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1

Acute occlusion of the abdominal aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute aortic occlusion most commonly results from aortic saddle embolus or thrombosis of an atherosclerotic abdominal aorta. The purpose of this study was to review the experience at a university hospital to better define the diagnosis and management of this uncommon process.Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed from patients admitted to Emory University Hospital with acute occlusion of

Scott M. Surowiec; Halit Isiklar; Suha Sreeram; Victor J. Weiss; Alan B. Lumsden

1998-01-01

2

Interrenal Coarctation of the Abdominal Aorta  

PubMed Central

We report a case of congenital, segmental, hypoplastic interrenal abdominal aortic coarctation with inadequate collateral circulation. After preoperatively evaluating renal function and intraoperatively measuring vascular pressure, the coarctation was bridged with an aortico-aorta bypass; and an additional bypass graft was placed between the prosthesis and superior mesenteric artery. In this way, besides the successful surgical correction of coarctation, the inverse blood flow in the superior mesenteric artery was reversed to normal. Images PMID:15226879

Sokoli?, Josip; Luetic, V.; Šoša, T.; Fabe?i?-Sabadi, V.; Lovren?i?, M.; Grabi?-Han?evi?, D.

1984-01-01

3

Histopathological reaction of the abdominal aorta wall to non-covered stents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the histopathological reaction of the abdominal aorta wall in pigs' renal arteries to the presence of non-covered stainless steel stents. Methods: The abdominal aorta of ten pigs (6 months old and weighing 86.6 kg on average) was histopathologically studied 100 days after the implant of stainless steel stents in the abdominal aorta, with one segment of the

Rubio Bombonato; José Honório PALMA; José Augusto MARCONDES; Aury Nunes de MORAES; João Luiz da ROCHA; Márcio Rodrigo; Rodrigo Mezzalira; Enio Buffolo

2006-01-01

4

Axial prestretch and circumferential distensibility in biomechanics of abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

Elastic arteries are significantly prestretched in an axial direction. This property minimises axial deformations during pressure cycle. Ageing-induced changes in arterial biomechanics, among others, are manifested via a marked decrease in the prestretch. Although this fact is well known, little attention has been paid to the effect of decreased prestretch on mechanical response. Our study presents the results of an analytical simulation of the inflation-extension behaviour of the human abdominal aorta treated as nonlinear, anisotropic, prestrained thin-walled as well as thick-walled tube with closed ends. The constitutive parameters and geometries for 17 aortas adopted from the literature were supplemented with initial axial prestretches obtained from the statistics of 365 autopsy measurements. For each aorta, the inflation-extension response was calculated three times, with the expected value of the initial prestretch and with the upper and lower confidence limit of the initial prestretch derived from the statistics. This approach enabled age-related trends to be evaluated bearing in mind the uncertainty in the prestretch. Despite significantly decreased longitudinal prestretch with age, the biomechanical response of human abdominal aorta changes substantially depending on the initial axial stretch was used. In particular, substituting the upper limit of initial prestretch gave mechanical responses which can be characterised by (1) low variation in axial stretch and (2) high circumferential distensibility during pressurisation, in contrast to the responses obtained for their weakly prestretched counterparts. The simulation also suggested the significant effect of the axial prestretch on the variation of axial stress in the pressure cycle. Finally, the obtained results are in accordance with the hypothesis that circumferential-to-axial stiffness ratio is the quantity relatively constant within this cycle. PMID:24136338

Horný, Lukáš; Netušil, Marek; Vo?avková, Tereza

2014-08-01

5

Finite Element Modeling of Three-Dimensional Pulsatile Flow in the Abdominal Aorta: Relevance to Atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infrarenal abdominal aorta is particularly prone to atherosclerotic plaque formation while the thoracic aorta is relatively resistant. Localized differences in hemodynamic conditions, including differences in velocity profiles, wall shear stress, and recirculation zones have been implicated in the differential localization of disease in the infrarenal aorta. A comprehensive computational framework was developed, utilizing a stabilized, time accurate, finite element

Charles A. Taylor; Thomas J. R. Hughes; Christopher K. Zarins

1998-01-01

6

An Abdominal Aorta Wall Extraction for Liver Cirrhosis Classification Using Ultrasonic Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method to extract an abdominal aorta wall from an M-mode image. Furthermore, we propose the use of a Gaussian filter in order to improve image quality. The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter is effective in the abdominal aorta wall extraction.

Hayashi, Takaya; Fujita, Yusuke; Mitani, Yoshihiro; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Segawa, Makoto; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

2011-06-01

7

Distribution of Early Atherosclerotic Lesions in the Human Abdominal Aorta Correlates with Wall Shear Stresses Measured In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: to study the relationship between wall shear stresses measured in vivo and early atherosclerotic lesions in the abdominal aorta. Materials: eight young volunteers for in vivo wall shear-stress measurements. Abdominal aortas from 10 young adults without signs or history of atherosclerotic disease were obtained by autopsy for histomorphometric measurements. Methods: wall shear stresses were measured in the abdominal aorta

E. M Pedersen; S Oyre; M Agerbæk; I. B Kristensen; S Ringgaard; P Boesiger; W. P Paaske

1999-01-01

8

Impact of Age-Dependent Adventitia Inflammation on Structural Alteration of Abdominal Aorta in Hyperlipidemic Mice  

PubMed Central

Background The adventitia is suggested to contribute to vascular remodeling; however, the site-selective inflammatory responses in association with the development of atherosclerosis remain to be elucidated. Methods and Results Wild-type or apolipoprotein E knockout male C57BL/6J background mice were fed standard chow for 16, 32, and 52 weeks, and the morphology of the aortic arch, descending aorta, and abdominal aorta was compared. Atheromatous plaque formation progressed with age, particularly in the aortic arch and abdominal aorta but not in the descending aorta. In addition, we found that the numbers of macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and microvessels, assessed by anti-F4/80, CD3, and CD31 antibodies, were higher in the adventitia of the abdominal aorta at 52 weeks. These numbers were positively correlated with plaque formation, but negatively correlated with elastin content, resulting in the enlargement of the total vessel area. In aortic tissues, interleukin-6 levels increased in the atheromatous plaque with age, whereas the level of regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) increased with age, and compared with other sites, it was particularly distributed in inflammatory cells in the adventitia of the abdominal aorta. Conclusion This study suggests that adventitial inflammation contributes to the age-dependent structural alterations, and that the activation/inactivation of cytokines/chemokines is involved in the process. PMID:25153991

Sakamoto, Sumiharu; Tsuruda, Toshihiro; Hatakeyama, Kinta; Imamura, Takuroh; Asada, Yujiro; Kitamura, Kazuo

2014-01-01

9

Pulse Wave Imaging of Human Abdominal Aortas Jianwen Luo1  

E-print Network

, NY, USA JL2767@columbia.edu Abstract-- Vascular diseases (e.g., abdominal aortic aneurysm or, AAA on the mechanical properties of the aortic wall in vivo. Keywords-abdominal aortic aneurysm; pulse wave; pulse wave. Various vascular diseases including abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are known to change the tissue

Konofagou, Elisa E.

10

[Hypoplasia of the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta in Williams-Beuren syndrome].  

PubMed

Hypoplasia of the descending thoracic and abdominal aorta is a very rare condition and its etiology is poorly understood. Associations with congenital and acquired disorders have been reported. In this article we present the case of a 24-year-old woman with hypoplasia of the thoracic and abdominal aorta and Williams-Beurensyndrome. This rare syndrome is attributed to deletions of genes on chromosome 7, among other the elastin-gene, and is characterized by cardiovascular anomalies, dysmorph facial features and mental retardation. The patient presented with a history of severe hypertension and recurrent abdominal pain since childhood. Diagnosis was established by duplex-sonography and magnetic resonance angiography. The patient was treated by an aortoaortic bypass from the ascending to the infrarenal aorta with reinsertion of the visceral and the right renal arteries. It is essential to recognize the condition early to withhold high morbidity and mortality resulting from long standing severe hypertension. PMID:15968897

Romer, G Schenk; Weishaupt, D; Koppensteiner, R

2005-05-01

11

Pulse Wave Imaging in Murine Abdominal Aortas A Feasibility Study  

E-print Network

of mechanical properties of the aortic wall. Keywords; abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), high, New York, USA kf2113@columbia.edu Abstract--One of the most crucial aspects of abdominal aortic,2,3]. In aortic aneurysm cases, disruption of the medial elastic fibers may produce aortic stiffening, which

Konofagou, Elisa E.

12

Anatomic study of the collateral branches of the abdominal aorta of primate species Saguinus niger.  

PubMed

Saguinus niger is a primate of the family Callitrichidae, with a geographical distribution limited to northern Brazil, Guyanas, Suriname and Venezuela, where it inhabits rainforests along the coast. Three adult females from the Paragominas Bauxite Mine--PA were used, donated to the Laboratory of Animal Morphology Research (LAMR) of the Federal Rural University of Amazonia. These animals had died of natural causes. The arterial system was filled with latex, and the animals were fixed in 10% formalin. Afterwards, the abdominal aorta and its collateral branches were dissected. The arrangement of the abdominal aorta branches in this species showed a similar arrangement as domestic animals but differing in the formation of the coeliac trunk. The coeliac trunk originates from the abdominal aorta, and from this trunk, we found the hepatic, left gastric and splenic arteries, where the origin of these vessels was variable. These arteries originate from the coliac trunk or a common trunk originating from the coeliac trunk, a characteristic not described in other species. The other branches of the abdominal aorta from S. niger did not show great differences in origin when compared to other species. PMID:24597769

Andrade, L C; Branco, É; Lima, A R

2015-02-01

13

Thoracic and abdominal aortas stiffen through unique extracellular matrix changes in intrauterine growth restricted fetal sheep  

PubMed Central

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a fetal complication of pregnancy epidemiologically linked to cardiovascular disease in the newborn later in life. However, the mechanism is poorly understood with very little research on the vascular structure and function during development in healthy and IUGR neonates. Previously, we found vascular remodeling and increased stiffness in the carotid and umbilical arteries, but here we examine the remodeling and biomechanics in the larger vessels more proximal to the heart. To study this question, thoracic and abdominal aortas were collected from a sheep model of placental insufficiency IUGR (PI-IUGR) due to exposure to elevated ambient temperatures. Aortas from control (n = 12) and PI-IUGR fetuses (n = 10) were analyzed for functional biomechanics and structural remodeling. PI-IUGR aortas had a significant increase in stiffness (P < 0.05), increased collagen content (P < 0.05), and decreased sulfated glycosaminoglycan content (P < 0.05). Our derived constitutive model from experimental data related increased stiffness to reorganization changes of increased alignment angle of collagen fibers and increased elastin (P < 0.05) in the thoracic aorta and increased concentration of collagen fibers in the abdominal aorta toward the circumferential direction verified through use of histological techniques. This fetal vascular remodeling in PI-IUGR may set the stage for possible altered growth and development and help to explain the pathophysiology of adult cardiovascular disease in previously IUGR individuals. PMID:24322609

Dodson, R. Blair; Rozance, Paul J.; Petrash, Carson C.; Hunter, Kendall S.

2013-01-01

14

[Ultrasonic duplex scanning in occlusion of abdominal aorta, arteries of iliac segment and of lower extremities].  

PubMed

The regional hemodynamics peculiarities were studied in patients with various types of occlusive-stenotic affection of abdominal aorta and iliac arteries, using ultrasonic duplex scanning. The character of the blood flow peculiarity along main arteries and collateral branches was determined depending on the affection level. The quantitative indexes of blood flow along the most significant collaterals were studied as well as their role in the compensation process of the disordered distal blood flow. PMID:11247478

Sukharev, I I; Guch, A A; Novosad, E M; Vla?kov, G G

2000-12-01

15

Thymoquinone protects end organs from abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies have demonstrated that thymoquinone has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs like lungs, kidneys and liver in different experimental models. Objective We aimed to determine whether thymoquinone has favorable effects on lung, renal, heart tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (n=10), control (n=10) and thymoquinone (TQ) treatment group (n=10). Control and TQ-treatment groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 45 minutes followed by a 120-min period of reperfusion. In the TQ-treatment group, thymoquinone was given 5 minutes. before reperfusion at a dose of 20 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in blood serum were measured and lung, kidney, and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. Results Total oxidative status and oxidative stress index activity in blood samples were statistically higher in the control group compared to the sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for TOS and OSI). Control group injury scores were statistically higher compared to sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion Thymoquinone administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and histopathologic injury in an acute abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion rat model. PMID:25859871

Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kocarslan, Sezen; Kucuk, Ahmet; Eser, ?rfan; Sezen, Hatice; Buyukfirat, Evren; Hazar, Abdussemet

2015-01-01

16

[Syndrome of compression of the celiac trunk of the abdominal aorta in adults].  

PubMed

The article presents results of examinations and surgical treatment of 300 patients aged from 19 through 72 years with the syndrome of compression of the celiac trunk of the abdominal aorta. Under study were the symptoms and features of the clinical course as well as the possibilities of diagnosis with the help of ultrasonic duplex scanning and aortography. The principal method of treatment of this syndrome is thought to be operative decompression of the celiac trunk resulting in the reestablished hemodynamics in this vessel and in recovery of the greatest part of the patients. PMID:16082832

Ignashov, A M; Kanaev, A I; Perle?, V E; Rybakov, G V; Rosukhovski?, D A

2005-01-01

17

Infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm: a rare cause of anterior nutcracker syndrome with associated pelvic congestion.  

PubMed

We present a rare case of anterior nutcracker syndrome caused by an abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). A 61-year-old woman was admitted to our institution for computed tomography angiography. It revealed an AAA 51 mm in diameter that was lifting off of the left renal vein toward the superior mesenteric artery, causing anterior nutcracker syndrome with consequent left renal vein compression and left ovarian vein congestion. Aneurysm resection was performed, followed by left ovarian vein ligation and left adnexectomy to prevent vein conglomerate rupture. This is the first case that describes anterior nutcracker syndrome caused by AAA, which was successfully treated by aneurysm resection. PMID:24200129

Lozuk, Branko; Tanaskovic, Slobodan; Radak, Djordje; Babic, Srdjan; Kovacevic, Vladimir; Matic, Predrag

2014-01-01

18

Primary Self-Expandable Nitinol Stent Placement in Focal Lesions of Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta: Long Term Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the technical and clinical success, safety and long term results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty/self-expandable nitinol stent placement of infrarenal abdominal aorta focal lesions. Materials and Methods. Eighteen patients underwent PTA of focal atherosclerotic occlusive disease of distal abdominal aorta. Two symptomatic occlusions and 16 stenoses in 10 male and 8 female patients (mean age 68.2 years) were treated with primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement. Results. Primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement was technically successful in all 18 procedures; clinical success was achieved in 100% of patients. No complications associated with the procedure occurred. During the 49.4 months of mean follow up (range 3-96, 4 months) all treated aortic segments remained patent. Conclusions. Endovascular treatment (primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement) of focal atherosclerotic lesions of distal abdominal aorta is a safe method with excellent primary technical and clinical success rates and favourable Long term results.

Lastovickova, Jarmila, E-mail: jala@medicon.cz; Peregrin, Jan H. [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Czech Republic)

2008-01-15

19

Effect of an abdominal aortic aneurysm on wave reflection in the aorta.  

PubMed

Despite extensive attention to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in the biomedical engineering community, its effect on aortic hemodynamics and arterial wave reflection has not been addressed before. We used experimental and numerical methods, relying on a realistic AAA geometry constructed from patient computer tomography scans (CT-scans), to study this issue. Pressure and flow waves were measured and simulated before and after AAA repair, and wave reflections were analyzed using linear wave separation and wave intensity analysis. With AAA, pronounced reflections were present in the pressure and flow waveforms. The reflection coefficient measured experimentally in the upper aorta was negative with AAA (-0.10) versus 0.47 without AAA. Wave intensity analysis confirmed the presence of a backward expansion wave caused by sudden expansion of the aorta; this was absent without AAA. These results were confirmed using a 1-D numerical model. A parameter study using this model demonstrated that dominant factors are diameter and compliance of the aneurysm, with larger diameters and more compliant AAA generating more negative reflections. Finally, a preliminary noninvasive study in three patients before and after AAA repair demonstrated that AAA-repair increased the reflection coefficient. In conclusion, the presence of AAA significantly alters wave reflection and hemodynamics in the aorta, with apparently measurable effects in humans. PMID:18440906

Swillens, Abigail; Lanoye, Lieve; De Backer, Julie; Stergiopulos, Nikos; Verdonck, Pascal R; Vermassen, Frank; Segers, Patrick

2008-05-01

20

Correlations between age, prestrain, diameter and atherosclerosis in the male abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

The longitudinal prestrain of arteries facilitates their physiological function. Remodeling, adaptation and aging result in an age-dependent magnitude of the pretension. Although the phenomenon is known, detailed statistics, especially for human arteries, are lacking. This study was designed to propose the regression model capable of estimating the prestrain of the human abdominal aorta. The length of the abdominal aorta before, l, and after excision from the body, L, the diameter, heart weight, thickness of left ventricle and degree of atherosclerosis were collected in autopsies of 156 male cadavers of known age. Longitudinal prestrain was quantified by means of the stretch ratio ?=l/L. Statistical analysis revealed significant dependence between age, prestrain, diameter and atherosclerosis, which were best fitted to the power law equation. Longitudinal prestretch reduced with age significantly; ?mean=1.30±0.07 for age<30 (n=29), whereas ?mean=1.06±0.03 for age>59 (n=31) with p-value<0.0001. Raw data gave linear correlation coefficients as follows: ?-age (R=-0.842); l-age (R=0.023); L-age (R=0.476); (l-L)-age (R=-0.811). It was concluded that longitudinal prestrain decreases nonlinearly with age and both age and diameter are suitable predictors of the prestrain. Data suggests that unloaded length elongates with age in contrast to the elastic retraction. PMID:22098912

Horny, Lukas; Adamek, Tomas; Gultova, Eva; Zitny, Rudolf; Vesely, Jan; Chlup, Hynek; Konvickova, Svatava

2011-11-01

21

Thrombosis of abdominal aorta in congenital afibrinogenemia: case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Thrombotic events in congenital hypo-afibrinogenemia have been rarely reported, either in association or not with replacement therapy or thrombotic risk factors. We describe clinical findings and management of thrombosis of abdominal aorta with peripheral embolism in a patient with congenital afibrinogenemia. A review of arterial thrombosis in inherited hypo-afibrinogenemia was also performed. The patient with a severe bleeding history requiring prophylaxis with fibrinogen concentrates (FC) was admitted for ischaemia of the 4th right toe. An angio-CT of abdominal aorta showed a thrombosis from the origin of renal arteries to the carrefour with a distal floating part. No thrombotic risk factors were found; a previous traumatic lesion of aortic wall might have triggered the thrombus formation, whereas the role of FC prophylaxis remains uncertain. The patient was successfully treated with FC, enoxaparin followed by fondaparinux, and low-dose aspirin without bleeding or thrombosis recurrence. After 2 years, aortic thrombus was almost completely recovered. Sixteen hypo/afibrinogenemia patients with arterial thrombosis were found in Literature, showing that thrombosis often occurs at a young age, involves large vessels, its recurrence is not unusual, and therapeutic strategy is not defined yet. Our therapeutic approach was effective and also safe, but further studies are needed to improve the knowledge of pathogenesis and the anti-thrombotic management in this peculiar setting. PMID:25421938

Teresa, S M; Marta, M; Emiliano, D B; Mariangela, F; Raffaele, P; Ezio, Z

2015-01-01

22

Limiting extensibility constitutive model with distributed fibre orientations and ageing of abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

The abdominal aorta is susceptible to age-related pathological changes (arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, aneurysm, and tortuosity). Computational biomechanics and mechanobiology provide models capable of predicting mutual interactions between a changing mechanical environment and patho-physiological processes in ageing. However, a key factor is a constitutive equation which should reflect the internal tissue architecture. Our study investigates three microstructurally-motivated invariant-based hyperelastic anisotropic models suitable for description of the passive mechanical behaviour of the human abdominal aorta at a multiaxial state of stress known from recent literature. The three adopted models have also been supplemented with a newly proposed constitutive model (limiting extensibility with fibre dispersion). All models additively decouple the mechanical response of the isotropic (elastin and smooth muscle cells represented by the neo-Hookean term) and the anisotropic (collagen) parts. Two models use exponential functions to capture large strain stiffening ascribed to the engagement of collagen fibres into the load-bearing process. The other two models are based on the concept of limiting extensibility. Perfect alignment of reinforcing fibres with two preferred directions as well as fibre dispersion are considered. Constitutive models are calibrated to the inflation-extension response adopted from the literature based on the computational model of the residually-stressed thick-walled tube. A correlation analysis of determined material parameters was performed to reveal dependence on the age. The results of the nonlinear regression suggest that limiting fibre extensibility is the concept which is suitable to be used for the constitutive description of the aorta at multiaxial stress states and is highly sensitive to ageing-induced changes in mechanical response. PMID:25016175

Horný, Lukáš; Netušil, Marek; Daniel, Mat?j

2014-10-01

23

Topiramate ameliorates abdominal aorta cross-clamping induced liver injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the liver occurs after a prolonged period of ischemia followed by restoration of hepatic blood perfusion. During the surgery of abdominal aorta, I/R injury causes damage to lower extremities and many organs, especially liver. The antioxidant and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) suppression effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported in several studies. We evaluated the potential protective effect of TPM on cellular damage in liver tissue during I/R injury. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, I/R, and I/R plus TPM (I/R + TPM) groups. Laparotomy without I/R injury was performed in the control group. After laparotomy, cross-ligation of infrarenal abdominal aorta was applied for 2 h in I/R groups that was followed by 2 h of reperfusion. TPM (100 mg/kg/day) was orally administrated to the animals in the I/R + TPM group for seven consecutive days before I/R procedure. Results: The I/R group's TNF-? and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were significantly higher than those of the control (P = 0.010; P = 0.002) and I/R + TPM groups (P = 0.010; P = 0.002, respectively). Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) levels of I/R group were higher than the control (P = 0.015) and I/R + TPM groups. I/R caused serious histopathological damage to liver tissue; however, TPM led to very low histopathological changes. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that TPM treatment prominently decreases the severity of liver I/R injury. TPM pretreatment may have preventive effects on liver injury via I/R during intra-abdominal surgery. PMID:25253365

Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine C.; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Aydin, Ibrahim; Kirbas, Aynur; Yilmaz, Arif; Yuce, Suleyman; Gokce, Mehmet F.

2014-01-01

24

Analysis of axial prestretch in the abdominal aorta with reference to post mortem interval and degree of atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

It is a well-known fact that the length of an artery in situ and the length of an excised artery differs. Retraction of blood vessels is usually observed. This prestretch plays an important role in arterial physiology. We have recently determined that the decrease of axial prestretch in the human abdominal aorta is so closely correlated with age that it is suitable for forensic applications (estimation of the age at time of death for cadavers of unknown identity). Since post mortem autolysis may affect the reliability of an estimate based on axial prestretch, the present study aims to detail analysis of the effect of post mortem time. The abdominal aorta is a prominent site of atherosclerotic changes (ATH), which may potentially affect longitudinal prestretch. Thus ATH was also involved in the analysis. Axial prestretch in the human abdominal aorta, post mortem interval (PMI), and the degree of ATH were documented in 365 regular autopsies. The data was first age adjusted to remove any supposed correlation with age. After the age adjustment of the sample, the correlation analysis showed no significant PMI effects on the prestretch in non-putrefied bodies. Analysis of the prestretch variance with respect to ATH suggested that ATH is not a suitable factor to explain the prestretch variability remaining after the age adjustment. It was concluded that, although atherosclerotic plaques may certainly change the biomechanics of arteries, they do not significantly affect the longitudinal prestretch in the human abdominal aorta. PMID:23676503

Horny, Lukas; Adamek, Tomas; Kulvajtova, Marketa

2014-05-01

25

Real-Time Intravascular Shear Stress in the Rabbit Abdominal Aorta  

PubMed Central

Fluid shear stress is intimately linked with the biological activities of vascular cells. A flexible microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensor was developed to assess spatial- and temporal-varying components of intravascular shear stress (ISS) in the abdominal aorta of adult New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. Real-time ISS (ISSreal-time) was analyzed in comparison with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for wall shear stress (WSS). Three-dimensional abdominal arterial geometry and mesh were created using the GAMBIT software. Simulation of arterial flow profiles was established by FLUENT. The Navier–Stokes equations were solved for non-Newtonian blood flow. The coaxial-wire-based MEMS sensor was deployed into the abdominal arteries of rabbits via a femoral artery cutdown. Based on the CFD analysis, the entrance length of the sensor on the coaxial wire (0.4 mm in diameter) was less than 10 mm. Three-dimensional fluoroscope and contrast dye allowed for visualization of the positions of the sensor and ratios of vessel to coaxial wire diameters. Doppler ultrasound provided the velocity profiles for the CFD boundary conditions. If the coaxial wire were positioned at the center of vessel, the CFD analysis revealed a mean ISS value of 31.1 with a systolic peak at 102.8 dyn · cm?2. The mean WSS was computed to be 10.1 dyn · cm?2 with a systolic peak at 33.2 dyn · cm?2, and the introduction of coaxial wire increased the mean WSS by 5.4 dyn · cm?2 and systolic peak by 18.0 dyn · cm?2. Experimentally, the mean ISS was 11.9 dyn · cm?2 with a systolic peak at 47.0 dyn · cm?2. The waveform of experimental ISS was similar to that of CFD solution with a 30.2% difference in mean and 8.9% in peak systolic shear stress. Despite the difference between CD and experimental results, the flexible coaxial-wire-based MEMS sensors provided a possibility to assess real-time ISS in the abdominal aorta of NZW rabbits. PMID:19527952

Ai, Lisong; Yu, Hongyu; Dai, Wangde; Hale, Sharon L.; Kloner, Robert A.

2012-01-01

26

Real-time intravascular shear stress in the rabbit abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

Fluid shear stress is intimately linked with the biological activities of vascular cells. A flexible microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensor was developed to assess spatial- and temporal-varying components of intravascular shear stress (ISS) in the abdominal aorta of adult New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. Real-time ISS (ISS (real-time)) was analyzed in comparison with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for wall shear stress (WSS). Three-dimensional abdominal arterial geometry and mesh were created using the GAMBIT software. Simulation of arterial flow profiles was established by FLUENT. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved for non-Newtonian blood flow. The coaxial-wire-based MEMS sensor was deployed into the abdominal arteries of rabbits via a femoral artery cutdown. Based on the CFD analysis, the entrance length of the sensor on the coaxial wire (0.4 mm in diameter) was less than 10 mm. Three-dimensional fluoroscope and contrast dye allowed for visualization of the positions of the sensor and ratios of vessel to coaxial wire diameters. Doppler ultrasound provided the velocity profiles for the CFD boundary conditions. If the coaxial wire were positioned at the center of vessel, the CFD analysis revealed a mean ISS value of 31.1 with a systolic peak at 102.8 dyn x cm(-2). The mean WSS was computed to be 10.1 dyn x cm(-2) with a systolic peak at 33.2 dyn x cm(-2), and the introduction of coaxial wire increased the mean WSS by 5.4 dyn x cm(-2) and systolic peak by 18.0 dyn x cm(-2). Experimentally, the mean ISS was 11.9 dyn x cm(-2) with a systolic peak at 47.0 dyn x cm(-2). The waveform of experimental ISS was similar to that of CFD solution with a 30.2% difference in mean and 8.9% in peak systolic shear stress. Despite the difference between CD and experimental results, the flexible coaxial-wire-based MEMS sensors provided a possibility to assess real-time ISS in the abdominal aorta of NZW rabbits. PMID:19527952

Ai, Lisong; Yu, Hongyu; Dai, Wangde; Hale, Sharon L; Kloner, Robert A; Hsiai, Tzung K

2009-06-01

27

Endovascular Repair of an Actively Hemorrhaging Stab Wound Injury to the Abdominal Aorta  

SciTech Connect

Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta is rare and potentially lethal (Yeh et al., J Vasc Surg 42(5):1007-1009, 2005; Chicos et al., Chirurgia (Bucur) 102(2):237-240, 2007) as it can result in major retroperitoneal hemorrhage, requiring an urgent open surgery. In case of concomitant bowel injury or other conditions of hostile abdomen, endovascular repair can be an alternative treatment. This case report deals with a 50-year-old man presenting at the emergency ward with three stab wounds: two in the abdomen and one in the chest. During explorative laparotomy, liver laceration and bowel perforation were repaired. One day later, abdominal CT-scan revealed an additional retroperitoneal hematoma associated with an aortic pseudoaneurysm, located anteriorly 3 cm above the aortic bifurcation. Because of the risk of graft infection, an endovascular repair of the aortic injury using a Gore excluder stent-graft was performed. Radiological and clinical follow-up revealed a gradual shrinkage of the pseudo-aneurysm and no sign of graft infection at two years' follow-up.

Hussain, Qasim; Maleux, Geert, E-mail: geert.maleux@uz.kuleuven.ac.be; Heye, Sam [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology (Belgium); Fourneau, Inge [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Vascular Surgery (Belgium)

2008-09-15

28

The effects of aneurysm on the biaxial mechanical behavior of human abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

The biomechanical response of normal and pathologic human abdominal aortic tissue to uniaxial loading conditions is insufficient for the characterization of its three-dimensional (3D) mechanical behavior. Planar biaxial mechanical evaluation allows for 3D constitutive modeling of nearly incompressible tissues, as well as the investigation of the nature of mechanical anisotropy. In the current study, 26 abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) tissue samples and 8 age-matched (> 60 years of age) nonaneurysmal abdominal aortic (AA) tissue samples were obtained and tested using a tension-controlled biaxial testing protocol. Graphical response functions (Sun et al., 2003. J. Biomech. Eng. 125, 372-380) were used as a guide to describe the pseudo-elastic response of AA and AAA. Based on the observed pseudo-elastic response, a four-parameter exponential strain energy function developed by Vito (1990. J. Biomech. Eng. 112, 153-159) was used from which both an individual specimen and group material parameter sets were determined for both AA and AAA. Peak Green strain values in the circumferential (Ethetatheta,max) and longitudinal (ELL,max) directions under an equibiaxial tension of 120 N/m were also compared. The strain energy function fit all of the individual specimens well with an average R2 of 0.95 +/- 0.02 and 0.90 +/- 0.02 (mean +/- SEM) for the AA and AAA groups, respectively. The average Ethetatheta,max at 200 N/m equibiaxial tension was found to be significantly smaller for AAAs as compared to AAs (0.07 +/- 0.01 versus 0.13 +/- 0.03, respectively; p < 0.01). There was also a pronounced increase in the circumferential stiffness for AAA tissue as compared to AA tissue, indicating a larger degree of anisotropy for this tissue as compared to age-matched AA tissue. We also observed that the four-parameter Fung-elastic model was not able to fit the AAA tissue mechanical response using physically realistic material parameter values. It was concluded that aneurysmal degeneration of the abdominal aorta is associated with an increase in mechanical anisotropy, with preferential stiffening in the circumferential direction. PMID:15885699

Vande Geest, Jonathan P; Sacks, Michael S; Vorp, David A

2006-01-01

29

[Ruptured mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta managed using a superficial femoral vein graft--a case review].  

PubMed

Mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta is a rare, but potentially lethal disorder because of the risk of rupture. It presents a permanent problem in vascular surgery. Despite recent advances in endovascular procedures, one of the available surgical interventions generally remains the method of choice. The authors present the case of a patient with a ruptured mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta who urgently underwent aorto-biiliac reconstruction by an autologous superficial femoral vein graft. The patient's post-operative condition with the absence of complications is in agreement with the good results achieved with this technique by surgeons abroad, and gives support to the notion that this approach is superior to other surgical treatments of mycotic aneurysms. PMID:19358463

Dvorák, M; Staffa, R; Podlaha, J; Gladis, P; Gregor, Z

2009-01-01

30

Adalimumab Ameliorates Abdominal Aorta Cross Clamping Which Induced Liver Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of adalimumab (ADA) on cell damage in rat liver tissue during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of infrarenal abdominal aorta. Thirty male Wistar-albino rats were divided into three groups: control, I/R, and I/R+ADA, each group containing 10 animals. Laparotomy without I/R injury was performed in the control group animals. Laparotomy in the I/R group was followed by two hours of infrarenal abdominal aortic cross ligation and then two hours of reperfusion. ADA (50?mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally as a single dose, to the I/R+ADA group, five days before I/R. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) (pg/mg protein) and nitric oxide (NO) (µmol/g protein) levels in the I/R group (430.8 ± 70.1, 8.0 ± 1.1, resp.) were significantly higher than those in the I/R+ADA group (338.0 ± 71.6, P = 0.006; 6.3 ± 1.2, P = 0.008) and the control group (345.5 ± 53.3, P = 0.008; 6.5 ± 1.5, P = 0.010, resp.). I/R causes severe histopathological injury to the liver tissue, but ADA leads to much less histopathological changes. ADA treatment significantly decreased the severity of liver I/R injury. ADA pretreatment may have protective effects on experimental liver injury. PMID:24551855

Cure, Erkan; Cumhur Cure, Medine; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Aydin, Ibrahim; Kirbas, Aynur; Yilmaz, Arif; Yuce, Suleyman; Yücel, Ahmet Fikret

2014-01-01

31

Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer of the Abdominal Aorta Involving the Celiac Trunk Origin and Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion: Endovascular Treatment  

SciTech Connect

We describe a case of endovascular treatment in a 64-year-old woman affected by a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) of the abdominal aorta with a 26-mm pseudoaneurysm involving the celiac trunk (CT) origin and with superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion in the first 30 mm. The patient underwent stenting to treat the SMA occlusion and subsequent deployment of a custom-designed fenestrated endovascular stent-graft to treat the PAU involving the CT origin. Follow-up at 6 months after device placement demonstrated no complications, and there was complete thrombosis of the PAU and patency of the two branch vessels.

Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G., E-mail: urossi76@hotmail.com; Petrocelli, Francesco; Seitun, Sara [San Martino University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Italy); Robaldo, Alessandro; Mazzei, Raffaele [San Martino University Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Italy)

2011-02-15

32

3D Segmentation of Abdominal Aorta from CT-Scan and MR Images  

E-print Network

for segmenting the aneurismal sac of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) both from multi-slice MR and CT segmentation #12;1.0 Introduction The incidence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) increases with age-vascular surgery. Although abdominal ultrasonography is perhaps the most practical way to screen for aneurysms

Jodoin, Pierre-Marc

33

3D Segmentation of Abdominal Aorta from CT-Scan and MR Images  

E-print Network

of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) both from multi-slice MR and CT-scan examinations. It is a semi The incidence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) increases with age. The gravity of this disease is due. Although abdominal ultrasonography is perhaps the most practical way to screen for aneurysms, contrast

Boyer, Edmond

34

Gradient Echo MRI Characterization of Development of Atherosclerosis in the Abdominal Aorta in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbits  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit provides an important model of spontaneous atherosclerosis. With a strain of WHHL rabbits which do not develop abdominal aorta lumen stenosis even with advanced atherosclerosis, we studied the MRI-histology correlation, and the natural progression of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta. In addition, intra-reader segmentation repeatability and scan-rescan reproducibility were assessed. Methods. Two batches of female WHHL rabbits were used. The first batch of 6 rabbits was scanned at 20 weeks old. A second batch of 17 rabbits was scanned at 50 weeks old and then randomly divided into two subgroups: 8 were killed for histologic investigation; 9 were kept alive for follow-up, with repeat scanning a week later to assess scan-rescan reproducibility, and again at 73 weeks old to assess disease progression. MR images were acquired at 4.7 T using a chemical shift selective fat suppression gradient echo with a saturation band suppressing blood signal within the aortic lumen. Five slices per animal were acquired, centered around the renal artery region of the abdominal aorta, with in-plane resolution of 0.195 mm and slice thickness of 3 mm. Results. The coefficient of variation for intra-reader reproducibility for aortic wall thickness measurements was 2.5% for repeat segmentations of the same scans on the same day, but segmentations of these same scans made 8 months later showed a systematic change, suggesting that intra-reader bias as well as increased variability could compromise assessments made over time. Comparative analyses were therefore performed in one postprocessing session. The coefficient of variation for scan-rescan reproducibility for aortic wall thickness was 5.5% for nine pairs of scans acquired a week apart and segmented on the same day. Good MRI-histology correlation was obtained. The MRI-measured mean aortic wall thickness of animals at 20 weeks of age was 76% that of animals at 50 weeks of age (p < 0.001). There was a small increase in aortic wall thickness between 50 and 73 weeks of age, but this was not significant (p > 0.05). The corresponding differences in lumen cross-sectional areas at 20, 50, and 73 weeks of age were not significant. These results were consistent with in-house historical histology data on this strain of rabbits. Conclusions. High-resolution gradient echo MRI can follow disease progression in the WHHL rabbit spontaneous atherosclerosis disease model.

Wang, Yi-Xiang J., E-mail: yi-xiang.wang@astrazeneca.com; Kuribayashi, Hideto [AstraZeneca (United Kingdom); Wagberg, Maria [AstraZeneca (Sweden); Holmes, Andrew P.; Tessier, Jean J.; Waterton, John C. [AstraZeneca (United Kingdom)

2006-08-15

35

A 3D model of thrombus formation in a stent-graft after implantation in the abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

Here we present a 3D kinetic model of thrombus formation in an endovascular prosthesis after implantation in an abdominal aorta with an aneurysm. The computational fluid dynamic technique (CFD) was used to determine the process of thrombus formation and growth in the stent-graft on the basis of the medical data from computed tomography angiography and Doppler ultrasound examination of 10 patients. The Quemada model was used to describe rheological properties of blood. Results of the CFD simulations were validated based on actual data from patients with diagnosed thrombi in aortic implants. The results show that the elaborated CFD model correctly predicted thrombus formation, shape and deposition site in an endovascular prosthesis. The developed CFD model of thrombus growth can be applied to predict the risk of thrombus formation in stent-grafts and assist in selection of geometry of the endovascular prosthesis to reduce possible complications after stent-graft implantation using only basic medical data. PMID:25543277

Polanczyk, Andrzej; Podyma, Marek; Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Szubert, Wojciech; Zbicinski, Ireneusz

2015-02-01

36

Natural history of the residual infrarenal aorta after infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We determined the natural history of the residual native infrarenal aortic segment after conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Methods: For the retrospective arteriographic case series, 800 hundred translumbar aortograms (TLAs) were obtained for 272 patients, before and after conventional AAA repair. The main outcome measures were changes in the aortographic diameter and the length of the infrarenal aortic

David A. Lipski; Calvin B. Ernst

1998-01-01

37

Age-related distribution of longitudinal pre-strain in abdominal aorta with emphasis on forensic application.  

PubMed

It is a well-known fact that the length of an artery in situ and the length of an excised artery differs. Retraction of blood vessels is usually observed. This pre-tension plays crucial role in arterial biomechanics. It augments an artery wall load-bearing capacity. This paper presents the longitudinal pre-strain of the human aorta as an index of human age. The length of abdominal aortas was measured during autopsies before and after segment resection. The longitudinal pre-strain was calculated in 130 donors; 100 male and 30 female bodies. The pre-strain was defined as the ratio between in situ length and the length after the excision. The mean pre-strain was found to be 1.18±0.10 for male and 1.14±0.10 for female sample (mean±standard deviation). The age in the male group was 41.6±15.9 years; and 47.7±17.7 years in the female group. Statistical analysis revealed the correlation coefficient between age and pre-strain r=-0.821 and r=-0.839 in male and female group, respectively. The analysis also confirmed close correlation between aortic circumference and age; and between circumference and pre-strain. Linear and power law regression equations were employed and prediction intervals were computed. The power law estimates the age more accurately than linear one model. Nevertheless, especially for small values of the pre-strain (aged individuals) the linear model can be advantageous. PMID:21794993

Horny, Lukas; Adamek, Tomas; Vesely, Jan; Chlup, Hynek; Zitny, Rudolf; Konvickova, Svatava

2012-01-10

38

Multiple absences of the branches of abdominal aorta with congenital absence of the portal vein, unilateral adrenal agenesis and persistent ductus arteriosus in a female cadaver.  

PubMed

We report on an extremely rare case of multiple absences of the branches of abdominal aorta with congenital absence of the portal vein, unilateral adrenal agenesis and persistent ductus arteriosus in an adult female cadaver. Specifically, instead of celiac trunk, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, solely a single arterial trunk aroused from the anterior aspect of abdominal aorta, inferior phrenic and ovarian arteries were absent in both sides. Left kidneys drained by two veins. There were not superior, splenic and mesenteric veins, while left renal vein received an additional vein, which run downward and drained primarily all parts of digestive tract and its associated glands (portal vein did not exist). Right adrenal gland was absent. To the best of our knowledge, it is the only reported case with such widespread anomalies. We think the importance of this case is beyond the surgical consideration and needs more profound developmental studies. PMID:25548727

Ahmadpour, Shahriar; Foghi, Khadijeh

2014-12-01

39

Multiple absences of the branches of abdominal aorta with congenital absence of the portal vein, unilateral adrenal agenesis and persistent ductus arteriosus in a female cadaver  

PubMed Central

We report on an extremely rare case of multiple absences of the branches of abdominal aorta with congenital absence of the portal vein, unilateral adrenal agenesis and persistent ductus arteriosus in an adult female cadaver. Specifically, instead of celiac trunk, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, solely a single arterial trunk aroused from the anterior aspect of abdominal aorta, inferior phrenic and ovarian arteries were absent in both sides. Left kidneys drained by two veins. There were not superior, splenic and mesenteric veins, while left renal vein received an additional vein, which run downward and drained primarily all parts of digestive tract and its associated glands (portal vein did not exist). Right adrenal gland was absent. To the best of our knowledge, it is the only reported case with such widespread anomalies. We think the importance of this case is beyond the surgical consideration and needs more profound developmental studies. PMID:25548727

Foghi, Khadijeh

2014-01-01

40

Selective enzymatic removal of elastin and collagen from human abdominal aortas: Uniaxial mechanical response and constitutive modeling.  

PubMed

The ability to selectively remove the structurally most relevant components of arterial wall tissues such as collagen and elastin enables ex vivo biomechanical testing of the remaining tissues, with the aim of assessing their individual mechanical contributions. Resulting passive material parameters can be utilized in mathematical models of the cardiovascular system. Using eighteen wall specimens fromnon-atherosclerotic human abdominal aortas (55±11years; 9female, 9male), we tested enzymatic approaches for the selective digestion of collagen and elastin, focusing on their application to human abdominal aortic wall tissues from different patients with varying sample morphologies. The study resulted in an improved protocol for elastin removal, showing how the enzymatic process is affected by inadequate addition of trypsin inhibitor. We applied the resulting protocol to circumferential and axial specimens from the media and the adventitia, and performed cyclic uniaxial extension tests in the physiological and supra-physiological loading domain. The collagenase-treated samples showed a (linear) response without distinct softening behavior, while the elastase-treated samples exhibited a nonlinear, anisotropic response with pronounced remanent deformations (continuous softening), presumably caused by some sliding of collagen fibers within the damaged regions of the collagen network. In addition, our data showed that the stiffness in the initial linear stress-stretch regime at low loads is lower in elastin-free tissue compared to control samples (i.e. collagen uncrimping requires less force than the stretching of elastin), experimentally confirming that elastin is responsible for the initial stiffness in elastic arteries. Utilizing a continuum mechanical description to mathematically capture the experimental results we concluded that the inclusion of a damage model for the non-collagenous matrix material is, in general, not necessary. To model the softening behavior, continuous damage was included in the fibers by adding a damage variable which led to remanent strains through the consideration of damage. PMID:25623592

Schriefl, Andreas J; Schmidt, Thomas; Balzani, Daniel; Sommer, Gerhard; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

2015-04-15

41

Layer-specific damage experiments and modeling of human thoracic and abdominal aortas with non-atherosclerotic intimal thickening.  

PubMed

Many treatments for cardiovascular diseases include an endovascular insertion of stents or stent grafts into arteries, a procedure which may cause high tissue stresses and even damage in the arterial wall. In order to study such problems by using finite element methods, both appropriate constitutive models and experimental data on human tissue samples are required. Layer-specific experimental data for human tissue tested up to the supra-physiological loading range are rare in the literature. In this study, intact and layer-separated experimental data from uniaxial extension tests are presented for human thoracic and abdominal aortas with non-atherosclerotic intimal thickening undergoing supra-physiological loading. A novel pseudo-elastic damage model, proposed to describe discontinuous softening in aortic arterial tissues, is fit to the obtained experimental data. Fitting of the model with and without consideration of damage accumulation in the non-collagenous matrix material reveals that tissue damage is primarily related to the collagen fiber fabric. By employing the fit model, the effect of aortic tissue pre-conditioning on the material parameters from the resulting data fits is evaluated. Histological examination of the collagen fibers under different applied stretches is used to gain more insights into the structural changes of the tissue under supra-physiological loading. PMID:22659370

Weisbecker, Hannah; Pierce, David M; Regitnig, Peter; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

2012-08-01

42

Investigation of material modeling in fluid-structure interaction analysis of an idealized three-layered abdominal aorta: aneurysm initiation and fully developed aneurysms.  

PubMed

Different material models for an idealized three-layered abdominal aorta are compared using computational techniques to study aneurysm initiation and fully developed aneurysms. The computational model includes fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between the blood vessel and the blood. In order to model aneurysm initiation, the medial region was degenerated to mimic the medial loss occurring in the inception of an aneurysm. Various cases are considered in order to understand their effects on the initiation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The layers of the blood vessel were modeled using either linear elastic materials or Mooney-Rivlin (otherwise known as hyperelastic) type materials. The degenerated medial region was also modeled in either linear elastic or hyperelastic-type materials and assumed to be in the shape of an arc with a thin width or a circular ring with different widths. The blood viscosity effect was also considered in the initiation mechanism. In addition, dynamic analysis of the blood vessel was performed without interaction with the blood flow by applying time-dependent pressure inside the lumen in a three-layered abdominal aorta. The stresses, strains, and displacements were compared for a healthy aorta, an initiated aneurysm and a fully developed aneurysm. The study shows that the material modeling of the vessel has a sizable effect on aneurysm initiation and fully developed aneurysms. Different material modeling of degeneration regions also affects the stress-strain response of aneurysm initiation. Additionally, the structural analysis without considering FSI (called noFSI) overestimates the peak von Mises stress by 52% at the interfaces of the layers. PMID:25624113

Simsek, Fatma Gulden; Kwon, Young W

2015-03-01

43

[Biochemical and morphological assessment of the functional state of the endothelium in reconstructive operations on the abdominal aorta in animal experiments].  

PubMed

The article deals with the analysis of biochemical and morphological alterations in the functional state of the endothelium of laboratory animals after a reconstructive surgical intervention on the abdominal aorta. These alterations were assessed at various terms following operative treatment in the comparison group and intact control group. The authors carried out of computer-assisted morphometry of the reconstruction zone on histological preparations for correct interpretation of the biochemical alterations and assessment of the correlation between the studied biochemical indices in blood and the arterial wall. PMID:24300489

Kalinin, R E; Suchkov, I A; Mnikhovich, M V; Pshennikov, A S; Gerasimov, A A

2013-01-01

44

Comparison of two methods (left carotid artery and abdominal aorta) for surgical implantation of radiotelemetry devices in CD-1 mice.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to compare two surgical methods, the left carotid (LC) and the abdominal aorta (AA), for mouse instrumentation with telemetry devices, to determine the best method for measuring cardiovascular (CV) parameters by radiotelemetry in freely moving mice. Surgery success rate, postsurgical recovery rate, clinical parameters, CV data (baseline and response to nicotine) and circadian rhythm measurements were compared between these techniques. Brains of LC-implanted mice were evaluated for potential ischaemia by direct observation of the Circle of Willis anatomy and histopathology. For this purpose, a total of 31 CD-1 male mice were instrumented with PA C20 devices (10 with LC and 21 with AA). Mortality, morbidity, physical examination, body weight (BW), water and food consumption (W/FC), mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored daily during the recovery period (10 days). CV baseline data were recorded continuously during two periods of four days, and finally, both LC- and AA-implanted mice received an acute subcutaneous administration of 1 mg/kg nicotine; BP and HR were recorded during 5 h after nicotine administration. Results showed that, in LC-implanted mice, 80% survived surgery and recovered well. In contrast, only 57% of mice implanted with the AA technique survived surgery and some presented lethal complications. Both techniques had similar recovery times for BW and W/FC, comparable return to normal circadian rhythm (day 6 post-surgery) and similar CV baseline values. No significant differences were observed in CV response to nicotine between both groups of implanted CD-1 mice. No histopathological changes suggestive of ischaemia were noted in the brain of mice implanted in the LC. Six out of the eight LC-implanted mice remained in good health and had good pressure signal for at least 100 days post-surgery, while most of the AA-implanted mice lost the signal pressure within 14-49 days post-surgery. In conclusion, we believe that LC implantation in mice is superior to the AA technique and is more appropriate for long-term telemetry studies, especially for smaller (transgenic) animals. PMID:17640466

Kaïdi, S; Brutel, F; Van Deun, F; Kramer, K; Remie, R; Dewé, W; Remusat, P; Delaunois, A; Depelchin, O

2007-07-01

45

Abdominal Aortic Intimal Flap Motion Characterization in Acute Aortic Dissection: Assessed with Retrospective ECG-Gated Thoracoabdominal Aorta Dual-Source CT Angiography  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the feasibility of dose-modulated retrospective ECG-gated thoracoabdominal aorta CT angiography (CTA) assessing abdominal aortic intimal flap motion and investigate the motion characteristics of intimal flap in acute aortic dissection (AAD). Materials and Methods 49 patients who had thoracoabdominal aorta retrospective ECG-gated CTA scan were enrolled. 20 datasets were reconstructed in 5% steps between 0 and 95% of the R-R interval in each case. The aortic intimal flap motion was assessed by measuring the short axis diameters of the true lumen and false lumen 2 cm above of celiac trunk ostium in different R-R intervals. Intimal flap motion and configuration was assessed by two independent observers. Results In these 49 patients, 37 had AAD, 7 had intramural hematoma, and 5 had negative result for acute aortic disorder. 620 datasets of 31 patients who showed double lumens in abdominal aorta were enrolled in evaluating intimal flap motion. The maximum and minimum true lumen diameter were 12.2±4.1 mm (range 2.6?17.4) and 6.7±4.1 mm (range 0?15.3) respectively. The range of intimal flap motion in all patients was 5.5±2.6 mm (range 1.8?10.2). The extent of maximum true lumen diameter decreased during a cardiac cycle was 49.5%±23.5% (range 12%?100%). The maximum motion phase of true lumen diameter was in systolic phase (5%?40% of R-R interval). Maximum and minimum intimal flap motion was at 15% and 75% of the R-R interval respectively. Intimal flap configuration had correlation with the phase of cardiac cycle. Conclusions Abdominal intimal flap position and configuration varied greatly during a cardiac cycle. Retrospective ECG-gated thoracoabdominal aorta CTA can reflect the actual status of the true lumen and provide more information about true lumen collapse. This information may be helpful to diagnosis and differential diagnosis of dynamic abstraction. PMID:24503676

Yang, Shifeng; Li, Xia; Chao, Baoting; Wu, Lebin; Cheng, Zhaoping; Duan, Yanhua; Wu, Dawei; Zhan, Yiqiang; Chen, Jiuhong; Liu, Bo; Ji, Xiaopeng; Nie, Pei; Wang, Ximing

2014-01-01

46

Fluid wall shear stress measurements in a model of the human abdominal aorta: oscillatory behavior and relationship to atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinically significant atherosclerosis in the human aorta is most common in the infrarenal segment. This study was initiated to test the hypothesis that flowfield properties are closely related to the localization of plaques in this segment of the arteial system. Wall shear stress was calculated from magnetic resonance velocity measurements of pulsatile flow in an anatomically accurate model of the

James E. Moore Jr; Christopher K. Zarins; David N. Ku

1994-01-01

47

Identification of in vivo material and geometric parameters of a human aorta: toward patient-specific modeling of abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

Recent advances in computational modeling of vascular adaptations and the need for their extension to patient-specific modeling have introduced new challenges to the path toward abdominal aortic aneurysm modeling. First, the fundamental assumption in adaptation models, namely the existence of vascular homeostasis in normal vessels, is not easy to implement in a vessel model built from medical images. Second, subjecting the vessel wall model to the normal pressure often makes the configuration deviate from the original geometry obtained from medical images. To address those technical challenges, in this work, we propose a two-step optimization approach; first, we estimate constitutive parameters of a healthy human aorta intrinsic to the material by using biaxial test data and a weighted nonlinear least-squares parameter estimation method; second, we estimate the distributions of wall thickness and anisotropy using a 2-D parameterization of the vessel wall surface and a global approximation scheme integrated within an optimization routine. A direct search method is implemented to solve the optimization problem. The numerical optimization method results in a considerable improvement in both satisfying homeostatic condition and minimizing the deviation of geometry from the original shape based on in vivo images. Finally, the utility of the proposed technique for patient-specific modeling is demonstrated in a simulation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm enlargement. PMID:21053043

Zeinali-Davarani, Shahrokh; Raguin, L Guy; Vorp, David A; Baek, Seungik

2011-10-01

48

New approach of assessing hypovolemic shock class 1 during acute emergencies: Ultrasonographic inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta diameter ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a patient with hypovolemic shock class 1, the vital signs and biochemical properties are almost normal. The alteration of hemodynamic parameters and biochemical values occurs mainly in advanced hypovolemia state (neuroendocrine response). The availability of ultrasound machine at healthcare centers makes the measurement of vascular calibre feasible and possible. Inspiration and expiration inferior vena cava diameter changes predict hypovolemic shock class 1 but in acute emergencies this method is impractical. The purpose of this study is to develop a new approach in identifying hypovolemic shock at early phase by measuring the inferior vena cava and aorta diameter ratio using bedside ultrasound machine.

