeks. The circumferential stress at the innermost part of the arterial wall was greater than the stress at the outermost part, but the difference was maintained at a moderate level with adjustments in the zero-stress configuration. It is speculated that, after the age of 20 weeks, changes in arterial geometry and rheological properties tend to maintain a constant stress distribution under varying conditions of loading. This distribution was achieved by enhanced growth at the inner part of the media in comparison with the growth at its outer margins and suggests that during development and maturity, the growth of the aorta is modulated by circumferential stress. PMID:7579211

  11. Towards a biomimetism of abdominal healthy and aneurysmal arterial tissues.

    PubMed

    Bailly, L; Geindreau, C; Orgas, L; Deplano, V

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a new hyperelastic and anisotropic material mimicking histological and mechanical features of healthy and aneurysmal arterial tissues. The material is constituted by rhombic periodic lattices of hyperelastic fibres embedded into a soft elastomer membrane. To fit bi-axial experimental data obtained from the literature, with normal or pathologic human abdominal aortic tissues, the microstructure of the periodic lattices (fibre length, angle between fibres) together with the mechanical behaviour of the fibres (fibre tension-elongation curve) were optimised by using theoretical results arising from a multi-scale homogenisation process. It is shown that (i) a material constituted by only one periodic lattice of fibres is clearly not sufficient to describe all the experimental data set, (ii) a quantitative agreement between measurements and theoretical predictions is obtained by using a material with two fibre lattices, (iii) the optimised microstructures and mechanical properties of the fibrous lattices are strongly different for the abdominal healthy and aneurysmal arterial tissues, (iv) the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of the optimised material is described by only five parameters and (v) the optimal angles between fibres in the case of the healthy aorta are consistent with histological data. Several technical solutions of fibres can be considered as relevant candidates: this is illustrated in the particular cases of straight and wavy fibres. PMID:22520427

  12. Serial postmortem abdominal radiographic findings in canine cadavers.

    PubMed

    Heng, Hock Gan; Selvarajah, Gayathri Thevi; Lim, Hiang Tee; Ong, Jin Seng; Lim, Jiehan; Ooi, Jin Tatt

    2009-11-20

    Postmortem radiographic examinations of animals are often performed in judicial investigation to rule out gunshot and fractures due to cruelty or illegal hunting or poaching activities. Literature describing postmortem changes seen on radiographs of animals is rarely available. Serial abdominal radiography of 6 recently euthanized dogs were performed in an interval of 8h at a tropical ambient temperature of 22-33 degrees C. Severe decomposition of the cadavers prevented the study to be performed beyond 24h. Gradual increment of gas accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, kidney and blood vessels were observed. Increased amount of gas in the gastrointestinal tract was detected as early as 8h post-euthanasia and continuously increased throughout the study. Gas was seen in the portal vein and caudal vena cava of all cadavers at 16h post-euthanasia. The presence of gas in the aorta occurred at a later stage. Tubular branching gas pattern in the liver and spleen was first observed and progressed to vesicular gas pattern due to tissue decomposition. This study showed that abdominal radiographic postmortem changes occurred most rapidly between 8 and 16h post-euthanasia at the ambient temperature of 22-33 degrees C. PMID:19716666

  13. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. PMID:25398912

  14. CT of abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Epstein, B M; Mann, J H

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1)irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trail of antituberculous therapy) be instituted. PMID:6981966

  15. Geometric morphometric analysis reveals sexual dimorphism in the distal femur.

    PubMed

    Cavaignac, Etienne; Savall, Frederic; Faruch, Marie; Reina, Nicolas; Chiron, Philippe; Telmon, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    An individual's sex can be determined by the shape of their distal femur. The goal of this study was to show that differences in distal femur shape related to sexual dimorphism could be identified, visualized, and quantified using 3D geometric morphometric analysis. Geometric morphometric analysis was carried out on CT scans of the distal femur of 256 subjects living in the south of France. Ten landmarks were defined on 3D reconstructions of the distal femur. Both traditional metric and geometric morphometric analyses were carried out on these bone reconstructions; these analyses identified trends in bone shape in sex-based subgroups. Sex-related differences in shape were statistically significant. The subject's sex was correctly assigned in 77.3% of cases using geometric morphometric analysis. This study has shown that geometric morphometric analysis of the distal femur is feasible and has revealed sexual dimorphism differences in this bone segment. This reliable, accurate method could be used for virtual autopsy and be used to perform diachronic and interethnic comparisons. Moreover, this study provides updated morphometric data for a modern population in the south of France. PMID:26743712

  16. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... psychological state. The pain may interfere with school attendance, participation in sports and other extra-curricular activities. ... cause for abdominal pain is discovered during the evaluation, the physician will discuss specific management of conditions ...

  17. Biometrics, biomathematics and the morphometric synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bookstein, F L

    1996-03-01

    At the core of contemporary morphometrics--the quantitative study of biological shape variation--is a synthesis of two originally divergent methodological styles. One contributory tradition is the multivariate analysis of covariance matrices originally developed as biometrics and now dominant across a broad expanse of applied statistics. This approach, couched solely in the linear geometry of covariance structures, ignores biomathematical aspects of the original measurements. The other tributary emphasizes the direct visualization of changes in biological form. However, making objective the biological meaning of the features seen in those diagrams was always problematical; also, the representation of variation, as distinct from pairwise difference, proved infeasible. To combine these two variants of biomathematical modeling into a valid praxis for quantitative studies of biological shape was a goal earnestly sought though most of this century. That goal was finally achieved in the 1980s when techniques from mathematical statistics, multivariate biometrics, non-Euclidean geometry and computer graphics were combined in a coherent new system of tools for the complete regionalized quantitative analysis of landmark points together with the biomedical images in which they are seen. In this morphometric synthesis, correspondence of landmarks (biologically labeled geometric points, like "bridge of the nose") across specimens is taken as a biomathematical primitive. The shapes of configurations of landmarks are defined as equivalence classes with respect to the Euclidean similarity group and then represented as single points in David Kendall's shape space, a Riemannian manifold with Procrustes distance as metric. All conventional multivariate strategies carry over to the study of shape variation and covariation when shapes are interpreted in the tangent space to the shape manifold at an average shape. For biomathematical interpretation of such analyses, one needs a basis for the tangent space compatible with the reality of local biotheoretical processes and explanations at many different geometric scales, and one needs graphics for visualizing average shape differences and other statistical contrasts there. Both of these needs are managed by the thin-plate spline, a deformation function that has an unusually helpful linear algebra. The spline also links the biometrics of landmarks to deformation analysis of the images from which the landmarks originally arose. This article reviews the history and principal tools of this synthesis in their biomathematical and biometrical context and demonstrates their usefulness in a study of focal neuroanatomical anomalies in schizophrenia. PMID:8713662

  18. Hypoperfusion of the Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Develops an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Takaaki; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Sugiura, Yuki; Sato, Kohji; Kugo, Hirona; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Konno, Hiroyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Unno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The aortic wall is perfused by the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV). Tissue hypoxia has previously been observed as a manifestation of enlarged abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). We sought to determine whether hypoperfusion of the adventitial VV could develop AAAs. We created a novel animal model of adventitial VV hypoperfusion with a combination of a polyurethane catheter insertion and a suture ligation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta in rats. VV hypoperfusion caused tissue hypoxia and developed infrarenal AAA, which had similar morphological and pathological characteristics to human AAA. In human AAA tissue, the adventitial VV were stenotic in both small AAAs (3049 mm in diameter) and in large AAAs (> 50 mm in diameter), with the sac tissue in these AAAs being ischemic and hypoxic. These results indicate that hypoperfusion of adventitial VV has critical effects on the development of infrarenal AAA. PMID:26308526

  19. Abdominal intrauterine vacuum aspiration.

    PubMed

    Tjalma, W A A

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating and "cleaning" of the uterine cavity is probably the most performed operation in women. It is done for several reasons: abortion, evaluation of irregular bleeding in premenopausal period, and postmenopausal bleeding. Abortion is undoubtedly the number one procedure with more than 44 million pregnancies terminated every year. This procedure should not be underestimated and a careful preoperative evaluation is needed. Ideally a sensitive pregnancy test should be done together with an ultrasound in order to confirm a uterine pregnancy, excluding extra-uterine pregnancy, and to detect genital and/or uterine malformations. Three out of four abortions are performed by surgical methods. Surgical methods include a sharp, blunt, and suction curettage. Suction curettage or vacuum aspiration is the preferred method. Despite the fact that it is a relative safe procedure with major complications in less than one percent of cases, it is still responsible for 13% of all maternal deaths. All the figures have not declined in the last decade. Trauma, perforation, and bleeding are a danger triage. When there is a perforation, a laparoscopy should be performed immediately, in order to detect intra-abdominal lacerations and bleeding. The bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible in order to not destabilize the patient. When there is a perforation in the uterus, this "entrance" can be used to perform the curettage. This is particularly useful if there is trauma of the isthmus and uterine wall, and it is difficult to identify the uterine canal. A curettage is a frequent performed procedure, which should not be underestimated. If there is a perforation in the uterus, then this opening can safely be used for vacuum aspiration. PMID:25134300

  20. Abdominal emergencies in the geriatric patient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons that elderly people visit the emergency department (ED). In this article, we review the deadliest causes of abdominal pain in this population, including mesenteric ischemia, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and appendicitis and potentially lethal non-abdominal causes. We also highlight the pitfalls in diagnosing, or rather misdiagnosing, these clinical entities. PMID:25635203

  1. Mathematical, numerical and experimental study in the human aorta with coexisting models of bicuspid aortic stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Z; Garcia, J; Kadem, L

    2011-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is an obstruction of the aorta and is usually associated with other concomitant cardiovascular abnormalities especially with bicuspid aortic valve stenosis. The objectives of this study are, (1) to investigate the effects of coarctation on the hemodynamics in the aorta to gain a better understanding of the cause of certain post-surgical coarctation problems, (2) to develop and introduce a new lumped parameter model, mainly based on non-invasive data, allowing the description of the interaction between left ventricle, coarctation of the aorta, aortic valve stenosis, and the arterial system. PMID:22254280

  2. Statistical power comparisons among alternative morphometric methods.

    PubMed

    Rohlf, F J

    2000-04-01

    This paper compares the statistical power of various tests that have been proposed to test for equality of shape in two populations. Power surfaces are computed with emphasis on the simplest case of three points in the plane (i.e., landmarks at the vertices of a triangle). Goodall's ([1991] J Roy Stat Soc Serb 53:285-339) F-test was found to have the highest power followed by T(2)-tests using Kendall tangent space coordinates. Power for T(2)-tests using Bookstein shape coordinates was good if the baseline was not the shortest side of the triangle. The Rao and Suryawanshi ([1996] Proc Natl Acad Sci 93:12132-12136 and Rao and Suryawanshi [1998] Proc Natl Acad Sci 95:4121-4125) shape variables had much lower power when triangles were not close to being equilateral. Power surfaces for the EDMA-I T statistic revealed very low power for many shape comparisons including those between very different shapes. Power surface for the EDMA-II Z statistic were also complicated and depended strongly on the choice of baseline used for size scaling. The type I error rate was also often not correct for this method. Results for more than three landmarks are also presented. The implications of the results for practical applications of morphometrics are discussed. PMID:10727966

  3. Exploring Eucladoceros ecomorphology using geometric morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Curran, Sabrina C

    2015-01-01

    An increasingly common method for reconstructing paleoenvironmental parameters of hominin sites is ecological functional morphology (ecomorphology). This study provides a geometric morphometric study of cervid rearlimb morphology as it relates to phylogeny, size, and ecomorphology. These methods are then applied to an extinct Pleistocene cervid, Eucladoceros, which is found in some of the earliest hominin-occupied sites in Eurasia. Variation in cervid postcranial functional morphology associated with different habitats can be summarized as trade-offs between joint stability versus mobility and rapid movement versus power-generation. Cervids in open habitats emphasize limb stability to avoid joint dislocation during rapid flight from predators. Closed-adapted cervids require more joint mobility to rapidly switch directions in complex habitats. Two skeletal features (of the tibia and calcaneus) have significant phylogenetic signals, while two (the femur and third phalanx) do not. Additionally, morphology of two of these features (tibia and third phalanx) were correlated with body size. For the tibial analysis (but not the third phalanx) this correlation was ameliorated when phylogeny was taken into account. Eucladoceros specimens from France and Romania fall on the more open side of the habitat continuum, a result that is at odds with reconstructions of their diet as browsers, suggesting that they may have had a behavioral regime unlike any extant cervid. PMID:25338504

  4. How morphometric characteristics affect flow accumulation values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farek, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing methods (like aerial based LIDAR recording, land-use recording etc.) become continually more available and accurate. On the other hand in-situ surveying is still expensive. Above all in small, anthropogenically uninfluenced catchments, with poor, or non-existing surveying network could be remote sensing methods extremely useful. Overland flow accumulation (FA) values belong to important indicators of higher flash floods or soil erosion exposure. This value gives the number of cells of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) grid, which are drained to each point of the catchment. This contribution deals with relations between basic geomorphological and morphometric characteristics (like hypsometric integral, Melton index of subcatchment etc.) and FA values. These relations are studied in the rocky sandstone landscapes of National park Cesk Svycarsko with the particular occurrence of broken relief. All calculations are based on high-resolution LIDAR DEM named Genesis created by TU Dresden. The main computational platform is GIS GRASS . The goal of the conference paper is to submit a quick method or indicators to estimate small particular subcatchments threatened by higher flash floods or soil erosion risks, without the necessity of using sophisticated rainfall-runoff models. There is a possibility to split catchments easily to small subcatchments (or use existing disjunction), compute basic characteristics and (with knowledge of links between this characteristics and FA values) identify, which particular subcatchment is potentially threatened by flash floods or soil erosion.

  5. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm during Transthoracic Echocardiography in Patients with Significant Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Ho; Chang, Sung-A; Jang, Shin Yi; Lee, Sang-Chol; Song, Young Bin; Park, Seung Woo; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Oh, Jae K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Coronary artery disease (CAD) shares several risk factors with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We evaluated the prevalence during transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and risk factors of AAA in patients with CAD. Materials and Methods A total of 1300 CAD patients were screened from August 2009 to May 2010, and measurement of abdominal aorta size was feasible in 920 patients (71%) at the end of routine TTE. An AAA was defined as having a maximal diameter of ?30 mm. Results Of the 920 patients, 22 (2.4% of the study population) were diagnosed with AAA; of these AAA patients, 86% were male, and 82% were over 65 years-old. Abdominal aortic size was weakly correlated with aortic root diameter (r=0.22, p<0.01). Although the proportions of male gender, hypertension, and dyslipidemia were higher in AAA patients, such differences were not statistically significant. Advanced age [odds ratio (OR)=1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.12; p<0.01], smoking (OR=3.44; 95% CI: 1.18-10.04; p=0.02), and peripheral arterial disease (OR=5.88; 95% CI: 1.38-25.05; p=0.01) were found to be associated with AAA. Conclusion Although prevalence of AAA is very low in the Asian population, the prevalence of AAA in Asian CAD patients is higher than the general population. Therefore, opportunistic examination of the abdominal aorta during routine TTE could be effective, especially for male CAD patients over 65 years with a history of smoking or peripheral arterial disease. PMID:25510745

  6. Fused Traditional and Geometric Morphometrics Demonstrate Pinniped Whisker Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ginter, Carly C.; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Fish, Frank E.; Marshall, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrissae (whiskers) are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system, and primarily function as detectors of vibrotactile information from the environment. Pinnipeds possess the largest vibrissae among mammals and their vibrissal hair shafts demonstrate a diversity of shapes. The vibrissae of most phocid seals exhibit a beaded morphology with repeating sequences of crests and troughs along their length. However, there are few detailed analyses of pinniped vibrissal morphology, and these are limited to a few species. Therefore, we comparatively characterized differences in vibrissal hair shaft morphologies among phocid species with a beaded profile, phocid species with a smooth profile, and otariids with a smooth profile using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Traditional morphometric measurements (peak-to-peak distance, crest width, trough width and total length) were collected using digital photographs. Elliptic Fourier analysis (geometric morphometrics) was used to quantify the outlines of whole vibrissae. The traditional and geometric morphometric datasets were subsequently combined by mathematically scaling each to true rank, followed by a single eigendecomposition. Quadratic discriminant function analysis demonstrated that 79.3, 97.8 and 100% of individuals could be correctly classified to their species based on vibrissal shape variables in the traditional, geometric and combined morphometric analyses, respectively. Phocids with beaded vibrissae, phocids with smooth vibrissae, and otariids each occupied distinct morphospace in the geometric morphometric and combined data analyses. Otariids split into two groups in the geometric morphometric analysis and gray seals appeared intermediate between beaded- and smooth-whiskered species in the traditional and combined analyses. Vibrissal hair shafts modulate the transduction of environmental stimuli to the mechanoreceptors in the follicle-sinus complex (F-SC), which results in vibrotactile reception, but it is currently unclear how the diversity of shapes affects environmental signal modulation. PMID:22509310

  7. Experimental unsteady flow study in a patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatopoulos, Ch.; Mathioulakis, D. S.; Papaharilaou, Y.; Katsamouris, A.

    2011-06-01

    The velocity field in a patient-specific abdominal aneurysm model including the aorto-iliac bifurcation was measured by 2D PIV. Phase-averaged velocities obtained in 14 planes reveal details of the flow evolution during a cycle. The aneurysm expanding asymmetrically toward the anterior side of the aorta causes the generation of a vortex at its entrance, covering the entire aneurysm bulge progressively before flow peak. The fluid entering the aneurysm impinges on the left side of its distal end, following the axis of the upstream aorta segment, causing an increased flow rate in the left (compared to the right) common iliac artery. High shear stresses appear at the aneurysm inlet and outlet as well as along the posterior wall, varying proportionally to the flow rate. At the same regions, elevated flow disturbances are observed, being intensified at flow peak and during the deceleration phase. Low shear stresses are present in the recirculation region, being two orders of magnitude smaller than the previous ones. At flow peak and during the deceleration phase, a clockwise swirling motion (viewed from the inlet) is present in the aneurysm due to the out of plane curvature of the aorta.

  8. A new technique for intra-abdominal arteries revascularization via extra-anatomic bypass from the brachiocephalic artery with a videoscopic retrosternal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Javerliat, Isabelle; Pichon, Audrey; Glorion, Matthieu; Coscas, Raphaël; Goëau-Brissonnière, Olivier; Coggia, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Extra-anatomic revascularizations of intra-abdominal or lower limbs arteries, or both, are indicated (1) when the aorta is unsuitable for anatomic bypasses, (2) in patients unfit for aortic surgery, (3) for graft infections, and (4) for visceral debranching during hybrid treatment of a thoracoabdominal aneurysm. We describe a new extra-anatomic bypass from the brachiocephalic artery with video-guided retrosternal tunneling. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of this technique. PMID:25936654

  9. A novel measurement technique for the design of fenestrated stent grafts: Comparison with three-dimensional aorta models

    PubMed Central

    You, Ji Hoon; Kang, Sung-Gwon; Kim, Bong Man

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stent graft placement is an acceptable treatment option for aortic disease, particularly for abdominal aortic aneurysm. At present, the use of stent grafts is expanding beyond current indications for use. Fenestrated stent grafts are used in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms whose aortic anatomy is unsuitable for repair using standard devices. The success of fenestrated stent graft placement is largely dependent on planning, including obtaining measurements and designing the stent. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a measurement technique that may be used for the design of fenestrated stent grafts to repair endovascular aneurysms, and to compare these measurements, obtained using archived two-dimensional patient data, with measurements obtained using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer-assisted design model. METHODS: Fenestrated stent grafts were designed and fabricated based on computed tomographic angiography images. 3-D models were constructed using modelling software and rapid prototyping technology incorporated with fused deposition modelling. The stent grafts were trunk-type, with four holes for the visceral branches (celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery, right renal artery and left renal artery). Computed tomography scans of 10 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were reviewed. Axial, multiplanar reconstruction and curved multiplanar reconstruction images were used to measure 11 parameters. Sizing of the fenestrated aortic stent grafts was performed independently by an experienced interventional radiologist, and the results were compared with the same measurements calculated using the 3-D aorta model (generated using Materialise Interactive Medical Image Control System software [Materialise NV, Belgium]). Data were reported as the mean of the measurements. Measurements were evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis and concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs). RESULTS: A total of 10 fenestrated stent grafts were fabricated. The proximal landing section above the celiac axis (one point of the wall being defined as the standard point) was 3 cm, and the distal flared section was 3 cm below the lowest renal artery. Ten computer-assisted design aorta models were successfully constructed. Measurements of the aortic diameter showed high agreement between those obtained using the archived patient computer system stent graft and those obtained using the 3-D aorta model. The CCC for variability was 0.9974. The distance from the standard point to the branch vessels also demonstrated good agreement. The CCC for variability was 0.9999. DISCUSSION: A direct measurement technique using a standard point was simple to perform and was easily applied to the fabrication process. Preparation time will likely be shortened and the versatility of stent grafts will be improved using this method. It will be possible to produce standardized fenestrated stent grafts once patients measurements are recorded and analyzed. CONCLUSION: A fenestrated stent graft design technique using measurements of distance from a standard point generally showed a high level of agreement with a 3-D aorta model. PMID:24294038

  10. MagnetoHemoDynamics in the aorta and electrocardiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Vincent; Drochon, Agns; Fokapu, Odette; Gerbeau, Jean-Frdric

    2012-05-01

    This paper addresses a complex multi-physical phenomenon involving cardiac electrophysiology and hemodynamics. The purpose is to model and simulate a phenomenon that has been observed in magnetic resonance imaging machines: in the presence of a strong magnetic field, the T-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) gets bigger, which may perturb ECG-gated imaging. This is due to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect occurring in the aorta. We reproduce this experimental observation through computer simulations on a realistic anatomy, and with a three-compartment model: inductionless MHD equations in the aorta, bi-domain equations in the heart and electrical diffusion in the rest of the body. These compartments are strongly coupled and solved using finite elements. Several benchmark tests are proposed to assess the numerical solutions and the validity of some modeling assumptions. Then, ECGs are simulated for a wide range of magnetic field intensities (from 0 to 20 T).

  11. Thoracic aorta aneurysm successfully operated on during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mokrzycki, Krzysztof; Biskupski, Andrzej; Kuligowska, Ewelina; Listewnik, Mariusz; Brykczy?ski, Miros?aw

    2014-09-01

    We present the case of an asymptomatic 26-year-old female patient with a huge thoracic aneurysm discovered at a routine echo screening. The patient had previously been operated on for coarctation of the aorta in childhood and also had diagnosed bicuspid aortic valve. The operation was carried out in extracorporeal circulation at the 22(nd) week of gestation without any complications. A few months later in the 38(th) week of pregnancy a baby girl was delivered by cesarean section with an Apgar score of 10. The patient is scheduled for implantation of a stent graft to the descending aorta, because the CT of the chest done a few months after delivery confirmed presence of a significant aneurysm located just below the left subclavian artery. PMID:26336442

  12. Thoracic aorta aneurysm successfully operated on during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Biskupski, Andrzej; Kuligowska, Ewelina; Listewnik, Mariusz; Brykczy?ski, Miros?aw

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of an asymptomatic 26-year-old female patient with a huge thoracic aneurysm discovered at a routine echo screening. The patient had previously been operated on for coarctation of the aorta in childhood and also had diagnosed bicuspid aortic valve. The operation was carried out in extracorporeal circulation at the 22nd week of gestation without any complications. A few months later in the 38th week of pregnancy a baby girl was delivered by cesarean section with an Apgar score of 10. The patient is scheduled for implantation of a stent graft to the descending aorta, because the CT of the chest done a few months after delivery confirmed presence of a significant aneurysm located just below the left subclavian artery. PMID:26336442

  13. Elastic arteries in invertebrates: mechanics of the octopus aorta.

    PubMed

    Shadwick, R E; Gosline, J M

    1981-08-14

    The aorta of the octopus, Octopus dofleini, is a highly distensible, elastic tube. The circumferential elastic modulus increases with inflation in the physiological range from abut 10(4) to 10(5) newtons per square meter. Rubber-like fibers have been isolated, apparently for the first time, from the aorta of an invertebrate. These fibers have an elastic modulus, like elastin, of about 4 x 10(5) newtons per square meter and are present in sufficient quantity to account for the elastic properties of the intact vessel under physiological conditions. Thus the circulatory system of an invertebrate animal provides an "elastic reservoir" (much like that of the vertebrate system), which increases the efficiency of the circulation. PMID:7256277

  14. Relaxant effects of selected sildenafil analogues in the rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Mojzych, Mariusz; Kubacka, Monika; Mogilski, Szczepan; Filipek, Barbara; Fornal, Emilia

    2016-06-01

    A new series of sulfonamide derivatives of pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazine with chiral amino group has been synthesized and characterized. The compounds were tested for their relaxant effects in the rat aorta. Evaluation of prepared derivatives demonstrated that compound (8a) is probably a non-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, as it induced aortic relaxation through endothelium-independent mechanism. PMID:25798686

  15. Diagnostic imaging of traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta

    PubMed Central

    Beslic, Serif; Beslic, Nermina; Beslic, Selma; Sofic, Amela; Ibralic, Muris; Karovic, Jasmina

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was the presentation of findings and diagnostic imaging in patients with traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the thoracic aorta, as a rare consequence of road traffic accidents. Patients and methods In 22 years we have found 8 traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the thoracic aorta, out of which 7 (87.5%) in male and 1 (12.5%) in female patients. At the time of accidents the youngest patient was 21 and the oldest was 55 (mean age 33.8 years), and at the moment of diagnosing a pseudoaneurysm they were 26 and 55 years old, respectively (mean age 38.7 years). In all patients chest radiography was performed as well as CT scan, in 6 (75%) patients intra-venous digital subtraction angiography was performed (i.v. DSA) and in 1 (12.5%) MRI. CT was performed with the application of 120 ml, and i.v. DSA with 60 ml of contrast medium, respectively. Results In 8 (100%) patients, who suffered a road traffic accident, and whose chest radiograph showed the enlargement of the aortic knob and widening of the mediastinum, CT, i.v. DSA and MRI revealed a traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta. Periods of time between the accidents and the initial diagnosis of the pseudoaneurysm varied from 7 days to 18 years (median 2.0 years). The diameter of the pseudoaneurysm was from 4.5 to 9.2 cm (median 5.5 cm). In 7 (87.5%) isthmus was involved, and in 1 (12.5%) descending thoracic aorta, respectively. The chest radiograph revealed marginal calcifications in 4 (50%), and on the CT in 5 (62.5%) patients. Intraluminal thrombosis was found by CT in 2(25%) traumatized patients. Conclusions Traumatic pseudoaneurysm should be taken into consideration in blunt chest trauma, where a chest radiograph shows suspicious regions. A multislice CT is a diagnostic method of choice. PMID:22933909

  16. Ascending Aorta Elastography After Kawasaki Disease Compared to Systemic Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nandlall, Ian; Maurice, Roch L; Fournier, Anne; Merouani, Aïcha; Dahdah, Nagib

    2015-10-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis, classically affecting large- and medium-size arteries. The coronary arteries draw most of the clinical attention, whereas few studies have taken interest in the ascending aorta. Using a proprietary imaging-based mechanical biomarker (ImBioMark), we sought to determine aortic stiffness in KD compared to systemic hypertension (HTN) and healthy children. We evaluated parasternal long-axis views focused on the ascending aorta in 20 controls, 12 KD, and 8 HTN as a comparative clinical model of vascular stiffness. We calculated systolic and diastolic aortic wall strain with ImBioMark. Strain was tested for normality against height, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure in normal subjects. Strain from KD and HTN was normalized (Z score) accordingly. Z score comparisons were performed using nonparametric statistics. Age was similar between KD and HTN (9.1 ± 5.3 and 9.9 ± 5.3 years old; p = NS). Systolic and diastolic strain values were normally distributed against height, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure in healthy subjects. HTN subjects had abnormal systolic and diastolic strain values (p < 0.0001). Whereas KD subjects had normal diastolic strain, systolic strain was significantly lower (p < 0.001), and systolic strain was intermediate between controls and HTN. There were no significant differences in aortic strain among KD, however, according to the presence of coronary artery aneurysms. Despite normal blood pressure, the ascending aorta in KD exhibits reduced strain during systole. This may reflect in situ rigidity of the aorta. The normal diastolic strain in KD may, in contrast, reflect normal peripheral vascular resistance. PMID:25921428

  17. [Clinico-histologic-morphometric correlations in pulmonary arteries among patients with heart malformations ].

    PubMed

    Fischbach, H; Hoffmeister, H M; Hoffmeister, H E; Apitz, J; Schmidt, C

    1982-01-01

    To improve the evaluation of grades of pulmonary vascular lesions in congenital heart malformations, we studied the extent to which there is a measurable relationship between pressure conditions in the pulmonary circulation and the area of the media in small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries, and the possibility of a correlation between the subjective evaluation of grades of hypertensive pulmonary vascular lesions according to Heath and Edwards (1958). Material and methods. The lungs in 68 children (mean age, 22.7 months) with congenital malformations of the heart or great vessels resulting in pulmonary hypertension were examined. The lungs were fixed in a 4% formalin solution passed via the trachea under a constant filling pressure of 150 cm H2O. Peripheral as well as central tissue was removed from all lobes of the lungs; the specimens were stained with Elastica-van Gieson. The extent of hypertensive pulmonary vasculopathy was staged, without knowledge of the pressure conditions, according to the grading system developed by Heath and Edwards. The diameter and the area of all muscular arteries with diameters smaller or larger than 100 micron were measured using a semiautomatic measurement device for quantitative morphometric analysis (MOP/AM 01). Cardiac catheter values were available for all cases. The quotient of systolic pressures in the pulmonary artery and the aorta was taken as the measure of hemodynamic conditions in the pulmonary circulation. The Pearson-Bravais correlation coefficient (r) was computed from the respective area quotient and the corresponding pressure values. In addition, the coefficient of determination (r2) and regression functions were determined. Results. A linear correlation (r = 0.70) exists between the pressure quotient (Psyst. pulm. art./ Psyst. aorta) and the vessel area quotient (media area/total area). The correlation is expressed by the following functions: x = 1.89 y - 0.08 y = 0.26 x + 0.24 Using the Heath and Edwards grading, the following frequencies were obtained: Grade 0: 21, Grade I: 7, Grade II: 16, Grade III: 15, Grade IV: 6, and 3 children were undeterminable. No relationship exists between the grades and certain heart malformations. In spite of the fact that hypertensive vasculopathy becomes progressively more severe as the child grows older, we found four cases of Grade IV in children under the age of one. On the whole, a comparison of the measured area quotients and the Heath and Edwards grading showed a good correlation. Although we considered only pressure quotients and no other hemodynamic parameters, conclusions can be drawn about the operability of congenital heart malformations based on these findings. Using measured pressure values, the morphologic state of the pulmonary arteries can be approximately evaluated. PMID:7122326

  18. Endovascular Repair of Contained Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Robert; Loosemore, Tom; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2002-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of stent-grafts for the treatment of acute rupture of the thoracic aorta. Methods: Four patients with acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta were treated by insertion of stent-grafts. The underlying aortic lesions were aneurysm, acute aortic ulcer, acute type B dissection and giant cell aortitis. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia in three patients and local anesthesia in one patient. Results: All stent-grafts were successfully deployed. All patients survived the procedure and are now alive and well at follow-up (mean 6.3 months, range 44 days-16 months). One patient underwent a second stent procedure 10 days after the first procedure because of a proximal endoleak. All hemothoraces have resolved. There were no complications. Conclusion:Treatment of acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta by the insertion of stent-grafts is feasible. The technical success rates,complication rates and patient survival compare favorably with emergency surgery.

  19. Renal autotransplant for subsequent endovascular exclusion of the thoracoabdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Gaudencio; Grochowicz, Lukasz; Pascual, Ignacio; Lavilla, Javier; Olavide, Isidro; Hernndez, Miguel David; Landecho, Manuel Fortn; Lucena, Juan Felipe; Bastarrika, Gorka; Del Pozo, Jos Luis; Gavira, Juan Jos; Alegre, Flix

    2013-10-01

    In the last 20 years, endovascular procedures have radically altered the treatment of diseases of the aorta. The objective of endovascular treatment of dissections is to close the entry point to redirect blood flow toward the true lumen, thereby achieving thrombosis of the false lumen. In extensive chronic dissections that have evolved with the formation of a large aneurysm, the dissection is maintained from the end of the endoprosthesis due to multiple orifices, or reentries, that communicate with the lumens. In addition, one of the primary limitations of this technique is when the visceral arteries have disease involvement. In this report we present a case where, despite having treated the entire length of the descending thoracic aorta, the dissection was maintained distally, leading to progression of the diameter of the aneurysm. After reviewing the literature, and to the best of our knowledge, we describe the first case in which renal autotransplant was performed to allow for subsequent exclusion of the aorta at the thoracoabdominal level using a fenestrated endoprosthesis for the celiac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery. PMID:23993115

  20. Comparative hemodynamics in an aorta with bicuspid and trileaflet valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmanov, Anvar; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-09-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital heart defect that has been associated with serious aortopathies, such as aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, infective endocarditis, aortic dissection, calcific aortic valve and dilatation of ascending aorta. There are two main hypotheses to explain the increase prevalence of aortopathies in patients with BAV: the genetic and the hemodynamic. In this study, we seek to investigate the possible role of hemodynamic factors as causes of BAV-associated aortopathy. We employ the curvilinear immersed boundary method coupled with an efficient thin-shell finite-element formulation for tissues to carry out fluid-structure interaction simulations of a healthy trileaflet aortic valve (TAV) and a BAV placed in the same anatomic aorta. The computed results reveal major differences between the TAV and BAV flow patterns. These include: the dynamics of the aortic valve vortex ring formation and break up; the large-scale flow patterns in the ascending aorta; the shear stress magnitude, directions, and dynamics on the heart valve surfaces. The computed results are in qualitative agreement with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging data and suggest that the linkages between BAV aortopathy and hemodynamics deserve further investigation.

  1. Hemodynamic Modeling of Surgically Repaired Coarctation of the Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Laura J; de Zlicourt, Diane A.; Haggerty, Christopher M.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Cross, Russell R; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Late morbidity of surgically repaired coarctation of the aorta includes early cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, shortened life expectancy, abnormal vasomodulator response, hypertension and exercise-induced hypertension in the absence of recurrent coarctation. Observational studies have linked patterns of arch remodeling (Gothic, Crenel, and Romanesque) to late morbidity, with Gothic arches having the highest incidence. We evaluated flow in native and surgically repaired aortic arches to correlate respective hemodynamic indices with incidence of late morbidity. METHODS Three dimensional reconstructions of each remodeled arch were created from an anatomic stack of magnetic resonance (MR) images. A structured mesh core with a boundary layer was generated. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was performed assuming peak flow conditions with a uniform velocity profile and unsteady turbulent flow. Wall shear stress (WSS), pressure and velocity data were extracted. RESULTS The region of maximum WSS was located in the mid-transverse arch for the Crenel, Romanesque and Native arches. Peak WSS was located in the isthmus of the Gothic model. Variations in descending aorta flow patterns were also observed among the models. CONCLUSION The location of peak WSS is a primary difference among the models tested, and may have clinical relevance. Specifically, the Gothic arch had a unique location of peak WSS with flow disorganization in the descending aorta. Our results suggest that varied patterns and locations of WSS resulting from abnormal arch remodeling may exhibit a primary effect on clinical vascular dysfunction. PMID:22347895

  2. Comparative hemodynamics in an aorta with bicuspid and trileaflet valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmanov, Anvar; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-04-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital heart defect that has been associated with serious aortopathies, such as aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, infective endocarditis, aortic dissection, calcific aortic valve and dilatation of ascending aorta. There are two main hypotheses to explain the increase prevalence of aortopathies in patients with BAV: the genetic and the hemodynamic. In this study, we seek to investigate the possible role of hemodynamic factors as causes of BAV-associated aortopathy. We employ the curvilinear immersed boundary method coupled with an efficient thin-shell finite-element formulation for tissues to carry out fluid-structure interaction simulations of a healthy trileaflet aortic valve (TAV) and a BAV placed in the same anatomic aorta. The computed results reveal major differences between the TAV and BAV flow patterns. These include: the dynamics of the aortic valve vortex ring formation and break up; the large-scale flow patterns in the ascending aorta; the shear stress magnitude, directions, and dynamics on the heart valve surfaces. The computed results are in qualitative agreement with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging data and suggest that the linkages between BAV aortopathy and hemodynamics deserve further investigation.

  3. Analysis of human aorta using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira-Damiani, Gislaine; Adur, J.; Ferro, D. P.; Adam, R. L.; Pelegati, V.; Thomáz, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, K.

    2012-03-01

    The use of photonics has improved our understanding of biologic phenomena. For the study of the normal and pathologic architecture of the aorta the use of Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence (TPEF) and Second Harmonic Generation showed interesting details of morphologic changes of the elastin-collagen architecture during aging or development of hypertension in previous studies. In this investigation we tried to apply fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for the morphologic analysis of human aortas. The aim of our study was to use FLIM in non-stained formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples of the aorta ascendants in hypertensive and normotensive patients of various ages, examining two different topographical regions. The FLIM-spectra of collagen and elastic fibers were clearly distinguishable, thus permitting an exact analysis of unstained material on the microscopic level. Moreover the FLIM spectrum of elastic fibers revealed variations between individual cases, which indicate modifications on a molecular level and might be related to FLIM age or diseases states and reflect modifications on a molecular level.

  4. Does Lower Limb Exercise Worsen Renal Artery Hemodynamics in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Xu, Zaipin; Deng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) and renal complications emerge in some patients after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to treat abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). The mechanisms for the causes of these problems are not clear. We hypothesized that for EVAR patients, lower limb exercise could negatively influence the physiology of the renal artery and the renal function, by decreasing the blood flow velocity and changing the hemodynamics in the renal arteries. To evaluate this hypothesis, pre- and post-operative models of the abdominal aorta were reconstructed based on CT images. The hemodynamic environment was numerically simulated under rest and lower limb exercise conditions. The results revealed that in the renal arteries, lower limb exercise decreased the wall shear stress (WSS), increased the oscillatory shear index (OSI) and increased the relative residence time (RRT). EVAR further enhanced these effects. Because these parameters are related to artery stenosis and atherosclerosis, this preliminary study concluded that lower limb exercise may increase the potential risk of inducing renal artery stenosis and renal complications for AAA patients. This finding could help elucidate the mechanism of renal artery stenosis and renal complications after EVAR and warn us to reconsider the management and nursing care of AAA patients. PMID:25946196

  5. Rhinosinusal Polyposis and Inverted Papilloma: A Morphometric Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Gabriel Costa; Fujise, Luciana Harumi; Fernandes, Atílio Maximino; Azoubel, Reinaldo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nasal obstruction is one of the main rhinologic complaints, and two diseases must be investigated as differential diagnosis: rhinosinusal polyposis and inverted papilloma. Using traditional methods, the differential diagnosis between these diseases may be difficult. The morphometric study may be a useful tool for differential diagnosis and to define prognosis. Objective Calculate the morphometric values of rhinosinusal polyposis and inverted papilloma and compare the average of variables obtained between the groups. Methods The nasal mucus of 10 patients who had surgery in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Surgery of Head and Neck was studied; 5 had rhinosinusal polyposis and 5 had inverted papilloma. After the capture and print of corresponding data of each slide, the largest and smallest diameters of the nuclei were measured and the morphometric variables were calculated: average diameter, perimeter, ratio between largest and smallest diameter, volume, area, ratio of volume to area, form coefficient, contour index, and eccentricity. Results We found a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the two groups in the following morphometric variables: largest diameter, smallest diameter, average diameter, volume, area, perimeter, and ratio of volume to area, indicating that these parameters can be useful in diagnostic differentiation between these diseases. Conclusion We founded morphometric variables higher in patients with inverted papilloma, which can be related to the neoplastic origin of the inverted papilloma. The analysis of nuclear parameters is an instrument of great value in the differential diagnosis between rhinosinusal polyposis and inverted papilloma. PMID:26157491

  6. Syn-eruptive morphometric variability of monogenetic scoria cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, Gbor; Jordan, Gyozo; Nmeth, Kroly; Dniz-Pez, Javier F.

    2012-11-01

    According to Wood's model, morphometric parameters such as slope angle can provide valuable information about the age of conical volcanic edifices such as scoria cones assuming that their initial slopes range from 30 to 33, measured manually on topographic maps, and assuming that their inner architectures are homogenous. This study examines the morphometric variability of nine young (a few thousand years old) small-volume scoria cones from Tenerife, Canary Islands, using high-resolution digital elevation models in order to assess their slope angle variability. Because of the young age and minimal development of gullies on the flanks, their morphometric variability can be interpreted as the result of syn-eruptive processes including: (1) pre-eruptive surface inclination, (2) vent migration and lava outflow with associated crater breaching and (3) diversity of pyroclastic rocks accumulated in the flanks of these volcanic edifices. Results show that slope angles for flank sectors differ by up to 12 among the studied volcanoes, which formed over the same period of time; this range greatly exceeds the 2-3 indicated by Wood. The greater than expected original slope range suggests that use of morphometric data in terms of morphometry-based relative dating and detection of erosional processes and settings must be done with great care (or detailed knowledge about absolute ages and eruption history), especially in field-scale morphometric investigation.

