Note: This page contains sample records for the topic abdominal aorta morphometric from
While these samples are representative of the content of,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.

Pathology of the ThoracoAbdominal Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The aorta is the great systemic artery of the human body. It is composed of three layers or tunicae — the intima, media, and\\u000a adventitia. The strength of the aorta lies in the tunica media, with the so-called lamellar units that represent the basic\\u000a structural and functional components in the aortic wall. The pathology of the thoraco-abdominal aorta is traditionally

Cristina Basso; Stefania Rizzo; Gaetano Thiene


Treatment Options for Traumatic Pseudoaneurysms of the Paravisceral Abdominal Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penetrating gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the abdominal aorta are frequently lethal. Alternative management options for treatment of traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the abdominal aorta are illustrated by three patient case histories. Patient A sustained two GSWs to the abdomen (midepigastrium, right subcostal region). He was hypotensive in the field. Emergent laparotomy was undertaken with suture ligature of a celiac injury and

Sonny Tucker Jr.; Vincent L. Rowe; Rajeev Rao; Douglas B. Hood; Donald Harrell; Fred A. Weaver



Salmonella infections of the abdominal aorta.  


Salmonella accounts for up to one-third of all primary abdominal aortic infections. During the past ten years, we have treated three patients with this disease and have reviewed an additional 61 instances found in the English literature. The overall survival rate was 46 percent. Fever and back or abdominal pain were present in more than 90 percent of the patients, while a pulsatile mass was present in only 42 percent of those reported. Blood cultures were positive in 73 percent of patients. Computed tomography and angiography were helpful in delineating the presence of aneurysms and defining the extent. Twenty-two patients were treated without undergoing aortic resection; there were no survivors. One patient had an aortic resection without reconstruction and survived. Twenty-eight patients were treated with aortic resection and anatomic reconstruction. Six patients in this group died of graft sepsis and an additional six patients required graft removal for persistent infection. In contrast, 18 of 19 patients treated with extra-anatomic grafting and aneurysm resection survived, with only one death from aortic stump sepsis. No patient has required graft removal for sepsis. These results suggest that aneurysm resection and extra-anatomic bypass is the treatment of choice in patients with Salmonella infections involving the infrarenal aorta. PMID:1636131

Katz, S G; Andros, G; Kohl, R D



Successful Ascending Aorta-Abdominal Aorta Bypass Graft through the Left Thoracic Cavity in a Patient with Atypical Coarctation  

PubMed Central

A 67-year-old woman admitted with severe hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and dyspnea was found to have hypertension and congestive heart failure due to stenosis of the descending aorta. Atypical aortic coarctation was diagnosed. Extra-anatomical bypass was performed from the ascending aorta to the terminal abdominal aorta and the pulmonary vein was isolated. The graft was arranged to pass through the left thoracic cavity from the pericardium via a transretroperitoneal approach to the terminal abdominal aorta. Direct contact was avoided between the graft and the abdominal organs, and the pressure gradient between the ascending aorta and the abdominal aorta was decreased.



Coarctation of the abdominal aorta: pathophysiologic and therapeutic considerations.  

PubMed Central

Coarctation of the aorta is the most frequent cause of hypertension in infants and children. Ninety-eight per cent of coarctations occur in the descending aorta near the ligamentum arteriosus. Five patients are presented with the relatively rare problem of coarctation of the abdominal aorta. The anatomic,pathophysiologic and clinical aspects in these patients cover a range of variants. Clinical and laboratory studies of the genesis of hypertension in coarctation are reviewed in chronologic outline. An experimental model of abdominal coarctation with hypertensive and renin-angiotensin II correlations suggests but does not prove a renal mechanism for the hypertension. The same conclusion must be drawn from study of the clinical cases. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. Fig. 10. Fig. 11.

Scott, H W; Dean, R H; Boerth, R; Sawyers, J L; Meacham, P; Fisher, R D



Effect of exercise on hemodynamic conditions in the abdominal aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The beneficial effect of exercise in the retardation of the progression of cardiovascular disease is hypothesized to be caused, at least in part, by the elimination of adverse hemodynamic conditions, including flow recirculation and low wall shear stress. In vitro and in vivo investigations have provided qualitative and limited quantitative information on flow patterns in the abdominal aorta and

Charles A. Taylor; Thomas J. R. Hughes; Christopher K. Zarins



Histopathological reaction of the abdominal aorta wall to non-covered stents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the histopathological reaction of the abdominal aorta wall in pigs' renal arteries to the presence of non-covered stainless steel stents. Methods: The abdominal aorta of ten pigs (6 months old and weighing 86.6 kg on average) was histopathologically studied 100 days after the implant of stainless steel stents in the abdominal aorta, with one segment of the

Rubio Bombonato; José Honório PALMA; José Augusto MARCONDES; Aury Nunes de MORAES; João Luiz da ROCHA; Márcio Rodrigo; Rodrigo Mezzalira; Enio Buffolo



Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of abdominal aorta in a child  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6-year-old child sustained blunt abdominal trauma leading to formation of infrarenal aortic pseudoaneurysm eroding the vertebra\\u000a with impairment of blood flow in bilateral lower limbs (absent bilateral femoral pulsations) and paraplegia. Resection of\\u000a aneurysm was done alongwith reconstruction of aorta and iliac arteries with expended Poly-Tetra-Flouro-Ethylene (e PTFE) patch.\\u000a Right common iliac artery was directly anastomosed to left common

Vikas Goyal; Sanjeev Devgarha; Kumar Asnani; Chandra Prakash Srivastava



Finite Element Modeling of Three-Dimensional Pulsatile Flow in the Abdominal Aorta: Relevance to Atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infrarenal abdominal aorta is particularly prone to atherosclerotic plaque formation while the thoracic aorta is relatively resistant. Localized differences in hemodynamic conditions, including differences in velocity profiles, wall shear stress, and recirculation zones have been implicated in the differential localization of disease in the infrarenal aorta. A comprehensive computational framework was developed, utilizing a stabilized, time accurate, finite element

Charles A. Taylor; Thomas J. R. Hughes; Christopher K. Zarins



An Abdominal Aorta Wall Extraction for Liver Cirrhosis Classification Using Ultrasonic Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method to extract an abdominal aorta wall from an M-mode image. Furthermore, we propose the use of a Gaussian filter in order to improve image quality. The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter is effective in the abdominal aorta wall extraction.

Hayashi, Takaya; Fujita, Yusuke; Mitani, Yoshihiro; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Segawa, Makoto; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao



[The course of hyperlipidemia in obliterating atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta and its branches].  


There was the hyperlipidemia typing performed, basing on analysis of the biochemical and laboratory investigation data, conducted in 107 patients with obliterating atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta and the lower extremities main vessels. There was established, that for patients with occlusive-stenotic affection of abdominal aorta and its branches the presence of hyperlipidemia type IIa is characteristic. PMID:14663903

Novosad, E M; Deev, V A



Expression of molecular messages for angiogenesis by fibroblasts from aneurysmal abdominal aorta versus dermal fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The molecular messages which drive angiogenesis in the adventitia of an aneurysmal aorta are uncertain. The emergence of molecular phenotyping by cDNA expression arrays provides a simple and rapid method for a preliminary approach to the analysis of molecular messengers for neovascularization in cultured cells. In the present experiment, fibroblasts cultured from the aorta of a patient with abdominal

M. D. Tilson; C. Fu; S. X. Xia; D. Syn; Y. Yoon; T. McCaffrey



The anterior visceral branches of the abdominal aorta and their relationship to the renal arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in the anatomy of the abdominal aorta and its branches are of interest as vessel geometry not only determines flow\\u000a dynamics, but is also crucial in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. The relationship between the anterior visceral and\\u000a renal arteries is important when undertaking diagnostic arteriography and endovascular interventions. To examine these relationships,\\u000a the length of the abdominal aorta

Neil Pennington; Roger W. Soames



Two-Stage Endovascular Repair for Concurrent Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcers of the Thoracic and Abdominal Aorta  

PubMed Central

We report a case of concurrent saccular aneurysms caused by a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the thoracic and abdominal aorta that were successfully treated by staged endovascular repair. Even though surgical open repair or endovascular repair is the treatment option, use of endovascular repair is now accepted as an alternative treatment to surgery in selected patients. To prevent contrast medium-induced nephropathy and spinal cord ischemia caused by a simultaneous endovascular procedure, a saccular aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta was excluded by stent graft, followed by the placement of a bifurcated stent graft in the infrarenal abdominal aorta one month later.

Baek, Kang Seok; Kwun, Woo Hyung; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Duk-Sil; Kim, Sung-Wan



Abdominal aorta intima media thickness in obese children.  


Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate whether abdominal aorta intima media thickness (aIMT), increases in obese children and to determine risk factors. Ninety-six children aged 5-16 (51 obese and 45 non-obese) were enrolled in this prospective and cross-sectional study. Age, gender, and relative body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Their serum lipids, thyrotropin, fasting glucose and insulin levels were analyzed. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) score was calculated for insulin resistance. Anthropometric and biochemical data were assessed along with aIMT. Findings in obese children were compared with those of non-obese control subjects. The aIMT was significantly greater in obese children. Similar trends were observed in both prepubertal children and adolescents. In obese children, the mean aIMT (mm) was 0.021 (years of age) +0.519. In non-obese children, the mean aIMT (mm) was 0.017 (years of age) +0.381. Our data suggests a relationship between glucose metabolism and aIMT in obese children. BMI was an independent risk factor for increasing aIMT. In conclusion, when compared with non-obese controls, obese children demonstrated significantly increased aIMT. Higher BMI, insulin, HOMA-IR and increased systolic blood pressure seem to be the main factors contributing to increased aIMT and risk for developing vascular disease. Childhood obesity contributes to the development of an increased aIMT. PMID:23729540

Yücel, Oya; Cevik, Halime; Kinik, Sibel Tulgar; Tokel, Kursad; Aka, Sibel; Dinc, Feyza



Anterior cerebral artery aneurysm associated with multiple intracranial aneurysms and abdominal aorta aneurysm  

PubMed Central

We found multiple aneurysms in the intracranial arteries and abdominal aorta of an 87-year-old Korean female cadaver, whose cause of death was reported as "cholangiocarcinoma." An abdominal aortic aneurysm was observed in the infrarenal aorta, where the inferior mesenteric artery arose. The intracranial aneurysms were found in the A3 segment of the anterior cerebral artery and at the bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery. This case provides an example of the very rare association of peripheral intracranial aneurysms with an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Clinicians as well as anatomists should recognize the potential association between these two aneurysm types.

Lee, Yunghwan; Min, Hyung Ki



[A men with a Salmonella dublin-infected aneurysm of the abdominal aorta].  


A 71-year-old male was diagnosed with a Salmonella dublin infection. He presented with abdominal pain with no diarrhoea, and sepsis, and was found to have an infected aneurysm of the infrarenal abdominal aorta. He was treated surgically with resection of the aneurysm and implantation of an extra-anatomic axillobifemoral bypass, followed by long-term antibiotic treatment. Nine months after the primary treatment, the patient died as a result of rupture of the aortic stump. S. dublin-infected aneurysm of the abdominal aorta is a rare condition with high mortality. Human S. dublin infections are associated with the consumption of unpasteurised dairy products from infected animals. PMID:11925803

Jacobs, P P M; van Elsacker-Niele, A M W; Visser, I J R



Trace Element and Mineral Concentrations in Serum and Aorta from Patients with Abdominal Aneurysmal or Occlusive Disease. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present study further characterizes trace element and mineral concentrations in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) to better evaluate their distribution within the aorta. Specimens from the infrarenal abdominal aorta were obtained from 27 patients with ...

M. A. Dubick G. C. Hunter C. L. Keen



In Situ Polytetrafluoroethylene Graft Bypass for Primary Infected Aneurysm of the Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Reinfection is a major issue of surgical treatment for patients with infected abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The present\\u000a report describes outcomes after use of our procedure for treating patients with infected aneurysm of the infrarenal abdominal\\u000a aorta. The procedure involved an in situ polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft bypass and omental wrapping of the graft. The\\u000a procedure was used regardless of the

Tae-Won KwonHyang-Kyoung Kim; Hyang-Kyoung Kim; Ki-Myung Moon; Yong-Pil Cho; Sang-Jun Park



Use of Palmaz stents in a newborn with congenital aneurysms and coarctation of the abdominal aorta.  


Anomalies of the abdominal aorta are rare in the pediatric population limiting the reported knowledge base from which management decisions can be made. A 3-week-old male with congenital abdominal aortic coarctation and multiple aneurysms presented with malignant hypertension. We report the safe deployment of overlapping Palmaz stents using a 4-French catheter delivery system with significant relief of the coarctation gradient and restoration of adequate renal perfusion. PMID:16969858

Ballweg, J; Liniger, R; Rocchini, A; Gajarski, R



In situ replacement with equine pericardial roll grafts for ruptured infected aneurysms of the abdominal aorta.  


We describe surgical in situ replacement using an equine pericardial roll to treat ruptured infected abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in two patients. A 78-year-old man diagnosed with ruptured infected (Bacteroides fragilis) AAA underwent in situ replacement of the abdominal aorta using a bifurcated equine pericardial roll graft with concomitant omentum flap wrapping. A 50-year-old man diagnosed with ruptured infected (Streptococcus agalactiae) AAA underwent the same procedure, except the graft was straight. Computed tomography of this patient revealed no graft dilation or surrounding fluid accumulation at 48 months after surgery. We therefore suggest that in situ replacement of the abdominal aorta using equine pericardium with concomitant omental flap wrapping may be an option of treating ruptured infected AAAs. PMID:19223149

Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Fumio; Ishibashi, Kazuyuki; Motokawa, Mamika



Mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta due to Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Infected abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) can present insidiously with non-specific symptoms or they may present as ruptured AAA in the classical manner. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report two cases of mycotic AAA with Listeria monocytogenes. One patient presented with a ruptured aneurysm, while the other patient had a symptomatic non-ruptured presentation with computer tomography (CT) angiogram demonstrating peri-aortic inflammatory change of a rapidly expanding aneurysm. Both patients were treated with excision of the infected tissue and inlay prosthetic surgical repair as well as long term antibiotics. DISCUSSION Arterial aneurysms caused by L. monocytogenes are rare. Risk factors include immunosuppression, infective endocarditis, intravenous drug use and septicaemia. Listeria infections should be discussed with the Health Protection Agency and local microbiologists due to their ubiquity. CONCLUSION Abdominal aortic aneurysm due to L. monocytogenes is best managed via surgical resection in combination with long term antimicrobial therapy. The role of endovascular exclusion is unclear.

Murphy, Kieran; Al-Jundi, Wissam; Nawaz, Shah



Photodynamic therapy of the atherosclerotic abdominal aorta by laparoscopical approach using a pheophorbide derivative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new photosensitizer, PH-1126, was administered intravenously into the ear vein of cholesterol-fed atherosclerotic rabbits at a dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight. At 24 hours after PH-1126 administration, the atherosclerotic lesions of the abdominal aorta were irradiated by krypton ion laser at 647 nm of wavelength with 100 J/cm2. The abdominal aorta irradiated by laser beam was excised for histological analysis using the scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the atherosclerotic plaque irradiated by krypton ion laser, migratory cells were observed and some of these cells were migrated into the lumen of the vessel. These findings suggested that these migratory cells from atherosclerotic plaque were foam cells destroyed by photodynamic therapy.

Saito, Takashi; Hayashi, Junichi; Sato, Hideaki; Kawabe, Hirofumi; Aizawa, Katsuo



Photodynamic therapy of the atherosclerotic abdominal aorta by laparoscopical approach using a pheophorbide derivative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new photosensitizer, PH-1126, was administered intravenously into the ear vein of cholesterol-fed atherosclerotic rabbits at a dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight. At 24 hours after PH-1126 administration, the atherosclerotic lesions of the abdominal aorta were irradiated by krypton ion laser at 647 nm of wavelength with 100 J/cm2. The abdominal aorta irradiated by laser beam was excised for histological analysis using the scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the atherosclerotic plaque irradiated by krypton ion laser, migratory cells were observed and some of these cells were migrated into the lumen of the vessel. These findings suggested that these migratory cells from atherosclerotic plaque were foam cells destroyed by photodynamic therapy.

Saito, Takashi; Hayashi, Junichi; Sato, Hideaki; Kawabe, Hirofumi; Aizawa, Katsuo



Endovascular Repair of an Actively Hemorrhaging Stab Wound Injury to the Abdominal Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta is rare and potentially lethal (Yeh et al., J Vasc Surg 42(5):1007–1009, 2005; Chicos\\u000a et al., Chirurgia (Bucur) 102(2):237–240, 2007) as it can result in major retroperitoneal hemorrhage, requiring an urgent\\u000a open surgery. In case of concomitant bowel injury or other conditions of hostile abdomen, endovascular repair can be an alternative\\u000a treatment. This case

Qasim Hussain; Geert Maleux; Sam Heye; Inge Fourneau



Endovascular Repair of an Actively Hemorrhaging Stab Wound Injury to the Abdominal Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta is rare and potentially lethal (Yeh et al., J Vasc Surg 42(5):1007-1009, 2005; Chicos et al., Chirurgia (Bucur) 102(2):237-240, 2007) as it can result in major retroperitoneal hemorrhage, requiring an urgent open surgery. In case of concomitant bowel injury or other conditions of hostile abdomen, endovascular repair can be an alternative treatment. This case

Qasim Hussain; Geert Maleux; Sam Heye; Inge Fourneau



Successful hybrid operation of an acute mobile thrombus in the abdominal aorta induced by chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Acute mobile thrombus of the abdominal aorta after chemotherapy is a very unusual finding, which can be a potential source of arterial embolism. We report here on a case of an acute mobile aortic thrombus with renal infarction. We successfully treated the patient with hybrid operation-open surgical and endovascular approach. Our case shows that hybrid treatment using wire-directed balloon catheter thrombectomy is a feasible, minimally-invasive treatment for a mobile aortic thrombus.

Kim, Woo Chul; Hong, Kee Chun; Kim, Jang Yong; Cho, Soon Gu



[Ultrasonic duplex scanning in occlusion of abdominal aorta, arteries of iliac segment and of lower extremities].  


The regional hemodynamics peculiarities were studied in patients with various types of occlusive-stenotic affection of abdominal aorta and iliac arteries, using ultrasonic duplex scanning. The character of the blood flow peculiarity along main arteries and collateral branches was determined depending on the affection level. The quantitative indexes of blood flow along the most significant collaterals were studied as well as their role in the compensation process of the disordered distal blood flow. PMID:11247478

Sukharev, I I; Guch, A A; Novosad, E M; Vla?kov, G G



The effect of adrenergic ?2 receptor agonist on paraplegia following clamping of abdominal aorta  

PubMed Central

Introduction Surgical repair of an aortic aneurysm might be complicated by spinal cord injury and paraplegia. Since ?-adrenoreceptor agonists showed neuroprotective effects, the study was designed to investigate the effect of clenbuterol on post-aortic clamping paraplegia and to identify if there is hyperemia associated with paraplegia. Material and methods Material and methods: Thirty rabbits were divided into two groups: 15 control and 15 experimental (given clenbuterol 9 mg in drinking water 24 h prior to surgery). All the animals were subjected to laparotomy whereas the abdominal aorta was identified. Using a vascular clamp, the abdominal aorta was clamped just distal to the renal arteries. Abdominal aortic blood flow was recorded with a transonic flow meter. The neurological assessment was made according to Tarlov’s Neurological Scale upon recovering from anesthesia. Anal sphincter tonus and bladder sphincter function were also checked. Results Four rabbits (2 control and 2 experimental) developed complete paraplegia within 30 min of cross-clamping of the aorta. Of the 13 controls, 77% developed paraplegia, and of the 13 experimental rabbits administered clenbuterol 24 h prior to surgery with 22 min of aortic cross-clamping, 38% developed paraplegia The rabbits which did not develop paraplegia had a minimal increase in aortic blood flow, whereas the rabbits which developed paraplegia had a significant increase in aortic blood flow measurements after aortic decamping. Conclusions Post-aortic clamping paraplegia is associated with hyperemia and clenbuterol has a significant neuroprotective effect, obviously by preventing an increase in aortic blood flow following unclamping.

Lee, Bok Y.; Al-Waili, Noori; Butler, Glenn



Endovascular treatment of anastomotic false aneurysms of the abdominal aorta.  


Conventional surgical treatment of anastomotic false abdominal aortic aneurysms (AFAA) is technically difficult. Morbidity-mortality rates are higher than those for surgery of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Endovascular management without laparotomy or aortic clamping represents an attractive alternative. The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate and middle-term outcome of endovascular management of AFAA. Between 1998 and 2001, 10 patients were treated for AFAA by placement of an endograft. The initial procedure was aortobifemoral bypass for occlusive artery disease in eight cases and resection and grafting for AAA in two cases. Mean age was 70 years. Seven patients were classified ASA 3 or 4. Three patients presented cardiac insufficiency with left ventricular ejection fraction <40%. Eight patients were treated using an aortounilateral iliac artery endograft in association with crossover femorofemoral bypass (3 AneuRx, 2 Endologix, 1 Talent, 1 Zenith, 1 surgeon-made stent). Two patients were treated with an aortoaortic endograft (1 Talent, 1 surgeon-made stent). In two patients extraperitoneal exposure of the common iliac artery was required for introduction of the stent in one case and for surgical closure of the iliac artery in the other case. A total of nine patients underwent another surgical procedure in association with stenting. Four endografts were custom-made. Endograft deployment was successful in all cases. No patient died during the postoperative period. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed exclusion of the aneurysmal sac in all cases. The mean duration of hospitalization was 13 days (range, 5-28 days). During follow-up (mean duration, 17.7 months; range, 5-42 months), one patient died from heart-related causes. No direct or indirect endoleak was detected by CT scan follow-up and a significant reduction in AFAA diameter was noted in the eight patients with follow-up periods lasting 6 months or more. One patient developed occlusion of an aortounilateral iliac artery endograft and was treated by axillobifemoral bypass. In one patient stenosis of the distal end of an aortounilateral iliac endograft was discovered by duplex scan and successfully treated by dilatation. Endovascular treatment of AFAA is technically feasible but requires more complex procedures involving associated surgical procedures and use of custom-made endografts. The morbidity-mortality rate in this small series of high-risk patients was low. Immediate and middleterm exclusion of AFAA was good. PMID:14670014

Magnan, P E; Albertini, J N; Bartoli, J M; Ede, B; Valerio, N; Moulin, G; Branchereau, A



Blood flow velocity in the fetal abdominal aorta and in the umbilical artery in uncomplicated pregnancies.  


The blood flow velocity waveform (BFWV) in fetal vessels depends on the stroke volume and the frequency of the fetal heart, the compliance of the vessel and the peripheral resistance of the fetal vascular bed. The objective of the present study was to establish the change of the BFVW throughout gestation and whether the change of the resistance indices are related to the peak flow velocity and/or the end-diastolic flow velocity. The BFVW of the fetal abdominal aorta and of the umbilical artery at 27th-30th week and at 37th-40th week of gestation were analysed in fifteen patients with uncomplicated pregnancies and subsequent normal outcome. The measurement was performed with a pulsed duplex scanner (Kranzbühler). The Doppler beam had a fixed angle of 50 degrees to the fetal vessel in all cases. The peak flow velocity in the fetal aorta remained constant from the 27th-30th week to the 37th-40th week of gestation: 1418 +/- 248 Hz vs. 1448 +/- 269 Hz. The end-diastolic flow, however, showed a significant increase during the respective periods: from 270 +/- 59 Hz to 325 +/- 69 Hz. The peak flow velocity in the umbilical artery was about 25% below that of the fetal aorta: 1028 +/- 149 Hz (27th-30th week) and 1106 +/- 196 Hz (37th-40th week). The end-diastolic flow, however, increased by about 41%: 292 +/- 86 Hz vs. 412 +/- 83 Hz demonstrating a tremendous change of the compliance and the peripheral resistance in the umbilical vascular system. These alterations are also exhibited by the resistance indices. The resistance indices S/D, PI and RI of both vessels were related to the EDF of the abdominal aorta and the umbilical artery at the respective gestational age. It demonstrated that the EDF is of major influence on the calculated resistance indices. The blood flow in the aorta and the umbilical artery was 135(+/- 18) ml/kg/min and 143 (+/- 21) ml/kg/min, respectively. In conclusion, the BFVW for fetal surveillance should be measured under a constant angle in the fetal abdominal aorta. It gives a good information concerning the peripheral resistance and compliance in the respective vascular areas. The EDFV has its lowest value at 200 Hz in the fetal aorta and in the umbilical artery under physiological conditions. PMID:1426509

Künzel, W; Jovanovic, V; Grüssner, S; Colling, T



In vivo assessment of blood flow patterns in abdominal aorta of mice with MRI: implications for AAA localization.  


Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) localize in the infrarenal aorta in humans, while they are found in the suprarenal aorta in mouse models. It has been shown previously that humans experience a reversal of flow during early diastole in the infrarenal aorta during each cardiac cycle. This flow reversal causes oscillatory wall shear stress (OWSS) to be present in the infrarenal aorta of humans. OWSS has been linked to a variety of proatherogenic and proinflammatory factors. The presence of reverse flow in the mouse aorta is unknown. In this study we investigated blood flow in mice, using phase-contrast magnetic resonance (PCMR) imaging. We measured blood flow in the suprarenal and infrarenal abdominal aorta of 18 wild-type C57BL/6J mice and 15 apolipoprotein E (apoE)-/- mice. Although OWSS was not directly evaluated, results indicate that, unlike humans, there is no reversal of flow in the infrarenal aorta of wild-type or apoE-/- mice. Distensibility of the mouse aortic wall in both the suprarenal and infrarenal segments is higher than reported values for the human aorta. We conclude that normal mice do not experience the reverse flow in the infrarenal aorta that is observed in humans. PMID:19684182

Amirbekian, Smbat; Long, Robert C; Consolini, Michelle A; Suo, Jin; Willett, Nick J; Fielden, Sam W; Giddens, Don P; Taylor, W Robert; Oshinski, John N



In vivo assessment of blood flow patterns in abdominal aorta of mice with MRI: implications for AAA localization  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) localize in the infrarenal aorta in humans, while they are found in the suprarenal aorta in mouse models. It has been shown previously that humans experience a reversal of flow during early diastole in the infrarenal aorta during each cardiac cycle. This flow reversal causes oscillatory wall shear stress (OWSS) to be present in the infrarenal aorta of humans. OWSS has been linked to a variety of proatherogenic and proinflammatory factors. The presence of reverse flow in the mouse aorta is unknown. In this study we investigated blood flow in mice, using phase-contrast magnetic resonance (PCMR) imaging. We measured blood flow in the suprarenal and infrarenal abdominal aorta of 18 wild-type C57BL/6J mice and 15 apolipoprotein E (apoE)?/? mice. Although OWSS was not directly evaluated, results indicate that, unlike humans, there is no reversal of flow in the infrarenal aorta of wild-type or apoE?/? mice. Distensibility of the mouse aortic wall in both the suprarenal and infrarenal segments is higher than reported values for the human aorta. We conclude that normal mice do not experience the reverse flow in the infrarenal aorta that is observed in humans.

Long, Robert C.; Consolini, Michelle A.; Suo, Jin; Willett, Nick J.; Fielden, Sam W.; Giddens, Don P.; Taylor, W. Robert; Oshinski, John N.



Coronary vascular and myocardial lesions due to experimental constriction of the abdominal aorta.  


The development and evolution of arterial and myocardial lesions were morphologically evaluated in Wistar rats submitted to constriction of the abdominal aorta. The control (sham-operated) and operated groups were evaluated 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after surgery. The aorta-constricted groups developed arterial hypertension followed by myocardial hypertrophy evidenced from the first week onwards by the increase in ventricular weight and in the diameters of left and right ventricular myofibers. The histopathologic study of the myocardium revealed in aorta-constricted groups, since the first week, widespread necrotizing changes of the intramural coronary branches surrounded by multifocal areas of myofiber degeneration and necrosis. The lesions were more extensive in the wall of the right ventricle and were gradually replaced by scar tissue. At the 6th week patchy focal fibrotic scars were found scattered in the myocardium of both ventricles. There were no systemic lesions in aorta-constricted or sham-operated groups. The close association between the arterial and myocardial lesions shows that muscle necrosis and scars are due to ischemia. They may influence the contractile performance of the myocardium in this model of pressure-induced hypertrophy of the heart. PMID:1533391

Rodrigues, M A; Bregagnollo, E A; Montenegro, M R; Tucci, P J



[A clinical case of endovascular prosthetic repair of a gigantic abdominal aorta aneurysm].  


To illustrate the present-day possibilities in treatment of aortic dissection we describe herein a clinical case report concerning successful prosthetic repair of a gigantic aneurysm of the infrarenal portion of the aorta with the Gore Excluder using an endovascular surgical approach in a patient running high risk associated with difficult anatomy of the abdominal portion of the aorta, iliac arteries, and accompanying diseases (left lung cancer, CAD, critical stenosis of the RCA. This was followed by balloon angioplasty with stenting of the RCA with Lekton stents with a good angiographic result. EVAR has become an alternative to the conventional open surgery with lower risk of complications, shorter hospital stay, and decreased mortality rate, which was confirmed by the findings of international studies. PMID:23059616

Akchurin, R S; Imaev, T E; Komlev, A E; Lepilin, P M; Nikonova, M E; Medvedeva, I S; Pokidkin, I A



Automatic distance measurement of abdominal aorta for ultrasonography-based visceral fat estimation.  


Ultrasonography-based visceral fat estimation is a promising method to assess central obesity, which is associated with metabolic syndrome. The key to this method is to measure three types of distance in the ultrasound image. The most important one is the distance from the skin surface to the posterior wall of the abdominal aorta. We present a novel automatic measurement method to calculate this distance using 1D ultrasound signal processing. It is different from the conventional 2D image processing based methods which have high failure rate when the target is blurred or partially imaged. The proposed method identifies the waveforms of the aorta along a group of ultrasound scan lines and a rating mechanism is introduced to choose the best waveform for distance calculation. The robustness and accuracy of the method were evaluated by experiments based on clinical data. PMID:24111227

Wang, Junchen; Zhou, You; Koizumi, Norihiro; Kubota, Naoto; Asano, Takeharu; Yuhashi, Kuzuhito; Mitake, Tsuyoshi; Itani, Kazunori; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Takeishi, Shigemi; Sasaki, Shiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sakuma, Ichiro; Liao, Hongen



Paradoxical Hypertension and the Abdominal Pain Syndrome Following Resection of Coarctation of the Aorta  

PubMed Central

Sixteen children with coarctation of the aorta were studied in respect of the incidence of paradoxical hypertension and the abdominal pain syndrome after repair of the coarctation. These postoperative complications were investigated in relation to vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) excretion and extent of operative repair. The results, compared to those in a control group, indicated no evident causal relationship between these complications and catecholamine production. The severity of coarctation, the degree of correction and the operative increase in luminal surface area, however, appeared to be significant factors.

Srouji, M. N.; Trusler, G. A.



Primary Self-Expandable Nitinol Stent Placement in Focal Lesions of Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta: Long Term Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the technical and clinical success, safety and long term results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty/self-expandable nitinol stent placement of infrarenal abdominal aorta focal lesions. Materials and Methods. Eighteen patients underwent PTA of focal atherosclerotic occlusive disease of distal abdominal aorta. Two symptomatic occlusions and 16 stenoses in 10 male and 8 female patients (mean age 68.2 years) were treated with primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement. Results. Primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement was technically successful in all 18 procedures; clinical success was achieved in 100% of patients. No complications associated with the procedure occurred. During the 49.4 months of mean follow up (range 3-96, 4 months) all treated aortic segments remained patent. Conclusions. Endovascular treatment (primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement) of focal atherosclerotic lesions of distal abdominal aorta is a safe method with excellent primary technical and clinical success rates and favourable Long term results.

Lastovickova, Jarmila, E-mail:; Peregrin, Jan H. [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Czech Republic)



Peptidergic innervation of the vasoconstrictor muscle of the abdominal aorta in Aplysia kurodai.  


The arterial system of the marine mollusc Aplysia consists of three major arteries. One of them, the abdominal aorta, has a sphincter (the vasoconstrictor muscle) at the base of the artery. Contraction of this muscle reduces the blood flow into the abdominal aorta, thereby, playing a role in the regulation of the blood distribution in Aplysia. Here, we show the contractility of the vasoconstrictor muscle is modulated by three types of endogenous peptides, Aplysia mytilus inhibitory peptide-related peptides (AMRP), enterin and NdWFamide. Immunohistochemistry showed that putative neuronal processes containing the three peptides exist in the vasoconstrictor muscle. Enterin inhibited the muscle contraction elicited by the nerve stimulation or the application of a putative excitatory transmitter, acetylcholine (ACh). Enterin hyperpolarized the resting potential of the muscle and decreased the amplitude of the excitatory junction potential (EJP). AMRP also inhibited the nerve-evoked contraction although its action on the ACh-induced contraction was variable. AMRP also reduced the size of EJP, but had no effect on the resting potential of the muscle. NdWFamide enhanced the nerve-evoked contraction but not the ACh-induced contraction. NdWFamide augmented EJP without affecting the resting potential of the muscle. These results suggest that AMRP, enterin and NdWFamide are endogenous modulators of the contractile activity of the vasoconstrictor muscle, and that the peptidergic innervations of this muscle contribute to fine tuning of the blood distribution in Aplysia. PMID:15557029

Sasaki, Kosei; Morishita, Fumihiro; Furukawa, Yasuo



Gradient Echo MRI Characterization of Development of Atherosclerosis in the Abdominal Aorta in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit provides an important model of spontaneous atherosclerosis. With a strain\\u000a of WHHL rabbits which do not develop abdominal aorta lumen stenosis even with advanced atherosclerosis, we studied the MRI–histology\\u000a correlation, and the natural progression of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta. In addition, intra-reader segmentation\\u000a repeatability and scan–rescan reproducibility were assessed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Two batches of female

Yi-Xiang J. Wang; Hideto Kuribayashi; Maria Wågberg; Andrew P. Holmes; Jean J. Tessier; John C. Waterton



Regional expression of HOXA4 along the aorta and its potential role in human abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The infrarenal abdominal aorta exhibits increased disease susceptibility relative to other aortic regions. Allograft studies\\u000a exchanging thoracic and abdominal segments showed that regional susceptibility is maintained regardless of location, suggesting\\u000a substantial roles for embryological origin, tissue composition and site-specific gene expression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We analyzed gene expression with microarrays in baboon aortas, and found that members of the HOX gene family exhibited

John H Lillvis; Robert Erdman; Charles M Schworer; Alicia Golden; Kimberly Derr; Zoran Gatalica; Laura A Cox; Jianbin Shen; Richard S Vander Heide; Guy M Lenk; Leigh Hlavaty; Li Li; James R Elmore; David P Franklin; John L Gray; Robert P Garvin; David J Carey; Wayne D Lancaster; Gerard Tromp; Helena Kuivaniemi



[Collateral compensation of blood flow and hemodynamics of the lower extremities in atherosclerotic occlusion of abdominal aorta].  


Results of investigation of collateral blood flow in 159 patients with atherosclerotic occlusion of abdominal aorta of various kinds were presented. There was shown, that a. mesenterica superior constitutes the main visceral branch, securing the blood circulation compensation in total, high and middle occlusion of abdominal aorta and in low occlusion--a. mesenterica inferior. The change of direction and enhancement of blood flow along a. epigastric inferior was noted in all the patients. In spite of identity of total volumetric blood flow along the collateral branches, the volumetric blood flow velocity along the lower extremities arteries is determined by the level and spread of aortal occlusion. PMID:11944263

Sukharev, I I; Guch, A A; Novosad, E M; Vla?kov, G G



Long-term results of cryopreserved arterial allograft reconstruction in infected prosthetic grafts and mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This prospective, observational study determined the long-term outcome in patients with abdominal aortic infection (primary or prosthetic graft) who were treated with simultaneous aortic\\/graft excision and cryopreserved arterial allograft reconstruction. Methods: From April 1992 to March 2000, patients with abdominal aortic infection underwent complete or partial excision of the infected aorta\\/prosthetic graft and cryopreserved arterial allograft reconstruction. Arterial allografts

Guy Lesèche; Yves Castier; Marie-Dominique Petit; Patrick Bertrand; Michel Kitzis; Sacha Mussot; Mathieu Besnard; Olivier Cerceau



Effects of sustained abdominal aorta compression on coronary perfusion pressures and restoration of spontaneous circulation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe present study was undertaken to explore whether sustained abdominal aorta compression-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (SAAC-CPR), as a means, can raise coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) as well as restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during CPR. In the present study, we hypothesised that SAAC-CPR elevates CPP during CPR and improves ROSC, without causing liver laceration.

Manhong Zhou; Qihua Ran; Yahua Liu; Yuhua Li; Tongying Liu; Hong Shen



A Comparison of Fenoldopam with Dopamine and Sodium Nitroprusside in Patients Undergoing Cross-Clamping of the Abdominal Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fenoldopam, a selective dopamine-1-receptor agonist, decreases arterial blood pressure rapidly, with a brief duration of action similar to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), but in contrast to SNP, it increases renal blood flow. We compared the hemodynamic and renal effects of fenoldopam in patients undergoing abdominal aortic surgery requiring cross-clamping of the aorta with another therapeutic option, dopamine and SNP. Fenoldopam or

William C. Oliver; Gregory A. Nuttall; Kenneth J. Cherry; Paul A. Decker; Thomas Bower; Mark H. Ereth



Real-time intravascular shear stress in the rabbit abdominal aorta.  


Fluid shear stress is intimately linked with the biological activities of vascular cells. A flexible microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensor was developed to assess spatial- and temporal-varying components of intravascular shear stress (ISS) in the abdominal aorta of adult New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. Real-time ISS (ISS (real-time)) was analyzed in comparison with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for wall shear stress (WSS). Three-dimensional abdominal arterial geometry and mesh were created using the GAMBIT software. Simulation of arterial flow profiles was established by FLUENT. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved for non-Newtonian blood flow. The coaxial-wire-based MEMS sensor was deployed into the abdominal arteries of rabbits via a femoral artery cutdown. Based on the CFD analysis, the entrance length of the sensor on the coaxial wire (0.4 mm in diameter) was less than 10 mm. Three-dimensional fluoroscope and contrast dye allowed for visualization of the positions of the sensor and ratios of vessel to coaxial wire diameters. Doppler ultrasound provided the velocity profiles for the CFD boundary conditions. If the coaxial wire were positioned at the center of vessel, the CFD analysis revealed a mean ISS value of 31.1 with a systolic peak at 102.8 dyn x cm(-2). The mean WSS was computed to be 10.1 dyn x cm(-2) with a systolic peak at 33.2 dyn x cm(-2), and the introduction of coaxial wire increased the mean WSS by 5.4 dyn x cm(-2) and systolic peak by 18.0 dyn x cm(-2). Experimentally, the mean ISS was 11.9 dyn x cm(-2) with a systolic peak at 47.0 dyn x cm(-2). The waveform of experimental ISS was similar to that of CFD solution with a 30.2% difference in mean and 8.9% in peak systolic shear stress. Despite the difference between CD and experimental results, the flexible coaxial-wire-based MEMS sensors provided a possibility to assess real-time ISS in the abdominal aorta of NZW rabbits. PMID:19527952

Ai, Lisong; Yu, Hongyu; Dai, Wangde; Hale, Sharon L; Kloner, Robert A; Hsiai, Tzung K



Endovascular repair of an actively hemorrhaging stab wound injury to the abdominal aorta.  


Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta is rare and potentially lethal (Yeh et al., J Vasc Surg 42(5):1007-1009, 2005; Chicos et al., Chirurgia (Bucur) 102(2):237-240, 2007) as it can result in major retroperitoneal hemorrhage, requiring an urgent open surgery. In case of concomitant bowel injury or other conditions of hostile abdomen, endovascular repair can be an alternative treatment. This case report deals with a 50-year-old man presenting at the emergency ward with three stab wounds: two in the abdomen and one in the chest. During explorative laparotomy, liver laceration and bowel perforation were repaired. One day later, abdominal CT-scan revealed an additional retroperitoneal hematoma associated with an aortic pseudoaneurysm, located anteriorly 3 cm above the aortic bifurcation. Because of the risk of graft infection, an endovascular repair of the aortic injury using a Gore excluder stent-graft was performed. Radiological and clinical follow-up revealed a gradual shrinkage of the pseudo-aneurysm and no sign of graft infection at two years' follow-up. PMID:18389184

Hussain, Qasim; Maleux, Geert; Heye, Sam; Fourneau, Inge



Fluid wall shear stress measurements in a model of the human abdominal aorta: oscillatory behavior and relationship to atherosclerosis.  


Clinically significant atherosclerosis in the human aorta is most common in the infrarenal segment. This study was initiated to test the hypothesis that flowfield properties are closely related to the localization of plaques in this segment of the arterial system. Wall shear stress was calculated from magnetic resonance velocity measurements of pulsatile flow in an anatomically accurate model of the human abdominal aorta. The wall shear stress values were compared with intimal thickening from 15 post-mortem aortas measured by quantitative morphometry of histological cross sections obtained at standard locations. Wall shear stress oscillated in direction throughout most of the infrarenal aorta, most prominently in the distal region. The time-averaged mean wall shear stress (-1.7 to 1.4 dyn/cm2) was lowest near the posterior wall in this region. These hemodynamic parameters coincided with the locations of maximal intimal thickening. Statistical correlation between oscillatory shear and intimal thickness yielded r = 0.79, P < 0.00001. Low mean shear stresses correlated nearly as well (r = -0.75, P < 0.00005). Comparison of our data with surface maps of Sudan Red staining and early lesions as reported by others revealed similar conclusions. In contrast, pulse and maximum shear stresses did not correlate with plaque localization as has been shown for other sites of selective involvement by atherosclerosis (r < 0.345). Simulated exercise conditions markedly changed the magnitude and pattern of wall shear stress in the distal abdominal aorta. These results demonstrate that in the infrarenal aorta, regions of low mean and oscillating wall shear stresses are predisposed to the development of plaque while regions of relatively high wall shear stress tend to be spared. PMID:7848371

Moore, J E; Xu, C; Glagov, S; Zarins, C K; Ku, D N



Electrical stimulation inhibits neointimal hyperplasia after abdominal aorta balloon injury through the PTEN/p27Kip1 pathway.  


Electric fields (EFs) exert biological effects on promoting wound healing by facilitating cell division, cell proliferation, and cell directional migration toward the wound. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of direct-current (DC) EFs on the formation of neointimal hyperplasia and the possible mechanism in an abdominal aorta balloon injury rabbit model. Sixty rabbits were divided into normal, control, and experimental groups. After establishment of the abdominal aorta balloon injury model, electrodes were implanted into the bilateral psoas major muscle in control and experimental groups. Only the experimental group received electric stimulation (EFs applied at 3 or 4 V/cm for 30 min/day) for 1, 2, and 4 weeks, respectively. Neointimal hyperplasia of the abdominal aorta and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were measured. Expressions of collagen, p27(Kip1), and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) were detected. Results showed that the ratio of the tunica intima area to the tunica media area, the expression of type-I collagen in the neointimal, and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen index in experimental groups were significantly less than those in control groups 2 weeks post-operation (P< 0.01). Expressions of p27(Kip1) and PTEN were increased in experimental groups compared with control groups (P< 0.01). In conclusion, our results suggested that the application of DC EFs could inhibit neointimal hyperplasia and reduce collagen expression after abdominal aorta balloon injury. This was probably induced by upregulation of PTEN/p27(Kip1) expression, thereby inhibiting VSMC proliferation. PMID:20929926

Zhang, Ping; Liu, Zhitao; He, Guoxiang; Liu, Jianping; Feng, Jian



In Vivo Quantification of Blood Flow and Wall Shear Stress in the Human Abdominal Aorta During Lower Limb Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques and a custom MR-compatible exercise bicycle were used to measure, in vivo, the effects of exercise on hemodynamic conditions in the abdominal aorta of eleven young, healthy subjects. Heart rate increased from 73±6.2 beats\\/min at rest to 110±8.8 beats\\/min during exercise (p p p p 2 at rest to 6.2±0.5 dyn\\/cm2 during exercise (p 2

Charles A. Taylor; Christopher P. Cheng; Leandro A. Espinosa; Beverly T. Tang; David Parker; Robert J. Herfkens



[Aneurysms of the abdominal aorta with periaortic fibrosis. A retrospective study of 23 consecutive successful operations].  


Aneurysms of the abdominal aorta associated with periaortic fibrosis (AFPA) are a different clinicopathological entity from atheromatous aneurysms and nonspecific inflammatory periaortitis. The physiopathology and diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for these AFPAs are controversial. Over a 12-year period, 23 aneurysms with periaortic fibrosis (4%) confirmed by a histological study were operated at Beaujon hospital. Four patients were operated at the rupture stage, 2 with acute rupture and 2 with contained chronic rupture. Uni- or bilateral ureteral obstruction was noted in 8 patients. The diagnosis was suspected preoperatively in 60% of cases. Surgery confirmed the accuracy of the anatomical information provided preoperatively by the CT examination performed in 9 patients. Debridement and grafting were performed in 22 patients. Three patients with associated ureteral obstruction were treated with ureterolysis during the same operative step at the beginning of our experience. Later on, 3 documented cases of hydronephrosis receded after the isolated debridement and grafting of the aneurysm. Hospital mortality was of 5% in 19 patients operated electively. Two patients died later, after 2 months and after 5 years, and 16 are still alive and without symptoms at present, after and average time lapse of 68 months.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1339731

Lesèche, G; Andreassian, B; Schaetz, A; Bouttier, S; Kitzis, M



The retroperitoneal approach to the abdominal aorta in the endovascular era.  


The aim of this review was to assess the place of retroperitoneal (RP) aortic surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in the endovascular era and evaluate the evidence supporting it in preference to the more traditional transperitoneal approach. As endovascular graft technology improves, open aortic surgery is declining. AAAs unsuitable for endovascular aneurysm repair are, by definition, anatomically challenging. The RP approach is especially suited to anatomic challenges such as those posed by contemporary open AAA because it facilitates access to the suprarenal aorta. There is evidence that the RP approach reduces postoperative morbidity and length of stay compared with transperitoneal approaches. The evidence available indicates that the RP approach should be the first considered for any AAA unsuitable for endovascular aneurysm repair; however, the technique is more difficult to learn and less commonly practiced than the transperitoneal approach. Combined with a decrease in training hours in the United Kingdom, there is a real threat that the RP technique will only be performed by an ever-decreasing number of enthusiasts. PMID:22796332

Twine, Christopher P; Lane, Ian F; Williams, Ian M



WR2721 ameliorates the radiation-induced depression in reactivity of rat abdominal aorta to U46619  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies showed that 20 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation results in a decreased response of the abdominal aorta to the stable thromboxane A2 (TXA2) mimic, U46619. The present study evaluated the effect of WR2721 on this radiation-induced decrease in vascular responsiveness. Rats receiving WR2721 (200 mg/kg, i.p.) 20 min before irradiation showed no depression in vascular reactivity to U46619 compared to control. The abolition of the radiation-induced decrease in vascular responsiveness was not caused by a direct vasoconstrictor action of WR2721 or its metabolites. The vascular response of rat abdominal aortic rings to KCl was unchanged after in vivo exposure to ionizing radiation. WR2721 did not alter the vascular response to KCl. These studies confirm that exposure to whole-body ionizing radiation decreased abdominal aortic vascular responsiveness to U46619. This depressed vascular reactivity can be abolished by pretreatment with the radioprotectant, WR2721. These observations may provide a rapid initial screening method for evaluating the in vivo efficacy of radioprotectant drugs.