Ahmad, Rashidi; Kunji, Mohamad Iqhbal; Hj Abd Kareem, Meera Mohaideen; Halim, Shamimi A.

2013-09-01

49

Quantitative Estimates of the Variability of In Vivo Sonographic Measurements of the Mouse Aorta for Studies of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms and Related Arterial Diseases  

PubMed Central

Objectives Burgeoning interest in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) has led to experimental strategies to elucidate the disease process and attain pharmacologic regression using the apolipoprotein E?/? (ApoE?/?) mouse model of angiotensin-induced AAAs and in vivo sonography. However, the variability of in vivo sonographic measurements of the mouse aorta has not been established. Thus, our purpose was to determine quantitative estimates of the variability of in vivo sonographic measurements of the mouse aorta as a guide for the design and assessment of studies focused on regression of AAAs and related arterial diseases. Methods We used Bland-Altman, locally weighted scatterplot-smoothing regression, and resampling (bootstrapping) methods for variability analyses of multiple in vivo short- and long-axis sonographic measurements of ApoE?/? mouse aortas. We measured distinct aortic sites in vivo at the baseline and after angiotensin-induced AAAs and ex vivo using digital calipers. Results We analyzed 236 data points from 10 male mice (14 weeks old; mean weight ± SD, 29.7 ± 1.6 g). Overall intramouse differences between short- and long-axis and in vivo and ex vivo measurements were 0.038 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.031–0.046) and 0.085 (95% CI, 0.062–0.109) mm, respectively. Intermouse differences in short-axis measurements were 0.047 (95% CI, 0.042–0.053), 0.049 (95% CI, 0.044–0.055), and 0.039 (95% CI, 0.036-0.042) mm for infrarenal, suprarenal, and thoracic measurements, respectively; differences in long-axis measurements were 0.054 (95% CI, 0.044–0.064), 0.029 (95% CI, 0.024–0.034), and 0.046 (95% CI, 0.037–0.054) mm. Bland-Altman and locally weighted scatterplot-smoothing analyses showed excellent agreement between measures with no variation in discrepancies vis-à-vis the target measurement. Conclusions These data establish previously undefined estimates of measurement variability relevant for in vivo sonographic studies of AAA regression in a commonly studied mouse model. PMID:21632991

Sampson, Uchechukwu K.; Perati, Prudhvidhar R.; Prins, Petra A.; Pham, Wellington; Liu, Zhouwen; Harrell, Frank E.; Linton, MacRae F.; Gore, John C.; Kon, Valentina; Fazio, Sergio

2013-01-01

50

The protective effect of adrenomedullin on renal injury, in a model of abdominal aorta cross-clamping.  

PubMed

Renal injury induced by aortic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) is an important factor in the development of postoperative acute renal failure following abdominal aortic surgery. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of adrenomedullin (AM) on kidney injury induced by infrarenal abdominal aortic IR in rats. Thirty-two Wistar Albino rats were randomized into four groups (eight per group) as follows: Control group, IR group (120-minute ischemia and 120-minute reperfusion), IR?+?AM group (a bolus intravenously of 0.05 µg/kg/min AM), and control?+?AM group. At the end of the experiment, blood and kidney tissue specimens were obtained for biochemical analysis. Immunohistological evaluation of the rat kidney tissues was also done. IR significantly increased (p?

Oyar, Eser Öz; Kiri?, Ilker; Gülmen, Senol; Ceyhan, Betül Mermi; Cüre, Medine Cumhur; Deliba?, Nam?k; Lortlar, Ne?e; Okutan, Hüseyin

2012-02-01

51

Protective effect of delta opioid agonist [D-Ala2, D-Leu5] enkephalin on spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury by regional perfusion into abdominal aorta in rabbits.  

PubMed

[D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)] enkephalin (DADLE) has been reported to exhibit protective effects against hypoxic or ischemic induced brain insult. However its efficacy on the spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury remains unclear. Here we investigate whether DADLE could attenuate ischemia and reperfusion induced neural injury in the rabbit spinal cord. New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to spinal cord ischemia by infrarenal aortic occlusion for 30 min. In the period of spinal cord ischemia, DADLE 0.5 mg/kg or NS were infused continuously into the distal clamped abdominal aorta. The heart rate, blood pressure, and core temperature were monitored continuously during the whole experimental procedure. Then the neurological behavioral function was assessed with Tarlov scale system at 1h, 6h, 24h, 48 h after reperfusion, and neuronal injury evaluation in the ventral horn of gray matter was measured by counting the normal motor neurons at 48 h after reperfusion. Comparing with the control group, the Tarlov scores were significantly higher and the incidences of paraplegia were significantly lower in the DADLE group at four time-point recorded. In addition, the normal neurons numbers in the DADLE group were significant more than those in the control group at 48 h after reperfusion. These results suggested that DADLE infused into the abdominal aorta during ischemia period could attenuate behavioral retardation and the loss of normal motor neuron induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rabbits. PMID:25283992

Liu, Haitong; Chen, Binbin; Zhang, Yi; Qiu, Yimin; Xia, Yunfei; Li, Shitong; Yao, Junyan

2015-01-01

52

Effect of a single treatment with tadalafil on blood flow in lower urinary tract tissues in rat models of bladder overdistension/emptying and abdominal aorta clamping/release.  

PubMed

Impaired blood flow in lower urinary tract (LUT) tissues is a pathophysiological cause of LUT symptoms. We investigated the effects of the phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor tadalafil on the sustained decrease in bladder blood flow (BBF) and time-dependent changes in BBF and prostate blood flow (PBF) resulting from ischemia/reperfusion in two rat models. In a rat model of bladder overdistension/emptying (O/E), the bladder was overdistended by saline infusion and emptied after 2h. Tadalafil was administered intraduodenally immediately after emptying. In a rat model of clamping/release (C/R), the abdominal aorta was clamped for 2h after a single oral dose of tadalafil and then the clamp was released. BBF in O/E and C/R rats and PBF in C/R rats were measured by laser Doppler flow imaging. BBF decreased on overdistension and partially recovered after emptying. A progressive decrease in BBF was observed after O/E, and this was prevented by tadalafil treatment. Both BBF and PBF decreased during clamping of the abdominal aorta and partially recovered after clamp removal. Oral pretreatment with tadalafil partially or completely prevented the decreases in BBF and PBF not only after clamp removal but also during clamping. PDE5 mRNA was highly expressed in the bladder and the supporting vasculature. Tadalafil inhibited the O/E-induced decrease in BBF and the C/R-induced time-dependent decreases in BBF and PBF. PDE5 inhibition by tadalafil may improve both BBF and PBF. PMID:25697472

Yoshinaga, Ryohei; Kawai, Yuko; Oka, Michiko; Fuchikami, Chiaki; Oyama, Tatsuya

2015-05-01

53

Lifetime, untreated isolated GH deficiency due to a GH-releasing hormone receptor mutation has beneficial consequences on bone status in older individuals, and does not influence their abdominal aorta calcification.  

PubMed

The GH/IGF-I axis has essential roles in regulating bone and vascular status. The age-related decrease in GH secretion ("somatopause") may contribute to osteoporosis and atherosclerosis, commonly observed in the elderly. Adult-onset GH deficiency (GHD) has been reported to be associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD), increased risk of fractures, and premature atherosclerosis. We have shown the young adult individuals with isolated GHD (IGHD) due to a homozygous for the c.57+1G>A GHRH receptor gene mutation have normal volumetric BMD (vBMD), and not develop premature atherosclerosis, despite adverse risk factor profile. However, the bone and vascular impact of lifetime GHD on the aging process remains unknown. We studied a group of ten older IGHD subjects (?60 years) homozygous for the mutation, comparing them with 20 age- and gender-matched controls (CO). Areal BMD was measured, and vBMD was calculated at the lumbar spine and total hip. Vertebral fractures and abdominal aortic calcifications (expressed as calcium score) were also assessed. Areal BMD was lower in IGHD, but vBMD was similar in the two groups. The percent of fractured individuals was similar, but the mean number of fractures per individual was lower in IGHD than CO. Calcium score was similar in the two groups. A positive correlation was found between calcium score and number of fractures. Untreated lifetime IGHD has beneficial consequences on bone status and does not have a deleterious effect on abdominal aorta calcification. PMID:24272598

Souza, Anita H O; Farias, Maria I T; Salvatori, Roberto; Silva, Gabriella M F; Santana, João A M; Pereira, Francisco A; de Paula, Francisco J A; Valença, Eugenia H O; Melo, Enaldo V; Barbosa, Rita A A; Pereira, Rossana M C; Gois-Junior, Miburge B; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H

2014-09-01

54

Self-Expandable Nitinol Stent Placement in Homocysteinemic Porcine Aorta  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To compare aortic intimal thickening of normal and hyperhomocysteinemic pigs (induced with a methionine-rich diet) following placement of a self-expanding nitinol stent. METHODS Eighteen Macau pigs were used. They were older than eight weeks in age and had an average weight of 30 kg. Pigs were randomly divided into two groups. The first, Group C (control), was fed a regular diet, and the second group, Group M, was fed a methionine-rich diet for 30 days to induce hyperhomocysteinemia. The self-expandable nitinol stents were 25mm in length and 8 mm in diameter after expansion. Blood samples were collected to measure total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and homocysteine concentrations. All animals were subjected to angiography. Thirty days after the procedure, the animals were sacrificed, and the abdominal aorta was removed for histological and digital morphometry analysis. RESULTS Under microscopic evaluation, the intima was significantly thicker in Group C than in Group M. When groups were compared by digital morphometric analysis, intimal thickening of the vessel wall was higher in Group C than in Group M. There was no significant change in total cholesterol, triglycerides or HDL concentrations in either group. In group C the levels of plasma homocysteine ranged from 14,40 to 16,73?mol/l; in Group M, plasma homocysteine levels ranged from 17.47 to 59.80 ?mol/l after 30 days of a methionine-rich diet. CONCLUSION Compared to normal pigs, less intimal hyperplasia was observed in the abdominal aortas of hyperhomocysteinemic pigs thirty days after the insertion of a self-expandable nitinol stent. PMID:18438578

França, Luís Henrique Gil; Pereira, Adamastor Humberto; Perini, Sílvio César

2008-01-01

55

Computational modelling of monocyte deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms   

E-print Network

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease involves a dilation of the aorta below the renal arteries. If the aneurysm becomes sufficiently dilated and tissue strength is less than vascular pressure, rupture of the aorta ...

Hardman, David

2011-07-05

56

Comparison of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Computed Tomography in Classifying Endoleaks After Endovascular Treatment of Abdominal Aorta Aneurysms: Preliminary Experience  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in endoleak classification after endovascular treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to computed tomography angiography (CTA). From May 2001 to April 2003, 10 patients with endoleaks already detected by CTA underwent CEUS with Sonovue (registered) to confirm the CTA classification or to reclassify the endoleak. In three conflicting cases, the patients were also studied with conventional angiography. CEUS confirmed the CTA classification in seven cases (type II endoleaks). Two CTA type III endoleaks were classified as type II using CEUS and one CTA type II endoleak was classified as type I by CEUS. Regarding the cases with discordant classification, conventional angiography confirmed the ultrasound classification. Additionally, CEUS documented the origin of type II endoleaks in all cases. After CEUS reclassification of endoleaks, a significant change in patient management occurred in three cases. CEUS allows a better attribution of the origin of the endoleak, as it shows the flow in real time. CEUS is more specific than CTA in endoleak classification and gives more accurate information in therapeutic planning.

Carrafiello, Gianpaolo, E-mail: gcarraf@tin.it; Lagana, Domenico; Recaldini, Chiara; Mangini, Monica; Bertolotti, Elena [University of Insubria, Department of Radiology (Italy); Caronno, Roberto; Tozzi, Matteo; Piffaretti, Gabriele [University of Insubria, Vascular Surgery (Italy); Annibale Genovese, Eugenio; Fugazzola, Carlo [University of Insubria, Department of Radiology (Italy)

2006-12-15

57

Inflammatory aneurysms of the ascending aorta: diagnosis and surgical treatment.  

PubMed

Inflammatory aortic aneurysms (IAAs) are rare and located mainly in the infra-renal abdominal aorta. The ascending aorta has been typically spared from this process. We report on two cases of ascending aortic inflammatory aneurysms and describe the available literature on this rare entity.? PMID:22103645

Pagni, Sebastian; Ganzel, Brian L; Williams, Mathew; Slater, A David; Trivedi, Jaimin R

2012-01-01

58

Time to Failure: A Stochastic Model of the Formation and Development of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

E-print Network

Time to Failure: A Stochastic Model of the Formation and Development of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms of an artery of more than 50% of its normal diameter Fusiform or Saccular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Fusiform Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Fusiform Infrarenal aorta Infrarenal aorta Diameter Healthy 1.5 cm

Karsai, Istvan

59

Particle Image Velocimetry measurements in an abdominal aortic aneurysm model  

E-print Network

Particle Image Velocimetry measurements in an abdominal aortic aneurysm model Ch. Stamatopoulos1 School, Univ. of Crete, Greece Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an abnormal dilatation of the aortic by a rapid prototyping machine (3D printer). The manufactured transparent model includes the abdominal aorta

Papaharilaou, Yannis

60

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Complicated by Intestinal Malrotation  

PubMed Central

Intestinal malrotation (IM) is an anomaly of fetal intestinal rotation that usually presents in the first month of life; it is rare for malrotaion to present in adulthood. Furthermore, the presentation of IM in conjunction with Abdominal aortic aneurysm is extremely rare and may require consideration with respect to the surgical approach and exposure of the abdominal aorta. We herein report a case of an abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by intestinal malrotation. PMID:25848429

Okazaki, Jin; Ishida, Masaru; Kodama, Akio; Mii, Shinsuke

2015-01-01

61

Determining the normal aorta size in children.  

PubMed

Purpose To establish effective aorta diameter standards at multiple levels of the thoracic aorta, abdominal aorta, and common iliac arteries by using computed tomographic (CT) data in healthy children (infants, children, adolescents) through young adults (hereafter referred to collectively as "children") of a wide range of sizes so that z scores may be calculated. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. The effective diameter, the average of aortic anteroposterior and lateral diameters, was independently measured at multiple levels of the aorta and common iliac arteries by two radiologists using 1-mm-collimation double-oblique reconstructions. Ordinary least squares regression methods were used to investigate models with various functional forms that related effective diameters at each level to patient body surface area (BSA) and sex. The best model was selected by using R(2), and formulas for deriving the expected diameter and estimates of the mean squared error (MSE) were generated. Results Results from 88 thoracic and 110 abdominal contrast material-enhanced CT examinations were analyzed in children without known cardiovascular disease who ranged in age from 0 to 20 years (mean, 9.9 years; standard deviation, 5.7), with BSA ranging from 0.19 to 2.52 m(2). Excellent interrater reliability was present (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.95 to 0.98). The best model was a polynomial regression model of the natural log transformation of the effective diameter that included linear, quadratic, and cubic BSA terms and a sex main effect as independent variables. The z scores were calculated by using the observed and expected effective diameters and the MSE. Conclusion The range of normal effective diameters of the aorta at multiple levels and the common iliac arteries was determined for children of different sizes and both sexes. Measurements outside of the normal ranges are consistent with aneurysm or hypoplasia. (©) RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25469783

Hegde, Shilpa V; Lensing, Shelly Y; Greenberg, S Bruce

2015-03-01

62

Abdominal Migraine  

MedlinePLUS

Home » Abdominal Migraine Abdominal Migraine Submitted by Admin on Wed, 2007-10-24 12:10 Abdominal migraine is one of the variants of migraine headache. This variant most typically occurs in children, ...

63

Diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm using 67-gallium citrate  

SciTech Connect

Mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta are uncommon, but potentially lethal problems. Clinical subtleties may suggest their presence, but in the past, definitive diagnosis has been dependent on surgical exploration or autopsy findings. A case is presented in which 67-gallium citrate abdominal scanning localized the site of sepsis in an abdominal aortic aneurysm and allowed for prompt and successful surgical therapy. This noninvasive technique is recommended as a adjunct in the diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms.

Blumoff, R.L.; McCartney, W.; Jaques, P.; Johnson, G. Jr.

1982-11-01

64

Percutaneous angioscopy of aorta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Percutaneous angioscopic observation of the aortic luminal surface and aortic valve has not been established. Therefore, we performed percutaneous fiberoptic angioscopy of aorta and aortic valve using a balloon-tipped guiding catheter.

Sasaki, Michihiko

1993-05-01

65

Abdominal aortic aneurysms in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal aortic aneurysms are rare in children. Causes include mycotic aneurysms, vasculitides (eg, Takayasu's arteritis), connective tissue diseases (eg, Marfan's syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and tuberous sclerosis) and traumatic false aneurysms. Four cases are described. Case 1 was a 12-year-old boy who presented with an acute unheralded rupture of the subdiaphragmatic aorta accompanied by lower limb paralysis and ischemia. Attempted repair

A. J. W. Millar; R. D. Gilbert; R. A. Brown; E. J. Immelman; D. A. Burkimsher; S. Cywes

1996-01-01

66

Chapter 2. Atherosclerosis of the aorta in five towns  

PubMed Central

Fatty streak was always present in both the thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta in the youngest subjects studied (aged 10-14 years). Fibrous plaque was present in a small proportion of these young subjects, but a rapid increase in prevalence occurred as early as the fourth decade. Complicated and calcified lesions appeared as early as the age of 20-25 years but a rapid increase in prevalence was seen after age 40 for complicated lesions and after age 50 for calcified lesions. There were differences in the prevalence of severe lesions among the five towns. There was little increase in the extent of atherosclerosis in the thoracic aorta before the age of 40 and in the abdominal aorta before the age of 20. The increase was more rapid after those ages. When atherosclerosis had affected about 50% of the intimal surface of the thoracic aorta and 70% of the intimal surface of the abdominal aorta, the increase slowed down considerably. In contrast to other types of lesion, the extent of fatty streak increased only up to 30 years of age, when it occupied 25-30% of the intimal surface. Then it declined and in the older age groups did not exceed 4-5% in men or women. The extent of fibrous plaque and complicated lesions was at all ages greater in men than in women, while the extent of fatty streak and calcified lesions in older age groups was greater in women. There were marked differences in the extent of atherosclerotic lesions in the five towns. PMID:1087188

Vihert, A. M.

1976-01-01

67

Wireless Communicative stent for follow-up of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

E-print Network

Wireless Communicative stent for follow-up of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Johan Mazeyrat, Olivier aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilatation of the aorta at the abdominal level, which rupture is a life people in the world are nowadays subject to an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) illness. AAA illness

Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

68

Wall shear stress and endothelial cells dysfunction in the context of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

E-print Network

Wall shear stress and endothelial cells dysfunction in the context of abdominal aortic aneurysms Z7342,13384 Marseille Keywords: wall shear stress, abdominal aortic aneurysm, endothelial cells, mechanotransduction 1. Introduction The formation of aneurysm of abdominal aorta (AAA), is a multi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

The Role of Geometric Parameters in the Prediction of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress  

E-print Network

The Role of Geometric Parameters in the Prediction of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress E to diameter in differentiating patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), who will experience wall stress (PWS) and abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA) geometric parameters in the presence

Papaharilaou, Yannis

70

Tenascin C protects aorta from acute dissection in mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is caused by the disruption of intimomedial layer of the aortic walls, which is immediately life-threatening. Although recent studies indicate the importance of proinflammatory response in pathogenesis of AAD, the mechanism to keep the destructive inflammatory response in check is unknown. Here, we report that induction of tenascin-C (TNC) is a stress-evoked protective mechanism against the acute hemodynamic and humoral stress in aorta. Periaortic application of CaCl2 caused stiffening of abdominal aorta, which augmented the hemodynamic stress and TNC induction in suprarenal aorta by angiotensin II infusion. Deletion of Tnc gene rendered mice susceptible to AAD development upon the aortic stress, which was accompanied by impaired TGF? signaling, insufficient induction of extracellular matrix proteins and exaggerated proinflammatory response. Thus, TNC works as a stress-evoked molecular damper to maintain the aortic integrity under the acute stress.

Kimura, Taizo; Shiraishi, Kozoh; Furusho, Aya; Ito, Sohei; Hirakata, Saki; Nishida, Norifumi; Yoshimura, Koichi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Takanobu; Ueno, Takafumi; Hamano, Kimikazu; Hiroe, Michiaki; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Aoki, Hiroki

2014-02-01

71

Blunt abdominal aortic disruption (BAAD) in shear fracture of the adult thoraco-lumbar spine: case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

To present a rare case of association of abdominal aorta rupture and flexion-distraction fracture of thoracolumbar spine and\\u000a to review the literature on this condition. In non-penetrating abdominal traumatic injuries with flexion-distraction fractures\\u000a of the thoracolumbar spine, rupture of the abdominal aorta is an extremely rare occurrence but its outcome is potentially\\u000a lethal. This association of skeletal and vascular lesions

Maurizio Domenicucci; Alessandro Ramieri; Alessandro Landi; Angelina Graziella Melone; Antonino Raco; Massimo Ruggiero; Francesco Speziale

2011-01-01

72

Neurofibromatosis type 1-associated hypertension secondary to coarctation of the thoracic aorta  

PubMed Central

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), also known as von Recklinghausen's disease, is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. NF-I vasculopathy has been used to describe various vascular malformations associated with NF-1. Secondary hypertension related to NF-1 vasculopathy has been reported because of renal artery stenosis, coarctation of the abdominal aorta and other vascular lesions; however, coarctation of the thoracic aorta has seldom been reported. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of isolated coarctation of thoracic aorta in a pregnant female with NF-1. Healthcare providers caring for patients with NF-1 should be aware of associated vascular complications.

Mavani, Gaurang; Kesar, Vivek; Devita, Maria V.; Rosenstock, Jordan L.; Michelis, Michael F.; Schwimmer, Joshua A.

2014-01-01

73

Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Patient with Renal Transplant  

SciTech Connect

Patients with functioning renal transplant who develop abdominal aortic aneurysm can safely be treated with endovascular repair. Endovascular repair of aneurysm avoids renal ischemia associated with cross-clamping of aorta.

Rao, M. [Specialist Registrar, Ulster Hospital (United Kingdom); Arya, N. [Specialist Registrar, Belfast City Hospital (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nityaarya@aol.com; Lee, B.; Hannon, R.J. [Regional Vascular and Endovascular Unit, Belfast City Hospital (United Kingdom); Loan, W. [Consultant Radiologist, Belfast City Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Soong, C.V. [Regional Vascular and Endovascular Unit, Belfast City Hospital (United Kingdom)

2004-09-15

74

Calcific aorta and coronary artery: two cases of calcific ascending aorta and descending aorta  

PubMed Central

Calcific aorta is a disease of old age and is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Here, we present two patients with calcific aorta at different levels. One with a descending porcelain aorta, and modified Bentall's procedure was done. Second is a patient who is having a calcific ascending aorta and coronary artery. Coronary artery bypass grafting from left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending was done for the patient. The calcification and its morbidity had been discussed briefly. PMID:25678909

Idhrees, A Mohammed; Radhakrishnan, Bineesh K; Panicker, Vargheese T; Pillai, Vivek; Karunakaran, Jayakumar

2015-01-01

75

Pulse Wave Imaging Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Comparison Between Control And Angiotensin II-Treated Mice In Vivo  

E-print Network

Pulse Wave Imaging Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Comparison Between Control And Angiotensin II. Keywords- aneurysm; aorta; displacement; pulse wave; velocity I. INTRODUCTION The abdominal aortic aneurysm. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY, USA JL2767@columbia.edu Abstract--The abdominal aortic

Konofagou, Elisa E.

76

Abdominal pain  

MedlinePLUS

Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is does not always reflect the seriousness ...

77

Ruptured Anterior Spinal Artery Aneurysm Associated with Coarctation of Aorta  

PubMed Central

Summary A 39-year-old man presented with acute headache and neck pain, followed by quadriparesis and quadriparesthesia, accompanied by urinary and bowel incontinence. Lumbar puncture showed subarachnoid haemorrhage. Angiogram via a right axillary approach revealed severe coarctation of the aorta, between the left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery. Multiple collateral circulation including an enlarged anterior spinal arterial axis bridging the stenosed arch provided collateral circulation to the abdominal aorta. A small lobulated aneurysm was seen at the radiculomedullary-anterior spinal artery junction from the right ascending cervical artery. This patient underwent successful surgical clipping of the aneurysm. Pathogenesis of the spinal arterial aneurysm associated with coarctation of the aorta is likely to result from the haemodynamic stress from collateral circulation through the anterior spinal axis rather than segmental arterial disease or angiodysplastic disease. Aneurysms of the spinal artery are rare but can be unusually found in association with SCAVMs, coarctation of aorta, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome or more rarely with aortic arch interruption. PMID:20594486

Jiarakongmun, P.; Chewit, P.; Pongpech, S.

2002-01-01

78

Clostridium septicum aortitis in a patient with extensive atheromatous disease of the aorta.  

PubMed

A 69-year man presented with 3 days of progressively worsening abdominal pain, radiating to his back, with nausea and vomiting. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed evidence of aortitis, for which he eventually underwent surgery. The surgical specimen of the aorta grew Clostridium septicum that was treated with antibiotics. PMID:22410855

Annapureddy, Narender; Agarwal, Shiv Kumar; Kanakadandi, Vijay; Sabharwal, Manpreet S; Ammakkanavar, Natraj; Simoes, Priya; Sanjani, Hari Priya; Nadkarni, Girish N

2012-12-01

79

Mesoscopic simulations of systolic flow in the human abdominal aorta.  

PubMed

The complex nature of blood flow in the human arterial system is still gaining more attention, as it has become clear that cardiovascular diseases localize in regions of complex geometry and complex flow fields. In this article, we demonstrate that the lattice Boltzmann method can serve as a mesoscopic computational hemodynamic solver. We argue that it may have benefits over the traditional Navier-Stokes techniques. The accuracy of the method is tested by studying time-dependent systolic flow in a 3D straight rigid tube at typical hemodynamic Reynolds and Womersley numbers as an unsteady flow benchmark. Simulation results of steady and unsteady flow in a model of the human aortic bifurcation reconstructed from magnetic resonance angiography, are presented as a typical hemodynamic application. PMID:16488226

Artoli, A M; Hoekstra, A G; Sloot, P M A

2006-01-01

80

Three-dimensional shape reconstruction of abdominal aortic aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an effective computational technique for reconstructing a three-dimensional shape of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), from a limited number of computed tomography (CT) images. The three-dimensional template geometry of a healthy abdominal aorta is used as a priori knowledge, and the template geometry is deformed by extended free-form deformation (EFFD), to generate a patient-specific AAA geometry. A

Mun-Bo Shim; Murat Gunay; Kenji Shimada

2009-01-01

81

Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

2009-02-01

82

Abdominal arteries recognition in X-Ray using a structural Olivier Nempont, Raoul Florent  

E-print Network

Abdominal arteries recognition in X-Ray using a structural model Olivier Nempont, Raoul Florent. For instance, during an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), the recognition of abdominal arteries of arteries (aorta, renal arteries, iliac arteries) whose relative positions are quite stable. We propose

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

83

Clear Depiction of Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

SciTech Connect

We report the case of an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm incidentally detected clearly with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) during the examination of a patient with myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia that later converted to acute myeloid leukemia. DW-MRI revealed a hyperintense halo surrounding the abdominal aorta with aneurysmatic dilatation, establishing the diagnosis.

Orta Kilickesmez, Kadriye, E-mail: kadriye11@yahoo.co [Istanbul University Institute of Cardiology, Department of Cardiology (Turkey); Kilickesmez, Ozgur [Yeditepe University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (Turkey)

2010-04-15

84

Indomethacin Prevents Elastase-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfusion of the rat abdominal aorta with elastase induces abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), in which the development of aortic dilatation correlates with the influx of inflammatory cells, increased production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and destruction of medial elastin. We tested the hypothesis that indomethacin, an inhibitor of macrophage MMP expression, might attenuate aneurysmal degeneration in this model. Fourteen adult male

Dennis R. Holmes; Drazen Petrinec; William Wester; Robert W. Thompson; Jeffrey M. Reilly

1996-01-01

85

Surgical treatment of infected thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve patients with infected aneurysms of the thoracic and abdominal aorta were evaluated. Aneurysmal location, aetiology, bacteriology and treatment modality were analysed to determine the relationship between these factors and outcome. Patients were divided into two groups based on the preoperative states of their infections. Group 1 patients (n = 7) underwent resection after resolution of their active infection. The

Y Chiba; R Muraoka; A Ihaya; T Kimura; K Morioka; M Nara; H Niwa

1996-01-01

86

The profile of the extracellular matrix changes in the aorta after sympathectomy in the hypercholesterolemic rats.  

PubMed

We previously showed that sympathectomy induces thickened intima and decreases the expression of cytoskeletal proteins associated with a differentiated smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype in hypercholesterolemic rats. In the present study, we sought to determine the effect of sympathectomy on various components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the aorta from these animals, since the state of SMC differentiation depends on the nature of ECM components. Collagen types I and III, previously reported to be associated with SMC dedifferentiation, and collagen VI, elastin, laminin and elastin-laminin receptor (E/L-R), previously reported to be associated with SMC differentiation, were analyzed by western immunoblot and confocal microscopy in abdominal aortae from sham rats and hypercholesterolemic rats sympathectomized with guanethidine. Both western immunoblot and immunohistological analysis showed an increase in collagens I and III (more for collagen I), with abundant labeling in the media, adventitia and thickened intima in sympathectomized aortae. Collagen IV labeling was decreased in the media and adventitia and was weak in the thickened intima in sympathectomised aortae. The E/L-R increased and was abundantly labeled in the media and weakly in the thickened intima in sympathectomized aortae. Elastin and laminin decreased and appeared less labeled in the media in the sympathectomised aortae. In the thickened intima, laminin was slightly labeled while elastin was not obviously labeled. These data show that sympathectomy favors the ECM features reported in association with a dedifferentiated/immature SMC phenotype and intimal thickening, probably by actions on both SMCs and fibroblasts. PMID:21824826

Hachani, Rafik; Dab, Houcine; Sakly, Mohsen; Sercombe, Richard; Callebert, Jacques; Vicaut, Eric; Kacem, Kamel

2011-10-28

87

[Extravascular compression of visceral arteries in the diaphragmatic segment of the aorta].  

PubMed

There were 140 patients operated for the celiac trunk (CT) and renal arteries extravascular compression (FC) in diaphragmatic aorta segment. The clinical syndromes of chronic abdominal ischemia and vasorenal hypertension were depicted. The predisposing factors of CT EC is the patients' dolichomorphic constitution with epigastric angle of < or = 70 degrees. The effectiveness of differentiated tactic choice of operative intervention magnitude according to the disease stage was shown. The late follow-up results witnesses the necessity of timely and adequate treatment. PMID:7823489

Bondarev, V I; Balliuzek, F V; Kiandarian, A K; Ablitsov, P P; Baziak, A P

1994-01-01

88

Hemodynamic Influences on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Disease: Application of Biomechanics to Aneurysm Pathophysiology  

PubMed Central

“Atherosclerotic” abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) occur with the greatest frequency in the distal aorta. The unique hemodynamic environment of this area predisposes it to site-specific degenerative changes. In this review, we summarize the differential hemodynamic influences present along the length of the abdominal aorta, and demonstrate how alterations in aortic flow and wall shear stress modify AAA progression in experimental models. Improved understanding of aortic hemodynamic risk profiles provides an opportunity to modify patient activity patterns to minimize risk of aneurysmal degeneration. PMID:20347049

Dua, Monica M.; Dalman, Ronald L.

2010-01-01

89

Circumaortic Left Renal Vein Associated with Juxtarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

The patient was an 82-year-old man who was found to have a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm accompanied by a circumaortic left renal vein (CLRV). During dissection of the proximal anastomosis site the CLRV was injured, but was successfully repaired. A graft implantation was performed below the renal arteries. The incidence of CLRV is thought to be rare, however it is found in 7% of cadavers donated for anatomy. CLRV may cause unexpected bleeding by inadvertent dissection of the abdominal aorta. To prevent unexpected bleeding, surgeons should always keep in mind this potential risk when performing surgery. PMID:24130625

2013-01-01

90

Extensibility changes of calcified soft tissue strips from human aorta.  

PubMed

Some degree of calcification was noted in more than half of the 59 aortas of individuals aged from 15 to 88 we have examined at autopsy. The calcification, which is determined by x-raying the opened and flat aorta, is in patches. We have studied the influence of calcification on stress versus strain, breaking strength, and modulus of elasticity of strips of aorta to determine its importance in vascular disease. Strips of aortic wall 5 x 30 mm were cut with orientation parallel or perpendicular to the vessel axis. Elongation versus load was measured with an Instron tensile testing machine. The true stress and true strain were calculated for both calcified and uncalcified strips from the thoracic and abdominal regions in both orientations. From the stress-strain curve the following values were selected: strain, stress, and slope at 80 mmHg equivalent pressure (1 mmHg = 133.3 Pa); maximum stress, strain, and slope; and breaking stress, strain, and slope if the sample broke. There were statistically significant differences in 13 of the 36 categories between calcified and uncalcified strips. The breaking strength and strain is lower in the calcified strips. The stress-strain curve for the uncalcified strip was mathematically transformed by reducing the amount of elongation so that the curve coincided with that of the calcified strip for eight matched pairs from the same individuals. The calcification appears to immobilize part of the strip, probably causing the boundary of the calcified tissue to be a region of high stress where tissue breakdown can occur. PMID:3690406

Sherebrin, M H; Bernans, H A; Roach, M R

1987-09-01

91

Morphological and molecular characterization of healthy human ascending aorta.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the characteristics of the normal human aorta has been constrained by lack of data on fresh aortic tissue, especially from healthy individuals. In this study, the gene expression and morphological characteristics of the thoracic ascending aorta (AA) of healthy organ donors have been evaluated, with the aim of providing reference data for the analysis of pathological AAs. We analysed by RT-PCR the differential expression of mRNAs coding for myocardin, smoothelin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and the ED-A isoform of fibronectin (ED-A FN) in AA specimens from donors, integrating the results with immunohistochemical analysis of the same targets. Morphological and morphometric characteristics of the AAs were also evaluated. In order to account for possible regional variations in wall structure, the convexity of the aortic profile was compared to the concavity. No differences in gene expression occurred for any of the target genes between the concavity and the convexity of AAs. Immunohistochemistry revealed a different distribution of total FN and of its ED-A isoform in the media and in the intima. Smoothelin is expressed by the majority of cells in the media, with some positive cells also in the intima. Alpha-SMA is expressed in all the tunicae. Immunohistochemistry also revealed in the convexity of 50% of AAs the presence of discrete areas in the subadventital media with altered structure and cell morphology and with altered gene expression, resulting positive for ED-A FN and alpha-SMA, but not for smoothelin, indicating the occurrence of early lesions also in macroscopically healthy AAs. PMID:22127602

Forte, A; Della Corte, A; Grossi, M; Finicelli, M; Bancone, C; Provenzano, R; Pepino, P; Nappi, G A; De Feo, M; Galderisi, U; Cotrufo, M; Cipollaro, M

2012-01-01

92

Re-endothelialization following balloon injury and photodynamic therapy of the rabbit aorta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

De-endothelialization is the main stimulus of intimal hyperplasia following vascular injury. In this study we investigated the time course of re-endothelialization in balloon injured and photodynamic therapy (PDT) treated aortas of New Zealand white rabbits. Twenty rabbits underwent balloon denudation of the abdominal aorta and were then sacrificed in groups of 4 animals 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks later. Twenty more rabbits underwent similar balloon denudation and were treated immediately afterwards with photodynamic therapy using the photosensitizer metatetrahydroxy phenyl-chlorin and endovascular illumination with 652 nm light. PDT treated rabbits were also sacrificed in groups of 4 animals at the same time intervals. A further 4 rabbits were sacrificed without any treatment to act as normal controls. The vasculature was perfusion fixed at 100 mmHg with 10% formal saline. The abdominal aortas were retrieved and five sections were cut from each aorta at 1 cm intervals, embedded in wax, sectioned and stained for endothelial cells using the Avidin Biotin complex/horseradish peroxidase technique for use with the monoclonal primary antibody CD31 from the clone JC70. Endothelial covering was measured using a light microscope and Magiscan image analysis system. Normal arteries showed a near full (92.1% plus or minus 3.0, mean plus or minus SEM) endothelial covering. Endothelium was removed completely after both balloon injury and PDT. In balloon injury alone there was progressive endothelial regrowth with (54.1 plus or minus 7.2) covering at 8 weeks. In contrast, endothelial regrowth was retarded in the aortas treated with balloon injury and PDT, with only (7.1 plus or minus 2.9) of covering at 8 weeks. The slow pace of re-endothelialisation is consistent with greater production of intimal hyperplasia in PDT treated vessels.

Koenig, Thomas C.; Sobeh, Mohammed S.; Ham, Robert J.; Cross, Frank W.; Greenwald, Stephen E.

1997-05-01

93

Ex vivo biomechanical behavior of abdominal aortic aneurysm: Assessment using a new mathematical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the biomechanical behavior of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) as compared to nonaneurysmal aorta may provide\\u000a information on the natural history of this disease. We have performed uniaxial tensile testing of excised human aneurysmal\\u000a and nonaneurysmal abdominal aortic specimens. A new mathematical model that conforms to the fibrous structure of the vascular\\u000a tissue was used to quantify the measured

M. L. Raghavan; Marshall W. Webster; David A. Vorp

1996-01-01

94

Bone loss and the progression of abdominal aortic calcification over a 25 year period: The Framingham heart study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular calcification and osteoporosis are common age-related processes that are prominently displayed on routine lateral\\u000a lumbar spine radiographs as dense calcium mineral deposits of the aorta that lie adjacent to osteopenic vertebrae. Using a\\u000a population-based cohort of older men and women, we tested the hypothesis that the progression of vascular calcification of\\u000a the abdominal aorta should be greatest in those

D. P. Kiel; L. I. Kauppila; L. A. Cupples; M. T. Hannan; C. J. O'Donnell; P. W. F. Wilson

2001-01-01

95

Demonstration of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the walls of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Seroepidemiologic studies have indicated an association between chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary heart disease. The organism, which is a common respiratory pathogen, has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta and coronary arteries. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are frequently associated with atherosclerosis, and inflammation may actually be an important factor in aneurysmal dilatation. Hence it could be assumed

Jukka Juvonen; Tatu Juvonen; Aino Laurila; Hannu Alakärppä; Kari Lounatmaa; Heljä-Marja Surcel; Maija Leinonen; Matti I. Kairaluoma; Pekka Saikku

1997-01-01

96

Post trauma abdominal cocoon  

PubMed Central

Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane. PMID:25590647

Kaur, Supreet; Doley, Rudra Prasad; Chabbhra, Mohinish; Kapoor, Rajeev; Wig, Jaidev

2014-01-01

97

Effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm during echocardiography.  

PubMed

Screening patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is associated with reduced AAA-related mortality, but population screening is poorly implemented. Opportunistic screening during imaging for other indications might be efficient. Single-center series reported AAA rates of 0.8% to 6.5% in patients undergoing transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), with disparities due to selection bias. In this first multicenter study, we aimed to assess the feasibility and criteria for screening AAA during TTE in real-life practice. During a week of May 2011, 79 centers participated in a nationwide survey. All patients aged ?65 years requiring TTE for any indication were eligible, except for those with operated abdominal aorta. We defined AAA by an anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal aorta?30 mm. Of 1,382 consecutive patients, abdominal aorta imaging was feasible in 96.7%, with a median delay of 1.7 minutes (>3 minutes in 3.6% of cases). We found AAA in 50 patients (3.7%). Unknown AAA (2.7%) was more frequent in men than women (3.7% vs 1.3%, respectively, p=0.007) and increased by age at 2.2%, 2.5%, and 5.8% in age bands of 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85+ years, respectively. None of the female participants aged <75 years had AAA. Smoking status and family history of AAA were significantly more frequent among patients with AAA. The ascending aorta was larger in those with AAA (36.2±4.7 vs 34.0±5.2 mm, p=0.006), and bicuspid aortic valve and/or major aortic regurgitation were also more frequent (8% vs 2.6%, p=0.017). In conclusion, rapid AAA screening during TTE is feasible and should be limited to men ?65 years and women?75 years. PMID:25127549

Aboyans, Victor; Bataille, Vincent; Bliscaux, Pascale; Ederhy, Stéphane; Filliol, Didier; Honton, Benjamin; Kurtz, Baptiste; Messas, Emmanuel; Mohty, Dania; Brochet, Eric; Kownator, Serge

2014-10-01

98

Diagnostic investigation and special treatment of chronic abdominal ischaemia.  

PubMed

Chronic abdominal ischaemia (C.A.I.)--abdominal angina--is a neglected gastrointestinal vascular condition, with chronic complaints and symptoms for the patient posing severe diagnostic and therapeutic problems. In the angiologic department of the Interunion Scientific Center of Surgery during the past 25 years, chronic intestinal ischaemia was diagnosed in 150 patients, a number representing 2.5% of the whole population with pathology form the aorta and its branches. Etiological factors of disease of the celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery and inferior mesenteric artery occlusion were the intravascular factors in 99 patients, atherosclerosis in 63 and nonspecific aorto-arteritis in 36. Extravascular factors: median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm, celiac plexus, periarterialfibrous, nerve fibers and tumor of pancreas were found in 51 patients. Of the 150 patients with C.A.I., 84 (56%) were operated and 87 operations were performed; of these 6 (4%) had a transluminal dilatation. A left thoraco-diaphragmatic approach to these vessels, via a lumbar incision through the last intercostal space in 62 patients was carried out. In those cases where the operation on the inferior mesenteric artery was combined with an operation on the abdominal aorta, the vessels were approached through a typical laparotomy (16 patients). In C.A.I. we perform 2 types of operations: partially reconstructive (decompressive) and reconstructive operations. Partially reconstructive (decompressive) operations were performed in case of compression of unpaired branches of the abdominal aorta in order to free the artery from extraluminal causes of pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3198975

Petrovsky, B V; Gavrilenko, A V

1988-01-01

99

Sizing the Shape: Understanding Morphometrics  

PubMed Central

Purpose: One of the most fundamental limitations associated with the conventional cephalometrics is its inability to delineate size from shape as it depends mainly on linear and angular measurements. However, the biological structures warrant greater description in terms of shape and form for better comparison of variation in a particular population. To overcome these shortcomings, morphometrics are now being employed for describing the biological structures in terms of quantifying the shape and form. Also, statistical analysis is being applied to find the variability of this form in the population. The present paper assesses the use of the Procuste superimposition technique and the subsequent form analysis by the principal component analysis (PCA). Materials and Methods: The lateral cephalograms of 10 adult females were taken from existing records, traced & digitized & then superimposed by means of procuste superimposition. A comparison was made with the conventional superimposition methods based on arbitrary reference planes like cranial base, FHP, SN. The statistical analysis for assessment of shape variability of the structures seen on the lateral cephalogram was done by calculating the principal components for 3 out of these 10 samples. Results: The conventional superimposition methods do not provide realistic picture of variation in the biological structures as they themselves are prone to variability even in a particular population. Conclusion: Concepts in Morphometrics can be applied for the purpose of orthodontic assessment of a particular patient with regards to his craniofacial morphology. With the help of morphometrics, norms for a population can be determined based on all the kinds of variations present naturally in that particular population & individuals can thus be compared more realistically regarding the morphological variations. PMID:25738080

2015-01-01

100

Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data. The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed. Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%). The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. Preliminary results have been presented in E Veronese, E Cosmi, S Visentin, E Grisan: 'Semiautomatic estimation of fetal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination', MICCAI Workshop on Perinatal and Paediatric Imaging: PaPI 2012.

Veronese, E.; Tarroni, G.; Visentin, S.; Cosmi, E.; Linguraru, M. G.; Grisan, E.

2014-10-01

101

Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness in ultrasound examination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction have been shown to be associated with an increased thickness of abdominal aorta in the fetus. Therefore the measurement of abdominal aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) has been recently considered a sensitive marker of artherosclerosis risk. To date measure of aortic diameter and of aIMT has been performed manually on US fetal images, thus being susceptible to intra- and inter- operator variability. This work introduces an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from videos recorded during routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal biometry. Firstly, in each frame, the algorithm locates and segments the region corresponding to aorta by means of an active contour driven by two different external forces: a static vector field convolution force and a dynamic pressure force. Then, in each frame, the mean diameter of the vessel is computed, to reconstruct the cardiac cycle: in fact, we expect the diameter to have a sinusoidal trend, according to the heart rate. From the obtained sinusoid, we identify the frames corresponding to the end diastole and to the end systole. Finally, in these frames we assess the aIMT. According to its definition, we consider as aIMT the distance between the leading edge of the blood-intima interface, and the leading edge of the media-adventitia interface on the far wall of the vessel. The correlation between end-diastole and end-systole aIMT automatic and manual measures is 0.90 and 0.84 respectively.

Veronese, Elisa; Poletti, Enea; Cosmi, Erich; Grisan, Enrico

2012-03-01

102

Abdominal Decompression in Children  

PubMed Central

Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) increases the risk for mortality in critically ill children. It occurs in association with a wide variety of medical and surgical diagnoses. Management of ACS involves recognizing the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) by intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) monitoring, treating the underlying cause, and preventing progression to ACS by lowering IAP. When ACS is already present, supporting dysfunctional organs and decreasing IAP to prevent new organ involvement become an additional focus of therapy. Medical management strategies to achieve these goals should be employed but when medical management fails, timely abdominal decompression is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. A literature review was performed to understand the role and outcomes of abdominal decompression among children with ACS. Abdominal decompression appears to have a positive effect on patient survival. However, prospective randomized studies are needed to fully understand the indications and impact of these therapies on survival in children. PMID:22482041

Ejike, J. Chiaka; Mathur, Mudit

2012-01-01

103

[Thoracic and abdominal wounds].  