  7. Testing and quantifying phylogenetic signals and homoplasy in morphometric data.

    PubMed

    Klingenberg, Christian Peter; Gidaszewski, Nelly A

    2010-05-01

    The relationship between morphometrics and phylogenetic analysis has long been controversial. Here we propose an approach that is based on mapping morphometric traits onto phylogenies derived from other data and thus avoids the pitfalls encountered by previous studies. This method treats shape as a single, multidimensional character. We propose a test for the presence of a phylogenetic signal in morphometric data, which simulates the null hypothesis of the complete absence of phylogenetic structure by permutation of the shape data among the terminal taxa. We also propose 2 measures of the fit of morphometric data to the phylogeny that are direct extensions of the consistency index and retention index used in traditional cladistics. We apply these methods to a small study of the evolution of wing shape in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, for which a very strongly supported phylogeny is available. This case study reveals a significant phylogenetic signal and a relatively low degree of homoplasy. Despite the low homoplasy, the shortest tree computed from landmark data on wing shape is inconsistent with the well-supported phylogenetic tree from molecular data, underscoring that morphometric data may not provide reliable information for inferring phylogeny. PMID:20525633

  8. Geometric morphometrics of hominoid infraspinous fossa shape.

    PubMed

    Green, David J; Serrins, Jesse D; Seitelman, Brielle; Martiny, Amy R; Gunz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Recent discoveries of early hominin scapulae from Ethiopia (Dikika, Woranso-Mille) and South Africa (Malapa) have motivated new examinations of the relationship between scapular morphology and locomotor function. In particular, infraspinous fossa shape has been shown to significantly differ among hominoids. However, this region presents relatively few homologous landmarks, such that traditional distance and angle-based methods may oversimplify this three-dimensional structure. To more thoroughly assess infraspinous fossa shape variation as it relates to function among adult hominoid representatives, we considered two geometric morphometric (GM) approaches--one employing five homologous landmarks ("wireframe") and another with 83 sliding semilandmarks along the border of the infraspinous fossa. We identified several differences in infraspinous fossa shape with traditional approaches, particularly in superoinferior fossa breadth and scapular spine orientation. The wireframe analysis reliably captured the range of shape variation in the sample, which reflects the relatively straightforward geometry of the infraspinous fossa. Building on the traditional approach, the GM results highlighted how the orientation of the medial portion of the infraspinous fossa differed relative to both the axillary border and spine. These features distinguished Pan from Gorilla in a way that traditional analyses had not been able to discern. Relative to the wireframe method, the semilandmark approach further distinguished Pongo from Homo, highlighting aspects of infraspinous fossa morphology that may be associated with climbing behaviors in hominoid taxa. These results highlight the ways that GM methods can enhance our ability to evaluate complex aspects of shape for refining and testing hypotheses about functional morphology. PMID:25339150

  9. Morphometric Analysis of Auxin-Mediated Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Daniel

    Auxin controls many aspects of plant development through its effects on growth. Its distribution is controlled by specific tissue and organ level polar transport streams. The responses to environmental cues such as gravity light, nutrient availability are largely controlled by coordinated regulation of distinct auxin transport streams. Many plant responses to the environment involve changes in shape. Much can be learned about the underlying processes controlling plant form if the response is measured with sufficient resolution. Computer-aided analysis of digital images or 'machine vision' can be used to greatly increase the speed and consistency of data from a morphometric study of plant form. Advances in image acquisition and analysis pioneered at UW-Madison have allowed unprecedented resolution of the growth and gravitropism of Arabidopsis. A reverse genetic analysis was used to determine if the MDR-like ABC transporters influence auxin distribution important for plant development and the response to environmental cues in Arabidopsis. Mutations in MDR1 (At3g28860) reduce acropetal auxin transport in the root. This is correlated with deviation from the vertical axis. Mutations in MDR4 (At2g47000) reduce basipetal auxin transport in the root. This is correlated with hypergravitropism. It was theorized that reduced transport whithin the elongation zone is responsible for the increased curvature. Flavanols were found to regulate gravitropism upstream of MDR4. The mdr1 mdr4 double mutant showed additive but not synergistic phenotypes, suggesting that the two auxin transport streams are more independent than interdependent. MDR proteins seem to enhance auxin transport in situations where PIN-type effux alone is insufficient.

  10. Pooling Morphometric Estimates: A Statistical Equivalence Approach.

    PubMed

    Pardoe, Heath R; Cutter, Gary R; Alter, Rachel; Hiess, Rebecca Kucharsky; Semmelroch, Mira; Parker, Donna; Farquharson, Shawna; Jackson, Graeme D; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Changes in hardware or image-processing settings are a common issue for large multicenter studies. To pool MRI data acquired under these changed conditions, it is necessary to demonstrate that the changes do not affect MRI-based measurements. In these circumstances, classical inference testing is inappropriate because it is designed to detect differences, not prove similarity. We used a method known as statistical equivalence testing to address this limitation. Equivalence testing was carried out on 3 datasets: (1) cortical thickness and automated hippocampal volume estimates obtained from healthy individuals imaged using different multichannel head coils; (2) manual hippocampal volumetry obtained using two readers; and (3) corpus callosum area estimates obtained using an automated method with manual cleanup carried out by two readers. Equivalence testing was carried out using the "two one-sided tests" (TOST) approach. Power analyses of the TOST were used to estimate sample sizes required for well-powered equivalence testing analyses. Mean and standard deviation estimates from the automated hippocampal volume dataset were used to carry out an example power analysis. Cortical thickness values were found to be equivalent over 61% of the cortex when different head coils were used (q < .05, false discovery rate correction). Automated hippocampal volume estimates obtained using the same two coils were statistically equivalent (TOST P = 4.28 10(-15) ). Manual hippocampal volume estimates obtained using two readers were not statistically equivalent (TOST P = .97). The use of different readers to carry out limited correction of automated corpus callosum segmentations yielded equivalent area estimates (TOST P = 1.28 10(-14) ). Power analysis of simulated and automated hippocampal volume data demonstrated that the equivalence margin affects the number of subjects required for well-powered equivalence tests. We have presented a statistical method for determining if morphometric measures obtained under variable conditions can be pooled. The equivalence testing technique is applicable for analyses in which experimental conditions vary over the course of the study. PMID:26094850

  11. Neonatal morphometrics after endurance exercise during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Clapp, J F; Capeless, E L

    1990-12-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that continuation of a regular running and/or aerobics program during late pregnancy at or above 50% of preconceptional levels limits fetal growth. Accordingly, detailed neonatal morphometric data were gathered in the offspring of two groups: 77 well-conditioned recreational runners and aerobic dancers who were delivered at term after continuing their exercise regimen at or above 50% of the preconceptional level throughout pregnancy and 55 matched controls. Daily exercise performance was quantitated before conception and throughout pregnancy. Significant reductions in birth weight (-310 gm), birth weight percentile (-20), ponderal index (-0.24), its percentile (-30), and the fetoplacental weight ratio (-0.7) were seen in the offspring of the exercise group whereas crown-heel length (51.4 cm) and head circumference (35.0) were similar in the two groups. Reductions in two-site skin-fold thickness (-1.5 mm), skin-fold percentile (-30), calculated percent body fat (-5.0%), and fat mass (-220 gm) in the offspring of the exercise group confirmed the asymmetric pattern of growth restriction and indicated that approximately 70% of the difference in birth weight could be explained by the difference in neonatal fat mass. In runners, the relative level of exercise performance in the last 5 months of pregnancy explained 40% of the variability in birth weight over an 1100 gm birth weight range. We conclude that continuation of a regular aerobic or running program at or above a minimal training level during late pregnancy results in an asymmetric pattern of growth restriction that primarily impacts on neonatal fat mass. PMID:2256486

  12. Morphometric Analysis of Martian Valley Network Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Howard, A. D.

    2005-05-01

    Whether the Martian valley networks were formed predominantly by groundwater sapping or surface fluvial runoff continues to be debated and has profoundly different implications for the climatic history of Mars and the possible evolution of life there. This paper attempts to evaluate the relative role of groundwater sapping vs. surface runoff in valley networks generation through quantitative morphometic analysis at watershed basin scale using the highest resolution MOLA DEM data. Treating the hypsometric curve of each basin as a cumulative probability distribution, its integral, skewness, kurtosis, density skewness, and density kurtosis (collectively called hypsometric attributes) can serve as quantitative measures of the basin's morphology. The hypsometric attributes are sensitive to variations in overall basin characteristics and thus are diagnostic of possible processes. These attributes of typical terrestrial sapping basins, typical terrestrial fluvial basins, and typical lunar impact cratering basins were used as endmembers to establish discriminant functions to classify Martian basins. The posteriori probability of each class membership for each Martian basin then serves as the measure of the relative role of sapping, fluvial or cratering process in forming that basin. Initial results in Margaritifer Sinus area show that groundwater sapping played a more dominant role than surface runoff, generally consistent with previous findings based on lower resolution data and supporting a precipitation-recharged groundwater sapping origin for valley networks. Using a circularity function (a ratio of area and perimeter as a function of elevation) as the measure for basin morphology in the discriminant analysis produced similar results. Other traditional morphometric parameters such as drainage density, width function, cumulative area distribution, and slope-area relationship will also be derived for Margaritifer and other areas. The overall spatial pattern of the distribution will be examined to shed more light on past climatic conditions for generating the Martian valley networks.

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Cruz, C P; Drouilhet, J C; Southern, F N; Eidt, J F; Barnes, R W; Moursi, M M

    2001-01-01

    Newer, minimally invasive catheter-based endovascular technology utilizing stent grafts are currently being evaluated for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. A retrospective review of all (3 years) consecutive, non-ruptured elective AAA repairs was undertaken to document the results of AAA surgical repair in a modern cohort of patients to allow a contemporary comparison with the evolving endoluminal data. One hundred twenty-one AAAs were identified in a male veteran population. Mean age was 68.5 +/-7.7 years. Medical history review showed hypertension in 55%, heart disease in 73.5%, peripheral vascular disease in 21%, stroke and transient ischemic attacks in 22%, diabetes mellitus in 7%, renal insufficiency in 10%, and smoking history in 80%. The AAA size was documented with ultrasound (5.2 +/-1.3 cm, n=40) and computed tomography (5.6 +/-1.3 cm, n=100). Fifty-nine percent had angiography. Intraoperative end points included an operative time of 165 +/-6.3 minutes from incision to dressing placement. A Dacron tube graft was used in 78%, the remaining were Dacron bifurcated grafts. A suprarenal clamp was used in 8% for proximal aortic control with juxtarenal aneurysms. A pulmonary-artery catheter was placed in 69%. A transverse incision was used in 69% of patients and a midline incision was used in the rest. Estimated blood loss was 1505 +/-103 mL; cell saver blood returned 754 +/-53 mL; crystalloid/Hespan 4771 +/-176 mL; banked packed red blood cells 0.75 +/-0.11 U. Time to extubation was, in the operating room (78.5%), on the day of the operation (5.0%), postoperative day (POD) 1 (12.4%), POD2 (1.7%), POD3 (0.8%), and one case was performed with epidural anesthesia only. Postoperative end points included a 30-day mortality rate of 1.6% (two patients). Postoperative morbidity included wound dehiscence 0.8%; sepsis, urinary tract infection, wound infection, leg ischemia, ischemic colitis, and stroke each had an incidence of 1.6%; myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, pneumonia, re-operation for suspected bleeding, and ileus or bowel obstruction occurred with an incidence of 3.3%. No significant increase in serum creatinine levels was noted. Time to enteral fluids/nutrition was 3.5 +/-0.08 days. Patients were out of bed to a chair or walking by 1.3 +/-0.06 days postoperatively. The length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) was 2.0 +/-0.12 days and postoperative hospital stay was 6.6 +/- 0.33 days. Transfusion requirement for the hospital stay was 1.6 +/-0.2 U per patient. This review highlights a cohort of male veteran patients with significant cardiac co-morbidity who have undergone repair with a conventional open technique and low mortality and morbidity rates. This group had rapid extubation, time to oral intake, and ambulation. In addition, ICU and hospital stays were relatively short. PMID:11565037

  14. Abdominal actinomycosis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Robert Joseph; Riela, Steven; Patel, Ravi; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old Hispanic woman presented to the emergency department, reporting worsening sharp lower right quadrant abdominal pain for 3?days. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed evidence of inflammation in the peritoneal soft tissues adjacent to an enlarged and thick-walled appendix, an appendicolith, no abscess formation and a slightly thickened caecum consistent with acute appendicitis. During laparoscopic appendectomy, the caecum was noted to be firm, raising suspicion of malignancy. Surgical oncology team was consulted and open laparotomy with right hemicolectomy was performed. Pathology reported that the ileocaecal mass was not a malignancy but was, rather, actinomycosis. The patient was discharged after 10?days of intravenous antibiotics in the hospital, with the diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis. Although the original clinical and radiological findings in this case were highly suggestive of acute appendicitis, abdominal actinomycosis should be in the differential for right lower quadrant pain as it may be treated non-operatively. PMID:26611488

  15. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  16. Abdominal Bloating: Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seo, A Young; Oh, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

  17. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

    1998-01-01

    A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  18. Functional abdominal bloating with distention.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Stephen Norman

    2012-01-01

    Ten to 25% of healthy persons experience bloating. It is particularly common in persons with the irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. While the cause of bloating remains unknown old explanations such as a excessive intestinal gas, exaggerated lumbar lordosis and psychiatric problems have been disproved. New suggestions include recent weight gain, weak or inappropriately relaxed abdominal muscles, an inappropriately contracted diaphragm and retained fluid in loops of distal small bowel. No treatment is of unequivocal benefit but a low FODMAPs diet, probiotics and the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin offer some hope. Treatment by weight loss, abdominal exercise, prokinetics and girdles need more study. PMID:22778978

  19. Dietary Ecology of Murinae (Muridae, Rodentia): A Geometric Morphometric Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gmez Cano, Ana Rosa; Hernndez Fernndez, Manuel; lvarez-Sierra, M. ngeles

    2013-01-01

    Murine rodents represent a highly diverse group, which displays great ecological versatility. In the present paper we analyse the relationship between dental morphology, on one hand, using geometric morphometrics based upon the outline of first upper molar and the dietary preference of extant murine genera, on the other. This ecomorphological study of extant murine rodents demonstrates that dietary groups can be distinguished with the use of a quantitative geometric morphometric approach based on first upper molar outline. A discriminant analysis of the geometric morphometric variables of the first upper molars enables us to infer the dietary preferences of extinct murine genera from the Iberian Peninsula. Most of the extinct genera were omnivore; only Stephanomys showed a pattern of dental morphology alike that of the herbivore genera. PMID:24236090

  20. Development of the human cuneatus medialis nucleus: a morphometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoxin; Goto, Noboru; Goto, Jun; Ezure, Hiromitsu; Nonaka, Naoko

    2005-04-01

    The morphometric features of the development of the human cuneatus medialis nucleus (CMN) were examined using complete serial celloidin sections of 11 brains: nine fetal brains, the brain of a 2-month-old infant and that of a 63-year-old adult. The morphometric analysis revealed at least four stages in the development of the CMN characterized by the maturation of neurons: (1) immature neuronal stage, (2) preparatory stage, (3) accelerated development stage and (4) postnatal stage. The development of the human CMN accelerates after 32 weeks of gestation (WG), and postnatal qualitative maturation also occurs. From the viewpoint of morphometric evaluation, the CMN gradually matures between 18 and 40 WG without a rapid growth phase as far as we have observed. PMID:15814222

  1. Characterization of human aortic elastase found in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J R; Mandell, C; Wise, L

    1987-10-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the homeostatic balance between elastase and antiprotease activity is altered in the infrarenal aorta of those patients with different types of aortic pathologic findings. The specific properties of elastase found in the aorta of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are discussed herein. Activity of elastase extracted from ten pooled AAA specimens was observed when incubated with several inhibitors: 13.2 per cent for phenyl-suphonyl flouride (PSF); 43.3 per cent for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); 77.7 per cent for pepstatin; 137.0 per cent for leupeptin, and 24.0 per cent for alpha-1-antitrypsin. Irreversible inhibition by PSF indicates that the elastase is a serine protease. The elastase is most likely not a metallo enzyme, since it had no absolute requirement for divalent cations as indicated by only partial inhibition by EDTA. Elastase activity is most likely not due to cathepsins B or D, since cathepsins are active in an acid pH and selectively inhibited by leupeptin and pepstatin. The pH curve revealed a maximum activity at pH 8.2 and elastase activity was significantly inhibited by alpha-1-antitrypsin in a dose response manner determining functional elastase activity. These data indicate that the elastase in the aorta of patients with an AAA has the exact properties of the serine elastase found in the smooth muscle cells of the aorta in rats. These results also confirm the critical role of alpha-1-antitrypsin in determining functional elastase activity. Smooth muscle cell regulation of elastin metabolism may be important in determining why some patients have AAA and others have occlusive aortic disease develop. PMID:3477880

  2. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    AAA - open - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open - discharge ... You had open aortic aneurysm surgery to repair an aneurysm (a widened part) in your aorta, the large artery that carries blood to your ...

  3. Fluids in porous media: a morphometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecke, Klaus; Arns, C. H.

    2005-03-01

    Predicting the relationship between the morphology of porous media and their physical properties, e.g, the conductivity, elasticity and permeability, is a long-standing problem and important to a range of applications from geophysics to materials science. Here, a set of four morphological measures, so-called Minkowski functionals, is defined which allows one to quantitatively characterize the shape of spatial structures, to optimally reconstruct porous media, and to accurately predict material properties. The method is based on integral geometry and Kac's theorem which relates the spectrum of the Laplace operator to the four Minkowski functionals. Analytic expressions for mean values of Minkowski functionals in Boolean models allow the definition of an effective shape of a grain in a system made up of a distribution of arbitrarily shaped constituents. Reconstructing the microstructure using this effective grain shape leads to an excellent match to the percolation thresholds and to the mechanical and transport properties across all phase fractions. Additionally, the use of the effective shape in effective medium formulations leads to good explicit predictions of bulk moduli. The method is verified for several model systems and sedimentary rock samples, demonstrating that a single tomographic image is sufficient to estimate the morphology and physical properties such as permeabilities and elastic moduli for a range of porosities. Also the thermodynamic behaviour of fluids in porous media, i.e., the shape dependence of the grand canonical potential and of surface energies of a fluid bounded by an arbitrarily shaped convex pore, can be calculated in the thermodynamic limit fully from the knowledge of the Minkowski functionals, i.e., of only four morphometric measures. This remarkable result is based on Hadwiger's theorem on the completeness of the additive Minkowski functionals and the assumption that a thermodynamic potential is an 'additive' functional which can be understood as a more precise definition for the conventional term 'extensive'. As a consequence, the surface energy and other thermodynamic quantities contain in the thermodynamic limit, beside a constant term, only contributions linear in the mean and Gaussian curvature of the pore and not an infinite number of curvature terms. Finally, starting from a microscopic density functional for an inhomogeneous fluid in a porous medium the phase coexistence (capillary condensation) and the critical point of the fluid is determined in terms of structure functions and morphological measures of the pore space and calculated explicitly for specific random porous structures using results from integral geometry.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... main types of abdominal wall defects: omphalocele and gastroschisis. Omphalocele is an opening in the center of ... same protective membrane that covers the umbilical cord. Gastroschisis is a defect in the abdominal wall, usually ...

  5. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePLUS

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  6. A case of aorta-right atrial tunnel presented with an asymptomatic murmur.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Nyoun; Cho, Kyoung-Im; Kim, Jae-Joon; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Goo, Ja-Jun; Lee, Ja-Young; Kim, Seong-Man

    2013-09-01

    Aorta-right atrial tunnel is a rare and distinct congenital anomaly. It is a vascular channel that originates from one of the sinuses of Valsalva with a tortuous course anterior or posterior to the ascending aorta, and terminates either in the superior vena cava or in the right atrium (RA). We report a 42-year-old female briefly with aorta-right atrial tunnel in which the left coronary artery arose from the tunnel and terminated into the RA. PMID:24174967

  7. Pharmacological Inhibitor of Notch Signaling Stabilizes the Progression of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jeeyun; Koenig, Sara N.; Kuivaniemi, Helena S.; Garg, Vidu; Hans, Chetan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) involves a sustained influx of proinflammatory macrophages, which exacerbate tissue injury by releasing cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases. Previously, we showed that Notch deficiency reduces the development of AAA in the angiotensin IIinduced mouse model by preventing infiltration of macrophages. Here, we examined whether Notch inhibition in this mouse model prevents progression of small AAA and whether these effects are associated with altered macrophage differentiation. Methods and Results Treatment with pharmacological Notch inhibitor (DAPT [N?(N?[3,5?difluorophenacetyl]?L?alanyl)?S?phenylglycine t?butyl ester]) at day 3 or 8 of angiotensin II infusion arrested the progression of AAA in Apoe?/? mice, as demonstrated by a decreased luminal diameter and aortic width. The abdominal aortas of Apoe?/? mice treated with DAPT showed decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases and presence of elastin precursors including tropoelastin and hyaluronic acid. Marginal adventitial thickening observed in the aorta of DAPT?treated Apoe?/? mice was not associated with increased macrophage content, as observed in the mice treated with angiotensin II alone. Instead, DAPT?treated abdominal aortas showed increased expression of Cd206?positive M2 macrophages and decreased expression of Il12?positive M1 macrophages. Notch1 deficiency promoted M2 differentiation of macrophages by upregulating transforming growth factor ?2 in bone marrowderived macrophages at basal levels and in response to IL4. Protein expression of transforming growth factor ?2 and its downstream effector pSmad2 also increased in DAPT?treated Apoe?/? mice, indicating a potential link between Notch and transforming growth factor ?2 signaling in the M2 differentiation of macrophages. Conclusions Pharmacological inhibitor of Notch signaling prevents the progression of AAA by macrophage differentiationdependent mechanisms. The study also provides insights for novel therapeutic strategies to prevent the progression of small AAA. PMID:25349182

  8. A reappraisal of pediatric abdominal surface anatomy utilizing in vivo cross-sectional imaging.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Hemanth; Taghavi, Kiarash; Mirjalili, S Ali

    2016-03-01

    Despite being integral to medical and surgical practice, pediatric anatomy has remained relatively neglected except for a few landmark works. Neonatal and pediatric anatomy differs structurally and functionally from adult anatomy in many ways. The aim of the current study was to reappraise common abdominal surface landmarks of important structures in infants and children. After cases with related pathologies had been excluded, computer tomography scans of 90 children were divided into three age groups and systematically analyzed. The vertebral levels of the unpaired branches of the abdominal aorta (AA) were recorded. The vertebral level and relationship to the midline of the bifurcation of the AA and the formation of the inferior vena cava were measured. The renal long axes, costal relationships, renal artery vertebral levels, and hilar vertebral levels were measured. The splenic long axis and relationship to the mid-axillary line were also measured. The renal length was disproportionately large in the youngest age group and increased less with age (7.12 cm, 7.85 cm, 8.86 cm). The renal artery was consistently found around L1; the left kidney was related to the 11th and 12th ribs posteriorly, the right kidney only to the 12th rib. The AA bifurcated to the right of the midline in 10% of children. The unpaired visceral branches of the aorta were commonly found at T12 (celiac artery), L1 (superior mesenteric artery), and L3 (inferior mesenteric artery). The current study provides age-standardized surface landmarks and measurements for major abdominal vascular structures and solid organs in normal children. The clinical applications of these data are multiple and diverse. Clin. Anat. 29:197-203, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26615977

  9. Automatic segmentation and co-registration of gated CT angiography datasets: measuring abdominal aortic pulsatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentz, Robert; Manduca, Armando; Fletcher, J. G.; Siddiki, Hassan; Shields, Raymond C.; Vrtiska, Terri; Spencer, Garrett; Primak, Andrew N.; Zhang, Jie; Nielson, Theresa; McCollough, Cynthia; Yu, Lifeng

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To develop robust, novel segmentation and co-registration software to analyze temporally overlapping CT angiography datasets, with an aim to permit automated measurement of regional aortic pulsatility in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Methods: We perform retrospective gated CT angiography in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Multiple, temporally overlapping, time-resolved CT angiography datasets are reconstructed over the cardiac cycle, with aortic segmentation performed using a priori anatomic assumptions for the aorta and heart. Visual quality assessment is performed following automatic segmentation with manual editing. Following subsequent centerline generation, centerlines are cross-registered across phases, with internal validation of co-registration performed by examining registration at the regions of greatest diameter change (i.e. when the second derivative is maximal). Results: We have performed gated CT angiography in 60 patients. Automatic seed placement is successful in 79% of datasets, requiring either no editing (70%) or minimal editing (less than 1 minute; 12%). Causes of error include segmentation into adjacent, high-attenuating, nonvascular tissues; small segmentation errors associated with calcified plaque; and segmentation of non-renal, small paralumbar arteries. Internal validation of cross-registration demonstrates appropriate registration in our patient population. In general, we observed that aortic pulsatility can vary along the course of the abdominal aorta. Pulsation can also vary within an aneurysm as well as between aneurysms, but the clinical significance of these findings remain unknown. Conclusions: Visualization of large vessel pulsatility is possible using ECG-gated CT angiography, partial scan reconstruction, automatic segmentation, centerline generation, and coregistration of temporally resolved datasets.

  10. Human dilated ascending aorta: Mechanical characterization via uniaxial tensile tests.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Anna; Morganti, Simone; Totaro, Pasquale; Mazzola, Alessandro; Auricchio, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the ascending aorta (AsAA), i.e., a progressive and localized dilatation of the first part of the aorta, represent a severe life-threatening condition, often occurring with no symptom. AsAA formation is associated with a degeneration of the aortic wall tissue, which leads to changes in the tissue mechanical properties, and in particular to increased wall stress and/or decreased wall ultimate strength. Nowadays, the decision to surgically operate is usually based on the AsAA diameter, although such a criterion is not always predictive. The present study focuses on the mechanical characterization of the AsAA tissues. Specimens were cut from portions of dilated ascending aorta excised from 46 patients through open-heart surgery. Peak strain, peak stress, and maximum elastic modulus (i.e., tissue stiffness) were measured from uniaxial stress-strain curves. Such (ultimate) mechanical properties were collected for different regions of the aortic wall (anterior and posterior) as well as for different specimen orientations (circumferential and longitudinal). Relationships of ultimate mechanical properties with patient age and sex were also investigated. The obtained results highlighted a significant anisotropy of the AsAA tissue (as also observed for healthy aortic tissues), with higher value of strength and stiffness in the circumferential than in the longitudinal direction. Higher strength and stiffness were also found in the posterior region with respect to the anterior one for the circumferential orientation, whereas an opposite result was found for the longitudinal orientation. A decreasing trend of ultimate mechanical properties with aging was also highlighted. Finally, a significant difference in the strength between male and female was observed only in the circumferential direction. PMID:26356765

  11. Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:25239980

  12. Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to be at an increased risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm, a new study suggests. An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a weak spot in the body's main ... those without recent asthma activity. "People with abdominal aortic aneurysm who were diagnosed with asthma within the past ...

  13. Change in the static rheological properties of the aorta in Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic (KHC) rabbits with progress of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Shin-ichiro; Machida, Noboru; Hasegawa, Masamitsu; Miyashita, Hiroshi; Kusanagi, Masahiko; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Hazama, Akihiro

    2004-04-01

    The rheological properties of the arterial wall have intimate connections with the fine structure of the wall. Alteration in fine structure due to cardiovascular disease, such as atherosclerosis, could affect the rheological characteristics of the wall. The present study was designed to investigate changes in the static rheological properties of the aorta in Kurosawa and Kusanagi-Hypercholesterolemic (KHC) rabbits aged 10-12, 22-24 and 34-36 months in relation to histological alteration of the wall due to progression of atherosclerosis with age. Circumferential wall strips were excised from the ascending, proximal descending thoracic and proximal abdominal aortas and their stress/strain relationship was recorded. Tensile force of the wall showed a slight but insignificant decrease in the KHC rabbit group aged 10-12 months compared to that in the age-matched control group in the proximal thoracic aorta and increased significantly with ageing in the KHC rabbits in these aortic regions mainly at medium and high strain ranges. Wall stress was significantly smaller in the 10-12 months old KHC rabbit group than in the age-matched control group in the proximal thoracic and proximal abdominal aortas and increased significantly with ageing in the KHC rabbit groups chiefly at medium and high strain ranges. Incremental elastic modulus determined at 50% stretching of the initial length of the wall strip was also significantly lower in the KHC rabbit group aged 10-12 months in comparison to that in the age-matched control group and increased significantly with ageing in the KHC rabbit group. The intima thickened severely with abundant foam cells in the KHC rabbits aged 10-12 months. With increasing age, collagen and elastin fibres showed signs of gradual proliferation among the foam cells. The aortic wall in KHC rabbits was viscoelastic in the relatively early stage of atherosclerosis due to abundant foam cells, and thereafter increased in stiffness gradually with fibrous proliferation and calcification. We can conclude that the static rheological properties of the atherosclerotic aortic wall changed in association with alteration in the microstructure of the wall with progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:15132315

  14. Current Management of Traumatic Rupture of the Descending Thoracic Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Karmy-Jones, Riyad; Jackson, Nichole; Long, William; Simeone, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic rupture of the descending thoracic aorta remains a leading cause of death following major blunt trauma. Management has evolved from uniformly performing emergent open repair with clamp and sew technique to include open repair with mechanical circulatory support, medical management and most recently, endovascular repair. This latter approach appears, in the short term, to be associated with perhaps better outcome, but long term data is still accruing. While an attractive option, there are specific anatomic and physiologic factors to be considered in each individual case. PMID:20676277

  15. Coarctation of the Aorta: Strategies for Improving Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lan; Cook, Stephen C

    2015-11-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is a common congenital heart defect through which management has rapidly evolved over the last few decades. The role of transcatheter-based therapies is expanding and seems to be an effective treatment option for coarctation, especially in adults. Patients with prior coarctation repair are at risk of long-term complications related to prior surgeries and associated congenital heart defects, in particular, the risk of restenosis and aortic aneurysm development related to the timing and mode of prior intervention. This article outlines the evaluation and management of adults with unrepaired coarctation and patients after coarctation repair. PMID:26471817

  16. Direct aortic transcatheter valve implantation in a porcelain aorta.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Giuseppe; Botta, Luca; De Marco, Federico; Colombo, Paola; Klugmann, Silvio; Martinelli, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has been designed to treat elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis at high risk for surgery, and is generally performed retrogradely with vascular access. However, in certain patients, this access is either not possible or deemed to carry a high risk of vascular injury. We report our experience of a direct aortic approach in a 78-year old man with severe aortic stenosis, excluded from standard aortic valve replacement due to a porcelain aorta, and affected by severe aortic, iliac-femoral, and subclavian arteriopathy, rendering the transfemoral or subclavian approach unemployable. PMID:24887834

  17. Intravascular Stent Therapy for Coarctation of the Aorta

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular stent therapy is considered a primary therapeutic option for most adults and adolescents with coarctation of the aorta. This review highlights the indications, technical considerations, procedural aspects, and limited long-term outcome data when using this intervention. Stent technology has continued to evolve with potential for further modifications since its inception in the early 1990s. The best therapeutic approach, e.g., stenting versus surgery, in the treatment of native coarctation continues to be debated due to the paucity of long-term clinical and imaging data in both groups. PMID:25114759

  18. Common FXIII and Fibrinogen Polymorphisms in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Macrae, Fraser L.; Lee Evans, Hannah; Bridge, Katherine I.; Johnson, Anne; Scott, D. Julian A.; Arins, Robert A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are characterized by a progressive dilatation of the abdominal aorta, and are associated with a high risk of rupture once the dilatation exceeds 55 mm in diameter. A large proportion of AAA develops an intraluminal thrombus, which contributes to hypoxia, inflammation and tissue degradation. We have previously shown that patients with AAA produce clots with altered structure which is more resistant to fibrinolysis. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic polymorphisms of FXIII and fibrinogen in AAA to identify how changes to these proteins may play a role in the development of AAA. Methods Subjects of Western/European descent, ?55 years of age (520 AAA patients and 449 controls) were genotyped for five polymorphisms (FXIII-A Val34Leu, FXIII-B His95Arg, FXIII-B Splice Variant (intron K nt29576C-G), Fib-A Thr312Ala and Fib-B Arg448Lys) by RT-PCR. Data were analysed by ?2 test and CubeX. Results The FXIII-B Arg95 allele associated with AAA (Relative risk - 1.240, CI 1.0931.407, P?=?0.006). There was no association between FXIII-A Val34Leu, FXIII-B Splice Variant, Fib-A Thr312Ala or Fib-B Arg448Lys and AAA. FXIII-B His95Arg and FXIII-B Splice variant (intron K nt29576C-G) were in negative linkage disequilibrium (D?=??0.609, p?=?0.011). Discussion The FXIII-B Arg95 variant is associated with an increased risk of AAA. These data suggest a possible role for FXIII in AAA pathogenesis. PMID:25384012

  19. Pulse wave imaging in normal, hypertensive and aneurysmal human aortas in vivo: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ronny X.; Luo, Jianwen; Balaram, Sandhya K.; Chaudhry, Farooq A.; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2013-07-01

    Arterial stiffness is a well-established biomarker for cardiovascular risk, especially in the case of hypertension. The progressive stages of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) have also been associated with varying arterial stiffness. Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is a noninvasive, ultrasound imaging-based technique that uses the pulse wave-induced arterial wall motion to map the propagation of the pulse wave and measure the regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) as an index of arterial stiffness. In this study, the clinical feasibility of PWI was evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and aneurysmal human aortas. Radiofrequency-based speckle tracking was used to estimate the pulse wave-induced displacements in the abdominal aortic walls of normal (N = 15, mean age 32.5 ± 10.2 years), hypertensive (N = 13, mean age 60.8 ± 15.8 years), and aneurysmal (N = 5, mean age 71.6 ± 11.8 years) human subjects. Linear regression of the spatio-temporal variation of the displacement waveform in the anterior aortic wall over a single cardiac cycle yielded the slope as the PWV and the coefficient of determination r2 as an approximate measure of the pulse wave propagation uniformity. The aortic PWV measurements in all normal, hypertensive, and AAA subjects were 6.03 ± 1.68, 6.69 ± 2.80, and 10.54 ± 6.52 m s-1, respectively. There was no significant difference (p = 0.15) between the PWVs of the normal and hypertensive subjects while the PWVs of the AAA subjects were significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to those of the other two groups. Also, the average r2 in the AAA subjects was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than that in the normal and hypertensive subjects. These preliminary results suggest that the regional PWV and the pulse wave propagation uniformity (r2) obtained using PWI, in addition to the PWI images and spatio-temporal maps that provide qualitative visualization of the pulse wave, may potentially provide valuable information for the clinical characterization of aneurysms and other vascular pathologies that regionally alter the arterial wall mechanics.

  20. In situ morphometric characterization of Aframomum melegueta accessions in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Amponsah, J.; Adamtey, N.; Elegba, W.; Danso, K. E.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the huge economic importance of Aframomum melegueta in the herbal and pharmaceutical industries, its production is limited by lack of planting materials (propagules). The plant also lacks scientific descriptors, which has often led to misidentification with adverse health implications. We therefore aimed at developing a descriptor list to facilitate the identification of A. melegueta using 34 morphometric traits comprising 18 quantitative and 16 qualitative characters. The morphological traits showed that A. melegueta has a characteristic stolon that produces tillers instead of rhizomes. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean using both the nearest-neighbour and complete-linkage methods based on the 34 morphometric traits clustered the eight accessions into two main groups based on ecological location. The accessions from the Eastern and Ashanti regions were separated at similarity coefficients of 0.822 and 0.644, respectively, with a highly significant discriminant function. The Eastern accessions were further clustered into red or yellow fruits at similarity indexes of 0.936 and 0.865 using the nearest-neighbour and complete-linkage methods, respectively. The present study has shown that morphometric traits of A. melegueta are greatly influenced by its ecological habitat. It is envisaged that the descriptor list developed coupled with a morphometric description would enhance its identification and utilization. PMID:23799183

  1. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING GUIDELINES: VARIABILITY IN MORPHOMETRIC ASSESSMENTS OF NEUROPATHOLOGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for neuropathological and morphometric assessments of rat pups on postnatal day (PND) 11 and at study termination (after PND 60). In recent discussions about conducting these studies on pesti...

  2. Endovascular Repair of Traumatic Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta: Single-Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Saratzis, Nikolaos A. Saratzis, Athanasios N.; Melas, Nikolaos; Ginis, Georgios; Lioupis, Athanasios; Lykopoulos, Dimitrios; Lazaridis, John; Dimitrios, Kiskinis

    2007-06-15

    Purpose. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta secondary to blunt chest trauma is a life-threatening emergency and a common cause of death, usually following violent collisions. The objective of this retrospective report was to evaluate the efficacy of endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions with a single commercially available stent-graft. Methods. Nine men (mean age 29.5 years) were admitted to our institution between January 2003 and January 2006 due to blunt aortic trauma following violent motor vehicle collisions. Plain chest radiography, spiral computed tomography, aortography, and transesophageal echocardiography were used for diagnostic purposes in all cases. All patients were diagnosed with contained extramural thoracic aortic hematomas, secondary to aortic disruption. One patient was also diagnosed with a traumatic thoracic aortic dissection, secondary to blunt trauma. All subjects were poor surgical candidates, due to major injuries such as multiple bone fractures, abdominal hematomas, and pulmonary contusions. All repairs were performed using the EndoFit (LeMaitre Vascular) stent-graft. Results. Complete exclusion of the traumatic aortic disruption and pseudoaneurysm was achieved and verified at intraoperative arteriography and on CT scans, within 10 days of the repair in all patients. In 1 case the deployment of a second cuff was necessary due to a secondary endoleak. In 2 cases the left subclavian artery was occluded to achieve adequate graft fixation. No procedure-related deaths have occurred and no cardiac or peripheral vascular complications were observed within the 12 months (range 8-16 months) follow-up. Conclusions. This is the first time the EndoFit graft has been utilized in the treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions secondary to chest trauma. The repair of such pathologies is technically feasible and early follow-up results are promising.

  3. The use of Doppler ultrasonography for pre- and post-surgery monitoring of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Case report.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Monica Elia; Arbeille, Philippe; Dobre, Michaela; Stefanescu, Victorita

    2016-03-01

    A 75 year old male patient was monitored for 3 years by Doppler Ultrasonography (US) for an abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). Because the aneurysm increased significantly, an aortic prosthesis was installed via an endovascular procedure. After one month of post-surgery monitoring, both Doppler US exam and contrast enhancement US (CEUS) suspected the presence of a leak at the level of the prosthesis. A new surgical procedure was scheduled and intraoperative arteriography confirmed an endoleak type II. Although not always able to specify the correct type of linkage, CEUS remains a reliable method for investigating the postoperative complications of AAA. PMID:26962567

  4. Open Surgery for Giant Bilateral Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysms with Compression of Neighboring Abdominal Structures: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Hideyuki; Katahira, Seiichiro; Hoshino, Takeshi; Hanzawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We describe a patient with successfully treated giant bilateral internal iliac artery aneurysms that were associated with acute renal failure secondary to bilateral hydronephrosis, lumbosacral plexopathy, and ileus. After hemodialysis for 1 month, the patient underwent graft replacement of the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries, including complete obliteration of the internal iliac artery branches, reconstruction of the inferior mesenteric artery, and ureterolysis. Weaning from hemodialysis was achieved and postoperative renal function improved. Although the patient had serious preoperative co-morbidities, emergency traditional open surgery should be the gold standard for securely releasing compression of the neighboring organs instead of endovascular treatment. PMID:26421081

  5. Efficacy of Transcerebellar Diameter/Abdominal Circumference Versus Head Circumference/Abdominal Circumference in Predicting Asymmetric Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Bhimarao; Bhat, Venkataramana; Gowda, Puttanna VN

    2015-01-01

    Background The high incidence of IUGR and its low recognition lead to increasing perinatal morbidity and mortality for which prediction of IUGR with timely management decisions is of paramount importance. Many studies have compared the efficacy of several gestational age independent parameters and found that TCD/AC is a better predictor of asymmetric IUGR. Aim To compare the accuracy of transcerebellar diameter/abdominal circumference with head circumference/abdominal circumference in predicting asymmetric intrauterine growth retardation after 20 weeks of gestation. Materials and Methods The prospective study was conducted over a period of one year on 50 clinically suspected IUGR pregnancies who were evaluated with 3.5 MHz frequency ultrasound scanner by a single sonologist. BPD, HC, AC and FL along with TCD were measured for assessing the sonological gestational age. Two morphometric ratios- TCD/AC and HC/AC were calculated. Estimated fetal weight was calculated for all these pregnancies and its percentile was determined. Statistical Methods The TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios were correlated with advancing gestational age to know if these were related to GA. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy (DA) for TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios in evaluating IUGR fetuses were calculated. Results In the present study, linear relation of TCD and HC in IUGR fetuses with gestation was noted. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV & DA were 88%, 93.5%, 77.1%, 96.3% & 92.4% respectively for TCD/AC ratio versus 84%, 92%, 72.4%, 95.8% & 90.4% respectively for HC/AC ratio in predicting IUGR. Conclusion Both ratios were gestational age independent and can be used in detecting IUGR with good diagnostic accuracy. However, TCD/AC ratio had a better diagnostic validity and accuracy compared to HC/AC ratio in predicting asymmetric IUGR. PMID:26557588

  6. Volumetric lattice Boltzmann simulation for blood flow in aorta arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deep, Debanjan; Yu, Huidan (Whitney); Teague, Shawn

    2012-11-01

    Complicated moving boundaries pose a major challenge in computational fluid dynamics for complex flows, especially in the biomechanics of both blood flow in the cardiovascular system and air flow in the respiratory system where the compliant nature of the vessels can have significant effects on the flow rate and wall shear stress. We develop a computation approach to treat arbitrarily moving boundaries using a volumetric representation of lattice Boltzmann method, which distributes fluid particles inside lattice cells. A volumetric bounce-back procedure is applied in the streaming step while momentum exchange between the fluid and moving solid boundary are accounted for in the collision sub-step. Additional boundary-induced migration is introduced to conserve fluid mass as the boundary moves across fluid cells. The volumetric LBM (VLBM) is used to simulate blood flow in both normal and dilated aorta arteries. We first compare flow structure and pressure distribution in steady state with results from Navier-Stokes based solver and good agreements are achieved. Then we focus on wall stress within the aorta for different heart pumping condition and present quantitative measurement of wall shear and normal stress.