Warfield, M.E.; Schneidkraut, M.J.; Ramwell, P.W.; Kot, P.A. (Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (USA))



Gradient Echo MRI Characterization of Development of Atherosclerosis in the Abdominal Aorta in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbits  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. The Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit provides an important model of spontaneous atherosclerosis. With a strain of WHHL rabbits which do not develop abdominal aorta lumen stenosis even with advanced atherosclerosis, we studied the MRI-histology correlation, and the natural progression of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta. In addition, intra-reader segmentation repeatability and scan-rescan reproducibility were assessed. Methods. Two batches of female WHHL rabbits were used. The first batch of 6 rabbits was scanned at 20 weeks old. A second batch of 17 rabbits was scanned at 50 weeks old and then randomly divided into two subgroups: 8 were killed for histologic investigation; 9 were kept alive for follow-up, with repeat scanning a week later to assess scan-rescan reproducibility, and again at 73 weeks old to assess disease progression. MR images were acquired at 4.7 T using a chemical shift selective fat suppression gradient echo with a saturation band suppressing blood signal within the aortic lumen. Five slices per animal were acquired, centered around the renal artery region of the abdominal aorta, with in-plane resolution of 0.195 mm and slice thickness of 3 mm. Results. The coefficient of variation for intra-reader reproducibility for aortic wall thickness measurements was 2.5% for repeat segmentations of the same scans on the same day, but segmentations of these same scans made 8 months later showed a systematic change, suggesting that intra-reader bias as well as increased variability could compromise assessments made over time. Comparative analyses were therefore performed in one postprocessing session. The coefficient of variation for scan-rescan reproducibility for aortic wall thickness was 5.5% for nine pairs of scans acquired a week apart and segmented on the same day. Good MRI-histology correlation was obtained. The MRI-measured mean aortic wall thickness of animals at 20 weeks of age was 76% that of animals at 50 weeks of age (p < 0.001). There was a small increase in aortic wall thickness between 50 and 73 weeks of age, but this was not significant (p > 0.05). The corresponding differences in lumen cross-sectional areas at 20, 50, and 73 weeks of age were not significant. These results were consistent with in-house historical histology data on this strain of rabbits. Conclusions. High-resolution gradient echo MRI can follow disease progression in the WHHL rabbit spontaneous atherosclerosis disease model.

Wang, Yi-Xiang J., E-mail:; Kuribayashi, Hideto [AstraZeneca (United Kingdom); Wagberg, Maria [AstraZeneca (Sweden); Holmes, Andrew P.; Tessier, Jean J.; Waterton, John C. [AstraZeneca (United Kingdom)



Sequential Injury of the Rabbit Abdominal Aorta Induces Intramural Coagulation and Luminal Narrowing Independent of Intimal Mass Extrinsic Pathway Inhibition Eliminates Luminal Narrowing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that activation of the coagulation cascade is involved in arterial remodeling in response to sequential injury. An active site-inhibited recombinant human factor VIIa (FVIIai) was used to inhibit tissue factor, the primary cofactor in the extrinsic pathway of coagulation, in a sequential balloon injury model of the rabbit abdominal aorta. Single balloon injury produced limited intimal thickening at

David W. Courtman; Stephen M. Schwartz; Charles E. Hart


Inhibitory effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on hyperhomocysteinemia-induced intimal thickening in rabbit abdominal aorta after balloon injury.  


Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has been widely used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders. Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is associated with the risk of atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether GBE could attenuate the Hhcy-induced intimal thickening after balloon injury in rabbit abdominal aorta. It was observed in this study that GBE could decrease the neointima area (NA) and the ratio of the neointima area to the media area (NA/MA), down-regulate the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and up-regulate the protein expression of p21 (WAF1/CIP1) (p21). It suggests that GBE can reverse the Hhcy-induced neointima formation in rabbits following balloon injury, and the suppressive effect of GBE on the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) may contribute to its actions. PMID:18167042

Liu, Fenye; Zhang, Jidong; Yu, Shudong; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bo; Lai, Liping; Yin, Huiqiu; Liu, Guilin



Infectious aortitis caused by Salmonella Dublin followed by aneurysmal dilatation of the abdominal aorta.  


A 67-year-old woman was admitted for severe abdominal pain (stomach ache). Computed tomography (CT) revealed gas along the abdominal aortic wall. A blood culture was positive for Salmonella dublin, a gram-negative bacillus that is rare in humans. Treatment with an antibiotic improved the inflammatory signs; however, on the 11th hospital day, the patient complained of sudden severe abdominal pain. Enhanced CT revealed a pseudoaneurysm surrounded by a periaortic abscess. The infected aortic wall, including the aneurysm, was resected and an extra-anatomic bypass was constructed between the axillary artery and the external iliac arteries. The patient recovered fully and her course has been uneventful for the past two years since her discharge. PMID:23064566

Nakayama, Masafumi; Fuse, Koichi; Sato, Masahito; Okabe, Masaaki; Misumi, Shigeki; Yamashina, Akira; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yoshii, Shinpei; Aizawa, Yoshifusa



Bullet embolization to the external iliac artery after gunshot injury to the abdominal aorta: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Abdominal vascular trauma is fairly common in modern civilian life and is a highly lethal injury. However, if the projectile is small enough, if its energy is diminished when passing through the tissue and if the arterial system is elastic enough, the entry wound into the artery may close without exsanguination and therefore may not be fatal. A projectile captured may even travel downstream until it is arrested by the smaller distal vasculature. The occurrence of this phenomenon is rare and was first described by Trimble in 1968. Case presentation Here we present a case of a 29-year-old Albanian man who, due to a gunshot injury to the back, suffered fracture of his twelfth thoracic and first lumbar vertebra, injury to the posterior wall of his abdominal aorta and then bullet embolism to his left external iliac artery. It is interesting that the signs of distal ischemia developed several hours after the exploratory surgery, raising the possibility that the bullet migrated in the interim or that there was a failure to recognize it during the exploratory surgery. Conclusion In all cases where there is a gunshot injury to the abdomen or chest without an exit wound and with no projectile in the area, there should be a high index of suspicion for possible bullet embolism, particularly in the presence of the distal ischemia.



Digging in the "soil" of the aorta to understand the growth of abdominal aortic aneurysms.  


Extensive studies into the etiology of aortic aneurysm disease have focused on the characteristic and unique inflammatory infiltration and elaboration of products of inflammatory cells which can result in matrix degradation. While these changes clearly have a significant impact on the development of aneurysm disease, little attention has been paid to the changes in the parenchymal cells of the aorta. Under normal conditions, the vascular smooth muscle cells which populate the aortic wall are responsible for the maintenance of the matrix components of the media, particularly the elastic fibers. As our understanding of the mechanisms of aneurysm formation and normal arterial anatomy become more sophisticated, it is clear that specific changes to these smooth muscle cells make them active participants in the medial matrix destruction characteristic of aneurysm disease. As others have described for intimal arterial disease, this is the "soil" from which aortic aneurysms grow. PMID:19426606

Curci, John A


Total Occlusion of the Abdominal Aorta Caused by Detachment of Cardiac Myxoma  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic occlusion (AAO) caused by detachment of cardiac myxoma (CM) is a very rare complication in patients with CM. Although the nature of CMs has been well established, detachment of CM may cause unexpected serious complications such as vicious embolic events. Actually, in several cases of AAO caused by detachment of CM, it has been reported that CM fragments easily migrated to the brain, heart, and lungs, and caused lifelong neurological complications despite appropriate surgical therapy. Herein, we report a case of a patient with AAO caused by detachment of CM who underwent CM excision and abdominal aortic thromboembolectomy. Additionally, we have presented the preoperative and postoperative images using 64-multidetector computed tomography.

Hong, Sungyong; Choe, Hyunmin



Dissection of the Abdominal Aorta in Blunt Trauma: Management by Percutaneous Stent Placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We implanted stents in three patients who had traumatic abdominal aortic dissections, complicated by right limb ischemia\\u000a in one case. The circulating false channel extended to the left iliac artery in one case and to both iliac arteries in the\\u000a last case. Diagnosis and radiological follow-up included ultrasound, computed tomography, and arteriography. Two patients\\u000a were treated with Wallstents, one with

Hélène Vernhet; Charles-Henri Marty-Ané; Alvian Lesnik; Régis Chircop; Olivier Serres-Cousiné; Eric Picard; Henry Mary; Jean Paul Senac



Comparative In Vitro Effects of Calcineurin Inhibitors on Functional Vascular Relaxations of Both Rat Thoracic and Abdominal Aorta  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) have shown to develop hypertension in transplant patients. The in vitro incubation effects of cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) on vascular relaxations of rat thoracic aorta (TA) and abdominal aorta (AA) need to be investigated. Methods. The optimal concentrations of CsA (1.0?mg/mL) and Tac (0.1?mg/mL) used to compare endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine (ACh)) and endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) vascular relaxation against the agonists in phenylephrine (PE-) constricted TA and AA of 13-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 6). Results. In TA, the maximal vasodilator response elicited by ACh (control: Imax 98%) was significantly (P < 0.01) inhibited by CsA (Imax 10%) but not by Tac (Imax 97%). In AA, (control: IC50 50?nM; Imax 100%) CsA (IC50 7??M; (P < 0.01) showed strong sensitivity to inhibit ACh-dependent vascular relaxation than Tac (IC50 215?nM (P < 0.05); Imax 98%). CsA and Tac failed to affect the inhibitory responses to SNP in both TA and AA. Conclusion. CsA exerts profound inhibitory effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation as compared to Tac in both TA and AA. Aortic rings from the thoracic region are more sensitive to CNIs, since the vasodilator response to ACh is solely mediated by NO while in the AA, ACh likely recruits other endothelial mediators besides NO to maintain vasodilatation.

Jadhav, Ashok; Gopalakrishnan, Venkat; Shoker, Ahmed



Vulnerability of an equine pericardial roll graft to Gram-positive cocci after graft replacement for a ruptured infected abdominal aorta.  


We describe the influence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia on histopathological alteration of a glutaraldehyde-fixed equine pericardial roll (EPR) graft in a 77-year-old male who underwent in-situ EPR replacement of a ruptured infected abdominal aorta with concomitant repair of the perforated duodenum. The patient died of circulatory failure after septic shock due to MRSA infection and gastrointestinal bleeding on postoperative day (POD) 23. The autopsy revealed no perforation of the EPR graft or anastomotic disruption between the native abdominal aorta and EPR graft. Histological examination revealed that the inner layer of the EPR graft was colonized and damaged by Gram-positive cocci (MRSA suspected). We therefore suggest that the infection-resistant property of EPR grafts may be uncertain in patients with postoperative sustained MRSA bacteremia when these grafts are used for arterial reconstruction. PMID:21303871

Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Fumio; Tanaka, Fuminobu; Nishikawa, Yuji



[Ruptured aneurysms of the abdominal aorta: from the First Aid to the Operating Room. Changing concepts].  


Worldwide literature review from PubMed indicate that progress has been made in first aid assistance, diagnosis and treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms, which led to a reduced operative mortality. Nevertheless, ruptured aneurysms may present atipically in about half of the cases, thus leading to an initially uncorrect diagnosis up to 25% of cases. Mean survival interval from onset of symptoms and death is 10-14 hours, thus indicating that time exists to consider the new imaging techniques in 80% of patients, particularly the TC multislice. This, when is strategically located close to the emergency or the operative room, can rapidly allow a correct diagnosis and provide an accurate morphological evaluation, thus enabling the surgeon to plan the most adequate treatment with open or endovascular repair. PMID:17990601

Frego, Mauro; Bianchera, Giorgio; Angriman, Imerio; Norberto, Lorenzo; Pilon, Fabio; Polese, Lino; Scarpa, Marco; Ruffolo, Cesare; Corso, Stefano; De Zolt, Patrizia


Technique of supraceliac balloon control of the aorta during endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.  


Endovascular aneurysm repair is being used increasingly to treat ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAAs). Approximately 25% of RAAAs undergo complete circulatory collapse before or during the procedure. Patient survival depends on obtaining and maintaining supraceliac balloon control until the endograft is fully deployed. This is accomplished with a sheath-supported compliant balloon inserted via the groin contralateral to the side to be used for insertion of the endograft main body. After the main body is fully deployed, a second balloon is placed within the endograft, and the first balloon is removed so that extension limbs can be placed in the contralateral side. A third balloon can be placed via the contralateral side and ipsilateral extensions deployed as necessary. This technique of supraceliac balloon control is important to achieving good outcomes with RAAAs. In addition to minimizing blood loss, this technique minimizes visceral ischemia and maintains aortic control until the aneurysm rupture site is fully excluded. PMID:23159478

Berland, Todd L; Veith, Frank J; Cayne, Neal S; Mehta, Manish; Mayer, Dieter; Lachat, Mario



Layer-specific damage experiments and modeling of human thoracic and abdominal aortas with non-atherosclerotic intimal thickening.  


Many treatments for cardiovascular diseases include an endovascular insertion of stents or stent grafts into arteries, a procedure which may cause high tissue stresses and even damage in the arterial wall. In order to study such problems by using finite element methods, both appropriate constitutive models and experimental data on human tissue samples are required. Layer-specific experimental data for human tissue tested up to the supra-physiological loading range are rare in the literature. In this study, intact and layer-separated experimental data from uniaxial extension tests are presented for human thoracic and abdominal aortas with non-atherosclerotic intimal thickening undergoing supra-physiological loading. A novel pseudo-elastic damage model, proposed to describe discontinuous softening in aortic arterial tissues, is fit to the obtained experimental data. Fitting of the model with and without consideration of damage accumulation in the non-collagenous matrix material reveals that tissue damage is primarily related to the collagen fiber fabric. By employing the fit model, the effect of aortic tissue pre-conditioning on the material parameters from the resulting data fits is evaluated. Histological examination of the collagen fibers under different applied stretches is used to gain more insights into the structural changes of the tissue under supra-physiological loading. PMID:22659370

Weisbecker, Hannah; Pierce, David M; Regitnig, Peter; Holzapfel, Gerhard A



Systemic inflammatory response syndrome in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and Leriche syndrome after abdominal aorta reconstruction Zespó? ogólnoustrojowej reakcji zapalnej u chorych z t?tniakiem aorty brzusznej oraz zespo?em Leriche'a po rekonstrukcji brzusznego odcinka aorty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a preliminary report concerning systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) occur- rence in patients after operations in the abdominal segment of the aorta. Considering the small amount of analysed patients, the authors only indicate that aneurysm of the abdom- inal aorta can be a cause of SIRS formation. The significance of SIRS occurrence in connection with the type

Damian Ziaja; Krzysztof Ziaja; Tomasz Urbanek; Jacek Kostyra; Ewa Motyka


Serum homocysteine, arginine, citrulline and asymmetric dimethyl arginine levels, and histopathologic examination of the abdominal aorta in rats exposed to acrylamide.  


We investigated serum homocysteine, arginine, citrulline and asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) levels and conducted a histopathologic examination of the abdominal aorta in rats given acrylamide (AA) for long periods. We used 25 male and 25 female Wistar rats. Females were divided into three groups; two were experimental groups and one was the control group. Each experimental group consisted of ten animals and each control group consisted of five animals; male animals were divided in the same way. AA, 2 or 5 mg/kg/day, was administered to the experimental groups in drinking water for 90 days. At the end of the experiment, serum samples were analyzed for homocysteine, arginine, citrulline and ADMA using high performance liquid chromatography. Serum homocysteine, citrulline and ADMA levels were significantly higher than controls in both female and male rats when AA was administered at a concentration of 5 mg/kg/day. Serum citrulline levels also were significantly higher than controls when administered AA at a concentration of 2 mg/kg/day in female rats. There was no difference in serum arginine levels among the groups. Histopathologic examination of the abdominal aorta revealed degeneration of the external elastic lamina in rats treated with 5 mg/kg/day AA. Our findings show that long term ingestion of high dose AA with food might contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:23244234

Toker, A; Yerlikaya, Fh; Yener, Y; Toy, H



Preparation of double-raschel knitted silk vascular grafts and evaluation of short-term function in a rat abdominal aorta.  


Silk fibroin fiber has a long history of use in sutures because of its high strength and toughness. In the work reported in this paper, small-diameter vascular grafts 1.5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length were prepared by coating a double-raschel knitted silk fiber graft with silk fibroin aqueous solution containing poly(ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether) as a cross-linking agent. The most important character of silk fibroin graft is remodeling, which is never observed for polyester fiber or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts. The double-raschel knitted silk fiber graft with coating has sufficient physical strength and protects the ladder from the end in the implantation process. The coating also gives protection against leakage of blood from the graft, and elasticity to the graft. Eight weeks after implantation of the grafts in rat abdominal aorta, early formation of thrombosis was avoided. PMID:21344164

Yagi, Takahito; Sato, Michiko; Nakazawa, Yasumoto; Tanaka, Kimie; Sata, Masataka; Itoh, Kenji; Takagi, Yoshihide; Asakura, Tetsuo



New approach of assessing hypovolemic shock class 1 during acute emergencies: Ultrasonographic inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta diameter ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a patient with hypovolemic shock class 1, the vital signs and biochemical properties are almost normal. The alteration of hemodynamic parameters and biochemical values occurs mainly in advanced hypovolemia state (neuroendocrine response). The availability of ultrasound machine at healthcare centers makes the measurement of vascular calibre feasible and possible. Inspiration and expiration inferior vena cava diameter changes predict hypovolemic shock class 1 but in acute emergencies this method is impractical. The purpose of this study is to develop a new approach in identifying hypovolemic shock at early phase by measuring the inferior vena cava and aorta diameter ratio using bedside ultrasound machine.

Ahmad, Rashidi; Kunji, Mohamad Iqhbal; Hj Abd Kareem, Meera Mohaideen; Halim, Shamimi A.



Identification of in vivo material and geometric parameters of a human aorta: toward patient-specific modeling of abdominal aortic aneurysm.  


Recent advances in computational modeling of vascular adaptations and the need for their extension to patient-specific modeling have introduced new challenges to the path toward abdominal aortic aneurysm modeling. First, the fundamental assumption in adaptation models, namely the existence of vascular homeostasis in normal vessels, is not easy to implement in a vessel model built from medical images. Second, subjecting the vessel wall model to the normal pressure often makes the configuration deviate from the original geometry obtained from medical images. To address those technical challenges, in this work, we propose a two-step optimization approach; first, we estimate constitutive parameters of a healthy human aorta intrinsic to the material by using biaxial test data and a weighted nonlinear least-squares parameter estimation method; second, we estimate the distributions of wall thickness and anisotropy using a 2-D parameterization of the vessel wall surface and a global approximation scheme integrated within an optimization routine. A direct search method is implemented to solve the optimization problem. The numerical optimization method results in a considerable improvement in both satisfying homeostatic condition and minimizing the deviation of geometry from the original shape based on in vivo images. Finally, the utility of the proposed technique for patient-specific modeling is demonstrated in a simulation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm enlargement. PMID:21053043

Zeinali-Davarani, Shahrokh; Raguin, L Guy; Vorp, David A; Baek, Seungik



Late complication of a Greenfield filter associating caudal migration and perforation of the abdominal aorta by a ruptured strut  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 67-year-old woman who was admitted for surgical removal of a Greenfield filter that had been inserted 7 years before because of recurrent deep vein thrombosis associated with pulmonary embolism. This complication appeared on a plain abdominal radiogram that showed a 7 cm distal migration of the filter, a 30-degree angulation, and rupture of a

Ahmad Dabbagh; Nabil Chakfé; Jean-Georges Kretz; Boualem Demri; Philippe Nicolini; Claudio Fuentes; Bertrand Mettauer; Eric Epailly; Dominique Muster; Bernard Eisenmann



Antioxidant effects of methylprednisolone and hydrocortisone on the impairment of endothelium dependent relaxation induced by reactive oxygen species in rabbit abdominal aorta  

PubMed Central

Background The reperfusion following ischemia produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). We studied the influences of methylprednisolone (MPD) and hydrocortisone (CRT) on ROS effects using the endothelium of rabbit abdominal aorta. Methods Isolated rabbit aortic rings were suspended in an organ bath filled with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution. After precontraction with norepinephrine, changes in arterial tension were recorded following the cumulative administration of acetylcholine (ACh). The percentages of ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings before and after exposure to ROS, generated by electrolysis of K-H solution, were used as the control and experimental values, respectively. The aortic rings were pretreated with MPD or CRT at the same concentrations, and the effects of these agents were compared with the effects of ROS scavenger inhibitors: superoxide dismutase inhibitor, diethylthiocarbamate (DETCA), and the catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT). Results Both MPD and CRT maintained endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by ACh in a dose-related manner in spite of ROS attack. The restored ACh-induced relaxation of MPD and CRT group was not attenuated by pretreatment of 3AT and DETCA. Conclusions MPD and CRT preserve the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation against the attack of ROS, in a dose-related manner. Endothelial protection mechanisms of MPD and CRT may be not associated with hydrogen peroxide and superoxide scavenging.

Lee, Hee Jong; Song, Hyun Hoo; Jeong, Mi Ae; Yeom, Jong Hoon; Kim, Dong Won



Effects of cilostazol and k-134 on reconstructive surgery using prosthetic grafts in the abdominal aorta of beagle dogs.  


Problems associated with prosthetic graft replacement are stenosis at the anastomosis site and thrombus formation on the inner surface. Cilostazol is known to have antiplatelet activity and inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointima thickening. A cilostazol derivative, (-)-6-[3-[3-cyclopropyl-3-[(1R,2R)-2-hydroxycyclohexyl]ureido]-propoxy]-2-(1H)-quinolinone (K-134), has more potent anti-platelet activity and anti-neointimal thickening activity than cilostazol in the in-vitro platelet aggregation and in-vivo anti-hyperplastic activity assay. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of cilostazol and K-134 on thrombus formation and neointimal thickening at the site of prosthetic graft replacement. Beagle dogs underwent infrarenal abdominal aortic resection with straight Dacron graft replacement, which were allocated to the control, cilostazol, and K-134 groups. Two dogs were dead without confirming the cause of death. After 6 months, all dogs were necropsied. All prosthetic grafts were patent in each group. Ratios of red thrombus to prosthetic graft area were 0.3+/-6.4%, and 3.3+/-4.5% in the cilostazol and K-134 groups, respectively, which were significant different from that in the control group (24.4+/-16.8%). However, no clear difference was seen among the 3 groups with respect to neointimal thickness (control group, 0.70+/-0.13 mm; cilostazol group, 0.59+/-0.14 mm; K-134 group, 0.67+/-0.14 mm). Cilostazol and K-134 significantly inhibited thrombus formation on the inner surface of the prosthetic graft at 6 months after graft replacement. Neointimal thickening on the inner surface was slight even in control-group animals, and the effects of cilostazol and K-134 on such thickening were unclear. PMID:18558424

Inoue, Yoshinori; Sugano, Norihide; Jibiki, Masatoshi; Kudo, Toshifumi; Iwai, Takehisa



Mycotic aneurysms of the thoracic and abdominal aorta and iliac arteries: Experience with anatomic and extra-anatomic repair in 33 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A mycotic aneurysm of the aorta and adjacent arteries is a dreadful condition, threatening life, organs, and limbs. With regard to the aortic segment involved, repair by either in situ replacement or extra-anatomic reconstruction can be quite challenging. Even when surgery has been successful, the prognosis is described as very poor because of the weakened health status of the

Barbara Theresia Müller; Otto Ruano Wegener; Klaus Grabitz; Michael Pillny; Lutz Thomas; Wilhelm Sandmann



Common stem origin of left gastric, right and left inferior phrenic arteries, in association with a hepatosplenomesenteric trunk, independently arising from the abdominal aorta: Case report using MDCT angiography.  