PubMed

Thoracic and abdominal wounds are characterized by their diversity, their possible danger and the necessity of a successful diagnosis and therapy strategy. Management of thoracic wounds and indications of surgical treatment are conditioned by airway and hemodynamic states, paraclinical exams and chest drainage. The approach of abdominal wounds is based upon their possible penetrating character. Surgical indications, even if very discussed, are still wider. Thoraco-abdominal wounds could concern the diaphragm and are remarkable for their surgical strategy. PMID:9208685

Martinod, E; Lang-Lazdunski, L; Liard, O; Jancovici, R

1997-05-01

104

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments  

MedlinePLUS

... renal disease Infertility Liver disease Needle biopsy Osteoporosis Pediatrics Pelvic pain ... Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

105

Ultrasound Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the effectiveness the screening program? How often should population-based screening occur? What are appropriate treatment options after screening based on the size of aneurysms? Are there differences between universal and targeted screening strategies? What are the harms of screening? Summary of Findings Population-based ultrasound screening is effective in men aged 65 to 74 years, particularly in those with a history of smoking. Screening reduces the incidence of AAA ruptures, and decreases rates of emergency surgical repair for AAA and AAA-attributable mortality. Acceptance rates decline with increasing age and are lower for women. Low acceptance rates may affect the effectiveness of a screening program. A one-time screen is sufficient for a population-based screening program with regard to initial negative scans and development of large AAAs. There is no difference between early elective surgical repair and surveillance for small aneurysms (4.0–5.4 cm). Repeated surveillance of small aneurysms is recommended. Targeted screening based on history of smoking has been found to detect 89% of prevalent AAAs and increase the efficiency of screening programs from statistical modeling data. Women have not been studied for AAA screening programs. There is evidence suggesting that screening women for AAA should be considered with respect to mortality and case fatality rates in Ontario. It is important that further evaluation of AAAs in women occur. There is a small risk of physical harm from screening. Less than 1% of aneurysms will not be visualized on initial screen and a re-screen may be necessary; elective surgical repair is associated with a 6% operative morality rate and about 3% of small aneurysms may rupture during surveillance. These risks should be communicated through informed consent prior to screening. There is little evidence of severe psychological harms associated with screening. Conclusions Based on this review, the Medical Advisory Secretariat concluded that there is sufficient evidence to determine that AAA screening using ultrasound is effective

2006-01-01

106

Original article Morphometric and pheromonal analyses  

E-print Network

Original article Morphometric and pheromonal analyses of Apis mellifera L along a transect from 1996) Summary — Pheromones and morphological characteristics of worker honeybees from Morocco, but no pheromone clusters. Inter-colonial variances for all characteristics formed significant asymmetries within

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

Mechanical deterioration underlies malignant behavior of aneurysmal human ascending aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The human ascending aorta becomes markedly prone to rupture and dissection at a diameter of 6 cm. The mechanical substrate for this malignant behavior is unknown. This investigation applied engineering analysis to human ascending aortic aneurysms and compared their structural characteristics with those of normal aortas. Methods: We measured the mechanical characteristics of the aorta by direct epi- aortic

George Koullias; Maryann Tranquilli; Dimitris P. Korkolis; Paul Barash; John A. Elefteriades

108

Aorta Structural Alterations in Term Neonates: The Role of Birth and Maternal Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Aim. To evaluate the influence of selected maternal and neonatal characteristics on aorta walls in term, appropriately grown-for-gestational age newborns. Methods. Age, parity, previous abortions, weight, height, body mass index before and after delivery, smoking, and history of hypertension, of diabetes, of cardiovascular diseases, and of dyslipidemia were all assessed in seventy mothers. They delivered 34 males and 36 females healthy term newborns who underwent ultrasound evaluation of the anteroposterior infrarenal abdominal aorta diameter (APAO), biochemical profile (glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, and D-dimers homeostasis model assessment [HOMAIR]index), and biometric parameters. Results. APAO was related to newborn length (r = +0.36; P = 0.001), head circumference (r = +0.37; P = 0.001), gestational age (r = +0.40, P = 0.0005), HOMA index (r = +0.24; P = 0.04), and D-dimers (r = +0.33, P = 0.004). Smoke influenced APAO values (odds ratio: 1.80; confidence interval 95%: 1.05–3.30), as well as diabetes during pregnancy (r = +0.42, P = 0.0002). Maternal height influenced neonatal APAO (r = +0.47, P = 0.00003). Multiple regression analysis outlined neonatal D-dimers as still significantly related to neonatal APAO values. Conclusions. Many maternal and neonatal characteristics could influence aorta structures. Neonatal D-dimers are independently related to APAO. PMID:23984364

Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Salerno, Christian; Filippucci, Lucia; Angrisani, Lucia; Schettini, Federico; Laforgia, Nicola

2013-01-01

109

Functional chiral asymmetry in descending thoracic aorta.  

PubMed

To determine whether rotational blood flow or chiral asymmetry exists in the human descending thoracic aorta, we established the ability of color Doppler ultrasound to detect rotational flow in a tornado tube model of a vortex descending fluid column. In a model of the human aortic arch with a pulse duplicator, color Doppler was then used to demonstrate that rotational flow occurs first in the transverse arch and then in the proximal descending thoracic aorta. With the use of color Doppler esophageal echocardiography, 53 patients (age range, 25-78 years; mean age, 56.4 years) were prospectively examined for rotational flow in the descending thoracic aorta. At 10 cm superior to retro-left ventricular position, 22 of 38 patients (58%) revealed rotational flow with obvious diastolic counterclockwise rotation but less obvious systolic clockwise rotation. At 5 cm superior to retro-left ventricular position, 29 of 46 patients (63%) revealed rotational flow with a tendency toward systolic clockwise and diastolic counterclockwise rotation. At the retro-left ventricular position, 47 of 53 patients (89%) revealed rotational flow, usually of a clockwise direction, occurring in systole. Our data suggest that aortic flow is not purely pulsatile and axial but has a rotational component. Rotational flow begins in the aortic arch and is carried through to the descending thoracic aorta, where flow is chirally asymmetric with systolic clockwise and diastolic counterclockwise components. These data demonstrate an aortic rotational flow component that may have physiological implications for organ perfusion. PMID:2242523

Frazin, L J; Lanza, G; Vonesh, M; Khasho, F; Spitzzeri, C; McGee, S; Mehlman, D; Chandran, K B; Talano, J; McPherson, D

1990-12-01

110

Modeling Blood Flow in the Aorta.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an exercise to demonstrate two fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics: the Reynolds number and the Principle of Continuity. The exercise demonstrates flow in a major blood vessel, such as the aorta, with and without a stenosis. Students observe the transition from laminar to turbulent flow as well as downstream persistence of turbulence.…

McConnell, Colin J.; Carmichael, Jonathan B.; DeMont, M. Edwin

1997-01-01

111

[Ultrasound for abdominal lymphadenopathy].  

PubMed

This CME-review is about the clinical importance of the abdominal lymph node diagnostic with special attention to various ultrasound techniques. This includes innovative techniques like contrast enhanced ultrasound and elastography. The clinical importance of ultrasound in relation to cross sectional imaging will be the target of the article as well as anatomic- topographic aspects. The article deals as well with endosonographic techniques because of the upmost importance of the technique for diagnosing mediastinal and abdominal lymphnode swellings. In conclusion of the article different clinical scenarios and clinical algorithms are presented to help the reader to diagnose abdominal lymphadenopathy correctly in an efficient way. PMID:23633280

Dietrich, C F; Hocke, M; Jenssen, C

2013-05-01

112

Abdominal compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) associated with organ dysfunction\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 defines the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Elevated intra-abdominal\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 pressure (IAP) adversely impacts pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, splanchnic,\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 musculoskeletal\\/integumentary, and central nervous system physiology. The\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 combination of IAH and disordered physiology results in a clinical syndrome\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 with significant morbidity and mortality. The onset of the ACS requires prompt\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 recognition and appropriately timed and staged intervention

Jeffrey Bailey; Marc J Shapiro

2000-01-01

113

Abdominal aortic aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

... main blood vessel that supplies blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs ... dissection). Symptoms of rupture include: Pain in the abdomen or back. The pain may be severe, sudden, ...

114

Abdominal x-ray  

MedlinePLUS

Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Diagnose a pain in the abdomen or unexplained nausea Identify suspected problems in the urinary system, such as a kidney stone Identify blockage in the intestine Locate ...

115

Normal Abdominal CT  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Set of normal abdominal CT images with various important anatomic structures outlined, for cine viewing to gain a 3D view of the structure and its relationship to adjacent organs.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: Normal

Shaffer, Kitt

116

Abdominal ultrasound (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

117

3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm from computed tomography angiography images. The proposed method is automatic and requires minimal user assistance. Segmentation is performed in two steps. First inner and then outer aortic border is segmented. Those two steps are different due to different image conditions on two aortic borders. Outputs of these two segmentations give a complete 3-D model of abdominal aorta. Such a 3-D model is used in measurements of aneurysm area. The deformable model is implemented using the level-set algorithm due to its ability to describe complex shapes in natural manner which frequently occur in pathology. In segmentation of outer aortic boundary we introduced some knowledge based preprocessing to enhance and reconstruct low contrast aortic boundary. The method has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

2002-05-01

118

Loss of Timp3 Gene Leads to Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation in Response to Angiotensin II*  

PubMed Central

Aortic aneurysm is dilation of the aorta primarily due to degradation of the aortic wall extracellular matrix (ECM). Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the proteases that degrade the ECM. Timp3 is the only ECM-bound Timp, and its levels are altered in the aorta from patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We investigated the causal role of Timp3 in AAA formation. Infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II) using micro-osmotic (Alzet) pumps in Timp3?/? male mice, but not in wild type control mice, led to adverse remodeling of the abdominal aorta, reduced collagen and elastin proteins but not mRNA, and elevated proteolytic activities, suggesting excess protein degradation within 2 weeks that led to formation of AAA by 4 weeks. Intriguingly, despite early up-regulation of MMP2 in Timp3?/?Ang II aortas, additional deletion of Mmp2 in these mice (Timp3?/?/Mmp2?/?) resulted in exacerbated AAA, compromised survival due to aortic rupture, and inflammation in the abdominal aorta. Reconstitution of WT bone marrow in Timp3?/?/Mmp2?/? mice reduced inflammation and prevented AAA in these animals following Ang II infusion. Treatment with a broad spectrum MMP inhibitor (PD166793) prevented the Ang II-induced AAA in Timp3?/? and Timp3?/?/Mmp2?/? mice. Our study demonstrates that the regulatory function of TIMP3 is critical in preventing adverse vascular remodeling and AAA. Hence, replenishing TIMP3, a physiological inhibitor of a number of metalloproteinases, could serve as a therapeutic approach in limiting AAA development or expansion. PMID:23144462

Basu, Ratnadeep; Fan, Dong; Kandalam, Vijay; Lee, Jiwon; Das, Subhash K.; Wang, Xiuhua; Baldwin, Troy A.; Oudit, Gavin Y.; Kassiri, Zamaneh

2012-01-01

119

Spice up the hypertension diet - curcumin and piperine prevent remodeling of aorta in experimental L-NAME induced hypertension  

PubMed Central

Background Increase of blood pressure is accompanied by functional and morphological changes in the vascular wall. The presented study explored the effects of curcuma and black pepper compounds on increased blood pressure and remodeling of aorta in the rat model of experimental NO-deficient hypertension. Methods Wistar rats were administered for 6 weeks clear water or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) dissolved in water, piperine (20 mg/kg/day), curcumin (100 mg/kg/day) or their combination in corn oil by oral gavage. The systolic blood pressure was measured weekly. Histological slices of thoracic aorta were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Mallory's phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH), orcein, picrosirius red and van Gieson staining and with antibodies against smooth muscle cells actin. Microscopic pictures were digitally processed and morphometrically evaluated. Results The increase of blood pressure caused by L-NAME was partially prevented by piperine and curcumin, but the effect of their combination was less significant. Animals with hypertension had increased wall thickness and cross-sectional area of the aorta, accompanied by relative increase of PTAH positive myofibrils and decrease of elastin, collagen and actin content. Piperine was able to decrease the content of myofibrils and slightly increase actin, while curcumin also prevented elastin decrease. The combination of spices had similar effects on aortic morphology as curcumin itself. Conclusions Administration of piperine or curcumin, less their combination, is able to partially prevent the increase of blood pressure caused by chronic L-NAME administration. The spices modify the remodeling of the wall of the aorta induced by hypertension. Our results show that independent administration of curcumin is more effective in preventing negative changes in blood vessel morphology accompanying hypertensive disease. PMID:22005253

2011-01-01

120

A basic trilobite morphometric exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity entails a basic morphometrics lab, followed up by an in-class exercise to reinforce some of the same key concepts. The lab exercise familiarizes the student with basic methods of quantitative characterization and statistical comparison through measurement of pygidia (tails) of two species of the Ordovician trilobite Bellefontia â one from New York and one from Pennsylvania. Actual specimens, while nice, are not required; data acquired by measurement from photo collages will suffice. The exercise culminates in a statistical test of significance (using the Z-statistic) of the difference in slopes of the lines acquired for data from the two species. The data also serve to pose questions and prompt consideration of growth trajectories and discrimination of isometric from anisometric growth. The in-class activity builds on the knowledge base built in the lab but applies it to species discrimination based on the cranidia (central part of the head) of three species of the Upper Cambrian genus Bartonaspis, known to be of identical age from their occurrences within the very thin (everywhere 2m or less) Irvingella major Zone of the Elvinia trilobite Zone. The importance of that subzone, which is the "critical interval" at the top of the Pterocephaliid Biomere the basal unit of the Sunwaptan Stage traceable throughout Laurentian North America, also contributes to the significance of the exercise. With the insight developed from the lab, students are able to confidently distinguish the three species of Bartonaspis (from three photo collages), but must thoughtfully evaluate the data presented in bivariate plots of cranidial morphologic data to do so. The exercise gives the students a good sense of the level of familiarity and morphologic characterization necessary to do species-level identification, and also some worthwhile practice in basic quantitative methods.

John Taylor

121

Reevaluation of honeybee (Apis mellifera) microtaxonomy: a geometric morphometric approach  

E-print Network

Reevaluation of honeybee (Apis mellifera) microtaxonomy: a geometric morphometric approach rfan, the microtaxonomy of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) subspecies was reevaluated based on a geometric morphometric method. Wing images of honeybee subspecies, obtained from the Morphometric Bee Data Bank in Oberursel

122

3D morphometric analysis of the arterial switch operation using in vivo MRI data.  

PubMed

The arterial switch operation (ASO) is widely used nowadays as the surgical strategy of choice to repair transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Residual morphological and geometrical abnormalities of the aorta, pulmonary arteries and coronary arteries, however, have not been fully studied in a three-dimensional (3D) domain. These morphometric complications might have implications on long-term outcomes of ASO patients, hence the need to explore them in detail and study them with reference to healthy controls of comparable age and body surface area. These anatomical characteristics were examined using 3D patient-specific anatomical models reconstructed from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images of 20 ASO patients (mean age 14.4?±?2.4 years, 16 males and 4 females) compared with healthy controls (mean age 15.2?±?2.0 years, 17 males and 3 females). It was found that the aorta, pulmonary arteries and re-implanted coronary arteries of ASO patients were significantly different morphologically and geometrically to those of healthy controls. In particular, the aortic root was dilated, with abnormal 3D angulation and additional acute angulation of the curvature of the aortic arch in the ASO group compared with controls. This could theoretically impinge on aortic flow profiles and physiological stresses, which can act as a primer for the development of early atherosclerotic disease in the ASO population. PMID:25156444

Ntsinjana, Hopewell N; Capelli, Claudio; Biglino, Giovanni; Cook, Andrew C; Tann, Oliver; Derrick, Graham; Taylor, Andrew M; Schievano, Silvia

2014-11-01

123

Implications of interface conventions for morphometric thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several model fluids in contact with planar, spherical, and cylindrical walls are investigated for small number densities within density functional theory. The dependence of the solid-fluid interfacial tension on the curvature of spherical and cylindrical walls is examined and compared with the corresponding expression derived within the framework of morphometric thermodynamics. Particular attention is paid to the implications of the choice of the interface location, which underlies the definition of the interfacial tension. We find that morphometric thermodynamics is never exact for the considered systems and that its quality as an approximation depends sensitively on the choice of the interface location.

Reindl, Andreas; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S.

2015-02-01

124

Inhibition of PKC-dependent extracellular Ca2+ entry contributes to the depression of contractile activity in long-term pressure-overloaded endothelium-denuded rat aortas  

PubMed Central

We examined the contractile responsiveness of rat thoracic aortas under pressure overload after long-term suprarenal abdominal aortic coarctation (lt-Srac). Endothelium-dependent angiotensin II (ANG II) type 2 receptor (AT2R)-mediated depression of contractions to ANG II has been reported in short-term (1 week) pressure-overloaded rat aortas. Contractility was evaluated in the aortic rings of rats subjected to lt-Srac or sham surgery (Sham) for 8 weeks. ANG I and II levels and AT2R protein expression in the aortas of lt-Srac and Sham rats were also evaluated. lt-Srac attenuated the contractions of ANG II and phenylephrine in the aortas in an endothelium-independent manner. However, lt-Srac did not influence the transient contractions induced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings by ANG II, phenylephrine, or caffeine in Ca2+-free medium or the subsequent tonic constrictions induced by the addition of Ca2+ in the absence of agonists. Thus, the contractions induced by Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca2+ influx through stored-operated channels were not inhibited in the aortas of lt-Srac rats. Potassium-elicited contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats remained unaltered compared with control tissues. Consequently, the contractile depression observed in aortic tissues of lt-Srac rats cannot be explained by direct inhibition of voltage-operated Ca2+ channels. Interestingly, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats were depressed in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Neither levels of angiotensins nor of AT2R were modified in the aortas after lt-Srac. The results suggest that, in rat thoracic aortas, lt-Srac selectively inhibited protein kinase C-mediated activation of contraction that is dependent on extracellular Ca2+ entry. PMID:25098618

Padilla, J.; López, R.M.; López, P.; Castillo, M.C.; Querejeta, E.; Ruiz, A.; Castillo, E.F.

2014-01-01

125

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers a one-time abdominal aortic aneurysm ultrasound. You must get a referral for it ...

126

Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation ...

127

Laparoscopic total abdominal colectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the impact of laparoscopy upon the outcome of total abdominal colectomy (TAC). Specifically, patients underwent standard laparotomy with TAC and ileoproctostomy (TAC + IP), TAC and ileoanal reservoir (TAC + IAR), laparoscopically assisted TAC + IP (L-TAC + IP), or laparoscopically assisted TAC + IAR (L-TAC + IAR). Parameters studied included

Steven D. Wexner; Olaf B. Johansen; Juan J. Nogueras; David G. Jagelman

1992-01-01

128

Hydroelastic effects in the aorta bifurcation zone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical behavior of the vessels and blood is mathematically analyzed at the point of aortic bifurcation using a homogeneous single layer channel as a model of the aorta. Allowance is made for the fact that the aortic intima is considerably less rigid than the other layers. For analysis of blood flow in the major arteries, the blood is treated as a viscous Newtonian fluid whose movements are described by Navier-Stokes equations and a continuity equation. Blood flow dynamics at the aortic bifurcation are discussed on the basis of the results.

Volmir, A. S.; Gersheyn, M. S.; Purinya, B. A.

1980-01-01

129

Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos, E-mail: lioupisC@vodafone.net.gr; Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris [Red Cross Hospital of Athens, Department of Vascular Surgery (Greece); Pomoni, Maria [Red Cross Hospital of Athens, Department of Radiology (Greece); Andrikopoulos, Vassilios [Red Cross Hospital of Athens, Department of Vascular Surgery (Greece)

2008-07-15

130

A segmentation method for stentgrafts in the abdominal aorta from ECG-gated CTA data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endovascular aortic replacement (EVAR) is an established technique, which uses stentgrafts to treat aortic aneurysms in patients at risk of aneurysm rupture. The long-term durability of a stentgraft is affected by the stresses and hemodynamic forces applied to it, and may be reflected by the movements of the stentgraft itself during the cardiac cycle. A conventional CT scan (which results in a 3D volume) is not able to visualize these movements. However, applying ECG-gating does provide insight in the motion of the stentgraft caused by hemodynamic forces at different phases of the cardiac cycle. The amount of data obtained is a factor of ten larger compared to conventional CT, but the radiation dose is kept similar for patient safety. This causes the data to be noisy, and streak artifacts are more common. Algorithms for automatic stentgraft detection must be able to cope with this. Segmentation of the stentgraft is performed by examining slices perpendicular to the centreline. Regions with high CT-values exist at the locations where the metallic frame penetrates the slice. These regions are well suited for detection and sub-pixel localization. Spurious points can be removed by means of a clustering algorithm, leaving only points on the contour of the stent. We compare the performance of several different point detection methods and clustering algorithms. The position of the stent's centreline is calculated by fitting a circle through these points. The proposed method can detect several stentgraft types, and is robust against noise and streak artifacts.

Klein, Almar; Renema, W. KlaasJan; Oostveen, Luuk J.; Schultze Kool, Leo J.; Slump, Cornelis H.

2008-03-01

131

Effects of simulated microgravity on vasoconstrictor and mechanical properties of the rat abdominal aorta  

E-print Network

in humans in microgravity. Previous studies have shown that HU reduces evoked contractile tension of peripheral conduit arteries. It has been hypothesized that the diminished contractile tension is the result of 1) an increase production of nitric oxide (NO...

Papadopoulos, Anthony

2002-01-01

132

Aorta-Left Renal Vein Fistula Complicating an Aortic Aneurysm: Preoperative and Postoperative Multislice CT Findings  

SciTech Connect

Fistulas complicating an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are rare, and fistulas involving the left renal vein are particularly uncommon. We highlight here a fistula between an infrarenal aortic aneurysm and a retroaortic left renal vein, revealed by left flank pain associated with hematuria and acute renal failure. The multislice CT angiography performed in this 68-year-old patient revealed communication and equal enhancement between the aorta and the left gonadic vein, suggesting the presence of a fistula. The three-dimensional VRT reconstructions presented in this case were of great value in the preoperative planning, enabling immediate visualization of this unusual feature. Alternative diagnoses to consider when encountering this clinical presentation are reviewed.

Barrier, Pierre, E-mail: p.barrier@gmail.com; Otal, Philippe [Hopital de Rangueil CHU de Toulouse, Department of Radiology (France); Garcia, Olivier; Vahdat, Olivier; Domenech, Brice [Clinique Pasteur, Department of Radiology (France); Lannareix, Valerie; Joffre, Francis; Rousseau, Herve [Hopital de Rangueil CHU de Toulouse, Department of Radiology (France)

2007-06-15

133

Hydatid cyst in the wall of the ascending aorta.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease rarely involves the aortic wall. We report a case of hydatidosis involving the ascending aorta and the left atrium. The patient underwent replacement of the ascending aorta with a prosthetic Dacron graft and left atrial cystectomy. At the 6-month follow-up, she was leading a normal life. PMID:16551825

Aydin, Naz B; Celik, Seden; Suzer, Asuman; Coruh, Turkan; Okay, Tamer; Gercekoglu, Hakan

2006-04-01

134

Planimetric and histological study of the aortae in atherosclerotic chickens treated with nifedipine, verapamil and diltiazem.  

PubMed

Calcium appears to be involved in many of the cellular events which are thought to be important in atherogenesis. Calcium channel blockers have been shown to reduce arterial lipid accumulation in animals without altering serum cholesterol. Avian models of atherosclerosis offer economic and technical advantages over mammalian models. In this study, we examine the effects of nifedipine, verapamil and diltiazem at clinical and higher doses, on the extent of atherosclerosis of egg-fed chickens. In order to assess the extent of atherosclerosis quantitatively, the aortic lesions of the thoracic and abdominal aorta, aortic arch and supraaortic regions were measured by planimetry. Atherosclerotic lesions were evaluated histologically. Statistically significant reductions in the lipid deposition of the aorta were found in all the treated groups. The extent and distribution of atherosclerotic lesions were decreased in a significant way by verapamil, nifedipine and diltiazem. The higher the dosage used, the higher the regression of the atherosclerotic lesions. At clinical dosage, nifedipine showed the highest decrease of the lesions. In addition, the chicken atherosclerosis model has proved itself useful and very suitable for in vivo drug intervention studies. PMID:12973671

García Pérez, B; Ayala, I; Castells, M T; Madrid, J F; Ortega, M R; Ortega, J V; Ballesta, J; Fernández Pardo, J; Valdés, M

2003-10-01

135

Automated Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm segmentation using MATLAB.  

PubMed

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) are the 10th leading cause of death in older men. It is estimated that about 5% of men over 50 have AAA but the prevalence and risk of death due to rupture increase with age to estimated 10% prevalence and almost 1% of male deaths over the age of 65. AAA is defined as a focal dilation of the artery at least 50% larger than the normal diameter. If the defect is not surgically repaired prior to rupture, the mortality is about 80%. The role of clotted blood (thrombus) lining the walls of the AAA has been speculated to play a role in aneurysm expansion. Although aneurysm diameter is easily measured from a CT scan, accurately measuring the relative amount of clotted blood (thrombus load) cannot be readily done with a ruler. This paper presents a process to segment the relative thrombus area and aneurysmal area from CT images using computer algorithms. We have developed an image processing based technique, using MATLAB, to aid in the detection of a threatening AAA condition. This technique uses segmentation-based techniques to extract the desired data. The process of segmentation involves several steps to obtain desirable results. This algorithm uses primarily thresholding techniques, erosion, and dilation filters to segment the wall and determine the bounds of the aorta; then segmentation is done to enhance and isolate areas of interest. PMID:12724868

Schei, Thomas R; Barrett, Steven; Jones, Darrell; Krupski, William

2003-01-01

136

Penetrating ulcer of the ascending aorta without rupture.  

PubMed

Penetrating ulcer of the ascending aorta is a very rare pathological entity with known potential for progression towards intramural hematoma or dissection. Intraoperative diagnosis of an asymptomatic ulcer of the ascending aorta was carried in a 60-year-old male with rheumatic valve disease. The tubular portion of the aorta was slightly dilated (45 mm) and the aortic valve was tricuspid. A supracoronary replacement of the ascending aorta was performed with a Dacron tube. Pathological analysis of the operative sample showed a considerable thinning of the aortic wall with a complete lack of elastic fibers at the level of the penetrating ulcer surrounded by a slightly dystrophic ascending aorta free from calcification and atheroma. PMID:19167235

Hammoudi, Nadjib; Dorfmuller, Peter; Corvol, Emmanuel; Acar, Christophe

2009-03-01

137

Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm after Resection of an Infected Cardiac Myxoma  

PubMed Central

A 12-year-old girl with a high fever underwent echocardiography and was found to have a myxoma that arose from the atrial side of the anterior mitral valve leaflet. The tumor was successfully excised. Histologic examination of the tumor showed myxoma cells and an organized thrombus with bacterial colonization. The patient was discharged from the hospital on antibiotic treatment. After remaining asymptomatic for 3 weeks, she was readmitted with acute abdomen. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance angiography detected intra-abdominal hemorrhaging and a saccular aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. The patient underwent successful emergency surgery. To our knowledge, no other report has been published concerning an abdominal aortic aneurysm secondary to bacterial infection of a cardiac myxoma. Although complications this severe are rarely observed in patients who have endocarditis, early recognition and treatment can be life-saving. PMID:17622377

Guler, Niyazi; Ozkara, Cenap; Kaya, Yuksel; Saglam, Enis

2007-01-01

138

Innovative Chimney-Graft Technique for Endovascular Repair of a Pararenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

After abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, progressive degeneration of the aneurysm can be challenging to treat. Multiple comorbidities and previous operations place such patients at high risk for repeat surgery. Endovascular repair is a possible alternative; however, challenging anatomy can push the limits of available technology. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a 5.3-cm pararenal aneurysm 4 years after undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. To avoid reoperation, we excluded the aneurysm by endovascular means, using visceral-artery stenting, a chimney-graft technique. Low-profile balloons on a monorail system enabled the rapid exchange of coronary wires via a buddy-wire technique. This novel approach facilitated stenting and simultaneous angioplasty of multiple visceral vessels and the abdominal aorta.

Galiñanes, Edgar Luis; Hernandez-Vila, Eduardo A.

2015-01-01

139

Biomarkers in abdominal imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging biomarkers are parameters measurable with imaging methods used to detect, stage or grade disease or assess the response\\u000a to treatment. Compared with biochemical or histological markers, imaging biomarkers have the advantage of remaining non-invasive\\u000a and being spatially and temporally resolved. Imaging biomarkers are used in multiple abdominal diseases, including cancer.\\u000a Anatomical imaging biomarkers such as the RECIST criteria are

Bernard E. Van Beers; Valérie Vilgrain

2009-01-01

140

Abdominal vascular injuries.  

PubMed

Injuries to major abdominal arteries and veins frequently are associated with exsanguinating hemorrhage and visceral ischemia. Expeditious management is the key to survival and good outcome. Knowledge of anatomic relationships between viscera and vessels forms the basis for directed dissection, optimal exposure, and lasting repair of vessels. Although penetrating mechanism of injury remains the most common cause of these injuries, trauma surgeons must be familiar with patterns of blunt trauma-mediated injury to avoid the devastating consequences of delayed management. PMID:8782475

Mullins, R J; Huckfeldt, R; Trunkey, D D

1996-08-01

141

Abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed

Certain biological differences between men and women are relevant to the problem of AAA, and are widely accepted. Women unequivocally have smaller aortas. The size difference correlates with a variety of anthropomorphic measurements, but is most strongly associated with body surface area. In women the compliance of the aorta decreases in linear fashion with age, whereas in men the decrease in compliance is exponential with age. Women appear to be underrepresented in AAA surgical series (typically 18% to 20% of operative cases) compared with autopsy studies (29% to 32%), ultrasound screening studies (19% to 25%), and mortality studies (34% of the 14,982 deaths due to AAA in the US in 1988). Several lines of evidence suggest that women with AAA are less likely than men to be referred for surgery, and that, when referred, they have higher mortality rates. The reasons for these differences are unclear. The very factors that allow increased longevity in women may have an adverse effect on the ability to tolerate a major surgical stress. Wenger et al have suggested that psychosocial and economic factors may affect women's decisions to seek care, or their choice of therapeutic options. Lack of knowledge among practitioners of gender-related aortic size differences and overreliance on simplistic clinical paradigms that dictate operations for 5-cm diameter aneurysms and watchful waiting for 4- to 5-cm AAAs may result in unintended bias in patient selection. It may be that a 5-cm diameter AAA in a woman with a predicted normal aortic size of 1.4 cm represents a more advanced stage of disease than a 5-cm diameter AAA in a man with a normal aortic diameter of 2.5 cm. More precise and detailed algorithms are needed to permit clinicians to tailor decisions to patients' size, sex, and risk factors. Development of such algorithms requires expansion of clinical and epidemiological studies to include enough women to make precise risk estimates. PMID:8775883

Katz, D J; Stanley, J C; Zelenock, G B

1995-12-01

142

Abdominal trauma by ostrich  

PubMed Central

Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

2015-01-01

143

Abdominal SPECT imaging  

SciTech Connect

Over the past several years, abdominal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has evolved from a research tool to an important clinical imaging modality that is helpful in the diagnostic assessment of a wide variety of disorders involving the abdominal viscera. Although liver-spleen imaging is the most popular of the abdominal SPECT procedures, blood pool imaging is becoming much more widely utilized for the evaluation of cavernous hemangiomas of the liver as well as other vascular abnormalities in the abdomen. Adjunctive indium leukocyte and gallium SPECT studies are also proving to be of value in the assessment of a variety of infectious and neoplastic diseases. As more experience is acquired in this area, SPECT should become the primary imaging modality for both gallium and indium white blood cells in many institutions. Renal SPECT, on the other hand, has only recently been used as a clinical imaging modality for the assessment of such parameters as renal depth and volume. The exact role of renal SPECT as a clinical tool is, therefore, yet to be determined. 79 references.

Van Heertum, R.L.; Brunetti, J.C.; Yudd, A.P.

1987-07-01

144

Morphometric characterisation of treecreepers (genus Certhia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lengths of hind claw, tarsus, bill, wing and tail plus bill depth and width, wing tip and tail graduation were measured in\\u000a nearly 2,000 specimens from all nine currently accepted Certhia species and most subspecies to provide morphometric characterisation. In a discriminant analysis for all species, only C. [discolor], C. nipalensis and C. tianquanensis were clearly separated from each other

Dieter Thomas Tietze; Jochen Martens

2009-01-01

145

Geometric Morphometrics of Rodent Sperm Head Shape  

PubMed Central

Mammalian spermatozoa, particularly those of rodent species, are extremely complex cells and differ greatly in form and dimensions. Thus, characterization of sperm size and, particularly, sperm shape represents a major challenge. No consensus exists on a method to objectively assess size and shape of spermatozoa. In this study we apply the principles of geometric morphometrics to analyze rodent sperm head morphology and compare them with two traditional morphometry methods, that is, measurements of linear dimensions and dimensions-derived parameters calculated using formulae employed in sperm morphometry assessments. Our results show that geometric morphometrics clearly identifies shape differences among rodent spermatozoa. It is also capable of discriminating between size and shape and to analyze these two variables separately. Thus, it provides an accurate method to assess sperm head shape. Furthermore, it can identify which sperm morphology traits differ between species, such as the protrusion or retraction of the base of the head, the orientation and relative position of the site of flagellum insertion, the degree of curvature of the hook, and other distinct anatomical features and appendices. We envisage that the use of geometric morphometrics may have a major impact on future studies focused on the characterization of sperm head formation, diversity of sperm head shape among species (and underlying evolutionary forces), the effects of reprotoxicants on changes in cell shape, and phenotyping of genetically-modified individuals. PMID:24312234

Varea Sánchez, María; Bastir, Markus; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

2013-01-01

146

Death of Smooth Muscle Cells and Expression of Mediators of Apoptosis by T Lymphocytes in Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Thinning of the tunica media and rarefaction of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) characterize aneurysmal aortas. Apoptosis determines the cellularity and morphogenesis of tissue. Macrophages and T lymphocytes infiltrate the wall of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and produce death-promoting proteins (perforin, Fas, and FasL). This study investigated whether apoptosis occurs in association with the expression of these proteins. Methods and Results—We

E. Lynne Henderson; Yong-Jian Geng; Galina K. Sukhova; Anthony D. Whittemore; James Knox; Peter Libby

147

The Effect of Chlorpyrifos on Isolated Thoracic Aorta in Rats  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta and on the level of NO in plasma and aorta. The effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta in organ bath was determined in 10 rats. Another 45 rats were assigned to 3 groups with 15 rats each: control group 1 received distilled water, control group 2 was given corn oil, and the last group was given 13.5?mg/kg chlorpyrifos dissolved in corn oil every other day for 8 weeks orally. Chlorpyrifos (10?10?M–10?5?M) showed no effect on isolated thoracic aorta. Plasma AChE activity was decreased, while LDH, ALT, GGT, and AST activities were increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. Plasma NO level was increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. iNOS expression was present in all groups in the cytoplasm of the endothelia and in the smooth muscle cells of aorta. According to semiquantitative histomorphological analysis, iNOS immunopositive reactions were seen in the decreasing order in chlorpyrifos, control 2, and control 1 groups. eNOS immunopositive reactions were observed in the endothelial cell cytoplasm, rarely in the subintimal layer, and the smooth muscle cells of aorta. There were no differences among the groups in terms of eNOS immunostaining. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos induced NO production in aorta following an increase in NOS expression. PMID:23878805

Y?ld?r?m, Ebru; Baydan, Emine; Kanbur, Murat; Kul, O?uz; Ç?nar, Miyase; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül

2013-01-01

148

Abdominal Cystic Lymphangioma Mimicking Appendicitis  

PubMed Central

A cystic lymphangioma arising within the abdomen is a rare entity in children. It may present with an abdominal mass and symptoms of abdominal pain, vomiting, and anorexia. These nonspecific clinical symptoms are often attributed to more common acute pediatric conditions. In this report, we describe two pediatric cases of intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma that were initially diagnosed and treated as appendicitis. True diagnosis was only achieved on surgical excision and pathological investigation of cystic material.

Wake, Sarah; Abhyankar, Aruna; Hutton, Kim

2013-01-01

149

Doxycycline inhibition of aneurysmal degeneration in an elastase-induced rat model of abdominal aortic aneurysm: Preservation of aortic elastin associated with suppressed production of 92 kD gelatinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Increased local production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is a potential mechanism underlying structural protein degradation in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). With an elastase-induced rodent model of AAA, we determined whether pharmacologic treatment with an MMP-inhibiting tetracycline might limit the development of experimental AAA in vivo.Methods: Forty-eight Wistar rats underwent a 2-hour perfusion of the abdominal aorta with 50 U

Drazen Petrinec; Shixiong Liao; Dennis R. Holmes; Jeffrey M. Reilly; William C. Parks; Robert W. Thompson

1996-01-01

150

Abdominal imaging: An introduction  

SciTech Connect

This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures.

Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

1986-01-01

151

Minimally Invasive Abdominal Surgery  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, laparoscopy has been the most innovative surgical movement in general surgery. Minimally invasive surgery performed through a few small incisions, laparoscopy is the standard of care for the treatment of gallbladder disease and the gold standard for the treatment of reflux disease. The indications for a laparoscopic approach to abdominal disease continue to increase, and many diseases may be treated with laparoscopic techniques. At Ochsner, laparoscopic techniques have demonstrated better cosmetic results, shorter recovery times, and an earlier return to normal activity compared with open surgery. PMID:21765684

Richardson, William S.; Carter, Kristine M.; Fuhrman, George M.; Bolton, John S.; Bowen, John C.

2000-01-01

152

Modification of an endovascular stent graft for abdominal aortic aneurysm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endovascular surgery is currently used to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). A stent graft is deployed to exclude blood flow from the aneurysm sac. It is an effective procedure used in preventing aneurysm rupture, with reduced patient morbidity and mortality compared to open surgical repair. Migration and leakage around the device ("endoleak") due to poor sealing of the stent graft to the aorta have raised concerns about the long-term durability of endovascular repair. A preliminary study of cell migration and proliferation is presented as a prelude to a more extensive in vivo testing. A method to enhance the biological seal between the stent graft and the aorta is proposed to eliminate this problem. This can be achieved by impregnating the stent graft with 50/50 poly (DL-lactide co glycolic acid) (PLGA) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), at the proximal and distal ends. It is hypothesized that as PLGA degrades it will release the growth factors that will promote proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells to the coated site, leading to a natural seal between the aorta and the stent graft. In addition, growth factor release should promote smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction that will help keep the stent graft in place at the proximal and distal ends. It is shown that a statistically significant effect of increased cell proliferation and migration is observed for CTGF release. Less of an effect is noted for bFGF or just the PLGA. The effect is estimated to be large enough to be clinically significant in a future animal study. The long term goal of this study is to reduce migration encounter after graft deployment and to reduce secondary interventions of EVAR especially for older patients who are unfit for open surgical treatment.

Moloye, Olajompo Busola

153

Improving the Efficiency of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress Computations  

PubMed Central

An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a pathological dilation of the abdominal aorta, which carries a high mortality rate if ruptured. The most commonly used surrogate marker of rupture risk is the maximal transverse diameter of the aneurysm. More recent studies suggest that wall stress from models of patient-specific aneurysm geometries extracted, for instance, from computed tomography images may be a more accurate predictor of rupture risk and an important factor in AAA size progression. However, quantification of wall stress is typically computationally intensive and time-consuming, mainly due to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the abdominal aortic aneurysm walls. These difficulties have limited the potential of computational models in clinical practice. To facilitate computation of wall stresses, we propose to use a linear approach that ensures equilibrium of wall stresses in the aneurysms. This proposed linear model approach is easy to implement and eliminates the burden of nonlinear computations. To assess the accuracy of our proposed approach to compute wall stresses, results from idealized and patient-specific model simulations were compared to those obtained using conventional approaches and to those of a hypothetical, reference abdominal aortic aneurysm model. For the reference model, wall mechanical properties and the initial unloaded and unstressed configuration were assumed to be known, and the resulting wall stresses were used as reference for comparison. Our proposed linear approach accurately approximates wall stresses for varying model geometries and wall material properties. Our findings suggest that the proposed linear approach could be used as an effective, efficient, easy-to-use clinical tool to estimate patient-specific wall stresses. PMID:25007052

Zelaya, Jaime E.; Goenezen, Sevan; Dargon, Phong T.; Azarbal, Amir-Farzin; Rugonyi, Sandra

2014-01-01

154

Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor protects against abdominal aortic aneurysm in a mouse model.  

PubMed

Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been implicated in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), Ang II activates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediating growth promotion. We hypothesized that inhibition of EGFR prevents Ang II-dependent AAA. C57BL/6 mice were co-treated with Ang II and ?-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) to induce AAA with or without treatment with EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib. Without erlotinib, 64.3% of mice were dead due to aortic rupture. All surviving mice had AAA associated with EGFR activation. Erlotinib-treated mice did not die and developed far fewer AAA. The maximum diameters of abdominal aortas were significantly shorter with erlotinib treatment. In contrast, both erlotinib-treated and non-treated mice developed hypertension. The erlotinib treatment of abdominal aorta was associated with lack of EGFR activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, interleukin-6 induction and matrix deposition. EGFR activation in AAA was also observed in humans. In conclusion, EGFR inhibition appears to protect mice from AAA formation induced by Ang II plus BAPN. The mechanism seems to involve suppression of vascular EGFR and ER stress. PMID:25531554

Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Fukuda, Yamato; Takayanagi, Takehiko; Taro, Yoshinori; Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; Elliott, Katherine J; Choi, Eric; Daugherty, Alan; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

2015-05-01

155

Coral reef aorta, emergency surgical: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Coral reef aorta is described as an uncommon entity characterized by the presence of coarse calcifications, which are developed in the visceral aorta. These calcifications grow toward the lumen of the artery and can result in significant stenosis, so that causing malperfusion of the lower limbs, visceral ischemia or hypertension secondary to renal involvement. We report here a case of a 54-year-old patient with coral reef aorta and symptomatic. The clinical presentation of the patient required the surgical approach. A review of literature in major databases was conducted to compare health-related aspects of the disease presentation and management. Coral reef aorta should be considered as the diagnosis for patients with visceral and limbs ischemia. The approach in our case was consistent with other studies previously published in the literature. PMID:25003933

Belczak, Sergio Quilici; Sincos, Igor Rafael; Aun, Ricardo; Costa, Kaline Viana; Araujo, Etianne Andrade

2014-04-01

156

Dealing with a Porcelain Aorta during Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting  

PubMed Central

We report a complex case of multivessel CAD in a patient with a porcelain aorta and high-grade left subclavian artery stenosis. Utilizing a staged left subclavian artery stent placement with a next-day plan for a four-vessel, on-pump CABG and ascending aortic replacement, this case highlights an organized approach to diagnosing and dealing with a heavily calcified aorta while describing a stepwise algorithm to deal with aortic calcifications prior to initiating cardiac surgery. PMID:25610695

Adesanya, T. M. Ayodele

2014-01-01

157

Palpation Simulator of Beating Aorta for Cardiovascular Surgery Training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In field of cardiovascular surgeries, palpation of aorta plays important roles in decision of surgical site.This paper develops palpation simulator of aorta based on a finite element based physical model.The proposed model calculates soft tissue deformation according to the affection of inner pressure and the operation of a surgeon.The proposed method is implemented on a prototype with dual PHANToM device.Experimental results confirmed our model achieves real time simulation of the surgical palpation.

Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Nakao, Megumi; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Oyama, Hiroshi; Komori, Masaru; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Sakaguchi, Genichi; Komeda, Masashi; Takahashi, Takashi

158

Reactivity of Aorta and Portal Vein in Germfree Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responsiveness of conventional and germfree rat aortas and portal veins to vasoactive agents were compared in vitro. The results indicate: (1) aortas and portal veins from germfree rats exhibit an attenuated reactivity to angiotensin, vasopressin and epinephrine but not to KC1; (2) the dose-response curves for epi-nephrine and the peptides were shifted to the right concomitant with a decrease

Bella T. Altura; Burton M. Altura; Silvio Baez

1975-01-01

159

How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

Haycock, Christine E.

1986-01-01

160

Single vessel abdominal arterial disease.  

PubMed

The long-standing discussion concerning the mere existence of single vessel abdominal artery disease can be closed: chronic gastrointestinal ischaemia (CGI) due to single vessel abdominal artery stenosis exists, can be treated successfully and in a safe manner. The most common causes of single vessel CGI are the coeliac artery compression syndrome (CACS) in younger patients, and atherosclerotic disease in elderly patients. The clinical symptoms of single vessel CGI patients are postprandial and exercise-related pain, weight loss, and an abdominal bruit. The current diagnostic approach in patients suspected of single vessel CGI is gastrointestinal tonometry combined with radiological visualisation of the abdominal arteries to define possible arterial stenosis. Especially in single vessel abdominal artery stenosis, gastrointestinal tonometry plays a pivotal role in establishing the diagnosis CGI. First-choice treatment of single vessel CGI remains surgical revascularisation, especially in CACS. In elderly or selected patients endovascular stent placement therapy is an acceptable option. PMID:19258186

van Noord, Désirée; Kuipers, Ernst J; Mensink, Peter B F

2009-01-01

161

The Morphometrics of “Masculinity” in Human Faces  

PubMed Central

In studies of social inference and human mate preference, a wide but inconsistent array of tools for computing facial masculinity has been devised. Several of these approaches implicitly assumed that the individual expression of sexually dimorphic shape features, which we refer to as maleness, resembles facial shape features perceived as masculine. We outline a morphometric strategy for estimating separately the face shape patterns that underlie perceived masculinity and maleness, and for computing individual scores for these shape patterns. We further show how faces with different degrees of masculinity or maleness can be constructed in a geometric morphometric framework. In an application of these methods to a set of human facial photographs, we found that shape features typically perceived as masculine are wide faces with a wide inter-orbital distance, a wide nose, thin lips, and a large and massive lower face. The individual expressions of this combination of shape features—the masculinity shape scores—were the best predictor of rated masculinity among the compared methods (r = 0.5). The shape features perceived as masculine only partly resembled the average face shape difference between males and females (sexual dimorphism). Discriminant functions and Procrustes distances to the female mean shape were poor predictors of perceived masculinity. PMID:25671667

Mitteroecker, Philipp; Windhager, Sonja; Müller, Gerd B.; Schaefer, Katrin

2015-01-01

162

The morphometrics of "masculinity" in human faces.  

PubMed

In studies of social inference and human mate preference, a wide but inconsistent array of tools for computing facial masculinity has been devised. Several of these approaches implicitly assumed that the individual expression of sexually dimorphic shape features, which we refer to as maleness, resembles facial shape features perceived as masculine. We outline a morphometric strategy for estimating separately the face shape patterns that underlie perceived masculinity and maleness, and for computing individual scores for these shape patterns. We further show how faces with different degrees of masculinity or maleness can be constructed in a geometric morphometric framework. In an application of these methods to a set of human facial photographs, we found that shape features typically perceived as masculine are wide faces with a wide inter-orbital distance, a wide nose, thin lips, and a large and massive lower face. The individual expressions of this combination of shape features-the masculinity shape scores-were the best predictor of rated masculinity among the compared methods (r = 0.5). The shape features perceived as masculine only partly resembled the average face shape difference between males and females (sexual dimorphism). Discriminant functions and Procrustes distances to the female mean shape were poor predictors of perceived masculinity. PMID:25671667

Mitteroecker, Philipp; Windhager, Sonja; Müller, Gerd B; Schaefer, Katrin

2015-01-01

163

Human macrophage development: a morphometric study.  

PubMed Central

The development of macrophages from the blood monocytes of ten normal subjects has been studied at intervals over a six day period. Suspension cultures were used to obtain randomly orientated cells and morphometric measurements were made on electron micrographs. In order to meet the requirements for normality of distribution and homoscedasticity, data were logarithmically transformed. A two-way analysis of variance was then carried out, taking subjects and time intervals as fixed effects, and using a least significant difference procedure to detect variations between culture time intervals. The whole cell and cytoplasmic volumes showed 3-4 fold increases during culture. The cell surface area more than doubled; this was partly attributable to the larger cell volume and partly to increased surface irregularity. The mitochondrial volume also showed a similar significant increase, attributable to an increase in both number and size of mitochondrial profiles, the cytoplasmic volume fraction remaining approximately constant. Although there was a statistically significant increase in nuclear surface area, the nuclear changes were relatively small. The results and the application of appropriate statistical methods have thus provided basic morphometric data for human macrophage development in culture. The experimental system should permit further investigation of factors governing impaired macrophage development in malignant disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3654357

Sokol, R J; Hudson, G; James, N T; Frost, I J; Wales, J

1987-01-01

164

Abdominal Mondor's disease presenting as acute abdominal pain.  

PubMed

We describe here the case of 41 yrs old male patient, who was admitted to the emergency department complaining for abdominal pain lasting for two days. The patient self-reported a history of idiopathic deep vein thrombosis five yrs before the visit. A subcutaneous cordlike induration, tender and painful, was clearly palpable in the left lower abdominal quadrant. Routine blood tests did not reveal any substantial abnormality, except increased D-dimer concentration. Ultrasound evaluation of the abdominal wall revealed diffuse thrombosis of the left superficial inferior epigastric vein, involving several small tributaries branches, extended until 1.5 cm from the confluence with the common femoral vein, which was finally classified as an atypical case of Abdominal Mondor's disease. Complete thrombophilia screening was negative. The patient was discharged with warfarin therapy 48 hours from admission. At 30 days follow-up, the patient self-reported a nearly complete recovery. PMID:24165464

Cervellin, Gianfranco; Creta, Michele; Riva, Michele; Di Comite, Vincenzo; Buttarelli, Lorenzo; Lippi, Giuseppe

2013-08-01

165

Towards a biomimetism of abdominal healthy and aneurysmal arterial tissues.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to develop a new hyperelastic and anisotropic material mimicking histological and mechanical features of healthy and aneurysmal arterial tissues. The material is constituted by rhombic periodic lattices of hyperelastic fibres embedded into a soft elastomer membrane. To fit bi-axial experimental data obtained from the literature, with normal or pathologic human abdominal aortic tissues, the microstructure of the periodic lattices (fibre length, angle between fibres) together with the mechanical behaviour of the fibres (fibre tension-elongation curve) were optimised by using theoretical results arising from a multi-scale homogenisation process. It is shown that (i) a material constituted by only one periodic lattice of fibres is clearly not sufficient to describe all the experimental data set, (ii) a quantitative agreement between measurements and theoretical predictions is obtained by using a material with two fibre lattices, (iii) the optimised microstructures and mechanical properties of the fibrous lattices are strongly different for the abdominal healthy and aneurysmal arterial tissues, (iv) the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of the optimised material is described by only five parameters and (v) the optimal angles between fibres in the case of the healthy aorta are consistent with histological data. Several technical solutions of fibres can be considered as relevant candidates: this is illustrated in the particular cases of straight and wavy fibres. PMID:22520427

Bailly, L; Geindreau, C; Orgéas, L; Deplano, V

2012-06-01

166

In vivo strain assessment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

The only criteria currently used to inform surgical decision for abdominal aortic aneurysms are maximum diameter (>5.5 cm) and rate of growth, even though several studies have identified the need for more specific indicators of risk. Patient-specific biomechanical variables likely to affect rupture risk would be a valuable addition to the science of understanding rupture risk and prove to be a life saving benefit for patients. Local deformability of the aorta is related to the local mechanical properties of the wall and may provide indication on the state of weakening of the wall tissue. We propose a 3D image-based approach to compute aortic wall strain maps in vivo. The method is applicable to a variety of imaging modalities that provide sequential images at different phases in the cardiac cycle. We applied the method to a series of abdominal aneurysms imaged using cine-MRI obtaining strain maps at different phases in the cardiac cycle. These maps could be used to evaluate the distensibility of an aneurysm at baseline and at different follow-up times and provide an additional index to clinicians to facilitate decisions on the best course of action for a specific patient. PMID:25497379

Satriano, Alessandro; Rivolo, Simone; Martufi, Giampaolo; Finol, Ender A; Di Martino, Elena S

2015-01-21

167

Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia.  

PubMed

External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

2014-11-01

168

Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia  

PubMed Central

External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

Yang, Xue-Fei

2014-01-01

169

Abdominal aortic feminism.  