  7. Automatic segmentation of the aorta and the adjoining vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutzmann, Tobias; Hesser, Jrgen; Vlker, Wolfram; Dobhan, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    Diseases of the cardiovascular system are one of the main causes of death in the Western world. Especially the aorta and its main descending vessels are of high importance for diagnosis and treatment. Today, minimally invasive interventions are becoming increasingly popular due to their advantages like cost effectiveness and minimized risk for the patient. The training of such interventions, which require much of coordination skills, can be trained by task training systems, which are operation simualtion units. These systems require a data model that can be reconstructed from given patient data sets. In this paper, we present a method that allows to segment and classify aorta, carotides, and ostium (including coronary arteries) in one run, fully automatic and highly robust. The system tolerates changes in topology, streak artifacts in CT caused by calcification and inhomogeneous distribution of contrast agent. Both CT and MRI-Images can be processed. The underlying algorithm is based on a combination of Vesselness Enhancement Diffusion, Region Growing, and the Level Set Method. The system showed good results on all 15 real patient data sets whereby the deviation was smaller than two voxels.

  8. Coarctation of the aorta: Management from infancy to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Rachel D; Campbell, Michael J; Fleming, Gregory A; Hill, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is a relatively common form of congenital heart disease, with an estimated incidence of approximately 3 cases per 10000 births. Coarctation is a heterogeneous lesion which may present across all age ranges, with varying clinical symptoms, in isolation, or in association with other cardiac defects. The first surgical repair of aortic coarctation was described in 1944, and since that time, several other surgical techniques have been developed and modified. Additionally, transcatheter balloon angioplasty and endovascular stent placement offer less invasive approaches for the treatment of coarctation of the aorta for some patients. While overall morbidity and mortality rates are low for patients undergoing intervention for coarctation, both surgical and transcatheter interventions are not free from adverse outcomes. Therefore, patients must be followed closely over their lifetime for complications such as recoarctation, aortic aneurysm, persistent hypertension, and changes in any associated cardiac defects. Considerable effort has been expended investigating the utility and outcomes of various treatment approaches for aortic coarctation, which are heavily influenced by a patient’s anatomy, size, age, and clinical course. Here we review indications for intervention, describe and compare surgical and transcatheter techniques for management of coarctation, and explore the associated outcomes in both children and adults. PMID:26635924

  9. Coarctation of the aorta: Management from infancy to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Torok, Rachel D; Campbell, Michael J; Fleming, Gregory A; Hill, Kevin D

    2015-11-26

    Coarctation of the aorta is a relatively common form of congenital heart disease, with an estimated incidence of approximately 3 cases per 10000 births. Coarctation is a heterogeneous lesion which may present across all age ranges, with varying clinical symptoms, in isolation, or in association with other cardiac defects. The first surgical repair of aortic coarctation was described in 1944, and since that time, several other surgical techniques have been developed and modified. Additionally, transcatheter balloon angioplasty and endovascular stent placement offer less invasive approaches for the treatment of coarctation of the aorta for some patients. While overall morbidity and mortality rates are low for patients undergoing intervention for coarctation, both surgical and transcatheter interventions are not free from adverse outcomes. Therefore, patients must be followed closely over their lifetime for complications such as recoarctation, aortic aneurysm, persistent hypertension, and changes in any associated cardiac defects. Considerable effort has been expended investigating the utility and outcomes of various treatment approaches for aortic coarctation, which are heavily influenced by a patient's anatomy, size, age, and clinical course. Here we review indications for intervention, describe and compare surgical and transcatheter techniques for management of coarctation, and explore the associated outcomes in both children and adults. PMID:26635924

  10. Laceration of the thoracic aorta from a .22 lr bullet.

    PubMed

    Karger, B; Teige, K; Brinkmann, B

    1997-01-01

    A gunshot wound (.22 long rifle) to the chest including perforation of the aorta ascendens is presented. The small wound tract in soft tissue was characteristic for this type of ammunition and did not show any special peculiarities. However, arterial injury was not restricted to two small perforations, as expected in the light of previous wound ballistic findings. Three large longitudinal ruptures (3.0-4.5 cm in length and two of them independent of the perforations) additionally occurred, which led to rapid exsanguination. This extraordinary extent of vascular injury can be explained by perforation of the artery during the ventricular ejection phase, which causes a considerable dilation of the aorta analogous to a windkessel. The pre-existing dilation enables intraluminal temporary cavitation to have an "explosive" effect despite the high elastic tolerance to the vessel wall. The importance of tissue characteristics in gunshot wounds in general and the possible role of temporary cavitation inside the vessel in vascular gunshot wound production in particular are stressed. PMID:9168327

  11. Elastin aging and lipid oxidation products in human aorta

    PubMed Central

    Zarkovic, Kamelija; Larroque-Cardoso, Pauline; Pucelle, Mélanie; Salvayre, Robert; Waeg, Georg; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Zarkovic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    Vascular aging is associated with structural and functional modifications of the arteries, and by an increase in arterial wall thickening in the intima and the media, mainly resulting from structural modifications of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Among the factors known to accumulate with aging, advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs) are a hallmark of oxidative stress-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. Aldehydes generated from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), (4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, acrolein), form adducts on cellular proteins, leading to a progressive protein dysfunction with consequences in the pathophysiology of vascular aging. The contribution of these aldehydes to ECM modification is not known. This study was carried out to investigate whether aldehyde-adducts are detected in the intima and media in human aorta, whether their level is increased in vascular aging, and whether elastin fibers are a target of aldehyde-adduct formation. Immunohistological and confocal immunofluorescence studies indicate that 4-HNE-histidine-adducts accumulate in an age-related manner in the intima, media and adventitia layers of human aortas, and are mainly expressed in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, even if the structure of elastin fiber is strongly altered in the aged vessels, our results show that elastin is not or very poorly modified by 4-HNE. These data indicate a complex role for lipid peroxidation and in particular for 4-HNE in elastin homeostasis, in the vascular wall remodeling during aging and atherosclerosis development. PMID:25553420

  12. Distribution of Wall Stress in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasheras, Juan

    2005-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is believed to occur when the mechanical stress acting on the wall exceeds the strength of the wall tissue. Therefore, knowledge of the AAA wall stress distribution could be useful in assessing its risk of rupture. In our research, a finite element analysis was used to determine the wall stresses both in idealized models and in a real clinical model in which the aorta was considered isotropic with nonlinear material properties and was loaded with a given pressure. In the idealized models, both maximum diameter and asymmetry were found to have substantial influence on the distribution of the wall stress. The thrombus inside the AAA was also found to help protecting the walls from high stresses. Using CT scans of the AAA, the actual geometry of the aneurysm was reconstructed and we found that wall tension increases on the flatter surface (typically corresponds to the posterior surface) and at the inflection points of the bulge. In addition to the static analysis, we also performed simulations of the effect of unsteady pressure wave propagation inside the aneurysm.

  13. 3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we propose a technique for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) from computed tomography angiography (CTA) images. Output data (3-D model) form the proposed method can be used for measurement of aortic shape and dimensions. Knowledge of aortic shape and size is very important in planning of minimally invasive procedure that is for selection of appropriate stent graft device for treatment of AAA. The technique is based on a 3-D deformable model and utilizes the level-set algorithm for implementation of the method. The method performs 3-D segmentation of CTA images and extracts a 3-D model of aortic wall. Once the 3-D model of aortic wall is available it is easy to perform all required measurements for appropriate stent graft selection. The method proposed in this paper uses the level-set algorithm for deformable models, instead of the classical snake algorithm. The main advantage of the level set algorithm is that it enables easy segmentation of complex structures, surpassing most of the drawbacks of the classical approach. We have extended the deformable model to incorporate the a priori knowledge about the shape of the AAA. This helps direct the evolution of the deformable model to correctly segment the aorta. The algorithm has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

  14. Monitoring and Staging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Disease with Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI)

    PubMed Central

    Nandlall, Sacha D.; GoldKlang, Monica P.; Kalashian, Aubrey; Dangra, Nida A.; DArmiento, Jeanine M.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2014-01-01

    The Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a silent and often deadly vascular disease caused by the localized weakening of the arterial wall. Previous work has shown that local changes in wall stiffness can be detected with Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI), which is a noninvasive technique for tracking the propagation of pulse waves along the aorta at high spatial and temporal resolutions. This study aims at assessing the capability of PWI to monitor and stage AAA progression in a murine model of the disease. ApoE/TIMP-1 knockout mice (N = 18) were given angiotensin II for 30 days via subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps. The suprarenal sections of the abdominal aortas were imaged every 2-3 days after implantation using a 30 MHz Visualsonics Vevo 770 with 115 ?m lateral resolution. Pulse wave propagation was monitored at an effective frame rate of 8 kHz by using retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG) gating and by performing 1-D cross-correlation on the radio-frequency (RF) signals to obtain the displacements induced by the waves. In normal aortas, the pulse waves propagated at constant velocities (2.80. 9 m/s, r2 = 0.890.11), indicating that the composition of these vessels was relatively homogeneous. In the mice that developed AAAs (N = 10), the wave speeds in the aneurysm sac were 45% lower (1.60.6 m/s) and were more variable (r2 = 0.660.23). Moreover, the wave-induced wall displacements were at least 80% lower within the sacs compared to the surrounding vessel. Finally, in mice that developed fissures (N = 5) or ruptures (N = 3) at the sites of their AAA, higher displacements directed out of the lumen and with no discernible wave pattern (r2 < 0.20) were observed throughout the cardiac cycle. These findings show that PWI can be used to distinguish normal murine aortas from aneurysmal, fissured, and ruptured ones. Hence, PWI could potentially be used to monitor and stage human aneurysms by providing information complementary to standard B-modes. PMID:25130446

  15. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: pathophysiology and definitions

    PubMed Central

    Cheatham, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    "Intra-abdominal hypertension", the presence of elevated intra-abdominal pressure, and "abdominal compartment syndrome", the development of pressure-induced organ-dysfunction and failure, have been increasingly recognized over the past decade as causes of significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill surgical and medical patients. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure can cause significant impairment of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and central nervous system function. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. A thorough understanding of the pathophysiologic implications of elevated intra-abdominal pressure is fundamental to 1) recognizing the presence of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, 2) effectively resuscitating patients afflicted by these potentially life-threatening diseases, and 3) preventing the development of intra-abdominal pressure-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. The currently accepted consensus definitions surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome are presented. PMID:19254364

  16. Obstruction of the Aorta and Left Pulmonary Artery After Gianturco Coil Occlusion of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, H.-Cg; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Wu, Yu-Tsun; Huang, Chien-Fu; Chien, Shao-Ju; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Liang, Chi-Di

    2005-01-15

    We report an unusual case of simultaneous obstruction of the left pulmonary artery and descending thoracic aorta after Gianturco coil occlusion in a 15-month-old boy. The diagnosis was made by echocardiography and cardiac angiography. At surgery, thrombi coating on the protruded parts of the Gianturco coil in the pulmonary artery and aorta were found.

  17. Improved Protein Extractionand Protein Identification from Archival Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Human Aortas

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zongming; Yan, Kun; Rosenberg, Avraham; Jin, Zhicheng; Crain, Barbara; Athas, Grace; Vander Heide, Richard S; Howard, Timothy; Everett, Allen D.; Herrington, David; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate combination of heat and elevated pressure to enhance protein extraction and quality of formaldehyde-fixed (FF), and FF paraffin-embedded (FFPE) aorta for proteomics. Experiment design Proteins were extracted from fresh frozen aorta at RT. FF and FFPE aortas (3 months and 15 years) were extracted at RT, heat alone, or a combination of heat and high pressure. Protein yields were compared, and digested peptides from the extracts were analyzed with mass spectrometry. Results Combined heat and elevated pressure increased protein yield from human FF or FFPE aorta compared to matched tissues with heat alone (1.5 fold) or at RT (8.3 fold), resulting in more proteins identified and with more sequence coverage. The length of storage did adversely affect the quality of proteins from FF tissue. For long term storage, aorta was preserved better with FFPE than FF alone. Periostin and MGF-E8 were demonstrated suitable for MRM assays from FFPE aorta. Conclusions and clinical relevance Combination of heat and high pressure is an effective method to extract proteins from FFPE aorta for downstream proteomics. This method opens the possibility for use of archival and often rare FFPE aortas and possibly other tissues available to proteomics for biomarker discovery and quantification. PMID:23339088

  18. Obstruction of the aorta and left pulmonary artery after Gianturco coil occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsuan-Chang; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Wu, Yu-Tsun; Huang, Chien-Fu; Chien, Shao-Ju; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Liang, Chi-Di

    2005-01-01

    We report an unusual case of simultaneous obstruction of the left pulmonary artery and descending thoracic aorta after Gianturco coil occlusion in a 15-month-old boy. The diagnosis was made by echocardiography and cardiac angiography. At surgery, thrombi coating on the protruded parts of the Gianturco coil in the pulmonary artery and aorta were found. PMID:15772732

  19. Immediate post-operative balloon dilatation of neonatal long segment stenosis of the descending thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Ebeid, M R; Sarris, G E; Drummond-Webb, J J; Prieto, L; Ratliff, N B; Latson, L A

    2001-01-01

    During surgical repair of a neonatal coarctation it was recognized that this was a rare, previously undescribed form of stenosis of the entire descending thoracic aorta. A few hours after the end-to-end surgical repair, the child underwent successful balloon angioplasty, involving the entire descending thoracic aorta, and in which we intentionally avoided the surgical site. PMID:11146688

  20. Transperitoneal repair of a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and co-existent horseshoe kidney with division of the renal isthmus

    PubMed Central

    Hajibandeh, Shahin; Hajibandeh, Shahab; Johnpulle, Michelle; Perricone, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The co-existence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and horseshoe kidney (HSK) is rare. We report a 67-year-old man with an expanding juxtarenal AAA associated with a HSK. The aneurysm had a severely angulated neck and contained a significant amount of mural thrombus. The isthmus of HSK closely lied over the aneurysm, making its exposure extremely difficult. The aneurysm was successfully repaired using transperitoneal approach with division of the renal isthmus and without any need for the renal artery reconstruction. Despite the potential complications, particularly renal insufficiency, associated with division of the renal isthmus and suprarenal cross-clamping of the abdominal aorta, in our case, post-operative period was uneventful and the patient's recovery was satisfactory. PMID:26511935

  1. On the prediction of monocyte deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hardman, David; Doyle, Barry J; Semple, Scott I K; Richards, Jennifer M J; Newby, David E; Easson, William J; Hoskins, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    In abdominal aortic aneurysm disease, the aortic wall is exposed to intense biological activity involving inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase-mediated degradation of the extracellular matrix. These processes are orchestrated by monocytes and rather than affecting the aorta uniformly, damage and weaken focal areas of the wall leaving it vulnerable to rupture. This study attempts to model numerically the deposition of monocytes using large eddy simulation, discrete phase modelling and near-wall particle residence time. The model was first applied to idealised aneurysms and then to three patient-specific lumen geometries using three-component inlet velocities derived from phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. The use of a novel, variable wall shear stress-limiter based on previous experimental data significantly improved the results. Simulations identified a critical diameter (1.8 times the inlet diameter) beyond which significant monocyte deposition is expected to occur. Monocyte adhesion occurred proximally in smaller abdominal aortic aneurysms and distally as the sac expands. The near-wall particle residence time observed in each of the patient-specific models was markedly different. Discrete hotspots of monocyte residence time were detected, suggesting that the monocyte infiltration responsible for the breakdown of the abdominal aortic aneurysm wall occurs heterogeneously. Peak monocyte residence time was found to increase with aneurysm sac size. Further work addressing certain limitations is needed in a larger cohort to determine clinical significance. PMID:23886969

  2. [Perioperative management of abdominal aortic balloon occlusion in patients complicated with placenta percteta: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiang-yang

    2015-12-18

    When placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, the exposure of operative field is difficult and the routine methods are difficult to effectively control the bleeding, even causing life-threatening results. A 31-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed with a complete type of placenta previa and placenta percreta with bladder invasion at 34 weeks gestation. Her ultrasound results showed a complete type of placenta previa and there was a loss of the decidual interface between the placenta and the myometrium on the lower part of the uterus, suggestive of placenta increta. For further evaluation of the placenta, pelvis magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which revealed findings suspicious of a placenta percreta. She underwent elective cecarean section at 36 weeks of gestation. Firstly, two ureteral stents were placed into the bilateral ureter through the cystoscope. After the infrarenal abdominal aorta catheter was inserted via the femoral artery (9 F sheath ), subarachnoid anesthesia had been established. A healthy 2 510 g infant was delivered, with Apgar scores of 10 at 1 min and 10 at 5 min. Immediately after the baby was delivered, following which there was massive haemorrhage and general anaesthesia was induced. The balloon catheter was immediately inflated until the wave of dorsal artery disappeared. With the placenta retained within the uterus, a total hysterectomy was performed. The occluding time was 30 min. The intraoperative blood loss was 2 500 mL. The occluding balloon was deflated at the end of the operation. The patient had stable vital signs and normal laboratory findings during the recovery period and the hemoglobin was 116 g/L. She was discharged six days after delivery without intervention-related complications. This case illustrates that temporary occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta using balloon might be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, who were at high risk for peripartum hemorrhage. Early removal of the endovascular catheter and close postoperative surveillance of the vascular system are required with this procedure to minimize the risk of vascular complications. However, further studies are needed to determine whether the potential benefits of temporary occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta using balloon outweigh the potential risks. PMID:26679671

  3. Morphometric assessment of uplifting coral reef sequences, Sumba Island, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nexer, Malle; Authemayou, Christine; Schildgen, Taylor; Hantoro, Wayhoe; Molliex, Stephane; Delcaillau, Bernard; Pedoja, Kevin; Husson, Laurent; Regard, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Rates and patterns of vertical ground motions constitute a basic framework for understanding the kinematics of the deforming lithosphere. Calibrating morphometric indices with landscape maturity and tectonic deformation requires comparisons with regions of known uplift history. The ability to derive uplift histories from marine or reefal terrace analysis in coastal zones therefore makes such settings ideal for testing morpho-tectonic analysis techniques. To explore the relationships between uplift rates and landscape morphology, we studied a 300-km-long coastal stretch affected by slow to moderate uplift rates, varying laterally from ?0.02 to ?0.6 mm/yr. We exploited the systematic spatial variation in rock uplift rates recorded in well-dated sequences of coral reef terraces of Sumba Island to assess the manner and degree to which the eight morphometric indices selected for this study can be correlated with tectonic forcing. The uniform equatorial climate and lithology (most of the bedrock is composed of Quaternary reefal limestones) across the study area allow us to evaluate which morphometric indices best reflect the spatial variations in Pleistocene coastal uplift rates. Morphometric indices extracted from digital elevation models include residual relief, incision, stream length index, ksn, hypsometric integral, drainage area, mean relief, and shape factor. We calculated and extracted these indices at three scales: across the whole island, from grouped sequences of coral reef terraces undergoing comparable uplift rates and individual catchments draining mainly the coral reef zones located in the northern part of Sumba Island. We find that SL, hypsometric integral, mean relief and shape factor of catchments positively correlate with uplift rates, whereas incision, residual relief, and ksn do not. Interestingly enough, we find that only the areas that are uplifting at a rate faster than 0.3 mm/yr can yield the extreme values for these indices, implying in turn that these extreme values are powerful indicators of fast uplifting areas. However, the relationship is not bivalent, as we find that any uplift rate can be associated with low values of the same indices. For all indices, the transient conditions of the drainage influence the correlation with Pleistocene mean uplift rates, illustrating the necessity to extract morphometric indices taking into account the choice of catchment scale. This analysis identifies the morphometric indices that are most useful for tectonic analysis in areas of unknown uplift, allowing for an easy identification of short spatial variations of uplift rate and detection areas of relatively fast uplift rates in unstudied coastal zones. Our results suggest that this procedure may be applied to identify rapidly uplifting areas along any given coastal area that includes a sequence of reefal or marine terraces.

  4. [Clinical study of optimal bypass flow for temporary bypass with centrifugal pump in surgical treatment of aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta].

    PubMed

    Ataka, K; Okada, M; Yoshimura, N; Azami, T; Kujime, K; Ota, T; Yamashita, C

    1994-06-01

    Since 1987, 33 patients were operated on for aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta using temporary bypass with a heparin-coated centrifugal pump and heparin-coated tubes at Kobe University Hospital. Sixteen patients had true aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta, 7 had thoraco-abdominal aneurysms and 10 had aortic dissection (DeBakey's type III). Heat exchanger and oxygenator were not included in the bypass circuit in all cases. Perfusion time was from 42 to 205 minutes (average 90 minutes). Left heart bypass was established with 1 mg/kg of systemic heparinization in 5, 0.5 mg/kg in 5, and 0 mg/kg in 23 cases. There were no complications such as perioperative embolism, acidosis, or hypothermia. During aortic cross-clamping, the arterial pressure of the lower extremity was maintained over 70 mmHg, but there was no relationship between the distal perfusion pressure and bypass flow. The urine output during temporary bypass was significantly related to the distal perfusion flow by centrifugal pump (r = 0.455, p < 0.01). Seven out of 23 patients who were bypassed under 40 ml/kg/min of distal perfusion flow showed transient renal dysfunction postoperatively, and two developed postoperative renal failure, while the other patients bypassed over 40 ml/kg/min of pump flow stayed in the normal range of the renal function, where there were statistically differences (p < 0.05). Postoperative paresis occurred in 2 patients who were also perfused under 40 ml/kg/min of bypass flow. Therefore, it is concluded that temporary bypass with centrifugal pump is a safe and well acceptable circulatory support in the surgical treatment of aneurysm of the descending aorta.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8057020

  5. Blood flow and coherent vortices in the normal and aneurysmatic aortas: a fluid dynamical approach to intra-luminal thrombus formation

    PubMed Central

    Biasetti, Jacopo; Hussain, Fazle; Gasser, T. Christian

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are frequently characterized by the development of an intra-luminal thrombus (ILT), which is known to have multiple biochemical and biomechanical implications. Development of the ILT is not well understood, and shearstress-triggered activation of platelets could be the first step in its evolution. Vortical structures (VSs) in the flow affect platelet dynamics, which motivated the present study of a possible correlation between VS and ILT formation in AAAs. VSs educed by the ?2-method using computational fluid dynamics simulations of the backward-facing step problem, normal aorta, fusiform AAA and saccular AAA were investigated. Patient-specific luminal geometries were reconstructed from computed tomography scans, and Newtonian and CarreauYasuda models were used to capture salient rheological features of blood flow. Particularly in complex flow domains, results depended on the constitutive model. VSs developed all along the normal aorta, showing that a clear correlation between VSs and high wall shear stress (WSS) existed, and that VSs started to break up during late systole. In contrast, in the fusiform AAA, large VSs developed at sites of tortuous geometry and high WSS, occupying the entire lumen, and lasting over the entire cardiac cycle. Downward motion of VSs in the AAA was in the range of a few centimetres per cardiac cycle, and with a VS burst at that location, the release (from VSs) of shear-stress-activated platelets and their deposition to the wall was within the lower part of the diseased artery, i.e. where the thickest ILT layer is typically observed. In the saccular AAA, only one VS was found near the healthy portion of the aorta, while in the aneurysmatic bulge, no VSs occurred. We present a fluid-dynamics-motivated mechanism for platelet activation, convection and deposition in AAAs that has the potential of improving our current understanding of the pathophysiology of fluid-driven ILT growth. PMID:21471188

  6. Morphometric Characterization and Reconstruction Effect Among Lunar Impact Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Weiming; Wang, Jiao; Wan, Cong

    2014-05-01

    Impact craters on the lunar surface have a variety of morphometric characteristics that are very useful in understanding the evolutionary history of lunar landscape morphologies. Based on digital elevation model data and photographs from China's Chang'E-1 lunar orbiter, we develop morphologic parameters and quantitative methods for presenting the morphometric characteristics of impact craters, analyzing their relational distribution, and estimating the relative order of their formation. We also analyze features in profile where craters show signs of having formed on the edge of previously existing craters to show that superimposed impacts affect morphologic reconstructions. As a result, impact craters have significant effects on the reconstruction of ancient topography and the estimation of relative formation ages.

  7. Kinking of the aorta (pseudocoarctation): Report of six cases.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh-Gray, D; Chiu, P

    1970-10-10

    Six patients with pseudocoarctation (or buckling) of the aorta were studied clinically and by means of cardiac catheterization. They are presented to bring this rarely reported and benign condition again to the attention of the practitioner. There were four males and two females, aged 2 months to 44 years. Coexisting congenital cardiac lesions were ventricular septal defect and aneurysm of the right coronary sinus in one patient, and bicuspid aortic valve in two others. All patients presented systolic ejection murmurs at the base, well transmitted to the back, and an ejection click was heard in two. Angiography revealed the typical buckled shadow in all. No complications resulted from the presence of the pseudocoarctation, but since aneurysms above and below the kink have been reported, periodic examination of such patients is advised. PMID:5506104

  8. Ayahuasca Alters Structural Parameters of the Rat Aorta.

    PubMed

    Pitol, Dimitrius L; Sissere, Selma; Dos Santos, Rafael G; Rosa, Maria L N M; Hallak, Jaime E C; Scalize, Priscilla H; Pereira, Bruno F; Iyomasa, Melina M; Semprini, Marisa; Riba, Jordi; Regalo, Simone C H

    2015-07-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic brew traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian indigenous groups for therapeutic purposes. It is prepared by the decoction of Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of Psychotria viridis. Banisteriopsis caapi contains ?-carbolines that are inhibitors of monoamine oxidase and P. viris is rich in dimethyltryptamine, a 5-HT(1A/2A/2C) agonist. Acute ayahuasca administration produces moderate cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers, but information regarding long-term use is lacking. This study investigated the effects of ayahuasca (2-4 mL/kg) in the rat aorta after acute and chronic (14 days) administration. Ayahuasca caused flattening and stretching of vascular smooth muscle cells and changes in the arrangement and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. Chronic treatment with the higher dose significantly increased media thickness and the ratio of media thickness to lumen diameter. More research is needed on the cardiovascular function of long-term ayahuasca consumers. PMID:25714595

  9. The neurological manifestations of dissecting aneurysm of the aorta

    PubMed Central

    Condon, John R.; Rose, F. Clifford

    1969-01-01

    Six cases of dissecting aneurysm of the aorta, four with cerebral manifestations, one with peripheral neuropathy and one with ischaemic necrosis of the spinal cord are reported. Cerebral manifestations include confusion and stupor, syncope, grand mal epilepsy, ischaemia of the spinal medulla, carotid artery occlusion and cerebral hemisphere infarction. Ischaemic neuropathy is characterized by severe limb pain not of peripheral nerve distribution, but associated with areflexia and a peripheral pattern of sensory loss. Ischaemic necrosis of the cord is characterized by flaccid paraplegia and sphincter disturbances with segmental sensory loss exhibiting an upper level on the trunk. The differential diagnosis of the neurological complications of aortic dissection is discussed and a brief review of advances in management made. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5789681

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Atherosclerotic Mouse Aorta.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Jess; Benito, Marina; Espaa, Samuel; Sanz, Javier; Jimnez-Borreguero, Jess; Fuster, Valentn; Ruiz-Cabello, Jess

    2015-01-01

    Plaque development has been extensively studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in animal models of rapidly progressing atherosclerosis, such as apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE-KO) mice. Preclinical MRI plays a significant role in the study of experimental atherosclerosis. Currently, MRI is capable of detecting luminal narrowing, plaque size, and morphology with high accuracy and reproducibility, providing reliable measurements of plaque burden. Therefore, MRI offers a noninvasive approach to serially monitor the progression of the disease. Compared with other imaging modalities, MRI appears to have the greatest potential for plaque characterization, through the use of multiple contrast weightings (e.g., T1, T2, and proton density). Here, we illustrate a standard procedure to image the aorta of atherosclerotic mice using noninvasive MRI. PMID:26445806

  11. Caring for patients with traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Collins, Angela Smith; Dinsmore, David

    2007-01-01

    Trauma is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States, with blunt traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta continuing to occur despite the increased use of seatbelts and airbags. Emerging from crash analysis are effective interventions and provides increased awareness of the occult nature of these types of injuries. This article describes those interventions that healthcare providers must embed throughout the continuum of care for patients experiencing thoracic aortic injuries. Outcomes will be dependent upon the healthcare provider's knowledge of the physics of the event and the urgency of the diagnosis, as well as the ability to assess and manage all the variables involved. Current procedural issues are delineated and case studies are used to illustrate the processes of care needed by these patients. PMID:17312407

  12. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA): a population based gap analysis of trauma patients in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Edward Benjamin Graham; Morrison, Jonathan James; Madureira, Ricardo Mondoni; Lendrum, Robbie; Fragoso-Iñiguez, Marisol; Edwards, Antoinette; Lecky, Fiona; Bouamra, Omar; Lawrence, Thomas; Jansen, Jan Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Non-compressible torso haemorrhage (NCTH) carries a high mortality in trauma as many patients exsanguinate prior to definitive haemorrhage control. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an adjunct that has the potential to bridge patients to definitive haemostasis. However, the proportion of trauma patients in whom REBOA may be utilised is unknown. Methods We conducted a population based analysis of 2012–2013 Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) data. We identified the number of patients in whom REBOA may have been utilised, defined by an Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥3 to abdominal solid organs, abdominal or pelvic vasculature, pelvic fracture with ring disruption or proximal traumatic lower limb amputation, together with a systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg. Patients with non-compressible haemorrhage in the mediastinum, axilla, face or neck were excluded. Results During 2012–2013, 72 677 adult trauma patients admitted to hospitals in England and Wales were identified. 397 patients had an indication(s) and no contraindications for REBOA with evidence of haemorrhagic shock: 69% men, median age 43 years and median Injury Severity Score 32. Overall mortality was 32%. Major trauma centres (MTCs) received the highest concentration of potential REBOA patients, and would be anticipated to receive a patient in whom REBOA may be utilised every 95 days, increasing to every 46 days in the 10 MTCs with the highest attendance of this injury type. Conclusions This TARN database analysis has identified a small group of severely injured, resource intensive patients with a highly lethal injury that is theoretically amenable to REBOA. The highest density of these patients is seen at MTCs, and as such a planned evaluation of REBOA should be further considered in these hospitals. PMID:26598631

  13. Pharmacological characterization of the sulphonylurea receptor in rat isolated aorta

    PubMed Central

    Lffler, Cornelia; Quast, Ulrich

    1997-01-01

    The binding of the sulphonylurea [3H]-glibenclamide, a blocker of adenosine 5?-triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ channels (KATP channels), was studied in endothelium-denuded rings from rat aorta.[3H]-glibenclamide labelled two classes of binding sites with KD values of 205?nM and 321??M. The high affinity component, which comprised 17% of total binding at 1?nM [3H]-glibenclamide, had an estimated binding capacity of 150?fmol?mg?1 wet weight.Other sulphonylureas such as glipizide and glibornuride and the sulphonylurea-related carboxylate, AZ-DF 265, inhibited high affinity [3H]-glibenclamide binding with the potencies expected from their K+ channel activity. At very high concentrations, AZ-DF 265 and glipizide started to interact also with the low affinity component of [3H]-glibenclamide binding.Openers of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel belonging to different structural groups inhibited only the high affinity [3H]-glibenclamide binding; the potencies in this assay were similar to those obtained in functional (i.e. vasorelaxation) studies.High affinity [3H]-glibenclamide binding was abolished by prolonged hypoxia combined with metabolic inhibition.The data indicate that the high affinity component of [3H]-glibenclamide binding mediates the block of the KATP channel by the sulphonylureas in rat aorta; hence, it represents the sulphonylurea receptor in this vessel. The pharmacological properties of this binding site resemble those of the binding site for the openers of the KATP channel; present evidence suggests that these two classes of sites are negatively allosterically coupled. PMID:9031752

  14. Quality of life after intervention on the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Jarral, Omar A; Kidher, Emaddin; Patel, Vanash M; Nguyen, Bao; Pepper, John; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2016-02-01

    Surgery on the thoracic aorta is challenging and historically associated with significant mortality and morbidity. In recent times, there has been increased emphasis on the importance of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures. It is seen as a development beyond isolated markers of outcome such as operative mortality and is particularly applicable to aortic surgery given the number of asymptomatic patients operated on (for prognostic grounds), and rapidly advancing endovascular technologies which require proper assessment. This systematic review provides an outline of all available literature detailing HRQOL in patients receiving intervention (both open and endovascular) on the thoracic aorta. In total, 30 studies were identified encompassing 4746 patients undergoing a variety of procedures from aortic root replacement to thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. While there were deficiencies in the underlying literature such as lack of baseline HRQOL assessment, the majority of the studies confirm that HRQOL after major aortic surgery (including on the elderly and in emergency situations) is acceptable and compares well to matched general populations. Strategies for improving the HRQOL in aortic surgery are summarized and include the need for surgeons to plan cerebral protection methods more carefully and to develop operative strategies to avoid reoperation or reintervention, as this is associated with deterioration of long-term HRQOL. Randomized studies measuring baseline and follow-up HRQOL at specific set points are needed. Innovative research methods could be employed in future studies with the aim of correlating HRQOL with imaging or physiological/inflammation biomarkers, or other end points such as aortic stiffness or wall shear stress to characterize disease progression and prognosis. PMID:25855594

  15. Effect of Excessive Potassium Iodide on Rat Aorta Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lin, Xinying; Bian, Jianchao; Meng, Huicui; Liu, Dan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of excess iodine on rat aorta endothelial cells and the potential underlying mechanisms. Rat aorta endothelial cells were cultured with iodide ion (3506, 4076, 4647, 5218, 5789, 6360, 6931, and 7512mg/L) for 48h. Morphological changes of cells were observed with microscope after Wright-Giemsa staining and acridine orange staining. Cell proliferation was determined with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and cell apoptosis was assessed with flow cytometry. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and protein carbonyl in culture medium were determined with colorimetric method. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that excess iodine induced abnormal morphologic changes of cells, inhibited cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis rate. Iodine also reduced the activity of SOD, GSH-Px, and concentrations of GSH and increased the concentrations of MDA and protein carbonyl in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, excess iodine decreased the activity of eNOS and increased the activity of iNOS and the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in culture medium. Our results suggested that excess iodine exposure increased oxidative stress, caused damage of vascular endothelial cells, and altered the expression of adhesion factors and the activity of NOS. These changes may explain the mechanisms underlying excess iodine-induced vascular injury. PMID:25690517

  16. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Mussa, Firas F

    2015-09-01

    Guidelines are systematically developed statements to assist patients and providers in choosing appropriate health care for specific clinical conditions. Consensus exists across guidelines on one-time screening of elderly men to detect and treat abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) ≥5.5 cm. However, the recommendations regarding other age groups, imaging intervals for small AAAs, inclusion of women, and cost-effectiveness have not been universally adopted. As many countries are considering the initiation of an AAA screening program, this is an overview on the current status of such programs. PMID:26169012

  17. A geometric morphometric assessment of the optic cup in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Paul G; Cardini, Andrea; Sigal, Ian A; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Chua, Brian E; Hewitt, Alex W; Mackey, David A

    2010-09-01

    The morphologic appearance of the optic disc is of interest in glaucoma. In contrast to descriptive classification systems that are currently used, a quantitative approach to the analysis of optic disc morphology is required. Our goal was to determine the optimal method for quantifying optic cup shape by comparing traditional (ovality, form-factor and neuroretinal rim (NRR) width ratio) and geometric morphometric approaches. Left optic disc stereophotographs of 160 (80 normal and 80 glaucomatous (stratified by severity)) subjects were examined. The optic cup margins were stereoscopically delineated with a custom tracing system and saved as a series of discrete points. The geometric morphometric methods of elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA) and sliding semi-landmark analysis (SSLA) were used to eliminate variation unrelated to shape (e.g. size) and yield a series of shape variables. Differences in optic cup shape between normal and glaucoma groups were investigated. Discriminant functions were computed and the sensitivity and specificity of each technique determined. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for all methods and evaluated in their potential to discriminate between normal and glaucomatous eyes based on the shape variables. All geometric morphometric methods revealed differences between normal and glaucomatous eyes in optic cup shape, in addition to the traditional parameters of ovality, form-factor and NRR width ratio (p<0.0005). SSLA (minimum bending energy criterion--18 points) had the best sensitivity (83%) and area under the curve (AUC) (0.91). EFA (72 points) performed similarly well (74%, 0.89) as did the set of traditional shape-based variables (76%, 0.86). This study demonstrated that a geometric morphometric approach for discriminating between normal and glaucomatous eyes in optic cup shape is superior to that provided by traditional single parameter shape measures. Such analytical techniques could be incorporated into future automated optic disc screening modalities. PMID:20599965

  18. Morphometric variations as acclimation mechanisms in Zostera noltii beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, G.; Brun, F. G.; Hernndez, I.; Vergara, J. J.; Prez-Llorns, J. L.

    2005-08-01

    The use of morphometric variations as acclimation mechanisms was tested in natural populations of the intertidal seagrass Zostera noltii in Ria Formosa (Algarve, southern Portugal). To achieve the objective, two populations of Z. noltii were studied; a bed exposed and physically impacted by the artificial opening of a new inlet, and a second bed protected from dynamic impacts. At each meadow, morphometry and other plant-key variables such as tissue composition, photosynthetic parameters and dynamic properties (i.e. modules and whole plant growth rates) were monitored. After severe physical impacts in winter 1998, the newly appeared plants in the exposed meadow showed permanent morphometric changes. This new morphotype (small-leaved morphotype, SLM) had shorter (65%) and narrower leaves (25%) with longer internodes (4 times), than the large-leaved morphotype (LLM) found in the protected meadow or in the exposed meadow prior to the large disturbance. The SLM also had a larger non-photosynthetic biomass fraction, but increased photosynthetic capacity compared with the LLM. The morphometric and physiological changes were related to the fast recovery (<6 months) exhibited in the exposed meadow. In the protected meadow, morphometric changes (minor and short term) were associated with seasonal patterns. After the recovery, exposed and protected meadows gave similar production estimates supporting the hypothesis that a new stable state had been established in the exposed meadow. From these results, it can be concluded that Z. noltii has a remarkable phenotypic plasticity supported by coordinated changes in dynamic variables (i.e. leaf and internodal elongation rates and plastochrone index). Phenotypic plasticity seems to be the main mechanism by which this species is able to cope with short and long term environmental changes.