We describe in this paper a rare case of a 45-year-old male with a common stem origin of the left gastric artery (LGA), right inferior phrenic artery (RIPA), and left inferior phrenic artery (LIPA), in association with the presence of a hepatosplenomesenteric trunk (HSMT) arising from the abdominal aorta (AA), as revealed by routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography. The common stem origin of the LGA, RIPA, and LIPA had an endoluminal diameter of 3.3 mm, the LGA of 2.8 mm. The endoluminal diameter of the RIPA and LIPA was at the origin of approximately 1 mm, complicating selective chemoembolization of the liver parenchyma. Clin. Anat., 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23255305

Matusz, Petru; Loukas, Marios; Iacob, Nicoleta; Ples, Horia



Morphologic and morphometric evaluation of experimental acute crush injuries of the sciatic nerve of rats.  


In order to qualify and quantify nerve fiber lesion following an acute crush injury, a morphologic and morphometric study was carried out in 25 Wistar rats divided into five groups of five animals each according to the crushing load applied, i.e., 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, and 15,000 g. The injury was produced under general anesthesia on a 5mm-long intermediate segment of the right sciatic nerve for 10 min using a dead-weight machine. The animals were killed with an excessive dose of anesthetics 72 h later and submitted to perfusion with a fixing solution through the abdominal aorta immediately after death. Both the right and left sciatic nerves were removed and prepared for histologic and morphometric examinations; 5 microm-thick sections stained with 1% Toluidine blue were examined under a light microscope equipped with a video camera linked to a computer loaded with a graphic program (KS 400). The morphometric studies included measuring total number of fibers, fiber density, fiber diameter, myelin fiber area, axon diameter, axon area and G ratio. The results showed that damage to the nerve fibers began to appear as early as with the 500 g load and was similar in all groups despite the load applied, increasing with the 10,000 and 15,000 g loads, although the external supporting tissues and small diameter fibers were preserved. The predominant type of lesion produced was axonotmesis. PMID:18644327

Mazzer, Patrícia Yume Cantalejo Nagima; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique; Mazzer, Nilton; Fazan, Valéria Paula Sassoli



Imaging of gastrointestinal and abdominal tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the abdomen, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneum, mesentery, omentum, abdominal lymph nodes, solid abdominal organs, the genital system and the abdominal aorta. Abdominal TB is a diagnostic challenge, particularly when pulmonary TB is absent. It may mimic many other abdominal diseases, both clinically and radiologically. An

F. M. Vanhoenacker; A. I. De Backer; B. Op de Beeck; M. Maes; R. Van Altena; D. Van Beckevoort; P. Kersemans; A. M. De Schepper



Aortic arch/elephant trunk procedure with SiennaTM graft and endovascular stenting of thoraco-abdominal aorta for treatment of complex chronic dissection  

PubMed Central

Aneurismal dilatation of the remaining thoracic aorta after ascending aortic interposition grafting for type ‘A’ aortic dissection is not uncommon. For such complex cases, one treatment option is total arch replacement and elephant trunk procedure with the SiennaTM collared graft (Vascutek, Inchinnan, UK) technique followed by a staged thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). The video illustrates our technique in a 56-year-old man with an extensive aortic arch and descending thoracic aortic dissecting aneurysm. For the ‘open’ procedure femoral arterial and venous cannulation was used along with systemic cooling and circulatory arrest at 22 °C. Upon circulatory arrest, the aortic arch was incised and antegrade cerebral perfusion achieved via selective cannulation to the right brachiocephalic and left common carotid artery, keeping flow rates at 10-15 mL/kg/min and perfusion pressure at 50-60 mmHg. Arch replacement with an elephant trunk component was then performed and after completion of the distal aortic anastomosis antegrade perfusion via a side-arm in the graft was started and the operation completed using a variation of the ‘sequential’ clamping technique to maximize cerebral perfusion. The second endovascular stage was performed two weeks after discharge. Two covered stents were landing from the elephant trunk to the distal descending thoracic aorta, to secure the distal landing a bare stent of was placed to cover the aorta just distal to the origin of the celiac axis. The left subclavian artery was embolised with fibre coils. Post TEVAR angiogram showed no endoleak Although re-operative total arch replacement and elephant trunk procedure and subsequent TEVAR remained a challenging procedure, we believe excellent surgical outcome can be achieved with carefully planned operative strategy.

Wong, Randolph H.L.; Baghai, Max; Yu, Simon C.H.



Aortic arch/elephant trunk procedure with Sienna(TM) graft and endovascular stenting of thoraco-abdominal aorta for treatment of complex chronic dissection.  


Aneurismal dilatation of the remaining thoracic aorta after ascending aortic interposition grafting for type 'A' aortic dissection is not uncommon. For such complex cases, one treatment option is total arch replacement and elephant trunk procedure with the Sienna(TM) collared graft (Vascutek, Inchinnan, UK) technique followed by a staged thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). The video illustrates our technique in a 56-year-old man with an extensive aortic arch and descending thoracic aortic dissecting aneurysm. For the 'open' procedure femoral arterial and venous cannulation was used along with systemic cooling and circulatory arrest at 22 °C. Upon circulatory arrest, the aortic arch was incised and antegrade cerebral perfusion achieved via selective cannulation to the right brachiocephalic and left common carotid artery, keeping flow rates at 10-15 mL/kg/min and perfusion pressure at 50-60 mmHg. Arch replacement with an elephant trunk component was then performed and after completion of the distal aortic anastomosis antegrade perfusion via a side-arm in the graft was started and the operation completed using a variation of the 'sequential' clamping technique to maximize cerebral perfusion. The second endovascular stage was performed two weeks after discharge. Two covered stents were landing from the elephant trunk to the distal descending thoracic aorta, to secure the distal landing a bare stent of was placed to cover the aorta just distal to the origin of the celiac axis. The left subclavian artery was embolised with fibre coils. Post TEVAR angiogram showed no endoleak Although re-operative total arch replacement and elephant trunk procedure and subsequent TEVAR remained a challenging procedure, we believe excellent surgical outcome can be achieved with carefully planned operative strategy. PMID:23977606

Wong, Randolph H L; Baghai, Max; Yu, Simon C H; Underwood, Malcolm J



Dacron aorta.  


During the span of 6 years a 67-year-old woman underwent four consecutive major aortic operations, ultimately replacing her entire thoracoabdominal aorta with the exception of a tiny segment from which the left subclavian artery originated. The relatively uneventful postoperative course with each operation (one emergency and three elective procedures) and her current satisfactory condition at age 73 years have been attributed to her physical and mental fortitude, excellent anesthesia, superb postoperative care, and the chronic nature of her segmental aortic lesions caused by arteriosclerosis. PMID:8215677

Najafi, H



Surgical Treatment of Multiple Mycotic Aneurysms in the Ascending Aorta, Aortic Arch, and Descending Aorta  

PubMed Central

We report a clinical case of multiple mycotic aneurysms, in the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The patient underwent surgery to replace the ascending aorta and aortic arch by means of a highly modified “elephant trunk” technique and with the aid of arterial cannulation from the right subclavian artery, which provided antegrade cerebral perfusion. Samples of purulent material taken from the aneurysmal wall yielded cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus. The patient was treated with antibiotics for 6 weeks and then underwent a 2nd procedure for the aneurysmal resection of the descending thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta, through a thoracic laparo-phrenicectomy. We comment on the clinical and surgical aspects of the case. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:225–8)

de Salazar, Alvaro Ortiz; Izaguirre, Javier Lopez; Zubero, Zurine



Hypoplasia of the aorta in a patient diagnosed with LMNA gene mutation.  


Hypoplasia of the aorta is a rare entity comprising tubular hypotrophy of a large segment of the thoracic and the abdominal aorta. We report for the first time the case of a 26-year-old man with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy presenting severe and diffuse hypoplasia of the aorta. PMID:22883396

Coutance, Guillaume; Labombarda, Fabien; Cauderlier, Emmanuelle; Belin, Annette; Richard, Pascale; Bonne, Gisèle; Chapon, Françoise



Regional Heterogeneity within the Aorta: Relevance to Aneurysm Disease  

PubMed Central

Vascular remodeling within the aorta results in a loss of structural integrity with consequent aneurysm formation. This degradation is more common in the abdominal aorta, but also occurs above the diaphragm in the thoracic aorta. Conventionally, the aorta has been considered a large vascular conduit with uniform cellular and extracellular structure and function. Evidence is accumulating, however, to suggest that variations exist between the thoracic and abdominal aorta, thereby demonstrating regional heterogeneity. Further pathophysiologic studies of aortic dilation in each of these regions have identified disparities in atherosclerotic plaque deposition, vessel mechanics, protease profiles, and cell signaling pathways. Improved understanding of this spatial heterogeneity may promote evolution in the management of aneurysm disease through computational models of aortic wall stress, imaging of proteolytic activity, targeted pharmacologic treatment, and the application of region-specific gene therapy.

Ruddy, Jean Marie; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Spinale, Francis G.; Ikonomidis, John S.



Phylogenetic signals in morphometric data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many of the goals and concepts of qualitative morphological analysis and morphometrics are similar, systematists have largely rejected the use of morphometric methods in phylogenetic analysis on a variety of grounds. This review finds that (1) the concepts of a cladistic character and a morphometric vari- able are essentially identical, (2) morphometric methods can be instrumental in discovering and

Norman MacLeod


Abdominal aortic occlusion of young adults  

PubMed Central

The occlusion of the infrarenal aorta is a rare event, which is potentially life threatening. We present the case of a heavy smoking, 35-year-old woman who was referred to the emergency department of our hospital because of sudden abdominal pain and urinary incontinence. She also complained of a two-year history of bilateral intermittent claudication. A computerized tomography revealed the thrombosis of the abdominal aorta and of both iliac arteries. Treatment consists of an aortoiliac thromboendarterectomy (AITE). For young patients with atheromatous occlusive disease of the infrarenal aorta, AITE is an attractive alternative to bypass grafting.

Bucci, Federico; Fiengo, Leslie; Hamati, Samer; Plagnol, Philippe



Statistical Comparisons of Some External Morphometrical Aspects of the Swimming Crab Protunus sanguinolentus (Herbst) Populations Inhabiting the Keelung Shelf and Taiwan Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five external morphometric characters and size at maturity in cara- pace width of the swimming crab, Protunus sanguinolentus, were examined and compared between sampling groups obtained from the Keelung Shelf and Taiwan Bank. The external morphometric characters used in the present study are: carapace width, carapace length, distance between two sides of first spine, fifth abdominal segment width, fifth abdominal

Hsiao-Chuan Chang; Chien-Chung Hsu



Blunt traumatic abdominal aortic rupture: CT imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blunt abdominal aortic trauma is a rare but potentially lethal event. It is commonly associated with high-speed motor vehicle\\u000a accidents. Intimal flap, thrombosis, and pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta are the more common findings. We present a\\u000a case of blunt abdominal aortic trauma in which CT disclosed free aortic rupture with intraabdominal bleeding and a huge retroperitoneal\\u000a hematoma, an extremely

Gaetano Nucifora; Fjoralba Hysko; Annarosa Vasciaveo



Characterization of an elastase from aneurysmal aorta which degrades intact aortic elastin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence suggests that abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are due to a pathologic process which results in the destruction of aortic elastin and other matrix components. In this study, protein extractions were performed on both aneurysmal and normal aorta. Extracts were applied to frozen section of normal aorta elther alone or in combination with 10 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, recombinant tissue

Jeffrey M. Reilly; Colleen M. Brophy; M. David Tilson



Diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm using 67-gallium citrate  

SciTech Connect

Mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta are uncommon, but potentially lethal problems. Clinical subtleties may suggest their presence, but in the past, definitive diagnosis has been dependent on surgical exploration or autopsy findings. A case is presented in which 67-gallium citrate abdominal scanning localized the site of sepsis in an abdominal aortic aneurysm and allowed for prompt and successful surgical therapy. This noninvasive technique is recommended as a adjunct in the diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms.

Blumoff, R.L.; McCartney, W.; Jaques, P.; Johnson, G. Jr.



Advances in Geometric Morphometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometric morphometrics is the statistical analysis of form based on Cartesian landmark coordinates. After separating shape\\u000a from overall size, position, and orientation of the landmark configurations, the resulting Procrustes shape coordinates can\\u000a be used for statistical analysis. Kendall shape space, the mathematical space induced by the shape coordinates, is a metric\\u000a space that can be approximated locally by a Euclidean

Philipp Mitteroecker; Philipp Gunz



[The small aorta syndrome].  


Angiograms of 956 patients (94.7% of males and females) with aortoiliac occlusive disease were analyzed retrospectively. The existence of small aorta syndrome (SAS) was documented in 9 female patients with a mean age of 41.1 yrs. In this population the incidence was 0.9%; however, in the female patients the incidence was higher (18%). Clinical signs of arterial insufficiency of the lower limbs included: claudication in 8 pts and digital gangrene in 1 patient. Risk factor status was as follows: cigarette smoking was present in 100%, hypertension in 33%, obesitas in 25% and hyperlipidemia in 20% of cases. Dimensions of aortoiliac segments on angiograms and belongs to SAS were made by De Laurentis classification. Aortoiliac segment dimensions of SAS determined on angiograms were compared with operative findings. The mean cross sectional area of the infrarenal aorta was 14.1 mm, at the bifurcation 10 mm, common iliac artery 8 mm, and external iliac artery 4.3 mm. Of 9 female patients with small aorta syndrome 8 were operated by bypass technique. The mean follow-up time was 12.3 months. In 7 pts the reconstructive vascular procedure was successful. In one patient the graft became occluded, 3 month after operation, due to poor run-off. This necessitated limb amputation. PMID:2075538

Velimirovi?, D; Anojci?, S; Djordjevi?, M; Davidovi?, L; Savi?, D


Uptake and metabolism of circulating chylomicron triglyceride by rabbit aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if chylomicron triglycerides are taken up and metabolized by the arterial wall, rabbit abdominal aortas were perfused in situ for various times up to 2 hr with blood-buffer containing isotopically labeled substrates. Labeled chylomicrons were obtained by feeding (aH)palmitic acid or (aH)glyceryl trioleate to rats and rabbits with cannulated thoracic ducts. After aortic perfusion with these chylomicrons, more

Alan Vost


Traumatic abdominal aortic injury treated by endovascular stent placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta is rare and potentially lethal. The authors present the case of a restrained passenger\\u000a who was involved in a high-speed, head-on motor vehicle accident. On arrival in the emergency department, the patient complained\\u000a of abdominal pain, was tachycardic and had a large ecchymoses on his right flank and lower abdominal wall. Computed tomography\\u000a (CT)

Martin Gunn; MaiBritt Campbell; Eric K. Hoffer



Surgical treatment of symptomatic and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.  


Despite the increased volume of patients undergoing selective reconstruction on the occasion of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in the last decades, the number of patients with rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAA) is not significantly decreased. RAAA is catastrophic and life-threatening condition. It remains a challenge to every practitioner. To optimize the surgical practice we studied the literature for the treatment of symptomatic and rupture aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. PMID:24151748

Tonev, A; Dimitrov, S; Shkvarla, L; Zahariev, T; Nachev, G



Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis caused by paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.  


Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis is a rare and potential fatal event, which occurs in adult subjects. We present the case of a 72-year-old-man, who referred to the emergency Department of our hospital because of persistent severe abdominal and perineal pain. Doppler ultrasounds and computerized tomography angiography revealed the acute thrombosis of the abdominal aorta. Immediate revascularization through aortic thrombo-endoarterectomy resolved the disease. PMID:23830410

Riccioni, G; Bucciarelli, V; Bisceglia, N; Totaro, G; Scotti, L; Aceto, A; Martini, F; Gallina, S; Bucciarelli, T; Macarini, L


Apparent adiposity assessed by standardised scoring systems and morphometric measurements in horses and ponies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study described a scoring system for the assessment of apparent neck adiposity and evaluated morphometric measurements for assessment of neck and overall adiposity. Twenty-one barren Thoroughbred mares, 13 Arabian geldings and 75 Welsh, Dartmoor, or crossbred pony mares, were clinically examined and blood samples analysed for insulin, glucose, leptin, and triglycerides. Bodyweight (BW), height, length, girth and abdominal circumferences,

Rebecca A. Carter; Raymond J. Geor; W. Burton Staniar; Tania A. Cubitt; Pat A. Harris



Cannulation in the Diseased Aorta  

PubMed Central

The Seldinger technique is a method of femoral cannulation that has been used to establish cardiopulmonary bypass. Reports of cannulation of the ascending aorta for antegrade perfusion using the Seldinger method are anecdotal. To the best of our knowledge, the approach described herein for direct cannulation of the ascending aorta with use of the Seldinger technique for antegrade perfusion has not been previously described in the English-language medical literature. This method is helpful when the surgeon is treating a patient who has a calcified ascending aorta, complicated aortic dissection, calcified femoral vessels, or a diseased thoracoabdominal aorta. In such cases, retrograde perfusion has been associated with severe complications as a result of atheromatous embolization from the descending thoracic aorta. Herein, we describe our approach to cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass, which entails insertion of an aortic cannula into the ascending aorta by means of the Seldinger technique. A soft-tip guidewire is inserted through an arterial entry catheter that has been used to puncture a hole in the wall of the vessel. Then the aortic cannula is introduced into the vessel, sliding along the guidewire. Guided by transesophageal echocardiography, the tip of the cannula is positioned carefully and is then advanced into the descending aorta. This positioning of the cannula decreases the chance of arterial embolization, thereby improving cerebral protection. If cannulation of the ascending aorta is not feasible, the transverse aortic arch or proximal descending aorta can be used.

Khoynezhad, Ali; Plestis, Konstadinos A.



Distribution, Size, and Shape of Abdominal Aortic Calcified Deposits and Their Relationship to Mortality in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic calcifications (AACs) correlate strongly with coronary artery calcifications and can be predictors of cardiovascular mortality. We investigated whether size, shape, and distribution of AACs are related to mortality and how such prognostic markers perform compared to the state-of-the-art AC24 marker introduced by Kauppila. Methods. For 308 postmenopausal women, we quantified the number of AAC and the percentage of the abdominal aorta that the lesions occupied in terms of their area, simulated plaque area, thickness, wall coverage, and length. We analysed inter-/intraobserver reproducibility and predictive ability of mortality after 8-9 years via Cox regression leading to hazard ratios (HRs). Results. The coefficient of variation was below 25% for all markers. The strongest individual predictors were the number of calcifications (HR = 2.4) and the simulated area percentage (HR = 2.96) of a calcified plaque, and, unlike AC24 (HR = 1.66), they allowed mortality prediction also after adjusting for traditional risk factors. In a combined Cox regression model, the strongest complementary predictors were the number of calcifications (HR = 2.76) and the area percentage (HR = ?3.84). Conclusion. Morphometric markers of AAC quantified from radiographs may be a useful tool for screening and monitoring risk of CVD mortality.

Ganz, Melanie; de Bruijne, Marleen; Dam, Erik B.; Pettersen, Paola; Karsdal, Morten A.; Christiansen, Claus; Nielsen, Mads



Divergent phenotype of rat thoracic and abdominal perivascular adipose tissues.  


Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is implicated as a source of proatherogenic cytokines. Phenotypic differences in local PVAT depots may contribute to differences in disease susceptibility among arteries and even regions within an artery. It has been proposed that PVAT around the abdominal and thoracic aorta shares characteristics of white and brown adipose tissue (BAT), respectively; however, a detailed comparison of the phenotype of these PVAT depots has not been performed. Using young and older adult rats, we compared the phenotype of PVATs surrounding the abdominal and thoracic aorta to each other and also to epididymal white and subscapular BAT. Compared with young rats, older rats exhibited greater percent body fat (34.5 ± 3.1 vs. 10.4 ± 0.9%), total cholesterol (112.2 ± 7.5 vs. 58.7 ± 6.3 mg/dl), HOMA-insulin resistance (1.7 ± 0.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.1 a.u.), as well as reduced ACh-induced relaxation of the aorta (maximal relaxation: 54 ± 10 vs. 77 ± 6%) (all P < 0.05). Expression of inflammatory genes and markers of immune cell infiltration were greater in abdominal PVAT than in thoracic PVAT, and overall, abdominal and thoracic PVATs resembled the phenotype of white adipose tissue (WAT) and BAT, respectively. Histology and electron microscopy indicated structural similarity between visceral WAT and abdominal PVAT and between BAT and thoracic PVAT. Our data provide evidence that abdominal PVAT is more inflamed than thoracic PVAT, a difference that was by and large independent of sedentary aging. Phenotypic differences in PVAT between regions of the aorta may be relevant in light of the evidence in large animals and humans that the abdominal aorta is more vulnerable to atherosclerosis than the thoracic aorta. PMID:23389108

Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Laughlin, M Harold



Seat belt aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of 11 cases of seat-belt associated blunt abdominal aortic trauma, includes nine cases reported in the literature and two new cases. Lap-type seat belts were the cause of this injury in eight of the 11 patients (73%). Clinical presentation was acute in 73% of the cases, with symptoms of acute arterial insufficiency, or an acute abdomen or neurologic

P. S. Mohinder; Randhawa; James O. Menzoian




PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a condition whereby the terminal aorta permanently dilates to dangerous proportions, risking rupture. The biomechanics of AAA has been studied with great interest since aneurysm rupture is a mechanical failure of the degenerated aortic wall and is a significant cause of death in developed countries. In this review article, the importance of considering the biomechanics of AAA is discussed, and then the history and the state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed - including investigations into the biomechanical behavior of AAA tissues, modeling AAA wall stress and factors which influence it, and the potential clinical utility of these estimates in predicting AAA rupture.

Vorp, David A.



Abdominal trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a While a great part of the Anglo-American medical literature addresses the topic of penetrating trauma the German spreaking\\u000a countries rather publish on blunt abdominal injury. The presented paper discusses the strategic principles of acute clinical\\u000a management of abdominal trauma on the combined basis of own research results and a comprehensive review of the literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Blunt abdominal injuries in most

D. Nast-Kolb; A. Trupka; S. Ruchholtz; L. Schweiberer



Abdominal aortic injury in a child: intravenous digital subtraction angiogram (IVDSA) for the diagnosis of pediatric vascular trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal aortic injury due to trauma is a rare entity, especially in the pediatric population. We report a 6-year-old girl with partial transection of the abdominal aorta as a result of a motor vehicle accident. The diagnosis was made with IVDSA. The patient survived the injury. We discuss the imaging findings, mechanisms, and associated injuries of abdominal aortic trauma in

Gregory Soares; Rodolfo Ibarra; Hector Ferral



A patient with fever and an abdominal aortic aneurysm  

PubMed Central

A 55-year-old man with an abdominal aortic aneurysm presented with fever and abdominal pain 3 weeks after an episode of Salmonella gastroenteritis. His symptoms persisted despite antimicrobial therapy. Two abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans showed no evidence of aortitis. His abdominal pain worsened and further investigation including a third CT scan demonstrated a leaking aortic aneurysm. The wall of the aorta was shown to contain Gram-negative bacilli. This case illustrates the difficulty in diagnosing bacterial aortitis.???Keywords: Salmonella; aortitis

Barlow, G.; Green, S.



[Practical method for morphometric reliefs].  


This morphometric method consists in: - to photograph, during culture's period, with constant magnification, the organ rudiment explanted in vitro; - to place on the single images, in printing, a transparent squared reticle with size unit known; - to compute the size values of the considered image counting the number of reticle's squares comprised in the image. PMID:7295411

Loffredo Sampaolo, C; Sampaolo, G; Gagliardi, P E; Alfano, A



Management of infected grafts and mycotic aneurysms of the aorta using cryopreserved homografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of infected prosthetic grafts and mycotic aneurysms of the aorta with cryopreserved homografts.Materials and methods: Between April 1994 and May 2002, 15 cryopreserved aortic homografts were used in 13 patients in the thoracic and abdominal aortic position with supplementary omental or pectoral muscle wrapping for infected grafts (n=11), and mycotic aneurysms (n=2)

Harun Arbatli; Raphaël DeGeest; Ergun Demirsoy; Francis Wellens; Ivan Degrieck; Frank VanPraet; Ali Kubilay Korkut; Hugo Vanermen



Clostridium septicum aortitis in a patient with extensive atheromatous disease of the aorta.  