PubMed

A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. PMID:25398912

Mortimer, Alice Emily

2014-01-01

170

Aneurysms: abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) cause approximately 16,000 deaths per year in the United States. Smoking, male sex, advanced age, hypertension, and family history are risk factors. AAAs suspected on physical examination should be evaluated with ultrasonography. In addition, ultrasonography screening for AAA is recommend for men ages 65 to 75 years with smoking histories. For men ages 65 to 75 years who have never smoked, screening should be performed selectively, such as for those with family histories of AAA. Screening women currently is not recommended, regardless of smoking status. Surgical repair is indicated for men with AAA diameters of 5.5 cm or greater. The common practice for women is to repair AAAs with diameters of 5.0 cm or greater. For patients with smaller AAAs, cardiac risk factor management is recommended along with interval ultrasonography monitoring. Surgery is indicated if monitoring shows that an AAA is enlarging (by 1 cm or more per year) or reaches the noted limits. Repair of AAA (ruptured or unruptured) is accomplished with open surgery or endovascular procedures (eg, transcatheter placement of a stent graft). Endovascular procedures are now used more frequently than open surgery and have similar outcomes. PMID:25860135

Chun, Kevin C; Lee, Eugene S

2015-04-01

171

Fault-bounded mountains and morphometric properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise is based on the information presented in following article: Bull, W.B., 1984, Tectonic Geomorphology: Journal of Geological Education 32, pp.310-324. To prepare for the classroom exercise, the instructor briefly presents the concept that measurable landform properties can reflect the intensity of tectonic activity. We discuss that certain landforms and settings are particularly useful in these types of analyses, for example, fault-bounded mountains and piedmonts. The class goes through a quick review of dip-slip faults, fault scarps, and triangular facets, and the Tobin Range is introduced as a typical example of a fault-bounded mountain range. We then ask the question, what are the useful characteristics of these settings in terms of inferring tectonic activity? To address the question, students work in groups of 2 or 3. Each group is given a set of topographic maps chosen from the following (the region can also be printed from CDs of digital, seamless topo.s, but the quad. names are provided for reference): 7.5 minute quad.s: Home Station Ranch , Jersey Summit , Kennedy Canyon, Mount Tobin , Needle Peak 15-minute quad.s: Mt. Tobin, Buffalo Springs, Cain Mountain On each map set, two lengths along the fault scarps are marked. One is marked in red and one in purple. Each student group has a map set of a slightly different region, but all map sets have a red fault scarp and a purple fault scarp marked. The red fault scarps in all of the sets are those that have experienced more recent displacement. Each group is asked to do the following: 1. List physical characteristics of each of the two fault-bounded mountains/piedmonts that are marked on your quad.s with different colors. 2. Decide among yourselves which fault-bounded mountains/piedmont has experienced more recent displacement. 3. Suggest morphometric properties that could be used to differentiate between the more recent and less recent displacement, and explain why each of your properties makes sense. Morphometric properties must be measurable from the topographic maps. After about 10 minutes, the class reconvenes and we go through the first two questions as a class. Then, each group presents at least one morphometric property and explains their reasoning. Once we have a list of properties that the class agrees on, the instructor presents and the class discusses the properties that Bull (1984) used in his research of the Tobin Range region, such as sinuosity, the ratio between the valley floor width and the total valley height, the development of triangular facets. Designed for a geomorphology course Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills

Sue Swanson

172

Abdominal emergencies in the geriatric patient  

PubMed Central

Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons that elderly people visit the emergency department (ED). In this article, we review the deadliest causes of abdominal pain in this population, including mesenteric ischemia, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and appendicitis and potentially lethal non-abdominal causes. We also highlight the pitfalls in diagnosing, or rather misdiagnosing, these clinical entities. PMID:25635203

2014-01-01

173

Mesoesophagus and other fascial structures of the abdominal and lower thoracic esophagus: a histological study using human embryos and fetuses  

PubMed Central

A term "mesoesophagus" has been often used by surgeons, but the morphology was not described well. To better understand the structures attaching the human abdominal and lower thoracic esophagus to the body wall, we examined serial or semiserial sections from 10 embryos and 9 fetuses. The esophagus was initially embedded in a large posterior mesenchymal tissue, which included the vertebral column and aorta. Below the tracheal bifurcation at the fifth week, the esophagus formed a mesentery-like structure, which we call the "mesoesophagus," that was sculpted by the enlarging lungs and pleural cavity. The pneumatoenteric recess of the pleuroperitoneal canal was observed in the lowest part of the mesoesophagus. At the seventh week, the mesoesophagus was divided into the upper long and lower short parts by the diaphragm. Near the esophageal hiatus, the pleural cavity provided 1 or 2 recesses in the upper side, while the fetal adrenal gland in the left side was attached to the lower side of the mesoesophagus. At the 10th and 18th week, the mesoesophagus remained along the lower thoracic esophagus, but the abdominal esophagus attached to the diaphragm instead of to the left adrenal. The mesoesophagus did not contain any blood vessels from the aorta and to the azygos vein. The posterior attachment of the abdominal esophagus seemed to develop to the major part of the phrenoesophageal membrane with modification from the increased mass of the left fetal adrenal. After postnatal degeneration of the fetal adrenal, the abdominal esophagus might again obtain a mesentery. Consequently, the mesoesophagus seemed to correspond to a small area containing the pulmonary ligament and aorta in adults. PMID:25548720

Hwang, Si Eun; Bae, Sang In; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

2014-01-01

174

Mesoesophagus and other fascial structures of the abdominal and lower thoracic esophagus: a histological study using human embryos and fetuses.  

PubMed

A term "mesoesophagus" has been often used by surgeons, but the morphology was not described well. To better understand the structures attaching the human abdominal and lower thoracic esophagus to the body wall, we examined serial or semiserial sections from 10 embryos and 9 fetuses. The esophagus was initially embedded in a large posterior mesenchymal tissue, which included the vertebral column and aorta. Below the tracheal bifurcation at the fifth week, the esophagus formed a mesentery-like structure, which we call the "mesoesophagus," that was sculpted by the enlarging lungs and pleural cavity. The pneumatoenteric recess of the pleuroperitoneal canal was observed in the lowest part of the mesoesophagus. At the seventh week, the mesoesophagus was divided into the upper long and lower short parts by the diaphragm. Near the esophageal hiatus, the pleural cavity provided 1 or 2 recesses in the upper side, while the fetal adrenal gland in the left side was attached to the lower side of the mesoesophagus. At the 10th and 18th week, the mesoesophagus remained along the lower thoracic esophagus, but the abdominal esophagus attached to the diaphragm instead of to the left adrenal. The mesoesophagus did not contain any blood vessels from the aorta and to the azygos vein. The posterior attachment of the abdominal esophagus seemed to develop to the major part of the phrenoesophageal membrane with modification from the increased mass of the left fetal adrenal. After postnatal degeneration of the fetal adrenal, the abdominal esophagus might again obtain a mesentery. Consequently, the mesoesophagus seemed to correspond to a small area containing the pulmonary ligament and aorta in adults. PMID:25548720

Hwang, Si Eun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Bae, Sang In; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

2014-12-01

175

Invariant morphometric properties of headwater subcatchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distinction between the channel network, the headwater subcatchments, and the lateral subcatchments plays an important role in distributed hydrological and ecohydrological applications. This paper presents some newly found invariance properties of headwater and upstream subcatchments and shows that the invariant morphometric properties characterize only natural networks and virtual networks verifying optimal channel networks (OCN) properties but are not verified for virtual non-OCNs. A model based on self-affine properties was developed in order to calculate the number of headwater catchments N and the total upstream area of headwater catchments U as a function of the cutoff area A used to delineate streams. For 18 French catchments between 43 and 116,450 km2 and for 4 virtual OCNs, results show that U(A)/A0 (with A0 being the catchment area) is independent of A for 0.5 < A < 5 km2 and seems to be constant (0.29 ± 0.03) for various shapes and sizes of channel networks and, consequently, can be considered as an invariant general descriptor of natural channel and virtual OCN networks. On the contrary, this is not the case when the approach is applied on six virtual non-OCNs. Moreover, results show that the knowledge of six morphometric indices enable us to calculate both functions N(A) and U(A) for all values of A < A0. These indices can be considered as geometric and topological properties of headwater and upstream subcatchments and are useful for studying the effects of cutoffs on self-affine river networks or as similarity indices for channel network comparison.

Moussa, Roger; Colin, FrançOis; Rabotin, MichaëL.

2011-08-01

176

A Propensity Score-Matching Analysis of Transthoracic Echocardiography and Abdominal Ultrasonography for the Detection of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION We previously reported that the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) was higher in patients undergoing scheduled transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) than in patients undergoing abdominal ultrasonography (AUS); however, intergroup patient backgrounds differed significantly in that report. PURPOSE We tested the hypothesis that TTE could detect AAA as effectively as AUS. DESIGN A propensity score-matching analysis of a cross-sectional study was adopted as the design for this study. METHODS We enrolled 7,619 and 15,433 patients scheduled to undergo TTE with additional evaluation of abdominal aorta at the end of the routine study and AUS, respectively, from 2009 to 2010 in our hospital, as reported. A propensity score for profiles of patients who underwent TTE or AUS was developed to adjust for potential confounding bias. Consequently, 4,388 patients in each group were matched for analyses. RESULTS In propensity-matched patients, AAA was detected in 59 patients of the TTE group and in 48 patients of the AUS group; the prevalence of AAA detection did not differ significantly between TTE and AUS groups (P = 0.331). Positive associations were observed between AAA detection and male sex (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 3.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.05–5.15; P < 0.001), older age (adjusted OR: 1.029; 95% CI: 1.01–1.04; P < 0.001), and the presence of ischemic heart disease (adjusted OR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.04–3.03; P = 0.033) and hypertension (adjusted OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.38–3.37; P = 001). CONCLUSION TTE detected AAA with comparable efficacy as AUS in propensity-matched groups who underwent scheduled TTE and AUS.

Kato, Takao; Ishida, Seiko; Miyamoto, Shoichi; Iura, Tamae; Ban, Yoko; Fujikawa, Jun; Nakane, Eisaku; Izumi, Toshiaki; Haruna, Tetsuya; Ueyama, Koji; Nohara, Ryuji; Inoko, Moriaki

2015-01-01

177

MORPHOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN ENGLISH SOLE  

EPA Science Inventory

We present an application of the powerful thin plate spline method of morphometric analysis to demonstrate its utility for detecting environmental stress in an estuarine flatfish. Juvenile English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) were captured from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, photographed w...

178

An unusual cause of dysphagia: thoracic aorta aneurysm.  

PubMed

The vascular structure related compression of esophagus is rather rare. Aberrant right subclavicular artery accounts for the majority of the rare entity, while the thoracic aorta aneurysm is a more dangerous type, called as dysphagia aortica. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of the dysphagia aortica predisposes to rupture and death. Herein, we reported a female patient with thoracic aorta aneurysm. A quick diagnosis by using chest contrast computed tomography (CT) scan and angiography of heart was made, and followed by emergent surgery. In the process, there was no delay on the diagnosis and treatment. The patient is going on well in the follow up. PMID:24416520

Wang, Wu-Ping; Yan, Xiao-Long; Ni, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Tao; Han, Yong; Li, Xiao-Fei; Lu, Qiang

2013-12-01

179

A new anatomic variant of the aorta: a case report.  

PubMed

Anatomic anomalies of the infrarenal aorta and iliac arteries are rare. We report a 39-year-old man who presented with an ileo-cecal fistula secondary to Crohn disease. A computed tomography scan and subsequent arteriography noted his aorta bifurcated immediately inferior to the main renal arteries, at the level of the second lumbar vertebrae. Associated vascular anomalies included a common superior mesenteric artery/celiac axis plus multiple renal arteries. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this aortic anomaly in the literature. PMID:18589235

Hager, Eric; Isenberg, Gerald; Gonsalves, Carin; Moudgill, Neil; Dong, Steve; DiMuzio, Paul

2008-07-01

180

Coral reef aorta: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Coral reef aorta (CRA) is a rare form of atherosclerosis that affects the paravisceral and pararenal aorta and its branches. Patients typically present with arterial insufficiency of the bowels, kidneys and lower extremities. The current mainstay of treatment is operative, typically involving transaortic endarterectomy. Herein, we describe a 54-year-old woman with incapacitating lower extremity claudication secondary to a paravisceral coral reef atheroma treated successfully with transaortic endarterectomy via a left retroperitoneal approach. In addition, we present a complete review of modern English literature on CRA. PMID:23518854

Policha, Aleksandra; Moudgill, Neil; Eisenberg, Joshua; Rao, Atul; Dimuzio, Paul

2013-03-21

181

Statins Reduce Extensive Aortic Atheromas in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Objective: Statins have been used widely to reduce dyslipidemia and recently have been reported to have pleiotropic effects such as plaque reduction and stabilization. This study retrospectively evaluated the regression of extensive thoracic atheromas (“shaggy aorta”) in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) before and after statin administration. Materials and Methods: CECT was used to examine thoracic aortas of 29 patients (statin group; n = 22, non-statin group; n = 7) with extensive atheromas from the ostium of the left subclavian artery to that of the more proximal renal artery. Extensive thoracic atheroma was defined by: (1) thickness >5 mm, (2) involved circumference of thoracic aorta >50%, and (3) length >30 mm. The areas of atheroma (cm2) were measured before and after administration of statins, and the atheroma reduction ratio (ARR) was evaluated. Results: The area of atheroma decreased after administration of statins, and the ARR was significant (P <0.01). The ARR increased with all cases in non-statin group. No complications associated with extensive atheroma were observed during the follow-up period. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates statins can reduce extensive thoracic atheromas and lower lipid concentrations. PMID:24386020

2013-01-01

182

Experimental unsteady flow study in a patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The velocity field in a patient-specific abdominal aneurysm model including the aorto-iliac bifurcation was measured by 2D PIV. Phase-averaged velocities obtained in 14 planes reveal details of the flow evolution during a cycle. The aneurysm expanding asymmetrically toward the anterior side of the aorta causes the generation of a vortex at its entrance, covering the entire aneurysm bulge progressively before flow peak. The fluid entering the aneurysm impinges on the left side of its distal end, following the axis of the upstream aorta segment, causing an increased flow rate in the left (compared to the right) common iliac artery. High shear stresses appear at the aneurysm inlet and outlet as well as along the posterior wall, varying proportionally to the flow rate. At the same regions, elevated flow disturbances are observed, being intensified at flow peak and during the deceleration phase. Low shear stresses are present in the recirculation region, being two orders of magnitude smaller than the previous ones. At flow peak and during the deceleration phase, a clockwise swirling motion (viewed from the inlet) is present in the aneurysm due to the out of plane curvature of the aorta.

Stamatopoulos, Ch.; Mathioulakis, D. S.; Papaharilaou, Y.; Katsamouris, A.

2011-06-01

183

Noninvasive method to obtain input function for measuring tissue glucose utilization of thoracic and abdominal organs  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a method for the noninvasive estimation of regional tissue glucose utilization in humans that employs positron emission tomography (PET) and 2-(18F)fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG). Unlike other methods, the input function used in this method is obtained from the corrected time-activity curve of the descending aorta, not the left ventricle, because the descending aorta is relatively free of spillover from other organs and extends from the upper thorax to the lower abdomen. With this method the time-activity curve of the descending aorta must be corrected for the partial volume effect and the difference in counts between plasma and whole blood. Using the noninvasively obtained input function, regional tissue glucose utilization was calculated by Patlak graphic analysis. k1k3/(k2 + k3) was in good agreement with k1k3/(k2 + k3) calculated from the plasma input function by arterial sampling (r = 0.9995). These results suggest that the input function and regional tissue glucose utilization (not only of myocardium but also of other thoracic and abdominal organs) can be determined noninvasively.

Ohtake, T.; Kosaka, N.; Watanabe, T.; Yokoyama, I.; Moritan, T.; Masuo, M.; Iizuka, M.; Kozeni, K.; Momose, T.; Oku, S. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

1991-07-01

184

Morphometric analysis of three-dimensional networks of karst conduits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main idiosyncrasy of a typical karst system is the presence of a three-dimensional network of conduits behaving as drains in the system and being responsible of both the quick response of karst springs to rainfall events and the complex distribution of solutes in the system. A morphometric analysis of the three-dimensional geometry of conduits provides quantitative measures that can be used in a range of applications. These morphometric parameters can be used as descriptors of the underground geomorphology, they provide information on speleogenesis processes, they can be correlated with karst denudation ratios, they can be used to control the simulation of realistic stochastic karst networks of conduits, and they can be correlated with hydrogeologic behaviour of the karst system. The main purpose of this paper is to define, describe and illustrate a range of morphometric indexes and morphometric functions that can be calculated nowadays because the availability of three-dimensional topographies provided by speleological work and the availability of the computational and graphical power provided by modern computers. Some of the morphometric parameters describe the existence of preferential directions of karstification, others describe the kartification along the vertical and the possible presence of inception horizons. Other indexes describe the shape complexity of the karstic network, whilst other indexes describe spatial variability of the conduit geometry, and other parameters give account of the connectivity of the three-dimensional network. The morphometric analysis is illustrated with a three-dimensional karstic network in Southern France.

Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Durán-Valsero, Juan J.; Rodríguez-Galiano, Victor

2011-09-01

185

Replacement of the heavily calcified ascending aorta in aortic valve replacement.  

PubMed

A totally calcified ascending aorta prevents aortic crossclamping and aortotomy during aortic valve replacement, and replacement of the ascending aorta is a valid option in these cases. We describe a simple technique for calcified ascending aorta replacement using the Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator. This can be used in aortic endarterectomy for removal of the calcified plaque in the anastomotic part. PMID:24928643

Matsumoto, Kazuhisa; Hisashi, Yosuke; Imoto, Yutaka

2015-03-01

186

MicroRNA expression signature in human abdominal aortic aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilatation of the aorta affecting most frequently elderly men. Histologically AAAs are characterized by inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, and extracellular matrix degradation. The mechanisms of AAA formation, progression, and rupture are currently poorly understood. A previous mRNA expression study revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes between AAA and non-aneurysmal control aortas. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, could provide a mechanism for the differential expression of genes in AAA. Methods To determine differences in miRNA levels between AAA (n?=?5) and control (n?=?5) infrarenal aortic tissues, a microarray study was carried out. Results were adjusted using Benjamini-Hochberg correction (adjusted p?

2012-01-01

187

The Photoactivated Relaxation of Smooth Muscle of Rabbit Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

n B S T R n C T Smooth muscle of strips of rabbit aorta, placed in a state of ac- tive tonic contraction by addition of a stimulating drug, relaxes during exposure to light. The relaxation is reversible. The extent of relaxation produced by a standard exposure depends on the preexposure level of active contraction but not on the

R. F. Furchgott; S. J. EHRREICH; E. GREENBLATT

1961-01-01

188

Phosphoinositide metabolism and metabolism-contraction coupling in rabbit aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested a hypothesis that metabolism-contraction coupling in vascular smooth muscle is controlled by the rate of delivery of energy to ATP-dependent reactions in the inositol phospholipid transduction system that generate second messengers exerting control on smooth muscle force. Rabbit aorta was contracted by norepinephrine (NOR) under conditions of normoxia and hypoxia, and changes in inositol phospholipid pool sizes

R. F. Coburn; C. Baron; M. T. Papadopoulos

1988-01-01

189

Cerebral ischaemia after repair of coarctation of the aorta.  

PubMed

A 9-year-old boy, with a history of repair of severe coarctation of the aorta through balloon angioplasty 2 weeks ago, presented in the emergency paediatric department with symptoms consistent with transient cerebral ischaemia. MRI revealed an area of cerebral infarction in the right frontal lobe. Causes of cerebral ischaemia after aortic coarctation repair are briefly discussed. PMID:24909116

Gogou, Maria; Keivanidou, Anastasia; Giannopoulos, Andreas

2015-04-01

190

Vein of Galen arteriovenous malformation mimicking coarctation of the aorta.  

PubMed

Arteriovenous malformation of the vein of Galen is a rare congenital intracranial anomaly lacking a capillary bed and subsequent aneurysmal enlargement of the arterial and venous system, warranting careful management due to associated morbidity and mortality. Coarctations of aorta demonstrate similar neonatal echocardiographic signs to the vein of Galen arterial malformation (VGAM). We present a boy at 37 weeks of gestation whose initial ultrasound and echocardiographic investigations showed a dominant right ventricle and isthmal hypoplasia, suggestive of coarctation of aorta. Follow-up ultrasound and echocardiography revealed an arteriovenous malformation involving middle and posterior cerebral artery branches, eliminating coarctation of aorta. VGAM was confirmed by further ultrasound and angiographic investigation, which demonstrated a tangle of cerebral and choroidal arterial branches centrally feeding into an enlarged vein of Galen. The boy's hemodynamic and neurological statuses were confirmed to be stable despite increased venous pressure. Elective embolization at 7 months of age was complicated by a cerebrovascular accident, resulting in right hemiparesis despite no residual cardiac issues. This case demonstrates that rarely, arteriovenous malformations such as the vein of Galen malformations may be the primary cause of patients presenting with coarctation of aorta. The rarity of this condition and its guarded prognosis make our case of special interest to cardiologists and the perinatal care team. PMID:25368688

Firdouse, Mohammed; Agarwal, Arnav; Mondal, Tapas

2014-12-01

191

Contrast Ultrasound Imaging of the Aorta Alters Vascular Morphology and  

E-print Network

Contrast Ultrasound Imaging of the Aorta Alters Vascular Morphology and Circulating von Willebrand were collected and analyzed for lipids and von Willebrand fac- tor (vWF), a marker of endothelial that 2300 Americans die each day of cardiovascular disease by current estimates.2

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

192

Xanthorrhizol induces endothelium-independent relaxation of rat thoracic aorta.  

PubMed

Xanthorrhizol, a bisabolene isolated from the medicinal plant Iostephane heterophylla, was assayed on rat thoracic aorta rings to elucidate its effect and likely mechanism of action, by measuring changes of isometric tension. Xanthorrhizol (1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 microg/mL) significantly inhibited precontractions induced by KCI-; (60mM), noradrenaline (10(-6) M) or CaCl2 (1.0 mM). Increasing concentrations of external calcium antagonized the inhibitory effect on KCl-induced contractions. The vasorelaxing effect of xanthorrhizol was not affected by indomethacin (10 microM) or L-NAME (100 microM) in intact rat thoracic aorta rings precontracted by noradrenaline, which suggested that the effect was not mediated through either endothelium-derived prostacyclin (PGI2) or nitric oxide release from endothelial cells. Endothelium removal did not affect the relaxation induced by xanthorrhizol on rat thoracic aorta rings, discarding the participation of any substance released by the endothelium. Xanthorrhizol inhibitory effect was greater on KCI- and CaCl2-induced contractions than on those induced by noradrenaline. Xanthorrhizol inhibitory effect in rat thoracic aorta is likely explained for interference with calcium availability by inhibiting calcium influx through both voltage- and receptor-operated channels. PMID:10983876

Campos, M G; Oropeza, M V; Villanueva, T; Aguilar, M I; Delgado, G; Ponce, H A

2000-06-01

193

Surgical exclusion of postsurgical pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta  

PubMed Central

Pseudoaneurysm of ascending aorta after cardiac surgery is rare in children. We report a case of successful surgical exclusion of ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm in a 15-year-old boy. The neck of the aneurysm was in close proximity to the right coronary artery (RCA). PMID:24987261

Barik, Ramachandra; Patnaik, Amar Narayana; Kumar, Ravintula Venkata; Mohapatra, Rudra Prasad; Medep, Vikas; Nemani, Lalita

2014-01-01

194

Morphology of ventricular septal defect associated with coarctation of aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now well established that the morphology of the ventricular septal defect associated with interrupted aortic arch is such as to compromise blood flow to the ascending aorta. Though there is some evidence that a similar mechanism may be operative in coarctation with ventricular septal defect, we are unaware of any necropsy study of this hypothesis. We therefore studied

R H Anderson; C C Lenox; J R Zuberbuhler

1983-01-01

195

Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

1989-02-01

196

Lap Pak for Abdominal Retraction  

PubMed Central

Retraction of the bowels during abdominal surgery is generally facilitated by the use of a combination of various retractors along with surgical towels or sponges. The use of surgical towels and sponges may lead to retained foreign bodies or adhesions. In addition, these towels and sponges often require manipulation during long surgical procedures. The ideal way to avoid these problems in abdominal surgery is to develop a technique for retraction of the abdominal contents that eliminates the requirement for these foreign bodies. This article presents the results of a small trial for Lap Pak (Seguro Surgical, Columbia, MD), a disposable radio-opaque device that is made of silicone and retracts the bowels in a cephalad orientation without the need for towels or sponges. PMID:23526186

Sivarajan, Ganesh; Chang, Sam S; Fergany, Amr; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Steinberg, Gary D; Lepor, Herbert

2012-01-01

197

Abdominal Bloating: Pathophysiology and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

Seo, A Young; Oh, Dong Hyun

2013-01-01

198

Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report  

PubMed Central

A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

1998-01-01

199

Fused Traditional and Geometric Morphometrics Demonstrate Pinniped Whisker Diversity  

PubMed Central

Vibrissae (whiskers) are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system, and primarily function as detectors of vibrotactile information from the environment. Pinnipeds possess the largest vibrissae among mammals and their vibrissal hair shafts demonstrate a diversity of shapes. The vibrissae of most phocid seals exhibit a beaded morphology with repeating sequences of crests and troughs along their length. However, there are few detailed analyses of pinniped vibrissal morphology, and these are limited to a few species. Therefore, we comparatively characterized differences in vibrissal hair shaft morphologies among phocid species with a beaded profile, phocid species with a smooth profile, and otariids with a smooth profile using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Traditional morphometric measurements (peak-to-peak distance, crest width, trough width and total length) were collected using digital photographs. Elliptic Fourier analysis (geometric morphometrics) was used to quantify the outlines of whole vibrissae. The traditional and geometric morphometric datasets were subsequently combined by mathematically scaling each to true rank, followed by a single eigendecomposition. Quadratic discriminant function analysis demonstrated that 79.3, 97.8 and 100% of individuals could be correctly classified to their species based on vibrissal shape variables in the traditional, geometric and combined morphometric analyses, respectively. Phocids with beaded vibrissae, phocids with smooth vibrissae, and otariids each occupied distinct morphospace in the geometric morphometric and combined data analyses. Otariids split into two groups in the geometric morphometric analysis and gray seals appeared intermediate between beaded- and smooth-whiskered species in the traditional and combined analyses. Vibrissal hair shafts modulate the transduction of environmental stimuli to the mechanoreceptors in the follicle-sinus complex (F-SC), which results in vibrotactile reception, but it is currently unclear how the diversity of shapes affects environmental signal modulation. PMID:22509310

Ginter, Carly C.; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Fish, Frank E.; Marshall, Christopher D.

2012-01-01

200

Fused traditional and geometric morphometrics demonstrate pinniped whisker diversity.  

PubMed

Vibrissae (whiskers) are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system, and primarily function as detectors of vibrotactile information from the environment. Pinnipeds possess the largest vibrissae among mammals and their vibrissal hair shafts demonstrate a diversity of shapes. The vibrissae of most phocid seals exhibit a beaded morphology with repeating sequences of crests and troughs along their length. However, there are few detailed analyses of pinniped vibrissal morphology, and these are limited to a few species. Therefore, we comparatively characterized differences in vibrissal hair shaft morphologies among phocid species with a beaded profile, phocid species with a smooth profile, and otariids with a smooth profile using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Traditional morphometric measurements (peak-to-peak distance, crest width, trough width and total length) were collected using digital photographs. Elliptic Fourier analysis (geometric morphometrics) was used to quantify the outlines of whole vibrissae. The traditional and geometric morphometric datasets were subsequently combined by mathematically scaling each to true rank, followed by a single eigendecomposition. Quadratic discriminant function analysis demonstrated that 79.3, 97.8 and 100% of individuals could be correctly classified to their species based on vibrissal shape variables in the traditional, geometric and combined morphometric analyses, respectively. Phocids with beaded vibrissae, phocids with smooth vibrissae, and otariids each occupied distinct morphospace in the geometric morphometric and combined data analyses. Otariids split into two groups in the geometric morphometric analysis and gray seals appeared intermediate between beaded- and smooth-whiskered species in the traditional and combined analyses. Vibrissal hair shafts modulate the transduction of environmental stimuli to the mechanoreceptors in the follicle-sinus complex (F-SC), which results in vibrotactile reception, but it is currently unclear how the diversity of shapes affects environmental signal modulation. PMID:22509310

Ginter, Carly C; DeWitt, Thomas J; Fish, Frank E; Marshall, Christopher D

2012-01-01

201

Exploring Eucladoceros ecomorphology using geometric morphometrics.  

PubMed

An increasingly common method for reconstructing paleoenvironmental parameters of hominin sites is ecological functional morphology (ecomorphology). This study provides a geometric morphometric study of cervid rearlimb morphology as it relates to phylogeny, size, and ecomorphology. These methods are then applied to an extinct Pleistocene cervid, Eucladoceros, which is found in some of the earliest hominin-occupied sites in Eurasia. Variation in cervid postcranial functional morphology associated with different habitats can be summarized as trade-offs between joint stability versus mobility and rapid movement versus power-generation. Cervids in open habitats emphasize limb stability to avoid joint dislocation during rapid flight from predators. Closed-adapted cervids require more joint mobility to rapidly switch directions in complex habitats. Two skeletal features (of the tibia and calcaneus) have significant phylogenetic signals, while two (the femur and third phalanx) do not. Additionally, morphology of two of these features (tibia and third phalanx) were correlated with body size. For the tibial analysis (but not the third phalanx) this correlation was ameliorated when phylogeny was taken into account. Eucladoceros specimens from France and Romania fall on the more open side of the habitat continuum, a result that is at odds with reconstructions of their diet as browsers, suggesting that they may have had a behavioral regime unlike any extant cervid. PMID:25338504

Curran, Sabrina C

2015-01-01

202

Lipomatosis of the pancreas. A morphometrical investigation.  

PubMed

The study was performed in 50 human autoptic pancreata. After postmortem ductography and formalin fixation the organs were cut in slices of 8 mm thickness. After paraffinembedding histological sections were made from these slices. In photographical magnification (20 X) of these sections the amount of adipose tissue and pancreatic parenchyma were measured by morphometric means. The length of the pancreatic duct was determined in the radiographs. The data were evaluated by statistical methods. The share of the adipose tissue and the total weight of the pancreata are positively correlated depending on age and body weight. In contrast the weight of the pancreatic parenchyma shows no correlation to age, body length and weight. The amount of lipomatosis is the same in the various parts of the dorsal pancreatic anlage. On the other hand, the amount is clearly diminished in the ventral anlage. In the lipomatous pancreata the main duct is longer than in the normal. The lipomatosis of the pancreas is not correlated with a loss of parenchyma, which means, that there is not a true lipomatous atrophy. Even if the parenchyma in the lipomatous pancreata is replaced by fat tissue, which includes the undestroyed pancreatic islets, the parenchymal weight of the pancreas remains unchanged. This and the lengthening of the pancreatic duct in lipomatous organs allow the conclusion that the loss of parenchyma may be compensated by new parenchymal growth. PMID:7335549

Schmitz-Moormann, P; Pittner, P M; Heinze, W

1981-12-01

203

CORRELATED MORPHOMETRIC AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE LIVER CELL: I. Morphometric Model, Stereologic Methods, and Normal Morphometric Data for Rat Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic morphological properties of liver cells are defined in the form of a morphometric model to permit integrated quantitative characterization of functionally important param- eters . Stereologic methods which allow efficient and reliable quantitative evaluation of sectioned liver tissue are presented . Material, obtained by a rigorous three-stage sampling

EWALD R. WEIBEL; WILLY STAUBLI; HANS RUDOLF GNAGI; FELIX A. HESS

1969-01-01

204

Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease

Jean-Pierre Després; Isabelle Lemieux

2006-01-01

205

[Unusual cause of abdominal lymphomas].  

PubMed

A 72 year old HIV-negative patient without relevant immunosuppression presented with abdominal lymphomas and inflammatory signs in the colon. Mycobacterium intracellulare was grown from colonic biopsies and stool. There was no sign of malignancy or chronic inflammatory bowel disease. We diagnosed an atypical, gastrointestinal mycobacteriosis und treated the patient accordingly. This led to a good response. PMID:20945056

Halevy, D; Schöntag, S; Küper-Steffen, R; Lobmann, R

2011-06-01

206

Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

AAA - open - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open - discharge ... You had open aortic aneurysm surgery to repair an aneurysm (a widened part) in your aorta, the large artery that carries blood to your ...

207

Pharmacological Inhibitor of Notch Signaling Stabilizes the Progression of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Background The progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) involves a sustained influx of proinflammatory macrophages, which exacerbate tissue injury by releasing cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases. Previously, we showed that Notch deficiency reduces the development of AAA in the angiotensin II–induced mouse model by preventing infiltration of macrophages. Here, we examined whether Notch inhibition in this mouse model prevents progression of small AAA and whether these effects are associated with altered macrophage differentiation. Methods and Results Treatment with pharmacological Notch inhibitor (DAPT [N?(N?[3,5?difluorophenacetyl]?L?alanyl)?S?phenylglycine t?butyl ester]) at day 3 or 8 of angiotensin II infusion arrested the progression of AAA in Apoe?/? mice, as demonstrated by a decreased luminal diameter and aortic width. The abdominal aortas of Apoe?/? mice treated with DAPT showed decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases and presence of elastin precursors including tropoelastin and hyaluronic acid. Marginal adventitial thickening observed in the aorta of DAPT?treated Apoe?/? mice was not associated with increased macrophage content, as observed in the mice treated with angiotensin II alone. Instead, DAPT?treated abdominal aortas showed increased expression of Cd206?positive M2 macrophages and decreased expression of Il12?positive M1 macrophages. Notch1 deficiency promoted M2 differentiation of macrophages by upregulating transforming growth factor ?2 in bone marrow–derived macrophages at basal levels and in response to IL4. Protein expression of transforming growth factor ?2 and its downstream effector pSmad2 also increased in DAPT?treated Apoe?/? mice, indicating a potential link between Notch and transforming growth factor ?2 signaling in the M2 differentiation of macrophages. Conclusions Pharmacological inhibitor of Notch signaling prevents the progression of AAA by macrophage differentiation–dependent mechanisms. The study also provides insights for novel therapeutic strategies to prevent the progression of small AAA. PMID:25349182

Cheng, Jeeyun; Koenig, Sara N.; Kuivaniemi, Helena S.; Garg, Vidu; Hans, Chetan P.

2014-01-01

208

Automatic segmentation and co-registration of gated CT angiography datasets: measuring abdominal aortic pulsatility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: To develop robust, novel segmentation and co-registration software to analyze temporally overlapping CT angiography datasets, with an aim to permit automated measurement of regional aortic pulsatility in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Methods: We perform retrospective gated CT angiography in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Multiple, temporally overlapping, time-resolved CT angiography datasets are reconstructed over the cardiac cycle, with aortic segmentation performed using a priori anatomic assumptions for the aorta and heart. Visual quality assessment is performed following automatic segmentation with manual editing. Following subsequent centerline generation, centerlines are cross-registered across phases, with internal validation of co-registration performed by examining registration at the regions of greatest diameter change (i.e. when the second derivative is maximal). Results: We have performed gated CT angiography in 60 patients. Automatic seed placement is successful in 79% of datasets, requiring either no editing (70%) or minimal editing (less than 1 minute; 12%). Causes of error include segmentation into adjacent, high-attenuating, nonvascular tissues; small segmentation errors associated with calcified plaque; and segmentation of non-renal, small paralumbar arteries. Internal validation of cross-registration demonstrates appropriate registration in our patient population. In general, we observed that aortic pulsatility can vary along the course of the abdominal aorta. Pulsation can also vary within an aneurysm as well as between aneurysms, but the clinical significance of these findings remain unknown. Conclusions: Visualization of large vessel pulsatility is possible using ECG-gated CT angiography, partial scan reconstruction, automatic segmentation, centerline generation, and coregistration of temporally resolved datasets.

Wentz, Robert; Manduca, Armando; Fletcher, J. G.; Siddiki, Hassan; Shields, Raymond C.; Vrtiska, Terri; Spencer, Garrett; Primak, Andrew N.; Zhang, Jie; Nielson, Theresa; McCollough, Cynthia; Yu, Lifeng

2007-03-01

209

Vaginal mesh erosion after abdominal sacral colpopexy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our goal was to compare the prevalence of vaginal mesh erosion between abdominal sacral colpopexy and various sacral colpoperineopexy procedures. Study Design: We undertook a retrospective analysis of all sacral colpopexies and colpoperineopexies performed between March 1, 1992, and February 28, 1999. The patients were divided into the following 4 groups: abdominal sacral colpopexy, abdominal sacral colpoperineopexy, and 2

Anthony G. Visco; Alison C. Weidner; Matthew D. Barber; Evan R. Myers; Geoffrey W. Cundiff; Richard C. Bump; W. Allen Addison

2001-01-01

210

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in the Open Abdomen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Multiple methods exist to manage in the intensive care unit the patient with an open abdomen. An increasingly common method is the vacuum packed technique. This method accommodates considerable ex- pansion of intra-abdominal contents and should obvi- ate the potential development of the abdominal com- partment syndrome (ACS). Despite this, some patients with these temporary abdominal dressings will go

Vicente H. Gracias; Benjamin Braslow; Jon Johnson; John Pryor; Rajan Gupta; Patrick Reilly; C. William Schwab

2002-01-01

211

[The early abdominal pregnancy--case report].  

PubMed

The abdominal ectopic pregnancies are 1-1.4% of all ectopic pregnancies. In this article we presents the case of 27-year-old patient in early abdominal pregnancy, situated in parietal peritoneum. This case justifies the need to take into account possibility of abdominal pregnancy in case of suspicion of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:25344980

Posadzka, Ewa; Jach, Robert; Pity?ski, Kazimierz; Matyszkiewicz, Anna

2014-01-01

212

Morphometric Analysis of Auxin-Mediated Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auxin controls many aspects of plant development through its effects on growth. Its distribution is controlled by specific tissue and organ level polar transport streams. The responses to environmental cues such as gravity light, nutrient availability are largely controlled by coordinated regulation of distinct auxin transport streams. Many plant responses to the environment involve changes in shape. Much can be learned about the underlying processes controlling plant form if the response is measured with sufficient resolution. Computer-aided analysis of digital images or 'machine vision' can be used to greatly increase the speed and consistency of data from a morphometric study of plant form. Advances in image acquisition and analysis pioneered at UW-Madison have allowed unprecedented resolution of the growth and gravitropism of Arabidopsis. A reverse genetic analysis was used to determine if the MDR-like ABC transporters influence auxin distribution important for plant development and the response to environmental cues in Arabidopsis. Mutations in MDR1 (At3g28860) reduce acropetal auxin transport in the root. This is correlated with deviation from the vertical axis. Mutations in MDR4 (At2g47000) reduce basipetal auxin transport in the root. This is correlated with hypergravitropism. It was theorized that reduced transport whithin the elongation zone is responsible for the increased curvature. Flavanols were found to regulate gravitropism upstream of MDR4. The mdr1 mdr4 double mutant showed additive but not synergistic phenotypes, suggesting that the two auxin transport streams are more independent than interdependent. MDR proteins seem to enhance auxin transport in situations where PIN-type effux alone is insufficient.

Lewis, Daniel

213

Geometric morphometrics of hominoid infraspinous fossa shape.  

PubMed

Recent discoveries of early hominin scapulae from Ethiopia (Dikika, Woranso-Mille) and South Africa (Malapa) have motivated new examinations of the relationship between scapular morphology and locomotor function. In particular, infraspinous fossa shape has been shown to significantly differ among hominoids. However, this region presents relatively few homologous landmarks, such that traditional distance and angle-based methods may oversimplify this three-dimensional structure. To more thoroughly assess infraspinous fossa shape variation as it relates to function among adult hominoid representatives, we considered two geometric morphometric (GM) approaches--one employing five homologous landmarks ("wireframe") and another with 83 sliding semilandmarks along the border of the infraspinous fossa. We identified several differences in infraspinous fossa shape with traditional approaches, particularly in superoinferior fossa breadth and scapular spine orientation. The wireframe analysis reliably captured the range of shape variation in the sample, which reflects the relatively straightforward geometry of the infraspinous fossa. Building on the traditional approach, the GM results highlighted how the orientation of the medial portion of the infraspinous fossa differed relative to both the axillary border and spine. These features distinguished Pan from Gorilla in a way that traditional analyses had not been able to discern. Relative to the wireframe method, the semilandmark approach further distinguished Pongo from Homo, highlighting aspects of infraspinous fossa morphology that may be associated with climbing behaviors in hominoid taxa. These results highlight the ways that GM methods can enhance our ability to evaluate complex aspects of shape for refining and testing hypotheses about functional morphology. PMID:25339150

Green, David J; Serrins, Jesse D; Seitelman, Brielle; Martiny, Amy R; Gunz, Philipp

2015-01-01

214

Common FXIII and Fibrinogen Polymorphisms in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Introduction Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are characterized by a progressive dilatation of the abdominal aorta, and are associated with a high risk of rupture once the dilatation exceeds 55 mm in diameter. A large proportion of AAA develops an intraluminal thrombus, which contributes to hypoxia, inflammation and tissue degradation. We have previously shown that patients with AAA produce clots with altered structure which is more resistant to fibrinolysis. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic polymorphisms of FXIII and fibrinogen in AAA to identify how changes to these proteins may play a role in the development of AAA. Methods Subjects of Western/European descent, ?55 years of age (520 AAA patients and 449 controls) were genotyped for five polymorphisms (FXIII-A Val34Leu, FXIII-B His95Arg, FXIII-B Splice Variant (intron K nt29576C-G), Fib-A Thr312Ala and Fib-B Arg448Lys) by RT-PCR. Data were analysed by ?2 test and CubeX. Results The FXIII-B Arg95 allele associated with AAA (Relative risk - 1.240, CI 1.093–1.407, P?=?0.006). There was no association between FXIII-A Val34Leu, FXIII-B Splice Variant, Fib-A Thr312Ala or Fib-B Arg448Lys and AAA. FXIII-B His95Arg and FXIII-B Splice variant (intron K nt29576C-G) were in negative linkage disequilibrium (D’?=??0.609, p?=?0.011). Discussion The FXIII-B Arg95 variant is associated with an increased risk of AAA. These data suggest a possible role for FXIII in AAA pathogenesis. PMID:25384012

Macrae, Fraser L.; Lee Evans, Hannah; Bridge, Katherine I.; Johnson, Anne; Scott, D. Julian A.; Ariëns, Robert A. S.

2014-01-01

215

Dietary ecology of Murinae (Muridae, Rodentia): a geometric morphometric approach.  

PubMed

Murine rodents represent a highly diverse group, which displays great ecological versatility. In the present paper we analyse the relationship between dental morphology, on one hand, using geometric morphometrics based upon the outline of first upper molar and the dietary preference of extant murine genera, on the other. This ecomorphological study of extant murine rodents demonstrates that dietary groups can be distinguished with the use of a quantitative geometric morphometric approach based on first upper molar outline. A discriminant analysis of the geometric morphometric variables of the first upper molars enables us to infer the dietary preferences of extinct murine genera from the Iberian Peninsula. Most of the extinct genera were omnivore; only Stephanomys showed a pattern of dental morphology alike that of the herbivore genera. PMID:24236090

Gómez Cano, Ana Rosa; Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Alvarez-Sierra, M Ángeles

2013-01-01

216

Dietary Ecology of Murinae (Muridae, Rodentia): A Geometric Morphometric Approach  

PubMed Central

Murine rodents represent a highly diverse group, which displays great ecological versatility. In the present paper we analyse the relationship between dental morphology, on one hand, using geometric morphometrics based upon the outline of first upper molar and the dietary preference of extant murine genera, on the other. This ecomorphological study of extant murine rodents demonstrates that dietary groups can be distinguished with the use of a quantitative geometric morphometric approach based on first upper molar outline. A discriminant analysis of the geometric morphometric variables of the first upper molars enables us to infer the dietary preferences of extinct murine genera from the Iberian Peninsula. Most of the extinct genera were omnivore; only Stephanomys showed a pattern of dental morphology alike that of the herbivore genera. PMID:24236090

Gómez Cano, Ana Rosa; Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Álvarez-Sierra, M. Ángeles

2013-01-01

217

A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF SILVER HAKE SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT>FISHERIES Na368  

E-print Network

368 A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF SILVER HAKE SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT>FISHERIES Na368 UNITED STATES. McKernan, Director A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF SILVER HAKE by John T. Conover, Raymond L. Fritz Conclusions · 13 Literature cited 13 111 #12;#12;A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF SILVER HAKE by John T. Conover

218

Vasorelaxing activity of resveratrol and quercetin in isolated rat aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Both resveratrol and quercetin dose-dependently inhibited the contractile response to noradrenaline (NA) in isolated endothelium-intact rat aorta. This inhibitory effect on vascular contraction was blocked by pretreatment of the blood vessel with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, L-NNA (1 ?M).2.2. Quereetin at a concentration >1 × 10?5M, and resveratrol at >3 × 10?5M, caused relaxation of the phenylephrine

Cora Ke Chen; Cecil R. Pace-Asciak

1996-01-01

219

Aberrant right vertebral artery from descending thoracic aorta.  

PubMed

We present a case of an abnormal origin of right subclavian artery and right vertebral artery distal to the origin of left subclavian artery in a 2-year-old patient who presented with cyanotic congenital heart disease with single ventricle physiology. The anomalous origin of a right vertebral artery from the proximal descending thoracic aorta is very rare. We have described the cine-angiographic identification of its origin and course, its embryologic development, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23992705

Mukkannavar, Shivaprasad Babu; Kuthe, Sachin Anant; Mishra, Anand Kumar; Rohit, Manoj Kumar

2013-09-01

220

Morphometric Variation and Biogeography of Ogwa menzeli and Criconema sphagni  

PubMed Central

Morphometrics of Ogma menzeli from woodlands in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State and in Iowa were compared. Specimens from the Adirondacks were significantly greater in mean total body length, stylet length, the b, R, and RV values, body width, and esophagus length than specimens from Iowa. The V value was significantly greater in the Iowa than in the Adirondack specimens. The two populations are considered ecotypes of O. menzeli. Criconema sphagni morphometric measurements differed significantly for the RV value (negative) and V value (positive) relative to elevation in the Adirondacks. There was a positive regression correlation for the RV value of O. menzeli and elevation in the Adirondack Mountains. PMID:19283015

Norton, Don C.; Hinz, P. N.

1992-01-01

221

Morphometric Variation and Biogeography of Ogwa menzeli and Criconema sphagni.  

PubMed

Morphometrics of Ogma menzeli from woodlands in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State and in Iowa were compared. Specimens from the Adirondacks were significantly greater in mean total body length, stylet length, the b, R, and RV values, body width, and esophagus length than specimens from Iowa. The V value was significantly greater in the Iowa than in the Adirondack specimens. The two populations are considered ecotypes of O. menzeli. Criconema sphagni morphometric measurements differed significantly for the RV value (negative) and V value (positive) relative to elevation in the Adirondacks. There was a positive regression correlation for the RV value of O. menzeli and elevation in the Adirondack Mountains. PMID:19283015

Norton, D C; Hinz, P N

1992-09-01

222

Representative sample of rheumatoid synovium: a morphometric study.  

PubMed Central

The synovium from 11 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, who were undergoing joint surgery, was assessed using histological and morphometric techniques. Histological examination confirmed previous reports that the intensity of the cellular reaction varied throughout the synovium, and the morphometric method reflected this variability sensitively. The method was shown to be reproducible and allowed areas of similar cellular density to be defined. From these defined areas a total of 2.5 mm2 of synovium equivalent to 12 fields at x250 required analysis to reflect the variation in the cellular reaction. It would be feasible to collect this amount of material using an arthroscope. Images Fig 2 PMID:3170771

Kennedy, T D; Plater-Zyberk, C; Partridge, T A; Woodrow, D F; Maini, R N

1988-01-01

223

Geometric morphometrics and virtual anthropology: advances in human evolutionary studies.  

PubMed

Geometric morphometric methods have been increasingly used in paleoanthropology in the last two decades, lending greater power to the analysis and interpretation of the human fossil record. More recently the advent of the wide use of computed tomography and surface scanning, implemented in combination with geometric morphometrics (GM), characterizes a new approach, termed Virtual Anthropology (VA). These methodological advances have led to a number of developments in human evolutionary studies. We present some recent examples of GM and VA related research in human evolution with an emphasis on work conducted at the University of Tübingen and other German research institutions. PMID:24818438

Rein, Thomas R; Harvati, Katerina

2014-01-01

224

Endovascular Repair of Contained Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of stent-grafts for the treatment of acute rupture of the thoracic aorta. Methods: Four patients with acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta were treated by insertion of stent-grafts. The underlying aortic lesions were aneurysm, acute aortic ulcer, acute type B dissection and giant cell aortitis. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia in three patients and local anesthesia in one patient. Results: All stent-grafts were successfully deployed. All patients survived the procedure and are now alive and well at follow-up (mean 6.3 months, range 44 days-16 months). One patient underwent a second stent procedure 10 days after the first procedure because of a proximal endoleak. All hemothoraces have resolved. There were no complications. Conclusion:Treatment of acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta by the insertion of stent-grafts is feasible. The technical success rates,complication rates and patient survival compare favorably with emergency surgery.

Morgan, Robert [Department of Radiology, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Loosemore, Tom [Department of Vascular Surgery, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Belli, Anna-Maria [Department of Radiology, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom)

2002-08-15

225

[A case of abdominal wall actinomycosis].  

PubMed

Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infectious disease caused by actinomyces species that is characterized by formation of characteristic clumps called as sulfur granules. Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare disease and is often difficult to diagnose before operation. Abdominal actinomycosis infiltrating into the abdominal wall and adhering to the colon is even rarer. Most abdominal actinomycosis develops after operation, trauma or inflammatory bowel disease, and is also considered as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patient with underlying malignancy, diabetes mellitus, human immunodefidiency virus infection, etc. Actinomycosis is diagnosed based on histologic demonstration of sulfur granules in surgically resected specimen or pus, and treatment consists of long-term penicillin based antibiotics therapy with or without surgical resection. Herein, we report an unusual case of abdominal wall actinomycosis which developed in a patient after acupuncture and presented as abdominal wall mass that was first mistaken for abdominal wall invasion of diverticulum perforation. PMID:25896158

Kim, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Jin Soo; Cho, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Seung Bong; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Lee, In Kyu

2015-04-25

226

Possible Dual Role of Decorin in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by chronic inflammation, which leads to pathological remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Decorin, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan, has been suggested to regulate inflammation and stabilize the extracellular matrix. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of decorin in the pathogenesis of AAA. Decorin was localized in the aortic adventitia under normal conditions in both mice and humans. AAA was induced in mice using CaCl2 treatment. Initially, decorin protein levels decreased, but as AAA progressed decorin levels increased in all layers. Local administration of exogenous decorin prevented the development of CaCl2-induced AAA. However, decorin was highly expressed in the degenerative lesions of human AAA walls, and this expression positively correlated with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression. In cell culture experiments, the addition of decorin inhibited secretion of MMP-9 in vascular smooth muscle cells, but had the opposite effect in macrophages. The results suggest that decorin plays a dual role in AAA. Adventitial decorin in normal aorta may protect against the development of AAA, but macrophages expressing decorin in AAA walls may facilitate the progression of AAA by up-regulating MMP-9 secretion. PMID:25781946

Ueda, Koshiro; Yoshimura, Koichi; Yamashita, Osamu; Harada, Takasuke; Morikage, Noriyasu; Hamano, Kimikazu

2015-01-01

227

Possible dual role of decorin in abdominal aortic aneurysm.  