  19. Vitamin B12 deficiency: Characterization of psychometrics and MRI morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yen-Hsuan; Huang, Ching-Feng; Lo, Chung-Ping; Wang, Tzu-Lan; Tu, Min-Chien

    2016-02-01

    Objectives Vitamin B12 is essential for the integrity of the central nervous system. However, performances in different cognitive domains relevant to vitamin B12 deficiency remain to be detailed. To date, there have been limited studies that examined the relationships between cognitions and structural neuroimaging in a single cohort of low-vitamin B12 status. The present study aimed to depict psychometrics and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometrics among patients with vitamin B12 deficiency, and to examine their inter-relations. Methods We compared 34 consecutive patients with vitamin B12 deficiency (serum level ?250pg/ml) to 34 demographically matched controls by their cognitive performances and morphometric indices of brain MRI. The correlations between psychometrics and morphometrics were analyzed. Results The vitamin B12 deficiency group had lower scores than the controls on total scores of Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) (both P<0.05), language (P<0.01), orientation (P<0.01), and mental manipulation (P<0.05). The patients also showed a greater frontal horn ratio than the controls (P<0.05). Bicaudate ratio, fronto-occipital ratio, uncotemporal index, and normalized interuncal distance all showed a strong correlation with the total score of MMSE and CASI (all P<0.01). Among these psychometric and morphometric indices, pronounced correlations between bicaudate ratio and long-term memory, mental manipulation, orientation, language, and verbal fluency were noted (all P<0.01). Discussion Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with a global cognition decline with language, orientation, and mental manipulation selectively impaired. Preferential atrophy in frontal regions is the main neuroimaging feature. Although the frontal ratio highlights the relevant atrophy among patients, the bicaudate ratio might be the best index on the basis of its strong association with global cognition and related cognitive domains, implying dysfunction of fronto-subcortical circuits as the fundamental pathogenesis related to vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:26339714

  20. Morphometric and geometric characterization of normal faults on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, David A.; Spagnuolo, Mauro G.; Silvestro, Simone

    2014-09-01

    Using three different approaches (fault plane fitting, 3D crater rim palinspatic restorations and fault scarps morphometric analysis) we investigate the geometry and degradation history of Martian normal faults in two distinct areas. The three independent methods produce similar results, indicating that the average dip angle of the normal faults on these two locations is probably below the value that is usually assumed for Mars (?60). Our best estimate for this average dip angle is 46.89.8, which is a value comparable with the mean dip angle inferred on Earth for seismically active normal faults. This lower average dip angle implies that all the rift strain estimates performed until now might be underestimated. From the comparative analysis of the two faulted regions (Phlegethon Catena and Claritas Fossae), we show that local and regional dip variabilities may exist on Mars. This reinforces the idea that the amount of extension associated with Martian rifts must be reconsidered. We also demonstrate the advantages of performing a comparative morphometric analysis of fault scarps. This approach enables the reconstruction of the faults scarps degradation history and can be used to evaluate how environmental conditions changed through time. After modeling the degradation of the fault scarps at the two sites we conclude that the observed morphometric variations are mainly due to the different faulting ages in an environment characterized by low scarp degradation rates (410-3 m/kyr) over the last 3 Ga.

  1. Chronic progressive nephropathy: functional, morphological, and morphometrical studies.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Mariana C; Ossani, Georgina P; Lago, Nstor R; Amorena, Carlos; Monserrat, Alberto J

    2010-01-01

    Some aspects of the functional, morphological, and morphometrical characteristics of chronic progressive nephropathy occurring in 18- to 26-month-old male rats and in 3-month-old control rats were studied. Rats with chronic progressive nephropathy were proteinuric and showed a slight increase in serum creatinine and no changes in blood pressure. The morphological changes were studied by light microscopy, high-resolution light microscopy, and electron microscopy. They showed focal and segmental or global glomerulosclerosis, the three types of atrophic tubules ("classic," "thyroid-like," and "endocrine") described by Nadasdy et al, as well as interstitial fibrosis with mononuclear cell infiltrates. On certain occasions, small vessels showed hyalinosis. Glomerular morphometrical studies showed a biphasic pattern in the glomeruli progressing toward obsolescence. Vascular morphometrical studies showed significant increase in media wall thickness and media cross-sectional area in the 18- to 26-month-old rats. These results support the hypothesis that changes in the vascular system are not of utmost importance in the pathogenesis of chronic progressive nephropathy, and that glomerular sequential changes seem to be of paramount significance in the progression of the disease. PMID:20113276

  2. Regional morphometric and geomorphologic mapping of Martian landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan Capitan, Radu; Van De Wiel, Marco J.

    2012-08-01

    Initial mapping of the Martian surface, based on stratigraphic markers identified from Viking imagery, resulted in the demarcation of broad planetary scale geological zones. Recent advances in image resolution have established the presence of many smaller surface elements superposed on the older geological zones, thereby indicating younger surface morphologies that are in contradiction with the older mapping. Moreover, the stratigraphic mapping technique is subjective and relatively cumbersome because of its reliance on visual interpretation of images. In this paper a new analytical technique is developed which uses morphometric analysis of the Martian elevation map (MOLA data) to automate delineation and mapping of landforms at the regional scale. The analysis relies on altitude, local relief and local watershed clustering to delineate the landforms, and applies statistical clustering to identify structures with similar properties. As a case study, the technique is applied to Atlantis and Gorgonum basins. Comparison of the delineated features with landforms visible on high-resolution THEMIS images illustrates the accuracy of the morphometric technique in delineating and classifying surface structures, and also permits interpretation of the origin and evolution of the landforms. Our results also show that morphometric data and morphologic evaluation can be combined into a single interpretation of the distribution of surface patterns. A new geomorphological map of the study area is produced and contrasted with the existing stratigraphic map.

  3. [FUNCTIONAL PLASTIC OF ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIAS].

    PubMed

    Grubnik, V V; Parfentyeva, N D; Parfentyev, R S

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve the treatment efficacy of postoperative anterior abdominal wall hernias the method of plastic with restoration of anatomical and physiological properties of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall was used. After the intervention by the improved method, regardless of the location of the hernia defect yielded promising results for the conservation of anterior abdominal wall muscle function in 75% of cases completely restored functional ability of muscles recti abdomini. PMID:26591212

  4. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and diastasis recti.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Ian

    Midline abdominal incisional hernias are common following open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. These may be caused by the weakness of connective tissue. This study sought to determine the prevalence of diastasis recti among unoperated Caucasian males with abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to a control group with atherosclerotic lower extremity peripheral arterial disease. Forty-two consecutive white males referred for evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (n = 18) or peripheral arterial disease (n = 24) were examined by a single examiner at the Mayo Clinic. Both groups were similar in terms of age and smoking history, 2 major risk factors for both abdominal aortic aneurysm and peripheral arterial disease. Abdominal aortic aneurysm patients ranged in age from 59 to 89 (mean, 73.2) years. Seventeen of 18 (94.4%) had a history of smoking. Peripheral arterial disease patients ranged in age from 52 to 93 (mean, 70.8) years. Twenty-one of 24 (87.5%) had a history of smoking. Diastasis recti were present in 12 of 18 (66.7%) subjects with abdominal aortic aneurysm versus 4 of 24 (16.7%) subjects with peripheral arterial disease (P = .001, 2-tailed Fisher exact test). Diastasis recti are significantly more common in males with abdominal aortic aneurysm than peripheral arterial disease and may provide an important clue to screen for abdominal aortic aneurysm in those at risk. PMID:18550558

  5. Expression and localization of macrophage elastase (matrix metalloproteinase-12) in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Curci, J A; Liao, S; Huffman, M D; Shapiro, S D; Thompson, R W

    1998-01-01

    Elastolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), a disorder characterized by chronic aortic wall inflammation and destruction of medial elastin. The purpose of this study was to determine if human macrophage elastase (HME; MMP-12) might participate in this disease. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, HME mRNA was consistently demonstrated in AAA and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (AOD) tissues (six of six), but in only one of six normal aortas. Immunoreactive proteins corresponding to proHME and two products of extracellular processing were present in seven of seven AAA tissue extracts. Total HME recovered from AAA tissue was sevenfold greater than normal aorta (P < 0.001), and the extracted enzyme exhibited activity in vitro. Production of HME was demonstrated in the media of AAA tissues by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, but HME was not detected within the media of normal or AOD specimens. Importantly, immunoreactive HME was specifically localized to residual elastin fragments within the media of AAA tissue, particularly areas adjacent to nondilated normal aorta. In vitro, the fraction of MMP-12 sequestered by insoluble elastin was two- to fivefold greater than other elastases found in AAA tissue. Therefore, HME is prominently expressed by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages within the degenerating aortic media of AAA, where it is also bound to residual elastic fiber fragments. Because elastin represents a critical component of aortic wall structure and a matrix substrate for metalloelastases, HME may have a direct and singular role in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms. PMID:9835614

  6. Reclosure of disrupted abdominal incisions.

    PubMed

    Walters, M D; Dombroski, R A; Davidson, S A; Mandel, P C; Gibbs, R S

    1990-10-01

    We evaluated prospectively a technique of delayed reclosure of disrupted abdominal incisions. Forty-one consecutive postoperative obstetric and gynecologic patients with abdominal incisions that had opened because of infection, hematoma, or seroma and had intact fascia participated in the study. All wounds were first managed identically, with surgical drainage and debridement, for a minimum of 4 days. The patients then were randomized to either wound reclosure by a standardized en bloc technique (35) or healing by second intention (six). Reclosure was successful in 30 of 35 cases (85.7%). The mean time to complete healing was 15.8 days in successful cases, 67.2 days in failed cases, and 23.2 days for all patients who were reclosed. Failure to heal after reclosure was due to subcutaneous infection in two patients and seroma in three; these women were significantly heavier than those in whom reclosure was successful. There were no other major complications of wound reclosure. Patients randomized to healing by second intention required a mean of 71.8 days of wound care. The time to complete healing in the wound-reclosure group was significantly shorter compared with the group that healed by second intention (P = .002, log rank test). We conclude that en bloc reclosure of disrupted surgical incisions, compared with nonsurgical treatment, significantly decreases the time required for wound healing and has minimal morbidity. PMID:2216186

  7. Advanced techniques in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Monson, J R

    1993-01-01

    Almost every abdominal organ is now amenable to laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic appendicectomy is a routine procedure which also permits identification of other conditions initially confused with an inflamed appendix. However, assessment of appendiceal inflammation is more difficult. Almost all colonic procedures can be performed laparoscopically, at least partly, though resection for colonic cancer is still controversial. For simple patch repair of perforated duodenal ulcers laparoscopy is ideal, and inguinal groin hernia can be repaired satisfactorily with a patch of synthetic mesh. Many upper abdominal procedures, however, still take more time than the open operations. These techniques reduce postoperative pain and the incidence of wound infections and allow a much earlier return to normal activity compared with open surgery. They have also brought new disciplines: surgeons must learn different hand-eye coordination, meticulous haemostasis is needed to maintain picture quality, and delivery of specimens may be problematic. The widespread introduction of laparoscopic techniques has emphasised the need for adequate training (operations that were straight-forward open procedures may require considerable laparoscopic expertise) and has raised questions about trainee surgeons acquiring adequate experience of open procedures. Images FIG 9 p1347-a p1347-b p1349-a p1350-a p1350-b PMID:8257893

  8. A large un-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm causing pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Jahangir; Ahmed, Abubakr; Coveney, Andrew; Fulton, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    A 79 years old woman presented in a peripheral hospital with dyspnea, right-sided pleuritic chest pain and cough for 3 days. On examination, she was tachycardiac and tachypneic. She had reduced air entry bilaterally on auscultation. Computed tomography-pulmonary angiogram, performed in peripheral Hospital, confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, and she was commenced on warfarin. Ultrasonography showed no evidence of deep venous thrombosis in legs; however, ultrasound of the abdomen revealed an aortic aneurysm. She was hemodynamically stable on transfer to vascular surgery department, and her complete clinical examination revealed a pulsatile mass in the central abdomen. Computed tomography angiogram of aorta showed 8.7-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm. Venogram performed during inferior vena cava (IVC) filter insertion showed that IVC was displaced and compressed due to this large aortic aneurysm, causing thromboembolism. An open repair of the aneurysm was performed with uneventful recovery. PMID:26205717

  9. Abdominal arteries recognition in x-ray using a structural model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nempont, Olivier; Florent, Raoul

    2010-03-01

    The automatic recognition of vascular trees is a challenging task, required for roadmapping or advanced visualization. For instance, during an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), the recognition of abdominal arteries in angiograms can be used to select the appropriate stent graft. This choice is based on a reduced set of arteries (aorta, renal arteries, iliac arteries) whose relative positions are quite stable. We propose in this article a recognition process based on a structural model. The centerlines of the target vessels are represented by a set of control points whose relative positions are constrained. To find their position in an angiogram, we enhance the target vessels and extract a set of possible positions for each control point. Then, a constraint propagation algorithm based on the model prunes those sets of candidates, removing inconsistent ones. We present preliminary results on 5 cases, illustrating the potential of this approach and especially its ability to handle the high variability of the target vessels.

  10. Rat aorta as a pharmacological tool for in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Rameshrad, Maryam; Babaei, Hossein; Azarmi, Yadollah; Fouladia, Daniel Fadaei

    2016-01-15

    Rat aorta assay provides a low cost and rapid platform, especially for preclinical in vivo models. The signaling pathways of the analog on the vessels could be evaluated separately on the endothelium or smooth muscle cells by rings of the rat aorta in vitro. The rat aorta is used for angiogenesis modeling to integrate the benefits of the both in vivo and in vitro models. These explain the importance and usage of rat aorta in researches. Furthermore, about 4503 articles have been published with the key word "rat aorta" in title or abstract from 1955 until the end of 2013 in Medline. In this review, these articles were organized into two main categories: in vivo and in vitro studies. The in vitro section focused on the rat aorta model, as a tool for evaluate the mechanism of vasodilation, vasoconstriction and angiogenesis. In the in vivo section, the most important usage of this tissue was evaluated. Also, the vasotonic signaling pathways in the vessel are explained briefly and some rat aorta applications in vitro and in vivo have been discussed. PMID:26731041

  11. Mapping the Longitudinal Wall Stiffness Heterogeneities within Intact Canine Aortas using Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shahmirzadi, Danial; Narayanan, Prathyush; Li, Ronny X.; Qaqish, William W.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2014-01-01

    The aortic stiffness has been found to be a useful independent indicator of several cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and aneurysms. Existing methods to estimate the aortic stiffness are either invasive, e.g. catheterization, or yield average global measurements which could be inaccurate, e.g., tonometry. Alternatively, the aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) has been shown to be a reliable marker for estimating the wall stiffness based on the MoensKorteweg (MK) formulation. Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) is a relatively new, ultrasound-based imaging method for noninvasive and regional estimation of PWV. The present study aims at showing the application of PWI in obtaining localized wall mechanical properties by making PWV measurements on several adjacent locations along the ascending thoracic to the suprarenal abdominal aortic trunk in its intact vessel form. The PWV estimates were used to calculate the regional wall modulus based on the M-K relationship and were compared against conventional mechanical testing. The findings indicated that for the anisotropic aortic wall, the PWI estimates of the modulus are smaller than the circumferential modulus by an average of ?32.22% and larger than the longitudinal modulus by an average of 25.83%. Ongoing work is focused on the in vivo applications of PWI in normal and pathological aortas with future implications in the clinical applications of the technique. PMID:23764176

  12. An Evolving Understanding of the Genetic Causes of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Disease.

    PubMed

    Miner, Grace H; Costa, Kevin D; Hanss, Basil G; Marin, Michael L

    2015-05-01

    Aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (AAA) are relatively common - affecting as many as 8% of men and 1% of women over the age of 65. AAAs are characterized by a 50% increase in the diameter of the aneurysmal aorta compared with the normal vessel. Degeneration of structural components of the aortic wall is believed to be central in the pathogenesis of AAAs. The exact mechanism of degeneration is not well characterized, although degradation of elastin and collagen has been clearly shown. At least six genetic variants have been associated with AAA in genome-wide association studies: CDKN2BAS1, DAB2IP, LDLR, LRP1, SORT1, and IL6R. These variants reach genome-wide significance; however, they have not been replicated in multiple cohorts, nor have they been clearly shown to be disease causative. AAA is a challenging disease for investigation because it is most often asymptomatic and generally has a late disease onset, making it difficult to diagnose. Determination of the genetic mechanism behind aneurysm formation, progression, and rupture crosses disciplines requiring input from multiple fields of study, larger patient cohorts, and the evolving modalities of genetic testing. PMID:26055010

  13. Tissue Responses to Endovascular Stent Grafts for Saccular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Beom; Choi, Young Ho; So, Young Ho; Min, Seung-Kee; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Kim, Young Il; Park, Jae Hyung

    2012-01-01

    We investigated tissue responses to endoskeleton stent grafts for saccular abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in canines. Saccular AAAs were made with Dacron patch in 8 dogs, and were excluded by endoskeleton stent grafts composed of nitinol stent and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. Animals were sacrificed at 2 months (Group 1; n = 3) or 6 months (Group 2; n = 5) after the placement, respectively. The aortas embedding stent grafts were excised en bloc for gross inspection and sliced at 5 to 8 mm intervals for histopathologic evaluation. Stent grafts were patent in all except a dog showing a thrombotic occlusion in Group 2. In the 7 dogs with patent lumen, the graft overhanging the saccular aneurysm was covered by thick or thin thrombi with no endothelial layer, and the graft over the aortic wall was completely covered by neointima with an endothelial layer. Transgraft cell migration was less active at an aneurysm than at adjacent normal aorta. In conclusion, endoskeleton stent grafts over saccular aneurysms show no endothelial coverage and poor transgraft cell migration in a canine model. PMID:23091313

  14. Tissue responses to endovascular stent grafts for saccular abdominal aortic aneurysms in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Beom; Choi, Young Ho; So, Young Ho; Min, Seung-Kee; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Kim, Young Il; Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, Jin Wook

    2012-10-01

    We investigated tissue responses to endoskeleton stent grafts for saccular abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in canines. Saccular AAAs were made with Dacron patch in 8 dogs, and were excluded by endoskeleton stent grafts composed of nitinol stent and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. Animals were sacrificed at 2 months (Group 1; n = 3) or 6 months (Group 2; n = 5) after the placement, respectively. The aortas embedding stent grafts were excised en bloc for gross inspection and sliced at 5 to 8 mm intervals for histopathologic evaluation. Stent grafts were patent in all except a dog showing a thrombotic occlusion in Group 2. In the 7 dogs with patent lumen, the graft overhanging the saccular aneurysm was covered by thick or thin thrombi with no endothelial layer, and the graft over the aortic wall was completely covered by neointima with an endothelial layer. Transgraft cell migration was less active at an aneurysm than at adjacent normal aorta. In conclusion, endoskeleton stent grafts over saccular aneurysms show no endothelial coverage and poor transgraft cell migration in a canine model. PMID:23091313

  15. Stereoscopic visualization and editing of automatic abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) measurements for stent graft planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Luping; Wang, Yapeng; Goh, Lin-Chia; Kockro, Ralf A.; Serra, Luis

    2006-02-01

    For stent graft selection in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) anatomic considerations are important. They determine GO/NO-GO of the treatment and help customize the stent. Current systems for AAA stent insertion planning based on pre-operative CT and MR of the patient do not provide an intuitive interface to view the resulting measurements against the pre-operative CT/MR. Subsequent modifications of the measurements are frequent when automatic algorithms are inaccurate. However, 3D editing is difficult to achieve because of the limitations of monoscopic displays and 2D interface. In this paper, we present a system for automatic AAA measurement and interactive 3D editing. The strength of this approach is that the resulting measurements can be reviewed and edited interactively in the 3D context of the volumetric rendering of the aorta, so that relationships of the measurements and the aorta are clearly perceived. This understanding is facilitated by the stereoscopic rendering that makes it possible to see the transparent vessel and its corresponding measurements all in one image.

  16. Correlation between thoracic aorta 18F-natrium fluoride uptake and cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Fiz, Francesco; Morbelli, Silvia; Bauckneht, Matteo; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Ferrarazzo, Giulia; Nieri, Alberto; Artom, Nathan; Cabria, Manlio; Marini, Cecilia; Canepa, Marco; Sambuceti, Gianmario

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigating the relationship between thoracic and cardiac 18F-Natrium-Fluoride (18F-NaF) uptake, as a marker of ongoing calcification and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Seventy-eight patients (44 females, mean age 63, range 44-83) underwent whole body 18F-NaF positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Cardiovascular risk (CVR) was used to divide these patients in three categories: Low (LR), medium (MR) and high risk (HR). 18F-NaF uptake was measured by manually drawing volumes of interest on the ascending aorta, on the aortic arch, on the descending aorta and on the myocardium; average standardized uptake value was normalized for blood-pool, to obtain target-to-background ratio (TBR). Values from the three aortic segments were then averaged to obtain an index of the whole thoracic aorta. RESULTS: A significant difference in whole thoracic aorta TBR was detected between HR and LR (1.84 ± 0.76 vs 1.07 ± 0.3, P < 0.001), but also between MR and HR-LR (1.4 ± 0.4, P < 0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively). Significance of this TBR stratification strongly varied among thoracic aorta subsegments and the lowest P values were reached in the descending aorta (P < 0.01). Myocardial uptake provided an effective CVR classes stratification (P < 0.001).Correlation between TBR and CVR was appreciable when the whole thoracic aorta was considered (R = 0.67), but it peaked when correlating the descending thoracic segment (R = 0.75), in comparison with the aortic arch and the ascending segment (R = 0.55 and 0.53, respectively). CONCLUSION: Fluoride uptake within the thoracic aorta wall effectively depicts patients’ risk class and correlates with cardiovascular risk. Descending aorta is the most effective in CVR determination. PMID:26834946

  17. Changes in collagen biosynthesis, types, and mechanics of aorta in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Bashey, R I; Cox, R; McCann, J; Jimenez, S A

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to relate changes in collagen composition with the mechanical properties of aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). SHRs and normal Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were killed at ages 6 and 20 weeks, and their aortas were removed. A portion of each aorta was used for determination of passive mechanical properties, and the remainder was incubated with carbon 14-labeled proline containing medium for 18 hours at 37 degrees C. After incubation, the tissues were lyophilized, and aliquots were used for sequential extraction with neutral salt, acetic acid, and pepsin at 4 degrees C. The pepsin extracts that contained most of the collagen were used for characterization of the collagen types and synthesis of collagen by the production of [14C]-labeled hydroxyproline. Collagen concentration decreased approximately 16% in both 6- and 20-week-old aortas, but collagen synthesis was about twofold higher in the aortas from both 6- and 20-week-old SHRs. Although type V collagen represented a minor fraction of total collagen (5%) in the aortas of WKY rats, it was twofold greater in the hypertensive animals. This increment in type V collagen in SHR aortas was accompanied by a reduction in the proportion of type I collagen, with no change in the proportion of type III. Study of the passive mechanical properties of the tissues showed that SHR aortas were stiffer compared with aortas of WKY rats, with a larger difference at 20 weeks than at 6 weeks.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2715682

  18. Uncluttered single-image visualization of the abdominal aortic vessel tree: Method and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Won, Joong-Ho; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Napel, Sandy

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: The authors develop a method to visualize the abdominal aorta and its branches, obtained by CT or MR angiography, in a single 2D stylistic image without overlap among branches. Methods: The abdominal aortic vasculature is modeled as an articulated object whose underlying topology is a rooted tree. The inputs to the algorithm are the 3D centerlines of the abdominal aorta, its branches, and their associated diameter information. The visualization problem is formulated as an optimization problem that finds a spatial configuration of the bounding boxes of the centerlines most similar to the projection of the input into a given viewing direction (e.g., anteroposterior), while not introducing intersections among the boxes. The optimization algorithm minimizes a score function regarding the overlap of the bounding boxes and the deviation from the input. The output of the algorithm is used to produce a stylistic visualization, made of the 2D centerlines modulated by the associated diameter information, on a plane. The authors performed a preliminary evaluation by asking three radiologists to label 366 arterial branches from the 30 visualizations of five cases produced by the method. Each of the five patients was presented in six different variant images, selected from ten variants with the three lowest and three highest scores. For each label, they assigned confidence and distortion ratings (low/medium/high). They studied the association between the quantitative metrics measured from the visualization and the subjective ratings by the radiologists. Results: All resulting visualizations were free from branch overlaps. Labeling accuracies of the three readers were 93.4%, 94.5%, and 95.4%, respectively. For the total of 1098 samples, the distortion ratings were low: 77.39%, medium: 10.48%, and high: 12.12%. The confidence ratings were low: 5.56%, medium: 16.50%, and high: 77.94%. The association study shows that the proposed quantitative metrics can predict a reader's subjective ratings and suggests that the visualization with the lowest score should be selected for readers. Conclusions: The method for eliminating misleading false intersections in 2D projections of the abdominal aortic tree conserves the overall shape and does not diminish accurate identifiability of the branches.

  19. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Targeted by Functionalized Polysaccharide Microparticles: a new Tool for SPECT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonnard, Thomas; Yang, Gonord; Petiet, Anne; Ollivier, Vronique; Haddad, Oualid; Arnaud, Denis; Louedec, Liliane; Bachelet-Violette, Laure; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cedric; Le Visage, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysm diagnostic is nowadays limited by the lack of technology that enables early detection and rupture risk prediction. New non invasive tools for molecular imaging are still required. In the present study, we present an innovative SPECT diagnostic tool for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) produced from injectable polysaccharide microparticles radiolabeled with technetium 99m (99mTc) and functionalized with fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide with the ability to target P-Selectin. P-Selectin is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated endothelial cells and platelets which can be found in the thrombus of aneurysms, as well as in other vascular pathologies. Microparticles with a maximum hydrodynamic diameter of 4 m were obtained by crosslinking the polysaccharides dextran and pullulan. They were functionalized with fucoidan. In vitro interactions with human activated platelets were assessed by flow cytometry that demonstrated a specific affinity of fucoidan functionalized microparticles for P-Selectin expressed by activated platelets. For in vivo AAA imaging, microparticles were radiolabeled with 99mTc and intravenously injected into healthy and AAA rats obtained by elastase perfusion through the aorta wall. Animals were scanned by SPECT imaging. A strong contrast enhancement located in the abdominal aorta of AAA rats was obtained, while no signal was obtained in healthy rats or in AAA rats after injection of non-functionalized control microparticles. Histological studies revealed that functionalized radiolabeled polysaccharide microparticles were localized in the AAA wall, in the same location where P-Selectin was expressed. These microparticles therefore constitute a promising SPECT imaging tool for AAA and potentially for other vascular diseases characterized by P-Selectin expression. Future work will focus on validating the efficiency of the microparticles to diagnose these other pathologies and the different stages of AAA. Incorporation of a therapeutic molecule is also considered. PMID:24723981

  20. Feasibility of Angioplasty and Stenting for Abdominal Aortic Lesions Adjacent to Previously Stented Visceral Artery Lesions in Patients with Takayasu Arteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, George George, Paul V.; Pati, Purendra Kumar; Chandy, Sunil Thomas

    2007-04-15

    Two young female patients with Takayasu arteritis presented with symptomatic long-segment abdominal aortic stenosis in the vicinity of previously deployed celiac and renal artery stents that projected markedly into the narrowed aortic lumen. Crushing or distortion of the visceral artery stents during aortic angioplasty was avoided by performing simultaneous or alternating balloon dilatations in the aorta and in the visceral artery stents. Consequently, the visceral artery stents remained patent and shortened longitudinally, allowing unhindered deployment of Wallstents in the adjacent aorta and abolition of a pressure gradient across the aortic lesions. Access to side branches covered by the Wallstent was obtained without difficulty, enabling the performance of balloon dilatation in multiple side branches and ostial stent deployment in a renal artery. These techniques could increase the scope of endovascular therapy in the treatment of patients with Takayasu arteritis.

  1. Successful coronary stent retrieval from the ascending aorta using a gooseneck snare kit

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ji-Hun; Yang, Dong-Hyeok; Park, Sang-Don; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Shin, Sung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Coronary stent dislodgement is a rare complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. We report a case of stent dislodgement in the ascending thoracic aorta. The stent was mechanically distorted in the left circumflex artery (LCX) while being delivered to the proximal LCX lesion. The balloon catheter was withdrawn, but the stent with the guide wire was remained in the ascending thoracic aorta. The stent was unable to be retrieved into the guide catheter, as it was distorted. A goose neck snare was used successfully to catch the stent in the ascending thoracic aorta and retrieved the stent externally via the arterial sheath. PMID:23864807

  2. Morphometric Development of Sphincter of Oddi in Human Fetuses During Fetal Period: Microscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Desdicio?lu, Kadir; Bozkurt, Kemal K.; U?uz, Ceren; Evcil, E. Hilal; Malas, Mehmet A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, morphometric developments of the sphincter of Oddi in human fetuses were observed. Material and Methods: We observed 113 human fetuses consisting of 67 male and 46 female subjects, whose ages varied between 14 to 40 weeks who showed no signs of any pathology or anomaly externally. The common external measurements of fetuses were carried out, followed by abdominal dissection to determine where the sphincters of Oddi were localized within the duodenum and pancreas. Histological specimens of tissue samples were gathered from the inner wall of the duodenum where it was assumed that the sphincters of Oddi had been localized. The parameters of total external diameters, lumen diameters, wall thickness, diameters of ductus choledochus and ductus pancreaticus, and the distance between these two structures, which are also known as the origins of the sphincter of Oddi, were measured by using a light microscope. The standard deviations of the measurements were calculated for each gestational week and trimester. Results: The calculations suggested that there were statistically significant correlations between gestational age and all of the other parameters with the exception of the ductus choledochus (p<0.001). It was observed that the wall thickness of the ductus choledochus increased at the first half of the fetal stage and decreased at the second half, as the lumen diameter increased through the 40th week. The gender difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The data we collected in our study were considered as useful for the evaluation of the development of the sphincter of Oddi area and fetal stage. PMID:25207017

  3. Abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm secondary to melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Rao, Jaideepraj; Kaushal, A S; Hoong, Chia Kok

    2009-01-01

    Melioidosis is an infective condition which is common in South East Asia. It can present in various forms like cutaneous abscess, pneumonia and severe septicaemia. However, melioidosis causing abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysms is extremely rare and a difficult condition to diagnose and treat. We present our management of two cases of abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysms secondary to melioidosis and their subsequent outcomes. PMID:19321406

  4. Abdominal aortic aneurysms in women.

    PubMed

    Lo, Ruby C; Schermerhorn, Marc L

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has long been recognized as a condition predominantly affecting males, with sex-associated differences described for almost every aspect of the disease from pathophysiology and epidemiology to morbidity and mortality. Women are generally spared from AAA formation by the immunomodulating effects of estrogen, but once they develop, the natural history of AAAs in women appears to be more aggressive, with more rapid expansion, a higher tendency to rupture at smaller diameters, and higher mortality following rupture. However, simply repairing AAAs at smaller diameters in women is a debatable solution, as even elective endovascular AAA repair is fraught with higher morbidity and mortality in women compared to men. The goal of this review is to summarize what is currently known about the effect of gender on AAA presentation, treatment, and outcomes. Additionally, we aim to review current controversies over screening recommendations and threshold for repair in women. PMID:26747679

  5. Clinical outcome of abdominal sacrocolpopexy

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Shikha; Pandher, Dilpreet Kaur; Huria, Anju; Mehra, Reeti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vaginal vault prolapse is one of the distressing conditions which occur after hysterectomy. This is due to the weakness or detachment of sacrouterine cardinal ligament complex from the vaginal cuff. Till now, the most accepted procedure for this condition is sacrocolpopexy. Materials and Methods: We present a cohort of patients who underwent abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC) from April 2009 to August 2013. These patients were followed till April 2014 and were evaluated for subjective and objective outcomes following ASC. Results: One patient had intraoperative hemorrhage and postoperative hematoma formation. One patient had vault abscess which was managed conservatively. Hundred percent success rate was noted at 1 year. Long-term patient satisfaction score was 85 (70-90). PMID:26903757

  6. Kikuchi-Fujimoto’s disease with abdominal pain due to intra-abdominal lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Ayako; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Sakatani, Takashi; Kajii, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    A 29-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with fever and abdominal pain. Abdominal echogram and CT revealed intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. Seven days after the onset, she developed cervical lymphadenitis. Kikuchi-Fujimoto’s disease (KFD) was diagnosed on cervical lymph node biopsy. Although KFD with intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy is rare, it should be considered in young adults with intra-abdominal lymphadenitis. Because KFD is a benign, self-limiting disease, we suggest the use of a minimally invasive method of diagnosis such as superficial lymph node biopsy. PMID:24667948

  7. Abdominal Pain following Gastric Bypass: Suspects & Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Greenstein, Alexander J.; O’Rourke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Gastric bypass remains the mainstay of surgical therapy for obesity. Abdominal pain after gastric bypass is common, and accounts for up to half of all postoperative complaints and emergency room visits. This manuscript reviews the most important causes of abdominal pain specific to gastric bypass and discusses management considerations. Data Sources The current surgical literature was reviewed using PubMed, with a focus on abdominal pain after gastric bypass and the known pathologies that underlie its pathogenesis. Conclusions The differential diagnosis for abdominal pain after gastric bypass is large and includes benign and life-threatening entities. Its diverse causes require a broad evaluation that should be directed by history and clinical presentation. In the absence of a clear diagnosis, the threshold for surgical exploration in patients with abdominal pain after gastric bypass should be low. PMID:21333269

  8. Endovascular stent graft repair of suture-line pseudoaneurysm following ascending aorta replacement.

    PubMed

    Zicho, David; Cartwright, Neil; Bizzarri, Federico; Malkin, Christopher; Cross, Michael; Mcpherson, Simon; Kaul, Pankaj; Puppala, Sapna

    2014-04-01

    Ascending aorta pseudoaneurysm (AAPA) is an uncommon complication following replacement of the ascending aorta with a prosthetic graft, carry a high risk of rupture, and warrant urgent intervention. The open surgical procedure "gold standard" of care is not always favorable, as the reoperations are technically more difficult or patient's general condition doesn't allow proceeding. Case discussed is an 80-year-old male patient who presented with worsening cough and hemoptysis. He underwent ascending aorta replacement 10 years ago. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a contrast-filled mediastinal mass communicating with the ascending aorta and extended into the right lung. Due to the patient's advanced age, friability and clinical condition, combined with the position of the AAPA behind the sternum, surgery was deemed to be high risk. However, favorable anatomical conditions provided a safe landing zone for an endovascular stent. The patient underwent closed procedure. Postprocedure CT showed complete obliteration of the AAPA. PMID:24334913

  9. Coarctation of the aorta in adults: what is the best treatment? Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Daraban, AM; Lorber, A; Deleanu, D; Amzulescu, MS; Zara, C; Popescu, BA; Ginghina, C

    2011-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital cardiac malformation that can go undiagnosed until old age with only hypertension as a marker of its presence because clinical signs can be subtle and overlooked if a complete physical exam is not performed. We report the case of a 45 yearold women, diagnosed with severe coarctation of the aorta just distal to the left subclavian artery, with poststenotic dilatation of the descending aorta and difficult control of blood pressure values. The patient was successfully treated interventionally, by balloon angioplasty with deployment of a covered stent. We review here the different methods employed for the treatment of coarctation of the aorta in adults, including surgical or percutaneous balloon angioplasty with or without stent placement, underlying their complications and the factors that influence the choice of the best coarctation repair method. PMID:21776305

  10. Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaşı, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This study shows that morphometric analysis of the basins in regional level are very important to understand general morphological characteristics of the basins. In this case, tectonic and lithological conditions of the basins have greatly affected the morphometric characteristics of the north and south basins of the Marmara Sea. References Abrahams, AD. 1984. Channel Networks: A Geomorphological Perspective. Water Resources Research, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 161-188. Horton, R.E. 1932. Drainage basin characteristics. Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361. Keller, E.A., Pinter, N. 2002. Active Tectonics Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Ozdemir H., Bird D. 2009. Evaluation of morphometric parameters of drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in point of floods, Environmental Geology, vol.56, pp.1405-1415. Schumm, S.A. 1956. Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geol Soc Am Bull 67:597-646. Strahler, A.N. 1957. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage and channel networks. In: Chow YT (ed) Handbook of appliecl hydrology. Me Graw Hill Book Company, New York. Verstappen, H.Th. 1983. Applied geomorphology. ITC, Enschede.

  11. Surgical Repair of Abdominal Aortic and Renal Artery Aneurysms in Takayasu's Arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Margaret E; Cafasso, Danielle E; Golarz, Scott R; Ayubi, Farhan S; Kellicut, Dwight C

    2016-01-01

    Takayasu's arteritis is a large vessel vasculitis that can be a challenging diagnosis to make and has a varied clinical presentation. Management largely depends on affected vessel disease severity and individual patient considerations. The diagnosis must be considered in a young patient with large vessel aneurysms. We present a case of a 30 year-old woman of Pacific Islander descent who presented to the Tripler Army medical Center Vascular Surgery Department in Honolulu, Hawaii seeking repair of her abdominal aortic and renal artery aneurysms prior to conception. A 30 year-old Pacific Islander woman with a history of a saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm and renal artery aneurysms presented to our clinic seeking vascular surgery consultation prior to a planned pregnancy. She had a renal artery stent placed at an outside institution for hypertension. She met the diagnosis of Takayasu's arteritis by Sharma's criteria. Physical exam was significant for a palpable, pulsatile, abdominal mass and CT angiography revealed a saccular irregular-appearing infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm, extending to the aortic bifurcation, with a maximum diameter of 3.3 cm. A right renal artery aneurysm was also identified proximally, contiguous with the aorta, with a maximal transverse diameter of 1.7 cm. The patient underwent a supraceliac bypass to the right renal artery with a 7mm Dacron graft, as well as excision of the right renal artery aneurysm. The abdominal aortic aneurysm was replaced using a Hemashield Dacron bifurcated 14mm x 7mm bypass graft. Intraoperative measurements of the renal artery aneurysm were 1.5 x 1.5 cm and the saccular appearing distal abdominal aortic aneurysm measured 3.6 x 3.3cm. The patient was discharged from the hospital 7 days post-operatively. At 1-year follow up, CT scan of the abdominal aorta revealed the repair was without any evidence of aneurysm formation, anastomotic pseudoaneurysm formation, or areas of stenosis. She has remained normotensive with a normal serum creatinine 18 months after her repair. She has since delivered her second child. It is rare for Takayasu's arteritis to present with aneurysmal disease. It is much more common to present with stenosis or occlusion. It has yet to be proven that Takayasu's truly has a higher incidence in those of Asian descent. Takayasu's can be a difficult diagnosis to make but can be aided with the use of Sharma's criteria. Our particular patient posed unique considerations on the effects of the physiology of pregnancy on her aneurysms and repair. Managing the active phases of disease is imperative, and though medical management is first line, surgical intervention may be necessary. Surgical intervention should be performed in a quiescent period of disease if possible given that biological inflammation at the time of intervention increases the complication rate. Repair of aneurysmal disease in a young female should also be considered prior to pregnancy. PMID:26870600

  12. Phorbol ester and spontaneous activity in SHR aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Moisey, D.M.; Cox, R.H.

    1986-03-01

    Thoracic aortas (TA) were excised from 6-week old SHR and WKY. 2mm rings were mounted isometrically at optimum preload. Spontaneous rhythmical activity developed in TA from SHR and had a frequency of 3-4/min with varying periods of quiescence between bursts of activity. The spontaneous activity often produced an increase in tension development which was associated with increased frequency of oscillations. Verapamil (10/sup -7/ M) or Ca/sup + +/-free solution added during the contractile phase resulted in an immediate loss of tension and spontaneous activity. Addition of ouabain (10/sup -4/ M) during the contractile phase of spontaneous activity, increased the frequency of oscillations which appeared to fuse into a tetanus. Spontaneous rhythmical activity was infrequently observed in TA from WKY. However, addition of phorbol 12-myristate-13 acetate (TPA), frequently induced spontaneous rhythmic oscillations associated with tension development in TA from WKY. TPA contracted the SHR TA and increased the frequency of oscillations. SHR TA were more sensitive to TPA than WKY. This study demonstrates (1) spontaneous rhythmical activity, independent of agonist stimulation in TA from 6-week old SHR and (2) TPA induced spontaneous oscillatory activity. The mechanism underlying the spontaneous oscillatory activity may involve membrane coupling events and Na-pump difference between SHR and WKY.

  13. [Traumatic thoracic aorta rupture: preclinical assessment, diagnosis and treatment options].

    PubMed

    Kopp, R; Andrassy, J; Czerner, S; Weidenhagen, A; Weidenhagen, R; Meimarakis, G; Reiser, M; Jauch, K W

    2008-08-01

    Traumatic aortic rupture is a life-threatening injury which is frequently associated with blunt thoracic trauma or found coincidentally in heavily traumatized patients. Depending on the degree of disruption of the damaged aortic wall, vascular injury is associated with a high primary mortality rate and a significant risk of secondary aortic rupture. Early clinical signs which may indicate a ruptured thoracic aorta are left sided thoracic pain, reduced ventilation, tachycardia and dyspnoe as well as hypotension in the lower extremities. The primary aim for emergency treatment is to maintain vital organ function and to hemodynamically stabilize the patient. Surgical treatment was previously performed by either direct aortic suture or segmental alloplastic graft interposition using the clamp and sew technique with or without extra-anatomic shunts or extracorporeal circulation. However, endovascular stent graft implantation has now become another treatment option for traumatic aortic rupture. According to the reported data and our own experience there is increasing evidence that endovascular aortic repair might become the treatment of choice for patients with traumatic aortic rupture, with the option of an early, less invasive intervention thus avoiding thoracotomy. Regular follow-up is necessary to detect possible stent graft migration or leakage which could require additional endovascular or open surgical re-interventions. PMID:18463834

  14. Marfan syndrome, dissecting aneurysm of the aorta, and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Moore, H. C.