A 69-year man presented with 3 days of progressively worsening abdominal pain, radiating to his back, with nausea and vomiting. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed evidence of aortitis, for which he eventually underwent surgery. The surgical specimen of the aorta grew Clostridium septicum that was treated with antibiotics. PMID:22410855

Annapureddy, Narender; Agarwal, Shiv Kumar; Kanakadandi, Vijay; Sabharwal, Manpreet S; Ammakkanavar, Natraj; Simoes, Priya; Sanjani, Hari Priya; Nadkarni, Girish N



Computer Tomography-Based Mathematic Modelling Of The Blood Flow In Human Descendent Aneurysmatic Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to simulate pulsatile three-dimensional flow through a realistic model of human abdominal aneurysmatic aorta and its branches. We performed simulations for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood analog fluid. The results described flow features with use of velocity magnitudes and wall shear stress distributions. The present numerical code provided a preliminary simulation tool for risk assessment of aneurysm

Tonar Z; Jeník J; Teöka V; Novák M; Ferda J


Group X secretory phospholipase A2 augments Angiotensin II-induced inflammatory responses and abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in apoE-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

Objective Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex vascular disease characterized by matrix degradation and inflammation and is a major cause of mortality in older men. Specific interventions that prevent AAA progression remain to be identified. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Group X secretory phospholipase A2 (GX sPLA2), an enzyme implicated in inflammatory processes, mediates AAA. Methods and Results GX sPLA2 was detected by immunostaining in human aneurysmal tissue and in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced AAAs in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE?/?) mice. GX sPLA2 mRNA was increased significantly (11-fold) in abdominal aortas of apoE?/? mice in response to Ang II infusion. To define the role of GX sPLA2 in experimental AAAs, apoE?/? and apoE?/? × GX sPLA2?/? (GX DKO) mice were infused with Ang II for either 10 (n=7) or 28 (n=24–26) days. Deficiency of GX sPLA2 significantly reduced the incidence and severity of AAAs, as assessed by ultrasound measurements in vivo of aortic lumens and by computer-assisted morphometric analyses ex vivo of external diameter. Results from gene expression profiling indicated that the expression of specific matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory mediators was blunted in aortas from GX DKO mice compared to apoE?/? mice after 10-day Ang II infusion. Ang II induction of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-13 and MMP-14 was reduced significantly in GX DKO mice compared to apoE?/? mice. Conclusion GX sPLA2 promotes Ang II-induced pathological responses leading to AAA formation.

Zack, Melissa; Boyanovsky, Boris B.; Shridas, Preetha; Bailey, William; Forrest, Kathy; Howatt, Deborah A.; Gelb, Michael H.; de Beer, Frederick C.; Daugherty, Alan; Webb, Nancy R.



Limitations in ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdominal aortic aneurysms.  


The frequency of the abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) increases in older population, especially in men older than 50 years. In most cases the AAAs are revealed occasionally in routine ultrasound examination or in CT performed due to other reasons. The aim of the study was the assessment of the diagnostic value and limitations of ultrasound examination in the evaluation of the abdominal aortic aneurysms. The ultrasound examination is a quick, cheap diagnostic modality in revealing the abdominal aortic aneurysm. It may be useful in mass screening, and control of patients with small aneurysm. But ultrasonographic assessment is not accurate enough in the evaluation of all critical features of the aneurysm and preoperative evaluation. In emergency and obese patients the ultrasound examination may fail in visualizing the abdominal aorta. In long aneurysm in ultrasonography the assessment of the involvement of the thoracic aorta is impossible. PMID:16145953

Pas?awski, Marek; Krzyzanowski, Konrad; Kesik, Jan; Z?omaniec, Janusz



Morphometrics applied to medical entomology.  


Morphometrics underwent a revolution more than one decade ago. In the modern morphometrics, the estimate of size is now contained in a single variable reflecting variation in many directions, as many as there are landmarks under study, and shape is defined as their relative positions after correcting for size, position and orientation. With these informative data, and the corresponding software freely available to conduct complex analyses, significant biological and epidemiological features can be quantified more accurately. We discuss the evolutionary significance of the environmental impact on metric variability, mentioning the importance of concepts like genetic assimilation, genetic accommodation, and epigenetics. We provide examples of measuring the effect of selection on metric variation by comparing (unpublished) Qst values with corresponding (published) Fst. The primary needs of medical entomologists are to distinguish species, especially cryptic species, and to detect them where they are not expected. We explain how geometric morphometrics could apply to these questions, and where there are deficiencies preventing the approach from being utilized at its maximum potential. Medical entomologists in connection with control programs aim to identify isolated populations where the risk of reinfestation after treatment would be low ("biogeographical islands"). Identifying them can be obtained from estimating the number of migrants per generation. Direct assessment of movement remains the most valid approach, but it scores active movement only. Genetic methods estimating gene flow levels among interbreeding populations are commonly used, but gene flow does not necessarily mean the current flow of migrants. Methods using the morphometric variation are neither suited to evaluate gene flow, nor are they adapted to estimate the flow of migrants. They may provide, however, the information needed to create a preliminary map pointing to relevant areas where one could invest in using molecular machinery. In case of reinfesting specimens after treatment, the question relates to the likely source of reinfesting specimens: are they a residual sample not affected by the control measures, or are they individuals migrating from surrounding, untreated foci? We explain why the morphometric approach may be adapted to answer such question. Thus, we describe the differences between estimating the flow of migrants and identifying the source of reinfestation after treatment: although morphometrics is not suited to deal with the former, it may be an appropriate tool to address the latter. PMID:18832048

Dujardin, Jean-Pierre



Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir



Indomethacin Prevents Elastase-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfusion of the rat abdominal aorta with elastase induces abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), in which the development of aortic dilatation correlates with the influx of inflammatory cells, increased production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and destruction of medial elastin. We tested the hypothesis that indomethacin, an inhibitor of macrophage MMP expression, might attenuate aneurysmal degeneration in this model. Fourteen adult male

Dennis R. Holmes; Drazen Petrinec; William Wester; Robert W. Thompson; Jeffrey M. Reilly



Clear Depiction of Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

SciTech Connect

We report the case of an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm incidentally detected clearly with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) during the examination of a patient with myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia that later converted to acute myeloid leukemia. DW-MRI revealed a hyperintense halo surrounding the abdominal aorta with aneurysmatic dilatation, establishing the diagnosis.

Orta Kilickesmez, Kadriye, E-mail: [Istanbul University Institute of Cardiology, Department of Cardiology (Turkey); Kilickesmez, Ozgur [Yeditepe University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (Turkey)



RFID implantable pressure sensor for the follow-up of abdominal aortic aneurysm stented  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilatation of the aorta at the abdominal level, the rupture of which is a life threatening complication with an 80% mortality rate. Even though those devices keep improving, the failure rate of the endovascular treatment is due to persisting pressure into the excluded aneurysmal sac. Since 2005, several integrated sensors have been designed

Olivier Romain; Johan Mazeyrat; Patrick Garda; H. Talleb; D. Lautru; M. F. Wong; J. Wiart; V. Fouad Hanna; Pierre Yves Lagree; Michel Bonneau; Chantal Kang; Miguel Fernandez; Jean-Frederic Gerbeau; Valerie Deplano; Bernard Berthier; Cecile Legallais; Pascal Leprince



Subtle abdominal aortic injury after blunt chest trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case report describes a patient with an intimal flap of the abdominal aorta after a motor vehicle crash. The patient was an unrestrained driver with minimal anterior chest wall pain. This is a rare injury and one that is difficult to find due to its rarity. The lower cut of the chest CT scan found the injury. Its treatment

Geoff M. Crabb; Kennedy K. McQuillen



Validation of Utrasonic Image Boundary Recognition in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aneurysm of the abdominal aorta (AAA) is char- acterized by modified wall properties, and a balloon-like area usu- ally filled by a thrombus. A rupture of an aortic aneurysm can be fatal, yet there is no way to accurately predict such an occur- rence. The study of the wall and thrombus cross-sectional disten- sion, due to a pressure wave,

R. Ravhon; D. Adam; L. Zelmanovitch



Abdominal coarctation in a hypertensive female collegiate basketball player  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the preparticipation examination is to identify health conditions that might adversely affect an athlete while participating in sport. Hypertension is the most common. This case report details a female basketball player found to be hypertensive, and complaining of fatigue, at her preparticipation physical examination. Presentation, diagnostics, treatment, and final outcome of coarctation involving the abdominal aorta are

B Sloan; S Simons; A Stromwall



Combining two potential causes of metalloproteinase secretion causes abdominal aortic aneurysms in rats: a new experimental model  

PubMed Central

Progress in understanding the pathophysiology of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is dependent in part on the development and application of effective animal models that recapitulate key aspects of the disease. The objective was to produce an experimental model of AAA in rats by combining two potential causes of metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion: inflammation and turbulent blood flow. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided in four groups: Injury, Stenosis, Aneurysm and Control (40/group). The Injury group received a traumatic injury to the external aortic wall. The Stenosis group received an extrinsic stenosis at a corresponding location. The Aneurysm group received both the injury and stenosis simultaneously, and the Control group received a sham operation. Animals were euthanized at days 1, 3, 7 and 15. Aorta and/or aneurysms were collected and the fragments were fixed for morphologic, immunohistochemistry and morphometric analyses or frozen for MMP assays. AAAs had developed by day 3 in 60–70% of the animals, reaching an aortic dilatation ratio of more than 300%, exhibiting intense wall remodelling initiated at the adventitia and characterized by an obvious inflammatory infiltrate, mesenchymal proliferation, neoangiogenesis, elastin degradation and collagen deposition. Immunohistochemistry and zymography studies displayed significantly increased expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in aneurysm walls compared to other groups. The haemo-dynamic alterations caused by the stenosis may have provided additional contribution to the MMPs liberation. This new model illustrated that AAA can be multifactorial and confirmed the key roles of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in this dynamic remodelling process.

Mata, Karina M; Prudente, Paula S; Rocha, Fabio S; Prado, Cibele M; Floriano, Elaine M; Elias, Jorge; Rizzi, Elen; Gerlach, Raquel F; Rossi, Marcos A; Ramos, Simone G



Experimental myocardial hypertrophy induced by a minimally invasive ascending aorta coarctation.  


Ascending aorta coarctation was produced by a minimally invasive technique in rabbits. Animal mortality was 5%. Morphometric and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated. A parabiotically isolated heart model was used to assess the hemodynamic parameters. Left ventricular weight/body weight ratio and muscle area showed clear evidence of hypertrophy when compared to control. The hemodynamic changes in the isolated heart model suggested decreased diastolic and systolic function in the coarcted group. The present model produced hypertrophy with low mortality rates as a result of its less invasive nature. PMID:11262594

Martins, A S; Aguilera, N W; Matsubara, B B; Bregagnollo, E A



Micromanaging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

The contribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease to human morbidity and mortality has increased in the aging, industrialized world. In response, extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of the diseased aorta. This work aims to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit AAA expansion and, ultimately, rupture. Contributions from multiple research groups have uncovered a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory milieu, which is believed to be essential for maintaining aortic vascular homeostasis. Recently, novel small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, have been identified as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional inhibitors of gene expression. MicroRNAs are thought to “fine tune” the translational output of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. With the discovery that microRNAs act as powerful regulators in the context of a wide variety of diseases, it is only logical that microRNAs be thoroughly explored as potential therapeutic entities. This current review summarizes interesting findings regarding the intriguing roles and benefits of microRNA expression modulation during AAA initiation and propagation. These studies utilize disease-relevant murine models, as well as human tissue from patients undergoing surgical aortic aneurysm repair. Furthermore, we critically examine future therapeutic strategies with regard to their clinical and translational feasibility.

Maegdefessel, Lars; Spin, Joshua M.; Adam, Matti; Raaz, Uwe; Toh, Ryuji; Nakagami, Futoshi; Tsao, Philip S.



Traumatic Rupture of the Aorta  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether delay of the repair of the ruptured thoracic aorta in patients with other major injuries is safe and has a potential positive impact on survival. Summary Background Data The accepted treatment for acute traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta has been repair of the injury as soon as possible. This form of management, however, has been accompanied by a death rate of 0% to 54% mortality, often related to the presence of other injuries. Methods The records of 30 consecutive patients with rupture of the thoracic aorta from blunt trauma treated from 1995 to 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. Two of them died shortly after admission and were excluded from further consideration. The remaining 28 patients were divided according to the time of the repair of the rupture into two groups. Group 1 patients underwent repair of the rupture immediately after the diagnosis was made. Group 2 patients, who had associated injuries that were likely to increase the risk of surgical death, had either repair more than 48 hours after injury (subgroup 2A) or had no repair (subgroup 2B). The patients in group 2 had their mean arterial pressure maintained at less than 70 mm Hg with medication to eliminate shear stress on the aortic tear while being observed. Results Twenty-eight patients (22 men, 6 women) with an average age of 36 years (range 19–76) were treated. Twenty-five had rupture of the descending thoracic aorta and three had rupture in the ascending thoracic aorta. Group 1 comprised 14 patients, 5 of whom died during surgery or in the early postoperative period. Group 2 comprised 14 patients, 9 in subgroup 2A and 5 in subgroup 2B. Two patients in subgroup 2A and three patients in subgroup 2B died of associated injuries or illnesses. Rupture of the traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta did not occur in any of the patients in group 2. Conclusions Delayed repair of acute traumatic aortic rupture is safe under appropriate treatment and should be considered in selected patients.

Symbas, Panagiotis N.; Sherman, Andrew J.; Silver, Jeffery M.; Symbas, John D.; Lackey, Jodi J.



Isolated gonococcal ascending aorta aneurysm  

PubMed Central

We present a very rare case of an acute septic infection and vegetative mycotic aneurysm caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a 52-year old male. The aortic valve was bicuspid and calcified. He was successfully treated by the resection of the ascending aorta and the aortic valve with a replacement by separate prostheses, followed by 2 weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy. The patient was followed up 18 months postoperatively with no signs of reinfection.

Patila, Tommi; Kurki, Tuula; Ihlberg, Leo



Abdominal aortic aneurysm in ultrasound and CT examination.  


About 75% of AAAs are asymptomatic. They come to light as the chance findings of a lump with or without pulsation, noted on self-examination, a routine physical check-up, or during diagnostic investigations. Ultrasonography and CT are two most often used in diagnosing of AAAs. The aim of the study was the assessment of the diagnostic value of computed tomography and ultrasonography in the evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Material comprises a group of 26 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. There were 18 men and 8 women, aged between 48 and 76 years (mean age 62 years). In each patient computed tomography and ultrasound examinations were performed. Computed tomography is more accurate technique than ultrasonography. In obese patients or in the presence of gas in the bowel the abdominal aorta may be invisible in ultrasonography, but is easily and clearly visualized in CT. Measurements of aneurysm diameters are much more reliable in CT than in ultrasonography. In CT it is possible to imagine and measure the length of the aneurysm in various MPR reconstructions. The bifurcation of the aorta and iliac arteries are well imagined in CT. The coexistent aneurysms of thoracic aorta are easily diagnosed just by performing few additional sections of the thoracic aorta. In properly prepared patients ultrasonography provides good imaging modality in performed screening examination, and in controlling patients with small aneurysm because it is widely accessible and cheap. In preoperative assessment the CT examination is necessary. PMID:16145961

Pas?awski, Marek; Krzyzanowski, Konrad; Z?omaniec, Janusz



Blood pressure effects of lower abdominal aortic surgery with particular reference to the use of morphine and droperidol in modifying the responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Hypertensive responses during operations on the abdominal aorta are common. We have shown that hypertensive changes occur\\u000a before cross-clamping of the aorta. We have also shown that droperidol modifies the hypertensive changes in operations on\\u000a the lower aorta. Although further studies are required, our preliminary results show a higher rise of serum epinephrine and\\u000a norepinephrine levels in one patient receiving

Anthony S. W. Au; David Evans; Ronald Crago; William M. Jones



[Morphology and etiopathogenesis of the abdominal aortic aneurysm].  


The paper summarizes the latest research on the abdominal aorta aneurysm etiopathogenesis and compares normal aorta morphology with changes in the aortic aneurysm wall. The role of risk factors, especially hemodynamic and genetic, is discussed in detail. Special attention is paid to inflammatory processes including cytokines and matrix degrading proteases that contribute to the development of aneurysm. The role of thrombus and the current results of research into biomarkers indicating the risks and progression of the disease are analysed. Finally, a review of pharmacomodulation of the aortic aneurysm using statins, antibiotics, antihypertensive and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs is presented. PMID:22515010

Eberlová, Lada; Tonar, Zbynek; Krízková, Vera; Kocová, Jitka; Korabecná, Marie; Treska, Vladislav; Molácek, Jirí; Houdek, Karel; Boudová, Ludmila; Topolcan, Ondrej; Vrzalová, Jindra; Pesta, Martin; Kulda, Vlastimil; Nedorost, Lukás; Valenta, Jirí



Viscoelastic characteristics of in vitro vital and devitalized rat aorta and human arterial prostheses.  


The arterial wall viscoelasticity plays an essential role in the vascular responsiveness to vasoactive drugs or pathologies. The aim of this investigation was to derive and compare resonance curve (RC), natural frequency (f(0)), dynamic modulus of elasticity (E'), and coefficient of viscosity (beta) of (i) vital and devitalized preparations of rat thoracic and abdominal aorta, (ii) human arterial prostheses, and to study the histomorphology of vital and devitalized rat aorta. The method of low frequency forced oscillations was employed. RC of vital preparations showed a hardening type of elasticity whereas in devitalized preparations it was of softening type. E' increased nonlinearly, f(0) decreased and beta increased linearly with equivalent intraluminal pressure (p(eqi)). Distensibility of abdominal aorta was lower than thoracic aorta. Distensibility decreased with increasing p(eqi). E', f(0), and beta increased significantly after devitalization. It was suggested that postmortem viscoelastic characteristics should not be used directly to specify the vital arteries viscoelasticity. RC of human prostheses showed a softening type of elasticity. Arterial prostheses have low circumferential distensibility with E'-values higher than reported in the literature for human arteries. The method of forced oscillations could be employed for studying the arterial wall biomechanics and viscoelasticity of arterial prostheses. PMID:18330704

Antonova, Mariya L; Antonov, Pavel S; Marinov, Georgi R; Vlaskovska, Mila V; Kasakov, Lubomir N



Viscoelastic Characteristics of In Vitro Vital and Devitalized Rat Aorta and Human Arterial Prostheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arterial wall viscoelasticity plays an essential role in the vascular responsiveness to vasoactive drugs or pathologies.\\u000a The aim of this investigation was to derive and compare resonance curve (RC), natural frequency (f\\u000a 0), dynamic modulus of elasticity (E?), and coefficient of viscosity (?) of (i) vital and devitalized preparations of rat thoracic and abdominal aorta, (ii) human arterial prostheses,

Mariya L. Antonova; Pavel S. Antonov; Georgi R. Marinov; Mila V. Vlaskovska; Lubomir N. Kasakov



Abdominal tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis has staged a global comeback and forms a dangerous combination with AIDS. The abdomen is one of the common sites of extrapulmonary involvement. Patients with abdominal tuberculosis have a wide range and spectrum of symptoms and signs; the disease is therefore a great mimic. Diagnosis, mainly radiological and supported by endoscopy, is difficult to make and laparotomy is required in a large number of patient. Management involves judicious combination of antitubercular therapy and surgery which may be required to treat complications such as intestinal obstruction and perforation. The disease, though potentially curable, carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13

Kapoor, V. K.



Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in computed tomography.  


The aim of the study is presentation the usefulness of CT examination in evaluation of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms. Material comprises a group of six patients (two women and four men) aged 52-79 years, examined in the 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical University of Lublin between the year 1997 and 2002. In all patients US examination and CT was performed. USG was performed with a Hitachi EUB 410 apparatus. CT was performed with Somatom AR. T scanner by Siemens, with two matrixes, 512 x 512 and 320 x 320 pixels. High resolution reconstruction algorithm was used with the possibility of performing spatial reformations. Five- and 10 mm-axial sections were performed before and after administering of contrast agents. Delayed scans were performed to reveal extravasations of the contrast agent. In three cases axial sections and MPR reconstructions revealed the presence of the periaortic haematoma with active extravasation of the contrasted blood. The ruptured aneurysm in two cases was associated with extensive retroperitoneal haematoma. The periaortic haematoma extended along the wall of the aneurysm. In one case the haematoma was localized mainly in front of aorta. In one case of aneurysm of abdominal aorta and iliac arteries, the rupture or left iliac artery with large retroperitoneal haematoma in the pelvis and intensive extravasation of contrasted blood was seen. The US examination with Power Doppler and Duplex facilitate in three cases evaluation of aneurysm localization. The rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm is life-threatening condition, in vast majority of cases resulting in patient's death. In cases of acute rupture the clinical symptoms and CT examination of stable patients are essential. In chronic rupture the early diagnosis is very important. The main role plays CT examination, which enables revealing of the aneurysm, precise evaluation of the leakage, retroperitoneal haematoma, vertebral destruction and dislocation of aorta and kidneys. PMID:16146098

Pas?awski, Marek; Z?omaniec, Janusz; Gwizdak, Jacek; Szafranek, Joanna



Coarctation of the aorta with right aortic arch. A rare case and atypical clinical picture.  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 13-year-old girl with a diffusely hypoplastic right aortic arch, anomalous origin of the left subclavian artery, and a small, insignificant ventricular septal defect. The patient's pulse was forceful at the carotid arteries, but it was markedly weaker at all extremities. Catheterization revealed that both common carotid arteries arose from the dilated ascending aorta; the right subclavian and vertebral arteries arose from the hypoplastic posterior segment of the aortic arch, and the left subclavian artery arose from the normally developed descending aorta. The pressure gradient between the ascending and descending aorta was 80 mmHg. A bypass grafting procedure was performed to connect the ascending and the upper abdominal aorta. No pressure gradient remained after the operation, nor was a gradient detected during 2 years of follow-up. The origin of both subclavian arteries distal to the area of coarctation resulted in an atypical clinical picture and delayed diagnosis. Ten previously reported cases of coarctation of the aorta with right aortic arch are reviewed. Images

Szkutnik, M; Religa, Z; Bialkowski, J; Wojtalik, M



Inositol uptake in rat aorta  

SciTech Connect

{sup 3}H-inositol uptake into deendothelialized aorta was linear for at least 2 h and was composed of both a saturable, Na{sup +}-dependent, and a nonsaturable, Na{sup +}-independent component. The Na{sup +}-dependent component of inositol uptake had a K{sub m} of 50 {mu}M and a V{sub max} of 289 pmol/mg prot/h. Exposure to LiCl, ouabain, or Ca{sup 2+} - free Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution inhibited uptake. Metabolic poisoning with dinitrophenol, as well as incubation with phloretin, an inhibitor of carrier-mediated hexose transport, also inhibited uptake. Exposure to norepinephrine decreased inositol uptake, while phorbol myristate acetate was without effect. Isobutylmethylxanthine significantly increased inositol uptake, while the increased uptake due to dibutyryl cyclic AMP and forskolin were not statistically significant. Sodium nitroprusside, and activator of guanylate cyclase, and 8-bromo cyclic GMP, were without effect on uptake, as was methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase. Inositol uptake into the aorta was increased when the endothelium was allowed to remain intact, although this effect was likely due to uptake in both the endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

Rapoport, R.M.; Van Gorp, C.; Chang, Ki-Churl (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))



Mechanical Properties of Dilated Human Ascending Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilation of the ascending aorta, associated with Marfan Syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve, or advanced age, may lead to aortic dissection and rupture. Mathematical models can be used to assess the relative importance of increased wall stresses and decreased strength in these mechanical failures. To obtain needed inputs for such models, mechanical properties of dilated human ascending aorta were measured in

Ruth J. Okamoto; Jessica E. Wagenseil; William R. DeLong; Sara J. Peterson; Nicholas T. Kouchoukos; Thoralf M. Sundt; III



Membranous glomerulonephritis: a morphometric study.  