PubMed

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by chronic inflammation, which leads to pathological remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Decorin, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan, has been suggested to regulate inflammation and stabilize the extracellular matrix. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of decorin in the pathogenesis of AAA. Decorin was localized in the aortic adventitia under normal conditions in both mice and humans. AAA was induced in mice using CaCl2 treatment. Initially, decorin protein levels decreased, but as AAA progressed decorin levels increased in all layers. Local administration of exogenous decorin prevented the development of CaCl2-induced AAA. However, decorin was highly expressed in the degenerative lesions of human AAA walls, and this expression positively correlated with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression. In cell culture experiments, the addition of decorin inhibited secretion of MMP-9 in vascular smooth muscle cells, but had the opposite effect in macrophages. The results suggest that decorin plays a dual role in AAA. Adventitial decorin in normal aorta may protect against the development of AAA, but macrophages expressing decorin in AAA walls may facilitate the progression of AAA by up-regulating MMP-9 secretion. PMID:25781946

Ueda, Koshiro; Yoshimura, Koichi; Yamashita, Osamu; Harada, Takasuke; Morikage, Noriyasu; Hamano, Kimikazu

2015-01-01

228

Distribution of Wall Stress in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is believed to occur when the mechanical stress acting on the wall exceeds the strength of the wall tissue. Therefore, knowledge of the AAA wall stress distribution could be useful in assessing its risk of rupture. In our research, a finite element analysis was used to determine the wall stresses both in idealized models and in a real clinical model in which the aorta was considered isotropic with nonlinear material properties and was loaded with a given pressure. In the idealized models, both maximum diameter and asymmetry were found to have substantial influence on the distribution of the wall stress. The thrombus inside the AAA was also found to help protecting the walls from high stresses. Using CT scans of the AAA, the actual geometry of the aneurysm was reconstructed and we found that wall tension increases on the flatter surface (typically corresponds to the posterior surface) and at the inflection points of the bulge. In addition to the static analysis, we also performed simulations of the effect of unsteady pressure wave propagation inside the aneurysm.

Lasheras, Juan

2005-11-01

229

3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a technique for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) from computed tomography angiography (CTA) images. Output data (3-D model) form the proposed method can be used for measurement of aortic shape and dimensions. Knowledge of aortic shape and size is very important in planning of minimally invasive procedure that is for selection of appropriate stent graft device for treatment of AAA. The technique is based on a 3-D deformable model and utilizes the level-set algorithm for implementation of the method. The method performs 3-D segmentation of CTA images and extracts a 3-D model of aortic wall. Once the 3-D model of aortic wall is available it is easy to perform all required measurements for appropriate stent graft selection. The method proposed in this paper uses the level-set algorithm for deformable models, instead of the classical snake algorithm. The main advantage of the level set algorithm is that it enables easy segmentation of complex structures, surpassing most of the drawbacks of the classical approach. We have extended the deformable model to incorporate the a priori knowledge about the shape of the AAA. This helps direct the evolution of the deformable model to correctly segment the aorta. The algorithm has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

2001-07-01

230

Radiology of blunt abdominal trauma.  

PubMed

Blunt abdominal trauma can produce injury to any of the intra-abdominal organs. While diagnostic studies may be necessary to help determine the most appropriate therapy, all these procedures take time, which in some instances can be better used to treat the patient actively. The condition of the patient and the clinical findings take precedence in the handling of the injured patient. Certain skeletal injuries are often a first clue and can help focus further investigations. Plain films and regular contrast examinations are adequate to evaluate most intra-abdominal injuries. When time is available, a variety of other radiologic techniques are available in most hospitals. Nuclear imaging is of considerable value in studying the liver, spleen, and kidneys. Thus far, ultrasound techniques have left much to be desired although theoretically of considerable potential. Angiography can be of great diagnostic and potentially of some therapeutic value. No diagnostic test beats a good history and careful examination. Radiologic studies, ideally, should be done to confirm a clinical suspicion, not just for the sake of "completeness." PMID:558659

Kurtzman, R S

1977-02-01

231

Fluids in porous media: a morphometric approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting the relationship between the morphology of porous media and their physical properties, e.g, the conductivity, elasticity and permeability, is a long-standing problem and important to a range of applications from geophysics to materials science. Here, a set of four morphological measures, so-called Minkowski functionals, is defined which allows one to quantitatively characterize the shape of spatial structures, to optimally reconstruct porous media, and to accurately predict material properties. The method is based on integral geometry and Kac's theorem which relates the spectrum of the Laplace operator to the four Minkowski functionals. Analytic expressions for mean values of Minkowski functionals in Boolean models allow the definition of an effective shape of a grain in a system made up of a distribution of arbitrarily shaped constituents. Reconstructing the microstructure using this effective grain shape leads to an excellent match to the percolation thresholds and to the mechanical and transport properties across all phase fractions. Additionally, the use of the effective shape in effective medium formulations leads to good explicit predictions of bulk moduli. The method is verified for several model systems and sedimentary rock samples, demonstrating that a single tomographic image is sufficient to estimate the morphology and physical properties such as permeabilities and elastic moduli for a range of porosities. Also the thermodynamic behaviour of fluids in porous media, i.e., the shape dependence of the grand canonical potential and of surface energies of a fluid bounded by an arbitrarily shaped convex pore, can be calculated in the thermodynamic limit fully from the knowledge of the Minkowski functionals, i.e., of only four morphometric measures. This remarkable result is based on Hadwiger's theorem on the completeness of the additive Minkowski functionals and the assumption that a thermodynamic potential is an 'additive' functional which can be understood as a more precise definition for the conventional term 'extensive'. As a consequence, the surface energy and other thermodynamic quantities contain in the thermodynamic limit, beside a constant term, only contributions linear in the mean and Gaussian curvature of the pore and not an infinite number of curvature terms. Finally, starting from a microscopic density functional for an inhomogeneous fluid in a porous medium the phase coexistence (capillary condensation) and the critical point of the fluid is determined in terms of structure functions and morphological measures of the pore space and calculated explicitly for specific random porous structures using results from integral geometry.

Mecke, Klaus; Arns, C. H.

2005-03-01

232

[Continuous inhalation administration of surfactant-BL for control of adult respiratory distress syndrome after reconstruction of the abdominal aorta].  

PubMed

A 62-year-old patient with Leriche's syndrome and critical ischemia of the low extremities has undergone the surgery of aortofemoral grafting. A patient has developed the severe ARDS on the second day of reperfusion (bilateral diffuse infiltrates, PO2/FiO2 < 100, lung injury score was 3). Different ways of administration of bovine surfactant (SURFACTANT BL, Russia) were used during the treatment. Total application time was 84 hours, total dose was 4000 mg (50 mg/kg). Considerable improvement of lung function occurred after start of the continuous inhalation of surfactant with a constant rate of 63 mg/h. Two hours after this step PO2/FiO2 reached 400 mm Hg and remained stable 12 hours more, up to the end of surfactant administration. The patient was soon successfully extubated and discharged on the 25th day after surgery. It is supposed that in spite of a small total dose of bovine surfactant the success was achieved due to an early start of the surfactant replacement, continuous inhalation and its definite rate. PMID:10481892

Shevchenko, Iu L; Rozenberg, O A; Khubulava, G G; Osovskikh, V V; Bautin, A E; Se?liev, A A; Sazonov, A B; Krivtsov, V A; Khlebov, V F

1999-01-01

233

Constructs have shown success in replacement of large-diameter vessels (e.g. thoracic and abdominal aortas,  

E-print Network

and Young's modulus over @me · Implement full automa@on of media exchange system · Allow for seeding of scaffolds inside of the bioreactors · Create list of next steps for tes@ng in order to use bioreactor system to achieve target Young

234

Percutaneous closure of complex paravalvular aortic root pseudoaneurysm and aorta-cavitary fistulas  

PubMed Central

Native aortic valve or its prosthetic valve endocarditis can extend to the adjacent periannular areas and erode into nearby cardiac chambers, leading to pseudoaneurysm and aorta-cavitary fistulas respectively. The later usually leads to acute cardiac failure and hemodynamic instability requiring an urgent surgical intervention. However rarely this might pass unnoticed and the patient might present later with cardiac murmur. Percutaneous device closure of aortic pseudoaneurysm, ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm, aorta-pulmonary window, paravalvular leaks, and aorta-cavitary fistula have been reported. We present a 59-year-old female who developed a large aortic root pseudoaneurysm with biventricular communication aorta-cavitary fistulas presenting late following aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis. She underwent successful percutaneous device closure of her pseudoaneurysm and aorta-cavitary fistulas using two Amplatzer Duct Occluders. This case illustrates a challenging combination of aortic root pseudoaneurysm and biventricular aorta-cavitary fistulas that was successfully treated with percutaneous procedure. PMID:24973845

Al-Maskari, Salim; Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Farqani, Abdullah; Thomas, Eapen; Velliath, John

2014-01-01

235

Morphometric analysis of Leydig cells in the normal rat testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leydig cells are thought to be the source of most, if not all, the testosterone produced by the testis . The goal of this study was to obtain quantitative infor- mation about rat Leydig cells and their organelles that might be correlated with pertinent physiological and biochemicaldata available either now or in the future . Morphometric analysis of Leydig cells

HIROSHI MORI; A. KENT CHRISTENSEN

1980-01-01

236

Morphometric Grayscale Texture Analysis using Foot Patterns Dan Ashlock  

E-print Network

Morphometric Grayscale Texture Analysis using Foot Patterns Dan Ashlock Iowa State University as a foot pattern of 2-dimensional Cartesian coor- dinates, obtained via an evolutionary algorithm that minimizes pattern entropy. The pixels of the foot pattern are then assigned labels using one of two

Doty, David

237

Palangeal Quantitative Ultrasound, Phalangeal Morphometric Variables, and Vertebral Fracture Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among phalangeal morphometric parameters, amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SOS), ultrasound bone profile index (UBPI), and spinal bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture status. One hundred women (controls, mean age 53 - 12 years) and 40 osteoporotic women (mean age 59 - 7 years) with atraumatic fractures, diagnosed by spinal radiographs,

G. Guglielmi; C. F. Njeh; F. de Terlizzi; D. A. De Serio; A. Scillitani; M. Cammisa; B. Fan; Y. Lu; H. K. Genant

2003-01-01

238

DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING GUIDELINES: VARIABILITY IN MORPHOMETRIC ASSESSMENTS OF NEUROPATHOLOGY.  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for neuropathological and morphometric assessments of rat pups on postnatal day (PND) 11 and at study termination (after PND 60). In recent discussions about conducting these studies on pesti...

239

Morphometric differentiation in small juveniles of the pink spotted shrimp  

E-print Network

306 Morphometric differentiation in small juveniles of the pink spotted shrimp (Farfantepenaeus-Farfante (1969, 1970, 1971a) described diagnostic charac- ters of the genus Farfantepenaeus that allowed (RL/CL). In addition, she classified Farfantepenaeus into two groups according to the shape

240

The Shape of Human Evolution: A Geometric Morphometrics Perspective  

E-print Network

The Shape of Human Evolution: A Geometric Morphometrics Perspective KAREN L. BAAB, KIERAN P review focuses primarily on the contributions of GM to stud- ies of human evolution, particularly. Early physical anthropolo- gists relied on both qualitative descriptions of anatomical shape and linear

Baab, Karen L.

241

In situ morphometric characterization of Aframomum melegueta accessions in Ghana  

PubMed Central

In spite of the huge economic importance of Aframomum melegueta in the herbal and pharmaceutical industries, its production is limited by lack of planting materials (propagules). The plant also lacks scientific descriptors, which has often led to misidentification with adverse health implications. We therefore aimed at developing a descriptor list to facilitate the identification of A. melegueta using 34 morphometric traits comprising 18 quantitative and 16 qualitative characters. The morphological traits showed that A. melegueta has a characteristic stolon that produces tillers instead of rhizomes. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean using both the nearest-neighbour and complete-linkage methods based on the 34 morphometric traits clustered the eight accessions into two main groups based on ecological location. The accessions from the Eastern and Ashanti regions were separated at similarity coefficients of 0.822 and 0.644, respectively, with a highly significant discriminant function. The Eastern accessions were further clustered into red or yellow fruits at similarity indexes of 0.936 and 0.865 using the nearest-neighbour and complete-linkage methods, respectively. The present study has shown that morphometric traits of A. melegueta are greatly influenced by its ecological habitat. It is envisaged that the descriptor list developed coupled with a morphometric description would enhance its identification and utilization. PMID:23799183

Amponsah, J.; Adamtey, N.; Elegba, W.; Danso, K. E.

2013-01-01

242

Morphometric Controls and Basin Response in The Cascade Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphometric variables associated with 36 debris torrent, 78 snow avalanche, 45 composite debris torrent and snow avalanche and 14 streamflow basins in the Cascade Mountains of southwestern British Columbia, Canada are examined. The re- sults show significant statistical differences in top and bottom el- evations, relief, channel length and gradient, basin area, fan gra- dient and area, and basin ruggedness

Fes De Scally; Olav Slaymaker; Ian Owens

2001-01-01

243

A Case of Aorta-Right Atrial Tunnel Presented with an Asymptomatic Murmur  

PubMed Central

Aorta-right atrial tunnel is a rare and distinct congenital anomaly. It is a vascular channel that originates from one of the sinuses of Valsalva with a tortuous course anterior or posterior to the ascending aorta, and terminates either in the superior vena cava or in the right atrium (RA). We report a 42-year-old female briefly with aorta-right atrial tunnel in which the left coronary artery arose from the tunnel and terminated into the RA. PMID:24174967

Kim, Kyoung-Nyoun; Kim, Jae-Joon; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Goo, Ja-Jun; Lee, Ja-Young; Kim, Seong-Man

2013-01-01

244

Pulse wave imaging in normal, hypertensive and aneurysmal human aortas in vivo: a feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arterial stiffness is a well-established biomarker for cardiovascular risk, especially in the case of hypertension. The progressive stages of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) have also been associated with varying arterial stiffness. Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is a noninvasive, ultrasound imaging-based technique that uses the pulse wave-induced arterial wall motion to map the propagation of the pulse wave and measure the regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) as an index of arterial stiffness. In this study, the clinical feasibility of PWI was evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and aneurysmal human aortas. Radiofrequency-based speckle tracking was used to estimate the pulse wave-induced displacements in the abdominal aortic walls of normal (N = 15, mean age 32.5 ± 10.2 years), hypertensive (N = 13, mean age 60.8 ± 15.8 years), and aneurysmal (N = 5, mean age 71.6 ± 11.8 years) human subjects. Linear regression of the spatio-temporal variation of the displacement waveform in the anterior aortic wall over a single cardiac cycle yielded the slope as the PWV and the coefficient of determination r2 as an approximate measure of the pulse wave propagation uniformity. The aortic PWV measurements in all normal, hypertensive, and AAA subjects were 6.03 ± 1.68, 6.69 ± 2.80, and 10.54 ± 6.52 m s-1, respectively. There was no significant difference (p = 0.15) between the PWVs of the normal and hypertensive subjects while the PWVs of the AAA subjects were significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to those of the other two groups. Also, the average r2 in the AAA subjects was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than that in the normal and hypertensive subjects. These preliminary results suggest that the regional PWV and the pulse wave propagation uniformity (r2) obtained using PWI, in addition to the PWI images and spatio-temporal maps that provide qualitative visualization of the pulse wave, may potentially provide valuable information for the clinical characterization of aneurysms and other vascular pathologies that regionally alter the arterial wall mechanics.

Li, Ronny X.; Luo, Jianwen; Balaram, Sandhya K.; Chaudhry, Farooq A.; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Konofagou, Elisa E.

2013-07-01

245

Large Abdominal Wall Endometrioma Following Laparoscopic Hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Background: Endometriosis is a common condition in women that affects up to 45% of patients in the reproductive age group by causing pelvic pain. It is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity and is rarely found subcutaneously or in abdominal incisions, causing it to be overlooked in patients with abdominal pain. Methods: A 45-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain 2 years following a laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy. She was found to have incidental cholelithiasis and a large abdominal mass suggestive of a significant ventral hernia on CT scan. Results: Due to the peculiar presentation, surgical intervention took place that revealed a large 9cm×7.6cm×6.2cm abdominal wall endometrioma. Conclusion: Although extrapelvic endometriosis is rare, it should be entertained in the differential diagnosis for the female patient who presents with an abdominal mass and pain and has a previous surgical history. PMID:21902990

Borncamp, Erik; Mehaffey, Philip; Rotman, Carlos

2011-01-01

246

Sonographic findings in abdominal hereditary angioedema.  

PubMed

Patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) may suffer from abdominal pain severe enough to prompt unnecessary surgical intervention. The diagnostic approach to abdominal pain during HAE attacks is not established. We describe abdominal sonographic findings during severe colic in 2 patients with known HAE. Sonography demonstrated marked mucosal thickening and edema of the bowel wall with a variable amount of free peritoneal fluid. These findings are not specific but are consistent with the hypothesized mechanism of attack and resolve after therapy. Abdominal sonography is useful for evaluating acute abdominal pain in patients with known HAE to prevent unnecessary surgery. Conversely, if the described sonographic findings appear in a case of abdominal colic of unknown origin, HAE should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:10525217

Sofia, S; Casali, A; Bolondi, L

1999-01-01

247

Radiological evaluation of internal abdominal hernias.  

PubMed

An internal abdominal herniation is the protrusion of a viscus through a normal or abnormal mesenteric or peritoneal aperture. Internal abdominal herniations can either be acquired through a trauma or surgical procedure, or constitutional and related to congenital peritoneal defects. Paraduodenal hernias are the most common type of internal abdominal hernias, accounting for over one-half of reported cases, and thus are a significant clinical entity. Other internal hernias include pericecal, transmesenteric, transomental, intersigmoid, supravesical hernias and herniation through the foramen of Winslow. Because internal abdominal herniations are rare, their diagnosis remains a challenge for both the clinician and the radiologist. Symptoms of internal abdominal herniations are nonspecific. We present our experience with the radiological evaluation of internal abdominal herniations and review the main radiologic findings on barium as well as computed tomography studies. PMID:16252193

Selçuk, Do?an; Kantarci, Fatih; O?üt, Gündüz; Korman, U?ur

2005-06-01

248

Comparison of the strain field of abdominal aortic aneurysm measured by magnetic resonance imaging and stereovision: A feasibility study for prediction of the risk of rupture of aortic abdominal aneurysm.  

PubMed

The prediction of the risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex problem. Currently the criteria to predict rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms are aneurysm diameter and growth rates. It is generally believed that study of the wall strain distribution could be helpful to find a better decision criterion for surgery of aortic aneurysms before their rupture. The wall strain distribution depends on many biological and biomechanical factors such as elastic properties of the aorta, turbulent blood flow, anatomy of the aorta, presence of thrombus or not and so on. Recently, numerical simulations to estimate rupture-potential have received many attentions. However, none of the medical imaging tools for screening and monitoring of AAAs were studied in terms of mechanical behavior and experimentally to demonstrate their capability to measure relevant variables. The aim of this study was to develop a metrological approach for deployment testing of the ability of techniques for measuring local in-vitro deformations based on comparison of stereovision and MRI. In this paper, we present the implementation approach and results of the study based on cylindrical phantoms with or without AAA representing, respectively, healthy and unhealthy artery. Through this study, an experimental device was developed for the behavior study of AAA during a cardiac cycle. The results show that the stereovision techniques used in laboratory is well suited and is qualitatively and quantitatively equivalent with MRI measurements. PMID:25661521

Wang, Yufei; Joannic, David; Delassus, Patrick; Lalande, Alain; Juillion, Patrick; Fontaine, Jean-François

2015-04-13

249

The Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Following Aortic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: multi-organ failure is a leading cause of death following aneurysm surgery, especially in the emergency setting. Intra-abdominal hypertension is an important factor in the development of multi-organ failure. Prevention, early recognition and prompt treatment of abdominal hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome may reduce mortality following aneurysm surgery.Methods: a descriptive review of the literature from a Medline search.Results and

I. M Loftus; M. M Thompson

2003-01-01

250

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old man is complaining of abdominal pain. Visitors are given the radiology, gross and microscopic descriptions, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostics, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

LaTulippe, Steven

251

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man has abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss but no significant past medical history. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Nine, Jeff S.

252

Penetration of an inferior vena cava filter into the aorta.  

PubMed

Transvenous placement of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters is commonly performed in selected patients with deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. However, filter placement is sometimes associated with serious complications. A common complication is asymptomatic perforation of the IVC and penetration of adjacent organs by the filter. Here, we report a case of an 83-year-old man whose prophylactic IVC filter penetrated the aorta. The patient was closely followed without surgical intervention for more than a year, and no additional complications were observed. PMID:25593628

Haga, Makoto; Hosaka, Akihiro; Miyahara, Takuya; Hoshina, Katsuyuki; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Watanabe, Toshiaki

2014-01-01

253

Intravascular Stent Therapy for Coarctation of the Aorta  

PubMed Central

Intravascular stent therapy is considered a primary therapeutic option for most adults and adolescents with coarctation of the aorta. This review highlights the indications, technical considerations, procedural aspects, and limited long-term outcome data when using this intervention. Stent technology has continued to evolve with potential for further modifications since its inception in the early 1990s. The best therapeutic approach, e.g., stenting versus surgery, in the treatment of native coarctation continues to be debated due to the paucity of long-term clinical and imaging data in both groups. PMID:25114759

2014-01-01

254

Penetration of an Inferior Vena Cava Filter into the Aorta  

PubMed Central

Transvenous placement of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters is commonly performed in selected patients with deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. However, filter placement is sometimes associated with serious complications. A common complication is asymptomatic perforation of the IVC and penetration of adjacent organs by the filter. Here, we report a case of an 83-year-old man whose prophylactic IVC filter penetrated the aorta. The patient was closely followed without surgical intervention for more than a year, and no additional complications were observed. PMID:25593628

Hosaka, Akihiro; Miyahara, Takuya; Hoshina, Katsuyuki; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Watanabe, Toshiaki

2014-01-01

255

Stent graft infection secondary to appendicitis: an unusual complication of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a 73-year-old gentleman with an aortic endograft infection post endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair (EVAR), from whence erosion has come in from an acutely inflamed appendix. To our best understanding, there is no similar case published in the literature. Intra-operatively, there was obvious inflammation and oedema over the retroperitoneal tissue, with frank pus and thrombotic material projecting from the aorta. The tip of an obviously inflamed appendix had stuck to and eroded through the aortic sac, seeding the infection. The endograft was explanted and the aneurysm sac oversewn. Lower limb circulation was preserved with a right axillo-femoral Dacron bypass graft. This case highlights a rare complication following EVAR, and for one to consider unusual sources of graft infection. PMID:25326918

Perera, Kalpa G.; Wong, Ed; Devine, Terry

2014-01-01

256

The inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm and coronary artery disease. Case report and review.  

PubMed

Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is defined as an unusually thickened aneurysmatic wall, encircled by a wide dense perianeurysmal and/or retroperitoneal fibrosis with adjacent tissues adhesion, and is now considered as an extreme shape of the common phlogistic process involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Latest studies demonstrated that inflammation plays an important role in coronary disease and in other atherosclerosis manifestations. We introduce the clinical case of a patient with IAAA who developed an acute myocardial infarction 6 months after the surgical procedure on the aorta. Through a literature review about IAAA we stress the clinical usefulness of the inflammatory markers as independent predictors in management of patients with coronary disease and we present the hypothesis, related to the introduced case, of an advanced coronary disease, aggravated or clinically revealed after the cytokine storm related to important localized inflammatory engagements or great vascular surgery treatments. PMID:16778758

Monte, I; Capodanno, D; Licciardi, S; Ferraro, C; Giannone, M T; Grasso, S; Nicolosi, E

2006-04-01

257

?-Arrestin-2 Deficiency Attenuates Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation in Mice  

PubMed Central

Rationale Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a chronic inflammatory vascular disease for which pharmacological treatments are not available. A mouse model of AAA formation involves chronic infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) and previous studies indicated a primary role for the angiotensin II type 1a (AT1a) receptor, in AAA formation. ?-arrestin-2 (?arr2) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that binds G-protein coupled receptors such as AT1a, and regulates numerous signaling pathways and pathophysiological processes. However, a role for ?arr2 in AngII-induced AAA formation is currently unknown. Objective To determine if ?arr2 played a role in AngII-induced AAA formation in mice. Methods and Results Treatment of ?arr2+/+ and ?arr2-/- mice on the hyperlipidemic ApoE-/- background or normolipidemic C57BL/6 background with AngII for 28 days indicated that ?arr2 deficiency significantly attenuated AAA formation. ?arr2 deficiency attenuated AngII-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP1?), and macrophage infiltration. AngII also increased the levels of phosphorylated-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in ApoE-/-/?arr2+/+ aortas, whereas ?arr2 deficiency diminished this increase. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 activation with CI1040 (100mg/kg/day) reduced the level of AngII-induced COX-2 expression in ApoE-/-/?arr2+/+ mice to the level observed in ApoE-/-/?arr2-/- mice. AngII treatment also increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and disruption of the elastic layer in ApoE-/-/?arr2+/+ aortas and ?arr2-deficiency reduced these effects. Conclusions ?arr2 contributes to AngII-induced AAA formation in mice by p-ERK1/2-mediated COX-2 induction and increased inflammation. These studies suggest that for the AT1a receptor, G-protein-independent, ?arr2-dependent signaling plays a major role in AngII-induced AAA formation. PMID:23524589

Trivedi, Darshini B.; Loftin, Charles D.; Clark, James; Myers, Page; DeGraff, Laura M.; Cheng, Jennifer; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Langenbach, Robert

2014-01-01

258

A crossbeam co-ordinate caliper for the morphometric analysis of lithic nuclei: a description, test and empirical examples of application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last four decades, there has been surprisingly little advance in the quantitative morphometric analysis of Palaeolithic stone tools, especially compared to that which has taken place in biological morphometrics over a comparable time frame. In Palaeolithic archaeology's sister discipline of palaeoanthropology, detailed quantitative morphometric, geometric morphometric, and even 3D geometric morphometric analyses are now seen almost as routine.

Stephen J. Lycett; Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel; Robert A. Foley

2006-01-01

259

A crossbeam co-ordinate caliper for the morphometric analysis of lithic nuclei: a description, test and empirical examples of application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last four decades, there has been surprisingly little advance in the quantitative morphometric analysis of Palaeolithic stone tools, especially compared to that which has taken place in biological morphometrics over a comparable time frame. In Palaeolithic archaeology's sister discipline of palaeoanthropology, detailed quantitative morphometric, geometric morphometric, and even 3D geometric morphometric analyses are now seen almost as routine.

Stephen J. Lycett; Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel; Robert A. Foley

2005-01-01

260

Temporary abdominal closure followed by definitive abdominal wall reconstruction of the open abdomen  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInability to close the abdominal wall after laparotomy for trauma may occur as a result of visceral edema, retroperitoneal hematoma, use of packing, and traumatic loss of tissue. Often life-saving, decompressive laparotomy and temporary abdominal closure require later restoration of anatomic continuity of the abdominal wall.

Thomas R. Howdieshell; Charles D. Proctor; Erez Sternberg; Jorge I. Cué; J. Sheppard Mondy; Michael L. Hawkins

2004-01-01

261

Abdominal atlas mapping in CT and MR volume images using a normalized abdominal coordinate system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a normalized abdominal coordinate system is defined for abdominal atlas mapping in CT and MR volume images. This coordinate system is independent of both the abdomen size and the respiratory motion. A real-time atlas mapping algorithm based on this coordinate system is also proposed. The purpose of this algorithm is to provide initial positions for abdominal organ

Hongkai Wang; Jing Bai; Yongxin Zhou; Yonghong Zhang

2008-01-01

262

Tissue Responses to Endovascular Stent Grafts for Saccular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in a Canine Model  

PubMed Central

We investigated tissue responses to endoskeleton stent grafts for saccular abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in canines. Saccular AAAs were made with Dacron patch in 8 dogs, and were excluded by endoskeleton stent grafts composed of nitinol stent and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. Animals were sacrificed at 2 months (Group 1; n = 3) or 6 months (Group 2; n = 5) after the placement, respectively. The aortas embedding stent grafts were excised en bloc for gross inspection and sliced at 5 to 8 mm intervals for histopathologic evaluation. Stent grafts were patent in all except a dog showing a thrombotic occlusion in Group 2. In the 7 dogs with patent lumen, the graft overhanging the saccular aneurysm was covered by thick or thin thrombi with no endothelial layer, and the graft over the aortic wall was completely covered by neointima with an endothelial layer. Transgraft cell migration was less active at an aneurysm than at adjacent normal aorta. In conclusion, endoskeleton stent grafts over saccular aneurysms show no endothelial coverage and poor transgraft cell migration in a canine model. PMID:23091313

Kim, Hyun Beom; Choi, Young Ho; So, Young Ho; Min, Seung-Kee; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Kim, Young Il; Park, Jae Hyung

2012-01-01

263

CD14 Directs Adventitial Macrophage Precursor Recruitment: Role in Early Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation  

PubMed Central

Background Recruitment of macrophage precursors to the adventitia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), but molecular mechanisms remain undefined. The innate immune signaling molecule CD14 was reported to be upregulated in adventitial macrophages in a murine model of AAA and in monocytes cocultured with aortic adventitial fibroblasts (AoAf) in vitro, concurrent with increased interleukin?6 (IL?6) expression. We hypothesized that CD14 plays a crucial role in adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment early during AAA formation. Methods and Results CD14?/? mice were resistant to AAA formation induced by 2 different AAA induction models: aortic elastase infusion and systemic angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. CD14 gene deletion led to reduced aortic macrophage infiltration and diminished elastin degradation. Adventitial monocyte binding to AngII?infused aorta in vitro was dependent on CD14, and incubation of human acute monocytic leukemia cell line?1 (THP?1) monocytes with IL?6 or conditioned medium from perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) upregulated CD14 expression. Conditioned medium from AoAf and PVAT induced CD14?dependent monocyte chemotaxis, which was potentiated by IL?6. CD14 expression in aorta and plasma CD14 levels were increased in AAA patients compared with controls. Conclusions These findings link CD14 innate immune signaling via a novel IL?6 amplification loop to adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment in the pathogenesis of AAA. PMID:23537804

Blomkalns, Andra L.; Gavrila, Daniel; Thomas, Manesh; Neltner, Bonnie S.; Blanco, Victor M.; Benjamin, Stephanie B.; McCormick, Michael L.; Stoll, Lynn L.; Denning, Gerene M.; Collins, Sean P.; Qin, Zhenyu; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A.; Thompson, Robert W.; Weiss, Robert M.; Lindower, Paul D.; Pinney, Susan M.; Chatterjee, Tapan; Weintraub, Neal L.

2013-01-01

264

[Endovascular management of an infectious and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Clinical report].  

PubMed

Infectious aneurysms are about 1-3% of all aneurysms of the infrarenal aorta. Its treatment is challenging and the best strategy is far from consensual. The authors report a case of a HIV + patient with multiple other co-morbidities, which was seen in the emergency department with fever and left back pain. These symptoms would prove to be in relation to a ruptured infectious aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. Facing this situation it was decided to select an endovascular technique with implantation of an aorto uni - iliac stent graft with a right-left femoro-femoral cross-over using a 8 mm PTFE graft and exclusion of the left common iliac . The patient didn't have any complication from the situation or the procedure, but died 18 months postoperatively because of a pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci. Although it is not the ideal solution for the treatment of infectious elective aneurysms, we believe that endovascular treatment seems to be a viable option and should be taken into account in a subgroup of patients that for their co-morbidities are not good candidates for conventional surgery and for those in rupture, either as a bridge or as a final solution. PMID:25596398

Amorim, Pedro; Sousa, Gonçalo; Vieira, João; C E Sousa, Lourenço; Ribeiro, Karla; Sobrinho, Gonçalo; Vieira, Teresa; Meireles, Nuno; Albino, Pereira

2015-01-01

265

Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Decreases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation through GLP-1-Dependent Monocytic Activity in Mice.  

PubMed

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening situation affecting almost 10% of elders. There has been no effective medication for AAA other than surgical intervention. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been shown to have a protective effect on cardiovascular disease. Whether DPP-4 inhibitors may be beneficial in the treatment of AAA is unclear. We investigated the effects of DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin on the angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused AAA formation in apoE-deficient (apoE-/-) mice. Mice with induced AAA were treated with placebo or 2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day sitagliptin. Ang II-infused apoE-/- mice exhibited a 55.6% incidence of AAA formation, but treatment with sitagliptin decreased AAA formation. Specifically, administered sitagliptin in Ang II-infused mice exhibited decreased expansion of the suprarenal aorta, reduced elastin lamina degradation of the aorta, and diminished vascular inflammation by macrophage infiltration. Treatment with sitagliptin decreased gelatinolytic activity and apoptotic cells in aorta tissues. Sitaglipitn, additionally, was associated with increased levels of plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In vitro studies, GLP-1 decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell migration, and MMP-2 as well as MMP-9 activity in Ang II-stimulated monocytic cells. The results conclude that oral administration of sitagliptin can prevent abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in Ang II-infused apoE-/-mice, at least in part, by increasing of GLP-1 activity, decreasing MMP-2 and MMP-9 production from macrophage infiltration. The results indicate that sitagliptin may have therapeutic potential in preventing the development of AAA. PMID:25876091

Lu, Hsin Ying; Huang, Chun Yao; Shih, Chun Ming; Chang, Wei Hung; Tsai, Chein Sung; Lin, Feng Yen; Shih, Chun Che

2015-01-01

266

Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Decreases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation through GLP-1-Dependent Monocytic Activity in Mice  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening situation affecting almost 10% of elders. There has been no effective medication for AAA other than surgical intervention. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been shown to have a protective effect on cardiovascular disease. Whether DPP-4 inhibitors may be beneficial in the treatment of AAA is unclear. We investigated the effects of DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin on the angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused AAA formation in apoE-deficient (apoE-/-) mice. Mice with induced AAA were treated with placebo or 2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day sitagliptin. Ang II-infused apoE-/- mice exhibited a 55.6% incidence of AAA formation, but treatment with sitagliptin decreased AAA formation. Specifically, administered sitagliptin in Ang II-infused mice exhibited decreased expansion of the suprarenal aorta, reduced elastin lamina degradation of the aorta, and diminished vascular inflammation by macrophage infiltration. Treatment with sitagliptin decreased gelatinolytic activity and apoptotic cells in aorta tissues. Sitaglipitn, additionally, was associated with increased levels of plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In vitro studies, GLP-1 decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell migration, and MMP-2 as well as MMP-9 activity in Ang II-stimulated monocytic cells. The results conclude that oral administration of sitagliptin can prevent abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in Ang II-infused apoE-/-mice, at least in part, by increasing of GLP-1 activity, decreasing MMP-2 and MMP-9 production from macrophage infiltration. The results indicate that sitagliptin may have therapeutic potential in preventing the development of AAA. PMID:25876091

Lu, Hsin Ying; Huang, Chun Yao; Shih, Chun Ming; Chang, Wei Hung; Tsai, Chein Sung; Lin, Feng Yen; Shih, Chun Che

2015-01-01

267

Abdominal pain in an adult with Type 2 diabetes: A case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) may be a manifestation of diseases involving many intra-abdominal organs. Beside diseases affecting subjects without diabetes mellitus, diabetic patients may have CAP due to diabetes-related complications like neuritis, motor diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and autonomic dysfunction. Atherosclerosis is 2–4 times more common in patients with diabetes and affects mainly carotid, coronary, iliac and lower limb arteries as well as aorta. Another less common complication is chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI, intestinal angina), caused by atherosclerotic obstruction of the celiac artery and its branches and results in episodic or constant intestinal hypoperfusion. Case presentation We present a case of a diabetic patient with CMI in whom the diagnosis was delayed by almost 5 years. The dominant symptoms were crampy abdominal postprandial pain, anorexia, changes in bowel habits and cachexia. Conventional angiography revealed significant stenosis of the celiac artery and complete obstruction of the inferior mesenteric artery. Noteworthy, no significant stenoses in carotids or limbs' arteries were found. Revascularization resulted in clinical improvement 1 week post-intervention. Conclusion CAP in patients with diabetes may be due to CMI. The typical presentation is crampy postprandial abdominal pain in a heavy smoker male patient with long-standing diabetes, accompanied by anorexia, changes in bowel habits and mild to moderate weight loss. At least two of the three main splanchnic arteries must be significantly occluded in order CMI to be symptomatic. The diagnostic procedure of choice is conventional angiography and revascularization of the occluded arteries is the radical treatment. PMID:18798976

Panagoulias, George; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Ladas, Spiros S

2008-01-01

268

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Targeted by Functionalized Polysaccharide Microparticles: a new Tool for SPECT Imaging  

PubMed Central

Aneurysm diagnostic is nowadays limited by the lack of technology that enables early detection and rupture risk prediction. New non invasive tools for molecular imaging are still required. In the present study, we present an innovative SPECT diagnostic tool for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) produced from injectable polysaccharide microparticles radiolabeled with technetium 99m (99mTc) and functionalized with fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide with the ability to target P-Selectin. P-Selectin is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated endothelial cells and platelets which can be found in the thrombus of aneurysms, as well as in other vascular pathologies. Microparticles with a maximum hydrodynamic diameter of 4 µm were obtained by crosslinking the polysaccharides dextran and pullulan. They were functionalized with fucoidan. In vitro interactions with human activated platelets were assessed by flow cytometry that demonstrated a specific affinity of fucoidan functionalized microparticles for P-Selectin expressed by activated platelets. For in vivo AAA imaging, microparticles were radiolabeled with 99mTc and intravenously injected into healthy and AAA rats obtained by elastase perfusion through the aorta wall. Animals were scanned by SPECT imaging. A strong contrast enhancement located in the abdominal aorta of AAA rats was obtained, while no signal was obtained in healthy rats or in AAA rats after injection of non-functionalized control microparticles. Histological studies revealed that functionalized radiolabeled polysaccharide microparticles were localized in the AAA wall, in the same location where P-Selectin was expressed. These microparticles therefore constitute a promising SPECT imaging tool for AAA and potentially for other vascular diseases characterized by P-Selectin expression. Future work will focus on validating the efficiency of the microparticles to diagnose these other pathologies and the different stages of AAA. Incorporation of a therapeutic molecule is also considered. PMID:24723981

Bonnard, Thomas; Yang, Gonord; Petiet, Anne; Ollivier, Véronique; Haddad, Oualid; Arnaud, Denis; Louedec, Liliane; Bachelet-Violette, Laure; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cedric; Le Visage, Catherine

2014-01-01

269

Feasibility of Angioplasty and Stenting for Abdominal Aortic Lesions Adjacent to Previously Stented Visceral Artery Lesions in Patients with Takayasu Arteritis  

SciTech Connect

Two young female patients with Takayasu arteritis presented with symptomatic long-segment abdominal aortic stenosis in the vicinity of previously deployed celiac and renal artery stents that projected markedly into the narrowed aortic lumen. Crushing or distortion of the visceral artery stents during aortic angioplasty was avoided by performing simultaneous or alternating balloon dilatations in the aorta and in the visceral artery stents. Consequently, the visceral artery stents remained patent and shortened longitudinally, allowing unhindered deployment of Wallstents in the adjacent aorta and abolition of a pressure gradient across the aortic lesions. Access to side branches covered by the Wallstent was obtained without difficulty, enabling the performance of balloon dilatation in multiple side branches and ostial stent deployment in a renal artery. These techniques could increase the scope of endovascular therapy in the treatment of patients with Takayasu arteritis.

Joseph, George, E-mail: joseph59@gmail.com; George, Paul V.; Pati, Purendra Kumar; Chandy, Sunil Thomas [Christian Medical College, Department of Cardiology (India)

2007-04-15

270

Diffuse aneurysmal disease (chronic aortic dissection, Marfan, and mega aorta syndromes) and multiple aneurysm. Treatment by subtotal and total aortic replacement emphasizing the elephant trunk operation.  

PubMed Central

The life expectancy of patients with aortic aneurysm is significantly prolonged by graft replacement therapy. Regardless, a significant predictor of late death is complications of either residual aortic aneurysmal disease or the development of additional aortic aneurysm. This paper reviews a personal experience in the treatment of 4170 patients with aneurysmal disease of either dissection or medial degenerative origin, indicating that multiple segment involvement was or became present in 1262 (30%) patients, 463 (67%) of 694 patients with dissection, and 799 (23%) of 3476 patients without dissection. Regardless of etiology, multiple involvement varied with the location of the presenting involved segment, i.e., ascending aorta (38%), ascending and arch (70%), descending thoracic aorta (73%), and abdominal aorta (26%). This study was limited in detail to 811 patients who had ascending and ascending and aortic arch replacement for aneurysm. These patients were divided into 3 subgroups: (1) 524 patients with no distal disease; (2) 135 patients with distal disease treated by subtotal replacement in 82 and total replacement in 53; and (3) 152 patients with distal disease not treated. The 5-year survival rate from the time of first operation, including early death from operation was 75% in group 1, 65% in group 2, and 39% in group 3. The causes of death in group 3 patients were aneurysmal rupture and/or associated disease. It is concluded that initial total aortic study and regular postoperative monitoring with computed tomographic scanning is indicated to detect extensive disease or recurrence of disease and that aggressive replacement is indicated except in patients with associated disease that does not permit operation. Images Figs. 1A-E. Figs. 1C-E. Figs. 2A-C. Fig. 2C. Figs. 3A-C. Figs. 4A-D. Fig. 4B. Figs. 4C and D. Figs. 5A-O. Figs. 5A-O. Figs. 5L and M. Figs. 5N and O. Figs. 6A-C. Fig. 6. PMID:2339914

Crawford, E S; Coselli, J S; Svensson, L G; Safi, H J; Hess, K R

1990-01-01

271

Blood flow and coherent vortices in the normal and aneurysmatic aortas: a fluid dynamical approach to intra-luminal thrombus formation  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are frequently characterized by the development of an intra-luminal thrombus (ILT), which is known to have multiple biochemical and biomechanical implications. Development of the ILT is not well understood, and shear–stress-triggered activation of platelets could be the first step in its evolution. Vortical structures (VSs) in the flow affect platelet dynamics, which motivated the present study of a possible correlation between VS and ILT formation in AAAs. VSs educed by the ?2-method using computational fluid dynamics simulations of the backward-facing step problem, normal aorta, fusiform AAA and saccular AAA were investigated. Patient-specific luminal geometries were reconstructed from computed tomography scans, and Newtonian and Carreau–Yasuda models were used to capture salient rheological features of blood flow. Particularly in complex flow domains, results depended on the constitutive model. VSs developed all along the normal aorta, showing that a clear correlation between VSs and high wall shear stress (WSS) existed, and that VSs started to break up during late systole. In contrast, in the fusiform AAA, large VSs developed at sites of tortuous geometry and high WSS, occupying the entire lumen, and lasting over the entire cardiac cycle. Downward motion of VSs in the AAA was in the range of a few centimetres per cardiac cycle, and with a VS burst at that location, the release (from VSs) of shear-stress-activated platelets and their deposition to the wall was within the lower part of the diseased artery, i.e. where the thickest ILT layer is typically observed. In the saccular AAA, only one VS was found near the healthy portion of the aorta, while in the aneurysmatic bulge, no VSs occurred. We present a fluid-dynamics-motivated mechanism for platelet activation, convection and deposition in AAAs that has the potential of improving our current understanding of the pathophysiology of fluid-driven ILT growth. PMID:21471188

Biasetti, Jacopo; Hussain, Fazle; Gasser, T. Christian

2011-01-01

272

Elastin aging and lipid oxidation products in human aorta  

PubMed Central

Vascular aging is associated with structural and functional modifications of the arteries, and by an increase in arterial wall thickening in the intima and the media, mainly resulting from structural modifications of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Among the factors known to accumulate with aging, advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs) are a hallmark of oxidative stress-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. Aldehydes generated from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), (4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, acrolein), form adducts on cellular proteins, leading to a progressive protein dysfunction with consequences in the pathophysiology of vascular aging. The contribution of these aldehydes to ECM modification is not known. This study was carried out to investigate whether aldehyde-adducts are detected in the intima and media in human aorta, whether their level is increased in vascular aging, and whether elastin fibers are a target of aldehyde-adduct formation. Immunohistological and confocal immunofluorescence studies indicate that 4-HNE-histidine-adducts accumulate in an age-related manner in the intima, media and adventitia layers of human aortas, and are mainly expressed in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, even if the structure of elastin fiber is strongly altered in the aged vessels, our results show that elastin is not or very poorly modified by 4-HNE. These data indicate a complex role for lipid peroxidation and in particular for 4-HNE in elastin homeostasis, in the vascular wall remodeling during aging and atherosclerosis development. PMID:25553420

Zarkovic, Kamelija; Larroque-Cardoso, Pauline; Pucelle, Mélanie; Salvayre, Robert; Waeg, Georg; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Zarkovic, Neven

2014-01-01

273

Improved Protein Extractionand Protein Identification from Archival Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Human Aortas  

PubMed Central

Purpose Evaluate combination of heat and elevated pressure to enhance protein extraction and quality of formaldehyde-fixed (FF), and FF paraffin-embedded (FFPE) aorta for proteomics. Experiment design Proteins were extracted from fresh frozen aorta at RT. FF and FFPE aortas (3 months and 15 years) were extracted at RT, heat alone, or a combination of heat and high pressure. Protein yields were compared, and digested peptides from the extracts were analyzed with mass spectrometry. Results Combined heat and elevated pressure increased protein yield from human FF or FFPE aorta compared to matched tissues with heat alone (1.5 fold) or at RT (8.3 fold), resulting in more proteins identified and with more sequence coverage. The length of storage did adversely affect the quality of proteins from FF tissue. For long term storage, aorta was preserved better with FFPE than FF alone. Periostin and MGF-E8 were demonstrated suitable for MRM assays from FFPE aorta. Conclusions and clinical relevance Combination of heat and high pressure is an effective method to extract proteins from FFPE aorta for downstream proteomics. This method opens the possibility for use of archival and often rare FFPE aortas and possibly other tissues available to proteomics for biomarker discovery and quantification. PMID:23339088

Fu, Zongming; Yan, Kun; Rosenberg, Avraham; Jin, Zhicheng; Crain, Barbara; Athas, Grace; Vander Heide, Richard S; Howard, Timothy; Everett, Allen D.; Herrington, David; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.

2014-01-01

274

Single proximal anastomosis for multiple vein coronary artery bypasses in diseased ascending aorta.  

PubMed

Minimization of the manipulation of the diseased ascending aorta has been shown to be associated with a reduced risk of postoperative stroke during coronary artery bypass surgery. We describe in this paper a novel method in which a single proximal anastomosis has been performed in the same ostium on the ascending aorta for multiple coronary artery vein grafts. PMID:18212698

Cebi, N; Walterbusch, G

2008-02-01

275

Hydatid cyst fistula into the aorta presenting with massive hemoptysis. Case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Hydatid involvement of the aorta is extremely uncommon. We present a case where a hydatid cyst of the lung eroded into the thoracic aorta, causing massive hemoptysis. Successful repair was performed by resection (including left lower lobectomy) and graft interposition. PMID:11455298

Harris, D G; Van Vuuren, W M; Augustyn, J; Rossouw, G J

2001-08-01

276

Quantitative assessment of the entire thoracic aorta from magnetic resonance images  

PubMed Central

Objectives Although magnetic resonance imaging is a primary modality for following patients with connective tissue diseases, only a limited amount of the image data is utilised. The purpose of this study was to show the clinical applicability of an automated four-dimensional analysis method of magnetic resonance images of the aorta and develop normative data for the cross-sectional area of the entire thoracic aorta. Study design Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained serially over 3 years from 32 healthy individuals and 24 patients with aortopathy and a personal or family history of connective tissue disorder. Graph theory-based segmentation was used to determine the cross-sectional area for the thoracic aorta. Healthy individual data were used to construct a nomogram representing the maximum cross-sectional area 5th–95th percentile along the entire thoracic aorta. Aortic root diameters calculated from the cross-sectional area were compared to measured diameters from echocardiographic data. The cross-sectional area of the entire thoracic aorta in patients was compared to healthy individuals. Results Calculated aortic root diameters correlated with measured diameters from echo data – correlation coefficient was 0.74–0.87. The cross-sectional area in patients was significantly greater in the aortic root, ascending aorta, and descending aorta compared to healthy individuals. Conclusion The presentation of the dimensional data for the entire thoracic aorta shows an important clinical tool for following patients with connective tissue disorders and aortopathy. PMID:21205418

Johnson, Ryan K.; Premraj, Senthil; Patel, Sonali S.; Wahle, Andreas; Stolpen, Alan; Sonka, Milan; Scholz, Thomas D.

2015-01-01

277

Endovascular stent graft repair for aneurysms on the descending thoracic aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The traditional treatment of aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta includes posterolateral thoracotomy and aortic replacement with a prosthetic graft. In this study, we report our experiences and results in endovascular stent graft placement as an alternative to surgical repair.Methods. Between January 1989 and July 1997, a total of 68 patients (24 women) underwent replacement of the thoracic aorta.

Marek Ehrlich; Martin Grabenwoeger; Fabiola Cartes-Zumelzu; Michael Grimm; Dietmar Petzl; Johannes Lammer; Siegfried Thurnher; Ernst Wolner; Michael Havel

1998-01-01

278

Fast and Automatic Segmentation of Ascending Aorta in MSCT Volume Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The segmentation of the ascending aorta from multislice computed tomography (MSCT) volume data is one of the critical steps for the quantitative analysis coronary artery. In this paper, a fast and automatic iterative method is presented. The method locates the volume of interest (VOI) of the ascending aorta and detects the seed point automatically. Then an automatic iterative procedure is

Shengjun Wang; Ling Fu; Yong Yue; Yan Kang; Jiren Liu

2009-01-01

279

Severe atherosclerosis of the aorta and development of peripheral T-cell lymphoma in an adolescent with angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia.  