    1965-01-01

    A patient with the Marfan syndrome died suddenly from aortic rupture and dissection in the early puerperium of her second pregnancy. Although the association of the Marfan syndrome and pregnancy is extremely rare, the case reported here being only the fifth on record, the concurrence of dissecting aneurysm or aortic dissection with pregnancy is more frequent. Furthermore it is accepted that aortic dissection in young women below the age of 40 is more common in the pregnant than those not pregnant. The cause of the enhancing effect of pregnancy is unknown but is thought to be endocrine since the stability of connective tissue can be influenced by hormones, particularly the sex steroids. An unusual feature of the present case is the florid inflammatory reaction in the adventitia of the aorta, not specifically related to pregnancy or to the Marfan syndrome, and it is assumed that in this patient the congenital defect of connective tissue assumed to be the basis of the Marfan syndrome is associated with an acute collagen change or necrosis, possibly illustrating a link between the heritable disorders of connective tissue and the diffuse collagen disease. Images PMID:14304236

  15. Allopurinol prevents nitroglycerin-induced tolerance in rat thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Azarmi, Yadollah; Babaei, Hossein; Alizadeh, Fatemeh; Gharebageri, Afsaneh; Fouladi, Daniel F; Nikkhah, Elhameh

    2014-02-01

    Xanthine oxidase is an important source of reactive oxygen species; so, it may play a role in the pathogenesis of endothelium dysfunction and its consequences. Allopurinol, a purine analog, is a famous xanthine oxidase inhibitor. This study aimed to investigate possible effects of allopurinol on nitroglycerin tolerance, vasoconstriction, and vasorelaxation in rat aortic ring. Using thoracic aortic rings obtained from male Wistar rats, the effect of allopurinol was examined on nitroglycerin-induced tolerance. In addition, changes of vasoconstriction (by using KCl and phenylephrine) and vasorelaxation (by using carbachol, sodium nitroprusside, and nitroglycerin) were also measured and compared between tissues treated with and without allopurinol. All 3 concentrations of allopurinol (50, 100, and 150 μM) significantly acted against the development of nitroglycerin-induced tolerance in comparison with controls. In terms of vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation, the effect of allopurinol was significant only on carbachol-induced (endothelium related) vasorelaxation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, although allopurinol had no significant effect on the contractile response of the aorta, in accord with the previous data, it significantly intensified endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The inhibitory effect of allopurinol against the development of nitrate-induced tolerance may suggest its clinical benefit and is worth to be studied more extensively. PMID:24126565

  16. Morphological and morphometrical analysis of Heterodera spp. populations in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Lafi, Hamzeh A.; Al-Banna, Luma; Sadder, Monther T.; Migdadi, Hussein M.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity of five Jordanian populations of cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp. collected from five regions from Jordan (Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana, Al-Karak, and Jerash) was investigated. Soil samples were collected from one representative field in each region. Morphological and morphometrical characteristics revealed that Heterodera latipons is dominated in cereal fields at Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana and Al-Karak regions and Heterodera schachtii in Jerash. Cysts populations from all cereal fields had bifenestrate vulval cone and a strong underbridge. Wherever, cysts of the cabbage population had ambifenestrate vulval cone with long vulval slit. The bullae were absent in Ar-Ramtha, Madaba and Dana populations, but present in Al-Karak and Jerash. Based on 12 morphometrical characters, the first three functions in canonical discriminant analysis accounted 99.3% of the total variation. Distance from dorsal gland duct opening to stylet base, underbridge length, a=L/W (body length/midbody width) and length of hyaline tail tip had strong and significant contributions in the first function. While the second function was strongly influenced by length of hyaline tail, fenestral length, fenestral width and tail length. However, the third canonical discriminate function was found to be influenced by stylet length, fenestral length, a=L/W (body length/midbody width) and underbridge width. The graphical representation of the distribution of the samples showed that the first canonical discriminant function clearly separated H. schachtii from Jerash from other populations. Whereas, H. latipons collected from Madaba and Dana were clearly separated in the second function. The results indicated that differences at morphological and morphometrical levels revealed diverse populations of Heterodera spp. in Jordan. PMID:26858546

  17. Screening of abdominal aortic aneurysm: a pragmatic approach.

    PubMed Central

    Kyriakides, C.; Byrne, J.; Green, S.; Hulton, N. R.

    2000-01-01

    In order to evaluate the feasibility of a selective screening programme for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) within an urban setting and assess its impact on the expected increase in workload for the local hospital(s), a population based, prospective study was performed. A total of 4823 men aged 65 years were invited for ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta between January 1993 and April 1997 as part of a general practice-based aneurysm screening programme covering two districts with a general hospital each. All examinations were carried out by senior radiographers using a portable B mode grey scale machine and a 3.5 MHz curvi-linear array probe. Patients with a maximum aortic diameter of over 3 cm were annually recalled, those with over 4 cm were referred to hospital for an out-patient's appointment. Those with AAA greater than 5 cm were considered for surgery. Of those approached, 3497 (72.5%) took part in the study, 1206 (25%) did not attend and 120 (2.5%) were excluded by their general practitioners (GPs) on medical grounds. Of the men taking part, 3130 (89.5%) had an aortic diameter equal to or less than 2.5 cm, 196 (5.6%) between 2.6 and 3.0 cm, and 171 (4.9%) had aortic diameters greater than 3 cm--29 of whom had AAA greater than 5 cm with a mean diameter of 6.0 cm (range 5.1-9.0 cm). Of 127 men with an initial diameter of 3.1-4.0 cm (mean progression in size of 2.3 mm/year), 22 enlarged to > 4 cm and 3 to > 5 cm. Of 24 men with an initial diameter of 4.1-5.0 cm, 6 enlarged to > 5 cm. Some 69 (2%) patients were referred to hospital requiring a total of 125 consultations (1.8 consultations per patient); 21 underwent surgery and one died from rupture whilst awaiting surgery. Five patients refused their operation and two failed to attend the clinic (all > 5 cm) but remain well to date. No patient died following surgery. We conclude that, screening for AAA in men at age 65 years within an urban setting is feasible and well received by patients and GPs. Screening does not lead to a huge increase in terms of outpatient appointments and operations for AAA. PMID:10700771

  18. Computed tomography in the diagnosis of latrogenic false aneurysms of the ascending aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, E.H.; Farmer, D.W.; Geller, S.C.; Golden, J.A.; Gamsu, G.

    1984-06-01

    False aneurysm (contained rupture) of the ascending aorta is a rare complication of aortic valve replacement. The authors have dealt with two such cases that resulted from breakdown of the aortotomy suture line. In both cases, CT scan with intravenous injection of contrast material demonstrated opacification of the lumen of the false aneurysm sac; in neither case was communication with the aorta demonstrable on aortography.

  19. Lowering of lipid composition in aorta of guinea pigs by Curcuma domestica

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad-Raus, Raha R; Abdul-Latif, Elda-Surhaida ES; Mohammad, Jamaludin J

    2001-01-01

    Background A short-term study was carried out using guinea pigs to determine the effects of Curcuma domestica on lipid composition in the serum and aorta. Methods Animals were given food pellets containing 4% (w/w) powdered rhizome of C. domestica in order to determine its effect on cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid levels in the aorta and serum. The animals were fed either a cholesterol free diet or a high cholesterol diet (2% cholesterol, w/w, in food pellet) in order to induce hypercholesterolemia.. After five weeks of this diet treatment, blood and aorta were taken for biochemical analysis and histological studies. Results C. domestica in the diet showed no significant effect on the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum and aorta of the cholesterol free diet animals. However, addition of C. domestica to a high cholesterol diet counteracted increases in the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid in the aorta. Histology studies showed less cholesterol deposits in the aorta of high cholesterol diet animals given C. domestica compared to the high cholesterol diet animals not given C. domestica supplement. C. domestica also had a lowering effect on triglyceride level in the serum of high cholesterol diet animals but showed no effect on serum cholesterol and phospholipid levels. Conclusion This study has shown that dietary intake of C. domestica decreased all lipid composition levels in the aorta and also the serum triglyceride level. In addition, C. domestica also reduced cholesterol deposition in the aorta of high cholesterol diet animals. PMID:11495637

  20. Study of lipid rich compositions in the intimal wall of aorta by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.-H.; Sriramoju, V.; Wang, W. B.; Frankfurt, M.; Zadeh, N. D.; Alfano, R. R.

    2008-02-01

    We report an ex-vivo study on Raman spectra of adipose tissue covered by layers of aortic intimal wall tissue with different thicknesses. The Raman vibration modes of 1435cm -1, 2850cm -1 and 2892cm -1 were investigated for the first time on fresh porcine aortic adipose tissue with 633 nm laser excitation. The adipose tissue was taken from adventitial fat grown on aorta walls. The frozen sections of porcine aorta wall tissue with a thickness of 25? - 50? were cut from intimal surface. The samples were prepared by placing the variable numbers of the aorta intimal wall tissue layers on the top of adipose tissue. The Raman spectra of adipose tissue were investigated. The changes of intensities of the Raman modes versus thickness of the aorta intimal wall tissue layers were measured. The total thickness of the aorta intimal wall tissue layers was varied in the range of 50? - 1800?. The main characteristic Raman vibration modes of adipose tissue were found at 1435cm -1, 2850cm -1 and 2892cm -1. Among them, the intensities of the modes of 2850 cm -1 and 2892 cm -1 are about four-times stronger than that of the 1435cm -1 mode. The study on Raman vibration modes of 1435cm -1, 2800 cm -1 and 2950 cm -1 may be useful for developing a simple, inexpensive and accurate optical technique for monitoring the degree of vulnerability of the aorta intimal surface due to atherogenesis. These three Raman modes can be used as new molecular spectroscopic indicators to monitor in situ the development of fatty-streaks and lipid core in aorta walls, and determine the thickness change of aorta intimal wall at different stages of atherogenesis.

  1. [Ultrasound screening of abdominal aortic aneurysm: Lessons from Vesale 2013].

    PubMed

    Laroche, J P; Becker, F; Baud, J M; Miserey, G; Jaussent, A; Picot, M C; Bura-Rivire, A; Qur, I

    2015-12-01

    Although aneurysm of the abdominal infra-renal aorta (AAA) meets criteria warranting B mode ultrasound screening, the advantages of mass screening versus selective targeted opportunistic screening remain a subject of debate. In France, the French Society of Vascular Medicine (SFMV) and the Health Authority (HAS) published recommendations for targeted opportunistic screening in 2006 and 2013 respectively. The SFMV held a mainstream communication day on November 21, 2013 in France involving participants from metropolitan France and overseas departments that led to a proposal for free AAA ultrasound screening: the Vesalius operation. Being a consumer operation, the selection criteria were limited to age (men and women between 60 and 75 years); the age limit was lowered to 50 years in case of direct family history of AAA. More than 7000 people (as many women as men) were screened in 83 centers with a 1.70% prevalence of AAA in the age-based target population (3.12% for men, 0.27% for women). The median diameter of detected AAA was 33mm (range 20 to 74mm). The prevalence of AAA was 1.7% in this population. Vesalius data are consistent with those of the literature both in terms of prevalence and for cardiovascular risk factors with the important role of smoking. Lessons from Vesalius to take into consideration are: screening is warranted in men 60 years and over, especially smokers, and in female smokers. Screening beyond 75 years should be discussed. Given the importance of screening, the SFMV set up a year of national screening for AAA (Vesalius operation 2014/2015) in order to increase public and physician awareness about AAA detection, therapeutic management, and monitoring. AAA is a serious, common, disease that kills 6000 people each year. The goal of screening is cost-effective reduction in the death toll. PMID:26371387

  2. Fluid Dynamics of Coarctation of the Aorta and Effect of Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Kadem, Lyes

    2013-01-01

    Up to 80% of patients with coarctation of the aorta (COA) have a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Patients with COA and BAV have elevated risks of aortic complications despite successful surgical repair. The development of such complications involves the interplay between the mechanical forces applied on the artery and the biological processes occurring at the cellular level. The focus of this study is on hemodynamic modifications induced in the aorta in the presence of a COA and a BAV. For this purpose, numerical investigations and magnetic resonance imaging measurements were conducted with different configurations: (1) normal: normal aorta and normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: aorta with COA (75% reduction by area) and normal aortic valve; (3) complex COA: aorta with the same severity of COA (75% reduction by area) and BAV. The results show that the coexistence of COA and BAV significantly alters blood flow in the aorta with a significant increase in the maximal velocity, secondary flow, pressure loss, time-averaged wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index downstream of the COA. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of why patients with complex COA have adverse outcome even following a successful surgery. PMID:24015239

  3. XeCl laser ablation of atherosclerotic aorta: optical properties and energy pathways.

    PubMed

    Oraevsky, A A; Jacques, S L; Pettit, G H; Saidi, I S; Tittel, F K; Henry, P D

    1992-01-01

    The energetics of 308-nm excimer laser irradiation of human aorta were studied. The heat generation that occurred during laser irradiation of atherosclerotic aorta equaled the absorbed laser energy minus the fraction of energy for escaping fluorescence (0.8-1.6%) and photochemical decomposition (2%). The absorbed laser energy is equal to the total delivered light energy minus the energy lost as specular reflectance (2.4%, air/tissue) and diffuse reflectance (11.5-15.5%). Overall, about 79-83.5% of the delivered light energy was converted to heat. We conclude that the mechanism of XeCl laser ablation of soft tissue involves thermal overheating of the irradiated volume with subsequent explosive vaporization. The optical properties of normal wall of human aorta and fibrous plaque, both native and denatured were determined. The light scattering was significant and sufficient to cause a subsurface fluence (J/cm2) in native aorta that equaled 1.8 times the broad-beam radiant exposure, phi o (2.7 phi o for denatured aorta). An optical fiber must have a diameter of at least 800 microns to achieve a maximum light penetration (approximately 200 microns for phi o/e) in the aorta along the central axis of the beam. PMID:1453859

  4. Effect of coarctation of the aorta and bicuspid aortic valve on flow dynamics and turbulence in the aorta using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Gaillard, Emmanuel; Maftoon, Nima; Di Labbio, Giuseppe; Cloutier, Guy; Kadem, Lyes

    2014-03-01

    Blood flow in the aorta has been of particular interest from both fluid dynamics and physiology perspectives. Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a congenital heart disease corresponding to a severe narrowing in the aortic arch. Up to 85 % of patients with COA have a pathological aortic valve, leading to a narrowing at the valve level. The aim of the present work was to advance the state of understanding of flow through a COA to investigate how narrowing in the aorta (COA) affects the characteristics of the velocity field and, in particular, turbulence development. For this purpose, particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted at physiological flow and pressure conditions, with three different aorta configurations: (1) normal case: normal aorta + normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + normal aortic valve and (3) complex COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + pathological aortic valve. Viscous shear stress (VSS), representing the physical shear stress, Reynolds shear stress (RSS), representing the turbulent shear stress, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), representing the intensity of fluctuations in the fluid flow environment, were calculated for all cases. Results show that, compared with a healthy aorta, the instantaneous velocity streamlines and vortices were deeply changed in the presence of the COA. The normal aorta did not display any regions of elevated VSS, RSS and TKE at any moment of the cardiac cycle. The magnitudes of these parameters were elevated for both isolated COA and complex COA, with their maximum values mainly being located inside the eccentric jet downstream of the COA. However, the presence of a pathologic aortic valve, in complex COA, amplifies VSS (e.g., average absolute peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 36 N/m2; isolated COA = 19 N/m2), RSS (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 84.6 N/m2; isolated COA = 44 N/m2) and TKE (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 215 N/m2; isolated COA = 100 N/m2). This demonstrates that the pathological aortic valve strongly interacts with the COA. Findings of this study indicate that the presence of both a COA and a pathological aortic valve significantly alters hemodynamics in the aorta and thus might contribute to the progression of the disease in this region. This study can partially explain the complications associated in patients with COA, in the presence of a pathological aortic valve and the consequent adverse outcome post-surgery.

  5. Intestinal injury mechanisms after blunt abdominal impact.

    PubMed

    Cripps, N P; Cooper, G J

    1997-03-01

    Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations. PMID:9135238

  6. Intestinal injury mechanisms after blunt abdominal impact.

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, N. P.; Cooper, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations. PMID:9135238

  7. Reproducibility of aortic pulsatility measurements from ECG-gated abdominal CTA in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, Armando; Fletcher, Joel G.; Wentz, Robert J.; Shields, Raymond C.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Siddiki, Hassan; Nielson, Theresa

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: ECG-gated abdominal CT angiography with reconstruction of multiple, temporally overlapping CT angiography datasets has been proposed for measuring aortic pulsatility. The purpose of this work is to develop algorithms to segment the aorta from surrounding structures from CTA datasets across cardiac phases, calculate registered centerlines and measurements of regional aortic pulsatility in patients with AAA, and to assess the reproducibility of these measurements. Methods: ECG-gated CTA was performed with a temporal resolution of 165 ms, reconstructed to 1 mm slices ranging at 14 cardiac phase points. Data sets were obtained from 17 patients on which two such scans were performed 6 to 12 months apart. Automated segmentation, centerline generation, and registration of centerlines between phases was performed, followed by calculation of cross-sectional areas and regional and local pulsatility. Results: Pulsatility calculations for the supraceliac region were very reproducible between earlier and later scans of the same patient, with average differences less than 1% for pulsatility values ranging from 2% to 13%. Local radial pulsatilities were also reproducible to within ~1%. Aneurysm volume changes between scans can also be quantified. Conclusion: Automated segmentation, centerline generation, and registration of temporally resolved CTA datasets permit measurements of regional changes in cross-sectional area over the course of the cardiac cycle (i.e., regional aortic pulsatility). These measurements are reproducible between scans 6-12 months apart, with differences in aortic areas reflecting both aneurysm remodeling and changes in blood pressure. Regional pulsatilities ranged from 2 to 13% but were reproducible at the 1% level.

  8. Abdominal sepsis managed by leaving abdomen open.

    PubMed

    Duff, J H; Moffat, J

    1981-10-01

    Intra-abdominal sepsis and necrotizing infection of the abdominal wall are usually fatal unless adequate drainage and wide debridement are possible. To follow these principles, we managed 18 seriously ill patients with abdominal sepsis by leaving the abdomen completely open. All except two of the patients had severe intra-abdominal sepsis. Eight patients had full-thickness wound infections and intra-abdominal infections refractory to the usual surgical drainage techniques. Two had necrotizing wound infections only. In 12 an upper abdominal incision was managed open, and in six the open incision was lower. As part of the initiating illness, there were eight small bowel and six colon fistulas. They were managed by colostomy in five patients and ileostomy in two. More than one organism was cultured in all patients and 12 of 18 had a positive blood culture. Respiratory failure made mechanical ventilation necessary in 13 patients for an average of 44 days. Previous adhesions, usually present, or an intact greater omentum, were necessary to prevent bowel evisceration, but three patients required paralysis and mechanical ventilation until adhesions became strong enough to prevent evisceration. There were seven deaths (39%), six caused by continuing sepsis and one from hemorrhage. In those surviving, granulation tissue grew over omentum or bowel loops to eventually seal the abdominal cavity. The late management was split-skin grafting in five and secondary closure in two. Four healed by second intention. We conclude that leaving the abdomen completely open facilitates the widest possible drainage, uncompromising debridement of the abdominal wall, and is compatible with good recovery. The ultimate result in survivors is acceptable. This technique is preferable to closing an abdominal wall of questionable viability in the face of intraperitoneal sepsis. PMID:6456563

  9. Predictive models of insulin resistance derived from simple morphometric and biochemical indices related to obesity and the metabolic syndrome in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Alberto O; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Guardado-Mendoza, Rodolfo; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan C; Leland, M Michelle; Tejero, M Elizabeth; Sorice, GianPio; Casiraghi, Francesca; Davalli, Alberto; Bastarrachea, Ral A; Comuzzie, Anthony G; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Folli, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Background Non-human primates are valuable models for the study of insulin resistance and human obesity. In baboons, insulin sensitivity levels can be evaluated directly with the euglycemic clamp and is highly predicted by adiposity, metabolic markers of obesity and impaired glucose metabolism (i.e. percent body fat by DXA and HbA1c). However, a simple method to screen and identify obese insulin resistant baboons for inclusion in interventional studies is not available. Methods We studied a population of twenty baboons with the euglycemic clamp technique to characterize a population of obese nondiabetic, insulin resistant baboons, and used a multivariate linear regression analysis (adjusted for gender) to test different predictive models of insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated glucose uptake = Rd) using abdominal circumference and fasting plasma insulin. Alternatively, we tested in a separate baboon population (n = 159), a simpler model based on body weight and fasting plasma glucose to predict the whole-body insulin sensitivity (Rd/SSPI) derived from the clamp. Results In the first model, abdominal circumference explained 59% of total insulin mediated glucose uptake (Rd). A second model, which included fasting plasma insulin (log transformed) and abdominal circumference, explained 64% of Rd. Finally, the model using body weight and fasting plasma glucose explained 51% of Rd/SSPI. Interestingly, we found that percent body fat was directly correlated with the adipocyte insulin resistance index (r = 0.755, p < 0.0001). Conclusion In baboons, simple morphometric measurements of adiposity/obesity, (i.e. abdominal circumference), plus baseline markers of glucose/lipid metabolism, (i.e. fasting plasma glucose and insulin) provide a feasible method to screen and identify overweight/obese insulin resistant baboons for inclusion in interventional studies aimed to study human obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:19389241

  10. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture. PMID:24298780

  11. The potential role of DNA methylation in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Toghill, Bradley J; Saratzis, Athanasios; Harrison, Seamus C; Verissimo, Ana R; Mallon, Eamonn B; Bown, Matthew J

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterised by the chronic degradation and gradual, irreversible dilation of the abdominal aorta. Smoking, genetics, male sex and increased age are major factors associated with developing AAA. Rupture contributes to around 2% of deaths in all Caucasians over 65, and there is no pharmaco-therapeutic treatment. Methylation is an epigenetic modification to DNA, where a methyl group is added to a cytosine base 5' to a guanine (CpG dinucleotide). Methylation patterns are long term, inherited signatures that can induce changes in gene transcription, and can be affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Methylation changes are involved in hypertension and atherosclerosis, both of which are risk factors of, and often coexist with AAA. Extra-cellular matrix degradation and inflammation, both important pathological hallmarks of AAA, are also promoted by changes in CpG methylation in other diseases. Additionally, the adverse effects of smoking and ageing take place largely through epigenetic manipulation of the genome. Every factor associated with AAA appears to be associated with DNA methylation, yet no direct evidence confirms this. Future work to identify a link between global methylation and AAA, and differentially methylated regions may reveal valuable insight. The identification of a common epigenetic switching process may also signify a promising future for AAA pharmaco-therapeutic strategies. Epigenetic therapies are being designed to target pathogenic CpG methylation changes in other diseases, and it is feasible that these therapies may also be applicable to AAA in the future. PMID:25974102

  12. The Benefits of Internal Thoracic Artery Catheterization in Patients With Chronic Abdominal Aortic Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ilic, Nikola Davidovic, Lazar; Koncar, Igor; Dragas, Marko; Markovic, Miroslav; Colic, Momcilo; Cinara, Ilijas

    2011-04-15

    Occlusion of the abdominal aorta may be caused by an embolic lesion, but more commonly by thrombotic disease at the aortoiliac area, progressing retrograde. However, the visualization of the distal run-off via internal thoracic-epigastric inferior artery collateral channel may be a very important diagnostic tool, especially in countries with poor technical equipment. This study was designed to show the benefit of the selective internal thoracic angiography in cases with complete aortic occlusion. We present 30 patients with chronic aortic abdominal occlusion who were submitted to the transaxillary aortography and selective ITA angiography with purpose of distal run off evaluation. Angiographic evaluation was performed by two independent radiologists according to previously defined classification. Good angiographic score via internal thoracic angiography by first observer was achieved in 19 (63.3%) patients and in 18 (60%) by a second observer. Transaxillary aortography showed inferior results: good angiographic score by the first observer in six (20%) patients and by the second observer in three (3%) patients. Low extremity run-off is better visualized during internal thoracic angiography than during transaxillary aortography.

  13. Fluid Characteristics in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) and Its Correlation to Thrombus Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Rubing; Bar-Yoseph, Pinhas Z.; Lasheras, Juan

    2008-11-01

    It has been observed that most large Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) develop an intraluminal thrombus as they progressively enlarge. Previous studies have suggested that the build up of the thrombus may be associated with the altered hemodynamic patterns that arise inside the AAA. We have performed a parametrical computational study of the flow patterns inside enlarging AAA to investigate the possible mechanism controlling the thrombus formation. Pulsatile blood flows were simulated in idealized models of fusiform aneurysms with different dilatation ratios and the effects of shear-activated platelet accumulation and platelet/wall interaction were evaluated based on the calculated flow fields. The platelet activation level (PAL) was determined by computing the integral over time of flow shear stresses exerted over the platelets as they are transported throughout the aneurysm. Our results have shown that the values of PAL in AAAs are in fact smaller than the maximum value obtained in a healthy abdominal aorta. However, we show that the transportation of blood cells towards the wall and the formation of stagnation points on the aneurysm's wall play more significant roles in thrombus formation than PAL.

  14. Flow topology in patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms during rest and exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn

    2012-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent, localized widening of the abdominal aorta. Flow in AAA is dominated by recirculation, transitional turbulence and low wall shear stress. Image-based CFD has recently enabled high resolution flow data in patient-specific AAA. This study aims to characterize transport in different AAAs, and understand flow topology changes from rest to exercise, which has been a hypothesized therapy due to potential acute changes in flow. Velocity data in 6 patients with different AAA morphology were obtained using image-based CFD under rest and exercise conditions. Finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields were computed from integration of the velocity data to identify dominant Lagrangian coherent structures. The flow topology was compared between rest and exercise conditions. For all patients, the systolic inflow jet resulted in coherent vortex formation. The evolution of this vortex varied greatly between patients and was a major determinant of transport inside the AAA during diastole. During exercise, previously observed stagnant regions were either replaced with undisturbed flow, regions of uniform high mixing, or persisted relatively unchanged. A mix norm measure provided a quantitative assessment of mixing. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, grant number 5R21HL108272.

  15. Evolution of the wall shear stresses during the progressive enlargement of symmetric abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, A.-V.; Sparks, S. R.; Chomaz, J.-M.; Lasheras, J. C.

    2006-08-01

    The changes in the evolution of the spatial and temporal distribution of the wall shear stresses (WSS) and gradients of wall shear stresses (GWSS) at different stages of the enlargement of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are important in understanding the aetiology and progression of this vascular disease since they affect the wall structural integrity, primarily via the changes induced on the shape, functions and metabolism of the endothelial cells. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed in in vitro aneurysm models, while changing their geometric parameters systematically. It has been shown that, even at the very early stages of the disease, i.e. increase in the diameter ≤ 50%, the flow separates from the wall and a large vortex ring, usually followed by internal shear layers, is created. These lead to the generation of WSS that drastically differ in mean and fluctuating components from the healthy vessel. Inside the AAA, the mean WSS becomes negative along most of the aneurysmal wall and the magnitude of the WSS can be as low as 26% of the value in a healthy abdominal aorta.

  16. Chronic Contained Rupture of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: From Diagnosis to Endovascular Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto Chiocchi, Marcello; Maresca, Luciano; Pipitone, Vincenzo; Messina, Massimo; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2008-07-15

    A male patient, 69 years old, presented with fever, leucocytosis, and persistent low back pain; he also had an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), as previously diagnosed by Doppler UltraSound (US), and was admitted to our hospital. On multislice computed tomography (msCT), a large abdominal mass having no definite border and involving the aorta and both of the psoas muscles was seen. This mass involved the forth-lumbar vertebra with lysis, thus simulating AAA rupture into a paraspinal collection; it was initially considered a paraspinal abscess. After magnetic resonance imaging examination and culture of the fluid aspirated from the mass, no infective organisms were found; therefore, a diagnosisof chronically contained AAA rupture was made, and an aortic endoprosthesis was subsequently implanted. The patient was discharged with decreased lumbar pain. At 12-month follow-up, no evidence of leakage was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of endoprosthesis implantation in a patient, who was a poor candidate for surgical intervention due to renal failure, leucocytosis and high fever, having a chronically contained AAA ruptured simulatingspodilodiscitis abscess. Appropriate diagnosis and therapy resolved potentially crippling pathology and avoided surgical graft-related complications.

  17. The Effects of Anisotropy on the Stress Analyses of Patient-Specific Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Vande Geest, Jonathan P.; Schmidt, David E.; Sacks, Michael S.; Vorp, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The local dilation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta, termed an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), is often times asymptomatic and may eventually result in rupture an event associated with a significant mortality rate. The estimation of in-vivo stresses within AAAs has been proposed as a useful tool to predict the likelihood of rupture. For the current work, a previously-derived anisotropic relation for the AAA wall was implemented into patient-specific finite element simulations of AAA. There were 35 AAAs simulated in the current work which were broken up into three groups: elective repairs (n = 21), non-ruptured repairs (n = 5), and ruptured repairs (n = 9). Peak stresses and strains were compared using the anisotropic and isotropic constitutive relations. There were significant increases in peak stress when using the anisotropic relationship (p<0.001), even in the absence of the ILT (p = 0.014). Rutpured AAAs resulted in elevated peak stresses as compared to non-ruptured AAAs when using both the isotropic and anisotropic simulations, however these comparisons did not reach significance (pani = 0.55, piso = 0.73). While neither the isotropic or anisotropic simulations were able to significantly discriminate ruptured vs. non-ruptured AAAs, the lower p-value when using the anisotropic model suggests including it into patient-specific AAAs may help better identify AAAs at high risk. PMID:18398680

  18. Morphometric Approach to Pulp Fibroblast Development in Tooth Germ

    PubMed Central

    Căruntu, Irina-Draga; Săvinescu, Sergiu Daniel; Amălinei, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    This paper builds a morphometric framework for the analysis of dental pulp fibroblast evolution during tooth development. We investigated 15 tooth germs (cases) organized, by histological criteria, in three groups corresponding to cap, early bell, and late bell stages, respectively. Each group comprised five cases. The morphometric description used the following parameters: area (A), perimeter (P)—automatically extracted by a color segmentation technique, and form factor (FF)—calculated as 4πA/P2. The designed framework operated at inter- and intragroup levels. The intergroup analysis quantified the differences between groups, in the sense of a relative distance (RD) adequately defined by mean-value scaling. We showed that the stage of early bell is approximately 5 times closer to late bell than to cap. The quantification procedure required concomitant information about A, P parameters (as P versus A dependences, or FF values), whereas the procedure failed for A or P separately used. The intragroup analysis quantified the similarity of the cases belonging to the same stage. We proved that, unlike the intergroup tests, the individual exploitation of all three descriptors A, P, and FF is effective, yielding highly compatible results. Within any group, most cases presented RDs less than 10% from the group mean value, regardless of the descriptor type. PMID:25057501

  19. The Morphometrics of “Masculinity” in Human Faces

    PubMed Central

    Mitteroecker, Philipp; Windhager, Sonja; Müller, Gerd B.; Schaefer, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    In studies of social inference and human mate preference, a wide but inconsistent array of tools for computing facial masculinity has been devised. Several of these approaches implicitly assumed that the individual expression of sexually dimorphic shape features, which we refer to as maleness, resembles facial shape features perceived as masculine. We outline a morphometric strategy for estimating separately the face shape patterns that underlie perceived masculinity and maleness, and for computing individual scores for these shape patterns. We further show how faces with different degrees of masculinity or maleness can be constructed in a geometric morphometric framework. In an application of these methods to a set of human facial photographs, we found that shape features typically perceived as masculine are wide faces with a wide inter-orbital distance, a wide nose, thin lips, and a large and massive lower face. The individual expressions of this combination of shape features—the masculinity shape scores—were the best predictor of rated masculinity among the compared methods (r = 0.5). The shape features perceived as masculine only partly resembled the average face shape difference between males and females (sexual dimorphism). Discriminant functions and Procrustes distances to the female mean shape were poor predictors of perceived masculinity. PMID:25671667

  20. A geometric morphometric analysis of hominin upper first molar shape.

    PubMed

    Gmez-Robles, A; Martinn-Torres, M; Bermdez de Castro, J M; Margvelashvili, A; Bastir, M; Arsuaga, J L; Prez-Prez, A; Estebaranz, F; Martnez, L M

    2007-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed interesting differences in upper first molar morphology across the hominin fossil record, particularly significant between H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis. Usually these analyses have been performed by means of classic morphometric methods, including the measurement of relative cusp areas or the angles defined between cusps. Although these studies have provided valuable information for the morphological characterization of some hominin species, we believe that the analysis of this particular tooth could be more conclusive for taxonomic assignment. In this study, we have applied geometric morphometric methods to explore the morphological variability of the upper first molar (M(1)) across the human fossil record. Our emphasis focuses on the study of the phenetic relationships among the European middle Pleistocene populations (designated as H. heidelbergensis) with H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens, but the inclusion of Australopithecus and early Homo specimens has helped us to assess the polarity of the observed traits. H. neanderthalensis presents a unique morphology characterized by a relatively distal displacement of the lingual cusps and protrusion in the external outline of a large and bulging hypocone. This morphology can be found in a less pronounced degree in the European early and middle Pleistocene populations, and reaches its maximum expression with the H. neanderthalensis lineage. In contrast, modern humans retain the primitive morphology with a square occlusal polygon associated with a round external outline. PMID:17599390

  1. Morphometric analysis of cerebral ventricular system from MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Aamer; Hu, QingMao; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.

    2004-04-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid filled ventricular system is an essential part of brain. The volume, shape and size of this ventricular system remain more or less constant and various pathologies directly or indirectly affect them. Morphometric analysis of cerebral ventricular system is important for evaluating changes due to growth, aging, intrinsic and extrinsic pathologies. Previous quantification efforts using ex vivo techniques suffered considerable error due to deformation of slices during sectioning, and numerous other factors. In vivo studies using air or contrast media also introduce volumetric changes in the ventricles thus giving erroneous quantitative information. Imaging of ventricular anatomy avoids these problems and allows repetitive studies following progression of ventricular system changes due to disease or natural processes. We have developed a methodology for automated extraction of ventricular system from MR neuroimages. Once extracted, landmarks are located on the surface of ventricular system automatically. These landmarks are then used for calculation of the ventricular shape, volume and size. A total of 20 brain ventricular systems were analyzed. The morphometric dimensions of the ventricles are presented in this paper. This study forms an initial basis for more advanced work on ventricular segmentation and morphometry.

  2. Application of Multilevel Models to Morphometric Data. Part 2. Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Tsybrovskyy, O.; Berghold, A.

    2003-01-01

    Multilevel organization of morphometric data (cells are nested within patients) requires special methods for studying correlations between karyometric features. The most distinct feature of these methods is that separate correlation (covariance) matrices are produced for every level in the hierarchy. In karyometric research, the cell?level (i.e., within?tumor) correlations seem to be of major interest. Beside their biological importance, these correlation coefficients (CC) are compulsory when dimensionality reduction is required. Using MLwiN, a dedicated program for multilevel modeling, we show how to use multivariate multilevel models (MMM) to obtain and interpret CC in each of the levels. A comparison with two usual, single?level statistics shows that MMM represent the only way to obtain correct cell?level correlation coefficients. The summary statistics method (take average values across each patient) produces patient?level CC only, and the pooling method (merge all cells together and ignore patients as units of analysis) yields incorrect CC at all. We conclude that multilevel modeling is an indispensable tool for studying correlations between morphometric variables. PMID:14501085

  3. Validating whole slide digital morphometric analysis as a microscopy tool.

    PubMed

    Diller, Robert B; Kellar, Robert S

    2015-02-01

    Whole slide imaging (WSI) can be used to quantify multiple responses within tissue sections during histological analysis. Feature Analysis on Consecutive Tissue Sections (FACTS®) allows the investigator to perform digital morphometric analysis (DMA) within specified regions of interest (ROI) across multiple serial sections at faster rates when compared with manual morphometry methods. Using FACTS® in conjunction with WSI is a powerful analysis tool, which allows DMA to target specific ROI across multiple tissue sections stained for different biomarkers. DMA may serve as an appropriate alternative to classic, manual, histologic morphometric measures, which have historically relied on the selection of high-powered fields of views and manual scoring (e.g., a gold standard). In the current study, existing preserved samples were used to determine if DMA would provide similar results to manual counting methods. Rodent hearts (n=14, left ventricles) were stained with Masson's trichrome, and reacted for cluster of differentiation 68 (CD-68). This study found no statistical significant difference between a classic, manual method and the use of digital algorithms to perform the similar counts (p=0.38). DMA offers researchers the ability to accurately evaluate morphological characteristics in a reproducible fashion without investigator bias and with higher throughput. PMID:25399639

  4. [Treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Debus, E S; Carpenter, S W; Tsilimparis, N; Larena-Avellaneda, A; Klbel, T

    2013-05-01

    The treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) has changed significantly since the introduction of endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). In terms of perioperative morbidity and mortality, randomized multicenter trials revealed results in favour of EVAR compared to open reconstruction. However, EVAR is associated with possible late complications caused by endoleaks, stent migration, kinking and/or overstenting of side branches, making life-long follow-up necessary. Since the majority of patients requiring therapy are elderly and exhibit attendant comorbidities, EVAR has become the procedure of choice in those patients with favourable anatomy. Medicamentous and conservative treatment may be relevant in patients with small to medium-sized aneurysms. Since smoking is one of the major risk factors for the development of AAA, all patients should be advised to stop smoking. Studies on long-term statin therapy in patients following surgical AAA repair showed a reduction in both overall and cardiovascular mortality; AAA patients should therefore receive statins for secondary prevention. PMID:23591937

  5. Abdominal surgery. [Radiology, screening techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, C.E.; Malt, R.A.

    1983-03-31

    A new art of ''interventional radiology'' has been developed in the past few years. Major applications include postoperative instrumentation of the biliary tract, percutaneous biliary drainage, tumor biopsy, abscess drainage, and intestinal-intubation procedures. Intervention by angiography encompasses injection of such substances as Pitressin (vasopressin), and embolization. These procedures have been of immense value. Fortunately, complications, such as sepsis and bleeding, have been infrequent. Computerized body tomography has also proved extremely important, particularly in the diagnosis of subphrenic abscess and pancreatic and pelvic pathology. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled-erythrocyte scans can be used to detect gastrointestinal bleeding sites. Scans can also identify hepatobiliary disease and splenic injury or differentiate the cause of jaundice. /sup 111/Indium-labeled autologous leukocytes may be useful in differentiating a pancreatic abscess from a pseudocyst. The advantage of indium scans over /sup 67/Ga scans is that a shorter time is required for maximum resolution: gallium requires 48 hours, indium 4. Another advantage is that indium is cleared through the liver and spleen and is not secreted into the bowel. /sup 67/Ga is absorbed by lymphomas and hepatocarcinomas. Nuclear magnetic resonance has many possible uses in abdominal surgery, but so far little information is available. This technique has been used to detect an empyema of the gallbladder that was not diagnosed by ultrasound. Among hepatic lesions, it can easily differentiate tumors from cysts and in that regard is superior to both ultrasound and scan. (JMT)

  6. AGE-DEPENDENT ASCENDING AORTA MECHANICS ASSESSED THROUGH MULTIPHASE CT

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Caitlin; Sun, Wei; Primiano, Charles; McKay, Raymond; Elefteriades, John

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of the age- and gender-specific in vivo mechanical characteristics of the ascending aorta (AA) will allow for identification of abnormalities aside from changes brought on by aging alone. Multiphase clinical CT scans of 45 male patients between the ages of 30 and 79 years were analyzed to assess age-dependent in vivo AA characteristics. The three-dimensional AA geometry for each patient was reconstructed from the CT scans for 9–10 phases throughout the cardiac cycle. The AA circumference was measured during each phase and was used to determine the corresponding diameter, circumferential strain, and wall tension at each phase. The pressure-strain modulus was also determined for each patient. The mean diastolic AA diameter was significantly smaller among young (42.6±5.2 years) at 29.9±2.8 mm than old patients (69.0±5.2 years) at 33.2±3.2 mm. The circumferential AA strain from end-diastole to peak-systole decreased from 0.092±0.03 in young to 0.056±0.03 in old patients. The pressure-strain modulus increased two-fold from 68.4±30.5 kPa in young to 162.0±93.5 kPa in old patients, and the systolic AA wall tension increased from 268.5±31.3 kPa in young to 304.9±49.2 kPa in old patients. The AA dilates and stiffens with aging which increases the vessel wall tension, likely predisposing aneurysm and dissection. PMID:23817767

  7. Endovascular Stenting for Unsuccessful Angioplasty of the Aorta in Aortoarteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, Sanjay; Kaul, Upkar A.; Arora, Ramesh

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: The efficacy and safety of endovascular stent implantation to correct dissection or a suboptimal result after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was evaluated in patients suffering from aortic stenosis due to aortoarteritis. Methods: Twelve children and young adults [aged (mean {+-} SD) 18.2 {+-} 8.7 years] underwent stent implantation after PTA of the aorta, seven for obstructive dissection, four for ineffective balloon dilatation, and one for recurrent restenosis. Nine patients underwent implantation of self-expandable stents and three received balloon-expandable Palmaz stents. Results: Stent implantation could be successfully performed in all 12 patients. After stent implantation, the peak systolic pressure gradient decreased from 91 {+-} 33.5 mmHg to 12.4 {+-} 12.5 mmHg (p < 0.001). The diameter of the stenosed segment increased from 4.6 {+-} 0.8 mm to 11.1 {+-} 1.9 mm (p < 0.001). The dissection was completely covered in all seven patients with dissection. Except for epigastric pain with vomiting in one patient, there was no complication. On follow-up, over 12-57 months (mean 26.8 {+-} 10.8 months), 11 patients (91.6%) had marked improvement in their blood pressure. Patients with congestive heart failure and claudication also showed improvement. Repeat catheterization in five patients, between 6-30 months (mean 16.8 {+-} 9.1 months) after stent implantation, showed sustained improvement in four and a fusiform, long segment, intrastent restenosis after 30 months in one child. The stenosis was safely redilated. Conclusion: Endovascular aortic stent implantation is safe and provides good immediate relief in patients with unsatisfactory results after balloon angioplasty. Improvement is sustained in most patients on intermediate-term follow-up.

  8. Current Evidence and Insights about Genetics in Thoracic Aorta Disease

    PubMed Central

    Muneretto, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also sporadic forms have been found to be potentially associated with genetic disorders, as highlighted by the analysis of rare variants and expression of specific microRNAs. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive review of the role of genetic causes in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms, by analyzing in detail the current evidence of genetic alterations in syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehler-Danlos, familial or sporadic forms, or forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve. PMID:24453931

  9. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  10. Intravenous dihydroergotamine therapy for pediatric abdominal migraines.

    PubMed

    Raina, Madiha; Chelimsky, Gisela; Chelimsky, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal migraines present with debilitating symptoms in adolescence. At our institution, the gastroenterology, neurology, and autonomic departments collaborated in treating patients with such presentations. This case series describes 6 patients who were given intravenous dihydroergotamine (DHE) for presumed abdominal migraines. DHE was only used when other agents like amitriptyline, verapamil, topiramate, or depakote had proved ineffective. DHE was started at 0.5 mg dose and on average 7 to 9 mg were given on each hospitalization. Patient ages ranged from 13 to 19 years with the majority being female. One patient did not respond to treatment. One patient was admitted 4 times for symptoms of abdominal migraines resolving with DHE. The average time between symptom relapse was about 5 to 12 months. Five of our 6 patients responded to the infusion without significant side effects. Based on these case series, DHE may be a treatment option in children with intractable abdominal migraine. PMID:23820001

  11. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: A ticking time bomb.

    PubMed

    Howell, Christopher M; Rabener, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a clinical challenge in risk assessment, recognition, treatment, and prevention. This article explores the pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of AAA. PMID:26840606

  12. Closure of massive abdominal wall defects: a case report using the abdominal reapproximation anchor (ABRA) system.

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, Roderick M; Khuthaila, Dana K; Khalil, Abdullah J; Hammond, Dennis C

    2006-11-01

    Closure of massive abdominal wounds can be a challenging surgical problem. Presented here is a novel technique for reconstitution of the abdominal wall after severe internal injuries complicated by sepsis required a prolonged period of open abdominal dressing changes. By using an innovative and effective progressive tension band system, the fascial edges could be reapproximated over time allowing primary wound closure. This system is recommended as an effective instrument to accomplish closure of these difficult wounds. PMID:17060742

  13. Correlation between intra-abdominal pressure and pulmonary volumes after superior and inferior abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    de Cleva, Roberto; de Assumpção, Marianna Siqueira; Sasaya, Flavia; Chaves, Natalia Zuniaga; Santo, Marco Aurelio; Fló, Claudia; Lunardi, Adriana C.; Filho, Wilson Jacob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing abdominal surgery are at risk for pulmonary complications. The principal cause of postoperative pulmonary complications is a significant reduction in pulmonary volumes (FEV1 and FVC) to approximately 65-70% of the predicted value. Another frequent occurrence after abdominal surgery is increased intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study was to correlate changes in pulmonary volumes with the values of intra-abdominal pressure after abdominal surgery, according to the surgical incision in the abdomen (superior or inferior). METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 60 patients who underwent elective open abdominal surgery with a surgical time greater than 240 minutes. Patients were evaluated before surgery and on the 3rd postoperative day. Spirometry was assessed by maximal respiratory maneuvers and flow-volume curves. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured in the postoperative period using the bladder technique. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 56±13 years, and 41.6% 25 were female; 50 patients (83.3%) had malignant disease. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical incision (superior or inferior). The lung volumes in the preoperative period showed no abnormalities. After surgery, there was a significant reduction in both FEV1 (1.6±0.6 L) and FVC (2.0±0.7 L) with maintenance of FEV1/FVC of 0.8±0.2 in both groups. The maximum intra-abdominal pressure values were similar (p = 0.59) for the two groups. There was no association between pulmonary volumes and intra-abdominal pressure measured in any of the groups analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that superior and inferior abdominal surgery determines hypoventilation, unrelated to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Patients at high risk of pulmonary complications should receive respiratory care even if undergoing inferior abdominal surgery. PMID:25029580

  14. Selective inhibition of NADPH oxidase reverses the over contraction of diabetic rat aorta?

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Atif ur; Dugic, Elma; Benham, Chris; Lione, Lisa; Mackenzie, Louise S.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal vascular responsiveness in diabetes has been attributed to a number of changes in contractile pathways, affected in part by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been reported that NADPH oxidase (NOX) is increased in diabetic (streptozotocin treated; STZ) rat arteries; however the pharmacological agents used to inhibit NOX activity are known to be unsuitable for in vitro studies and have a high level of non-selectivity. Here we have used the highly selective NOX inhibitor VAS2870 in diabetic rat aorta and compared its effects with apocynin, SOD, and allopurinol on phenylephrine and U46619 induced contraction. Male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with 65mg/kg STZ and development of diabetes was confirmed by testing blood glucose levels. Rats were killed by CO2 asphyxiation, and the thoracic aorta removed and mounted in an organ bath under a tension of 1g. Diabetic rat aortas exhibit a greatly increased response to phenylephrine, which was reduced to a level consistent with control rat aorta by 10?5M VAS2870 and 150U/ml SOD. Incubation with VAS2870 led to an increase in normal rat aorta contraction, but led to a significant reduction in phenylephrine and U46619 induced tone in diabetic rat aorta, which indicates that ROS in diabetic rats directly contributes to these contractile responses. Apocynin and allopurinol had no effect on contraction in diabetic or normal rat aorta. This data is the first to show that selective inhibition of NOX reduces diabetic arterial contraction in direct comparison with inhibition of other known contributors of ROS. PMID:25460721

  15. Selective inhibition of NADPH oxidase reverses the over contraction of diabetic rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Atif Ur; Dugic, Elma; Benham, Chris; Lione, Lisa; Mackenzie, Louise S

    2013-12-11

    Abnormal vascular responsiveness in diabetes has been attributed to a number of changes in contractile pathways, affected in part by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been reported that NADPH oxidase (NOX) is increased in diabetic (streptozotocin treated; STZ) rat arteries; however the pharmacological agents used to inhibit NOX activity are known to be unsuitable for in vitro studies and have a high level of non-selectivity. Here we have used the highly selective NOX inhibitor VAS2870 in diabetic rat aorta and compared its effects with apocynin, SOD, and allopurinol on phenylephrine and U46619 induced contraction. Male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with 65mg/kg STZ and development of diabetes was confirmed by testing blood glucose levels. Rats were killed by CO2 asphyxiation, and the thoracic aorta removed and mounted in an organ bath under a tension of 1g. Diabetic rat aortas exhibit a greatly increased response to phenylephrine, which was reduced to a level consistent with control rat aorta by 10(-5)M VAS2870 and 150U/ml SOD. Incubation with VAS2870 led to an increase in normal rat aorta contraction, but led to a significant reduction in phenylephrine and U46619 induced tone in diabetic rat aorta, which indicates that ROS in diabetic rats directly contributes to these contractile responses. Apocynin and allopurinol had no effect on contraction in diabetic or normal rat aorta. This data is the first to show that selective inhibition of NOX reduces diabetic arterial contraction in direct comparison with inhibition of other known contributors of ROS. PMID:25460721

  16. 6-Gingerol alleviates exaggerated vasoconstriction in diabetic rat aorta through direct vasodilation and nitric oxide generation

    PubMed Central

    Ghareib, Salah A; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Elberry, Ahmed A; Azhar, Ahmad; Watson, Malcolm L; Banjar, Zainy Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect and potential mechanism of action of 6-gingerol on alterations of vascular reactivity in the isolated aorta from diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into two experimental groups, control and diabetics. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg kg?1), and the rats were left for 10 weeks to develop vascular complications. The effect of in vitro incubation with 6-gingerol (0.33 ?M) on the vasoconstrictor response of the isolated diabetic aortae to phenylephrine and the vasodilator response to acetylcholine was examined. Effect of 6-gingerol was also examined on aortae incubated with methylglyoxal as an advanced glycation end product (AGE). To investigate the mechanism of action of 6-gingerol, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (100 ?M), guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (5 ?M), calcium-activated potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (10 mM), and cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (5 ?M) were added 30 minutes before assessing the direct vasorelaxant effect of 6-gingerol. Moreover, in vitro effects of 6-gingerol on NO release and the effect of 6-gingerol on AGE production were examined. Results showed that incubation of aortae with 6-gingerol (0.310 ?M) alleviated the exaggerated vasoconstriction of diabetic aortae to phenylephrine in a concentration-dependent manner with no significant effect on the impaired relaxatory response to acetylcholine. Similar results were seen in the aortae exposed to methylglyoxal. In addition, 6-gingerol induced a direct vasodilation effect that was significantly inhibited by N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride and methylene blue. Furthermore, 6-gingerol stimulated aortic NO generation but had no effect on AGE formation. In conclusion, 6-gingerol ameliorates enhanced vascular contraction in diabetic aortae, which may be partially attributed to its ability to increase the production of NO and stimulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate. PMID:26609223

  17. Comparison of pathways of copper metabolism in aorta and liver. A functional test of metallothionein.

    PubMed Central

    Balthrop, J E; Dameron, C T; Harris, E D

    1982-01-01

    Soluble fractions from chick liver and aorta were examined for copper-binding proteins. In liver a zinc-binding thionein appeared to be the major binding protein for copper. Aortic tissue contained only traces of this thionein protein. Unlike liver, moderate amounts of soluble copper in aorta showed no association with macromolecules. Chicks fed on copper-deficient diets for 8 days had one-third the liver copper concentrations of controls. Aortic copper concentration was decreased only slightly, but the activity of lysyl oxidase, a copper-dependent enzyme in aorta, was decreased significantly. Treating the deficient chicks with CuSO4 (1 mg/kg) restored liver copper rapidly. The increase correlated with the binding of copper to a 10 000-mol.wt. component in the soluble fraction. Aortic copper concentrations responded much less to the CuSO4 treatment, but lysyl oxidase activity was again measurable in the tissue. Radioactive isotopes of copper bound almost exclusively to the 10 000-mol.wt. component in liver and to components of mol.wt. 30 000 or above in aorta. Hardly any of the administered radioactivity appeared with the 10 000-mol.wt. components in aorta, and none was found with unbound copper. The 30 000-mol.wt. components in aorta showed superoxide dismutase activity that was sensitive to NaCN. They also showed the highest specific activity of copper of any other aorta component. A clear distinction was seen between the metabolism of copper in liver and aortic tissues. Whereas a copper thionein, metallothionein, was a major component in the liver pathway, it is doubtful that this protein plays a major role in the intracellular metabolism of copper in aortic tissue. PMID:7115349

  18. Peripheral subcutaneous stimulation for intractable abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Barolat, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral subcutaneous stimulation has been utilized for a variety of painful conditions affecting the abdominal wall, including sequelae of hernia repair, painful surgical scars, ilio-inguinal neuritis. It has also occasionally been shown to be effective in patients with intractable abdominal visceral pain. Since this is a very recent modality, no large series or prospective studies exist. The results, however, are promising and certainly warrant further investigation. PMID:21422777

  19. Management of Postoperative Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Howard T

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative incisional pain is expected after surgery. However, when a patient is complaining of pain months after surgery, this can be a source of frustration and confusion to the patient and the surgeon. Whether the pain is a result of myofascial pain, incisional hernia, or nerve injury, understanding potential sources of abdominal wall pain can simplify this diagnostic dilemma. This chapter will focus on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of postsurgical abdominal wall pain. PMID:26512441

  20. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as immunodeficiency and prolonged antibacterial exposure. Therapy should focus on the obtainment of adequate source control and adequate use of antimicrobial therapy dictated by individual patient risk factors. Other critical issues remain debated and more controversies are still open mainly because of the limited number of randomized controlled trials. PMID:20302628

  1. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  2. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuehai; Lu, Huixia; Huang, Ziyang; Lin, Huili; Lei, Zhenmin; Tang, Mengxiong; Gao, Fei; Dong, Mei; Li, Rongda; Lin, Ling

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • The spleen weights and glomerular areas were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • Expressions of IgG and C3 in glomeruli were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • IgG, C3 and macrophage infiltration in aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. - Abstract: Background: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup −/−}) mice is a classic model of atherosclerosis. We have found that ApoE{sup −/−} mice showed splenomegaly, higher titers of serum anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibody compared with C57B6/L (B6) mice. However, whether ApoE{sup −/−} mice show autoimmune injury remains unclear. Methods and results: Six females and six males in each group, ApoE{sup −/−}, Fas{sup −/−} and B6 mice, were used in this study. The titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein were measured by ELISA after 4 months of high-fat diet. The spleen weight and the glomerular area were determined. The expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in kidney and atherosclerotic plaque were detected by immunostaining followed by morphometric analysis. Similar to the characteristics of Fas{sup −/−} mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ApoE{sup −/−} mice, especially female, displayed significant increases of spleen weight and glomerular area when compared to B6 mice. Also, elevated titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein. Moreover, the expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in glomeruli and aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. In addition, the IgG and C3 expressions in glomeruli and plaques significantly increased (or a trend of increase) in female ApoE{sup −/−} mice compared with males. Conclusions: Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta.

  3. The effect of asymmetry in abdominal aortic aneurysms under physiologically realistic pulsatile flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Finol, E A; Keyhani, K; Amon, C H

    2003-04-01

    In the abdominal segment of the human aorta under a patient's average resting conditions, pulsatile blood flow exhibits complex laminar patterns with secondary flows induced by adjacent branches and irregular vessel geometries. The flow dynamics becomes more complex when there is a pathological condition that causes changes in the normal structural composition of the vessel wall, for example, in the presence of an aneurysm. This work examines the hemodynamics of pulsatile blood flow in hypothetical three-dimensional models of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Numerical predictions of blood flow patterns and hemodynamic stresses in AAAs are performed in single-aneurysm, asymmetric, rigid wall models using the finite element method. We characterize pulsatile flow dynamics in AAAs for average resting conditions by means of identifying regions of disturbed flow and quantifying the disturbance by evaluating flow-induced stresses at the aneurysm wall, specifically wall pressure and wall shear stress. Physiologically realistic abdominal aortic blood flow is simulated under pulsatile conditions for the range of time-average Reynolds numbers 50 < or = Rem < or = 300, corresponding to a range of peak Reynolds numbers 262.5 < or = Repeak < or = 1575. The vortex dynamics induced by pulsatile flow in AAAs is depicted by a sequence of four different flow phases in one period of the cardiac pulse. Peak wall shear stress and peak wall pressure are reported as a function of the time-average Reynolds number and aneurysm asymmetry. The effect of asymmetry in hypothetically shaped AAAs is to increase the maximum wall shear stress at peak flow and to induce the appearance of secondary flows in late diastole. PMID:12751282

  4. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) Assays in Tissue from Human Ascending Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Rueda-Martnez, Carmen; Lamas, Oscar; Matar, Mara Jos; Robledo-Carmona, Juan; Snchez-Espn, Gemma; Jimnez-Navarro, Manuel; Such-Martnez, Miguel; Fernndez, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Dilatation of the ascending aorta (AAD) is a prevalent aortopathy that occurs frequently associated with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), the most common human congenital cardiac malformation. The molecular mechanisms leading to AAD associated with BAV are still poorly understood. The search for differentially expressed genes in diseased tissue by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is an invaluable tool to fill this gap. However, studies dedicated to identify reference genes necessary for normalization of mRNA expression in aortic tissue are scarce. In this report, we evaluate the qPCR expression of six candidate reference genes in tissue from the ascending aorta of 52 patients with a variety of clinical and demographic characteristics, normal and dilated aortas, and different morphologies of the aortic valve (normal aorta and normal valve n?=?30; dilated aorta and normal valve n?=?10; normal aorta and BAV n?=?4; dilated aorta and BAV n?=?8). The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was determined with three statistical algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper. The expression analyses showed that the most stable genes for the three algorithms employed were CDKN1?, POLR2A and CASC3, independently of the structure of the aorta and the valve morphology. In conclusion, we propose the use of these three genes as reference genes for mRNA expression analysis in human ascending aorta. However, we suggest searching for specific reference genes when conducting qPCR experiments with new cohort of samples. PMID:24841551

  5. Sand mining and morphometric dynamics along Ologe Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaddeus, D.; Odunuga, S.

    2015-04-01

    The study focuses on the sand mining activities and morphometric dynamics of Ologe Lagoon, in Lagos, Nigeria. It determines the sand mining activities and morphometric dynamics of Ologe Lagoon catchment area, the quantity of sand mined per unit time, and the extent of environmental degradation due to the continuous sand mining activities. Topographic maps of the 1985 and 2013 Ikonos satellite imagery were used to identify the morphometric dynamics of the area. Two hypotheses were generated to determine if there are significant differences between the means of the sampled population that lost properties due to flooding, and to determine if there was a correlation between building subsidence and loss of property; it was tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with a correlation coefficient at 0.05 α significance level. The results of geometric measurement of the Ologe Lagoon between the two years interval show that perimeter width and circularity of the basin had reduced and shrunk, while the form factor remains the same at 0.15 km2. The basin elongation increased significantly by 0.01 km2, thus, increasing the rate at which water will be supplied to the lagoon. The ration of the form factor of 0.69/0.5 is close to the unity value R1, which shows a higher peak runoff; the values of the circularity ratio of 3.94/3.13 indicates circularity. This shows that the basin is circular time. The impact of the geometry indicates the development of mud flats and sandy bars, particularly at the lower portion of the lagoon; there is also modification of sediment deposition. The anthropogenic activity of sand mining causes destruction of the riparian forest around the lagoon. There is no significant difference in the means of sampled respondents regarding loss properties due to flooding, while there is a correlation between building subsidence and loss of life. It is recommended that a road map should be developed and implemented by the relevant agency of the government to guide anthropogenic activities around the lagoon to enhance sustainable development.

  6. Regional flood susceptibility analysis in mountainous areas through the use of morphometric and land cover indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelis, M. C.; Werner, M.

    2013-12-01

    A classification of susceptibility to flooding of 106 mountain watersheds was carried out in Bogot (Colombia) through the use of an index composed of a morphometric indicator and a land cover indicator. Susceptibility was considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flows. Morphological variables recognised in literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows were used to construct the morphometric indicator by applying principal component analysis. Subsequently, this indicator was compared with the results of debris flow propagation to assess its capacity in indentifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation of debris flows was carried out using the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the slope-area curve of the watersheds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped in four categories: size, shape, hypsometry and energy, with energy being the component that best explains the capability of a watershed to transport debris flows. However, the morphometric indicator was found to not sufficiently explain the records of past floods in the study area. Combining the morphometric indicator with land cover indicators improved the agreement, showing that even if morphometric parameters identify a high disposition to the occurrence of debris flow, improving land cover can reduce the susceptibility. On the contrary, if good morphometric conditions are present but deterioration of the land cover in the watershed takes place then the susceptibility to debris flow events increases.

  7. Effects of freezing on white perch Morone americana (Gmelin, 1789): Implications for multivariate morphometrics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that duration of freezing differentially affects whole-body morphometrics of a derived teleost. Whole-body morphometrics are frequently analyzed to test hypotheses of different species, or stocks within a species, of fishes. Specimens used for morphometric analyses are typically fixed or preserved prior to analysis, yet little research has been done on how fixation or preservation methods or duration of preservation of specimens might affect outcomes of multivariate statistical analyses of differences in shape. To determine whether whole-body morphometrics changed as a result of freezing, 23 whole-body morphometrics of age-1 white perch (Morone americana) from western Lake Erie (n = 211) were analyzed immediately after capture, after being held on ice overnight, and after freezing for 100 or 200 days. Discriminant function analysis revealed that all four groups differed significantly from one another (P < 0.0001). The first canonical axis reflected long-axis morphometrics, where there was a clear pattern of positive translation along this axis with duration of preservation. Re-classification analysis demonstrated fish were typically assigned to their original preservation class except for fish frozen 100 days, which assigned mostly to frozen 200 days. Morphometric comparisons using frozen fish must be done on fish frozen for identical periods of time to avoid biases related to the length of time they were frozen. Similar experiments should be conducted on other species and also using formalin- and alcohol-preserved specimens.

  8. Electron microscopic comparison of the tunica media of the thoracic aorta between species.

    PubMed

    Toda, T; Toda, Y; Kummerow, F A

    1984-06-01

    Previous observations indicate that the tunica media of the thoracic aorta of chickens contains two populations of cells (smooth muscle cells and connective tissue cells), whereas that of the mammalian species only contains one cell type (smooth muscle cells). It was considered that this difference in chickens: a) might occur in other avian species; b) might be a common feature in other classes from phylum chordata which are inferior to mammalia; and c) might be a special adaptation for flying animals. In order to test these hypotheses, the cytology of the tunica media of thoracic aorta was studied in five mammals (human, pig, bat, rabbit, and rat), three avian species (chicken, turkey, and pigeon), one reptile (fresh water turtle), and one amphibian (frog). All animals exhibited smooth muscle cells in the tunica media of the aorta, but only the avian species demonstrated the second major cell type (interlamellar connective tissue cells). In the avian aorta the tunica media was composed of alternating layers of smooth muscle cells and fibroblast-like connective tissue cells separated by thick elastic lamellae. It is concluded that the presence of connective tissue cells in the tunica media of the aorta may be a distinctive characteristic of birds. PMID:6474446

  9. [Videoendosurgical diagnosis and treatment of abdominal injuries in combined trauma].

    PubMed

    Sitnikov, V N; Cherkasov, M F; Litvinov, B I; Sarkisian, V A; Turbin, M V

    2006-01-01

    Experience with videolaparoscopy in 1332 patients with combined abdominal trauma is analyzed. The original method of diagnosis of traumatic abdominal multitraumas in shock patients was proposed and patented. Diagnostic and treatment algorithm for hemoperitoneum in patients with abdominal multitrauma based on USE or CT data on liquid in the abdominal cavity has been developed. Videolaparoscopy helped to avoid open surgery in 73.3% patients with dominating abdominal trauma. PMID:16883252

  10. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm diagnosed through non-contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chatra, Priyank S

    2013-01-01

    Rupture of an aneurysm is a rare complication although it is considered a common cause of death. Some of these patients present with the classic triad of symptoms such as abdominal pain, pulsatile abdominal mass and shock. Most symptoms are misleading and will only present as vague abdominal pain. Here we describe one such patient with an unusual presentation of a misleading abdominal mass which was eventually diagnosed as a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm after an emergency MRI. PMID:25003065

  11. Shaping up: a geometric morphometric approach to assemblage ecomorphology.

    PubMed

    Bower, L M; Piller, K R

    2015-09-01

    This study adopts an ecomorphological approach to test the utility of body shape as a predictor of niche relationships among a stream fish assemblage of the Tickfaw River (Lake Pontchartrain Basin) in southeastern Louisiana, U.S.A. To examine the potential influence of evolutionary constraints, analyses were performed with and without the influence of phylogeny. Fish assemblages were sampled throughout the year, and ecological data (habitat and tropic guild) and body shape (geometric morphometric) data were collected for each fish specimen. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine relationships and differences between body shape and ecological data. Results indicate that a relationship exists between body shape and trophic guild as well as flow regime, but no significant correlation between body shape and substratum was found. Body shape was a reliable indicator of position within assemblage niche space. PMID:26268468

  12. Development of human granulocyte morphometric model for scanning flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, Gennady I.; Kosmacheva, Svetlana M.; Goncharova, Natalia V.; Loiko, Valery A.

    2007-06-01

    Cell structure, shape, and size distribution are characterized by optical measurement of normal peripheral blood granulocytes in a cell suspension as applied to a cell discrimination by the solution of the direct and inverse light-scattering problems in scanning flow cytometry (SFC). The distribution laws of the cell and nuclei sizes are estimated. A morphometric model of a segmented neutrophilic granulocyte is constructed on the base of the gained data. An interrelation between the cell and nucleus metric characteristics is deduced. The obtained interrelation allows decreasing a number of independent parameters of the cell model to adapt it to the real-time discrimination of the cells. The findings can be used as input parameters for the solution of the direct and inverse light-scattering problems in SFC-dispensing with a costly and time-consuming immunophenotyping of the cells.

  13. Statistical, Morphometric, Anatomical Shape Model (Atlas) of Calcaneus

    PubMed Central

    Melinska, Aleksandra U.; Romaszkiewicz, Patryk; Wagel, Justyna; Sasiadek, Marek; Iskander, D. Robert

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to develop a morphometric and anatomically accurate atlas (statistical shape model) of calcaneus. The model is based on 18 left foot and 18 right foot computed tomography studies of 28 male individuals aged from 17 to 62 years, with no known foot pathology. A procedure for automatic atlas included extraction and identification of common features, averaging feature position, obtaining mean geometry, mathematical shape description and variability analysis. Expert manual assistance was included for the model to fulfil the accuracy sought by medical professionals. The proposed for the first time statistical shape model of the calcaneus could be of value in many orthopaedic applications including providing support in diagnosing pathological lesions, pre-operative planning, classification and treatment of calcaneus fractures as well as for the development of future implant procedures. PMID:26270812

  14. Morphometric evaluation of keratocystic odontogenic tumor before and after marsupialization.

    PubMed

    Telles, Dborah Campos; Castro, Wagner Henriques; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Souto, Giovanna Ribeiro; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the morphometric evaluation of the epithelial lining and fibrous capsule in histological specimens of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs) before and after marsupialization. Histological sections from six KOTs that had undergone marsupialization followed by enucleation were photographed. The thickness and features of the capsule and of the epithelial lining of the tumor were evaluated upon marsupialization and upon subsequent enucleation using Axion Vision software. The histological specimens taken upon marsupialization presented an epithelial lining that is typical of KOTs. After marsupialization, the enucleated specimens had a modified epithelial lining and a fibrous capsule that both presented a greater median thickness (p = 0.0277 and p = 0.0212, respectively), morphological changes, and significant enlargement. These modifications can facilitate full surgical treatment and may well be related to a low KOT recurrence rate. PMID:24346047

  15. Geometric morphometrics of the skull of Tinamidae (Aves, Palaeognathae).

    PubMed

    Degrange, Federico J; Picasso, Mariana B J

    2010-12-01

    The Tinamidae comprise exclusively Neotropical palaegnathous birds, with homogeneous body morphology and no sexual dimorphism. The goal of this work was to explore the variation in skull morphology between taxa and its possible correspondence with features such as diet or gender using geometric morphometric tools. Eleven landmarks were analyzed in 53 skulls of 4 genera that inhabit grasslands: Nothoprocta, Eudromia, Nothura and Rhynchotus. Intrageneric and intergeneric variability was analyzed. The genera studied here can be distinguished based on the geometric shape of their skull, with prenarial region length and neurocranium shape as the most outstanding features. In the genus Eudromia, males and females could be differentiated, while in the genus Nothoprocta, the species differentiated according to their trophic habits. This study allows establishing that genera and, in some cases, the gender of the Tinamidae can be differentiated based on cranial shape. PMID:21115291

  16. [Morphometric variations of the rumen ciliate, Ophryoscolex purkynjei Stein, 1858 (Ciliophora: Entodiniomorphida) from cypriot domestic goats].

    PubMed

    Mermer, Ahmet; Göçmen, Bayram; Ciçek, Kerim; Ergen, Gürsel; Sezgin, Yavuz; Yildiz, Mehmet Z

    2006-01-01

    The species Ophryoscolex purkynjei and its four formae [O. p. f. purkynjei, O. p. f. bifidobicinctus, O. p. f. bicoronatus and O. p. f. tricoronatus] from the Cypriot domestic goats (Capra hircus) have been investigated from the viewpoint of the diagnostic morphometrical characteristics. Moreover, it was demonstrated that there was significant morphometrical variations among the same formae in different host animals. As the result of our investigation, it has been suggested that all of the morphometrical variations determined may originate from the individual physiological differences of the host animals (e.g. the other ciliate fauna, bacterial population, inter-specific antagonism etc.). PMID:17160863

  17. Outline-based morphometrics, an overlooked method in arthropod studies?

    PubMed

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kaba, D; Solano, P; Dupraz, M; McCoy, K D; Jaramillo-O, N

    2014-12-01

    Modern methods allow a geometric representation of forms, separating size and shape. In entomology, as well as in many other fields involving arthropod studies, shape variation has proved useful for species identification and population characterization. In medical entomology, it has been applied to very specific questions such as population structure, reinfestation of insecticide-treated areas and cryptic species recognition. For shape comparisons, great importance is given to the quality of landmarks in terms of comparability. Two conceptually and statistically separate approaches are: (i) landmark-based morphometrics, based on the relative position of a few anatomical "true" or "traditional" landmarks, and (ii) outline-based morphometrics, which captures the contour of forms through a sequence of close "pseudo-landmarks". Most of the studies on insects of medical, veterinary or economic importance make use of the landmark approach. The present survey makes a case for the outline method, here based on elliptic Fourier analysis. The collection of pseudo-landmarks may require the manual digitization of many points and, for this reason, might appear less attractive. It, however, has the ability to compare homologous organs or structures having no landmarks at all. This strength offers the possibility to study a wider range of anatomical structures and thus, a larger range of arthropods. We present a few examples highlighting its interest for separating close or cryptic species, or characterizing conspecific geographic populations, in a series of different vector organisms. In this simple application, i.e. the recognition of close or cryptic forms, the outline approach provided similar scores as those obtained by the landmark-based approach. PMID:25111609

  18. Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in aneurysmatic thoracic aortas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, Eusebio; Eguizabal, Alma; Pontón, Alejandro; Val-Bernal, J. Fernando; Mayorga, Marta; Revuelta, José M.; López-Higuera, José; Conde, Olga M.

    2013-06-01

    Optical coherence tomographic images of ascending thoracic human aortas from aneurysms exhibit disorders on the smooth muscle cell structure of the media layer of the aortic vessel as well as elastin degradation. Ex-vivo measurements of human samples provide results that correlate with pathologist diagnosis in aneurysmatic and control aortas. The observed disorders are studied as possible hallmarks for aneurysm diagnosis. To this end, the backscattering profile along the vessel thickness has been evaluated by fitting its decay against two different models, a third order polynomial fitting and an exponential fitting. The discontinuities present on the vessel wall on aneurysmatic aortas are slightly better identified with the exponential approach. Aneurysmatic aortic walls present uneven reflectivity decay when compared with healthy vessels. The fitting error has revealed as the most favorable indicator for aneurysm diagnosis as it provides a measure of how uniform is the decay along the vessel thickness.

  19. [Resection and aorta replacement in extended and combined operations for lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Parshin, V D; Belov, Iu V; Tarabrin, E A; Komarov, R N; Parshin, V V; Khovrin, V V

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the progress in thoracic surgery and oncology, great lethality in lung cancer patient still persists, and so the questions of not only the early diagnostics but also the development of new techniques of surgical treatment remain actual which allow radical ablation of extended tumors. In the Russian Scientific Center of Surgery named after academician B.V. Petrovsky of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences three patients were subjected to extended combined operations of pneumonectomy with a simultaneous resection and replacement of the thoracic part of the aorta for local dissemination of lung cancer. Extracorporeal circulation was used in one patient and in two patients resection and replacement of the aorta were fulfilled on the cross-clapmed aorta under conditions of ischemia of organs and tissues below the left subclavian artery. There were no ischemic injuries of organs after operation. All the patients were directed to chemio-radiation therapy. PMID:21506360

  20. Geodesic Distance Algorithm for Extracting the Ascending Aorta from 3D CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeonggul; Jung, Ho Yub; Hong, Youngtaek; Cho, Iksung; Shim, Hackjoon; Chang, Hyuk-Jae

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the automatic 3D segmentation of the ascending aorta from coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). The segmentation is performed in three steps. First, the initial seed points are selected by minimizing a newly proposed energy function across the Hough circles. Second, the ascending aorta is segmented by geodesic distance transformation. Third, the seed points are effectively transferred through the next axial slice by a novel transfer function. Experiments are performed using a database composed of 10 patients' CCTA images. For the experiment, the ground truths are annotated manually on the axial image slices by a medical expert. A comparative evaluation with state-of-the-art commercial aorta segmentation algorithms shows that our approach is computationally more efficient and accurate under the DSC (Dice Similarity Coefficient) measurements. PMID:26904151

  1. FSI analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suito, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Kenji; Huynh, Viet Q. H.; Sze, Daniel; Ueda, Takuya

    2014-10-01

    We present a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta. The FSI is handled with the sequentially-coupled arterial FSI technique. The fluid mechanics equations are solved with the ST-VMS method, which is the variational multiscale version of the deforming-spatial-domain/stabilized space-time (DSD/SST) method. We focus on the relationship between the centerline geometry of the aorta and the flow field, which influences the wall shear stress distribution. The centerlines of the aorta models we use in our analysis are extracted from the CT scans, and we assume a constant diameter. Torsion-free model geometries are generated by projecting the original centerline to its averaged plane of curvature. The flow fields for the original and projected geometries are compared to examine the influence of the torsion.

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of left ventricular diverticulum and coarctation of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Hunter, L E; Pushparajah, K; Miller, O; Anderson, D; Simpson, J M

    2016-02-01

    Congenital left ventricular diverticulum (LVD) is a rare abnormality of the myocardium which has been detected previously in the fetus. Lesions have been reported from as early as 12 weeks' gestation but are more commonly detected in the mid-second trimester. Fetal presentation of LVD ranges from an abnormal four-chamber view of the heart, arrhythmia or isolated pericardial effusion to fetal hydrops with associated heart failure. Here, we describe the prenatal diagnosis of an infant with LVD originating from the left ventricular outflow tract associated with coarctation of the aorta. The diagnosis was confirmed postnatally by two-dimensional echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We hypothesize that the lesion compromised antegrade flow into the transverse aortic arch, which may have contributed to underdevelopment of the aortic arch and subsequently the development of coarctation of the aorta. This is a unique case of LVD and coarctation of the aorta. Copyright 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26376444

  3. Aortopulmonary Window Associated with an Ascending Aorta Aneurysm in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    El Haouati, Rachid; Boukaidi, Yassine; Zouizra, Zahira; Boumzebra, Drissi

    2015-01-01

    Aortopulmonary window (APW) is a rare congenital malformation. It results from an incomplete division between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery. We describe a 26-year-old male, who presented with a grade II exertional dyspnea and palpitations. Echocardiography revealed an APW with an ascending aorta aneurysm. He underwent surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass without aortic cross-clamping. The APW was closed via the pulmonary artery flap technique using an autologous pericardial patch, and the aneurysm was repaired through the reduction aortoplasty technique. The patient was discharged on the 4th postoperative day. At 2 years' follow-up, he had remained asymptomatic and echocardiography showed aortic valve competence, ascending aorta diameter of 38 mm, and no residual shunt.