PubMed

We report an adolescent girl with a history of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) diagnosed at the age of 10 years. The patient also suffered from chronic persistent multiresistant herpes simplex virus infection. Atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the abdominal aorta and its major branches was observed at the age of 17 years, necessitating vascular surgical intervention 1 year later because of disease progression. Histological examination of the aorta disclosed widespread atherosclerosis and high levels of gene expression of both T-helper cell type (Th) 1- and Th2-derived cytokines. This suggests that a highly stimulated systemic immune response including increased production of both Th1- and Th2-derived cytokines such as interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 may result in severe atherosclerotic lesions at a very young age. In addition, the patient developed a peripheral T-cell lymphoma at the age of 18 years. Neither systemic atherosclerosis nor T-cell lymphoma has been reported in association with ALHE. It is suggested that a highly stimulated dysfunctional immune response may play a key role in persistent inflammatory disease and premature development of atherosclerosis as well as malignant transformation of T cells. PMID:15888166

Andreae, J; Galle, C; Magdorf, K; Staab, D; Meyer, L; Goldman, M; Querfeld, U

2005-05-01

280

Kikuchi-Fujimoto's disease with abdominal pain due to intra-abdominal lymphadenitis.  

PubMed

A 29-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with fever and abdominal pain. Abdominal echogram and CT revealed intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. Seven days after the onset, she developed cervical lymphadenitis. Kikuchi-Fujimoto's disease (KFD) was diagnosed on cervical lymph node biopsy. Although KFD with intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy is rare, it should be considered in young adults with intra-abdominal lymphadenitis. Because KFD is a benign, self-limiting disease, we suggest the use of a minimally invasive method of diagnosis such as superficial lymph node biopsy. PMID:24667948

Noda, Ayako; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Sakatani, Takashi; Kajii, Eiji

2014-01-01

281

Motor programs for abdominal positioning in crayfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using chronically implanted suction electrodes (Fig. 2), records were obtained from the tonic abdominal flexor motor neurons of crayfish while they were undergoing various self-generated movements (Fig. 3). The main behavior examined in this study was one of abdominal extension (Fig. 1), a response which could be evoked repeatedly. Other stereotyped movements were also observed. Each class of behavior we

James L. Larimer; Alan C. Eggleston

1971-01-01

282

Morphometric Characterization and Reconstruction Effect Among Lunar Impact Craters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact craters on the lunar surface have a variety of morphometric characteristics that are very useful in understanding the evolutionary history of lunar landscape morphologies. Based on digital elevation model data and photographs from China's Chang'E-1 lunar orbiter, we develop morphologic parameters and quantitative methods for presenting the morphometric characteristics of impact craters, analyzing their relational distribution, and estimating the relative order of their formation. We also analyze features in profile where craters show signs of having formed on the edge of previously existing craters to show that superimposed impacts affect morphologic reconstructions. As a result, impact craters have significant effects on the reconstruction of ancient topography and the estimation of relative formation ages.

Cheng, Weiming; Wang, Jiao; Wan, Cong

2014-05-01

283

Sex determination from the frontal bone: a geometric morphometric study.  

PubMed

Sex estimation in human skeletal remains when using the cranium through traditional methods is a fundamental pillar in human identification; however, it may be possible to incur in a margin of error due because of the state of preservation in incomplete or fragmented remains. The aim of this investigation was sex estimation through the geometric morphometric analysis of the frontal bone. The sample employed 60 lateral radiographs of adult subjects of both sexes (30 males and 30 females), aged between 18 and 40 years, with mean age for males of 28 ± 4 and 30 ± 6 years for females. Thin-plate splines evidenced strong expansion of the glabellar region in males and contraction in females. No significant differences were found between sexes with respect to size. The findings suggest differences in shape and size in the glabellar region, besides reaffirming the use of geometric morphometrics as a quantitative method in sex estimation. PMID:24611586

Perlaza, Néstor A

2014-09-01

284

MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics.  

PubMed

Increasingly, data on shape are analysed in combination with molecular genetic or ecological information, so that tools for geometric morphometric analysis are required. Morphometric studies most often use the arrangements of morphological landmarks as the data source and extract shape information from them by Procrustes superimposition. The MorphoJ software combines this approach with a wide range of methods for shape analysis in different biological contexts. The program offers an integrated and user-friendly environment for standard multivariate analyses such as principal components, discriminant analysis and multivariate regression as well as specialized applications including phylogenetics, quantitative genetics and analyses of modularity in shape data. MorphoJ is written in Java and versions for the Windows, Macintosh and Unix/Linux platforms are freely available from http://www.flywings.org.uk/MorphoJ_page.htm. PMID:21429143

Klingenberg, Christian Peter

2011-03-01

285

21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225 Section...Devices § 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device...

2011-04-01

286

21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225 Section...Devices § 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device...

2012-04-01

287

21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225 Section...Devices § 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device...

2014-04-01

288

21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225 Section...Devices § 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device...

2010-04-01

289

21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225 Section...Devices § 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device...

2013-04-01

290

A Behavioral Analysis of Clovis Point Morphology Using Geometric Morphometrics  

E-print Network

. As an analyti- cal tool, this study utilizes the geometric morphometric method to retain the geometry of each artifact throughout analysis by focusing on spatial covariation among landmarks uniformly found on each tool. This thesis investigates variability... was determined by normative cultural behavior maintained throughout the life of the artifact and not the re- sult of raw material type or resharpening processes. Therefore, the projectile-point vari- ability found to be geographically patterned provided...

Smith, Heather Lynn

2012-02-14

291

A geometric morphometric assessment of the optic cup in glaucoma.  

PubMed

The morphologic appearance of the optic disc is of interest in glaucoma. In contrast to descriptive classification systems that are currently used, a quantitative approach to the analysis of optic disc morphology is required. Our goal was to determine the optimal method for quantifying optic cup shape by comparing traditional (ovality, form-factor and neuroretinal rim (NRR) width ratio) and geometric morphometric approaches. Left optic disc stereophotographs of 160 (80 normal and 80 glaucomatous (stratified by severity)) subjects were examined. The optic cup margins were stereoscopically delineated with a custom tracing system and saved as a series of discrete points. The geometric morphometric methods of elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA) and sliding semi-landmark analysis (SSLA) were used to eliminate variation unrelated to shape (e.g. size) and yield a series of shape variables. Differences in optic cup shape between normal and glaucoma groups were investigated. Discriminant functions were computed and the sensitivity and specificity of each technique determined. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for all methods and evaluated in their potential to discriminate between normal and glaucomatous eyes based on the shape variables. All geometric morphometric methods revealed differences between normal and glaucomatous eyes in optic cup shape, in addition to the traditional parameters of ovality, form-factor and NRR width ratio (p<0.0005). SSLA (minimum bending energy criterion--18 points) had the best sensitivity (83%) and area under the curve (AUC) (0.91). EFA (72 points) performed similarly well (74%, 0.89) as did the set of traditional shape-based variables (76%, 0.86). This study demonstrated that a geometric morphometric approach for discriminating between normal and glaucomatous eyes in optic cup shape is superior to that provided by traditional single parameter shape measures. Such analytical techniques could be incorporated into future automated optic disc screening modalities. PMID:20599965

Sanfilippo, Paul G; Cardini, Andrea; Sigal, Ian A; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Chua, Brian E; Hewitt, Alex W; Mackey, David A

2010-09-01

292

Quantifying Transitions: Morphometric Approaches to Palaeolithic Variability and Technological Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Robust assessment of lithic technological transitions requires dependable methodologies for the comparative analysis of stone\\u000a tools from different localities, regions, and even continents. Many concepts of technological variability and change during\\u000a the Lower–Middle Palaeolithic centre upon differences in the shape of various cores and core tools (e.g., polyhedrons, discoids,\\u000a Acheulean bifaces, Levallois cores, etc.). Morphometrics is the application of the

Stephen J. Lycett

293

Recognising and assessing blunt abdominal trauma.  

PubMed

Blunt abdominal trauma is common following major traumatic injury but may not be recognised quickly enough and is therefore a cause of preventable death in trauma patients. Emergency department nurses have a major role to play in reducing the incidence of unrecognised abdominal trauma by enhancing their knowledge and skills. They can do this by attending trauma-related courses, taking on more expanded roles, carrying out full and comprehensive physical assessments, and ensuring that members of the multidisciplinary team use the wide range of diagnostic adjuncts available to them. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the abdominal cavity, explains abdominal trauma, gives an overview of advanced abdominal assessment techniques and diagnostic adjuncts, and reviews some management strategies for uncontrolled haemorrhage that have been adopted in the UK. PMID:25746888

McGrath, Anthony; Whiting, Dean

2015-03-01

294

Pulmonary thromboembolism presenting with abdominal symptoms  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Abdominal pain is rarely reported as the presenting complaint of pulmonary thromboembolism. Case Report: We report a case of a 42 year old white male with no known past medical problems except a left humeral fracture two weeks prior who presented to the emergency department with acute onset of right flank and lower abdominal pain. Initial evaluation including abdominal CT suggested cholecystitis. Lack of improvement with empiric antibiotics and symptomatic therapy prompted further evaluation revealing the patient to have a pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Conclusions: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) can be effectively treated once diagnosed. Abdominal pain as a presenting complaint in PTE is rarely reported as a cause of PTE. We believe that clinicians should consider PTE in their differential of abdominal pain in patients with risk factors for VTE. PMID:23569510

Mansmann, Erin H.; Singh, Anil

2012-01-01

295

Abdominal tuberculosis of the gastrointestinal tract: Revisited  

PubMed Central

Abdominal tuberculosis is an increasingly common disease that poses diagnostic challenge, as the nonspecific features of the disease which may lead to diagnostic delays and development of complications. This condition is regarded as a great mimicker of other abdominal pathology. A high index of suspicion is an important factor in early diagnosis. Abdominal involvement may occur in the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lymphnodes or solid viscera. Various investigative methods have been used to aid in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and initiation of antituberculous therapy and surgical treatment are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality. Most of the patients respond very well to standard antitubercular therapy and surgery is required only in a minority of cases. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis because early recognition of this condition is important. We reviewed our experience with the findings on various imaging modalities for diagnosis of this potentially treatable disease. PMID:25356043

Debi, Uma; Ravisankar, Vasudevan; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sharma, Arun Kumar

2014-01-01

296

Identification of Erosion Prone Areas by Morphometric Analysis Using GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was undertaken to determine the priority watersheds for conservation of natural resources of the Haharo sub catchment in the Damodar catchment of upper Damodar valley area having an area of 565 km2 involving four watersheds in Jharkhand State in eastern India by morphometric analysis using topographical maps on a scale of 1:50,000. To define the morphometric features of the watershed, the topographic information of the study area at 1:50,000 scaled are taken for analysis with the help of GIS tools. The topographical information derived from this map is utilized for calculating parameters and fixing of priority of watershed for suggesting conservation measures. The parameters computed include the morphometric parameters like bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, and three basin shape parameters i.e., form factor, circularity ratio, and elongation ratio. A rating was done for each of these parameters according to their value. Average of all these parameter for each watershed is calculated to determine the priority. Among the four watersheds 4/4 was the highest priority area where conservation measure has to be taken first then watershed 4/3. Watershed 4/1 was the medium priority area and watershed 4/2 was the low priority area.

Das, D.

2014-01-01

297

Morphometric growth relationships of the immature human mandible and tongue.  

PubMed

The masticatory apparatus is a highly adaptive musculoskeletal complex comprising several relatively independent structural components, which assist in functions including feeding and breathing. We hypothesized that the tongue is elemental in the maintenance of normal ontogeny of the mandible and in its post-natal growth and development, and tested this using a morphometric approach. We assessed tongue and mandibular measurements in 174 (97 male) human cadavers. Landmark lingual and mandibular data were gathered individuals aged between 20 gestational weeks and 3 yr postnatal. In this analysis, geometric morphometrics assisted in visualizing the morphometrical growth changes in the mandible and tongue. A linear correlation in conjunction with principal component analysis further visualized the growth relationship between these structures. We found that the growth of the tongue and mandible were intrinsically linked in size and shape between 20 gestational weeks and 24 months postnatal. However, the mandible continued to change in shape and size into the 3rd yr of life, whereas the tongue only increased in size over this same period of time. These findings provide valuable insights into the allometric growth relationship between these structures, potentially assisting the clinician in predicting the behaviour of these structures in the assessment of malocclusions. PMID:24712417

Hutchinson, Erin F; Kieser, Jules A; Kramer, Beverley

2014-06-01

298

Morphometric and geometric characterization of normal faults on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using three different approaches (fault plane fitting, 3D crater rim palinspatic restorations and fault scarps morphometric analysis) we investigate the geometry and degradation history of Martian normal faults in two distinct areas. The three independent methods produce similar results, indicating that the average dip angle of the normal faults on these two locations is probably below the value that is usually assumed for Mars (?60°). Our best estimate for this average dip angle is 46.8±9.8°, which is a value comparable with the mean dip angle inferred on Earth for seismically active normal faults. This lower average dip angle implies that all the rift strain estimates performed until now might be underestimated. From the comparative analysis of the two faulted regions (Phlegethon Catena and Claritas Fossae), we show that local and regional dip variabilities may exist on Mars. This reinforces the idea that the amount of extension associated with Martian rifts must be reconsidered. We also demonstrate the advantages of performing a comparative morphometric analysis of fault scarps. This approach enables the reconstruction of the faults scarps degradation history and can be used to evaluate how environmental conditions changed through time. After modeling the degradation of the fault scarps at the two sites we conclude that the observed morphometric variations are mainly due to the different faulting ages in an environment characterized by low scarp degradation rates (4×10-3 m/kyr) over the last 3 Ga.

Vaz, David A.; Spagnuolo, Mauro G.; Silvestro, Simone

2014-09-01

299

Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

Rao, Uma N. M.

300

Mapping the Longitudinal Wall Stiffness Heterogeneities within Intact Canine Aortas using Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) Ex Vivo  

PubMed Central

The aortic stiffness has been found to be a useful independent indicator of several cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and aneurysms. Existing methods to estimate the aortic stiffness are either invasive, e.g. catheterization, or yield average global measurements which could be inaccurate, e.g., tonometry. Alternatively, the aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) has been shown to be a reliable marker for estimating the wall stiffness based on the Moens–Korteweg (M–K) formulation. Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) is a relatively new, ultrasound-based imaging method for noninvasive and regional estimation of PWV. The present study aims at showing the application of PWI in obtaining localized wall mechanical properties by making PWV measurements on several adjacent locations along the ascending thoracic to the suprarenal abdominal aortic trunk in its intact vessel form. The PWV estimates were used to calculate the regional wall modulus based on the M-K relationship and were compared against conventional mechanical testing. The findings indicated that for the anisotropic aortic wall, the PWI estimates of the modulus are smaller than the circumferential modulus by an average of ?32.22% and larger than the longitudinal modulus by an average of 25.83%. Ongoing work is focused on the in vivo applications of PWI in normal and pathological aortas with future implications in the clinical applications of the technique. PMID:23764176

Shahmirzadi, Danial; Narayanan, Prathyush; Li, Ronny X.; Qaqish, William W.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

2014-01-01

301

Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.  

PubMed

Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption. PMID:25541927

Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa

2014-11-01

302

Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review  

PubMed Central

Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

2014-01-01

303

Septic rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque of the ascending aorta  

PubMed Central

Infectious aortitis has become a rare disease thanks to the widespread use of antibiotics. We report the case of a patient who, 15 days after initiation of antibiotics for bacteraemia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), developed acute chest pain followed by haemodynamic instability. A tamponade due to a rupture into the pericardium of the ascending aorta at the site of an atherosclerotic plaque was diagnosed by an emergent chest contrasted computed tomography (CT). Intraoperatively, the septic nature of the rupture was suspected. All aortic atherosclerotic plaque samples grew MRSA. Postoperatively, the patient had an uneventful recovery after 12 weeks of antibiotic therapy. Transoesophageal echocardiography and chest CT were normal at 3 months after cessation of antibiotics. This case report permits the review of some characteristics of this disease, its physiopathology as well as the therapeutic implications. PMID:22728897

Maillet, Jean Michel; Palombi, Tonino; Sablayrolles, Jean-Louis; Bonnet, Nicolas

2012-01-01

304

Reproducibility of aortic pulsatility measurements from ECG-gated abdominal CTA in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: ECG-gated abdominal CT angiography with reconstruction of multiple, temporally overlapping CT angiography datasets has been proposed for measuring aortic pulsatility. The purpose of this work is to develop algorithms to segment the aorta from surrounding structures from CTA datasets across cardiac phases, calculate registered centerlines and measurements of regional aortic pulsatility in patients with AAA, and to assess the reproducibility of these measurements. Methods: ECG-gated CTA was performed with a temporal resolution of 165 ms, reconstructed to 1 mm slices ranging at 14 cardiac phase points. Data sets were obtained from 17 patients on which two such scans were performed 6 to 12 months apart. Automated segmentation, centerline generation, and registration of centerlines between phases was performed, followed by calculation of cross-sectional areas and regional and local pulsatility. Results: Pulsatility calculations for the supraceliac region were very reproducible between earlier and later scans of the same patient, with average differences less than 1% for pulsatility values ranging from 2% to 13%. Local radial pulsatilities were also reproducible to within ~1%. Aneurysm volume changes between scans can also be quantified. Conclusion: Automated segmentation, centerline generation, and registration of temporally resolved CTA datasets permit measurements of regional changes in cross-sectional area over the course of the cardiac cycle (i.e., regional aortic pulsatility). These measurements are reproducible between scans 6-12 months apart, with differences in aortic areas reflecting both aneurysm remodeling and changes in blood pressure. Regional pulsatilities ranged from 2 to 13% but were reproducible at the 1% level.

Manduca, Armando; Fletcher, Joel G.; Wentz, Robert J.; Shields, Raymond C.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Siddiki, Hassan; Nielson, Theresa

2009-02-01

305

Basal lamina structural alterations in human asymmetric aneurismatic aorta.  

PubMed

Basal lamina (BL) is a crucial mechanical and functional component of blood vessels, constituting a sensor of extracellular microenvironment for endothelial cells and pericytes. Recently, an abnormality in the process of matrix microfibrillar component remodeling has been advocated as a mechanism involved in the development of aortic dilation. We focused our attention on BL composition and organization and studied some of the main components of the Extracellular Matrix such as Tenascin, Laminins, Fibronectin, type I, III and IV Collagens. We used surgical fragments from 27 patients, submitted to operation because of aortic root aneurysm and 5 normal aortic wall specimens from heart donors without any evidence for aneurysmal or atherosclerotic diseases of the aorta. Two samples of aortic wall were harvested from each patient, proximal to the sinotubular junction at the aortic convexity and concavity. Each specimen was processed both for immunohistochemical examination and molecular biology study. We compared the convexity of each aortic sample with the concavity of the same vessel, and both of them with the control samples. The synthesis of mRNA and the levels of each protein were assessed, respectively, by RT-PCR and Western Blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry elucidated the organization of BL, whose composition was revealed by molecular biology. All pathological samples showed a wall thinner than normal ones. Basal lamina of the aortic wall evidentiated important changes in the tridimensional arrangement of its major components which lost their regular arrangement in pathological specimens. Collagen I, Laminin alpha2 chain and Fibronectin amounts decreased in pathological samples, while type IV Collagen and Tenascin synthesis increased. Consistently with the common macroscopic observation that ascending aorta dilations tend to expand asymmetrically, with prevalent involvement of the vessel convexity and relative sparing of the concavity, Collagen type IV is more evident in the concavity and Tenascin in the convexity. PMID:16377578

Cotrufo, M; De Santo, L; Della Corte, A; Di Meglio, F; Guerra, G; Quarto, C; Vitale, S; Castaldo, C; Montagnani, S

2005-01-01

306

The Benefits of Internal Thoracic Artery Catheterization in Patients With Chronic Abdominal Aortic Occlusion  

SciTech Connect

Occlusion of the abdominal aorta may be caused by an embolic lesion, but more commonly by thrombotic disease at the aortoiliac area, progressing retrograde. However, the visualization of the distal run-off via internal thoracic-epigastric inferior artery collateral channel may be a very important diagnostic tool, especially in countries with poor technical equipment. This study was designed to show the benefit of the selective internal thoracic angiography in cases with complete aortic occlusion. We present 30 patients with chronic aortic abdominal occlusion who were submitted to the transaxillary aortography and selective ITA angiography with purpose of distal run off evaluation. Angiographic evaluation was performed by two independent radiologists according to previously defined classification. Good angiographic score via internal thoracic angiography by first observer was achieved in 19 (63.3%) patients and in 18 (60%) by a second observer. Transaxillary aortography showed inferior results: good angiographic score by the first observer in six (20%) patients and by the second observer in three (3%) patients. Low extremity run-off is better visualized during internal thoracic angiography than during transaxillary aortography.

Ilic, Nikola, E-mail: fosafosa75@yahoo.com; Davidovic, Lazar; Koncar, Igor; Dragas, Marko; Markovic, Miroslav; Colic, Momcilo; Cinara, Ilijas [Clinical Center Serbia, Clinic of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Serbia)

2011-04-15

307

The Effects of Anisotropy on the Stress Analyses of Patient-Specific Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

The local dilation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta, termed an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), is often times asymptomatic and may eventually result in rupture —an event associated with a significant mortality rate. The estimation of in-vivo stresses within AAAs has been proposed as a useful tool to predict the likelihood of rupture. For the current work, a previously-derived anisotropic relation for the AAA wall was implemented into patient-specific finite element simulations of AAA. There were 35 AAAs simulated in the current work which were broken up into three groups: elective repairs (n = 21), non-ruptured repairs (n = 5), and ruptured repairs (n = 9). Peak stresses and strains were compared using the anisotropic and isotropic constitutive relations. There were significant increases in peak stress when using the anisotropic relationship (p<0.001), even in the absence of the ILT (p = 0.014). Rutpured AAAs resulted in elevated peak stresses as compared to non-ruptured AAAs when using both the isotropic and anisotropic simulations, however these comparisons did not reach significance (pani = 0.55, piso = 0.73). While neither the isotropic or anisotropic simulations were able to significantly discriminate ruptured vs. non-ruptured AAAs, the lower p-value when using the anisotropic model suggests including it into patient-specific AAAs may help better identify AAAs at high risk. PMID:18398680

Vande Geest, Jonathan P.; Schmidt, David E.; Sacks, Michael S.; Vorp, David A.

2009-01-01

308

Evolution of the wall shear stresses during the progressive enlargement of symmetric abdominal aortic aneurysms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changes in the evolution of the spatial and temporal distribution of the wall shear stresses (WSS) and gradients of wall shear stresses (GWSS) at different stages of the enlargement of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are important in understanding the aetiology and progression of this vascular disease since they affect the wall structural integrity, primarily via the changes induced on the shape, functions and metabolism of the endothelial cells. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed in in vitro aneurysm models, while changing their geometric parameters systematically. It has been shown that, even at the very early stages of the disease, i.e. increase in the diameter ? 50%, the flow separates from the wall and a large vortex ring, usually followed by internal shear layers, is created. These lead to the generation of WSS that drastically differ in mean and fluctuating components from the healthy vessel. Inside the AAA, the mean WSS becomes negative along most of the aneurysmal wall and the magnitude of the WSS can be as low as 26% of the value in a healthy abdominal aorta.

Salsac, A.-V.; Sparks, S. R.; Chomaz, J.-M.; Lasheras, J. C.

2006-08-01

309

Fluid Characteristics in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) and Its Correlation to Thrombus Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been observed that most large Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) develop an intraluminal thrombus as they progressively enlarge. Previous studies have suggested that the build up of the thrombus may be associated with the altered hemodynamic patterns that arise inside the AAA. We have performed a parametrical computational study of the flow patterns inside enlarging AAA to investigate the possible mechanism controlling the thrombus formation. Pulsatile blood flows were simulated in idealized models of fusiform aneurysms with different dilatation ratios and the effects of shear-activated platelet accumulation and platelet/wall interaction were evaluated based on the calculated flow fields. The platelet activation level (PAL) was determined by computing the integral over time of flow shear stresses exerted over the platelets as they are transported throughout the aneurysm. Our results have shown that the values of PAL in AAAs are in fact smaller than the maximum value obtained in a healthy abdominal aorta. However, we show that the transportation of blood cells towards the wall and the formation of stagnation points on the aneurysm's wall play more significant roles in thrombus formation than PAL.

Tang, Rubing; Bar-Yoseph, Pinhas Z.; Lasheras, Juan

2008-11-01

310

Update on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Research: From Clinical to Genetic Studies  

PubMed Central

An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilatation of the abdominal aorta with a diameter of at least 3.0?cm. AAAs are often asymptomatic and are discovered as incidental findings in imaging studies or when the AAA ruptures leading to a medical emergency. AAAs are more common in males than females, in individuals of European ancestry, and in those over 65 years of age. Smoking is the most important environmental risk factor. In addition, a positive family history of AAA increases the person's risk for AAA. Interestingly, diabetes has been shown to be a protective factor for AAA in many large studies. Hallmarks of AAA pathogenesis include inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, extracellular matrix degradation, and oxidative stress. Autoimmunity may also play a role in AAA development and progression. In this Outlook paper, we summarize our recent studies on AAA including clinical studies related to surgical repair of AAA and genetic risk factor and large-scale gene expression studies. We conclude with a discussion on our research projects using large data sets available through electronic medical records and biobanks. PMID:24834361

Kuivaniemi, Helena; Ryer, Evan J.; Elmore, James R.; Hinterseher, Irene; Smelser, Diane T.; Tromp, Gerard

2014-01-01

311

Surgical treatment of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms: Outcome and predictors analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study is to report our experience on the postoperative outcome of surgical treatment of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA). Materials and Methods Between 1997–2014, 35 patients with IAAA underwent surgery. The mean age was 63 ± 18 years. Chronic renal failure was identified in 11 (31.4%) patients and confirmed ischemic heart disease in 15 (43%) patients. The mean aortic aneurysm diameter was 68 ± 25 mm. The abdominal aorta was clamped above the renal arteries in 6 (17%) patients. Results The hospital mortality was 5.7% (2 patients). Three patients developed an aortic pseudoaneurysm and underwent a redo operation. Another patient developed a femoral anastomotic pseudoaneurysm 7 years after operation and he was treated surgically. The actuarial free-reoperation actuarial survival at 1, 5 and 7 years was 94%, 62% and 50%, respectively. The Cox model revealed the delta erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p = 0.002), ischemic heart disease (p = 0.006) and renal failure (p = 0.036) as strong predictors for poor overall outcome. Conclusion Early postoperative outcome in terms of mortality and morbidity seems acceptable, however, patients with IAAA have an increased risk for reoperation due to pseudonaneurysm formation. Strong predictors for poor overall outcome seem to be the elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ischemic heart disease and chronic renal failure. PMID:25243075

Nuellari, Edmond; Esposito, Giampiero; Kuci, Saimir; Kapedani, Edmond

2014-01-01

312

Surgical Treatment of Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Outcome and Predictors Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study is to report our experience on the postoperative outcome of surgical treatment of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA). Materials and Methods: Between 1997-2014, 35 patients with IAAA underwent surgery. The mean age was 63+/-18years. Chronic renal failure was identified in 11(31.4%)patients and confirmed ischemic heart disease in 15(43%)patients. The mean aortic aneurysm diameter was 68+/-25mm. The abdominal aorta was clamped above the renal arteries in 6 (17%) patients. Results: The hospital mortality was 5.7% (2 patients). Three patients developed an aortic pseudoaneurysm and underwent a redo operation. Another patient developed a femoral anastomotic pseudoaneurysm 7 years after operation and he was treated surgically. The actuarial free-reoperation actuarial survival at 1, 5 and 7 years was 94%, 62% and 50% respectively. The Cox model revealed the delta ESR (p=0.002), ischemic heart disease (p=0.006) and renal failure (p=0.036) as strong predictors for poor overall outcome. Conclusion: Early postoperative outcome in terms of mortality and morbidity seems acceptable, however patients with IAAA have an increased risk for reoperation due to pseudonaneurysm formation. Strong predictors for poor overall outcome seems to be the elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ischemic heart disease and chronic renal failure. PMID:25568545

Nuellari, Edmond; Prifti, Edvin; Esposito, Giampiero; Kapedani, Edmond

2014-01-01

313

Chronic Contained Rupture of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: From Diagnosis to Endovascular Resolution  

SciTech Connect

A male patient, 69 years old, presented with fever, leucocytosis, and persistent low back pain; he also had an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), as previously diagnosed by Doppler UltraSound (US), and was admitted to our hospital. On multislice computed tomography (msCT), a large abdominal mass having no definite border and involving the aorta and both of the psoas muscles was seen. This mass involved the forth-lumbar vertebra with lysis, thus simulating AAA rupture into a paraspinal collection; it was initially considered a paraspinal abscess. After magnetic resonance imaging examination and culture of the fluid aspirated from the mass, no infective organisms were found; therefore, a diagnosisof chronically contained AAA rupture was made, and an aortic endoprosthesis was subsequently implanted. The patient was discharged with decreased lumbar pain. At 12-month follow-up, no evidence of leakage was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of endoprosthesis implantation in a patient, who was a poor candidate for surgical intervention due to renal failure, leucocytosis and high fever, having a chronically contained AAA ruptured simulatingspodilodiscitis abscess. Appropriate diagnosis and therapy resolved potentially crippling pathology and avoided surgical graft-related complications.

Gandini, Roberto, E-mail: marcello.chiocchi@fastwebnet.it; Chiocchi, Marcello; Maresca, Luciano; Pipitone, Vincenzo; Messina, Massimo; Simonetti, Giovanni [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy (Italy)

2008-07-15

314

Evaluation of a novel vascular graft with a distal bifurcation designed to reduce the development of intimal hyperplasia. Experimental study in a porcine aorta model.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Abnormal haemodynamics is commonly agreed to be a major contributor to the development of distal anastomotic intimal hyperplasia. A new vascular graft design proposed by computational studies was used to demonstrate its surgical feasibility and to compare it with the conventional graft in a porcine model. METHOD: The device was used in 12 eight-month-old pigs, six received the new graft and six had a conventional graft. The proximal graft end was implanted into the aorta, the distal graft end was implanted into the iliac artery. The host artery was ligated in order to simulate occlusion. At 20 weeks after surgery the pigs were killed and the device was excised for histological and morphometric analysis. RESULTS: In five experimental grafts the reconstruction was occluded due to thrombosis; only one prosthesis was patent showing a minimum of neointimal hyperplasia. In the control group too only three of the six grafts were patent. A histological analysis revealed, as the cause of occlusion, fibrous tissue overgrowth corresponding in structure to neointimal hyperplasia. Differences in the number of obliterations and in occlusion rates between the profiles of the two groups were evaluated using the median test (P<0.05). The results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Although mathematical modelling had shown significant haemodynamic benefits of a naturally bifurcated graft, our study did not confirm its superiority over conventionally used prostheses. PMID:23579111

Vlachovsky, Robert; Staffa, Robert; Dvorak, Martin; Vlasin, Michal; Hermanova, Marketa; O'Brien, Thomas; McGloughlin, Timothy

2013-04-10

315

The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1993-01-01

316

Asymptomatic mycotic aneurysm of ascending aorta after heart transplantation: a case report.  

PubMed

Mycotic pseudoaneurysm and aneurysm of the ascending aorta is a very rare and potentially fatal complication of heart transplantation. It usually presents with fever, chest pain, dyspnea, or constitutional symptoms. Most reports in the literature are about mycotic pseudoaneurysm, but mycotic aneurysm is rarer. Herein we report a 39-year-old man in who had an asymptomatic mycotic aneurysm of the ascending aorta developed late (1 year) after orthotopic heart transplantation. There was no history of previous mediastinitis or any other important infection. He underwent an uneventful replacement of the ascending aorta. PMID:25645806

Behzadnia, N; Ahmadi, Z H; Mandegar, M H; Salehi, F; Sharif-Kashani, B; Pourabdollah, M; Ansari-Aval, Z; Kianfar, A-A; Mirhosseini, S M; Eiji, M

2015-01-01

317

Saccular aneurysm formation of the descending aorta associated with aortic coarctation in an infant.  

PubMed

Aneurysm of the descending aorta associated with CoA is an extremely rare congenital abnormality. In this report, we present a 16 months old female patient in whom cardiac catheterization had been performed which had revealed a segment of coarctation and saccular aneurysm in the descending aorta. The patient was operated and a 3x2 centimeters aneurysm which embraces the coarcted segment in descending aorta was resected. In summary, we present a case of saccular aortic aneurysm distal to aortic coarctation in an infant without any history of intervention or vascular inflammatory disease. Our case report seems to be the youngest patient in literature with this pathology. PMID:25714219

Ozyuksel, Arda; Canturk, Emir; Dindar, Aygun; Akcevin, Atif

2014-01-01

318

Endoluminal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair  

PubMed Central

Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is an attractive alternative to open surgical repair. Distal endograft migration and type 1 endoleak are recognized to be the 2 main complications of EVAR. First-generation endografts had a stronger propensity for distal migration, modular component separation, thrombosis, and loss of structural integrity. Substantial progress has been made in recent years with 2nd- and 3rd-generation devices to prevent these complications. Some of the most common predictors of endograft failure are angulated and short infrarenal necks, large-diameter necks, and thrombus in the aneurysmal sac. The purpose of this study is to describe and review our experience in using innovative techniques and a newer generation of endografts to prevent distal migration and type 1 endoleak in patients with challenging infrarenal neck anatomy. The use of these innovative EVAR techniques and the new generation of endografts in patients with challenging infrarenal neck anatomy has yielded encouraging procedural and intermediate-term results. PMID:20200623

Ghouri, Maaz; Krajcer, Zvonimir

2010-01-01

319

Abdominal surgery. [Radiology, screening techniques  

SciTech Connect

A new art of ''interventional radiology'' has been developed in the past few years. Major applications include postoperative instrumentation of the biliary tract, percutaneous biliary drainage, tumor biopsy, abscess drainage, and intestinal-intubation procedures. Intervention by angiography encompasses injection of such substances as Pitressin (vasopressin), and embolization. These procedures have been of immense value. Fortunately, complications, such as sepsis and bleeding, have been infrequent. Computerized body tomography has also proved extremely important, particularly in the diagnosis of subphrenic abscess and pancreatic and pelvic pathology. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled-erythrocyte scans can be used to detect gastrointestinal bleeding sites. Scans can also identify hepatobiliary disease and splenic injury or differentiate the cause of jaundice. /sup 111/Indium-labeled autologous leukocytes may be useful in differentiating a pancreatic abscess from a pseudocyst. The advantage of indium scans over /sup 67/Ga scans is that a shorter time is required for maximum resolution: gallium requires 48 hours, indium 4. Another advantage is that indium is cleared through the liver and spleen and is not secreted into the bowel. /sup 67/Ga is absorbed by lymphomas and hepatocarcinomas. Nuclear magnetic resonance has many possible uses in abdominal surgery, but so far little information is available. This technique has been used to detect an empyema of the gallbladder that was not diagnosed by ultrasound. Among hepatic lesions, it can easily differentiate tumors from cysts and in that regard is superior to both ultrasound and scan. (JMT)

Welch, C.E.; Malt, R.A.

1983-03-31

320

Observations on intra-abdominal pressure and patterns of abdominal intra-muscular activity in man.  

PubMed

The aim was to investigate possible relationships between activities of the individual muscles of the ventrolateral abdominal wall and the development of pressure within the abdominal cavity. Intra-muscular activity was recorded bilaterally from transversus abdominis, obliquus internus, obliquus externus and rectus abdominis with fine-wire electrodes guided into place using real-time ultrasound. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured intragastrically using a micro tip pressure transducer. Six males were studied during loading and movement tasks with varied levels of intra-abdominal pressure. During both maximal voluntary isometric trunk flexion and extension, transversus abdominis activity and intra-abdominal pressure remained constant, while all other abdominal muscles showed a marked reduction during extension. When maximal isometric trunk flexor or extensor torques were imposed upon a maximal Valsalva manoeuvre, transversus abdominis activity and intra-abdominal pressure remained comparable within and across conditions, whereas obliquus internus, obliquus externus and rectus abdominis activities either markedly increased (flexion) or decreased (extension). Trunk twisting movements showed reciprocal patterns of activity between the left and right sides of transversus abdominis, indicating an ability for torque development. During trunk flexion--extension, transversus abdominis showed less distinguished changes of activity possibly relating to a general stabilizing function. In varied pulsed Valsalva manoeuvres, changes in peak intra-abdominal pressure were correlated with mean amplitude electromyograms of all abdominal muscles, excluding rectus abdominis. It is concluded that the co-ordinative patterns shown between the muscles of the ventrolateral abdominal wall are task specific based upon demands of movement, torque and stabilization. It appears that transversus abdominis is the abdominal muscle whose activity is most consistently related to changes in intra-abdominal pressure. PMID:1534959

Cresswell, A G; Grundström, H; Thorstensson, A

1992-04-01

321

Abdominal pain - children under age 12  

MedlinePLUS

Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... belly Has had a recent injury to the abdomen Is having trouble breathing Call your doctor if ...

322

[Current diagnostics for intra-abdominal trauma].  

PubMed

In case of suspected intra-abdominal injury, fast transport of the patient to a suitable hospital is of high priority. The initial clinical examination aims at identifying patients with potentially life-threatening bleeding that require emergency surgery. In patients with penetrating trauma, laparoscopy is favoured to exclude suspected perforation of the peritoneum. If a peritoneal perforation is identified, exploratory laparotomy is recommended to exclude or treat lacerations of the hollow viscus. Although clinical examination should be performed its sensitivity and specificity of up to 82% and 45%, respectively, are not sufficient as the sole screening method. For the further diagnostic workup, diagnostic peritoneal lavage has been completely replaced by abdominal ultrasound examination in Germany and many other countries. Focussing not only on the detection of free abdominal fluid but also searching for parenchymal organ lesions and performing repeated examinations increases accuracy up to 96%, with specificity of 99.8% and sensitivity of 72.1%. Computed abdominal tomography with a helical scanner with and without intravenous contrast media is currently the gold standard of imaging techniques to identify traumatic abdominal injuries. A sensitivity of 97.2% and specificity of 94.7% can be achieved. False negative findings must be expected with hollow organ injuries. Serial clinical and ultrasound examinations as well as lab testing in conjunction with repeated CT may help to identify such lesions. Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) with consecutive abdominal compartment syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction is a delayed complication from conditions such as severe intra-abdominal bleeding, major bleeding from pelvic ring fractures, and profuse fluid resuscitation. The IAP should be measured routinely in patients at risk, and decompression laparotomy may be indicated with pressures of higher than 20 mmHg. PMID:16170502

Nast-Kolb, D; Bail, H J; Taeger, G

2005-10-01

323

A focus on intra-abdominal infections  

PubMed Central

Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as immunodeficiency and prolonged antibacterial exposure. Therapy should focus on the obtainment of adequate source control and adequate use of antimicrobial therapy dictated by individual patient risk factors. Other critical issues remain debated and more controversies are still open mainly because of the limited number of randomized controlled trials. PMID:20302628

2010-01-01

324

Postoperative gastric dilatation causing abdominal compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of postoperative gastric dilatation on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). DESIGN AND SETTING: Single case report from a primary teaching hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 72-year-old woman demonstrated a sudden respiratory and cardiovascular collapse following resection of a retroperitoneal sarcoma. This collapse was caused by abdominal compartment syndrome due to gastric dilatation. RESULTS: The patient was re-explored,

Ahmad Mahajna; Sharon Mitkal; Michael M Krausz

2008-01-01

325

Giant Subcutaneous Leiomyosarcoma of Anterior Abdominal Wall  

PubMed Central

Subcutaneous leiomyosarcomas are rare tumors accounting for 1% to 2% of all superficial soft tissue malignancies. Although they may arise anywhere in the body, they most frequently occur in the lower extremities. The incidence of subcutaneous LMS affecting the anterior abdominal wall is very rare. We herein report the case of a patient with a giant subcutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in the anterior abdominal wall. It was diagnosed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry and treated accordingly. PMID:25506027

2014-01-01

326

INFLUENCE OF NUTRITIONAL STRESS AND THE AGE OF ADULTS ON THE MORPHOMETRICS OF HONEY BEES  

E-print Network

INFLUENCE OF NUTRITIONAL STRESS AND THE AGE OF ADULTS ON THE MORPHOMETRICS OF HONEY BEES (APIS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705 **Honey Bee Breeding, Genetics of nutritional stress, and the post-emergence age of adult worker honey bees, on the morphometric determinations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

327

Oncocytomas and null cell adenomas of the human pituitary: Morphometric and in vitro functional comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, light microscopic and ultrastructural morphometric features of oncocytomas and null cell adenomas were compared and the morphometric data were correlated with in vitro endocrine activity. All tumours were unassociated with clinical or biochemical evidence of hormone excess and were diagnosed as oncocytomas or null cell adenomas, using histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. In oncocytomas, when compared with

Shozo Yamada; Sylvia L. Asa; Kalman Kovacs

1988-01-01

328

Geometric morphometric approach to sex estimation of human pelvis.  

PubMed

Sex estimation of skeletal remains is an important issue in both forensics and bioarchaeology. The chance of attaining a high level of accuracy regarding sex allocations is related to the skeletal component analyzed and the ability of the techniques employed to describe shape and size differences among the sexes. Current opinion regards the hip bone as the most reliable sex indicator because it is the most dimorphic bone, particularly in adult individuals. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the greater sciatic notch and the ischiopubic complex morphology by employing geometric morphometric techniques, based on semilandmark and multivariate statistical methods, in order to develop a reliable and accurate technique for adult sex estimation. The sample analyzed consisted of 121 adult left hip bones randomly selected from the collection of documented skeletons housed at the Museu Antropologico de Coimbra. Morphometric analysis was based on coordinates of landmarks and semilandmarks of the ilium and ischiopubic regions that were digitized on 2D photographic images. Discriminant analysis with leave-one-out cross-validation and k-means clustering of shape and shape-size variables were used in order to classify individuals by sex. For the greater sciatic notch, average accuracy of 90.9% was achieved with both multivariate analyses based on shape variables. For the ischiopubic complex, the values obtained with shape variables were 93.4% and 90.1% for discriminant and k-means, respectively. Females were misclassified more frequently than males, especially for the ischiopubic complex. When multivariate statistical analyses were performed using shape-size variables, the percentages of correct classifications were lower than those obtained with shape variables. We conclude that the use of geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistics is a reliable method to quantify pelvic shape differences between the sexes and could be applied to discriminate between females and males. PMID:19442464

Gonzalez, Paula N; Bernal, Valeria; Perez, S Ivan

2009-08-10

329

French Women From Multiplex Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Families Should Be Screened  

PubMed Central

Background: Multiplex abdominal aortic aneurysm families (MAAAFs) (?1 subject plus the proband) represent 1% to 34% of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), but the percentage in France is unknown. Method: The MAAAF rate was retrospectively defined by analysis of 3 groups: 72 of 104 consecutive individuals undergoing AAA surgery during 1994, 24 of 53 women and 35 of 76 men with giant (?9 cm) AAA operated on during 1986 to 1994. MAAAF characteristics were determined based on 10 families issued from these 3 groups and 34 others identified nationwide. Data were obtained from a standardized questionnaire for probands and relatives, detailed pedigrees of each family, and computed tomography (CT) scans without contrast medium of the aorta and lower limb arteries for first-degree relatives ?40-year-of age. Results: The MAAAF rate was 4.2% for the consecutive-surgery patients (proband M/F ratio, 17:1; mean age at surgery, 68.5 ± 8.5 years). CT detected no additional AAA among them (screened individuals M/F ratio, 0.63; mean age, 54.0 ± 11.2 years). MAAAF rates were 8.3% and 14.3% for the women's and giant-AAA groups with CT screening, respectively. Characteristics were investigated in 104 affected subjects from 44 MAAAFs: female relatives were more often affected than probands (P < 0.025). Compared with men, affected female relatives were significantly older at diagnosis and surgery (P < 0.05 and P < 0.02, respectively), as were affected women (P < 0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively). CT scan screening identified significantly more AAA and abdominal aortic dilatations among the 44 MAAAFs than the consecutive-surgery group (5 and 4, respectively; P < 0.001). Conclusion: Although the MAAAF rate seems low in France, women from MAAAF were affected more often and later, suggesting that they should be screened. PMID:16244549

Le Hello, Claire; Koskas, Fabien; Cluzel, Philippe; Tazi, Zoubida; Gallos, Corina; Piette, Jean Charles; Lasserve, Elisabeth Tournier; Kieffer, Edouard; Cacoub, Patrice

2005-01-01

330

A morphometric study on human muscle mitochondria in aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondria are dynamic organelles capable of significant changes of their ultrastructural features according to the tissue-specific\\u000a energy demands. In human biopsies of vastus lateralis and anterior tibialis muscles from young (25.0 ± 4.4 years), middle-aged\\u000a (50.4 ± 7.5 years) and old (75.5±3.9 years) healthy volunteers, we carried out a morphometric study on subsarcolemmal and\\u000a intermyofibrillar mitochondria to assess whether age-related

Carlo Bertoni-Freddari; Patrizia Fattoretti; Ugo Caselli; Belinda Giorgetti; Stefano Albanelli; Francesco Torelli; Giorgio Felzani; Jacopo Vecchiet

2002-01-01

331

Morphometric Approach to the Solvation Free Energy of Complex Molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the solvation free energy of a complex molecule such as a protein can be calculated using only four geometrical measures of the molecular structure and corresponding thermodynamical coefficients. We compare results from this morphometric approach to those obtained by an elaborate statistical-mechanical theory in liquid state physics for a large variety of different structures of protein G and find excellent agreement. Since the computational time is drastically reduced, the new approach provides a practical and efficient way for calculating the solvation free energy which can be employed when this quantity has to be calculated for a large number of structures, as in a simulation study of protein folding.

Roth, Roland; Harano, Yuichi; Kinoshita, Masahiro

2006-08-01

332

Morphometric analysis of populations of Centris aenea Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Centris aenea Lepeletier is a solitary bee that has raised interest in management to pollinate crops, such as acerola, Malpighia emarginata. This study investigated the level of morphometric variability among populations of C. aenea from Northeastern Brazil. Traditional and geometric morphometric analyses were used. Head length, leg length, wing length, and wing shape were measured in samples (5-10 females) from eight localities. We did not find statistically significant differences among the populations (P > 0.01). The partial wing warps were similar in the populations and indicated that the bees were not morphometrically different. Our results suggest that C. aenea shows low population morphometric variability and highlight the need for further investigations on population variation in this species, preferably including populations sampled at the extremes of their geographic distribution. Significant insight into the population variation of C. aenea will probably require the use of molecular markers to allow a comparative approach between morphometric variability and genetic variability. PMID:21437489

Ferreira, V S; Aguiar, C M L; Costa, M A; Silva, J G

2011-01-01

333

Vertebral Morphometry: A Comparison of Long-Term Precision of Morphometric X-ray Absorptiometry and Morphometric Radiography in Normal and Osteoporotic Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Vertebral morphometry, the quantification of vertebral body shape, has proved a useful tool in the identification and evaluation\\u000a of osteoporotic vertebral deformities in both epidemiologic surveys and clinical trials. Although conventionally it has been\\u000a performed on lateral radiographs of the thoracolumbar spine (morphometric radiography, MRX), it may now be accomplished on\\u000a morphometric X-ray absorptiometry (MXA) scans, acquired on dual-energy

J. A. Rea; M. B. Chen; J. Li; E. Marsh; B. Fan; G. M. Blake; P. Steiger; I. G. Smith; H. K. Genant; I. Fogelman

2001-01-01

334

Genes and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Since first candidate gene studies were published 20 years ago, nearly 100 genetic association studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biologically relevant genes have been reported on AAA. The studies investigated SNPs in genes of the extracellular matrix, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and signaling pathways. Very few studies were large enough to draw firm conclusions and very few results could be replicated in another sample set. The more recent unbiased approaches are family-based DNA linkage studies and genome-wide genetic association studies, which have the potential of identifying the genetic basis for AAA, if appropriately powered and well-characterized large AAA cohorts are used. SNPs associated with AAA have already been identified in these large multicenter studies. One significant association was of a variant in a gene called CNTN3 which is located on chromosome 3p12.3. Two follow-up studies, however, could not replicate the association. Two other SNPs, which are located on chromosome 9p21 and 9q33 were replicated in other samples. The two genes with the strongest supporting evidence of contribution to the genetic risk for AAA are the CDKN2BAS gene, also known as ANRIL, which encodes an antisense RNA that regulates expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival. Functional studies are now needed to establish the mechanisms by which these genes contribute to AAA pathogenesis. PMID:21146954

Hinterseher, Irene; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

2010-01-01

335

Early acute aortic dissection of the donor aorta after orthotopic heart transplantation.  

PubMed

Acute type A aortic dissection is an uncommon complication after orthotopic heart transplantation and usually affects the native aorta. Seven cases reported in the literature describe an aortic dissection confined to the donor aorta and only in two of them were they detected during the early postoperative period. We describe the case of a 58-year-old man, the recipient of a cardiac allograft for ischemic cardiomyopathy 20 days earlier, who presented an acute type A aortic dissection limited to the donor aorta. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed severe aortic regurgitation and an intimal tear 2 cm above commissures. The patient was successfully treated with a composite valve graft. This case is the first successful repair in a cardiac allograft with acute aortic dissection of the donor aorta during the early postoperative period using a Bentall procedure. PMID:19596707

Lopez, Carlos Esteban Martin; Lopez, Maria Jesus; de Diego, Javier; Cortina, Jose Maria

2009-10-01

336

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm diagnosed through non-contrast MRI  

PubMed Central

Rupture of an aneurysm is a rare complication although it is considered a common cause of death. Some of these patients present with the classic triad of symptoms such as abdominal pain, pulsatile abdominal mass and shock. Most symptoms are misleading and will only present as vague abdominal pain. Here we describe one such patient with an unusual presentation of a misleading abdominal mass which was eventually diagnosed as a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm after an emergency MRI. PMID:25003065

Chatra, Priyank S

2013-01-01

337

Longitudinal and Circumferential Strain of the Proximal Aorta  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate assessment of mechanical properties of the proximal aorta is a requisite first step for elucidating the pathophysiology of isolated systolic hypertension. During systole, substantial proximal aortic axial displacement produces longitudinal strain, which we hypothesize causes variable underestimation of ascending aortic circumferential strain compared to values in the longitudinally constrained descending aorta. Methods and Results To assess effects of longitudinal strain, we performed magnetic resonance imaging in 375 participants (72 to 94 years old, 204 women) in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility?Reykjavik Study and measured aortic circumferential and longitudinal strain. Circumferential ascending aortic area strain uncorrected for longitudinal strain was comparable in women and men (mean [95% CI], 8.3 [7.8, 8.9] versus 7.9 [7.4, 8.5]%, respectively, P=0.3). However, longitudinal strain was greater in women (8.5±2.5 versus 7.0±2.5%, P<0.001), resulting in greater longitudinally corrected circumferential ascending aortic strain (14.4 [13.6, 15.2] versus 13.0 [12.4, 13.7]%, P=0.010). Observed circumferential descending aortic strain, which did not require correction (women: 14.0 [13.2, 14.8], men: 12.4 [11.6, 13.2]%, P=0.005), was larger than uncorrected (P<0.001), but comparable to longitudinally corrected (P=0.12) circumferential ascending aortic strain. Carotid?femoral pulse wave velocity did not correlate with uncorrected ascending aortic strain (R=?0.04, P=0.5), but was inversely related to longitudinally corrected ascending and observed descending aortic strain (R=?0.15, P=0.004; R=?0.36, P<0.001, respectively). Longitudinal strain was also inversely related to carotid?femoral pulse wave velocity and other risk factors for higher aortic stiffness including treated hypertension. Conclusions Longitudinal strain creates substantial and variable errors in circumferential ascending aortic area strain measurements, particularly in women, and should be considered to avoid misclassification of ascending aortic stiffness. PMID:25523153

Bell, Vanessa; Mitchell, William A.; Sigurðsson, Sigurður; Westenberg, Jos J. M.; Gotal, John D.; Torjesen, Alyssa A.; Aspelund, Thor; Launer, Lenore J.; de Roos, Albert; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B.; Mitchell, Gary F.