  4. [Tension Hemothorax Associated with Spontaneous Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Yutarou; Sasa, Souichirou; Matsuoka, Hisashi; Hokimoto, Norihiro; Yamai, Hiromichi; Ohnishi, Kazuhisa; Tanida, Nobuyuki; Fujishima, Noriaki; Hamaguchi, Nobumasa; Ichikawa, Youichi; Tano, Kazutoshi

    2015-08-01

    A 94-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with sudden onset of chest pain without any episode of trauma. Computed tomography(CT) revealed left massive pleural effusion and extravasation of contrast medium from the side chest wall to the back. Neither aortic aneurysm nor dissection was evident. During the investigation, the patient went into hypovolemic shock. Hemothorax due to bleeding from an intercostal artery was diagnosed, and emergency surgery was performed. A 1-mm hole was detected in the descending aorta, and closed by a single suture. The final diagnosis was spontaneous rupture of the thoracic aorta. Three-dimensional CT (3D-CT), reconstructed postoperatively, revealed extravasation of the contrast medium from the descending aorta. The postoperative course was satisfactory, and the patient was discharged on the 20th postoperative day. 3D-CT may be useful for identifying the source of bleeding in such cases. PMID:26329715

  5. Correlation of laser-Doppler-velocity measurements and endothelial cell shape in a stenosed dog aorta.

    PubMed

    Liepsch, D W; Levesque, M; Nerem, R M; Moravec, S T

    1988-01-01

    Laser-Doppler-velocity measurements were carried out in an elastic 1:1 true-to-scale silicone rubber model of a dog aorta with stenosis. The model was constructed from a cast of a severely stenosed dog aorta (71% of its area). The stenosis in the dog aorta was prepared by wrapping a cotton band around the aorta. This band was tightened until the presence of a thrill or a bruit was felt distal to the band. Twelve weeks later the animal was sacrificed and a cast was prepared from the aorta. From this vascular cast, the cross-sectional area was calculated. Endothelial cell geometry and orientation was studied using computerized analysis to determine the cell area and shape index. An elastic silicone rubber model was prepared from the cast to measure the velocity profiles and to estimate the local wall shear stress. Velocity measurements were done at steady and pulsatile flow using a Newtonian aqueous-glycerol solution and a non-Newtonian blood-like fluid. From those velocity measurements the velocity gradients near the wall were determined and the shear stress calculated. The flow distal to the stenosis separates from the wall at physiological conditions. The endothelial cells are smaller and more elongated in the throat; distal to the stenosis they are larger and rounder. The shape index distribution along the stenosed aorta is correlated with the level of wall shear stress. It is shown that even low changes in the wall shear stress have an influence on the orientation of the endothelial cells. PMID:2977525

  6. Blood flow in the rabbit aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Vincent, P E; Plata, A M; Hunt, A A E; Weinberg, P D; Sherwin, S J

    2011-12-01

    The distribution of atherosclerotic lesions within the rabbit vasculature, particularly within the descending thoracic aorta, has been mapped in numerous studies. The patchy nature of such lesions has been attributed to local variation in the pattern of blood flow. However, there have been few attempts to model and characterize the flow. In this study, a high-order continuous Galerkin finite-element method was used to simulate blood flow within a realistic representation of the rabbit aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta. The geometry, which was obtained from computed tomography of a resin corrosion cast, included all vessels originating from the aortic arch (followed to at least their second generation) and five pairs of intercostal arteries originating from the proximal descending thoracic aorta. The simulations showed that small geometrical undulations associated with the ductus arteriosus scar cause significant deviations in wall shear stress (WSS). This finding highlights the importance of geometrical accuracy when analysing WSS or related metrics. It was also observed that two Dean-type vortices form in the aortic arch and propagate down the descending thoracic aorta (along with an associated skewed axial velocity profile). This leads to the occurrence of axial streaks in WSS, similar in nature to the axial streaks of lipid deposition found in the descending aorta of cholesterol-fed rabbits. Finally, it was observed that WSS patterns within the vicinity of intercostal branch ostia depend not only on local flow features caused by the branches themselves, but also on larger-scale flow features within the descending aorta, which vary between branches at different locations. This result implies that disease and WSS patterns in the vicinity of intercostal ostia are best compared on a branch-by-branch basis. PMID:21593030

  7. Ovariectomy Increases the Participation of Hyperpolarizing Mechanisms in the Relaxation of Rat Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Sagredo, Ana; del Campo, Lara; Martorell, Aina; Navarro, Roco; Martn, Mara C.; Blanco-Rivero, Javier; Ferrer, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the downstream NO release pathway and the contribution of different vasodilator mediators in the acetylcholine-induced response in rat aorta 5-months after the loss of ovarian function. Aortic segments from ovariectomized and control female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to measure: the levels of superoxide anion, the superoxide dismutases (SODs) activity, the cGMP formation, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) activity and the involvement of NO, cGMP, hydrogen peroxide and hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the ACh-induced relaxation. The results showed that ovariectomy did not alter ACh-induced relaxation; incubation with L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor, decreased the ACh-induced response to a lesser extent in aorta from ovariectomized than from control rats, while ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, decreased that response to a similar extent; the blockade of hyperpolarizing mechanisms, by precontracting arteries with KCl, decreased the ACh-induced response to a greater extent in aortas from ovariectomized than those from control rats; catalase, that decomposes hydrogen peroxide, decreased the ACh-induced response only in aorta from ovariectomized rats. In addition, ovariectomy increased superoxide anion levels and SODs activity, decreased cGMP formation and increased PKG activity. Despite the increased superoxide anion and decreased cGMP in aorta from ovariectomized rats, ACh-induced relaxation is maintained by the existence of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in which hydrogen peroxide participates. The greater contribution of hydrogen peroxide in ACh-induced relaxation is due to increased SOD activity, in an attempt to compensate for increased superoxide anion formation. Increased PKG activity could represent a redundant mechanism to ensure vasodilator function in the aorta of ovariectomized rats. PMID:24058477

  8. Ovariectomy increases the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the relaxation of rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Sagredo, Ana; del Campo, Lara; Martorell, Aina; Navarro, Roco; Martn, Mara C; Blanco-Rivero, Javier; Ferrer, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the downstream NO release pathway and the contribution of different vasodilator mediators in the acetylcholine-induced response in rat aorta 5-months after the loss of ovarian function. Aortic segments from ovariectomized and control female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to measure: the levels of superoxide anion, the superoxide dismutases (SODs) activity, the cGMP formation, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) activity and the involvement of NO, cGMP, hydrogen peroxide and hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the ACh-induced relaxation. The results showed that ovariectomy did not alter ACh-induced relaxation; incubation with L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor, decreased the ACh-induced response to a lesser extent in aorta from ovariectomized than from control rats, while ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, decreased that response to a similar extent; the blockade of hyperpolarizing mechanisms, by precontracting arteries with KCl, decreased the ACh-induced response to a greater extent in aortas from ovariectomized than those from control rats; catalase, that decomposes hydrogen peroxide, decreased the ACh-induced response only in aorta from ovariectomized rats. In addition, ovariectomy increased superoxide anion levels and SODs activity, decreased cGMP formation and increased PKG activity. Despite the increased superoxide anion and decreased cGMP in aorta from ovariectomized rats, ACh-induced relaxation is maintained by the existence of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in which hydrogen peroxide participates. The greater contribution of hydrogen peroxide in ACh-induced relaxation is due to increased SOD activity, in an attempt to compensate for increased superoxide anion formation. Increased PKG activity could represent a redundant mechanism to ensure vasodilator function in the aorta of ovariectomized rats. PMID:24058477

  9. Morphological analysis of the hagfish heart. I. The ventricle, the arterial connection and the ventral aorta.

    PubMed

    Icardo, José M; Colvee, Elvira; Schorno, Sarah; Lauriano, Eugenia R; Fudge, Douglas S; Glover, Chris N; Zaccone, Giacomo

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the heart in three species of hagfish: Myxine glutinosa, Eptatretus stoutii, and Eptatretus cirrhatus and report about the morphology of the ventricle, the arterial connection and the ventral aorta. On the whole, the hagfish heart lacks outflow tract components, the ventricle and atrium adopt a dorso-caudal rather than a ventro-dorsal relationship, and the sinus venosus opens into the left side of the atrium. This may indicate a "defective" cardiac looping during embryogenesis. The ventral aorta is elongated in M. glutinosa and E. stoutii but sac-like in E. cirrhatus. The ventricles are entirely trabeculated. The myocytes show a low myofibrillar content and junctional complexes formed by fascia adherens and desmosomes. Gap junctions could not be demonstrated. Myocardial cells in M. glutinosa contain numerous lipid droplets. These droplets are less numerous in E. stoutii and practically absent in E. cirrhatus, suggesting different metabolic requirements. Other cell types present in the ventricle are chromaffin cells and granular leukocytes that contain rod-shaped granules. The ventricle-aorta connection is guarded by a bicuspid valve with left and right, pocket-like leaflets. The leaflets extend from the cranial end of the ventricle into the aorta but the junction is asymmetrical. This junction contains a ganglion-like structure in E. cirrhatus. The ventral aorta shows endothelial, media, and adventitial layers. The media contains smooth muscle cells surrounded by dense bands formed by tightly-packed extracellular filaments. In addition, a short number of elastic fibers are observed in M. glutinosa and E. stoutii. Cellular and extracellular elements are more loosely organized in the aorta of E. cirrhatus. The collagenous adventitia contains ganglion-like cells in the three species. In the absence of nerves, chromaffin and ganglion-like cells may control the activity of the myocardium and that of the aortic smooth muscle cells, respectively. J. Morphol. 277:326-340, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26611522

  10. Experimental investigation of the influence of the aortic stiffness on hemodynamics in the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Glan, Utku; Lthi, Beat; Holzner, Markus; Liberzon, Alex; Tsinober, Arkady; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) pulsatile aortic flow in a human ascending aorta is studied to investigate the effect of the aortic stiffness on the flow field and turbulent fluctuating velocities in the ascending aorta. A nonintrusive optical measurement technique, 3-D particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV), has been applied to anatomically accurate phantoms under clinically realistic conditions. A compliant silicon phantom was used to mimic the healthy aorta, and a rigid model was used to imitate the pathological case that appears in aortas for example as a result of aging. The realistic models are transparent which allows optical access to the investigation domain, and the index of refraction was matched to avoid optical distortions. Our results revealed that the aortic stiffness leads to an increase in systolic velocity and a decrease in the Windkessel effect, which is associated with the diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, we found that the turbulent kinetic energy is about an order of magnitude higher for the rigid aorta, that is, an increase in aortic stiffness increases the magnitude of turbulent fluctuating velocities. The spatial distribution of the flow velocity showed that the flow is more organized and coherent spiraling patterns develop for the compliant aorta which helps to dampen the influence of disturbed flow. Finally, we observed higher Lagrangian acceleration and hence higher instantaneous forces acting on blood particles in the stiff case which implies that aging and hence arterial stiffening provokes distinctive alterations in blood flow, and these alterations may cause pathological symptoms in the cardiovascular system. PMID:24833608

  11. Primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuan; Yan, Sheng; Tian, Yang; Li, Zhiwei; Pan, Jun; Zhang, Qiyi; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis is an uncommon progressive disease characterized by hamartomatous smooth muscle proliferation of the airways within the lungs as well as the lymph nodes, lymphatics, and blood vessels of the lungs, mediastinum, and abdomen. The most common manifestations of lymphangioleiomyomatosis are pulmonary symptoms. Primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis without any pathological changes in the respiratory system is extremely unusual. We report a case of primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis located between the left hepatic and gastric antrum of a 29-year-old woman. The patient had no typical symptoms of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (dyspnea, pneumothorax) or abdominal pain. All physical examination findings were normal. Laboratory test results, including routine blood examination, liver and kidney function, tumor markers, blood coagulation function, and urine and stool examinations, were all normal. She found abdominal cyst in an annual medical examination by ultrasonography and confirmed by computed tomography. For a clear diagnosis, a laparoscopic abdominal mass resection was performed. The postoperative pathohistological examination findings allowed for the definitive diagnosis. This case report may advance the understanding of primary peritoneal lymphatic leiomyoma and reduce the number of mistakenly diagnosed patients. PMID:25888993

  12. Segmentation of images of abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Kamath, Markad V; Noseworthy, Michael D; Boylan, Colm; Poehlman, Skip

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal organ segmentation, which is, the delineation of organ areas in the abdomen, plays an important role in the process of radiological evaluation. Attempts to automate segmentation of abdominal organs will aid radiologists who are required to view thousands of images daily. This review outlines the current state-of-the-art semi-automated and automated methods used to segment abdominal organ regions from computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MEI), and ultrasound images. Segmentation methods generally fall into three categories: pixel based, region based and boundary tracing. While pixel-based methods classify each individual pixel, region-based methods identify regions with similar properties. Boundary tracing is accomplished by a model of the image boundary. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the above algorithms with an emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages for abdominal organ segmentation. Several evaluation metrics that compare machine-based segmentation with that of an expert (radiologist) are identified and examined. Finally, features based on intensity as well as the texture of a small region around a pixel are explored. This review concludes with a discussion of possible future trends for abdominal organ segmentation. PMID:20092428

  13. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Ba?ara, I??l; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  14. Transverse abdominal plane neurostimulation for chronic abdominal pain: a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mayank; Goodson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Management of chronic abdominal pain can be challenging. Sometimes patients fail to get adequate response from multiple medications and nerve blocks. We present a patient case report of chronic abdominal pain with a history of multiple surgeries managed successfully by neuromodulation of the transverse abdominis plane (TAP). The TAP block is a procedure in which local anesthetic is injected into the abdominal fascial plane that carries sensory nerves to the abdominal wall in order to block pain sensation. It has been shown to reduce postoperative pain and analgesic dependence after abdominal and gynecological surgeries. A 60-year-old woman presented to us for chronic abdominal pain for which medications provided little relief. She had an extensive history of abdominal surgeries and was also treated for lower back pain with surgery and less invasive procedures in the past. Under our care, she underwent 2 TAP blocks with almost complete resolution of her abdominal pain. Her pain, however, came back within a few of weeks of the procedures. Since our patient found pain relief from the TAP blocks, we proceeded with neurostimulation of the TAP for long-term pain relief. We placed a dorsal column stimulator 16 contact lead for lower back and leg pain and 8 contact leads placed in the TAP under ultrasound guidance. She has had multiple follow-ups since her TAP lead placement procedure with continued and near complete resolution of her abdominal pain. The TAP lead stimulation was helping her abdominal pain and the dorsal column lead stimulation was helping her back and leg pain. PMID:25247911

  15. Immunostaining of macrophages, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in the atherosclerotic mouse aorta

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Prashanthi; Fisher, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The atherosclerotic mouse aorta consists of a heterogeneous population of cells, including macrophages, endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC), that play critical roles in cardiovascular disease. Identification of these vascular cells in the vessel wall is important to understanding their function in pathological conditions. Immunohistochemistry is an invaluable technique used to detect the presence of cells in different tissues. Here, we describe immunohistochemical techniques commonly used for the detection of the vascular cells in the atherosclerotic mouse aorta using cell specific markers. PMID:26445786

  16. Successful Management of Thrombosis of the Proximal Aorta after Implantation with a Biventricular Assist Device

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Mark J.; Gidea, Claudia; Karanam, Ravi; Baran, David; Saunders, Craig R.; Zucker, Mark J.; Camacho, Margarita T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Continuous-flow ventricular assist devices (CVADs) are associated with a significant complication profile that includes thrombosis of the ascending aorta and aortic valve, thromboembolism, and stroke. Despite an increasing number of reports of thromboembolic complications related to CVADs, there is little in the literature to guide their management. This report describes successful management strategies used during two cases of thrombosis of the ascending aorta during biventricular CentriMag (Levitronix LLC, Waltham, MA) support, including using pre-existing cannulas to initiate cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:26357801

  17. Ruptured penetrating ulcer of the ascending aorta with pulmonary artery compression.

    PubMed

    Okiwelu, Ngozichukwuka; Finn, Chris; Vanden Driesen, Rohan; Sanders, Lucas; Joshi, Pragnesh

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary artery involvement has been reported in various degrees of complicated dissection of the ascending aorta. The prognosis remains poor without high-risk surgical intervention, but conservative management can be considered in high-risk cases. We report a case of nonoperative management of an octogenarian who presented with a contained rupture of his proximal ascending aorta, likely from a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. It was complicated by extrinsic compression of the pulmonary trunk and transient pulmonary hypertension without features of acute right heart failure. He remained alive at the one-year follow-up. PMID:25348161

  18. Simultaneous Surgical Treatment of Type B Dissection Complicated With Visceral Malperfusion and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Role of Aortic Fenestration

    PubMed Central

    Filippone, Gianfranco; Ferro, Gabriele; Duranti, Cristiana; La Barbera, Gaetano; Talarico, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Aortic dissection occurs in about 5% of patients with coexistent abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA); combined type B dissection complicated with visceral malperfusion and AAA is an uncommon aortic emergency and patients presenting with complications of thoracic aortic dissection have a dismal prognosis related to difficulties in treatment strategies. Despite tremendous improvement of endovascular techniques, surgical aortic fenestration represents a quick, safe, and effective procedure able to restore flow in an otherwise malperfused aorta. This procedure has to be kept in mind because subsets of patients cannot be treated conventionally due to either prohibitive risk of aortic replacement, anatomic contraindication, or limitations of percutaneous procedures. Herein we report a case of a patient presenting with type B aortic dissection complicated by visceral malperfusion and AAA which was successfully treated simultaneously by open AAA repair and surgical fenestration. We focus on the mechanism of malperfusion and on the role of surgical fenestration.

  19. An uncommon cause of visceral arterial embolism in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Ulenaers, M; Buchel, O C; Van Olmen, A; Moons, V; D'Haens, G; Christiaens, P

    2010-01-01

    We report on 2 cases of visceral arterial embolism presenting with acute abdominal pain. In neither patient a cause could be established on initial clinical, laboratory, echographic or radiological investigation. Both patients were subsequently found to have a mural thrombus in the thoracic aorta, with visceral arterial embolism. Each underwent a successful operative thrombectomy. Both patients had a normal underlying aortic intima at inspection. The first patient was a young male with no known diseases. He regularly used cannabis and tested positive on admission, an association not yet reported with aortic mural thrombus. He was found to have a slightly reduced protein C. The second patient was a middle aged man with non-insulin dependent diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, arterial hypertension and hyperthyroidism. He was found to have an underlying adenocarcinoma of the lung and received chemotherapy. He died due to his cancer, 4 months after first presentation. PMID:20458852

  20. Quantification of the migration and deformation of abdominal aortic aneurysm stent grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattes, Julian; Steingruber, Iris; Netzer, Michael; Fritscher, Karl; Kopf, Helmut; Jaschke, Werner; Schubert, Rainer

    2006-03-01

    The endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is a minimal invasive therapy which has been established during the past 15 years. A stent-graft is placed inside the aorta in order to cover the weakened regions of its wall. During a time interval of one or more years the stent-graft can migrate and deform with the risk of the occlusion of one of its limbs or of the rupture of the aneurysm. In this work we developed several strategies to quantify the migration and deformation in order to assess the risk coming with these movements and especially to characterize appearing complications by them. We calculated the rigid movement of the stent-graft and the aorta relative to the spinal canal. For this purpose, firstly, we rigidly registered the spinal canals, extracted for the different points in time, in order to establish a fixed reference system. All objects have been segmented first and surface points have been determined before applying a rigid and non-rigid point set registration algorithm. The change in the residual error after registration of the stent-graft with an increasing number of degrees of freedom indicates the amount of change in the stent-graft's morphology. We investigated a sample of 9. Two cases could be clearly distinguished by the quantified parameters: a high global migration and a strong reduction of the residual error after non-rigid registration. In both cases, strong complications have been detected by the examination of clinical experts but only by means of the images acquired one year later.

  1. Cell-Activation by Shear Stresses in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Sparks, Steven; Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2003-11-01

    Increasing experimental evidence indicates that low and oscillatory shear stresses promote proliferative, thrombotic, adhesive and inflammatory-mediated degenerative conditions throughout the wall of the aorta. These degenerative conditions have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of AAAs, a permanent, localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta. The purpose of this study is to measure both the magnitude and the duration of the shear stresses acting on both the arterial walls and on the blood cells inside AAAs, and to characterize their changes as the AAA enlarges. We conducted a parametric in-vitro study of the pulsatile blood flow in elastic models of AAAs while systematically varying the blood flow parameters, and the geometry of the aneurysm's bulging. The instantaneous flow characteristic inside the AAA was measured using DPIV at a sampling rate of 15 Hertz. A "cell-activation parameter" defined as the integral of the product of the magnitude of the shear stress and the time during which the stress acts was computed along each of the blood cell pathlines. The Lagrangian tracking of the blood cells shows that a large majority of them are subjected first to very high level of shear-induced "cell-activation" while later on they are entrained in regions of stasis where their residence time can increase up to several cardiac cycles. This cell-activation followed by the entrainment in low shear regions creates the optimal cell-adhesive and inflammatory-mediated degenerative conditions that are postulated to play an important role in the etiology and progressive enlargement of AAAs.

  2. Accumulation of 3H-adrenaline by rabbit aorta.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, J; Nedergaard, O A

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation of (-)-3H-adrenaline (3H-A) by rabbit isolated aorta was studied. In all experiments, monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase were inhibited by treatment with pargyline and 3',4'-dihydroxy-2-methyl-propiophenone (U-0521), respectively. The relationship between the accumulation of 3H derived from 3H-A (10(-8) M) and the duration of incubation (0-3 h) was linear. The 3H-accumulation after 3 h incubation was 22.5 ml X g-1. In reserpine-treated tissue, the 3H-accumulation levelled off after 30 min and was 8.5 ml X g-1 after 3 h. The concentration of 3H-A or (-)-3H-noradrenaline (3H-NA) and the 3H-accumulation (ml X g-1) were inversely related. At 10(-8) M, the 1-hour accumulation of 3H derived from 3H-A and 3H-NA was 7.8 and 15.2 ml X g-1, respectively. With increasing concentrations (3 X 10(-8)-10(-4) M), the accumulation values approached each other. At 10(-4) M, the accumulation was 2.3 and 2.8 ml X g-1 for 3H-A and 3H-NA, respectively. The accumulation of 3H derived from 3H-A (10(-8)-10(-4) M) by reserpine-treated tissue also showed an inverse relationship with concentration: 5.4 ml X g-1 (10(-8) M) and 2.6 ml X g-1 (10(-4) M). The accumulation of 3H derived from 3H-A (10(-8) M; 1 h) was dependent on the bath temperature (1-37 degrees C). The accumulation increased continuously from 1.1 ml X g-1 (1 degree C) to 11.1 ml X g-1 (37 degrees C). Storage of tissue (0-5 days in salt solution without equilibration with 95% O2/5% CO2; 4 degrees C) did not affect the accumulation of 3H derived from 3H-A (10(-8) M; 1 h). Thereafter (7-14 days), the accumulation decreased. The inhibitory potency (IC50;-log M) of desimipramine, cocaine, (-)-propranolol, (-)-isoprenaline, and (+/-)-normetanephrine on accumulation of 3H derived from 3H-A (10(-8) M; 1 h) was found to be 8.26; 6.50; 5.48, 4.88, and 4.02, respectively. The maximal degree of inhibition was almost the same for these drugs, while that of clonidine and corticosterone was 50 and 20%, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3967097

  3. Correlation Between Intra-Abdominal Free Fluid and Solid Organ Injury in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Talari, Hamidreza; Moussavi, Nushin; Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi, Masoumeh; Atoof, Fatemeh; Abedini, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: In previous studies, the diagnostic value of Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) has been evaluated but few studies have been performed on the relationship between the amount of free intra-abdominal fluid and organ injury in blunt abdominal trauma. To select patients with a higher probability of intra-abdominal injuries, several scoring systems have been proposed based on the results of FAST. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of FAST according to the Huang scoring system and to propose a cut-off point for predicting the presence of intra-abdominal injuries on the Computed Tomography (CT) scan. The correlation between age and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the presence of intra-abdominal injuries on the CT scan was also assessed. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 200 patients with severe blunt abdominal trauma who had stable vital signs. For all patients, FAST-ultrasound was performed by a radiologist and the free fluid score in the abdomen was calculated according to the Huang score. Immediately, an intravenous contrast-enhanced abdominal CT scan was performed in all patients and abdominal solid organ injuries were assessed. Results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test and ROC curves. The correlation between age and GCS and the presence of intra-abdominal injuries on CT-scan was also evaluated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 29.6 18.3 years and FAST was positive in 67% of the subjects. A significant correlation was seen between the FAST score and the presence of organ injury on CT scan (P < 0.001). Considering the cut-off point of 3 for the free fluid score (with a range of 0-8), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated to be 0.83, 0.98, 0.93, and 0.95, respectively. Age and GCS showed no significant correlation with intra-abdominal injuries. Conclusions: It seems that FAST examination for intra-abdominal fluid in blunt trauma patients can predict intra-abdominal injuries with very high sensitivity and specificity. Using the scoring system can more accurately determine the probability of the presence of abdominal injuries with a cut-off point of three. PMID:26566511

  4. Intraabdominal Challenges Affecting Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Moffett, Jennifer Movassaghi; Gedalia, Uri; Xue, Amy Shengnan; Heller, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal wall defects may arise from trauma, infection, and prior abdominal surgeries, such as tumor resections. Although ideally reconstruction should be accomplished as soon as possible to restore the integrity and function of the abdominal wall, it is not always a viable option. A successful reconstruction must take into consideration the local environment of the defect, as well as the global condition of the patient. Therefore, it is imperative that a multidisciplinary team be involved to optimize the patient's care, particularly when a defect is complicated by a wound infection, an abscess, a fistula, or a neoplasm. Our goal in this article is to explore the challenges evoked by each of these special situations, and review the necessary steps for successful management. PMID:23372452

  5. Abdominal Sarcoidosis May Mimic Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Gorkem, Umit; Gungor, Tayfun; Bas, Y?lmaz; Togrul, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. It shows a great variety of clinical presentation, organ involvement, and disease progression. Lungs and lymphoid system are the most common sites involved with a frequency of 90% and 30%, respectively. Extrapulmonary involvement of sarcoidosis is reported in 30% of patients and abdomen is the most frequent site. Furthermore, peritoneal involvement is extremely rare in sarcoidosis. The case presented here described peritoneal manifestations of sarcoidosis without involvement of lungs. A 78-year-old woman possessing signs of malignancy on blood test and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging underwent laparatomy with a suspicion of ovarian malignancy. The macroscopic interpretation during surgery was peritoneal carcinomatosis. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, peritoneal biopsies, total omentectomy, and appendectomy were performed. Final histopathological result revealed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Clinicians must keep in mind that peritoneal sarcoidosis can mimic intra-abdominal malignancies. PMID:26558122

  6. Minimal Invasive Treatment of Abdominal Multiorgan Echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Tomu?, Claudiu; Zaharie, Florin; Mocan, Lucian; Barto?, Dana; Zaharie, Roxana; Iancu, Cornel; Nadim, Al Hajjar

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a severe zoonosis, exerting a high economic and social impact through its numerous complications, leading to disabilities, even death. Because of technical developments, especially the increasing experience of surgeons, laparoscopic surgery has been extended so that it can be successfully applied to abdominal hydatid cysts. We present the case of a 16-year-old patient who came to our clinic for upper abdominal pain. The abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed 2 cyst-like tumors, with hydatid features: one affecting the eighth liver segment and the other located at the upper pole of the spleen. We performed the surgical intervention using a laparoscopic approach, with an uneventful postoperative follow-up and the patient was discharged home on postoperative day 4. The postoperative images at 6 and 12 months showed a decrease in size of the remnant cystic cavities. PMID:23438278

  7. Minimal invasive treatment of abdominal multiorgan echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Tomu?, Claudiu; Zaharie, Florin; Mocan, Lucian; Barto?, Dana; Zaharie, Roxana; Iancu, Cornel; Nadim, Al Hajjar

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a severe zoonosis, exerting a high economic and social impact through its numerous complications, leading to disabilities, even death. Because of technical developments, especially the increasing experience of surgeons, laparoscopic surgery has been extended so that it can be successfully applied to abdominal hydatid cysts. We present the case of a 16-year-old patient who came to our clinic for upper abdominal pain. The abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed 2 cyst-like tumors, with hydatid features: one affecting the eighth liver segment and the other located at the upper pole of the spleen. We performed the surgical intervention using a laparoscopic approach, with an uneventful postoperative follow-up and the patient was discharged home on postoperative day 4. The postoperative images at 6 and 12 months showed a decrease in size of the remnant cystic cavities. PMID:23438278

  8. [Girls' abdominal pains and gynaecological emergencies].

    PubMed

    Le Hors-Albouze, Hlne; Boutin, Aurlie; Louis-Borrione, Claude; Jouve, Jean-Luc

    2011-05-01

    Among many causes of abdominal pain in children, gynaecological ones have to be systematically considered in even no pubescent girls. Diagnosis leans on physical and US examinations and has to screen first urgent causes before frequent ones. Rare but urgent are ovarian torsions either on a normal ovary or an underlying ovarian tumor, an earlier surgery may avoid oophorectomy. Hematocolpos linked to imperforate hymen is the most common obstructive congenital abnormality of the female genital tract and the diagnosis is easy with inspection of external genitalia. Ovarian tumors are infrequent and most often begnin but torsion, rupture or bleeding complications causes acute abdominal pains. Dysmenorrhea is the most common cause of abdominal pain in pubescent girls. In adolescents, genital tract infections and rare ectopic pregnancy have also to be mentioned. PMID:21698890

  9. Intra-abdominal cryptococcosis in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Malik, R; Hunt, G B; Bellenger, C R; Allan, G S; Martin, P; Canfield, P J; Love, D N

    1999-08-01

    Intra-abdominal cryptococcosis was diagnosed in two young dogs. The first, an entire male border collie, was presented with vomiting. An abdominal mass detected during physical examination proved to be cryptococcal mesenteric lymphadenitis on exploratory laparotomy. The second dog, a female neutered giant schnauzer, was presented with neurological signs suggestive of encephalopathy. Intestinal cryptococcal granulomas were detected in an extensive diagnostic investigation which included abdominal ultrasonography. The gastrointestinal tract was considered the most likely portal of entry for cryptococcal organisms in both cases. Both dogs were treated using surgery and multiagent antifungal chemotherapy. The first case succumbed despite therapy, while the second dog was treated successfully as gauged by return to clinical normality and a substantial decline in the cryptococcal antigen titre which continued to fall after cessation of treatment. PMID:10476527

  10. Modified Multivisceral Transplant After Acute Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Nikeghbalian, Saman; Alaa Eldin, Ahmed; Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Kazemi, Kourosh; Shamsaeefar, Alireza; Gholami, Siavash; Malekhosseini, Seyed Ali

    2016-04-01

    A 50-year-old man sustained blunt abdominal trauma in a motor vehicle accident. He underwent exploratory laparotomy on the day of trauma, and severe bleeding from the base of the small bowel mesentery was controlled by mass ligation and through-and-through suturing. After transfer to our center, repeat exploratory laparotomy showed ischemic small intestine, ischemic right colon, and severe pancreatic trauma. The severely injured organs were excised including the entire small bowel, pancreas, spleen, stomach, and right hemicolon. The next day, a modified multivisceral transplant was performed including stomach, pancreaticoduodenal complex, and small bowel transplant. Postoperative complications included an intra-abdominal collection that was drained percutaneously with ultrasonographic guidance and severe rejection that was treated with anti-thymocyte globulin. In summary, for select patients who have severe abdominal trauma may be treated with acute multivisceral transplant. PMID:24918875

  11. Metabolism of arachidonic acid in 1 yr old New Zealand white (NZW) and watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit aortas

    SciTech Connect

    Pfister, S.L.; Schmitz, J.M.; Willerson, J.T.; Campbell, W.B.

    1986-03-01

    This study was designed to characterize the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) in normal and atherosclerotic aortas. Segments of aortas were obtained from 1 yr old NZW rabbits, and WHHL rabbits, a genetic model of athero-sclerosis resembling familial hypercholesterolemia. Aortas were incubated at 37/sup 0/C for 15 min with /sup 14/C-AA (5 x 10/sup -5/M) during stimulation by A23187. The media was extracted using octadecylsilica columns and resolved into metabolites by reverse-phase HPLC. Prostaglandins (PGs) were identified by comigration of /sup 14/C-metabolites with standards. The monoxygenated metabolites of AA (HETEs) were resolved by normal-phase HPLC, and their structures confirmed by GC-MS. In extracts from NZW and WHHL aortas, approximately 14% and 6% of the total radioactivity was converted to PGs and HETEs, respectively. The major PG produced by NZW and WHHL aortas was 6-keto PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ with lesser amounts of PGE/sub 2/. Similarly, NZW and WHHL aortas produced primarily 12- and 15-HETE with lesser amounts of 11-, 9-, 8-, and 5-HETE. There were no qualitative differences between NZW and WHHL aortas in PG and HETE production. Therefore, despite extensive atherosclerosis in aortas of WHHL rabbits, the vessels maintain the ability to synthesize PGs and HETEs.

  12. CT diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, A.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Moore, A.V. Jr.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1984-08-01

    Abdominal computed tomography was performed in six patients with suspected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm but in whom an alternate clinical diagnosis was seriously considered. In each patient, a large aortic aneurysm was demonstrated in association with a retroperitoneal accumulation of high-density blood. The retroperitoneal blood was primarily confined to the extracapsular perinephric space. In four of the six patients, a focal area of the aortic wall was indistinct on the side of the retroperitoneal hemorrhage at the presumed site of rupture. Five of the six patients underwent emergency surgery, which confirmed the site of aneurysm, presence of rupture and the location of fresh retroperitoneal blood.

  13. [Atraumatic procedures in common abdominal operations].

    PubMed

    Daskalov, M

    1998-01-01

    The surgical tactics and technical improvements are discussed against the background of personal experience with some common abdominal operations, among which the appendectomy variant leaving the cecum intra-abdominally and using chain retrograde ligature in some cases, with choice of access according to the requirements of the individual case. Special attention is called to retrocecal extraperitoneal complications and Meckel's diverticulum--clinical picture and operative tactics. Emphasis is laid on the advantages of intestinal anastomoses--latero-lateral variant, termino-terminal technique in colo-colostomy and possibilities of latero-terminal sigmoidorectoanastomosis. PMID:9974018

  14. Imaging for chronic abdominal pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mendelson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Summary Diagnostic imaging is often not indicated in chronic abdominal pain. In particular, undifferentiated abdominal pain is rarely an indication for a CT scan. CT scanning is overused even when imaging is required. Other modalities may be preferable. A normal CT scan does not rule out cancer. Alarm symptoms, including anaemia, blood in the stool, waking at night with gastrointestinal symptoms, and weight loss, should be investigated. The most appropriate modality depends on the symptoms. Clinical information on request forms for CT scans should be specific and include the suspected condition as this helps the radiologist to determine an appropriate imaging protocol. PMID:26648616

  15. Morphometric Identification of Queens, Workers and Intermediates in In Vitro Reared Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    A. De Souza, Daiana; Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; De Jong, David; V. Amdam, Gro; S. Gonçalves, Lionel; M. Francoy, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    In vitro rearing is an important and useful tool for honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) studies. However, it often results in intercastes between queens and workers, which are normally are not seen in hive-reared bees, except when larvae older than three days are grafted for queen rearing. Morphological classification (queen versus worker or intercastes) of bees produced by this method can be subjective and generally depends on size differences. Here, we propose an alternative method for caste classification of female honey bees reared in vitro, based on weight at emergence, ovariole number, spermatheca size and size and shape, and features of the head, mandible and basitarsus. Morphological measurements were made with both traditional morphometric and geometric morphometrics techniques. The classifications were performed by principal component analysis, using naturally developed queens and workers as controls. First, the analysis included all the characters. Subsequently, a new analysis was made without the information about ovariole number and spermatheca size. Geometric morphometrics was less dependent on ovariole number and spermatheca information for caste and intercaste identification. This is useful, since acquiring information concerning these reproductive structures requires time-consuming dissection and they are not accessible when abdomens have been removed for molecular assays or in dried specimens. Additionally, geometric morphometrics divided intercastes into more discrete phenotype subsets. We conclude that morphometric geometrics are superior to traditional morphometrics techniques for identification and classification of honey bee castes and intermediates. PMID:25894528

  16. Bupivacaine-induced Vasodilation Is Mediated by Decreased Calcium Sensitization in Isolated Endothelium-denuded Rat Aortas Precontracted with Phenylephrine

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Seong Ho; Bae, Sung Il; Kwon, Seong Chun; Park, Jung Chul; Kim, Woo Chan; Park, Kyeong Eon; Shin, Il Woo; Lee, Heon Keun; Chung, Young Kyun; Choi, Mun Jeoung

    2014-01-01

    Background A toxic dose of bupivacaine produces vasodilation in isolated aortas. The goal of this in vitro study was to investigate the cellular mechanism associated with bupivacaine-induced vasodilation in isolated endotheliumdenuded rat aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. Methods Isolated endothelium-denuded rat aortas were suspended for isometric tension recordings. The effects of nifedipine, verapamil, iberiotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, barium chloride, and glibenclamide on bupivacaine concentration-response curves were assessed in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. The effect of phenylephrine and KCl used for precontraction on bupivacaine-induced concentration-response curves was assessed. The effects of verapamil on phenylephrine concentration-response curves were assessed. The effects of bupivacaine on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and tension in aortas precontracted with phenylephrine were measured simultaneously with the acetoxymethyl ester of a fura-2-loaded aortic strip. Results Pretreatment with potassium channel inhibitors had no effect on bupivacaine-induced relaxation in the endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine, whereas verapamil or nifedipine attenuated bupivacaine-induced relaxation. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced relaxation was enhanced in the 100 mM KCl-induced precontracted aortas compared with the phenylephrine-induced precontracted aortas. Verapamil attenuated the phenylephrine-induced contraction. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced relaxation was higher than that of the bupivacaine-induced [Ca2+]i decrease in the aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that toxic-dose bupivacaine-induced vasodilation appears to be mediated by decreased calcium sensitization in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. In addition, potassium channel inhibitors had no effect on bupivacaine-induced relaxation. Toxic-dose bupivacaine- induced vasodilation may be partially associated with the inhibitory effect of voltage-operated calcium channels. PMID:25031808

  17. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H.; Ferramola, Mariana L.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gimenez, María S.

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+} did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta.

  18. Effects of metabolic inhibitors on endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilatation of rat and rabbit aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Weir, C. J.; Gibson, I. F.; Martin, W.

    1991-01-01

    1. Basal release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) rendered endothelium-containing rings of rat aorta 4.7 fold less sensitive to the contractile actions of phenylephrine and depressed the maximum response when compared with endothelium-denuded rings. The responsiveness and maximum response to phenylephrine was, however, similar in rings of rabbit aorta with or without endothelium. 2. Rotenone (1 nM-0.1 microM), an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation, induced a profound, irreversible blockade of phenylephrine-induced tone in endothelium-containing and endothelium-denuded rings of rat aorta, but induced only slight inhibition of tone in rings of rabbit aorta. 3. 2-Deoxy glucose (10 mM), an inhibitor of glycolysis, had no effect on phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-denuded rings of rat aorta, but inhibited reversibly the endothelium-dependent depression of contraction in endothelium containing rings. 2-Deoxy glucose had no effect on phenylephrine-induced contraction in rings of rabbit aorta with or without endothelium. 4. Rotenone (0.1 microM) inhibited acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine-contracted rings or rat and rabbit aorta. In endothelium-denuded rings of rat aorta, relaxation induced by glyceryl trinitrate of isoprenaline was also inhibited, but relaxation induced by 8-bromo cyclic GMP or dibutyryl cyclic AMP was not. Relaxation induced by verapamil on KCl-contracted, endothelium-denuded rings of rat aorta was also unaffected. 5. 2-Deoxy glucose (10 mM) inhibited acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine-contracted rings of rat and rabbit aorta.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1646055

  19. Morphometric characterization of microglial phenotypes in human cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microglia can adopt different morphologies, ranging from a highly ramified to an amoeboid-like phenotype. Although morphological properties of microglia have been described in rodents, little is known about their fine features in humans. The aim of this study was to characterize the morphometric properties of human microglia in gray and white matter of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), a region implicated in behavioral adaptation to neuroinflammation. These properties were compared to those of murine microglia in order to gain a better appreciation of the differences displayed by these cells across species. Methods Postmortem dACC samples were analyzed from 11 individuals having died suddenly without any history of neuroinflammatory, neurodegenerative, nor psychiatric illness. Tissues were sectioned and immunostained for the macrophage marker Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA1). Randomly selected IBA1-immunoreactive (IBA1-IR) cells displaying features corresponding to commonly accepted microglial phenotypes (ramified, primed, reactive, amoeboid) were reconstructed in 3D and all aspects of their morphologies quantified using the Neurolucida software. The relative abundance of each morphological phenotype was also assessed. Furthermore, adult mouse brains were similarly immunostained, and IBA1-IR cells in cingulate cortex were compared to those scrutinized in human dACC. Results In human cortical gray and white matter, all microglial phenotypes were observed in significant proportions. Compared to ramified, primed microglia presented an average 2.5 fold increase in cell body size, with almost no differences in branching patterns. When compared to the primed microglia, which projected an average of six primary processes, the reactive and amoeboid phenotypes displayed fewer processes and branching points, or no processes at all. In contrast, the majority of microglial cells in adult mouse cortex were highly ramified. This was also the case following a postmortem interval of 43 hours. Interestingly, the morphology of ramified microglia was strikingly similar between species. Conclusions This study provides fundamental information on the morphological features of microglia in the normal adult human cerebral cortex. These morphometric data will be useful for future studies of microglial morphology in various illnesses. Furthermore, this first direct comparison of human and mouse microglia reveals that these brain cells are morphologically similar across species, suggesting highly conserved functions. PMID:24447857

  20. Evaluation for abdominal aortic aneurysms is justified in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    DeFreitas, Mariana R; Quint, Leslie E; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Nan, Bin; Ranella, Michael J; Hider, Joanna R; Liu, Peter S; Williams, David M; Eliason, Jonathan L; Patel, Himanshu J

    2016-04-01

    Aortic aneurysms are a significant cause of mortality, and the presence of multiple aneurysms may affect treatment plans. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) and to establish whether patient specific factors, such as gender and comorbidities, influenced the frequency of AAAs, thereby indicating if and when abdominal aortic evaluation is justified. Electronic medical records were reviewed from 1000 patients with a computed tomography (CT) angiogram of the chest and abdomen and a clinical diagnosis of TAA from Cardiac Surgery clinic between 2008 and 2013. 538 patients with history of aortic intervention, dissection, rupture or trauma were excluded. The frequency of AAAs among the 462 remaining patients was established, and statistical analysis was used to elucidate differences in frequency based on age, gender, comorbidities, and TAA location. Overall, 104 of 462 (22.5 %) patients with a TAA also had an AAA. There were significant differences in the frequency of AAA based on TAA location, age, and comorbidities. The following comorbidities showed positive associations with AAA using logistic regression analysis: age ≥65 (P < 0.0001; OR 30.1; CI 7.14-126.61), smoking history (P < 0.0001; OR 4.1; 2.35-7.30), and hypertension (P = 0.024; OR 2.1; CI 1.11-4.16). Aneurysms in the proximal/mid descending (P < 0.0001; OR 4.96; CI 2.32-10.61) and diaphragm level (P < 0.0001; OR 38.4; CI 14.71-100.15) of the aorta also showed a positive association with AAAs when adjusted for age and gender. AAA screening in patients with TAA is a reasonable, evidence-based option regardless of the TAA location, with the strongest support in patients >age 55, with systemic hypertension, a smoking history and/or a TAA in the descending thoracic aorta. PMID:26602411

  1. The Effect of Experimental Renal Hypertension on the Response of the Rabbit Aorta to Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    McCullagh, K. G.

    1973-01-01

    Vitamin D2 was administered to groups of normal rabbits and rabbits made hypertensive by clipping the renal artery and removing the opposite kidney. The effect of vitamin D administration alone (II), renal hypertension alone (III), and both combined (IV) on the degree of aortic mineralization, aortic diameter and aortic connective tissue composition was investigated. The mineral content of the aorta increased from a mean of 200% in control rabbit aortas (I) to 579% in Group II, 529% in Group III and 1971% in Group IV. A significant synergism between the two treatments was demonstrated. Increased aortic ash concentration was shown to be associated with an increase in the internal diameter of the aorta according to the regression equation: diameter (mm)=0.108M+399, where M=aortic ash content in mg%. Neither hypertension nor vitamin D alone had an effect on the connective tissue composition of the aorta, but when combined they were associated with an absolute increase in the amounts of collagen, elastin and non-collagenous alkali-extractable proteins. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:4700699

  2. Nitric Oxide Transport in Normal Human Thoracic Aorta: Effects of Hemodynamics and Nitric Oxide Scavengers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Zhenze; Zhao, Ping; Fan, Zhanming; Sun, Anqiang; Zhan, Fan; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of nitric oxide (NO) in the homeostasis of the vasculature, little quantitative information exists concerning NO transport and distribution in medium and large-sized arteries where atherosclerosis and aneurysm occur and hemodynamics is complex. We hypothesized that local hemodynamics in arteries may govern NO transport and affect the distribution of NO in the arteries, hence playing an important role in the localization of vascular diseases. To substantiate this hypothesis, we presented a lumen/wall model of the human aorta based on its MRI images to simulate the production, transport and consumption of NO in the arterial lumen and within the aortic wall. The results demonstrated that the distribution of NO in the aorta was quite uneven with remarkably reduced NO bioavailability in regions of disturbed flow, and local hemodynamics could affect NO distribution mainly via flow dependent NO production rate of endothelium. In addition, erythrocytes in the blood could moderately modulate NO concentration in the aorta, especially at the endothelial surface. However, the reaction of NO within the wall could only slightly affect NO concentration on the luminal surface, but strongly reduce NO concentration within the aortic wall. A strong positive correlation was revealed between wall shear stress and NO concentration, which was affected by local hemodynamics and NO reaction rate. In conclusion, the distribution of NO in the aorta may be determined by local hemodynamics and modulated differently by NO scavengers in the lumen and within the wall. PMID:25405341

  3. MRI of chronic posttraumatic false aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. [Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, E.H.; Webb, W.R.; Verrier, E.D.; Broaddus, C.; Gamsu, G.; Amparo, E.; Higgins, C.B.

    1984-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ideally suited to evaluation of the thoracic aorta because of its ability to demonstrate mediastinal vessels, depict blood flow, and produce direct sagittal images. The authors present a case in which MRI was used for diagnosis and postoperative follow-up in a patient with a posttraumatic aortic false aneurysm.