2014-01-01

338

Enhanced neointimal growth in cultured rabbit aorta following in vivo balloon angioplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We have used in vivo balloon catheterization in combination with in vitro organ culture to develop a model system for vascular neointima formation. A Fogarty balloon catheter was used to deendothelialize\\u000a and rupture the internal elastic lamina of aortae in adult rabbits. After three d of recovery, aortae were harvested, divided\\u000a into segments, and placed into organ culture. We obtained

William E. Dale; Peter S. Batra; Edward H. Blaine

1998-01-01

339

Alterations in the Lipid Metabolism of Rat Aorta: Effects of Vitamin A Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidants are known to reduce cardiovascular disease by reducing the concentration of free radicals in the vessel wall and by preventing the oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins. The prooxidative effect of a vitamin-A-deficient diet on the aorta has previously been demonstrated by us. In this study, the lipid metabolism in the aorta of rats fed on a vitamin-A-deficient diet was

Laura V. Gatica; Verónica A. Vega; Fanny Zirulnik; Liliana B. Oliveros; María S. Gimenez

2006-01-01

340

Mechanisms of traumatic rupture of the aorta and associated peri-isthmic motion and deformation.  

PubMed

This study investigated the mechanisms of traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA). Eight unembalmed human cadavers were tested using various dynamic blunt loading modes. Impacts were conducted using a 32-kg impactor with a 152-mm face, and high-speed seatbelt pretensioners. High-speed biplane x-ray was used to visualize aortic motion within the mediastinum, and to measure deformation of the aorta. An axillary thoracotomy approach was used to access the peri-isthmic region to place radiopaque markers on the aorta. The cadavers were inverted for testing. Clinically relevant TRA was observed in seven of the tests. Peak average longitudinal Lagrange strain was 0.644, with the average peak for all tests being 0.208 +/- 0.216. Peak intraluminal pressure of 165 kPa was recorded. Longitudinal stretch of the aorta was found to be a principal component of injury causation. Stretch of the aorta was generated by thoracic deformation, which is required for injury to occur. The presence of atherosclerosis was demonstrated to promote injury. The isthmus of the aorta moved dorsocranially during frontal impact and submarining loading modes. The aortic isthmus moved medially and anteriorly during impact to the left side. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the mechanisms associated with TRA, and can be used for the validation of finite element models developed for the examination and prediction of TRA. PMID:19085165

Hardy, Warren N; Shah, Chirag S; Mason, Matthew J; Kopacz, James M; Yang, King H; King, Albert I; Van Ee, Chris A; Bishop, Jennifer L; Banglmaier, Richard F; Bey, Michael J; Morgan, Richard M; Digges, Kennerly H

2008-11-01

341

Fluid Dynamics of Coarctation of the Aorta and Effect of Bicuspid Aortic Valve  

PubMed Central

Up to 80% of patients with coarctation of the aorta (COA) have a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Patients with COA and BAV have elevated risks of aortic complications despite successful surgical repair. The development of such complications involves the interplay between the mechanical forces applied on the artery and the biological processes occurring at the cellular level. The focus of this study is on hemodynamic modifications induced in the aorta in the presence of a COA and a BAV. For this purpose, numerical investigations and magnetic resonance imaging measurements were conducted with different configurations: (1) normal: normal aorta and normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: aorta with COA (75% reduction by area) and normal aortic valve; (3) complex COA: aorta with the same severity of COA (75% reduction by area) and BAV. The results show that the coexistence of COA and BAV significantly alters blood flow in the aorta with a significant increase in the maximal velocity, secondary flow, pressure loss, time-averaged wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index downstream of the COA. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of why patients with complex COA have adverse outcome even following a successful surgery. PMID:24015239

Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Kadem, Lyes

2013-01-01

342

Diagnostic dilemma: Saccular aneurysm or pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta with dissection above level of leaflets  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In true aneurysm, the wall of aneurysm is composed of the normal histological components of aorta. A false aneurysm (pseudoaneurysm) represents a rupture which does not contain the normal histological components of aorta. It is a fibrous peel that has formed from a small perforation of aorta. We describe an unusual presentation that has signs which some of them are only manifested in true aneurysm and some others only in pseudoaneurysm. CASE REPORT An 85-year-old man underwent elective coronary angiography for chest pain work-up. Our evaluation by invasive angiography and CT angiography showed aortic dissection. In surgery we found that dissection flap was composed of some parts of intima and media layers. These signs leaded to confusing symptoms. Localized bulging of ascending aorta had continued to brachiocephalic artery (transverse arch involvement). Dissection flap was composed of some part of intima and media layers. It was a strange case, it was not solely a perivascular hematoma and it did not have all three layers of aorta wall. Partial aorta replacement was performed. The operation and recovery was uneventful. CONCLUSION This unusual presentation of disease has not been mentioned in literatures. Our experience can help to manage similar cases. This case was the first unusual presentation of its type. PMID:23358558

Mehrpooya, Maryam; Salehi, Mehrdad; Eskandari, Ramin; Shajirat, Zeinab; Golabchi, Allahyar; Mazoochi, Majid

2012-01-01

343

XeCl laser ablation of atherosclerotic aorta: optical properties and energy pathways.  

PubMed

The energetics of 308-nm excimer laser irradiation of human aorta were studied. The heat generation that occurred during laser irradiation of atherosclerotic aorta equaled the absorbed laser energy minus the fraction of energy for escaping fluorescence (0.8-1.6%) and photochemical decomposition (2%). The absorbed laser energy is equal to the total delivered light energy minus the energy lost as specular reflectance (2.4%, air/tissue) and diffuse reflectance (11.5-15.5%). Overall, about 79-83.5% of the delivered light energy was converted to heat. We conclude that the mechanism of XeCl laser ablation of soft tissue involves thermal overheating of the irradiated volume with subsequent explosive vaporization. The optical properties of normal wall of human aorta and fibrous plaque, both native and denatured were determined. The light scattering was significant and sufficient to cause a subsurface fluence (J/cm2) in native aorta that equaled 1.8 times the broad-beam radiant exposure, phi o (2.7 phi o for denatured aorta). An optical fiber must have a diameter of at least 800 microns to achieve a maximum light penetration (approximately 200 microns for phi o/e) in the aorta along the central axis of the beam. PMID:1453859

Oraevsky, A A; Jacques, S L; Pettit, G H; Saidi, I S; Tittel, F K; Henry, P D

1992-01-01

344

DERMAL VASCULATURE IN PSORIASIS AND PSORIASIFORM DERMATITIS: A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY  

PubMed Central

Background: Vascular proliferation in the papillary dermis is considered to be an important and probably an early feature of psoriasis. Few morphometric studies have attempted to analyze the vascular changes. However, no study was found in the available literature comparing vascular changes between psoriasis and psoriasiform dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Skin biopsies from 25 cases each of psoriasis and psoriasiform lesions were immunohistochemically stained for CD34 (endothelial marker). Microvessel density (MVD), microvessel length density and ratio of microvessel area to papillary dermal area were calculated using image analysis software. Results: Skin biopsies from psoriasis showed higher staining for CD34 on light microscopy. Using morphometric techniques, microvessel length density was significantly higher in psoriasis compared to psoriasiform lesions (P value <0.05). MVD was also higher in psoriasis, though the difference was not significant. The ratio of microvessel area to dermal area was almost similar in both the groups. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vascular tortuousity and dilatation is significant only in psoriatic lesions. These results may assist in automated diagnosis of skin biopsies. PMID:22345762

Gupta, Shilpa; Kaur, Mandeep; Gupta, Ruchika; Singh, Sompal; Pant, Leela; Singh, P P

2011-01-01

345

A geometric morphometric analysis of hominin upper first molar shape.  

PubMed

Recent studies have revealed interesting differences in upper first molar morphology across the hominin fossil record, particularly significant between H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis. Usually these analyses have been performed by means of classic morphometric methods, including the measurement of relative cusp areas or the angles defined between cusps. Although these studies have provided valuable information for the morphological characterization of some hominin species, we believe that the analysis of this particular tooth could be more conclusive for taxonomic assignment. In this study, we have applied geometric morphometric methods to explore the morphological variability of the upper first molar (M(1)) across the human fossil record. Our emphasis focuses on the study of the phenetic relationships among the European middle Pleistocene populations (designated as H. heidelbergensis) with H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens, but the inclusion of Australopithecus and early Homo specimens has helped us to assess the polarity of the observed traits. H. neanderthalensis presents a unique morphology characterized by a relatively distal displacement of the lingual cusps and protrusion in the external outline of a large and bulging hypocone. This morphology can be found in a less pronounced degree in the European early and middle Pleistocene populations, and reaches its maximum expression with the H. neanderthalensis lineage. In contrast, modern humans retain the primitive morphology with a square occlusal polygon associated with a round external outline. PMID:17599390

Gómez-Robles, A; Martinón-Torres, M; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Margvelashvili, A; Bastir, M; Arsuaga, J L; Pérez-Pérez, A; Estebaranz, F; Martínez, L M

2007-09-01

346

Geometric morphometrics and geological shape-classification systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many areas of geological inquiry involve the description and/or comparison of shapes. While various morphometric tools have long been available to facilitate these types of comparisons, by far the most common approach to such form-classification has been via the creation of a semiquantitative scale of morphological exemplars, type specimens, etc. to which unknown structures, objects, or specimens can be compared. Such form-scales are ubiquitous—either in terms of text-based descriptions or illustration sets—throughout the geological literature. However, students, and even experienced geologists, often have difficulty using such scales and achieving consistent results. Investigations of three such scales drawn from the fields of sedimentology, paleontology, and geomorphology using the analytical tools of geometric morphometrics suggests that one reason for this difficulty is that the exemplars drawn from sets of real objects (1) often exhibit shape differences other than those under nominal consideration or (2) are used to represents object classes whose boundaries are insufficiently documented or described. Herein, strategies are developed that employ the ordination and modeling capabilities of eigenshape analysis to correct these deficiencies and devise sets of new, more representative, and easier to use shape-classification systems. By employing these approaches, augmented where necessary with formal statistical analyses, geologists can improve the sophistication, accuracy, and reproducibility of their morphological inferences. In doing this, they will also improve the reliability of their hypotheses tests.

MacLeod, N.

2002-11-01

347

Validating Whole Slide Digital Morphometric Analysis as a Microscopy Tool.  

PubMed

Whole slide imaging (WSI) can be used to quantify multiple responses within tissue sections during histological analysis. Feature Analysis on Consecutive Tissue Sections (FACTS®) allows the investigator to perform digital morphometric analysis (DMA) within specified regions of interest (ROI) across multiple serial sections at faster rates when compared with manual morphometry methods. Using FACTS® in conjunction with WSI is a powerful analysis tool, which allows DMA to target specific ROI across multiple tissue sections stained for different biomarkers. DMA may serve as an appropriate alternative to classic, manual, histologic morphometric measures, which have historically relied on the selection of high-powered fields of views and manual scoring (e.g., a gold standard). In the current study, existing preserved samples were used to determine if DMA would provide similar results to manual counting methods. Rodent hearts (n=14, left ventricles) were stained with Masson's trichrome, and reacted for cluster of differentiation 68 (CD-68). This study found no statistical significant difference between a classic, manual method and the use of digital algorithms to perform the similar counts (p=0.38). DMA offers researchers the ability to accurately evaluate morphological characteristics in a reproducible fashion without investigator bias and with higher throughput. PMID:25399639

Diller, Robert B; Kellar, Robert S

2014-11-17

348

Potential of P40 plastination for morphometric hip measurements.  

PubMed

Total hip replacement has become one of the most successful surgical operations over the past 25 years. The duration of a total hip prosthesis depends on primary stability, and many studies have tried precisely to evaluate hip joint morphology to obtain excellent contact between bone and prosthetic component. This study performed a morphometric analysis of the human hip joint using, for the first time, the P40 plastination procedure. We cut 42 hip joint compounds into slices 3 mm thick; for exact distance measuring the sections were scanned into the computer. The following mean measurements for hip geometry were obtained: vertical diameter of acetabulum 4.894+/-0.274 cm, depth of acetabulum 1.643+/-0.245 cm, femoral head radius 2.268+/-0.149 cm, femoral neck length 4.3670+/-0.528 cm, acetabular perimeter 6.711+/-0.434 cm, vertical diameter of labrum acetabulare 4.759+/-0.476 cm, depth of labrum acetabulare 2.599+/-0.395 cm, sum of femoral head and neck lengths 6.759+/-0.550 cm, hip axis length 11.859+/-1.007 cm, femoral neck axis length 10.12+/-0.555 cm, and femoral neck diameter 3.349+/-0.276 cm. All of these data reveal a significant gender difference. Our aim was to indicate an unconventional and new method of gaining morphometric hip data by using plastination. PMID:15645158

Genser-Strobl, B; Sora, M C

2005-04-01

349

Neuropathologic and morphometric effects of aminoguanidine on rat nerves.  

PubMed

Aminoguanidine prevents some pathophysiologic changes typical of streptozocin diabetes and, therefore, might be efficacious in prevention or treatment of human diabetic polyneuropathy. In order to evaluate the possible toxicity of aminoguanidine on peripheral nerves, Sprague-Dawley rats received aminoguanidine intraperitoneally in dosages of 0, 50, 100, and 300 mg/kg per day for 3 months. Only rats receiving the highest dosages developed acute and chronic behavioral changes and had decreased weight gain. Minor hepatic dysfunction also was observed in this group. Teased-fiber abnormalities were not significantly more frequent in the highest dosage group than in controls. Likewise, a significant morphometric abnormality was not found for the peroneal nerve. Mild changes were found in the highest dosage group compared to the control group in the sural nerve (increased fiber density, decreased myelin area). We interpret the small morphometric differences for the sural nerve as due to maldevelopment. We found no evidence that aminoguanidine at a high dosage (300 mg/kg per day) caused fiber degeneration or demyelination. PMID:1469458

Arruda, W O; Engelstad, J; Dyck, P J

1992-11-01

350

General Considerations of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Although development of surgical technique and critical care, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm still carries a high mortality. In order to obtain good results, various efforts have been attempted. This paper reviews initial management of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and discuss the key point open surgical repair and endovascular aneurysm repair. PMID:25705591

Lee, Chung Won; Bae, Miju; Chung, Sung Woon

2015-01-01

351

Abdominal wall and intra-peritoneal abscess by Propionibacterium avidum as a complication of abdominal parietoplasty.  

PubMed

Propionibacteria are organisms of low pathogenicity and only a minority of clinical Propionibacterium isolates is clinically significant. Herein, we report a rare case of Propionibacterium avidum abdominal wall and intra-peritoneal abscess that developed in 46-year-old woman after abdominal parietoplasty. PMID:23415274

Janvier, F; Delacour, H; Larréché, S; Abdalla, S; Aubert, P; Mérens, A

2013-10-01

352

Phosphoinositide metabolism and metabolism-contraction coupling in rabbit aorta  

SciTech Connect

The authors tested a hypothesis that metabolism-contraction coupling in vascular smooth muscle is controlled by the rate of delivery of energy to ATP-dependent reactions in the inositol phospholipid transduction system that generate second messengers exerting control on smooth muscle force. Rabbit aorta was contracted by norepinephrine (NOR) under conditions of normoxia and hypoxia, and changes in inositol phospholipid pool sizes and metabolic flux rates (J{sub F}) were determined. J{sub F} was determined by labeling free cytosolic myo-inositol by incubation of unstimulated muscle with myo-({sup 3}H)inositol and then measuring rates of incorporation of this isotope into inositol phospholipids and inositol phosphates when the muscle was activated by NOR. J{sub F} measured during maintenance of NOR-induced force was markedly inhibited during hypoxia to 40-50% of that determined during normoxia; rates of increases in inositol phosphate radioactivities were similarly depressed during NOR activation under hypoxia. The hypoxia-induced decrease in J{sub F} was associated with four- to fivefold increase in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) total pool size, suggesting PIP kinase was inhibited and rate limiting. These data suggest that activation of inositol phospholipid metabolism, which generates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and diacylglycerol, is blunted under conditions where aerobic energy production is inhibited. Data are consistent with rate-limiting effects of decreased ATP delivery, or decreased phosphate potential, on PIP kinase and reactions that control resynthesis of phosphatidylinositol.

Coburn, R.F.; Baron, C.; Papadopoulos, M.T. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

1988-12-01

353

Transforming growth factor-? signaling in hypertensive remodeling of porcine aorta  

PubMed Central

A porcine aortic coarctation model was used to examine regulation of gene expression in early hypertensive vascular remodeling. Aortic segments were collected proximal (high pressure) and distal (low pressure) to the coarctation after 2 wk of sustained hypertension (mean arterial pressure > 150 mmHg). Porcine 10K oligoarrays used for gene expression profiling of the two regions of aorta revealed downregulation of cytoskeletal and upregulation of extracellular region genes relative to the whole genome. A genomic database search for transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) control elements showed that 19% of the genes that changed expression due to hypertension contained putative TGF-? control elements. Real-time RT-PCR and microarray analysis showed no change in expression of TGF-?1, TGF-?2, TGF-?3, or bone morphogenetic proteins-2 and -4, yet immunohistochemical staining for phosphorylated SMAD2, an indicator of TGF-? signaling, and for phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8, an indicator of signaling through the bone morphogenetic proteins, showed the highest percentage of positively stained cells in the proximal aortic segments of occluded animals. For TGF-? signaling, this increase was significantly different than for sham-operated controls. Western blot analysis showed no difference in total TGF-?1 protein levels with respect to treatment or aortic segment. Immunohistochemistry showed that the protein levels of latency-associated peptide was decreased in proximal segments of occluded animals. Collectively, these results suggest that activation of TGF-?, but not altered expression, may be a major mechanism regulating early hypertensive vascular remodeling. PMID:19717726

Popovic, Natasa; Bridenbaugh, Eric A.; Neiger, Jessemy D.; Hu, Jin-Jia; Vannucci, Marina; Mo, Qianxing; Trzeciakowski, Jerome; Miller, Matthew W.; Fossum, Theresa W.; Humphrey, Jay D.

2009-01-01

354

Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate induces contraction and relaxation in rat aorta  

PubMed Central

Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) has been recently reported as an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor and plasma levels of this dinucleotide are increased in juvenile hypertensive subjects. This study aimed to evaluate the vascular actions of Up4A, typify the putative purinergic receptors that might mediate these effects and characterize the intracellular signaling pathways that may govern Up4A responses. Up4A induced a modest endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat aortic rings contracted with phenylephrine. From baseline, Up4A induced concentration-dependent contractions that were significantly potentiated by endothelium removal or nitric oxide synthase inhibition. The contractile response induced by Up4A was not tachyphylactic and was significantly reduced in the presence of P1 or P2X receptor antagonists, L-type Ca2+ channel blocker and Rho-kinase inhibitor. Up4A-induced contraction apparently involves superoxide anion formation since it was significantly reduced by treatment with apocynin or tempol. This study presents the unique findings that the endogenous compound Up4A is able to induce relaxation in addition to contraction of rat aorta. Up4A-induced contraction is modulated by nitric oxide production, mediated by P1 and P2X receptor activation, and involves L-type Ca2+ channels, Rho-kinase pathway and superoxide formation. PMID:18467183

Linder, A. Elizabeth; Tumbri, Michelle; Linder, Felipe F. P.; Webb, R. Clinton; Leite, Romulo

2008-01-01

355

Structural changes in the aorta of the hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rat.  

PubMed

Structural changes in the ascending thoracic aorta of hereditary hypertriglyceridemic (hHTG), insulin-resistant, and hypertensive rats were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Normotensive Wistar rats were used as controls. The most-pronounced morphological changes were observed in the tunica intima. Endothelial cells of hHTG rats formed a continual layer around the whole circumference. Subendothelial space was enlarged. Some endothelial cells were delaminated from the subendothelial space by big lipid droplets that were often present in the subendothelial space, and the endothelial cells bulged out towards the lumen. Big electron-lucent lipid droplets were present in the majority of the endothelial cells and occupied the main part of the cytoplasm. Degenerative microvesicular and membranous material was present in the cytoplasm. Increased numbers of vesicles of Golgi apparatus and cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum were found. Similar morphological alterations, but in less-extended form, were observed in smooth muscle cells. The organization and orientation of smooth muscle cells were essentially intact. In muscle cells, lipid droplets were localized in close relation to Golgi complex and in dilated cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Lipid droplets, degenerative material, myelin figures, myelinoid membranes, and vesicular components were also sporadically found in the intercellular space among muscle cells. This pilot morphological investigation provides further arguments for a thorough and more-focused electron microscopy study of conductance arteries of the hHTG rats. PMID:9329782

Kristek, F; Edelsteinová, S; Seböková, E; Kyselovic, J; Klimes, I

1997-09-20

356

Effect of coarctation of the aorta and bicuspid aortic valve on flow dynamics and turbulence in the aorta using particle image velocimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood flow in the aorta has been of particular interest from both fluid dynamics and physiology perspectives. Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a congenital heart disease corresponding to a severe narrowing in the aortic arch. Up to 85 % of patients with COA have a pathological aortic valve, leading to a narrowing at the valve level. The aim of the present work was to advance the state of understanding of flow through a COA to investigate how narrowing in the aorta (COA) affects the characteristics of the velocity field and, in particular, turbulence development. For this purpose, particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted at physiological flow and pressure conditions, with three different aorta configurations: (1) normal case: normal aorta + normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + normal aortic valve and (3) complex COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + pathological aortic valve. Viscous shear stress (VSS), representing the physical shear stress, Reynolds shear stress (RSS), representing the turbulent shear stress, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), representing the intensity of fluctuations in the fluid flow environment, were calculated for all cases. Results show that, compared with a healthy aorta, the instantaneous velocity streamlines and vortices were deeply changed in the presence of the COA. The normal aorta did not display any regions of elevated VSS, RSS and TKE at any moment of the cardiac cycle. The magnitudes of these parameters were elevated for both isolated COA and complex COA, with their maximum values mainly being located inside the eccentric jet downstream of the COA. However, the presence of a pathologic aortic valve, in complex COA, amplifies VSS (e.g., average absolute peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 36 N/m2; isolated COA = 19 N/m2), RSS (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 84.6 N/m2; isolated COA = 44 N/m2) and TKE (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 215 N/m2; isolated COA = 100 N/m2). This demonstrates that the pathological aortic valve strongly interacts with the COA. Findings of this study indicate that the presence of both a COA and a pathological aortic valve significantly alters hemodynamics in the aorta and thus might contribute to the progression of the disease in this region. This study can partially explain the complications associated in patients with COA, in the presence of a pathological aortic valve and the consequent adverse outcome post-surgery.

Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Gaillard, Emmanuel; Maftoon, Nima; Di Labbio, Giuseppe; Cloutier, Guy; Kadem, Lyes

2014-03-01

357

Diabetes and abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic evidence suggests that patients with diabetes may have a lower incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA); however, the link between diabetes and AAA development and expansion is unclear. The aim of this review is to analyze updated evidence to better understand the impact of diabetes on prevalence, incidence, clinical outcome, and expansion rate of AAA. A systematic review of literature published in the last 20 years using the PubMed and Cochrane databases was undertaken. Studies reporting appropriate data were identified and a meta-analysis performed using the generic inverse variance method. Sixty-four studies were identified. Methodological quality was "fair" in 16 and "good" in 44 studies according to a formal assessment checklist (Newcastle-Ottawa). In 17 large population prevalence studies there was a significant inverse association between diabetes and AAA: pooled odds ratio (OR) 0.80; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70-0.90 (p = .0009). An inverse association was also confirmed by pooled analysis of data from smaller prevalence studies on selected populations (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.35-0.99; p = .05), while no significant results were provided by case-control studies. A significant lower pooled incidence of new AAA in diabetics was found over six prospective studies: OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.31-0.91; p = .03. Diabetic patients showed increased operative (30-day/in-hospital) mortality after AAA repair: pooled OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.10-1.44; p = .0008. The increased operative risk was more evident in studies with 30-day assessment. In the long-term, diabetics showed lower survival rates at 2-5 years, while there was general evidence of lower growth rates of small AAA in patients with diabetes compared to non-diabetics. There is currently evidence to support an inverse relationship between diabetes and AAA development and enlargement, even though fair methodological quality or unclear risk of bias in many available studies decreases the strength of the finding. At the same time, operative and long-term survival is lower in diabetic patients, suggesting increased cardiovascular burden. The higher mortality in diabetics raises the question as to whether AAA repair should be individualized in selected diabetic populations at higher AAA rupture risk. PMID:24447529

De Rango, P; Farchioni, L; Fiorucci, B; Lenti, M

2014-03-01

358

Different long-term outcomes of abdominal aortic aneurysm and intracranial aneurysm models: hemodynamic change may also play an essential role in the initiation and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm in rabbits.  

PubMed

Self-healing phenomenon was found in the periarterial elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in rabbit. This kind of aneurysm model does not progress and heals spontaneously in the long term, which is quite different from the performance of AAA disease in human. In order to better mimic human AAA and overcome this shortcoming of traditional AAA model in rabbit, we studied the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysm (CA) model in small animal, which shows an excellent long-term patency and progressive enlargement. We found that hemodynamic conditions, such as turbulence flow, high blood flow, and shear stress, play an important role in the formation and progression of CA. So, we hypothesize that hemodynamic change may also play an essential role in the initiation and progression of rabbit AAA, and self-healing will be overcome if hemodynamic condition changes by coarctation of infra-renal aorta after elastase incubation. PMID:24801772

Bi, Yonghua; Han, Xinwei; Zhong, Hongshan; Xu, Ke; Qi, Xun; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Weixiao

2014-11-01

359

Long-Term Results of Aortic Banding for Complex Infrarenal Neck Anatomy and Type I Endoleak after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair  

PubMed Central

For many patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, unsuitable anatomy of the infrarenal aortic neck precludes endovascular aortic aneurysm repair or causes type I endoleak after the procedure. In an attempt to overcome these challenges, we retrospectively examined the usefulness of aortic banding as an adjunctive procedure to endovascular repair in 8 patients who had an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a complex infrarenal aortic neck. The procedures were performed with the patients under general anesthesia and involved making an 8-cm upper-midline laparotomy incision to expose the aneurysmal aorta. Three patients underwent aortic banding before endovascular repair; the other 5 underwent banding after the repair because of persistent type I endoleak. After banding, the abdominal aortic aneurysm was successfully excluded in all 8 patients. Long-term follow-up (mean, 38 ± 20 mo) revealed no type I endoleak and no procedure-related complications. In patients who have an abdominal aortic aneurysm with complex infrarenal neck anatomy or a refractory type I endoleak, performing aortic banding as an adjunctive procedure to endovascular aortic repair appears to be a safe strategy with good long-term results. PMID:23304016

Krajcer, Zvonimir; Dougherty, Kathryn G.; Gregoric, Igor D.

2012-01-01

360

Thoracic meningioma masquerading as chronic abdominal pain.  

PubMed

Chronic abdominal pain without a structural or metabolic gastroenterological etiology can be extremely challenging to diagnose. Patients presenting with an associated radicular pattern of pain may alert the clinician to a possible structural neurological cause of the symptoms. We present the case of a 70-year-old woman who presented to our institution with an 18-month history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain. She had no associated symptoms or provoking factors. She underwent an extensive gastroenterology evaluation, including colonoscopy that was unrevealing. Ultrasound demonstrated gallstones and she was evaluated for cholecystectomy. She subsequently developed right costal margin pain. Her symptoms remained stable over the course of the next year. Follow-up general surgical evaluation was still unconvincing that the gallstones were the etiology of her symptoms. A thoracic spinal MR demonstrated a large intradural extramedullary mass at T8. The patient's neurological exam was normal. She underwent a thoracic laminectomy and resection of meningioma with intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring. Her abdominal pain resolved. Patients can present with months to years of elusive abdominal symptoms only to be eventually found to be harboring an undiagnosed spinal tumor. We discuss the case and review the literature reports of spinal tumors masquerading as chronic abdominal pain. PMID:22665009

Lyons, Mark; Windgassen, Elizabeth; Kinney, Carolyn; Johnson, Daniel; Birch, Barry; Boucher, Orland

2012-01-01

361

Primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis: report of a case.  

PubMed

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis is an uncommon progressive disease characterized by hamartomatous smooth muscle proliferation of the airways within the lungs as well as the lymph nodes, lymphatics, and blood vessels of the lungs, mediastinum, and abdomen. The most common manifestations of lymphangioleiomyomatosis are pulmonary symptoms. Primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis without any pathological changes in the respiratory system is extremely unusual. We report a case of primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis located between the left hepatic and gastric antrum of a 29-year-old woman. The patient had no typical symptoms of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (dyspnea, pneumothorax) or abdominal pain. All physical examination findings were normal. Laboratory test results, including routine blood examination, liver and kidney function, tumor markers, blood coagulation function, and urine and stool examinations, were all normal. She found abdominal cyst in an annual medical examination by ultrasonography and confirmed by computed tomography. For a clear diagnosis, a laparoscopic abdominal mass resection was performed. The postoperative pathohistological examination findings allowed for the definitive diagnosis. This case report may advance the understanding of primary peritoneal lymphatic leiomyoma and reduce the number of mistakenly diagnosed patients. PMID:25778080

Ding, Yuan; Yan, Sheng; Tian, Yang; Li, Zhiwei; Pan, Jun; Zhang, Qiyi; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Shusen

2015-12-01

362

Primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis: report of a case.  

PubMed

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis is an uncommon progressive disease characterized by hamartomatous smooth muscle proliferation of the airways within the lungs as well as the lymph nodes, lymphatics, and blood vessels of the lungs, mediastinum, and abdomen. The most common manifestations of lymphangioleiomyomatosis are pulmonary symptoms. Primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis without any pathological changes in the respiratory system is extremely unusual. We report a case of primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis located between the left hepatic and gastric antrum of a 29-year-old woman. The patient had no typical symptoms of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (dyspnea, pneumothorax) or abdominal pain. All physical examination findings were normal. Laboratory test results, including routine blood examination, liver and kidney function, tumor markers, blood coagulation function, and urine and stool examinations, were all normal. She found abdominal cyst in an annual medical examination by ultrasonography and confirmed by computed tomography. For a clear diagnosis, a laparoscopic abdominal mass resection was performed. The postoperative pathohistological examination findings allowed for the definitive diagnosis. This case report may advance the understanding of primary peritoneal lymphatic leiomyoma and reduce the number of mistakenly diagnosed patients. PMID:25888993

Ding, Yuan; Yan, Sheng; Tian, Yang; Li, Zhiwei; Pan, Jun; Zhang, Qiyi; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Shusen

2015-01-01

363

Jejunal perforation caused by abdominal angiostrongyliasis.  

PubMed

The authors describe a case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in an adult patient presenting acute abdominal pain caused by jejunal perforation. The case was unusual, as this affliction habitually involves the terminal ileum, appendix, cecum or ascending colon. The disease is caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis, whose definitive hosts are forest rodents while snails and slugs are its intermediate hosts. Infection in humans is accidental and occurs via the ingestion of snail or slug mucoid secretions found on vegetables, or by direct contact with the mucus. Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is clinically characterized by prolonged fever, anorexia, abdominal pain in the right-lower quadrant, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Although usually of a benign nature, its course may evolve to more complicated forms such as intestinal obstruction or perforation likely to require a surgical approach. Currently, no efficient medication for the treatment of abdominal angiostrongyliasis is known to be available. In this study, the authors provide a review on the subject, considering its etiopathogeny, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:10602548

Waisberg, J; Corsi, C E; Rebelo, M V; Vieira, V T; Bromberg, S H; dos Santos, P A; Monteiro, R

1999-01-01

364

Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%-70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Ba?ara, I??l; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

2015-01-01

365

Caveolin 1 is critical for abdominal aortic aneurysm formation induced by angiotensin II and inhibition of lysyl oxidase.  

PubMed

Although AngII (angiotensin II) and its receptor AT1R (AngII type 1 receptor) have been implicated in AAA (abdominal aortic aneurysm) formation, the proximal signalling events primarily responsible for AAA formation remain uncertain. Caveolae are cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains that serve as a signalling platform to facilitate the temporal and spatial localization of signal transduction events, including those stimulated by AngII. Cav1 (caveolin 1)-enriched caveolae in vascular smooth muscle cells mediate ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17)-dependent EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) transactivation, which is linked to vascular remodelling induced by AngII. In the present study, we have tested our hypothesis that Cav1 plays a critical role for the development of AAA at least in part via its specific alteration of AngII signalling within caveolae. Cav1-/- mice and the control wild-type mice were co-infused with AngII and ?-aminopropionitrile to induce AAA. We found that Cav1-/- mice with the co-infusion did not develop AAA compared with control mice in spite of hypertension. We found an increased expression of ADAM17 and enhanced phosphorylation of EGFR in AAA. These events were markedly attenuated in Cav1-/- aortas with the co-infusion. Furthermore, aortas from Cav1-/- mice with the co-infusion showed less endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses compared with aortas from control mice. Cav1 silencing in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells prevented AngII-induced ADAM17 induction and activation. In conclusion, Cav1 appears to play a critical role in the formation of AAA and associated endoplasmic reticulum/oxidative stress, presumably through the regulation of caveolae compartmentalized signals induced by AngII. PMID:24329494

Takayanagi, Takehiko; Crawford, Kevin J; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Elliott, Katherine J; Hashimoto, Tomoki; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

2014-06-01

366

Regional flood susceptibility analysis in mountainous areas through the use of morphometric and land cover indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A classification of susceptibility to flooding of 106 mountain watersheds was carried out in Bogotá (Colombia) through the use of an index composed of a morphometric indicator and a land cover indicator. Susceptibility was considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flows. Morphological variables recognised in literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows were used to construct the morphometric indicator by applying principal component analysis. Subsequently, this indicator was compared with the results of debris flow propagation to assess its capacity in indentifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation of debris flows was carried out using the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the slope-area curve of the watersheds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped in four categories: size, shape, hypsometry and energy, with energy being the component that best explains the capability of a watershed to transport debris flows. However, the morphometric indicator was found to not sufficiently explain the records of past floods in the study area. Combining the morphometric indicator with land cover indicators improved the agreement, showing that even if morphometric parameters identify a high disposition to the occurrence of debris flow, improving land cover can reduce the susceptibility. On the contrary, if good morphometric conditions are present but deterioration of the land cover in the watershed takes place then the susceptibility to debris flow events increases.

Rogelis, M. C.; Werner, M.

2013-12-01

367

Overexpression of Catalase in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Prevents the Formation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Objective Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been reported in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), but which reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes the development of AAA remains unclear. Here we investigate the effect of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) degrading enzyme catalase on the formation of AAA. Approach and Results AAA were induced with the application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on mouse infrarenal aortas. The administration of PEG-catalase, but not saline, attenuated the loss of tunica media and protected against AAA formation (0.91±0.1 mm vs. 0.76±0.09 mm). Similarly, in a transgenic mouse model, catalase over-expression in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) preserved the thickness of tunica media and inhibited aortic dilatation by 50% (0.85±0.14 mm vs. 0.57±0.08 mm). Further studies showed that injury with CaCl2 decreased catalase expression and activity in the aortic wall. Pharmacologic administration or genetic over-expression of catalase restored catalase activity and subsequently decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity. In addition, a profound reduction in inflammatory markers and VSMC apoptosis was evident in aortas of catalase over-expressing mice. Interestingly, as opposed to infusion of PEG-catalase, chronic over-expression of catalase in VSMC did not alter the total aortic H2O2 levels. Conclusions The data suggest that a reduction in aortic wall catalase activity can predispose to AAA formation. Restoration of catalase activity in the vascular wall enhances aortic VSMC survival and prevents AAA formation primarily through modulation of matrix metalloproteinase activity. PMID:23950141

Parastatidis, Ioannis; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Taylor, W Robert

2013-01-01

368

Cell-Activation by Shear Stresses in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing experimental evidence indicates that low and oscillatory shear stresses promote proliferative, thrombotic, adhesive and inflammatory-mediated degenerative conditions throughout the wall of the aorta. These degenerative conditions have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of AAAs, a permanent, localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta. The purpose of this study is to measure both the magnitude and the duration of the shear stresses acting on both the arterial walls and on the blood cells inside AAAs, and to characterize their changes as the AAA enlarges. We conducted a parametric in-vitro study of the pulsatile blood flow in elastic models of AAAs while systematically varying the blood flow parameters, and the geometry of the aneurysm's bulging. The instantaneous flow characteristic inside the AAA was measured using DPIV at a sampling rate of 15 Hertz. A "cell-activation parameter" defined as the integral of the product of the magnitude of the shear stress and the time during which the stress acts was computed along each of the blood cell pathlines. The Lagrangian tracking of the blood cells shows that a large majority of them are subjected first to very high level of shear-induced "cell-activation" while later on they are entrained in regions of stasis where their residence time can increase up to several cardiac cycles. This cell-activation followed by the entrainment in low shear regions creates the optimal cell-adhesive and inflammatory-mediated degenerative conditions that are postulated to play an important role in the etiology and progressive enlargement of AAAs.

Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Sparks, Steven; Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Lasheras, Juan C.

2003-11-01

369

Quantification of the migration and deformation of abdominal aortic aneurysm stent grafts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is a minimal invasive therapy which has been established during the past 15 years. A stent-graft is placed inside the aorta in order to cover the weakened regions of its wall. During a time interval of one or more years the stent-graft can migrate and deform with the risk of the occlusion of one of its limbs or of the rupture of the aneurysm. In this work we developed several strategies to quantify the migration and deformation in order to assess the risk coming with these movements and especially to characterize appearing complications by them. We calculated the rigid movement of the stent-graft and the aorta relative to the spinal canal. For this purpose, firstly, we rigidly registered the spinal canals, extracted for the different points in time, in order to establish a fixed reference system. All objects have been segmented first and surface points have been determined before applying a rigid and non-rigid point set registration algorithm. The change in the residual error after registration of the stent-graft with an increasing number of degrees of freedom indicates the amount of change in the stent-graft's morphology. We investigated a sample of 9. Two cases could be clearly distinguished by the quantified parameters: a high global migration and a strong reduction of the residual error after non-rigid registration. In both cases, strong complications have been detected by the examination of clinical experts but only by means of the images acquired one year later.

Mattes, Julian; Steingruber, Iris; Netzer, Michael; Fritscher, Karl; Kopf, Helmut; Jaschke, Werner; Schubert, Rainer

2006-03-01

370

Inhibition of Rho-Kinase by Fasudil Suppresses Formation and Progression of Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Objective Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammatory cell infiltration is crucial pathogenesis during the initiation and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Given Rho-kinase (ROCK), an important kinase control the actin cytoskeleton, regulates the inflammatory cell infiltration, thus, we investigate the possibility and mechanism of preventing experimental AAA progression via targeting ROCK in mice porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) model. Methods and Results AAA was created in 10-week-old male C57BL/6 mice by transient intraluminal porcine pancreatic elastase infusion into the infrarenal aorta. The mRNA level of RhoA, RhoC, ROCK1 and ROCK2 were elevated in aneurismal aorta. Next, PPE infusion mice were orally administrated with vehicle or ROCK inhibitor (Fasudil at dose of 200 mg/kg/day) during the period of day 1 prior to PPE infusion to day 14 after PPE infusion. PPE infusion mice treated with Fasudil produced significantly smaller aneurysms as compare to PPE infusion mice treated with vehicle. AAAs developed in all vehicle-treated groups within 14 days, whereas AAAs developed in six mice (66%, 6/9) treated with Fasudil within 14 days. Furthermore, our semi-quantitative histological analysis revealed that blood vessels and macrophages were significantly reduced in Fasudil treated mice during the AAA progression. Finally, when mice with existing AAAs were treated with Fasudil, the enlargement was nearly completely suppressed. Conclusion Fasudil inhibits experimental AAA progression and stabilize existing aneurysms, through mechanisms likely related to impaired mural macrophage infiltration and angiogenesis. These findings suggest that ROCK inhibitor may hold substantial translational value for AAA diseases. PMID:24244631

Zhou, Jing; Huang, Jianhua; Wang, Wei

2013-01-01

371

Minimal Invasive Treatment of Abdominal Multiorgan Echinococcosis  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease is a severe zoonosis, exerting a high economic and social impact through its numerous complications, leading to disabilities, even death. Because of technical developments, especially the increasing experience of surgeons, laparoscopic surgery has been extended so that it can be successfully applied to abdominal hydatid cysts. We present the case of a 16-year-old patient who came to our clinic for upper abdominal pain. The abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed 2 cyst-like tumors, with hydatid features: one affecting the eighth liver segment and the other located at the upper pole of the spleen. We performed the surgical intervention using a laparoscopic approach, with an uneventful postoperative follow-up and the patient was discharged home on postoperative day 4. The postoperative images at 6 and 12 months showed a decrease in size of the remnant cystic cavities. PMID:23438278

Tomu?, Claudiu; Zaharie, Florin; Mocan, Lucian; Barto?, Dana; Zaharie, Roxana; Iancu, Cornel; Nadim, Al Hajjar

2013-01-01

372

Flap Coverage of Anterior Abdominal Wall Defects  

PubMed Central

Reconstruction of complex defects of the anterior abdomen is both challenging and technically demanding for reconstructive surgeons. Advancements in the use of pedicle and free tissue transfer along with the use of bioprosthetic and synthetic meshes have provided for novel approaches to these complex defects. Accordingly, detailed knowledge of abdominal wall and lower extremity anatomy in combination with insight into the design, implementation, and limitations of various flaps is essential to solve these complex clinical problems. Although these defects can be attributed to a myriad of etiologic factors, the objectives in abdominal wall reconstruction are consistent and include the restoration of abdominal wall integrity, protection of intraabdominal viscera, and the prevention of herniation. In this article, the authors review pertinent anatomy and the various local, regional, and distant flaps that can be utilized in the reconstruction of these complex clinical cases of the anterior abdomen. PMID:23372457

Sacks, Justin M.; Broyles, Justin M.; Baumann, Donald P.

2012-01-01

373

Plain abdominal radiography in acute abdominal pain; past, present, and future  

PubMed Central

Several studies have demonstrated that a diagnosis based solely on a patient’s medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests is not reliable enough, despite the fact that these aspects are essential parts of the workup of a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. Traditionally, imaging workup starts with abdominal radiography. However, numerous studies have demonstrated low sensitivity and accuracy for plain abdominal radiography in the evaluation of acute abdominal pain as well as various specific diseases such as perforated viscus, bowel obstruction, ingested foreign body, and ureteral stones. Computed tomography, and in particular computed tomography after negative ultrasonography, provides a better workup than plain abdominal radiography alone. The benefits of computed tomography lie in decision-making for management, planning of a surgical strategy, and possibly even avoidance of negative laparotomies. Based on abundant available evidence, major advances in diagnostic imaging, and changes in the management of certain diseases, we can conclude that there is no place for plain abdominal radiography in the workup of adult patients with acute abdominal pain presenting in the emergency department in current practice. PMID:22807640

Gans, Sarah L; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A

2012-01-01

374

CT diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm  

SciTech Connect

Abdominal computed tomography was performed in six patients with suspected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm but in whom an alternate clinical diagnosis was seriously considered. In each patient, a large aortic aneurysm was demonstrated in association with a retroperitoneal accumulation of high-density blood. The retroperitoneal blood was primarily confined to the extracapsular perinephric space. In four of the six patients, a focal area of the aortic wall was indistinct on the side of the retroperitoneal hemorrhage at the presumed site of rupture. Five of the six patients underwent emergency surgery, which confirmed the site of aneurysm, presence of rupture and the location of fresh retroperitoneal blood.

Rosen, A.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Moore, A.V. Jr.; Dunnick, N.R.

1984-08-01

375

Treating abdominal pain in young people.  

PubMed

A common complaint in children, abdominal pain can be clinically challenging for healthcare professionals to diagnose and treat. Accurate assessment and thorough investigations, combined with the measurement and monitoring of vital signs, are essential to eliminate any underlying conditions. Self-reporting tools can be used to aid communication with children, who may have difficulties articulating their thoughts and feelings. This article refers to a case study to discuss the care of children who present to emergency departments (EDs) with abdominal pain. It suggests that children's nursing students can be valuable assets in busy EDs because they have the knowledge and skills required to care for young people. PMID:25659796

McVeigh, Grace; Cardwell, Pauline

2015-02-01

376

Endovascular Stenting for Unsuccessful Angioplasty of the Aorta in Aortoarteritis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The efficacy and safety of endovascular stent implantation to correct dissection or a suboptimal result after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was evaluated in patients suffering from aortic stenosis due to aortoarteritis. Methods: Twelve children and young adults [aged (mean {+-} SD) 18.2 {+-} 8.7 years] underwent stent implantation after PTA of the aorta, seven for obstructive dissection, four for ineffective balloon dilatation, and one for recurrent restenosis. Nine patients underwent implantation of self-expandable stents and three received balloon-expandable Palmaz stents. Results: Stent implantation could be successfully performed in all 12 patients. After stent implantation, the peak systolic pressure gradient decreased from 91 {+-} 33.5 mmHg to 12.4 {+-} 12.5 mmHg (p < 0.001). The diameter of the stenosed segment increased from 4.6 {+-} 0.8 mm to 11.1 {+-} 1.9 mm (p < 0.001). The dissection was completely covered in all seven patients with dissection. Except for epigastric pain with vomiting in one patient, there was no complication. On follow-up, over 12-57 months (mean 26.8 {+-} 10.8 months), 11 patients (91.6%) had marked improvement in their blood pressure. Patients with congestive heart failure and claudication also showed improvement. Repeat catheterization in five patients, between 6-30 months (mean 16.8 {+-} 9.1 months) after stent implantation, showed sustained improvement in four and a fusiform, long segment, intrastent restenosis after 30 months in one child. The stenosis was safely redilated. Conclusion: Endovascular aortic stent implantation is safe and provides good immediate relief in patients with unsatisfactory results after balloon angioplasty. Improvement is sustained in most patients on intermediate-term follow-up.

Tyagi, Sanjay; Kaul, Upkar A.; Arora, Ramesh [Department of Cardiology, G. B. Pant Hospital and Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi 110002 (India)

1999-11-15

377

[Case in which renal function improved following stent-graft placement in the aorta two months after the onset of stanford type B acute aortic dissection].  

PubMed

A 48-year-old man was admitted to the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery in our hospital after developing Stanford type B acute aortic dissection with a patent false lumen in July 2008. Conservative treatment involving rest and antihypertensive therapy was provided following admission. Urine volume decreased from day 9, and serum creatinine increased to 7.7 mg/dL. As it was suspected that the reduced renal blood flow was caused by progression of aortic dissection, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT)was performed. The left kidney showed reduced enhancement and the right kidney was heterogeneously enhanced. The dissection had extended to the left renal artery, and the reduced renal blood flow caused by narrowing of the left renal artery was thought to have caused the renal dysfunction. As elevated urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels and hyperkalemia persisted, hemodialysis was performed a total of four times. Although the patient was subsequently withdrawn from dialysis, he continued to display severe renal dysfunction and was transferred to our department on day 28 for the treatment of renal failure. Conservative treatment was continued, but the maximum diameter of the thoracic aorta gradually increased, and stent placement at the entry of aortic dissection was indicated. On day 86, two stent-grafts were placed for entries at the distal site of the descending aorta and the distal site of the aortic arch. Postoperative abdominal contrast-enhanced CT showed expansion of the true lumen, and blood flow and contrast enhancement improved in both kidneys. Postoperatively, serum creatinine gradually decreased, improving to 1.16 mg/dL on day 96. Renography in the third month after stent-graft placement showed improved renal function in both kidneys. These findings suggest that even at approximately 2 months after the onset of acute renal failure associated with aortic dissection, renal function can be improved by restoring blood flow in the renal arteries. PMID:22351995

Fusamae, Juri; Nishino, Tomoya; Uramatsu, Tadashi; Obata, Yoko; Furusu, Akira; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Kohno, Shigeru

2011-01-01

378

Compliance of the aorta in two diseases affecting vascular elasticity, familial hypercholesterolemia and diabetes: a MRI study  

PubMed Central

Arterial elasticity changes in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and diabetes mellitus (DM) with different but overlapping mechanisms. We compared aortic elasticity between 19 FH patients with the same mutation, 18 type 2 DM patients, and 30 controls, all aged 48 to 64. They underwent aortic magnetic resonance imaging, risk-factor assessment, and carotid and femoral ultrasound measurements. All patients were on adequate cardiovascular medication including statins and had established coronary heart disease (CHD). FH patients had longer-duration CHD (13.3 ± 7.7 years) than did DM patients (5.0 ± 3.1). Aortic compliance in the descending thoracic (DM 0.38 ± 0.14 vs control 0.53 ± 0.19, P = 0.032) and abdominal aorta (DM 0.45 ± 0.20 vs control 0.66 ± 0.25, P = 0.011) was lower in DM patients than in controls, whereas no significant difference existed between FH patients and controls. Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness was greater in FH and DM patients than in controls with no difference between patient groups. Carotid or femoral plaques appeared in 15 (79%) FH and in 10 (56%) DM patients. One control had a femoral plaque. Five FH patients showed stenosis, occlusion or both in carotid arteries. In our opinion, DM patients’ lower compliance reflect mainly arterial media affecting arteriosclerosis, while FH patients’ plaque status and longer duration of CHD suggest more advanced atherosclerosis. The FH patients may therefore be at increased risk for atherothrombotic events. However, due to small patient material, larger confirmatory studies are needed. PMID:19183759

Soljanlahti, Sami; Autti, Taina; Hyttinen, Laura; Vuorio, Alpo F; Keto, Pekka; Lauerma, Kirsi

2008-01-01

379

Morphometric criteria for sexing juvenile human skeletons using the ilium.  