  4. Blunt traumatic aortic rupture of the proximal ascending aorta repaired by resection and direct anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Harmouche, Majid; Slimani, Eric Karim; Heraudeau, Adeline; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Traumatic aortic injury represents 15% of motor vehicle related deaths with death occurring at the scene in 85% of the cases. Aortic disruptions usually occur at the isthmus in a transverse fashion with all three of the aortic layers being involved. Herein, we report the case of a 68-year old man with no prior medical history who was struck by a vehicle while riding his bicycle. The ruptured segment of aorta was resected circumferentially and interrupted horizontal mattress pledgeted prolene sutures were used to ensure full thickness aortic integrity of the proximal and distal aortic segments. The aorta was closed with a single-layer technique using 4/0 prolene suture. There were no postoperative complications and patient was discharged on Day 44. The case here discussed demonstrates a rare presentation of blunt aortic injury. The proximal ascending aorta is an unusual site of transection following blunt trauma with few reports in the literature. We were able to repair the aorta with direct suture, thus avoiding the use of artificial material. PMID:23838337

  5. Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic evaluation of NIR laser-welded human and porcine aorta tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Alvin; Alimova, Alexandra; Minko, Glenn; Liu, C. H.; Gayen, Tapan K.; Savage, Howard E.; Halder, Rabindra K.; McCormick, Steven A.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2003-06-01

    Laser tissue welding involves the partial denaturing and renaturing of the collagen triple helical structure. Although the mechanisms of laser tissue welding are not well understood, water in tissues plays an important role in the process. High quality welding of human and porcine aorta tissue have been achieved using NIR lasers tuned to the water absorption band around 1450 nm. Fluorescence and Raman spectra from welded and non-welded regions are compared for ex vivo human and porcine aorta tissues. The fluorescence from the outer surface of welded aorta was substantially weaker than the fluorescence from the non-welded region. The Raman spectra from the welded and non-welded tissue regions appeared similar in the energies of the observed vibrational levels but the intensity of the fluorescence wing was considerably greater from the outer surface of the welded region as compared to the non-welded region. For the outer surface of the aorta, the emission intensity from the welded region was larger than for the non-welded region.

  6. TAVR Through Heavily Calcified Aorta Following Atheroma Retrieval With the "Elevator" Technique.

    PubMed

    Senguttuvan, N Boopathy; Ellozy, Sharif; Tejani, Furqan; Kovacic, Jason; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K; Dangas, George D

    2015-10-01

    An 86-year-old Caucasian female with severe symptomatic, inoperable aortic stenosis was accepted for high-risk transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) approach due to severe calcification of the aorta. During initial passage of a 22 Fr sheath, there was dislodgment with proximal migration of a circumferential tunnel of calcium from the infrarenal aorta. A novel "elevator" technique was used to secure and retrieve the dislodged aorta en bloc back to its original infrarenal aortic position and allow in situ fixation with stenting. A new TAVR system was then successfully placed through the stent and a 23 mm Edwards Sapien valve (Edwards Lifesciences) was implanted as planned. In case of calcification protruding into the lumen of the aorta and limiting the passage of the large valve delivery system sheath, the obstruction can be managed by stenting the calcification against the luminal wall under fluoroscopic and intravascular-ultrasound guidance, allowing successful passage of the valve delivery system. The elevator technique allows axial transportation of any calcified vascular fragments, should they become dislodged. PMID:26429853

  7. An effective method of isolating endothelial cells from intact rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hua; Suo, Ning; Li, Fei; Yang, Chun-Lin; Qiong, Xiao

    2014-09-01

    Rat aorta has been widely utilized in studies on cardiovascular diseases. Due to its small size, the endothelial cells are difficult to isolate. Here, we developed a modified method to obtain the endothelial cells from the rat aorta. The thoracic aorta of Wistar rat was harvested with its inside was turned out to expose the tunica intima. With its both ends ligated and cultured in ECM in T25 flask, a small amount of cells grew out from the aorta on day 4 and manifested the characteristic cobble stone-like monolayer on day 9-10. The cells were identified to be endothelial cells using reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunocytochemical staining for Von Willebrand Factor (vWF), Dil-Ac-LDL uptake assay, and capillary tube formation assay. This method serves as an easy way to get a large amount of endothelial cells from small-sized vessels, which, therefore, will greatly benefit the researches of vascular disease. PMID:25002347

  8. A patient with bicuspid aorta and intercoronary continuity: a rare and variant of coronary circulation.

    PubMed

    Arat-Ozkan, Alev; Grmen, Tevfik; Ersanli, Murat; Okn, Baris; Babalik, Erhan; Kkoglu, M Serdar

    2004-01-01

    Bidirectional flow in patients with normal coronary arteries is an indicator of intercoronary continuity, a rare variant of coronary circulation, distinct from collaterals. The case of an 18 year old Turkish male with bicuspid aorta and intercoronary artery is reported and different aspects of this interesting entity are emphasized. PMID:14973360

  9. Ascending thoracic aorta aneurysm surgery and aortic valve repair during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gama, Pedro; Pancas, Rita; Antunes, Manuel J

    2009-01-01

    Open-heart surgery during pregnancy is challenging because it requires attention to both mother and fetus. A 31-year-old pregnant woman underwent surgery for a large ascending aorta aneurysm threatening rupture in the 12th week and then went on to a cesarean section at 38 weeks, which produced a healthy baby. PMID:19549048

  10. Aorta cross-section calculation and 3D visualization from CT or MRT data using VRML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabner, Guenther; Modritsch, Robert; Stiegmaier, Wolfgang; Grasser, Simon; Klinger, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Quantification of vessel diameters of artherosclerotic or congenital stenosis is very important for the diagnosis of vascular diseases. The aorta extraction and cross-section calculation is a software-based application that offers a three-dimensional, platform-independent, colorized visualization of the extracted aorta with augmented reality information of MRT or CT datasets. This project is based on different types of specialized image processing algorithms, dynamical particle filtering and complex mathematical equations. From this three-dimensional model a calculation of minimal cross sections is performed. In user specified distances, the aorta is cut in differently defined directions which are created through vectors with varying length. The extracted aorta and the derived minimal cross-sections are then rendered with the marching cube algorithm and represented together in a three-dimensional virtual reality with a very high degree of immersion. The aim of this study was to develop an imaging software that delivers cardiologists the possibility of (i) furnishing fast vascular diagnosis, (ii) getting precise diameter information, (iii) being able to process exact, local stenosis detection (iv) having permanent data storing and easy access to former datasets, and (v) reliable documentation of results in form of tables and graphical printouts.

  11. High level cross of the esophagus with the descending aorta in scoliosis: CT study

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Koji; Kikuno, Motoyuki; Hyodoh, Hideki

    1996-05-01

    The esophagus occasionally crosses the descending aorta at an unusually high level (3-5 cm inferior to the carina) in right-sided scoliosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mechanism of this finding. We prospectively evaluated thoracic CT scans in 30 patients with right-sided scoliosis. We assessed the alterations in the positions of the esophagus and the descending aorta by the thoracic deformity. The descending aorta followed the scoliotic curve of the spine in 26 (87%) patients. The esophagus followed the scoliotic curve of the spine in 14 (47%) patients and did not in 16 (53%). The anteroposterior diameter of the thorax in the former group was significantly smaller than that in the latter (p < 0.01). High level cross of both structures was identified in 14 (47%) patients, and all of them belonged to the group in which the esophagus did not follow the scoliotic curve of the spine. The unusual high level cross of the esophagus with the descending aorta occasionally seen in scoliosis is due to a difference in the positional alterations of the two structures resulting from the scoliosis. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Intra-abdominal sepsis after hepatic resection.

    PubMed Central

    Pace, R F; Blenkharn, J I; Edwards, W J; Orloff, M; Blumgart, L H; Benjamin, I S

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and thirty hepatic resections performed over an 8-year period were reviewed for evidence of postoperative intra-abdominal sepsis. Of 126 patients who survived for more than 24 hours after operation, 36 developed culture positive intra-abdominal collections (28.6%). Significant independent variables associated with the development of intra-abdominal sepsis were diagnoses of trauma or cholangiocarcinoma, and the need for reoperation to control hemorrhage during the postoperative period. Before 1984, infected fluid collections were treated predominantly by operative drainage, but this has largely been replaced by percutaneous methods, which have proven effective in most cases. Eighteen (50%) of the infections were caused by a mixed bacterial culture, with Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli being the most common isolates. Six patients with clinical signs of sepsis had a sterile fluid collection drained with complete relief of symptoms. This review suggests that intra-abdominal sepsis is a frequent complication after hepatic resection, and can often be managed successfully by nonoperative percutaneous drainage. PMID:2493775

  13. Isometric abdominal muscle training and G tolerance.

    PubMed

    Balldin, U I; Myhre, K; Tesch, P A; Wilhelmsen, U; Andersen, H T

    1985-02-01

    Methods to increase G tolerance of pilots flying high-performance aircraft are of vital importance. Straining maneuvers to increase G tolerance involve abdominal muscles, and high intra-abdominal pressures (IAP) are recorded during G exposure. This study was carried out to examine the effects of an 11-week abdominal muscle training program on maximal IAP, G tolerance and muscle strength/endurance in 10 fighter pilots. G tolerance was measured in a human centrifuge using simulated aerial combat maneuvers (ACM). The pilots had a higher maximal IAP before training than a control group. G tolerance, maximal IAP, and maximal peak torque of knee extensors were not changed by the training. In contrast, leg muscle endurance increased (p less than 0.01) and ratings of local perceived exertion decreased (p less than 0.01). Static endurance of the knee extensors was positively correlated (p less than 0.05) with G tolerance. It is concluded that the present abdominal training program, employed in experienced fighter pilots, is not sufficient to increase IAP or G tolerance. PMID:3157367

  14. Experimental studies on intra-abdominal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Noboru; Inoue, Kichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Gomi, Fujiko

    1970-01-01

    Various intra-abdominal adhesions have been produced in rats and mice. Those animals given an intra-peritoneal injection of protoporphyrin showed a reduction of adhesion formation. Its mechanism has been discussed in view of Ellis's concept. It seems to be appropriate to use PPN for patients who may develop post-operative adhesions. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5448376

  15. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist. PMID:21412401

  16. New approaches in treating abdominal abscesses

    SciTech Connect

    Majeski, J.A.

    1983-09-01

    Ultrasonography, computed tomography and radionuclide scintigraphy are changing the management of patients with intra-abdominal abscesses. Traditional surgical incision and drainage may not be necessary in all cases. Percutaneous catheter drainage using radiologic techniques has a high success rate. Although there are factors that preclude the use of percutaneous catheter drainage of an abscess, it nonetheless may be an alternative in certain situations.

  17. Abdominal abscesses with enteric communications: CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Chintapalli, K.; Thorsen, M.K.; Foley, W.D.; Unger, G.F.

    1983-07-01

    CT examinations of four proven abdominal abscesses with enteric communications are reported. All the patients received oral contrast (3% Gastrografin solution). Three patients recieved rectal contrast. The patient who did not receive rectal contrast had a prior abdominoperineal resection. Contrast material was administered intravenously unless there was a contraindication or a suspected enteric vesical fistula. A representative case is described.

  18. Infected Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Helicobacter cinaedi

    PubMed Central

    Iwasawa, Takamasa; Tamura, Atsushi; Lefor, Alan T.

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter cinaedi is a rare human pathogen which has various clinical manifestations such as cellulitis, bacteremia, arthritis, meningitis, and infectious endocarditis. We report an abdominal aortic aneurysm infected with Helicobacter cinaedi, treated successfully with surgical repair and long-term antimicrobial therapy. PMID:26885430

  19. Variations in branching pattern, shape, size and relative distances of arteries arising from arch of aorta.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Madhur; Sodhi, Lavina

    2005-06-01

    Hundred aortic arches were studied in adult cadavers (aged 40-70 years) for variations in the origin of branches at arch of aorta in situ and for observing the lumenal diameters and relative distances between the adjacent branches. Usually described three branches arising at arch of aorta were observed in 77.0% specimens. Two branches arising from arch of aorta, having different branching pattern were observed in 12.0%:--(i) BC trunk; left brachiocephalic which divided into right common carotid and right subclavian (ii) common origin of BC and LCC; LSC. (iii) common origin of BC and LCC; common origin of LSC and left vertebral. While, four branches were observed in 11.0% showing separate openings:--(i) BC; LCC; LV; LSC (ii) BC; thyroid ima; LCC; LSC (iii) BC, mediastinal; LCC; LSC. At the lumenal surface of the arch of aorta the lumenal openings showed a similar pattern corresponding to the arterial branches on the external surface. These openings were oval in shape in 90.0% with the mean maximum anteroposterior diameters being greater than the mean maximum side-to-side diameters (p < 0.001), while they were elliptical in 10.0%. The BC artery showed largest size followed by LSC and then LCC in most of the branching patterns (p< 0.001). The mean transverse distances between adjacent lumenal openings of these branches were significantly greater than the mean vertical distances (p < 0.001). Approximation of LCC to BC trunk was seen in 10.0% specimens. These observations may be important while invading the arch of aorta and its branches by instruments, as all areas are now susceptible to surgical attack. PMID:16295713

  20. The role of extracellular and intracellular proteolytic systems in aneurysms of the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Werner, Isabella; Schack, Stephanie; Richter, Manfred; Stock, Ulrich A; Ahmad, Ali El-Sayed; Moritz, Anton; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres

    2016-05-01

    Aneurysms of the ascending aorta are an outstanding challenge to clinicians as they may persist asymptomatic until they present with dissection or rupture. Intensive research is performed to reveal the molecular mechanisms causing aneurysm formation. Calpains are ubiquitous non-lysosomal cysteine proteases which are classically activated by calcium signaling. The two major forms of the calpain-family are calpain-I and calpain-II. Calpastatin specifically inhibits the proteolytic activity of calpain-I and -II. Recently it has been demonstrated in aneurysm tissues from ascending aortas obtained from Marfan syndrome patients that calpain-II expression is increased and calpastatin expression is decreased. Thus, we were interested in the probable role of calpains in aneurysms of ascending aorta in non-Marfan patients. Therefore, ascending aortic samples of dilated and non-dilated aortas were analyzed according to their calpain-I, -II and calpastatin content as well as the expression levels of MMPs and elastin as well as the infiltration of inflammatory cells. We have found significant differences in calpain-I and calpastatin protein expression and serum levels in patients with aneurysm of the ascending aorta. Furthermore, MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression levels correlate with calpain-I protein levels. Due to our findings we conclude that calpain-1 seems to be related to fibrotic alteration in aortic aneurysm tissue in our experimental group. The change in calpain-1 modulates the structure of aortic tissue causing alteration in elastin structure, thus enabling macrophage infiltration and elevation of MMP levels. Circulating levels of calpain-1 may be used as a prognostic marker in the future if further correlation analyses are done. PMID:26582478

  1. Endovascular Repair of Localized Pathological Lesions of the Descending Thoracic Aorta: Midterm Results

    SciTech Connect

    Attia, Cherif; Villard, Jacques; Boussel, Loic; Farhat, Fadi; Robin, Jacques; Revel, Didier; Douek, Philippe

    2007-07-15

    The endoluminal stent-graft represents an attractive and a less invasive technique for treatment of various diseases of the descending thoracic aorta. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Talent endovascular stent-graft for the treatment of various localized diseases of the descending thoracic aorta. Over a 3-year period, Talent thoracic endografts were placed in 40 patients with a high surgical risk, presenting a localized lesion of the descending thoracic aorta: degenerative aneurysm (n = 13), acute traumatic rupture (n = 11), acute Stanford type B aortic dissection (n = 6), false aneurysm (n = 7), and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (n = 3). Fifteen patients (37.5%) were treated as emergencies. The feasibility of endovascular treatment and sizing of the aorta and stent-grafts were determined preoperatively by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and intraoperative angiography. Immediate and mid-term technical and clinical success was assessed by clinical and MRA follow-up. Endovascular treatment was completed successfully in all 40 patients, with no conversion to open repair or intraoperative mortality. The mean operative time was 37.5 {+-} 7 min. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 10% (n = 4), all in emergency cases, for causes not related to the endograft. The primary technical success was 92.5%. The mean follow-up period was 15 {+-} 5 months. The survival rate was 95% (n = 35). Diminution of the aneurismal size was observed in 47.5% (n = 19). We conclude that endovascular treatment of the various localized diseases of the descending thoracic aorta is a promising, feasible, alternative technique to open surgery in well-selected patients.

  2. Methylprednisolone Stiffens Aortas in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Chronic Inflammation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Ming-Shian; Lee, Po-Huang; Liang, Jin-Tung; Chang, Kuo-Chu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Glucocorticoids are commonly used as therapeutic agents in many acute and chronic inflammatory and auto-immune diseases. The current study investigated the effects of methylprednisolone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) on aortic distensibility and vascular resistance in lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation in male Wistar rats. Methods Chronic inflammation was induced by implanting a subcutaneous slow-release ALZET osmotic pump (1 mg kg?1 day?1 lipopolysaccharide) for either 2 or 4 weeks. Arterial wave transit time (?) was derived to describe the elastic properties of aortas using the impulse response function of the filtered aortic input impedance spectra. Results Long-term lipopolysaccharide challenge enhanced the expression of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the aortas. Lipopolysaccharide also upregulated the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase to produce high levels of nitric oxide (NO), which resulted in vasodilation, as evidenced by the fall in total peripheral resistance (Rp). However, lipopolysaccharide challenge did not influence the elastic properties of aortas, as shown by the unaltered ?. The NO-mediated vascular relaxation may counterbalance the AGEs-induced arterial stiffening so that the aortic distensibility remained unaltered. Treating lipopolysaccharide-challenged rats with methylprednisolone prevented peripheral vasodilation because of its ability to increase Rp. However, methylprednisolone produced an increase in aorta stiffness, as manifested by the significant decline in ?. The diminished aortic distensibility by methylprednisolone paralleled a significant reduction in NO plasma levels, in the absence of any significant changes in AGEs content. Conclusion Methylprednisolone stiffens aortas and elastic arteries in lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation in rats, for NO activity may be dominant as a counteraction of AGEs. PMID:23874978

  3. Dexmedetomidine-induced contraction involves phosphorylation of caldesmon by JNK in endothelium-denuded rat aortas.

    PubMed

    Baik, Jiseok; Ok, Seong-Ho; Cho, Hyunhoo; Yu, Jongsun; Kim, Woochan; Nam, In-Koo; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Lee, Heon-Keun; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Caldesmon, an inhibitory actin binding protein, binds to actin and inhibits actin-myosin interactions, whereas caldesmon phosphorylation reverses the inhibitory effect of caldesmon on actin-myosin interactions, potentially leading to enhanced contraction. The goal of this study was to investigate the cellular signaling pathway responsible for caldesmon phosphorylation, which is involved in the regulation of the contraction induced by dexmedetomidine (DMT), an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist, in endothelium-denuded rat aortas. SP600125 (a c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase [JNK] inhibitor) dose-response curves were generated in aortas that were pre-contracted with DMT or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator. Dose-response curves to the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine were generated in rat aortas pre-contracted with DMT. The effects of SP600125 and rauwolscine (an alpha-2 adrenoceptor inhibitor) on DMT-induced caldesmon phosphorylation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were investigated by western blot analysis. PDBu-induced caldesmon and DMT-induced PKC phosphorylation in rat aortic VSMCs was investigated by western blot analysis. The effects of GF109203X (a PKC inhibitor) on DMT- or PDBu-induced JNK phosphorylation in VSMCs were assessed. SP600125 resulted in the relaxation of aortas that were pre-contracted with DMT or PDBu, whereas rauwolscine attenuated DMT-induced contraction. Chelerythrine resulted in the vasodilation of aortas pre-contracted with DMT. SP600125 and rauwolscine inhibited DMT-induced caldesmon phosphorylation. Additionally, PDBu induced caldesmon phosphorylation, and GF109203X attenuated the JNK phosphorylation induced by DMT or PDBu. DMT induced PKC phosphorylation in rat aortic VSMCs. These results suggest that alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated, DMT-induced contraction involves caldesmon phosphorylation that is mediated by JNK phosphorylation by PKC. PMID:25332685

  4. Postnatal regulation of fibroblast growth factor ligand and receptor gene expression in rat thoracic aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Winkles, J. A.; Alberts, G. F.; Peifley, K. A.; Nomoto, K.; Liau, G.; Majesky, M. W.

    1996-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 and FGF-2 are potent angiogenic factors and vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) mitogens in vivo. They function via binding to a family of structurally related cell surface receptors that possess intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Several studies have indicated that increased FGF and/or FGF receptor (FGFR) expression may correlate with adult SMC proliferation in vivo. In this study, we used Northern blot hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays to compare the FGF and FGFR mRNA levels in newborn rat aorta, where SMCs have a high replication index, to those in adult rat aorta, where SMCs are relatively quiescent. We found that FGF-2 and FGFR-2 mRNA expression was elevated 8.2- and 5.6-fold, respectively, in adult aorta. Increased FGF-2 protein expression in the adult aorta was confirmed by Western blot analysis. We also examined FGF and FGFR mRNA expression levels in SMC cultures derived from newborn or adult rat aorta. FGF-1 transcripts were more abundant in newborn SMCs whereas FGF-2 and FGFR-1 mRNA expression was higher in adult SMCs. Furthermore, FGF-1 and FGF-2 mRNA expression levels were altered by cell culture density and by serum treatment. We conclude that elevated FGF ligand and receptor expression does not always correlate with a high SMC proliferative index, that FGF-1 or FGF-2 may not be the primary mitogens responsible for newborn SMC growth in vivo, and that FGF-1 and FGF-2 may serve nonmitogenic functions within the mature, adult vessel wall. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8952544

  5. Monoamine oxidases are mediators of endothelial dysfunction in the mouse aorta.

    PubMed

    Sturza, Adrian; Leisegang, Matthias S; Babelova, Andrea; Schröder, Katrin; Benkhoff, Sebastian; Loot, Annemarieke E; Fleming, Ingrid; Schulz, Rainer; Muntean, Danina M; Brandes, Ralf P

    2013-07-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) generate H(2)O(2) as a by-product of their catalytic cycle. Whether MAOs are mediators of endothelial dysfunction is unknown and was determined here in the angiotensin II and lipopolysaccharide-models of vascular dysfunction in mice. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that mouse aortas contain enzymes involved in catecholamine generation and MAO-A and MAO-B mRNA. MAO-A and -B proteins could be detected by Western blot not only in mouse aortas but also in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Ex vivo incubation of mouse aorta with recombinant MAO-A increased H(2)O(2) formation and induced endothelial dysfunction that was attenuated by polyethylene glycol-catalase and MAO inhibitors. In vivo lipopolysaccharide (8 mg/kg IP overnight) or angiotensin II (1 mg/kg per day, 2 weeks, minipump) treatment induced vascular MAO-A and -B expressions and resulted in attenuated endothelium-dependent relaxation of the aorta in response to acetylcholine. MAO inhibitors reduced the lipopolysaccharide- and angiotensin II-induced aortic reactive oxygen species formation by 50% (ferrous oxidation xylenol orange assay) and partially normalized endothelium-dependent relaxation. MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitors had an additive effect; combined application completely restored endothelium-dependent relaxation. To determine how MAO-dependent H(2)O(2) formation induces endothelial dysfunction, cyclic GMP was measured. Histamine stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to activate endothelial NO synthase resulted in an increase in cyclic GMP, which was almost abrogated by MAO-A exposure. MAO inhibition prevented this effect, suggesting that MAO-induced H(2)O(2) formation is sufficient to attenuate endothelial NO release. Thus, MAO-A and MAO-B are both expressed in the mouse aorta, induced by in vivo lipopolysaccharide and angiotensin II treatment and contribute via the generation of H(2)O(2) to endothelial dysfunction in vascular disease models. PMID:23670301

  6. Thoracic Aorta 3D Hemodynamics in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients With Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Bradley D.; van Ooij, Pim; Barker, Alex J.; Carr, Maria; Gabbour, Maya; Schnell, Susanne; Jarvis, Kelly B.; Carr, James C.; Markl, Michael; Rigsby, Cynthia; Robinson, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate the 3D hemodynamics in the thoracic aorta of pediatric and young adult bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients. Methods 4D flow MRI was performed in 30 pediatric and young adult BAV patients (age: 13.9 4.4 (range: [3.4, 20.7]) years old, M:F = 17:13) as part of this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Nomogram-based aortic root Z-scores were calculated to assess aortic dilatation and degree of aortic stenosis (AS) severity was assessed on MRI. Data analysis included calculation of time-averaged systolic 3D wall shear stress (WSSsys) along the entire aorta wall, and regional quantification of maximum and mean WSSsys and peak systolic velocity (velsys) in the ascending aorta (AAo), arch, and descending aorta (DAo). The 4D flow MRI AAo velsys was also compared with echocardiography peak velocity measurements. Results There was a positive correlation with both mean and max AAo WSSsys and peak AAo velsys (mean: r = 0.84, P < 0.001, max: r = 0.94, P < 0.001) and AS (mean: rS = 0.43, P = 0.02, max: rS = 0.70, P < 0.001). AAo peak velocity was significantly higher when measured with echo compared with 4D flow MRI (2.1 0.98 m/s versus 1.27 0.49 m/s, P < 0.001). Conclusion In pediatric and young adult patients with BAV, AS and peak ascending aorta velocity are associated with increased AAo WSS, while aortic dilation, age, and body surface area do not significantly impact AAo hemodynamics. Prospective studies are required to establish the role of WSS as a risk-stratification tool in these patients. PMID:25644073

  7. Studying Developmental Variation with Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis (GMIA)

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Christine; Metscher, Brian D.; Mller, Gerd B.; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    The ways in which embryo development can vary across individuals of a population determine how genetic variation translates into adult phenotypic variation. The study of developmental variation has been hampered by the lack of quantitative methods for the joint analysis of embryo shape and the spatial distribution of cellular activity within the developing embryo geometry. By drawing from the strength of geometric morphometrics and pixel/voxel-based image analysis, we present a new approach for the biometric analysis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional embryonic images. Well-differentiated structures are described in terms of their shape, whereas structures with diffuse boundaries, such as emerging cell condensations or molecular gradients, are described as spatial patterns of intensities. We applied this approach to microscopic images of the tail fins of larval and juvenile rainbow trout. Inter-individual variation of shape and cell density was found highly spatially structured across the tail fin and temporally dynamic throughout the investigated period. PMID:25500820

  8. Morphometric Changes of the Corpus Callosum in Congenital Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D. Louis; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Sartori, Giuseppe; Pietrini, Pietro; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender. There was no overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus callosum are in line with the well-described cross-modal functional and structural neuroplastic changes in congenital blindness. PMID:25255324

  9. Achilles tendinosis – a morphometrical study in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rafael Duarte; Glazebrook, Mark Anthony; Campos, Vinicius Castro; Vasconcelos, Anilton Cesar

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the morphopathogenesis of Achilles tendinosis, using a rat model and presenting quantitative analysis of time-dependent histological changes. Thirty Wistar rats were used, randomly split in experimental and control groups. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to a treadmill running scheme. Five animals of each group were euthanized at four, eight and sixteen weeks. Achilles tendons were collected and processed routinely for histopath sections. Slides were stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin, Picrosirius Red, Alcian Blue, AgNOR, TUNEL and evaluated morphometrically. Cellular density decreased slightly along the time and was higher in the experimental group than in controls at fourth, eighth and sixteenth weeks. Fiber microtearing, percentual of reticular fibers and glycosaminoglycans content increased along the time and were higher in experimental group than in controls at all-time intervals. AgNOR labeling here interpreted as a marker of transcription activity was higher in the experimental groups than in controls at all-time intervals. Apoptotic cells were more frequent and diffusely distributed in tendinosis samples than in control groups. These results suggest that as mechanical overload is becoming chronic, cellular turnover and matrix deposition increases leading to tendinosis. The combination of staining techniques and morphometry used here to describe the evolution of lesions occurring in a rat model system has proved to be suited for the study of induced Achilles tendinosis. PMID:22076169

  10. Phylogeography of the Calonectris shearwaters using molecular and morphometric data.

    PubMed

    Gmez-Daz, E; Gonzlez-Sols, J; Peinado, M A; Page, R D M

    2006-11-01

    We investigated phylogenetic relationships and the biogeographic history of the Calonectris species complex, using both molecular and biometric data from one population of the Cape Verde shearwater Calonectris edwardsii (Cape Verde Islands), one from the streaked shearwater C. leucomelas (western Pacific Ocean) and 26 from Cory's shearwater populations distributed across the Atlantic (C. d. borealis) and the Mediterranean (C. d. diomedea). The streaked shearwater appeared as the most basal and distant clades, whereas the genetic divergences among the three main clades within the Palearctic were similar. Clock calibrations match the first speciation event within Calonectris to the Panama Isthmus formation, suggesting a vicariant scenario for the divergence of the Pacific and the Palearctic clades. The separation between the Atlantic and Mediterranean clades would have occurred in allopatry by range contraction followed by local adaptation during the major biogeographic events of the Pleistocene. The endemic form from Cape Verde probably evolved as a result of ecological divergence from the Mediterranean subspecies. Finally, one Mediterranean population (Almeria) was unexpectedly grouped into the Atlantic subspecies clade, both by genetic and by morphometric analyses, pointing out the Almeria-Oran oceanographic front (AOOF) as the actual divide between the two Cory's shearwater subspecies. Our results highlight the importance of oceanographic boundaries as potentially effective barriers shaping population and species phylogeographical structure in pelagic seabirds. PMID:16814569

  11. Morphometric techniques for orientation analysis of karst in northern Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, D.T.; Beck, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    Morphometric techniques for the analysis of karst landscape orientation data based on swallet catchment areas can be highly inadequate. The long axes of catchment areas may not coincide with structural control, especially in regions having very low relief. Better structural correlation was observed using multiply linear trend measurements of closed depressions rather than drainage basins. Trend analysis was performed on four areas, approximately 25 km/sup 2/ each, forming a sequence from the Suwannee River to the Cody Escarpment in northern Florida. This area is a karst plain, mantled by 12 to 25 meters of unconsolidated sands and clays. Structural control was examined by tabulating the azimuths of distinct linear trends as determined from depression shape based on 1:24,000 topographic maps. The topography was characterized by 1872 individual swallet catchment areas or 1457 closed depressions. The common geomorphic technique of analyzing orientation data in 10/sup 0/ increments beginning with O/sup 0/ may yield incorrect peak width and placement. To correctly detect all significant orientation peaks all possible combinations of peak width and placement must be tested. Fifty-five different plots were reviewed and tested for each area.

  12. Functional Morphometric Analysis of the Furcula in Mesozoic Birds

    PubMed Central

    Close, Roger A.; Rayfield, Emily J.

    2012-01-01

    The furcula displays enormous morphological and structural diversity. Acting as an important origin for flight muscles involved in the downstroke, the form of this element has been shown to vary with flight mode. This study seeks to clarify the strength of this form-function relationship through the use of eigenshape morphometric analysis coupled with recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs), including phylogenetic Flexible Discriminant Analysis (pFDA). Additionally, the morphospace derived from the furculae of extant birds is used to shed light on possible flight adaptations of Mesozoic fossil taxa. While broad conclusions of earlier work are supported (U-shaped furculae are associated with soaring, strong anteroposterior curvature with wing-propelled diving), correlations between form and function do not appear to be so clear-cut, likely due to the significantly larger dataset and wider spectrum of flight modes sampled here. Interclavicular angle is an even more powerful discriminator of flight mode than curvature, and is positively correlated with body size. With the exception of the close relatives of modern birds, the ornithuromorphs, Mesozoic taxa tend to occupy unique regions of morphospace, and thus may have either evolved unfamiliar flight styles or have arrived at similar styles through divergent musculoskeletal configurations. PMID:22666324

  13. Morphometric analysis of Andhale watershed, Taluka Mulshi, District Pune, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umrikar, Bhavana N.

    2016-03-01

    The morphometric analysis coupled with remote sensing and geographical information system techniques evaluates various valuable parameters for the watershed development plan of drought-prone Andhale watershed of Pune district, Maharashtra. The upper part of the watershed shows parallel-sub parallel and rectilinear drainage patterns indicative of structural control, whereas the lower part shows dendritic drainage pattern revealing the homogeneity in texture and lack of structural control. The elongated shape of this basin is indicated by values of form factor, circulatory ratio and elongation ratio. The mean bifurcation ratio is observed to be 4.65 indicating the watershed is less affected by structural disturbances, and drainage pattern is not much influenced by geological structures. The hypsometric integral obtained for Andhale watershed is 0.316 indicating maturity stage of the basin. The longitudinal profile depicts steep gradient at the origin but it gradually flattens out as the river erodes its base level. The high values of drainage density, stream frequency, infiltration number and drainage texture indicate that the study area is underlain by impermeable rocks responsible for high runoff. Thus, the results of this analysis would be useful in determining the effect of catchment characteristics such as size, shape, slope of the catchment on runoff vis-a-vis the scope for water harvesting.

  14. Morphometric analysis of the Rio Apaporis Caiman (Reptilia, Crocodylia, Alligatoridae).

    PubMed

    Escobedo-Galvn, Armando H; Velasco, Julin A; Gonzlez-Maya, Jos F; Resetar, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis has been considered by several authors as an extreme of morphological variation within the Caiman crocodilus complex. Here, we evaluate its position in the Caiman crocodilus complex morphospace using morphological traits from head shape. We examined the holotype and seventeen paratypes of Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis Medem 1955 deposited at the Field Museum of Natural History. We performed multivariate morphometric analyses: principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA), based on 21 cranial traits of of C. c. apaporiensis, C. yacare and the C. crocodilus complex (C. c. chiapasius, C. c. fuscus andC. c. crocodilus). We find a notable separation of C.c. apaporiensis from C. yacare and C. crocodilus complex in the morphospace. We suggest that geographic isolation might have driven this morphological separation from the C. crocodilus complex, but further analysis are necessary to confirm whether these differences are related with genetic differentiation within the complex. In addition, we suggest that environmental heterogeneity might drive the evolution of independent lineages within the C. crocodilus complex. PMID:26701577

  15. Reduced cortical thickness in gambling disorder: a morphometric MRI study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2015-12-01

    Gambling disorder has recently been recognized as a prototype 'behavioral addiction' by virtue of its inclusion in the DSM-5 category of 'Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders.' Despite its newly acquired status and prevalence rate of 1-3% globally, relatively little is known regarding the neurobiology of this disorder. The aim of this study was to explore cortical morphometry in untreated gambling disorder, for the first time. Subjects with gambling disorder (N=16) free from current psychotropic medication or psychiatric comorbidities, and healthy controls (N=17), were entered into the study and undertook magnetic resonance imaging (3T MRI). Cortical thickness was quantified using automated segmentation techniques (FreeSurfer), and group differences were identified using permutation cluster analysis, with stringent correction for multiple comparisons. Gambling disorder was associated with significant reductions (average 15.8-19.9%) in cortical thickness, versus controls, predominantly in right frontal cortical regions. Pronounced right frontal morphometric brain abnormalities occur in gambling disorder, supporting neurobiological overlap with substance disorders and its recent reclassification as a behavioral addiction. Future work should explore the trait versus state nature of the findings and whether similarities exist with other not-yet-reclassified putative behavioral addictions. PMID:25814469

  16. Protocol for Three-dimensional Confocal Morphometric Analysis of Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Maryam; Rezakhani, Arjang; Roghani, Mehrdad; Joghataei, Mohammad T; Mohseni, Simin

    2015-01-01

    As glial cells in the brain, astrocytes have diverse functional roles in the central nervous system. In the presence of harmful stimuli, astrocytes modify their functional and structural properties, a condition called reactive astrogliosis. Here, a protocol for assessment of the morphological properties of astrocytes is presented. This protocol includes quantification of 12 different parameters i.e. the surface area and volume of the tissue covered by an astrocyte (astrocyte territory), the entire astrocyte including branches, cell body, and nucleus, as well as total length and number of branches, the intensity of fluorescence immunoreactivity of antibodies used for astrocyte detection, and astrocyte density (number/1,000 m(2)). For this purpose three-dimensional (3D) confocal microscopic images were created, and 3D image analysis software such as Volocity 6.3 was used for measurements. Rat brain tissue exposed to amyloid beta1-40 (A?1-40) with or without a therapeuticintervention was used to present the method. This protocol can also be used for 3D morphometric analysis of other cells from either in vivo or in vitro conditions. PMID:26709729

  17. [Morphometric parameters of facial cranium asymmetry in adult man].

    PubMed

    Ga?voronski?, I V; Dubovik, E I; Kra?nik, I V

    2009-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at the evaluation of the morphometric characteristics of the contralateral sides of the facial cranium in adult men and women, the evaluation of asymmetry manifestation degree and the detection of most frequent zones of its localization. The study was conducted on 180 crania (90--male, 90--female) of the adults of I and II mature age periods. To detect the asymmetry of the facial cranium, the original "fan" principle of morphometry was developed. This approach has shown the asymmetry in the area of localization of different "fans" ("superior", "inferior", "lateral"), i.e., in the different regions of the facial cranium. On the basis of the data obtained, it can be concluded that in order to identify the asymmetry of the facial 1 cranium and to estimate the asymmetry manifestation degree it is expedient to take into account the following parameters: the distance from a nasion point to a point on the lateral edge of apertura piriformis, from a nasion point to a frontomolare-temporale point, from a zygomaxillare point to a lateral point on naso-frontal suture, from a zygomaxillare point to a dacryon point, from a subspinale point to a nazomaxillare point and from a subspinale point to a lateral point on naso-frontal suture. As in the series of the male crania asymmetry of the facial cranium was significantly more expressed than in the series of female ones, it is assumed to be associated with the different tone of mimic muscles. PMID:19563179

  18. The lung of shrews: morphometric estimation of diffusion capacity.

    PubMed

    Gehr, P; Sehovic, S; Burri, P H; Claassen, H; Weibel, E R

    1980-04-01

    The lungs of 16 shrews from 8 species (Sorex minutus, Neomys fodiens, Suncus etruscus, Crocidura russula, C. juvenetae, C. poensis, C. flavescens, C. giffardi) ranging in body weight from 2.2 to 100 g were studied by morphometry in order to compare the structural diffusion capacity for oxygen. DL02, with the oxygen consumption, VO2, measured on the same animals. VO2 was determined by short term measurements using a respirometer. DLO2 was estimated morphometrically. Both parameters demonstrated good coincidence in their allometric behaviour, establishing further progress in structure-function relationship in the respiratory apparatus. Whereas VO2 as well as DLO2 of shrews with a body weight W greater than 5 g follow the same allometric function established for mammals in general, the values for shrews with W less than 5 g exhibit significantly higher values. It appears that the pulmonary gas exchange parenchyma of these smallest mammals is well suited to supply the organism with the comparatively high levels of O2 required by the high metabolic rates, exhibiting a structural adaptation of the lung to higher VO2. PMID:7394364

  19. Morphometric variability in the Chagas' disease vector Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Harry, M

    1994-06-01

    Morphometric variability was studied in six domestic Venezuelan populations of the blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus Stal 1897 (Reduviidae, Triatominae) and in a sylvatic population identified as R. robustus Larrousse 1927. Evidence is here provided by both uni- and multifactorial analyses of extensive variation of morphological traits between the R. prolixus populations studied. Regardless the geographic or climatic environmental factor tested, none can be retained in a selective model accounting for the morphological variability observed. Moreover, the results failed to support any correlation between the morphological Mahalanobis' distances and geographical distances. The genetic relationships between these populations inferred from the present data, are more consistent with some demic structure, resulting from random genetic drift by founder effects, than with any alternative population genetic model. It is noteworthy that the range of variation of these morphological traits in R. prolixus includes the putative R. robustus population. Therefore, the species-specific status of R. robustus, at the very least the local Trujillo population studied, is questioned. In addition, a preliminary multifactorial analysis bearing on the three other Rhodnius relatives, R. pictipes Stal 1872, R. nasutus Stal 1859 and R. neglectus Lent 1954, confirmed the marked morphological differentiation of R. pictipes from all other species and showed a clear morphological differentiation of R. nasutus and R. neglectus both from one another and from R. prolixus. PMID:8080655

  20. The Reproducibility of Nuclear Morphometric Measurements in Invasive Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kronqvist, Pauliina; Kuopio, Teijo; Collan, Yrj; Horvath, Csaba; Tamm, lle

    1997-01-01

    The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of computerized nuclear morphometry was determined in repeated measurements of 212 samples of invasive breast cancer. The influence of biological variation and the selection of the measurement area was also tested. Morphometrically determined mean nuclear profile area (Pearsons r 0.89, grading efficiency (GE) 0.95) and standard deviation (SD) of nuclear profile area (Pearsons r 0.84, GE 0.89) showed high reproducibility. In this respect, nuclear morphometry equals with other established methods of quantitative pathology and exceeds the results of subjective grading of nuclear atypia in invasive breast cancer. A training period of eight days was sufficient to produce clear improvement in consistency of nuclear morphometry results. By estimating the sources of variation it could be shown that the variation associated with the measurement procedure itself is small. Instead, sample associated variation is responsible for the majority of variation in the measurements (82.9% in mean nuclear profile area and 65.9% in SD of nuclear profile area). This study points out that when standardized methods are applied computerized morphometry is a reproducible and reliable method of assessing nuclear atypia in invasive breast cancer. For further improvement special emphasize should be put on sampling rules of selecting the microscope fields and measurement areas. PMID:9373712