PubMed

Previous attempts to sex juvenile skeletons have focused on the application of qualitative or semi-quantitative techniques. This study applies a variety of geometric morphometric methods, including eigenshape analysis, to this problem. Six metric criteria for the ilia were tested with the aim of investigating previous ideas concerning sexually diagnostic characters. This study uses 25 ilia from juveniles of known age and sex from Christ Church, Spitalfields, London. Ninety-six percent of juvenile ilia were correctly identified as male or female using the shape of the greater sciatic notch. Identification accuracy is shown to improve with age for several criteria. Males were identified to a higher accuracy than females. Application of geometric techniques improves the understanding of the relationship between age, sex, and shape and the clarity with which these relationships can be quantified. Archaeological and forensic relevance of the results are discussed with recommendations for future application. PMID:18366560

Wilson, Laura A; MacLeod, Norman; Humphrey, Louise T

2008-03-01

380

Vascular changes in irradiated lungs: a morphometric study.  

PubMed

The lungs from eight patients who had received thoracic irradiation for the treatment of malignant disease have been studied and a morphometric analysis of the vascular changes present has been made. We found a marked difference between the changes we observed in the pulmonary vessels and those described in systemic vessels after exposure to irradiation. In the former the changes are more pronounced in the venous circulation, and in the latter they are described as being almost confined to the arteries. This difference is a reflection of the difference in oxygen saturation of the blood in the two types of vessels. We suggest that this difference can be explained by the possible role of super-oxide free radicals in the generation of these effects. PMID:2769484

Wilkinson, M J; Maclennan, K A

1989-07-01

381

The Application of Morphometric Indices for Neotectonic Study of Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of morphometric indices for neotectonic studies in large scale, is leading to obtain of accurate results. Indices that used in this study were such as: asymmetry factor, stream-gradient index, drainage density, elongation ratio, and relief ratio. In this research, the whole of Iran was studied that from geographical position side it is placed in northern latitude of 25 up to 39 degree and eastern longitude of 44 up to 63 degree. This study was unique from the point of aim and work scale in Iran, and review of literature showed that most of applied indices in this research have been used only in Hydrogeology course in the world. This study at first, started with digitizing the topographic maps and creates DEM in the scale of 1/250000 and the limit's definition for 660 subsidiary drainage basin and the selection of 900 stream from diverse kinds of orders. Indices, calculated in the base of DEM with regarding to special definition of them. All of these stages have done with using of some software such as: Arc View GIS, Arc Map and Maple. With the aim of analyzing crude data; mentioned indices were implied for preparing contour maps. Investigating of findings and their correlation with the trend of tectonic liniments, revealed that morphometric indices in neotectonic studies of region (with the aim of detection of relative intensity of tectonic processes and comparison of tectonically potential in large scale) had some advantages like applicability and high pace. There was Relative correlation between linear trends of anomaly with trends of tectonic liniments, and also correlation maps and charts with the natural geographic map in the whole scale of country. These observations showed the influence of fault's operation on formation of morphologic landscapes. Therefore it's clear; negative and positive anomalies that obtained for each index, distinguished relative intensity of tectonic activity in the different regions of Iran.

Zamani, Ahmad; Hadavi, Fatemeh

2010-05-01

382

Ancestry estimation in South Africa using craniometrics and geometric morphometrics.  

PubMed

Population history and positive assortative mating directs gene flow in such a way that biological differences are recognized among groups. In turn, forensic anthropologists quantify biological differences to estimate ancestry. Some anthropologists argue that highly admixed population groups, such as South African coloureds, cannot achieve acceptable accuracies because within group variance is too large. Whereas ancestry estimation in South Africa has been limited to craniometric data from South African blacks and whites, the current study integrates craniometric and geometric morphometric data from the three largest South African groups. Crania from 377 South African individuals (black=158, white=112, and coloured=107) comprised the sample. Standard measurements were collected and the coordinate data were subjected to Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA), which resulted in size-free shape variables (ProCoords). A principal component analysis was used to combine the shape variation captured in the ProCoords (ProCoords PC). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), using equal priors, stepwise variable selection and leave-one-out cross-validation, was conducted on the ProCoords, the ProCoords PCs, and the traditional craniometric data. The LDA using 18 stepwise selected ProCoords resulted in the highest cross-validated accuracy (89%). Utilization of geometric morphometric data emphasized that the relative location of cranial landmarks was more discriminating than simple linear distances. Regardless of high levels of genetic admixture, South African coloureds are a homogeneous group and morphologically distinct from other contemporaneous South African populations. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated a correspondence between peer-reported race and morphological differences in the crania of black, white, and coloured South Africans. PMID:25459274

Stull, Kyra E; Kenyhercz, Michael W; L'Abbé, Ericka N

2014-10-16

383

Outline-based morphometrics, an overlooked method in arthropod studies?  

PubMed

Modern methods allow a geometric representation of forms, separating size and shape. In entomology, as well as in many other fields involving arthropod studies, shape variation has proved useful for species identification and population characterization. In medical entomology, it has been applied to very specific questions such as population structure, reinfestation of insecticide-treated areas and cryptic species recognition. For shape comparisons, great importance is given to the quality of landmarks in terms of comparability. Two conceptually and statistically separate approaches are: (i) landmark-based morphometrics, based on the relative position of a few anatomical "true" or "traditional" landmarks, and (ii) outline-based morphometrics, which captures the contour of forms through a sequence of close "pseudo-landmarks". Most of the studies on insects of medical, veterinary or economic importance make use of the landmark approach. The present survey makes a case for the outline method, here based on elliptic Fourier analysis. The collection of pseudo-landmarks may require the manual digitization of many points and, for this reason, might appear less attractive. It, however, has the ability to compare homologous organs or structures having no landmarks at all. This strength offers the possibility to study a wider range of anatomical structures and thus, a larger range of arthropods. We present a few examples highlighting its interest for separating close or cryptic species, or characterizing conspecific geographic populations, in a series of different vector organisms. In this simple application, i.e. the recognition of close or cryptic forms, the outline approach provided similar scores as those obtained by the landmark-based approach. PMID:25111609

Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kaba, D; Solano, P; Dupraz, M; McCoy, K D; Jaramillo-O, N

2014-12-01

384

Polydimethylsiloxane embedded mouse aorta ex vivo perfusion model: proof-of-concept study focusing on atherosclerosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing mouse artery ex vivo perfusion models have utilized arteries such as carotid, uterine, and mesenteric arteries, but not the aorta. However, the aorta is the principal vessel analyzed for atherosclerosis studies in vivo. We have devised a mouse aorta ex vivo perfusion model that can bridge this gap. Aortas from apoE(-/-) mice are embedded in a transparent, gas-permeable, and elastic polymer matrix [polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)] and artificially perfused with cell culture medium under cell culture conditions. After 24 h of artificial ex vivo perfusion, no evidence of cellular apoptosis is detected. Utilizing a standard confocal microscope, it is possible to image specific receptor targeting of cells in atherosclerotic plaques during 24 h. Imaging motion artifacts are minimal due to the polymer matrix embedding. Re-embedding of the aorta enables tissue sectioning and immuno-histochemical analysis. The ex vivo data are validated by comparison with in vivo experiments. This model can save animal lives via production of multiple endpoints in a single experiment, is easy to apply, and enables straightforward comparability with pre-existing atherosclerosis in vivo data. It is suited to investigate atherosclerotic disease in particular and vascular biology in general.

Wang, Xueya; Wolf, Marc P.; Keel, Rahel Bänziger; Lehner, Roman; Hunziker, Patrick R.

2012-07-01

385

Late diagnosis of perforation of the aorta by a pedicle screw.  

PubMed

Although the clinical and biomechanical advantages of pedicle screws are well documented, the accuracy of their insertion is always a concern.Injury of neurovascular structures could be devastating. Perforation of the aorta from posteriorly placed screws is fortunately rare but could end up being lethal. We present a review of the current literature along with two illustrative cases with aorta perforation from posterior pedicle screws. An 82-year-old female with a history of thoracic kyphosis and a 26-year-old female with scoliotic deformity were referred to our institution owing to back pain. Both patients had undergone correction of their deformities and posterior fixation using posterior pedicle screws and rods 5 years previously. During the diagnostic work-up, which included CT scans, we incidentally found one pedicle screw to be malpositioned, exiting the vertebral body and perforating the aorta. The patients were offered a combined orthopaedic and vascular procedure, including screw removal and endovascular stenting of the aorta. Potential complications from the presence of a screw inside the pulsatile aorta, and the complexity of revision surgery should be well considered before proceeding to such a difficult surgical procedure. Systemic postoperative follow-up imaging and safer intraoperative practices during screw placement are important. PMID:24205763

Soultanis, Konstantinos Chr; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Starantzis, Konstantinos A; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

2013-08-01

386

Porcine Abdominal Wall Simulator for Laparotomy Incision and Closure.  

PubMed

We describe an economical and simple abdominal wall model that provides a realistic experience for trainees as they develop the skills of creating an abdominal incision through the midline, followed by closure of the fascia and skin. PMID:25377215

Khan, Sadaf; Cipriano, Cassie; Marks, Jeffrey M; Schomisch, Steve J

2014-11-01

387

Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

... Aortic Aneurysm Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The Basics Take Action! Ver en español Content ... with your doctor about your risk for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). If AAA isn't found and treated ...

388

ABDOMINAL OBESITY, MUSCLE COMPOSITION, AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed to...

389

Acute abdominal complications following hip surgery.  

PubMed

Hip surgeries are some of the most common and successful orthopedic procedures. Although rarely, abdominal complications do occur and are associated with unfavorable outcomes.We aimed to identify and describe the severe abdominal complications that appear in patients under-going elective or traumatic hip surgery. A four year retrospective electronic database research identified 408 elective primary hip replacements,51 hip revisions and 1040 intra and extracapsular proximal femur fractures. Out of these, three males and 4 females between 64 - 84 years old were identified to have developed acute abdominal complications: perforated acute ulcer (3),acute cholecystitis (2), volvulus (1), toxic megacolon with peritonitis (1) and acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (1).Complications debuted 3 - 10 days after index orthopedic surgery. Acute perioperative abdominal complications are rarely encountered during orthopedic surgery. When these do occur, they do so almost exclusively in patients with hippathology, comorbidities and most often lead to life threatening situations. We thus emphasize the need for early identification and appropriate management by both orthopedic and general surgery doctors in order to improve patient safety. PMID:24742414

Deleanu, B; Prejbeanu, R; Vermesan, D; Haragus, H; Icma, I; Predescu, V

2014-01-01

390

Laparoscopic Management of an Abdominal Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background. Ectopic pregnancy is one of the leading causes of significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Abdominal surgeries increase the risk of postoperative adhesions. We here present a case of omental ectopic pregnancy in a patient with a prior history of cesarean section. Case. A 20-year-old female presented with a two-day history of crampy lower abdominal pain. Patient was hemodynamically stable with a beta HCG of 1057?mI/mL. Transvaginal ultrasound did not show an intrauterine pregnancy but revealed an ill-defined mass in the midline pelvis extending to the right of the midline. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed large clots in the pelvis with normal uterus and adnexa. Intra-abdominal survey revealed an omental adhesion close to the right adnexa with a hematoma. Partial omentectomy was completed and the portion of the omentum with the hematoma was sent to pathology for confirmation. Final pathology confirmed the presence of chorionic villi consistent with products of conception. Conclusion. Omental ectopic pregnancy is a rare diagnosis and often missed. We recommend careful intra-abdominal survey for an ectopic pregnancy in the presence of hemoperitoneum with normal uterus and adnexa. This can be safely achieved using laparoscopy in early gestational ages when the patient is hemodynamically stable. PMID:25478262

2014-01-01

391

Abdominal wall repair using human acellular dermis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe surgical repair of abdominal wall defects that cannot be closed primarily in contaminated fields is a difficult problem. The use of nonabsorbable synthetic materials usually is contraindicated in this setting because of the risk for colonization and chronic infection of the mesh. In this study we sought to determine the safety and efficacy of implanted human acellular dermal graft

Charles F. Bellows; Daniel Albo; David H. Berger; Samir S. Awad

2007-01-01

392

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Chronic Constipation  

PubMed Central

Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an elevated intraabdominal pressure with evidence of organ dysfunction. The majority of published reports of ACS are in neonates with abdominal wall defects and in adults following trauma or burns, but it is poorly described in children. We describe the unusual presentation of an 11-year-old boy with a long history of chronic constipation who developed acute ACS requiring resuscitative measures and emergent disimpaction. He presented with a 2-week history of increasing abdominal pain, nausea, diminished appetite and longstanding encopresis. On exam, he was emaciated with a massively distended abdomen with a palpable fecaloma. Abdominal XR confirmed these findings. Within 24 hours of presentation, he became tachycardic and oliguric with orthostatic hypotension. Following two enemas, he acutely deteriorated with severe hypotension, marked tachycardia, acute respiratory distress, and a declining mental status. Endotracheal intubation, fluid boluses, and vasopressors were commenced, followed by emergent surgical fecal disimpaction. This resulted in rapid improvement in vital signs. He has been thoroughly investigated and no other condition apart from functional constipation has been identified. Although ACS secondary to constipation is extremely unusual, this case illustrates the need to actively treat constipation and what can happen if it is not. PMID:22606517

Flageole, Helene; Ouahed, Jodie; Walton, J. Mark; Yousef, Yasmin

2011-01-01

393

Variability in measurement of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report interobserver and intraobserver variability of computed tomography (CT) measurements of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter and agreement between CT and ultrasonography observed in the course of a large, multicenter, randomized trial on the management of small AAAs.Methods: CT measurements of AAA diameter from participating centers were compared with measurements made from

Frank A. Lederle; Samuel E. Wilson; Gary R. Johnson; Donovan B. Reinke; Fred N. Littooy; Charles W. Acher; Louis M. Messina; David J. Ballard; Howard J. Ansel

1995-01-01

394

Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised.

W G Thompson; G F Longstreth; D A Drossman; K W Heaton; E J Irvine; S A Müller-Lissner

1999-01-01

395

Percutaneous repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePercutaneous treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is feasible, but is associated with a unique set of risks. A comparison of Excluder endograft deployment with femoral artery cutdown (FAC) versus percutaneous femoral access (PFA) for treatment of infrarenal AAA was undertaken.

Mark D Morasch; Melina R Kibbe; Mary E Evans; Wendy S Meadows; Mark K Eskandari; Jon S Matsumura; William H Pearce

2004-01-01

396

THE INFLUENCE OF FRESHWATER RUNOFF ON BIOMASS, MORPHOMETRICS, AND PRODUCTION OF THALASSIA TESTUDINUM. (R827453)  

EPA Science Inventory

Efforts to restore more natural freshwater flows in South Florida will impact Biscayne Bay. In order to evaluate possible effects of decreased freshwater discharge on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum , we determined the biomass, density, morphometrics (width, length, nu...

397

DENTICLE MORPHOMETRICS AND A POSSIBLY OMNIVOROUS FEEDING HABIT FOR THE THEROPOD  

E-print Network

DENTICLE MORPHOMETRICS AND A POSSIBLY OMNIVOROUS FEEDING HABIT FOR THE THEROPOD DINOSAUR TROODON as predatory adaptations. However, this same suite of characters is found in some herbivorous or omnivorous

Holtz Jr., Thomas R.

398

Morphology and morphometrics of hematological cells from eastern sarus crane, Grus antigone sharpii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of the eastern sarus crane (Grus antigone sharpii) has been greatly reduced both in distribution and number, and documents presenting the blood cell characteristics and morphometric\\u000a data of blood cells in this kind of bird are limited. The objective of this study was to examine the morphometric and morphological\\u000a aspects of the blood cells of the eastern sarus

N.-A. Narkkong; Worapol Aengwanich; A. Tanomthong

2011-01-01

399

Responses of intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal muscle activity during dynamic trunk loading in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The purpose of this study was to determine and compare interactions between the abdominal musculature and intea-abdominal pressure (IAP) during controlled dynamic and static trunk muscle loading. Myoelectric activity was recorded in six subjects from the rectus abdominis, obliquus externus, obliquus internus, transversus abdominis and erector spinae muscles using surface and intea-muscular fine-wire electrodes. The IAP was recorded intea-gastrically. Trunk

A. G. Cresswell

1993-01-01

400

Intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal wall muscular function: spinal unloading mechanism  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The roles of antagonistic activation of abdominal muscles and of intra-abdominal pressurization remain enigmatic, but are thought to be associated with both spinal unloading and spinal stabilization in activities such as lifting. Biomechanical analyses are needed to understand the function of intra-abdominal pressurization because of the anatomical and physiological complexity, but prior analyses have been over-simplified. METHODS To test whether increased intra-abdominal pressure was associated with reduced spinal compression forces for efforts that generated moments about each of the principal axis directions, a previously published biomechanical model of the spine and its musculature was modified by the addition of anatomically realistic three-layers of curved abdominal musculature connected by fascia to the spine. Published values of muscle cross-sectional areas and the active and passive stiffness properties were assigned. The muscle activations were calculated assuming minimized muscle stress and stretch for the model loaded with flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation moments of up to 60 Nm, along with intra-abdominal pressurization of 5 or 10 kPa (37.5 or 75 mmHg) and partial bodyweight (340 N). FINDINGS The analysis predicted a reduction in spinal compressive force with increase in intra-abdominal pressurization from 5 to 10 kPa. This reduction at 60 Nm external effort was 21% for extension effort, 18% for flexion effort, 29% for lateral bending and 31% for axial rotation. INTERPRETATION This analysis predicts that intra-abdominal pressure produces spinal unloading, and shows likely muscle activation patterns that achieve this. PMID:20655636

Stokes, Ian A.F.; Gardner-Morse, Mack G.; Henry, Sharon M.

2010-01-01

401

Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

2001-01-01

402

Plain abdominal radiographs in acute medical emergencies: an abused investigation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plain abdominal radiographs are commonly requested for acute medical emergencies on patients with non-specific abdominal symptoms and signs. In this study 131 plain abdominal radiographs performed on the day of admission were prospectively analysed. In only 16 cases (12%) the reasons for requests conformed to the recommended guidelines by the Royal College of Radiologists. The reason for the request was

S Feyler; V Williamson; D King

2002-01-01

403

Contraction of the pelvic floor muscles during abdominal maneuvers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sapsford RR, Hodges PW. Contraction of the pelvic floor muscles during abdominal maneuvers. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1081-8. Objective: To determine whether voluntary abdominal muscle contraction is associated with pelvic floor muscle activity. Design: Pelvic floor muscle activity was recorded during contractions of the abdominal muscles at 3 different intensities in supine and standing positions. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: Six

Ruth R. Sapsford; Paul W. Hodges

2001-01-01

404

2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections. PMID:23294512

2013-01-01

405

Intra-abdominal pressure mechanism for stabilizing the lumbar spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is thought to provide stability to the lumbar spine, but the exact principles have yet to be specified. A simplified physical model was constructed and theoretical calculations performed to illustrate a possible intra-abdominal pressure mechanism for stabilizing the spine. The model consisted of an inverted pendulum with linear springs representing abdominal and erector spinae muscle groups.

Jacek Cholewicki; Krishna Juluru; Stuart M. McGill

1999-01-01

406

The Terminal Abdominal Ganglion of the Wood Cricket Nemobius sylvestris  

E-print Network

The Terminal Abdominal Ganglion of the Wood Cricket Nemobius sylvestris Teresita C. Insausti ­ Universite´ Franc¸ois Rabelais, Tours, France ABSTRACT The abdominal cerci of the wood cricket, Nemobius WORDS: cricket; neuroanatomy; giant interneurons; mechanoreceptor projections; terminal abdominal

Giron, David - Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l'Insecte, Université François Rabelais

407

Ultrasound in abdominal trauma John S. Rose, MD  

E-print Network

Ultrasound in abdominal trauma John S. Rose, MD Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, 2315 Stockton Blvd., PSSB 2100, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA Ultrasound in the evaluation of abdominal trauma has evolved over the past 30 years. The use of ultrasound for abdominal trauma

408

FSI analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta. The FSI is handled with the sequentially-coupled arterial FSI technique. The fluid mechanics equations are solved with the ST-VMS method, which is the variational multiscale version of the deforming-spatial-domain/stabilized space-time (DSD/SST) method. We focus on the relationship between the centerline geometry of the aorta and the flow field, which influences the wall shear stress distribution. The centerlines of the aorta models we use in our analysis are extracted from the CT scans, and we assume a constant diameter. Torsion-free model geometries are generated by projecting the original centerline to its averaged plane of curvature. The flow fields for the original and projected geometries are compared to examine the influence of the torsion.

Suito, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Kenji; Huynh, Viet Q. H.; Sze, Daniel; Ueda, Takuya

2014-10-01

409

Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in aneurysmatic thoracic aortas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomographic images of ascending thoracic human aortas from aneurysms exhibit disorders on the smooth muscle cell structure of the media layer of the aortic vessel as well as elastin degradation. Ex-vivo measurements of human samples provide results that correlate with pathologist diagnosis in aneurysmatic and control aortas. The observed disorders are studied as possible hallmarks for aneurysm diagnosis. To this end, the backscattering profile along the vessel thickness has been evaluated by fitting its decay against two different models, a third order polynomial fitting and an exponential fitting. The discontinuities present on the vessel wall on aneurysmatic aortas are slightly better identified with the exponential approach. Aneurysmatic aortic walls present uneven reflectivity decay when compared with healthy vessels. The fitting error has revealed as the most favorable indicator for aneurysm diagnosis as it provides a measure of how uniform is the decay along the vessel thickness.

Real, Eusebio; Eguizabal, Alma; Pontón, Alejandro; Val-Bernal, J. Fernando; Mayorga, Marta; Revuelta, José M.; López-Higuera, José; Conde, Olga M.

2013-06-01

410

Abdominal compartment syndrome: does intra-cystic pressure reflect actual intra-abdominal pressure? A prospective study in surgical patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Abdominal compartment syndrome is defined as the adverse physiologic effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure. Prolonged, unrelieved pressure may lead to respiratory compromise, renal impairment, cardiac failure, shock, and death. Abdominal compartment syndrome is diagnosed by measuring intra-cystic pressure as a reflection of intra-abdominal pressure. To examine the validity of the technique, we conducted a prospective study in surgical patients

Samir Johna; Edward Taylor; Charlie Brown; Grenith Zimmerman

1999-01-01

411

3-D segmentation and quantitative analysis of inner and outer walls of thrombotic abdominal aortic aneurysms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an area of a localized widening of the abdominal aorta, with a frequent presence of thrombus. A ruptured aneurysm can cause death due to severe internal bleeding. AAA thrombus segmentation and quantitative analysis are of paramount importance for diagnosis, risk assessment, and determination of treatment options. Until now, only a small number of methods for thrombus segmentation and analysis have been presented in the literature, either requiring substantial user interaction or exhibiting insufficient performance. We report a novel method offering minimal user interaction and high accuracy. Our thrombus segmentation method is composed of an initial automated luminal surface segmentation, followed by a cost function-based optimal segmentation of the inner and outer surfaces of the aortic wall. The approach utilizes the power and flexibility of the optimal triangle mesh-based 3-D graph search method, in which cost functions for thrombus inner and outer surfaces are based on gradient magnitudes. Sometimes local failures caused by image ambiguity occur, in which case several control points are used to guide the computer segmentation without the need to trace borders manually. Our method was tested in 9 MDCT image datasets (951 image slices). With the exception of a case in which the thrombus was highly eccentric, visually acceptable aortic lumen and thrombus segmentation results were achieved. No user interaction was used in 3 out of 8 datasets, and 7.80 +/- 2.71 mouse clicks per case / 0.083 +/- 0.035 mouse clicks per image slice were required in the remaining 5 datasets.

Lee, Kyungmoo; Yin, Yin; Wahle, Andreas; Olszewski, Mark E.; Sonka, Milan

2008-03-01

412

Robust and fast abdominal aortic aneurysm centerline detection for rupture risk prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes a robust and fast semi-automatic approach for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) centerline detection. AAA is a vascular disease accompanied by progressive enlargement of the abdominal aorta, which leads to rupture if left untreated, an event that accounts for the 13th leading cause of death in the U.S. The lumen centerline can be used to provide the initial starting points for thrombus segmentation. Different from other methods, which are mostly based on region growing and suffer from problems of leakage and heavy computational burden, we propose a novel method based on online classification. An online version of the adaboost classifier based on steerable features is applied to AAA MRI data sets with a rectangular box enclosing the lumen in the first slice. The classifier is updated during the tracking process by using the testing result of the previous image as the new training data. Unlike traditional offline versions, the online classifier can adjust parameters automatically when a leakage occurs. With the help of integral images on the computation of haar-like features, the method can achieve nearly real time processing (about 2 seconds per image on a standard workstation). Ten ruptured and ten unruptured AAA data sets were processed and the tortuosity of the 20 centerlines was calculated. The correlation coefficient of the tortuosity was calculated to illustrate the significance of the prediction with the proposed method. The mean relative accuracy is 95.68% with a standard deviation of 0.89% when compared to a manual segmentation procedure. The correlation coefficient is 0.394.

Zhang, Hong; Finol, Ender A.

2011-03-01

413

1,2-diacylglycerol content and its fatty acid composition in thoracic aorta of diabetic rats.  

PubMed

These experiments were conducted to determine 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) in the thoracic aorta obtained from streptozocin-induced diabetic rats because 1,2-DAG is assumed to be a second messenger associated with phosphoinositide metabolism. After preincubation for a 25-min stabilization, 1,2-DAG content in isolated thoracic aortas 4 and 8 wk after streptozocin injection was significantly decreased by 42 and 31%, respectively, compared with age-matched control rats on 10-min norepinephrine stimulation (10(-5) M). However, 4 wk of daily insulin injection after 4 wk of untreated diabetes significantly shifted 1,2-DAG toward normal levels. Analysis of its fatty acid composition showed a significant difference between control and diabetic rat aortas at both 4 and 8 wk. In particular, the percentage of arachidonate, a precursor of eicosanoids, decreased. Such alteration in the fatty acid profile in diabetic rat aortas was inhibited by insulin treatment. 1,2-DAG content in the 8-wk diabetic group was also significantly decreased by 33% compared with control in the absence of norepinephrine, whereas 1,2-DAG content was lower than in the presence of norepinephrine in both the control and diabetic groups. Cholesterol, triglyceride, and phosphatidylcholine content in diabetic rat aortas was lower than control. Lower levels of 1,2-DAG in the thoracic aorta from diabetic rats were observed in the presence and absence of norepinephrine, suggesting that a defect in 1,2-DAG production may be associated with abnormalities of vascular smooth muscle responsiveness by agonists, as described previously. PMID:2060718

Okumura, K; Nishiura, T; Awaji, Y; Kondo, J; Hashimoto, H; Ito, T

1991-07-01

414

Ovariectomy Increases the Participation of Hyperpolarizing Mechanisms in the Relaxation of Rat Aorta  

PubMed Central

This study examines the downstream NO release pathway and the contribution of different vasodilator mediators in the acetylcholine-induced response in rat aorta 5-months after the loss of ovarian function. Aortic segments from ovariectomized and control female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to measure: the levels of superoxide anion, the superoxide dismutases (SODs) activity, the cGMP formation, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) activity and the involvement of NO, cGMP, hydrogen peroxide and hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the ACh-induced relaxation. The results showed that ovariectomy did not alter ACh-induced relaxation; incubation with L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor, decreased the ACh-induced response to a lesser extent in aorta from ovariectomized than from control rats, while ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, decreased that response to a similar extent; the blockade of hyperpolarizing mechanisms, by precontracting arteries with KCl, decreased the ACh-induced response to a greater extent in aortas from ovariectomized than those from control rats; catalase, that decomposes hydrogen peroxide, decreased the ACh-induced response only in aorta from ovariectomized rats. In addition, ovariectomy increased superoxide anion levels and SODs activity, decreased cGMP formation and increased PKG activity. Despite the increased superoxide anion and decreased cGMP in aorta from ovariectomized rats, ACh-induced relaxation is maintained by the existence of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in which hydrogen peroxide participates. The greater contribution of hydrogen peroxide in ACh-induced relaxation is due to increased SOD activity, in an attempt to compensate for increased superoxide anion formation. Increased PKG activity could represent a redundant mechanism to ensure vasodilator function in the aorta of ovariectomized rats. PMID:24058477

Sagredo, Ana; del Campo, Lara; Martorell, Aina; Navarro, Rocío; Martín, María C.; Blanco-Rivero, Javier; Ferrer, Mercedes

2013-01-01

415

Blood flow in the rabbit aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta  

PubMed Central

The distribution of atherosclerotic lesions within the rabbit vasculature, particularly within the descending thoracic aorta, has been mapped in numerous studies. The patchy nature of such lesions has been attributed to local variation in the pattern of blood flow. However, there have been few attempts to model and characterize the flow. In this study, a high-order continuous Galerkin finite-element method was used to simulate blood flow within a realistic representation of the rabbit aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta. The geometry, which was obtained from computed tomography of a resin corrosion cast, included all vessels originating from the aortic arch (followed to at least their second generation) and five pairs of intercostal arteries originating from the proximal descending thoracic aorta. The simulations showed that small geometrical undulations associated with the ductus arteriosus scar cause significant deviations in wall shear stress (WSS). This finding highlights the importance of geometrical accuracy when analysing WSS or related metrics. It was also observed that two Dean-type vortices form in the aortic arch and propagate down the descending thoracic aorta (along with an associated skewed axial velocity profile). This leads to the occurrence of axial streaks in WSS, similar in nature to the axial streaks of lipid deposition found in the descending aorta of cholesterol-fed rabbits. Finally, it was observed that WSS patterns within the vicinity of intercostal branch ostia depend not only on local flow features caused by the branches themselves, but also on larger-scale flow features within the descending aorta, which vary between branches at different locations. This result implies that disease and WSS patterns in the vicinity of intercostal ostia are best compared on a branch-by-branch basis. PMID:21593030

Vincent, P. E.; Plata, A. M.; Hunt, A. A. E.; Weinberg, P. D.; Sherwin, S. J.

2011-01-01

416

[Aneurysms of the infrarenal aorta and visceral cancer. Therapeutic problems].  

PubMed

The association of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and a long-standing or progressing cancer is a frequent finding: 14 cases among the 112 infrarenal aortic aneurysms treated by one of us (J.C.) are discussed in this report. The marked predominance in bronchial and ORL epithelioma (50%) is explained by the common pathogenic factors of these neoplasms and atheroma. Surgical treatment is difficult because of the potentially lethal character of the two lesions: it must allow for size and possible progressive nature of aneurysm and prognosis of the neoplasm as defined by the TNM classification. Detection of an AAA in a patient with a history of neoplasm means that the opportunity for aortic surgery is dependent of therapeutic control (or otherwise) of the neoplastic disease and therefore frequently the length of follow up period after therapy. When detection of the AAA and neoplasm is simultaneous, the aneurysm progressing or ruptured, surgical complications leave little choice with regard to operative strategy. In 3 cases, simultaneous treatment of an AAA and a neoplasm was possible, particularly in the case of Grawitz tumors of cortical development without pyelocaliceal invasion. In most patients, separate operative stages are necessary in order to ensure asepsis of AAA surgery. Aneurysmal occlusion with an extrafocal shunt can allow one-stage surgery when aneurysm and neoplasm are equally menacing. PMID:3559412

Combe, J; Destuynder, O; Milleret, P

1987-01-01

417

Intra-abdominal abscess demonstrating an unusually large intra-abdominal pattern on an indium-111 leukocyte scan  

SciTech Connect

Indium-111 WBC imaging of a patient with occult septicemia revealed a large focal pattern of radiopharmaceutical distribution within the abdominal cavity at 24 hours post radiopharmaceutical administration. This finding was felt to represent a large intra-abdominal abscess. A five liter peritoneal abscess was found at surgery. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an intra-abdominal abscess.

Black, R.R.; Fernandez-Ulloa, M.; ter Penning, B.; Yellin, J.

1988-12-01

418

CT findings of ruptured intramural hematoma of the aorta extending along the pulmonary artery.  

PubMed

Mediastinal hematoma extending along the pulmonary artery is a rare complication of Stanford type A classic (double-barreled) aortic dissection. Rupture from the posterior aspect of the aortic root penetrates the shared adventitia of the aorta and pulmonary artery. From this location, hematoma can spread along the adventitial planes of the pulmonary arteries out into the lungs. We report a case of ruptured intramural hematoma of the aorta (IMH) extending along the pulmonary artery. To our knowledge, this finding in patients with IMH has not been reported in the literature. PMID:16988873

Sueyoshi, Eijun; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Uetani, Masataka; Matsuoka, Yojiro; Suenaga, Etsuro

2007-01-01

419

Retrograde embolism from the descending thoracic aorta causing stroke: An underappreciated clinical condition  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of retrograde aortic blood flow is a complex and underreported clinical phenomenon. Complex plaques of the aortic arch are considered high-risk sources of cerebral emboli.1 Aortic plaques situated in the descending thoracic aorta are however often overlooked and in fact can be more frequent potential sources of cerebral embolism through the mechanism of retrograde aortic blood flow. We present the case of an elderly Caucasian female who experienced recurrent posterior circulation embolic strokes where the only possible underlying etiology was found to be an atheroma in the descending thoracic aorta, possibly showering retrograde emboli. PMID:23809389

Chhabra, Lovely; Niroula, Rabin; Phadke, Jayant; Spodick, David H.

2013-01-01

420

A morbid coexistence: thrombosed descending thoracic aorta aneurysm and aortic insufficiency with aortic diastolic reverse flow  

PubMed Central

A 76-year-old woman presented with difficulty in speech and weakness on right arm and leg. Her medical history was remarkable only for uncontrolled hypertension for a long period. Dysarthria, right central facial paralysis, right hemiparesis and hypoactive deep tendon reflexes were noticed on neurological examination. Moderate degree aortic insufficiency with aortic diastolic reverse flow was detected on transthoracic echocardiography. Thrombosed aortic aneurysm on descending thoracic aorta, and an acute hemorrhagic infarction in the distribution of the left middle cerebral artery were depicted on thorax, and brain computed tomography scans, respectively. Cerebrovascular event was medically managed and whereas conservative management was offered for thrombosed descending thoracic aorta aneurysm. PMID:25392831

Boyaci, Nurefsan; Yildiz, Ali

2014-01-01

421

Combined Two-Photon Luminescence Microscopy and OCT for Macrophage Detection in the Hypercholesterolemic Rabbit Aorta Using Plasmonic Gold Nanorose  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives The macrophage is an important early cellular marker related to risk of future rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Two-channel two-photon luminescence (TPL) microscopy combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to detect, and further characterize the distribution of aorta-based macrophages using plasmonic gold nanorose as an imaging contrast agent. Study Design/Materials and Methods Nanorose uptake by macrophages was identified by TPL microscopy in macrophage cell culture. Ex vivo aorta segments (8 × 8 × 2 mm3) rich in macrophages from a rabbit model of aorta inflammation were imaged by TPL microscopy in combination with OCT. Aorta histological sections (5 µm in thickness) were also imaged by TPL microscopy. Results Merged two-channel TPL images showed the lateral and depth distribution of nanorose-loaded macrophages (confirmed by RAM-11 stain) and other aorta components (e.g., elastin fiber and lipid droplet), suggesting that nanorose-loaded macrophages are diffusively distributed and mostly detected superficially within 20 µm from the luminal surface of the aorta. Moreover, OCT images depicted detailed surface structure of the diseased aorta. Conclusions Results suggest that TPL microscopy combined with OCT can simultaneously reveal macrophage distribution with respect to aorta surface structure, which has the potential to detect vulnerable plaques and monitor plaque-based macrophages overtime during cardiovascular interventions. PMID:22246984

Wang, Tianyi; Mancuso, J. Jacob; Kazmi, S.M. Shams; Dwelle, Jordan; Sapozhnikova, Veronika; Willsey, Brian; Ma, Li L.; Qiu, Jinze; Li, Xiankai; Dunn, Andrew K.; Johnston, Keith P.; Feldman, Marc D.; Milner, Thomas E.

2013-01-01

422

Effects of intraoperative electron irradiation in the dog on cell turnover in intact and surgically-anastomosed aorta and intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adults dogs were subjected to laparotomy and intraoperative electron irradiation after division and reanastomosis of aorta or after construction of a blind loop of small intestine having a transverse suture line and an end-to-side anastomosis. Dogs received intraoperative irradiation of both intact and anastomosed aorta or intestine in doses of 0, 2000, 3000, or 4500 rad. Animals were sacrificed at

William F. Sindelar; Brian M. Morrow; Elizabeth L. Travis; Joel Tepper; Aleta B. Merkel; Karen Kranda; Richard Terrill

1983-01-01

423

Blood Vessel Matrix Seeded with Cells: A Better Alternative for Abdominal Wall Reconstruction—A Long-Term Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The aim of this study was to present abdominal wall reconstruction using a porcine vascular graft seeded with MSC (mesenchymal stem cells) on rat model. Material and Methods. Abdominal wall defect was prepared in 21 Wistar rats. Acellular porcine-vascular grafts taken from aorta and prepared with Triton X were used. 14 aortic grafts were implanted in place, of which 7 grafts were seeded with rat MSC cells (Group I), and 7 were acellular grafts (Group II). As a control, 7 standard polypropylene meshes were used for defect augmentation (Group III). The assessment method was performed by HE and CD31 staining after 6 months. The mechanical properties have been investigated by Zwick&Roell Z0.5. Results. The strongest angiogenesis and lowest inflammatory response were observed in Group I. Average capillaries density was 2.75, 0.75, and 1.53 and inflammatory effect was 0.29, 1.39, and 2.72 for Groups I, II, and III, respectively. The means of mechanical properties were 12.74 ± 1.48, 7.27 ± 1.56, and 14.4 ± 3.7?N/cm in Groups I and II and control, respectively. Conclusions. Cell-seeded grafts have better mechanical properties than acellular grafts but worse than polypropylene mesh. Cells improved mechanical and physiological properties of decellularized natural scaffolds. PMID:25705696

Jundzi??, Arkadiusz; Nazarewski, ?ukasz; Kotela, Andrzej; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Skopi?ska-Wisniewska, Joanna; ?ukasiewicz, Aleksander; Nazarewski, S?awomir; Kotela, Ireneusz; Pokrywczy?ska, Marta; Marsza?ek, Andrzej; Drewa, Tomasz

2015-01-01

424

Blood vessel matrix seeded with cells: a better alternative for abdominal wall reconstruction-a long-term study.  

PubMed

Purpose. The aim of this study was to present abdominal wall reconstruction using a porcine vascular graft seeded with MSC (mesenchymal stem cells) on rat model. Material and Methods. Abdominal wall defect was prepared in 21 Wistar rats. Acellular porcine-vascular grafts taken from aorta and prepared with Triton X were used. 14 aortic grafts were implanted in place, of which 7 grafts were seeded with rat MSC cells (Group I), and 7 were acellular grafts (Group II). As a control, 7 standard polypropylene meshes were used for defect augmentation (Group III). The assessment method was performed by HE and CD31 staining after 6 months. The mechanical properties have been investigated by Zwick&Roell Z0.5. Results. The strongest angiogenesis and lowest inflammatory response were observed in Group I. Average capillaries density was 2.75, 0.75, and 1.53 and inflammatory effect was 0.29, 1.39, and 2.72 for Groups I, II, and III, respectively. The means of mechanical properties were 12.74 ± 1.48, 7.27 ± 1.56, and 14.4 ± 3.7?N/cm in Groups I and II and control, respectively. Conclusions. Cell-seeded grafts have better mechanical properties than acellular grafts but worse than polypropylene mesh. Cells improved mechanical and physiological properties of decellularized natural scaffolds. PMID:25705696

Nowacki, Maciej; Jundzi??, Arkadiusz; Nazarewski, ?ukasz; Kotela, Andrzej; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Skopi?ska-Wisniewska, Joanna; Bodnar, Magdalena; ?ukasiewicz, Aleksander; Nazarewski, S?awomir; Kotela, Ireneusz; Kucharzewski, Marek; Pokrywczy?ska, Marta; Marsza?ek, Andrzej; Drewa, Tomasz

2015-01-01

425

Morphometric Study of the Upper Thoracic Sympathetic Ganglia  

PubMed Central

Objective Morphometric data for the sympathetic ganglia (SG) of the upper thoracic spine was investigated to identify the exact location of the SG in order to reduce normal tissue injury in the thoracic cavity during thoracoscopic sympathectomy. Methods In 46 specimens from 23 formalin-fixed adult cadavers, the authors measured the shortest distance from the medial margin of the T1, T2 and T3 SG to the most prominent point and medial margin of the corresponding rib heads, and to the lateral margin of the longus colli muscle. In addition, the distance between the most prominent point of the rib head and the lateral margin of longus colli muscle and the width of each SG were measured. Results The shortest distance from the medial margin of the SG to the prominent point of corresponding rib head was on average 1.9 mm on T1, 4.2 mm, and 4.1 mm on T2, T3. The distance from the medial margin of the SG to the medial margin of the corresponding rib head was 4.2 mm on T1, 5.9 mm, and 6.3 mm on T2, T3. The mean distance from the medial margin of the SG to the lateral margin of the longus colli muscle was 6.7 mm on T1, 8.8 mm, 9.9 and mm on T2, T3. The mean distance between the prominent point of the rib head and the lateral margin of the longus colli muscle was 4.8 mm on T1, 4.6 mm, and 5.9 mm on T2, T3. The mean width of SG was 6.1 mm on T1, 4.1 mm, and 3.1 mm on T2, T3. Conclusion We present morphometric data to assist in surgical planning and the localization of the upper thoracic SG during thoracoscopic sympathectomy. PMID:21892401

Lee, Sang Beom; Park, Sukh Que; Cho, Sung Jin; Choi, Soon Kwan; Bae, Hack Gun

2011-01-01

426

Reconstruction option of abdominal wounds with large tissue defects  

PubMed Central

Background Abdominal wall defects result from trauma, abdominal wall tumors, necrotizing infections or complications of previous abdominal surgeries. Apart from cosmetics, abdominal wall defects have strong negative functional impact on the patients. Many different techniques exist for abdominal wall repair. Most problematic and troublesome are defects, where major part of abdominal wall had to be resected and tissue for transfer or reconstruction is absent. Case presentation Authors of the article present operative technique, in which reconstruction of abdominal wall was managed by composite polypropylene mesh with absorbable collagen film, creation of granulation tissue with use of NPWT (negative pressure wound therapy), and subsequent split skin grafting. Three patients with massive abdominal wall defect were successfully managed and abdominal wall reconstruction was performed by mentioned technique. Functional and cosmetic effect is acceptable and patients have good postoperative quality of life. Conclusions Patients with giant abdominal defects can benefit from described technique. It serves as the only option, with which abdominal wall is fully reconstructed without need for the secondary intervention. PMID:25103782

2014-01-01

427

Role of plasma ammonia level in detecting intra-abdominal hemorrhage following blunt abdominal trauma  

PubMed Central

Background: Blunt abdominal injury is a leading cause of death in trauma patients. A reliable test predicting intra-abdominal hemorrhage would be a novel method. The study objective was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of plasma ammonia in detection of intra-abdominal bleeding in patients with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). Materials and Methods: In this observational study, all patients suffering from BAT, referred to our university teaching hospital included. The levels of ammonia were measured at the time of emergency department admission and 1 h after initial treatment. Demographic data, vital signs, and venous blood gas reports were recorded. Findings of contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography scan and laparotomy were assumed as a gold standard for abdominal injuries. Results: A total of 104 patients was enrolled in the study. 15 patients (14.4%) had intra-abdominal hemorrhage and the mean plasma ammonia level in this group was significantly higher than the other patients on admission time (101.73 ± 5.41 ?g/dL vs. 47.36 ± 26.31 ?g/dL, P < 0.001). On receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis, in cutoff point of 89 ?g/dL, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79.6-100), 93.26% (95% CI, 86-96.8), 14.83 (95% CI, 6.84-32.12), and 0, respectively. Conclusion: The study findings suggest the measurement of ammonia level at the time of admission in the patients with BAT would be a useful test predicting intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Furthermore, decrease in the ammonia level could be a useful marker for monitoring response to treatment in these patients. PMID:25657755

Farsi, Davood; Fadaki, Ali Akbar Khademi; Kianmehr, Nahid; Abbasi, Saeed; Rezai, Mahdi; Marashi, Mohammad; Mofidi, Mani

2014-01-01

428

Endovascular Treatment of Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Lesions With or Without Common Iliac Artery Involvement  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the results of stent placement for obstructive atherosclerotic aortic disease with or without involvement of the common iliac artery. Forty patients had self-expanding stents primarily or after balloon dilatation in the abdominal aorta between January 2005 and May 2011. All patients had trouble walking. Follow-up examinations were performed with clinical visits; these included color Doppler ultrasonography and computed tomographic angiography. Technical, clinical, and hemodynamic success was achieved in all patients. None of the patients underwent reintervention during the follow-up period, which ranged from 3 months to 6 years (median 24 months). Nine complications occurred in six patients. Of the nine complications, four were distal thromboembolisms, which were successfully treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis or anticoagulation therapy. Endovascular treatment of the obstructive aortic disease using self-expanding stents was safe and effective, with high technical success and long-term patency. Thromboembolic complications were high even though direct stenting was considered protective for thromboembolism formation. Particularly for infrarenal aortic stenosis, it can be recommended as the first-line treatment option for patients with obstructive atherosclerotic aortic disease.

Oender, Hakan, E-mail: drhakanonder@hotmail.com [Dicle University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Dicle University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Oguzkurt, Levent [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Guer, Serkan [Sifa University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Sifa University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Tekbas, Gueven [Dicle University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Dicle University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Guerel, Kamil [Abant Izzet Baysal University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Abant Izzet Baysal University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Coskun, Isa [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Turkey)] [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Turkey); Oezkan, Ugur [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)] [Baskent University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2013-02-15

429

Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Vascular Anatomy, Device Selection, Procedure, and Procedure-specific Complications.  

PubMed

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is abnormal dilatation of the aorta, carrying a substantial risk of rupture and thereby marked risk of death. Open repair of AAA involves lengthy surgery time, anesthesia, and substantial recovery time. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) provides a safer option for patients with advanced age and pulmonary, cardiac, and renal dysfunction. Successful endovascular repair of AAA depends on correct selection of patients (on the basis of their vascular anatomy), choice of the correct endoprosthesis, and familiarity with the technique and procedure-specific complications. The type of aneurysm is defined by its location with respect to the renal arteries, whether it is a true or false aneurysm, and whether the common iliac arteries are involved. Vascular anatomy can be divided more technically into aortic neck, aortic aneurysm, pelvic perfusion, and iliac morphology, with grades of difficulty with respect to EVAR, aortic neck morphology being the most common factor to affect EVAR appropriateness. When choosing among the devices available on the market, one must consider the patient's vascular anatomy and choose between devices that provide suprarenal fixation versus those that provide infrarenal fixation. A successful technique can be divided into preprocedural imaging, ancillary procedures before AAA stent-graft placement, the procedure itself, postprocedural medical therapy, and postprocedural imaging surveillance. Imaging surveillance is important in assessing complications such as limb thrombosis, endoleaks, graft migration, enlargement of the aneurysm sac, and rupture. Last, one must consider the issue of radiation safety with regard to EVAR. (©)RSNA, 2015. PMID:25763741

Bryce, Yolanda; Rogoff, Philip; Romanelli, Donald; Reichle, Ralph

2015-01-01

430

Automatic vessel extraction and abdominal aortic stent planning in multislice CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abdominal aorta is the most common site for an aneurysm, which may lead to hemorrhage and death, to develop. The aim of this study was to develop a semi-automated method to de-lineate the vessels and detect the center-line of these vessels to make measurements necessary for stent design from multi-detector computed tomograms. We developed a robust method of tracking the aortic vessel tree with branches from a user selected seed point along the vessel path using scale space approaches, central transformation measures, vessel direction findings, iterative corrections and a priori information in determining the vessel branches. Fifteen patients were scanned with contrast on Mx8000 CT scanner (Philips Medical Systems), with a 3.2 mm thickness, 1.5 mm slice spacing, and a stack of 512x512x320 volume data sets were reconstructed. The algorithm required an initial user input to locate the vessel seen in axial CT slice. Next, the automated image processing took approximately two minutes to compute the centerline and borders of the aortic vessel tree. The results between the manually and automatically generated vessel diameters were compared and statistics were computed. We observed our algorithm was consistent (less than 0.01 S.D) and similar (less than 0.1 S.D) to manual results.

Subramanyan, Krishna; Smith, Dava; Varma, Jay; Chandra, Shalabh

2002-05-01

431

Protease inhibitor 15, a candidate gene for abdominal aortic internal elastic lamina ruptures in the rat.  

PubMed

The inbred Brown Norway (BN) rat develops spontaneous ruptures of the internal elastic lamina (RIEL) of the abdominal aorta (AA) and iliac arteries. Prior studies with crosses of the BN/Orl RJ (susceptible) and LOU/M (resistant) showed the presence of a significant QTL on chromosome 5 and the production of congenic rats proved the involvement of this locus. In this study, we further dissected the above-mentioned QTL by creating a new panel of LOU.BN(chr5) congenic and subcongenic lines and reduced the locus to 5.2 Mb. Then we studied 1,002 heterogeneous stock (HS) rats, whose phenotyping revealed a low prevalence and high variability for RIEL. High-resolution mapping in the HS panel detected the major locus on chromosome 5 (log P > 35) and refined it to 1.4 Mb. Subsequently, RNA-seq analysis on AA of BN, congenics, and LOU revealed expression differences for only protease inhibitor 15 (Pi15) gene and a putative long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) within the linkage region. The high abundance of lincRNA with respect to reduced Pi15 expression, in conjunction with exertion of longitudinal strain, may be related to RIEL, indicating the potential importance of proteases in biological processes related to defective aortic internal elastic lamina structure. Similar mechanisms may be involved in aneurysm initiation in the human AA. PMID:24790086

Falak, Samreen; Schafer, Sebastian; Baud, Amelie; Hummel, Oliver; Schulz, Herbert; Gauguier, Dominique; Hubner, Norbert; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary

2014-06-15

432

A rare nonincisional lateral abdominal wall hernia.  

PubMed

A 68-year-old woman presented a rare lateral abdominal wall hernia. Three month before admission to Chungbuk National University Hospital, she found a large protruding mass measuring 8 cm in diameter in the midaxillary line just below the costal margin upon heavy coughing. She had no history of abdominal trauma, infection, or operation previously. The mass was easily reduced manually or by position change to left lateral decubitus. CT scan showed a defect of the right transversus abdominis muscle and internal oblique muscle at the right flank with omental herniation. Its location is different from that of spigelian hernia or lumbar hernia. The peritoneal lining of the hernia sac was smooth and there was no evidence of inflammation or adhesion. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically using Parietex composite mesh with an intraperitoneal onlay mesh technique. The patient was discharged uneventfully and did not show any evidence of recurrence at follow-up visits. PMID:25692123

Kim, Dong-Ju; Park, Jin-Woo

2015-02-01

433