Archival material from 45 renal biopsies with a diagnosis of idiopathic membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) were studied by computer-aided image analysis in order to evaluate the prognostic significance of glomerular and interstitial morphometry in MGN. The control group consisted of thirty seven normal renal biopsy specimens. The surface area, the perimeter, the major axis length and the shape factor of renal glomeruli as well as the percentage of the interstitial fibrosis were measured. All the morphometric parameters related to the size of glomeruli had significantly higher values in the patient group (p = 0.000 for all the parameters). However, no significant difference of the glomerular size between different stages of MGN was observed. In contrast, the percentage of interstitial fibrosis increased as the MGN stage rose (median values: 10.3% in stage 1, 14.2% in stage II, 26.9% in stage III, 28.9% in stage IV and 34.2% in stage V, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA H = 37.645, p = 0.000). In the multivariate analysis the percentage of interstitial fibrosis was the only independent prognostic factor (p = 0.013). Our findings suggest that, in membraneous glomerulonephritis, the interstitial fibrosis increases as the MGN stage progresses, while the size of renal glomeruli has increased at a very early stage of the disease. This fact may indicate that interstitial fibrosis, not glomerular lesions, is mainly responsible for the reduction of renal function. PMID:10729917

Paraskevakou, H; Kavantzas, N; Pavlopoulos, P M; Voudiklari, S; Zerefos, N; Papagalanis, N; Davaris, P



Imaging after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm is a less invasive alternative to open surgery. With the recognition of this\\u000a new treatment, however, many complications, some of them life-threatening, have been reported. Short-term and mid-term results\\u000a have shown that this technology is advancing and needs close follow-up. Imaging plays a major role in the evaluation of the\\u000a aorta after endolumenal repair.

J. Golzarian



A basic trilobite morphometric exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity entails a basic morphometrics lab, followed up by an in-class exercise to reinforce some of the same key concepts. The lab exercise familiarizes the student with basic methods of quantitative characterization and statistical comparison through measurement of pygidia (tails) of two species of the Ordovician trilobite Bellefontia one from New York and one from Pennsylvania. Actual specimens, while nice, are not required; data acquired by measurement from photo collages will suffice. The exercise culminates in a statistical test of significance (using the Z-statistic) of the difference in slopes of the lines acquired for data from the two species. The data also serve to pose questions and prompt consideration of growth trajectories and discrimination of isometric from anisometric growth. The in-class activity builds on the knowledge base built in the lab but applies it to species discrimination based on the cranidia (central part of the head) of three species of the Upper Cambrian genus Bartonaspis, known to be of identical age from their occurrences within the very thin (everywhere 2m or less) Irvingella major Zone of the Elvinia trilobite Zone. The importance of that subzone, which is the "critical interval" at the top of the Pterocephaliid Biomere the basal unit of the Sunwaptan Stage traceable throughout Laurentian North America, also contributes to the significance of the exercise. With the insight developed from the lab, students are able to confidently distinguish the three species of Bartonaspis (from three photo collages), but must thoughtfully evaluate the data presented in bivariate plots of cranidial morphologic data to do so. The exercise gives the students a good sense of the level of familiarity and morphologic characterization necessary to do species-level identification, and also some worthwhile practice in basic quantitative methods.

Taylor, John F.


Whole genome expression profiling reveals a significant role for immune function in human abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a common disorder with an incompletely understood etiology. We used Illumina and Affymetrix microarray platforms to generate global gene expression profiles for both aneurysmal (AAA) and non-aneurysmal abdominal aorta, and identified genes that were significantly differentially expressed between cases and controls. RESULTS: Affymetrix and Illumina arrays included 18,057 genes in common; 11,542 (64%) of these

Guy M Lenk; Gerard Tromp; Shantel Weinsheimer; Zoran Gatalica; Ramon Berguer; Helena Kuivaniemi



Ex vivo biomechanical behavior of abdominal aortic aneurysm: Assessment using a new mathematical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the biomechanical behavior of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) as compared to nonaneurysmal aorta may provide\\u000a information on the natural history of this disease. We have performed uniaxial tensile testing of excised human aneurysmal\\u000a and nonaneurysmal abdominal aortic specimens. A new mathematical model that conforms to the fibrous structure of the vascular\\u000a tissue was used to quantify the measured

M. L. Raghavan; Marshall W. Webster; David A. Vorp



Surgical Technique for Extent I, II, and III ThoracoAbdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Conventional treatment of thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms consists of graft replacement with reattachment of the main aortic\\u000a branches. To improve mortality and morbidity rates, a multimodal approach has gradually evolved to reduce the trauma of surgery\\u000a by maximizing organ protection. From a total of 1,108 patients treated for pathology involving the descending thoracic aorta,\\u000a a type I, II, or III thoraco-abdominal

Roberto Chiesa; Germano Melissano; Efrem Civilini


Graphical-Model-based Morphometric Analysis.  


We propose a novel method for voxel-based morphometry (VBM), which we call Graphical-Model-based Morphometric Analysis (GAMMA), to identify morphological abnormalities automatically, and to find complex probabilistic associations among voxels in magnetic-resonance images and clinical variables. GAMMA is a fully automatic, nonparametric morphometric-analysis algorithm, with high sensitivity and specificity. It uses a Bayesian network to represent the associations among voxels and the function variable, and uses a contextual-clustering method based on a Markov random field to find clusters in which all voxels have similar associations with the function variable. We use loopy belief propagation to infer the unobserved label field and belief map. As opposed to voxel-based morphometric methods based on general linear models, GAMMA is capable of identifying nonlinear associations among the function variable and voxels. Compared with our previous approach, a Bayesian morphometry algorithm, GAMMA has greater sensitivity, specificity, and computational efficiency. PMID:16229411

Chen, Rong; Herskovits, Edward H



Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  


... the wall of the aorta, called elastin and collagen provide strength and flexibility to this large artery. ... can steadily expand like a balloon. These proteins, collagen and elastin, may gradually deteriorate with age. Inflammation ...


Microcinematographic studies of flow patterns in the excised rabbit aorta and its major branches.  


Arterial fluid mechanics may play a role as a localizing factor for early atherosclerosis. Flow patterns in natural rabbit aortas rendered transparent were studied using a microcinematographic visualization technique. The aortic arch exhibited a single cell of clockwise-rotating helical secondary flow along the ventral and inner walls. Flow separation occurred proximal to the two arch branches with flow reversal proximal to the brachiocephalic artery. Sinusoidal flow rendered the helical motion more pronounced in systole, while the reverse flow zone periodically expanded and contracted. Steady flow in the abdominal aorta revealed streamlines which follow slow looping trajectories lateral to ostia before tracing helical paths into the branches. Flow separation was present along the dorsal wall of the aorta opposite the superior mesenteric artery. With the exception of the left renal artery, steady flow wall shear stresses were higher distal to ostia than proximal. Spatial gradients of wall shear stress were larger around branches than elsewhere. Similar to observed flow patterns, sites of enhanced macromolecular permeability, as observed previously in the normal rabbit aorta, follow a clockwise helical pattern in the arch and exhibit a distribution around ostia that correlates to some degree with regions of elevated shear stress gradients. PMID:9474263

Barakat, A I; Karino, T; Colton, C K


Apparent adiposity assessed by standardised scoring systems and morphometric measurements in horses and ponies.  


This study described a scoring system for the assessment of apparent neck adiposity and evaluated morphometric measurements for assessment of neck and overall adiposity. Twenty-one barren Thoroughbred mares, 13 Arabian geldings and 75 Welsh, Dartmoor, or crossbred pony mares, were clinically examined and blood samples analysed for insulin, glucose, leptin, and triglycerides. Bodyweight (BW), height, length, girth and abdominal circumferences, neck length, neck crest height and neck circumference were measured, and body condition scores (BCS) and cresty neck scores (CNS) were rated. Girth:height ratio had the strongest associations with BCS (r(s)=0.64, P<0.001 in horses; r(s)=0.83, P<0.001 in ponies) and blood variables, such as leptin (r(s)=0.39, P=0.024 in horses; r(s)=0.68, P<0.001 in ponies). Crest height and neck circumference:height ratio had the strongest association with CNS (r(s)>0.50, P<0.01) and blood variables, such as insulin (r(s)0.40, P<0.05). Cresty neck score was useful in the assessment of neck crest adiposity and had physiological relevance, as demonstrated by associations with blood variables. Girth:height was the most suitable morphometric for assessment of overall adiposity, and either crest height or neck circumference:height was a suitable morphometric for assessment of apparent neck adiposity. PMID:18440844

Carter, Rebecca A; Geor, Raymond J; Burton Staniar, W; Cubitt, Tania A; Harris, Pat A



Prostaglandins Activate Phosphoinositide Metabolism in Rat Aorta.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability of the five prostaglandins to activate phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism and to induce contraction was studied in rat aorta. All prostaglandins (PG) tested stimulated PI hydrolysis and elicited contractions. The activation of PI hydrolysis by t...

E. A. Suba B. L. Roth



Impact Tolerance - Abdominal Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to provide data on human tolerance to blunt abdominal impact a literature study and laboratory tests were carried out to determine the major causes of abdominal injury, injury mechanisms, a quantitative relationship between input and occurrence o...

D. L. Beckman J. H. McElhaney R. L. Stalnaker V. L. Roberts



Surgical or endovascular therapy of abdominal penetrating aortic ulcers and their natural history: a systematic review.  


Little is known regarding the outcomes of endovascular and surgical treatment of penetrating ulcers in the abdominal aorta. The potential benefit of conservative management of asymptomatic disease is also debatable. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to investigate these issues. PMID:23932417

Georgiadis, George S; Antoniou, George A; Georgakarakos, Efstratios I; Nikolopoulos, Evagelos S; Papanas, Nikolaos; Trellopoulos, George; Iatrou, Christos; Papadopoulou, Maria Z; Lazarides, Miltos K



Acute limb ischemia from sudden thrombosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report.  


Thrombosis of a previously undiagnosed aneurysm of the abdominal aorta in a 64-year-old woman resulted in acute and severe ischemia in both legs. Prompt surgical resection of the aneurysm and restoration of aortic continuity with a fabric graft brought about complete resolution of her symptoms, with excellent functional results one year after the operation. PMID:15226820

Subram, A N; Duncan, J M



Acute Limb Ischemia from Sudden Thrombosis of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Thrombosis of a previously undiagnosed aneurysm of the abdominal aorta in a 64-year-old woman resulted in acute and severe ischemia in both legs. Prompt surgical resection of the aneurysm and restoration of aortic continuity with a fabric graft brought about complete resolution of her symptoms, with excellent functional results one year after the operation. Images

Subram, Aswath N.; Duncan, J. Michael



In Vivo Three-Dimensional Surface Geometry of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a local, progressive dilation of the distal aorta that risks rupture until treated. Using the law of Laplace, in vivo assessment of AAA surface geometry could identify regions of high wall tensions as well as provide critical dimensional and shape data for customized endoluminal stent grafts. In this study, six patients with AAA underwent spiral

Michael S. Sacks; David A. Vorp; M. L. Raghavan; Michael P. Federle; Marshall W. Webster



Role of medical intervention in slowing the growth of small abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common—but preventable—cause of death in elderly men; 4% of men at the age of 65 years have an aorta >3 cm in diameter. Continued expansion runs the risk of aneurysm rupture, a condition that is fatal in all but 15% of individuals. A national screening programme has commenced that aims to reduce the number of

D G Cooper; J A King; J J Earnshaw



Abdominal tuberculosis in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four boys with abdominal tuberculosis, one of whom had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, are presented. Abdominal imaging findings on plain radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and gastrointestinal contrast studies included tuberculous peritonitis and ascites in all patients, tuberculous adenopathy in two, gastrointestinal tuberculosis in two, and omental tuberculosis in two. The radiographic features particularly characteristic of abdominal tuberculosis were: (1) low attenuating

D. S. Ablin; K. A. Jain; E. M. Azouz



Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness in ultrasound examination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction have been shown to be associated with an increased thickness of abdominal aorta in the fetus. Therefore the measurement of abdominal aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) has been recently considered a sensitive marker of artherosclerosis risk. To date measure of aortic diameter and of aIMT has been performed manually on US fetal images, thus being susceptible to intra- and inter- operator variability. This work introduces an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from videos recorded during routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal biometry. Firstly, in each frame, the algorithm locates and segments the region corresponding to aorta by means of an active contour driven by two different external forces: a static vector field convolution force and a dynamic pressure force. Then, in each frame, the mean diameter of the vessel is computed, to reconstruct the cardiac cycle: in fact, we expect the diameter to have a sinusoidal trend, according to the heart rate. From the obtained sinusoid, we identify the frames corresponding to the end diastole and to the end systole. Finally, in these frames we assess the aIMT. According to its definition, we consider as aIMT the distance between the leading edge of the blood-intima interface, and the leading edge of the media-adventitia interface on the far wall of the vessel. The correlation between end-diastole and end-systole aIMT automatic and manual measures is 0.90 and 0.84 respectively.

Veronese, Elisa; Poletti, Enea; Cosmi, Erich; Grisan, Enrico



Ascending thoracic aorta: postoperative imaging evaluation.  


Advances in computed tomography (CT) scanners and electrocardiographic gating techniques have resulted in superior image quality of the ascending aorta and increased the use of CT angiography for evaluating the postoperative ascending aorta. Several abnormalities of the ascending aorta and aortic arch often require surgery, and various open techniques may be used to reconstruct the aorta, such as the Wheat procedure, in which both an ascending aortic graft and an aortic valve prosthesis are implanted; the Cabrol and modified Bentall procedures, in which a composite synthetic ascending aorta and aortic valve graft are placed; the Ross procedure, in which the aortic valve and aortic root are replaced with the patient's native pulmonary valve and proximal pulmonary artery; valve-sparing procedures such as the T. David-V technique, which leaves the native aortic valve intact; and more extensive arch repair procedures such as the elephant trunk and arch-first techniques, in which interposition or inclusion grafts are implanted, with or without replacement of the aortic valve. Normal postoperative imaging findings, such as hyperattenuating felt pledgets, prosthetic conduits, and reanastomosis sites, may mimic pathologic processes. Postoperative complications seen at CT angiography that require further intervention include pseudoaneurysms, anastomotic stenoses, dissections, and aneurysms. Radiologists must be familiar with these procedures and their imaging features to identify normal postoperative appearances and complications. PMID:23322828

Prescott-Focht, Julia A; Martinez-Jimenez, Santiago; Hurwitz, Lynne M; Hoang, Jenny K; Christensen, Jared D; Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Abbara, Suhny


Abdominal epilepsy in chronic recurrent abdominal pain  

PubMed Central

Background: Abdominal epilepsy (AE) is an uncommon cause for chronic recurrent abdominal pain in children and adults. It is characterized by paroxysmal episode of abdominal pain, diverse abdominal complaints, definite electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities and favorable response to the introduction of anti-epileptic drugs (AED). We studied 150 children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain and after exclusion of more common etiologies for the presenting complaints; workup proceeded with an EEG. We found 111 (74%) children with an abnormal EEG and 39 (26%) children with normal EEG. All children were subjected to AED (Oxcarbazepine) and 139 (92%) children responded to AED out of which 111 (74%) children had an abnormal EEG and 27 (18%) had a normal EEG. On further follow-up the patients were symptom free, which helped us to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Context: Recurrent chronic abdominal pain is a common problem encountered by pediatricians. Variety of investigations are done to come to a diagnosis but a cause is rarely found. In such children diagnosis of AE should be considered and an EEG will confirm the diagnosis and treated with AED. Aims: To find the incidence of AE in children presenting with chronic recurrent abdominal pain and to correlate EEG findings and their clinical response to empirical AEDs in both cases and control. Settings and Design: Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University, Karad, Maharashtra, India. Prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain were studied by investigations to rule out common causes of abdominal pain and an EEG. All children were then started with AED oxycarbamezepine and their response to the treatment was noted. Results: 111 (74%) of the total 150 children showed a positive EEG change suggestive of epileptogenic activity and of which 75 (67.56%) were females and 36 (32.43%) were male, majority of children were in the age of group of 9-12 years. Temporal wave discharges were 39 (35.13%) of the total abnormal EEG's. All the children were started on AEDs and those with abnormal EEG showed 100% response to treatment while 27 (18%) children with normal EEG also responded to treatment. Twelve (8%) children did not have any improvement in symptoms. Conclusions: A diagnosis of AE must be considered in children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain, especially in those with suggestive history, and an EEG can save a child from lot of unnecessary investigations and suffering.

Kshirsagar, V. Y.; Nagarsenkar, Suhel; Ahmed, Minhajuddin; Colaco, Sylvia; Wingkar, K. C.



Morphometric study of teeth in age calculation.  


The diagnostic usefulness of some morphometric parameters of teeth in age determination were studied. In the first series 173 central incisors from 13-83 year-old individuals were examined and in the second series 72 teeth from 30 individuals (aged 39 to 80 years). Root transparency and dentinal tubule diameter were the most reliable parameters on the basis of image analysis (IBAS system) of scanning electron microscopic images. These variables were used in multiple linear regression analyses which led to the exclusion of secondary dentine as it did not improve the fit and therefore did not help to explain the dependent variable. The precise measurement of the morphometric variables we used facilitates age determination, reducing the mean error reported by other authors who used subjective estimates. Our results document the limited effectiveness of these parameters in age estimation due to individual variations caused by genetic factors and chewing habits. PMID:9227058

Lopez Nicolas, M; Morales, A; Luna, A



Abdominal decompression in children.  


Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) increases the risk for mortality in critically ill children. It occurs in association with a wide variety of medical and surgical diagnoses. Management of ACS involves recognizing the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) by intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) monitoring, treating the underlying cause, and preventing progression to ACS by lowering IAP. When ACS is already present, supporting dysfunctional organs and decreasing IAP to prevent new organ involvement become an additional focus of therapy. Medical management strategies to achieve these goals should be employed but when medical management fails, timely abdominal decompression is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. A literature review was performed to understand the role and outcomes of abdominal decompression among children with ACS. Abdominal decompression appears to have a positive effect on patient survival. However, prospective randomized studies are needed to fully understand the indications and impact of these therapies on survival in children. PMID:22482041

Ejike, J Chiaka; Mathur, Mudit



Abdominal compartment syndrome  

PubMed Central

Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) associated with organ dysfunction defines the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) adversely impacts pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, splanchnic, musculoskeletal/integumentary, and central nervous system physiology. The combination of IAH and disordered physiology results in a clinical syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality. The onset of the ACS requires prompt recognition and appropriately timed and staged intervention in order to optimize outcome. The history, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of this disorder is outlined.

Bailey, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Marc J



Digital subtraction angiography of the thoracic aorta  

SciTech Connect

Forty-three patients with acquired and congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta were studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after an intravenous bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast material. Abnormalities studied included coarctation, pseudocoarctation, Marfan syndrome, cervical aorta, double aortic arch, aneurysm, dissection, and tumor. Twenty-four patients also had conventional angiography. DSA was accurate in 95% of cases; in the other 5%, involving patients with acute type I dissection, the coronary arteries could not be seen. The authors concluded that in 92% of their patients, DSA could have replaced the standard aortogram.

Grossman, L.B.; Buonocore, E.; Modic, M.T.; Meaney, T.F.



[Mycotic aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta].  


A 55-year-old man was admitted with severe back pain and saccular aneurysm of the descending aorta on computed tomography. Laboratory examinations showed elevated serum C-reactive protein of 16.98 mg/dl. Graft replacement of the descending thoracic aorta was performed on an emergency basis, and a latissimus dorsi muscle flap was wrapped around the implanted graft. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae was detected in the resected tissue, proper antibiotic therapy was administrated. The patient recovered uneventfully, without any sign of infection. PMID:23117356

Nogami, Eijiro; Rikitake, Kazuhisa; Ohnishi, Hiroyuki; Miho, Takahiro; Kuroki, Jun



Rupture of ascending aorta secondary to tuberculous aortitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculous aortitis generally develops at the distal aortic arch and the descending aorta that are close to specific groups of mediastinal lymph nodes, but exceptionally it develops in the ascending aorta. We report a case of rupture of the ascending aorta after tuberculous aortitis in a 53-year-old man without a history of tuberculosis or evidence of a primary foci who

Jong Bum Choi; Hyun Woong Yang; Seok Kyu Oh; Ki Jung Yun



Retrograde replacement of the thoracic aorta.  

PubMed Central

A technique is described for replacement of the entire thoracic aorta. In this "pull-through" technique, which utilizes hypothermic circulatory arrest, the graft is implanted in a retrograde fashion, thus providing protection for the spinal cord and brain and avoiding injury to the vagus and phrenic nerves.

Cooley, D A



Polyol Pathway in Aorta: Regulation by Hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aldose reductase is present in human and rabbit aortas and provides a mechanism whereby hyperglycemia can alter the metabolism of the arterial wall. Aortic sorbitol concentration is regulated by ambient glucose concentration and is increased by epinephrine, isoproterenol, dibutyryl-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate, ouabain, and angiotensin II.

Rex S. Clements Jr.; Anthony D. Morrison; Albert I. Winegrad



Modeling Blood Flow in the Aorta.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an exercise to demonstrate two fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics: the Reynolds number and the Principle of Continuity. The exercise demonstrates flow in a major blood vessel, such as the aorta, with and without a stenosis. Students observe the transition from laminar to turbulent flow as well as downstream persistence of…

McConnell, Colin J.; Carmichael, Jonathan B.; DeMont, M. Edwin



Recurrent Abdominal Pain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.



Ultrasound Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the effectiveness the screening program? How often should population-based screening occur? What are appropriate treatment options after screening based on the size of aneurysms? Are there differences between universal and targeted screening strategies? What are the harms of screening? Summary of Findings Population-based ultrasound screening is effective in men aged 65 to 74 years, particularly in those with a history of smoking. Screening reduces the incidence of AAA ruptures, and decreases rates of emergency surgical repair for AAA and AAA-attributable mortality. Acceptance rates decline with increasing age and are lower for women. Low acceptance rates may affect the effectiveness of a screening program. A one-time screen is sufficient for a population-based screening program with regard to initial negative scans and development of large AAAs. There is no difference between early elective surgical repair and surveillance for small aneurysms (4.0–5.4 cm). Repeated surveillance of small aneurysms is recommended. Targeted screening based on history of smoking has been found to detect 89% of prevalent AAAs and increase the efficiency of screening programs from statistical modeling data. Women have not been studied for AAA screening programs. There is evidence suggesting that screening women for AAA should be considered with respect to mortality and case fatality rates in Ontario. It is important that further evaluation of AAAs in women occur. There is a small risk of physical harm from screening. Less than 1% of aneurysms will not be visualized on initial screen and a re-screen may be necessary; elective surgical repair is associated with a 6% operative morality rate and about 3% of small aneurysms may rupture during surveillance. These risks should be communicated through informed consent prior to screening. There is little evidence of severe psychological harms associated with screening. Conclusions Based on this review, the Medical Advisory Secretariat concluded that there is sufficient evidence to determine that AAA screening using ultrasound is effective



Pharmacologically-induced thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms in mice  

PubMed Central

Aortic aneurysms are common among the elderly population. Large majority of aortic aneurysms are located at two distinct aneurysm-prone regions—the abdominal aorta and thoracic aorta involving the ascending aorta. In this study, we combined two factors that are associated with human aortic aneurysms—hypertension and degeneration of elastic lamina—to induce an aortic aneurysm in mice. Roles of hemodynamic conditions in the formation of aortic aneurysms were assessed using (1) two different methods for inducing hypertension, and (2) anti-hypertensive agents. In nine-week-old C57BL/6J male mice, hypertension was induced by angiotensin-II or deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension; degeneration of elastic lamina was induced by infusion of beta-aminopropionitrile, a lysyl oxidase inhibitor. Irrespective of the methods for inducing hypertension, mice developed thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms (38-50% and 30-49 %, respectively). Aneurysms were found at the two aneurysm-prone regions with site-specific morphological and histological characteristics. Treatment with anti-hypertensive agent, amlodipine, normalized blood pressure and dramatically reduced aneurysm formation in the mice that received angiotensin-II and beta-aminopropionitrile. However, a treatment with captopril, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, did not affect blood pressure or the incidence of aortic aneurysms in the mice that received deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt and beta-aminopropionitrile. In summary, we have shown that a combination of hypertension and pharmacologically-induced degeneration of elastic laminas can induce both thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms with site-specific characteristics. The aneurysm formation in this model was dependent on hypertension, but not on direct effects of angiotensin-II to the vascular wall.

Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Kanematsu, Miyuki; Kurihara, Chie; Tsou, Tsung-Ling; Nuki, Yoshitsugu; Liang, Elena I; Makino, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Tomoki



Spectral morphometric characterization of breast carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

The spectral morphometric characteristics of standard haematoxylin and eosin breast carcinoma specimens were evaluated by light microscopy combined with a spectral imaging system. Light intensity at each wavelength in the range of 450–800 nm was recorded for 104 pixels from each field and represented as transmitted light spectra. A library of six characteristic spectra served to scan the cells and reconstruct new images depicting the nuclear area occupied by each spectrum. Fifteen cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma and six cases of lobular carcinoma were examined; nine of the infiltrating ductal carcinoma and three of the lobular carcinoma showed an in situ component. The spectral morphometric analysis revealed a correlation between specific patterns of spectra and different groups of breast carcinoma cells. The most consistent result was that lobular carcinoma cells of in situ and infiltrating components from all patients showed a similar spectral pattern, whereas ductal carcinoma cells displayed spectral variety. Comparison of the in situ and the infiltrating ductal solid, cribriform and comedo carcinoma cells from the same patient revealed a strong similarity of the spectral elements and their relative distribution in the nucleus. The spectrum designated as number 5 in the library incorporated more than 40% of the nuclear area in 74.08% of the infiltrating lobular cells and in 13.64% of the infiltrating ductal carcinoma cells (P < 0.001). Spectrum number 2 appeared in all infiltrating ductal cells examined and in none of the lobular cells. These results indicate that spectrum number 5 is related to infiltrating lobular carcinoma, whereas spectrum number 2 is characteristic for infiltrating ductal carcinoma cells. Spectral similarity mapping of central necrotic regions of comedo type in situ carcinoma revealed nuclear fragmentation into defined segments composed of highly condensed chromatin. We conclude that the spectral morphometric features found for lobular and ductal cell populations may serve future automated histological diagnostics. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign

Barshack, I; Kopolovic, J; Malik, Z; Rothmann, C



Surgical Site Infection and Analytic Morphometric Assessment of Body Composition in Patients Undergoing Midline Laparotomy  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a known risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI). Our hypothesis is that morphometric measures of midline subcutaneous fat will be associated with increased risk of SSI, and will predict SSI better than conventional measures of obesity. Study Design We identified 655 patients who underwent midline laparotomy (2006 - 2009) using the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative database. Using novel, semi-automated analytic morphometric techniques, the thickness of subcutaneous fat along the linea alba was measured between T12 and L4. To adjust for variations in patient size, subcutaneous fat was normalized to the distance between the vertebrae and anterior skin. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors independently associated with the incidence of SSI. Results Overall, SSIs were observed in 12.5% (n = 82) of the population. Logistic regression revealed that patients with increased subcutaneous fat had significantly greater odds of developing a superficial incisional SSI (OR = 1.76 per 10% increase, 95% CI: 1.10 – 2.83, p = 0.019). Smoking, steroid use, ASA classification, and incision-to-close operative time were also significant independent risk factors for superficial incisional SSI. When comparing subcutaneous fat and body mass index (BMI) as the only model variables, subcutaneous fat significantly improved model predictions of superficial incisional SSI (AUC: 0.60, p = 0.023) while BMI did not (AUC = 0.52, p = 0.73). Conclusions Abdominal subcutaneous fat is an independent predictor of superficial incisional SSI following midline laparotomy. Novel morphometric measures may improve risk stratification and help elucidate the pathophysiology of surgical complications.

Lee, Jay S; Terjimanian, Michael N; Tishberg, Lindsay M; Alawieh, Abbas Z; Harbaugh, Calista M; Sheetz, Kyle H; Holcombe, Sven A; Wang, Stewart C; Sonnenday, Christopher J; Englesbe, Michael J



Involvement of the aorta in brucellosis: the forgotten, life-threatening complication. A systematic review.  


Human brucellosis is a disease of protean manifestations, and has been implicated in complications and focal disease in many human organ systems. However, little is collectively known about the background, the course, the clinical characteristics, the diagnostic issues raised, and the short- and long-term therapeutic approaches in patients with aortic involvement as a complication of brucellosis. With the aim to glean from the literature useful information to better understand and manage this complication, a computerized search without language restriction was conducted using PubMed and SCOPUS. An article was considered eligible for inclusion in the systematic review if it reported data on patients with involvement of the aorta due to a Brucella infection. The epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of 44 cases of brucellar aortic involvement found through the systematic review of the literature were analyzed together with those of two new cases that we treated in the recent past. This complication involved the ascending thoracic aorta in 18 cases (in 16 of them as a consequence of brucellar endocarditis), and the descending thoracic aorta or the abdominal aorta in the remaining 30 cases. In the latter it was associated with spondylodiscitis of the lumbar spine in 13 cases. History of or symptoms indicative of brucellosis were not universally present. Brucellar aortic involvement represents a possibly underdiagnosed and underreported complication with major morbidity and mortality potential. Experience with novel invasive therapeutic approaches remains limited. Early suspicion through detailed history and diagnosis, aided by advances in aortic imaging, would allow for better planning of therapeutic interventions. PMID:22994597

Cascio, Antonio; De Caridi, Giovanni; Lentini, Salvatore; Benedetto, Filippo; Stilo, Francesco; Passari, Gabriele; Iaria, Chiara; Spinelli, Francesco; Pappas, Georgios



[Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm].  


Rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm is a high lethal risk pathology, which requires precise diagnosis and urgent and efficient surgical treatment. Despite improved diagnostic capabilities (echoscopy, in specialized departments--angiography, computed tomography, magnetic nucleus resonance), mortality related to this pathology remains high in intensive care units. In the present article data concerning prevalence and clinical outcomes of the rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm for 1999-2001 is presented in detail. During this period 22 patients have undergone surgery due to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Described are most prevalent complications, mortality rates and causes, analyzed are treatment strategy and tactics. PMID:12474751

Urbonavicius, Sigitas; Antusevas, Aleksandras



[Ultrasound for abdominal lymphadenopathy].  


This CME-review is about the clinical importance of the abdominal lymph node diagnostic with special attention to various ultrasound techniques. This includes innovative techniques like contrast enhanced ultrasound and elastography. The clinical importance of ultrasound in relation to cross sectional imaging will be the target of the article as well as anatomic- topographic aspects. The article deals as well with endosonographic techniques because of the upmost importance of the technique for diagnosing mediastinal and abdominal lymphnode swellings. In conclusion of the article different clinical scenarios and clinical algorithms are presented to help the reader to diagnose abdominal lymphadenopathy correctly in an efficient way. PMID:23633280

Dietrich, C F; Hocke, M; Jenssen, C



Abdominal manifestations of situs anomalies in adults.  


A study was made of 19 adults with situs anomalies (situs inversus [n = 10], situs ambiguous with polysplenia [n = 8], situs ambiguous with asplenia [n = 1]). No patient had congenital heart disease, bowel obstruction related to malrotation, or immune deficiency disorders. All 10 patients with situs inversus had mirror-image location of the abdominal organs relative to situs solitus; nine had dextrocardia, and one had levocardia. The eight adults with situs ambiguous with polysplenia demonstrated a spectrum of abnormalities. All had some degree of abdominal heterotaxy, including midline livers and gallbladders (n = 5), right-sided stomachs and spleens (n = 3), and rotational abnormalities of the small bowel and colon (n = 7). Other findings included multiple spleens (n = 7), interruption of the inferior vena cava (IVC) with azygous or hemiazygous continuation (n = 7), truncation of the pancreas (n = 6), and ipsilateral location of the aorta and IVC (n = 1). In the one patient with asplenia, a midline liver, right-sided stomach, bowel rotation abnormality, IVC interruption, and pancreatic truncation were noted. Recognition of the spectrum of situs anomalies is important because the altered anatomy associated with these anomalies may result in confusing imaging findings when seen in conjunction with acquired diseases. PMID:12432114

Fulcher, Ann S; Turner, Mary Ann


[The use of politetrafluoroethylene stent-graft and vena cava filter in the endovascular treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm with aortocaval fistula].  


We report on a the endovascular treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm with aortocaval fistula. The stent-graft was placed with the patient under general anaesthesia, and the abdominal aorta aneurysm was successfully treated. To prevent pulmonary embolism vena cava filter was deployed before the implantation of the sten-graft. The aneurysm was excluded and no endoleak or communication between the aorta and inferior vena cava was seen on computed tomographic imaging at the 3-month evaluation. Endovascular treatment offers an attractive therapeutic alternative to open repair in case of aortocaval fistula. PMID:19873928

Janczak, Dariusz; Pupka, Artur; Garcarek, Jerzy; Szyber, Piotr



Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure in various organ systems have been noted over the past century. The concept of abdominal compartment syndrome has gained more attention in both trauma and general surgery in the last decade. This article reviews the current understanding and management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. Methods: Relevant information was gathered from a

K.-M. Sieh; Kent-Man Chu; John Wong



Normal Abdominal CT  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Set of normal abdominal CT images with various important anatomic structures outlined, for cine viewing to gain a 3D view of the structure and its relationship to adjacent organs.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: Normal

Shaffer, Kitt



Aorta Fluorescence Imaging by Using Confocal Microscopy  

PubMed Central

The activated leukocyte attacked the vascular endothelium and the associated increase in VEcadherin number was observed in experiments. The confocal microscopic system with a prism-based wavelength filter was used for multiwavelength fluorescence measurement. Multiwavelength fluorescence imaging based on the VEcadherin within the aorta segment of a rat was achieved. The confocal microscopic system capable of fluorescence detection of cardiovascular tissue is a useful tool for measuring the biological properties in clinical applications.

Wang, Chun-Yang; Tsai, Jui-che; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Sun, Chia-Wei



Imaging of mouse aorta using OCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many fields in medicine and biology where optical coherence tomography (OCT) is starting to be used for diagnostics imaging. In our work, OCT imaging has been applied to obtain 3D structure and geometry of mouse aorta and atherosclerotic plaques in it. Differences in plaque formation have been detected between mice fed with cholesterol rich food, and mice kept on special diet. The results of OCT measurements have been confirmed with optical microscopy.

Mateasik, A.; Uherek, Frantisek; Chorvat, D.; Tazka, D.; Kyselovic, J.



Syphilitic aneurysm of the ascending aorta  

PubMed Central

Syphilitic aortic aneurysm is a rare occurrence in the antibiotic era, making the diagnose assumption even more infrequent. Nonetheless, this pathology can appear and should be suspected in patients with aortic aneurysm. We report a case of a 57-year old patient who presents with neurosyphilis and, in the following study, a large ascending aorta aneurysm is identified. The authors discuss the diagnostic challenge, the epidemiologic concerns, surgical indication and treatment and subsequent follow-up.

Paulo, Nelson; Cascarejo, Jose; Vouga, Luis



Long term outcomes in men screened for abdominal aortic aneurysm: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether there is a relation between aortic diameter and morbidity and mortality in men screened for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Highland and Western Isles (a large, sparsely populated area of Scotland). Participants 8146 men aged 65-74. Main outcome measures Morbidity and mortality in relation to presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm and three categories of aortic diameter (?24 mm, 25-29 mm, and ?30 mm). Results When screened, 414 men (5.1%) had an aneurysm (diameter ?30 mm), 669 (8.2%) an aortic diameter of 25-29 mm, and 7063 (86.7%) an aortic diameter of ?24 mm. The cohort was followed up for a median of 7.4 (interquartile range 6.9-8.2) years. Mortality was significantly associated with aortic diameter: 512 (7.2%) men in the ?24 mm group died compared with 69 (10.3%) in the 25-29 mm group and 73 (17.6%) in the ?30 mm group. The mortality risk in men with an aneurysm or with an aorta measuring 25-29 mm was significantly higher than in men with an aorta of ?24 mm. The increased mortality risk in the 25-29 mm group was reduced when taking confounders such as smoking and known heart disease into account. After adjustment, compared with men with an aortic diameter of ?24 mm, the risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was significantly higher in men with aneurysm and those with aortas measuring 25-29 mm. Men with an aneurysm also had an increased risk of hospital admission for cerebrovascular disease, atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease, and respiratory disease. In men with aortas measuring 25-29 mm, the risk of hospital admission with abdominal aortic aneurysm was significantly higher than in men with an aorta of ?24 mm (adjusted hazard ratio 6.7, 99% confidence interval 3.4 to 13.2) and this increased risk became apparent two years after screening. Conclusions Men with abdominal aortic aneurysm and those with aortic diameters measuring 25-29 mm have an increased risk of mortality and subsequent hospital admissions compared with men with an aorta diameter of ?24 mm. Consideration should be given to control of risk factors and to rescreening men with aortas measuring 25-29 mm at index scanning.



Functional Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a relatively less common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder defined by\\u000a the presence of constant or frequently recurring abdominal pain that is not associated with eating, change in bowel habits,\\u000a or menstrual periods (Drossman Gastroenterology 130:1377–1390, 2006), which points to a more centrally targeted (spinal and supraspinal) basis for the symptoms. However, FAPS is frequently

Madhusudan Grover; Douglas A. Drossman




PubMed Central

Nonpenetrating abdominal injuries are commonly seen in a general hospital. High speed traffic accidents are responsible for the majority of these injuries. The mortality rate is high. Deaths were from associated injuries, failure to recognize abdominal trauma, hemorrhage and from acute renal insufficiency. Careful observation of every severely injured person, vigorous treatment of hemorrhagic shock with whole blood, and prompt surgical intervention when indicated will improve the mortality figures.

Brock, William; Cusick, George



Imaging of abdominal abscesses.  


The aim of the study is presenting own experiences in using different diagnostic modalities in evaluating abdominal abscesses. Material comprises a group of nine patients with diagnosed abdominal abscess aged between 22 and 78 years. The plain abdominal radiograms, ultrasound examinations and computed tomography were performed in those patients. The CT examination was performed in 10-mm thick axial sections, before and after administering contrast agent. The perirenal abscesses were found in two patients. In US have showed various, inhomogeneous echogenicity, depending on the stage of the abscess. The contrast CT reveals enhancing septa, thick walls and oval, central area of lower density. The plane radiograms revealed abscesses in three cases. In two of them abscesses were complications of previouscholecystectomy. The large abscesses dislocated intestinal loops. CT was necessary to assess the extent, depth and shape of retroperitoneal fluid collections. Abdominal abscess is life threatening condition requiring quick diagnosis and proper management. The imaging methods are especially important in diagnosis of abscesses. Abscesses may by recognized on plain abdominal radiograms, but US and especially CT are much more sensitive and accurate. CT is imaging modality of choice in revealing abdominal abscess. CT and US are very useful in nonoperative therapies, including US and CT guided drainage. PMID:16146093

Pas?awski, Marek; Szafranek-Pyzel, Joanna; Z?omaniec, Janusz



[The abdominal compartment syndrome].  


In two patients, a man aged 67 and a woman aged 80, an abdominal compartment syndrome was diagnosed. The man had been treated surgically for an abdominal aortic aneurysm; he recovered after re-operation. The woman had been treated by sigmoidectomy because of ileus. A Bogota bag and a vacuum-assisted wound-closure system were applied to the abdominal wound. Her condition deteriorated, an intestinal perforation became apparent, of which she did not recover and died. An abdominal compartment syndrome should always be kept in mind when a patient at risk presents with increased intra-abdominal pressure and at least one of the following symptoms: oliguria, decreased cardiac output, increased pulmonary-artery pressure, hypotension and acidosis. Measurement of the bladder pressure remains the method of choice to establish the abdominal pressure level. However, there is a lack of correlation between the measured pressure and the clinical condition of the patient. Therefore, the combination of clinical findings and the observed trend in serial measurements of the bladder pressure is preferred to a single pressure measurement. PMID:16008031

Rozeboom, A L; Havekes, B; Steenvoorde, P; Arbous, M S; Elzo Kraemer, C V; van de Velde, C J H



Abdominal compartment syndrome in children.  


Abdominal compartment syndrome is defined as sustained intra-abdominal pressure greater than 20 mm Hg (with or without abdominal perfusion pressure <60 mm Hg) associated with new organ failure or dysfunction. The syndrome is associated with 90% to 100% mortality if not recognized and treated in a timely manner. Nurses are responsible for accurately measuring intra-abdominal pressure in children with abdominal compartment syndrome and for alerting physicians about important changes. This article provides relevant definitions, outlines risk factors for abdominal compartment syndrome developing in children, and discusses an instructive case involving an adolescent with abdominal compartment syndrome. Techniques for measuring intra-abdominal pressure, normal ranges, and the importance of monitoring in the critical care setting for timely identification of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome also are discussed. PMID:23203955

Newcombe, Jennifer; Mathur, Mudit; Ejike, J Chiaka



Determination of accurate stent graft configuration in abdominal aortic aneurysm using computed tomography: a preliminary study.  


An aortic stent graft is frequently used to cure an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). It is critical to accurately fit the size and shape of the stent graft to the target region on the aorta. Proper sizing and shaping require the measurement of the orthogonal diameter of the target region from medical images. The present study aimed to acquire an accurate three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the aorta to determine the shape of the cross-sectional area where the stent graft would be implanted. A conventional geometric-active contour model was enhanced to prevent blurring and to improve edge detection with high noise resistivity. After the segmentation of two-dimensional (2D) images using the model, a 3D-reconstructed configuration of the aorta was achieved using a surface-rendering technique. The model could segment several selected synthetic images more accurately than conventional methods. Also, a 3D-reconstructed configuration of the abdominal aorta could be achieved using boundary coordinates extracted from 2D image segmentation. This preliminary study indicates the utility of the approach in optimizing stent graft configuration for AAA patients, thus enhancing stent graft healing. PMID:20630337

Kim, Ho Chul; Park, Sang Woo; Nam, Kyoung Won; Choi, Hyuk; Choi, Eun Jeong; Jin, Seungoh; Kim, Min Gi; Sun, Kyung


Arterial homograft and medical therapy in pseudoaneurysm of infrarenal aorta concomitant with recurrent right ventricular thrombus in Behcet's disease.  


Pseudoaneurysm of the infrarenal aorta due to Behcet s disease is very rare. We report a case of pseudoaneurysm associated with Behcet s disease in a 17-year-old boy with a recurrent right ventricular thrombus successfully treated with revascularization using arterial homograft patch. Echocardiography examination revealed a right ventricular mass, thought to be a thrombus in an unusual location. Postoperatively, the findings of the pathologic examination confirmed the mass as a thrombus. When the patient was subsequently re-admitted to the emergency unit with complaints of severe abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, sinus tachycardia, and a pulsating and tender abdominal mass, a right ventricular thrombus and a large pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta were found on echocardiography and angiography. The patient underwent resection of the aortic aneurysm and aortoplasty, using arterial homograft patch, and received immunosuppressive and anticoagulation therapy. The thrombus of the right ventricle disappeared 4 months later. This case indicates that a right ventricular thrombosis in Behcet s disease may be managed by medical therapy. PMID:16951782

Vahedian, Jalal; Sadeghpour, Ali



Surgical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms located close to the visceral arteries: Report of three cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard surgical treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is in situ replacement of the infrarenal aorta, which\\u000a is associated with a low mortality rate. On the other hand, thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAA) remain a formidable challenge\\u000a and the complications that can occur may be severe including neurologic dysfunction and renal failure. We report herein three\\u000a cases of patients with

Hidenori Sako; Tetsuo Hadama; Osamu Shigemitsu; Shinji Miyamoto; Hirofumi Anai; Tohru Soeda; Shogo Urabe; Tomoyuki Wada; Eriko Iwata



Combined mortality and morbidity of direct surgical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred aneurysms of the abdominal aorta were treated surgically from 1980 to 1987 by the same surgeon. There were 187 men and 13 women whose mean age was 66.1 years. Nine patients were 80-years-old or more. Eighty-seven percent of patients had preoperative risk factors, 30% of which were coronary artery disease. The operative approach was through a transverse laparotomy

Alain Branchereau; Jacques Nazet; Jean-Christian Colavolpe; Louis Scotti



Diagnosis of abdominal aortic hypoplasia by state-of-the-art MR angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal aortic hypoplasia is a rare vascular variant with possible major clinical sequelae when the renal arteries are also\\u000a involved. The condition is thought to result from embryonic overfusion of the two dorsal aortas. The diagnosis may be considered\\u000a in patients presenting with hypertension in the neonatal period and severely reduced or absent arterial pulses in the groin.\\u000a We present

Fred J. Prakken; Nicole van de Kar; Simon F. Robben; Tim Leiner



Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm infected by Vibrio mimicus : Report of a case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a case of a mycotic aneurysm of the infrarenal abdominal aorta infected by Vibrio mimicus, which is the only such case ever reported in the literature. The 80-year-old male patient was first treated for gastroenteritis\\u000a for 7 days. Two months later, he was admitted to the hospital and the aneurysm was diagnosed by three-dimensional computed\\u000a tomography. The

Ioannis Skandalos; Konstantinos Christou; Anastasios Psilas; Mattheus Moskophidis; Konstantinos Karamoschos



Sodium-Potassium Pump Sites, as Assessed by [3H]Ouabain Binding, in Aorta and Caudal Artery of Normotensive and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the present work provide support for the utility of studying [3H]- ouabain binding to in vitro segments of vascular smooth muscle as an indication of the number of Na-K pump sites in blood vessels of rats. Specific binding of [3H]-ouabain to strips of rat abdominal aorta and segments of rat caudal artery was saturable and reversible. Specific

Stanley K. Wong; David P. Westfall; Dennis Menear; William W. Fleming



Invariant morphometric properties of headwater subcatchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distinction between the channel network, the headwater subcatchments, and the lateral subcatchments plays an important role in distributed hydrological and ecohydrological applications. This paper presents some newly found invariance properties of headwater and upstream subcatchments and shows that the invariant morphometric properties characterize only natural networks and virtual networks verifying optimal channel networks (OCN) properties but are not verified for virtual non-OCNs. A model based on self-affine properties was developed in order to calculate the number of headwater catchments N and the total upstream area of headwater catchments U as a function of the cutoff area A used to delineate streams. For 18 French catchments between 43 and 116,450 km2 and for 4 virtual OCNs, results show that U(A)/A0 (with A0 being the catchment area) is independent of A for 0.5 < A < 5 km2 and seems to be constant (0.29 ± 0.03) for various shapes and sizes of channel networks and, consequently, can be considered as an invariant general descriptor of natural channel and virtual OCN networks. On the contrary, this is not the case when the approach is applied on six virtual non-OCNs. Moreover, results show that the knowledge of six morphometric indices enable us to calculate both functions N(A) and U(A) for all values of A < A0. These indices can be considered as geometric and topological properties of headwater and upstream subcatchments and are useful for studying the effects of cutoffs on self-affine river networks or as similarity indices for channel network comparison.

Moussa, Roger; Colin, FrançOis; Rabotin, MichaëL.



Geometric morphometric footprint analysis of young women  

PubMed Central

Background Most published attempts to quantify footprint shape are based on a small number of measurements. We applied geometric morphometric methods to study shape variation of the complete footprint outline in a sample of 83 adult women. Methods The outline of the footprint, including the toes, was represented by a comprehensive set of 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Shape coordinates were computed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Results The first four principal components represented the major axes of variation in foot morphology: low-arched versus high-arched feet, long and narrow versus short and wide feet, the relative length of the hallux, and the relative length of the forefoot. These shape features varied across the measured individuals without any distinct clusters or discrete types of footprint shape. A high body mass index (BMI) was associated with wide and flat feet, and a high frequency of wearing high-heeled shoes was associated with a larger forefoot area of the footprint and a relatively long hallux. Larger feet had an increased length-to-width ratio of the footprint, a lower-arched foot, and longer toes relative to the remaining foot. Footprint shape differed on average between left and right feet, and the variability of footprint asymmetry increased with BMI. Conclusions Foot shape is affected by lifestyle factors even in a sample of young women (median age 23 years). Geometric morphometrics proved to be a powerful tool for the detailed analysis of footprint shape that is applicable in various scientific disciplines, including forensics, orthopedics, and footwear design.



Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in comparison to open surgical repair. An abdominal aortic aneurysm [AAA] is the enlargement and weakening of the aorta (major blood artery) that may rupture and result in stroke and death. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair [EVAR] is a procedure for repairing abdominal aortic aneurysms from within the blood vessel without open surgery. In this procedure, an aneurysm is excluded from blood circulation by an endograft (a device) delivered to the site of the aneurysm via a catheter inserted into an artery in the groin. The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this technology. The review included 44 eligible articles out of 489 citations identified through a systematic literature search. Most of the research evidence is based on non-randomized comparative studies and case series. In the short-term, EVAR appears to be safe and comparable to open surgical repair in terms of survival. It is associated with less severe hemodynamic changes, less blood transfusion and shorter stay in the intensive care and hospital. However, there is concern about a high incidence of endoleak, requiring secondary interventions, and in some cases, conversion to open surgical repair. Current evidence does not support the use of EVAR in all patients. EVAR might benefit individuals who are not fit for surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and whose risk of rupture of the aneurysm outweighs the risk of death from EVAR. The long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVAR cannot be determined at this time. Further evaluation of this technology is required. OBJECTIVE The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) in comparison to open surgical repair (OSR). BACKGROUND Clinical Need An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized, abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm or 50% of the aortic diameter at the diaphragm. (1) A true AAA involves all 3 layers of the vessel wall. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. (61) Heller et al. (44) analyzed information from a national hospital database in the United States. They found no significant change in the incidence rate of elective AAA repair or ruptured AAA presented to the nation’s hospitals. The investigators concluded that technologic and treatment advances over the past 19 years have not affected the outcomes of patients with AAAs, and the ability to identify and to treat patients with AAAs has not improved. Classification of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms At least 90% of the AAAs are affected by atherosclerosis, and most of these aneurysms are below the level of the renal arteries.(1) An abdominal aortic aneurysm may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. An AAA may be classified according to their sizes:(7) Small aneurysms: less than 5 cm in diameter. Medium aneurysms: 5-7cm. Large aneurysms: more than 7 cm in diameter. Small aneurysms account for approximately 50% of all clinically recognized aneurysms.(7) Aortic aneurysms may be classified according to their gross appearance as follows (1): Fusiform aneurysms affect the entire circumference of a vessel, resulting in a diffusely dilated lesion Saccular aneurysms involve only a portion of the circumference, resulting in an outpouching (protrusion) in the vessel wall. Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 1% and 5.4%. (61) The prevalence is related to age and vascular risk factors. It is more common in men and in those with a positive family history. In Canada, Abdominal aortic aneurysms are the 10th leading cause of death in men 6



Traumatic abdominal wall hernia  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) is a rare entity. Most cases occur in children, following an injury from the bicycle handle bar. In adults, it usually results from road traffic accidents (RTA). We present one of the largest reported cases of TAWH following RTA managed by delayed mesh repair. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 35 yr old obese male with RTA was diagnosed with TAWH with 19 cm × 15 cm defect in left flank. As there were no intra abdominal injuries and overlying skin was abraded, he was planned for elective repair after 6 months. On exploration a defect of 30 cm × 45 cm was found extending from midline anteriorly to 8 cm short of midline posteriorly in transverse axis and costal margin to iliac crest in craniocaudal axis. After restoration of bowel into abdominal cavity, primary closure or even approximation of muscular defect was not possible thus a mesh closure using 60 cm × 60 cm prolene mesh in subcutaneous plane was done. After 4 months follow up, patient is healthy and has no recurrence. DISCUSSION Emergent surgical management of TAWH is usually favoured due to high incidence of associated intra abdominal injuries. Delayed repair may be undertaken in selected cases. CONCLUSION TAWH, although rare, should be suspected in cases of RTA with abdominal wall swellings. With time, the hernia defect may enlarge and muscles may undergo atrophy making delayed repair difficult.

Yadav, Siddharth; Jain, Sunil K.; Arora, Jainendra K.; Sharma, Piyush; Sharma, Abhinav; Bhagwan, Jai; Goyal, Kaushal; Sahoo, Bhabani S.



Blunt abdominal aortic disruption (BAAD) in shear fracture of the adult thoraco-lumbar spine: case report and literature review.  


To present a rare case of association of abdominal aorta rupture and flexion-distraction fracture of thoracolumbar spine and to review the literature on this condition. In non-penetrating abdominal traumatic injuries with flexion-distraction fractures of the thoracolumbar spine, rupture of the abdominal aorta is an extremely rare occurrence but its outcome is potentially lethal. This association of skeletal and vascular lesions mainly affects young patients and involves the thoraco-lumbar junction and the portion of the aorta that lies in front of it. The authors analyze the pertinent literature and describe a case, operated in two sittings, of a traumatic lesion of the aorta attributable to a fracture of L1, focusing on mechanism of damage, diagnosis and surgical treatment. At 2-year follow-up examination, there were no neurological deficits. A review of the pertinent literature has shown that mortality can be reduced by a meticulous clinical and radiological work-up for a correct diagnosis followed by surgical repair of any damaged vessels. The possibility of performing a rapid diagnosis by means of total-body CT-scan plus CT-angiography allows repair of vascular damage, stabilization of the patient's hemodynamic conditions and, subsequently, surgical treatment of the vertebral fracture. PMID:21380748

Domenicucci, Maurizio; Ramieri, Alessandro; Landi, Alessandro; Melone, Angelina Graziella; Raco, Antonino; Ruggiero, Massimo; Speziale, Francesco



[A risk of myocardial ischemia and the nature of infusion-transfusion therapy in scheduled surgical treatment of infrarenal aneurisms of the aorta].  


The authors analyzed effects produced by different variations of the infusion-transfusion therapy on the risk of cardiovascular complications that can develop in the scheduled surgical treatment of the aorta abdominal part. The patients were randomized in 2 groups. Intraoperative hemodilution was made in group-1 patients (n = 50) before aorta clipping. Hemodynamics was stabilized by colloids and crystacolloids during clip removal; donor packed red blood cells were used at the hemoglobin level below 80 g/l. Group 2 comprised 66 patients for whom autoblood was prepared preoperatively. The infusion volume was limited before aorta clipping; blood losses were compensated for by autoblood and autoerythrocytes collected from surgical blood by "Cell Saver". The below results were obtained on the basis of conducted research: preventive infusion load aggravates, before aorta clipping, the risk of cardiac complications. Maintenance of Hb below the level of 90 g/l is accompanied by an impaired transport of oxygen to tissues; it speeds up the heart beat and provokes an increased cardiac need in oxygen, which enhances the risk of myocardium ischemia. Preparation of autoblood and hardware-based reinfusion of autoerythrocytes provide for an adequate compensation of blood losses and diminish the risk of cardiac complications in the scheduled surgical treatment of infrarenal aneurisms of the aorta. PMID:15468546

Merkulov, I V; Ne?mark, M I


Abdominal compartment syndrome.  


Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are frequently encountered in critically ill patients and carry a high morbidity and mortality risk. Despite these facts, IAH/ACS are still overlooked by many physicians and therefore timely diagnosis is not made and treatment is often inadequate. All clinicians should be aware of the risk factors predicting IAH/ACS, the profound implications and derangements on all organ systems, the clinical presentation, the appropriate measurement of intra-abdominal pressure to detect IAH/ACS and the current treatment options for these detrimental syndromes. This comprehensive review provides knowledge about known facts, unresolved issues and future directions for research to improve patient survival and long-term outcome. PMID:20668421

Mayer, D; Veith, F J; Lachat, M; Pfammatter, T; Hechelhammer, L; Rancic, Z



Reevaluation of honeybee ( Apis mellifera ) microtaxonomy: a geometric morphometric approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the microtaxonomy of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) subspecies was reevaluated based on a geometric morphometric method. Wing images of honeybee subspecies, obtained from\\u000a the Morphometric Bee Data Bank in Oberursel, Germany, were assigned to four honeybee lineages from the indivudial images,\\u000a and 40 Cartesian coordinates were obtained. Honeybee lineages were significantly different based on individual and

?rfan Kandemir; Ayça Özkan; Stefan Fuchs


Primary angiosarcoma of the abdominal aorta: a case report and literature review (aortic angiosarcoma)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fewer than 140 cases of aortic sarcoma have been reported with only 34 classified as angiosarcoma. These rare malignancies\\u000a most often mimic aortoiliac occlusive or aneurysmal arteriosclerotic disease both clinically and on imaging studies, and the\\u000a large majority are unexpected and diagnosed pathologically on a surgical specimen or at autopsy [1–5]. A 42-year-old woman who presented with low back pain

Douglas Brylka; Terrence C. Demos; Kenneth Pierce



Rat Abdominal Aorta Stenting: A New and Reliable Small Animal Model for In-Stent Restenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A high throughput animal model may enhance pathophysiological studies to mechanisms of in-stent restenosis (ISR). More and appropriate antibodies and transgenic and knockout strains are available in rats. Consequently, a model for ISR in the rat would be convenient for pathobiological studies. Here we present the full characteristics of a rat ISR model suitable for high throughput stent research.

Bas Langeveld; Anton J. M. Roks; René A. Tio; Ad J. van Boven; Johannes J. L. van der Want; Rob H. Henning; Heleen M. M. van Beusekom; Willem J. van der Giessen; Felix Zijlstra; Wiek H. van Gilst



Arteriopathy and Coarctation of the Abdominal Aorta in Children with Mucopolysaccharidosis: Imaging Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight children with mucopolysacchandosis I (MPS I), representing 33% of all children with MPS I seen at our institution during an 18-year period, developed hypertension. Five of these hypertensive children also exhibited symptoms of aortic coarctation. The radiographic evaluation of four of these children with MPS I (three with Hurler syndrome, MPS I H, and one with Scheie disease, MPS

Donna B. Taylor; Susan I. Blaser; Patricia E. Burrows; David A. Stringer; Joe T. R. Clarke; Paul Thorner


Acute occlusion of the abdominal aorta with concomitant internal iliac artery occlusion.  


Acute aortic occlusion is a rare but catastrophic pathology with high mortality even after revascularization. We describe four patients who underwent thrombectomy or bypass surgery for acute aortic occlusion with concomitant internal iliac artery occlusion. Two patients (82- and 75-year-old men), who had insufficient reperfusion of bilateral internal iliac arteries after treatment (thrombectomy alone and axillobifemoral bypass, respectively), died on postoperative day three of uncontrollable hyperkalemia and multiple organ failure, respectively (mortality: 50%). The third patient (74-year-old man), in whom the left internal iliac artery was reperfused after an axillobifemoral bypass, underwent right lower limb amputation but survived. The fourth patient (63-year-old man) with sufficient internal iliac artery reperfusion bilaterally after aortobifemoral and right internal iliac artery reconstruction, had an uneventful postoperative course. Elevated creatine phosphokinase and myoglobinuria levels were observed in all four patients but were notably higher in the two patients with no reperfusion in either of the internal iliac arteries. Our results suggest that reperfusion of one or more internal iliac arteries may be a crucial factor in reducing mortality in revascularization treatment of acute aortic occlusion with concomitant internal iliac artery occlusion. PMID:21881336

Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Fumio; Tanaka, Fuminobu; Motokawa, Mamika; Shiroto, Keisuke; Yamaura, Gembu; Ishibashi, Kazuyuki



A segmentation method for stentgrafts in the abdominal aorta from ECG-gated CTA data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endovascular aortic replacement (EVAR) is an established technique, which uses stentgrafts to treat aortic aneurysms in patients at risk of aneurysm rupture. The long-term durability of a stentgraft is affected by the stresses and hemodynamic forces applied to it, and may be reflected by the movements of the stentgraft itself during the cardiac cycle. A conventional CT scan (which results in a 3D volume) is not able to visualize these movements. However, applying ECG-gating does provide insight in the motion of the stentgraft caused by hemodynamic forces at different phases of the cardiac cycle. The amount of data obtained is a factor of ten larger compared to conventional CT, but the radiation dose is kept similar for patient safety. This causes the data to be noisy, and streak artifacts are more common. Algorithms for automatic stentgraft detection must be able to cope with this. Segmentation of the stentgraft is performed by examining slices perpendicular to the centreline. Regions with high CT-values exist at the locations where the metallic frame penetrates the slice. These regions are well suited for detection and sub-pixel localization. Spurious points can be removed by means of a clustering algorithm, leaving only points on the contour of the stent. We compare the performance of several different point detection methods and clustering algorithms. The position of the stent's centreline is calculated by fitting a circle through these points. The proposed method can detect several stentgraft types, and is robust against noise and streak artifacts.

Klein, Almar; Renema, W. KlaasJan; Oostveen, Luuk J.; Schultze Kool, Leo J.; Slump, Cornelis H.



Coarctation of the Aorta in Infancy  

PubMed Central

Twenty-five infants under 1 year of age (mean weight 3.4 kg) underwent repair of coarctation of the aorta between the years 1965 and 1982. Three patients had coarctation only, three had coarctation with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), and 19 had associated intracardiac anomalies. Eleven patients underwent resection of the aorta and end-to-end anastomosis. Eight had subclavian flap arterioplasty, five had patch graft arterioplasty, and one had subclavian-to-aortic anastomosis. Additional procedures were performed on seven patients: banding of the pulmonary artery on one, repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage on one, mitral valve replacement on one, aortic valvotomy on one, and aortic valvotomy plus pulmonary artery banding on one. Twenty-one survived the operation. All patients who died had associated intracardiac anomalies. The 21 survivors have been followed from 3 months to 13 years, with three late deaths that were associated with intracardiac anomalies. Five of the survivors underwent additional second operations: one had repair of the re-coarctation, one had replacement of the prosthetic mitral valve, one had aortic valvotomy, and two had pulmonary artery debanding and closure of a ventricular septal defect. Two of the 18 surviving patients have mild hypertension associated with a residual gradient. The others are in good health.

Levy, Morris J.; Levinsky, Leon; Deviri, Ehud; Hauptman, Eli; Blieden, Leonard C.



Laparoscopic total abdominal colectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the impact of laparoscopy upon the outcome of total abdominal colectomy (TAC). Specifically, patients underwent standard laparotomy with TAC and ileoproctostomy (TAC + IP), TAC and ileoanal reservoir (TAC + IAR), laparoscopically assisted TAC + IP (L-TAC + IP), or laparoscopically assisted TAC + IAR (L-TAC + IAR). Parameters studied included

Steven D. Wexner; Olaf B. Johansen; Juan J. Nogueras; David G. Jagelman



Lateral Abdominal Wall Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Lateral abdominal wall (LAW) defects can manifest as a flank hernias, myofascial laxity/bulges, or full-thickness defects. These defects are quite different from those in the anterior abdominal wall defects and the complexity and limited surgical options make repairing the LAW a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. LAW reconstruction requires an understanding of the anatomy, physiologic forces, and the impact of deinnervation injury to design and perform successful reconstructions of hernia, bulge, and full-thickness defects. Reconstructive strategies must be tailored to address the inguinal ligament, retroperitoneum, chest wall, and diaphragm. Operative technique must focus on stabilization of the LAW to nonyielding points of fixation at the anatomic borders of the LAW far beyond the musculofascial borders of the defect itself. Thus, hernias, bulges, and full-thickness defects are approached in a similar fashion. Mesh reinforcement is uniformly required in lateral abdominal wall reconstruction. Inlay mesh placement with overlying myofascial coverage is preferred as a first-line option as is the case in anterior abdominal wall reconstruction. However, interposition bridging repairs are often performed as the surrounding myofascial tissue precludes a dual layered closure. The decision to place bioprosthetic or prosthetic mesh depends on surgeon preference, patient comorbidities, and clinical factors of the repair. Regardless of mesh type, the overlying soft tissue must provide stable cutaneous coverage and obliteration of dead space. In cases where the fasciocutaneous flaps surrounding the defect are inadequate for closure, regional pedicled flaps or free flaps are recruited to achieve stable soft tissue coverage.

Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.



Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abdominal catastrophe in the severely burned patient without abdominal injury has been described. We perceived an alarming recent incidence of this complication in our burn center, both during acute resuscitation and later in the hospital course. We sough...

C. E. White E. M. Renz K. W. Markell L. H. Blackbourne M. E. Albrecht



Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Screening  


... covered? Search for covered items Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers a one-time abdominal aortic aneurysm ultrasound. You must get a referral for it ...


Incision for abdominal laparoscopy (image)  


Abdominal laparoscopy is a useful aid in diagnosing disease or trauma in the abdominal cavity with less scarring than ... as liver and pancreatic resections may begin with laparoscopy to exclude the presence of additional tumors (metastatic ...


Intramural Haematoma of the Descending Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 58-year-old female patient, who had reported great abdo- minal pain in the epigastric and umbilical areas for 3 years followed by an episode of syncope, having been admitted to another health service with probable diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, not confirmed by supplementary exams, was discharged from hospital after 5 days of analgesic use. One year ago, there was abdominal

Bruno Botelho Pinheiro; Walter Vosgrau Fagundes; Rafael Haddad; Maria Cardoso Ramos


Low vitamin B6, and not plasma homocysteine concentration, as risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm: A retrospective case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with vascular disease in many epidemiologic studies, but only a few have reported on the relation between hyperhomocysteinemia and aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (AAAs). Although these studies showed higher homocysteine concentrations in patients with AAA than in controls, little attention had been given to possible confounding factors. Most patients with AAA are of older

Anita C. Peeters; Bart A. van Landeghem; Sietze J. Graafsma; Steef E. Kranendonk; A. R. M. M. Hermus; Henk J. Blom; Martin den Heijer



Surgical Treatment of Ascending Aorta and Aortic Root Aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aneurysms of the aortic root and ascending aorta are often due to degenerative disease of media. Aneurysm of the aortic root often affects patients in their second to fourth decades of life, whereas aneurysm of the ascending aorta occurs mostly in the fifth to seventh decades of life. These aneurysms can cause aortic insufficiency, dissection, and\\/or rupture. Current guidelines recommend

Tirone E. David



Successful repair of mega aorta using reversed elephant trunk procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case reported is of a patient with mega aorta and a symptomatic thoracoabdominal aortic segment. Successful treatment involved resection and graft replacement of the thoracoabdominal segment as an initial procedure using a “reversed elephant trunk” technique, followed by resection and replacement of the ascending aorta and transverse aortic arch as the second stage. (J Vasc Surg 1998;27:183-8.)

Joseph S. Coselli; Peter Oberwalder



Catastrophic consequences of a free floating thrombus in ascending aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floating masses in ascending aorta are an uncommon source of embolism. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman, smoker, on synthetic progestagen, with no previous history of thrombotic events, who was admitted to our emergency department for an acute anterior myocardial infarction. Coronary angiogram showed occlusion of left main coronary trunk. Recanalization of the artery was obtained. Ascending aorta

Piergiorgio Bruno; Massimo Massetti; Gerard Babatasi; Andre Khayat


Catastrophic consequences of a free floating thrombus in ascending aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floating masses in ascending aorta are an uncommon source of embolism. We report the case of a 46-year-old woman, smoker, on synthetic progestagen, with no previous history of thrombotic events, who was admitted to our emergency department for an acute anterior myocardial infarction. Coronary angiogram showed occlusion of left main coronary trunk. Recanalization of the artery was obtained. Ascending aorta

Piergiorgio Bruno; Massimo Massetti; Gerard Babatasi; Andre Khayat



Platelet inhibition by endothelium-derived relaxing factor from the rabbit perfused aorta.  


1. The platelet inhibiting activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) released by the perfused thoracic aorta of the rabbit was investigated. 2. The aortic effluent superfused a ring of the abdominal aorta without endothelium in order to bioassay EDRF. Aliquots of effluent were collected on rabbit washed platelets and aggregation induced by U-46619 was measured after 1 min. Prostacyclin (PGI2) was monitored by radioimmunoassay of 6-oxo-prostaglandin F1 alpha. 3. Acetylcholine (ACh) caused a dose-dependent secretion of EDRF, PGI2 and anti-aggregating activity. Plasma and methylene blue suppressed the platelet inhibition by the effluent. 4. The PGI2 content of the effluent was not sufficient to account for all the anti-aggregating activity. However, the platelet inhibition disappeared when PGI2 formation was blocked with indomethacin. 5. Compression of the thoracic aorta increased the EDRF content in the effluent. A transient secretion of anti-aggregating activity was then observed in aortic effluent in the absence of PGI2. This activity coincided with the presumed EDRF peak in the effluent. 6. Superoxide dismutase enhanced the ACh-induced EDRF content and revealed secretion of an anti-aggregating substance when PGI2 formation was blocked. Pretreatment of the platelets with subthreshold concentrations of PGI2, or the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor RX-RE 56, also revealed the release of a labile platelet inhibitor in response to ACh. 7. The results indicate that EDRF released by fresh aortic endothelium may suppress platelet aggregation, particularly when PGI2 is present. PMID:3064856

Bult, H; Fret, H R; Van den Bossche, R M; Herman, A G



Platelet inhibition by endothelium-derived relaxing factor from the rabbit perfused aorta.  

PubMed Central

1. The platelet inhibiting activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) released by the perfused thoracic aorta of the rabbit was investigated. 2. The aortic effluent superfused a ring of the abdominal aorta without endothelium in order to bioassay EDRF. Aliquots of effluent were collected on rabbit washed platelets and aggregation induced by U-46619 was measured after 1 min. Prostacyclin (PGI2) was monitored by radioimmunoassay of 6-oxo-prostaglandin F1 alpha. 3. Acetylcholine (ACh) caused a dose-dependent secretion of EDRF, PGI2 and anti-aggregating activity. Plasma and methylene blue suppressed the platelet inhibition by the effluent. 4. The PGI2 content of the effluent was not sufficient to account for all the anti-aggregating activity. However, the platelet inhibition disappeared when PGI2 formation was blocked with indomethacin. 5. Compression of the thoracic aorta increased the EDRF content in the effluent. A transient secretion of anti-aggregating activity was then observed in aortic effluent in the absence of PGI2. This activity coincided with the presumed EDRF peak in the effluent. 6. Superoxide dismutase enhanced the ACh-induced EDRF content and revealed secretion of an anti-aggregating substance when PGI2 formation was blocked. Pretreatment of the platelets with subthreshold concentrations of PGI2, or the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor RX-RE 56, also revealed the release of a labile platelet inhibitor in response to ACh. 7. The results indicate that EDRF released by fresh aortic endothelium may suppress platelet aggregation, particularly when PGI2 is present.

Bult, H.; Fret, H. R.; Van den Bossche, R. M.; Herman, A. G.



[Comparative transcriptome analysis of human aorta atherosclerotic lesions and peripheral blood leukocytes from essential hypertension patients].  


One of the major cardiovascular risk factor which predisposes to and accelerates atherosclerosis is arterial hypertension (AH). To determine the molecular basis of the crosslink between AH and atherosclerosis for the development of new treatment strategies large-scale transcriptome analysis of the cells implicated in atherogenesis is needed. We used cDNA microarray technique for simultaneous analysis of gene expression in human abdominal aorta normal sites and atherosclerotic lesions of different histological types, as well as in peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with essential hypertension (EH) and donors. The microarray data were verified by quantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcription coupled with polymerase chain reaction) and immunohistochemical analysis. Differential expression of 40 genes has been found, among which twenty two genes demonstrated up-regulation and 18 genes demonstrated down-regulation in atherosclerotic aorta compared with normal vessel. New gene-candidates, implicated in atherogenesis, have been identified - FPRL2, CD37, CD53, RGS1, LCP1, SPI1, CTSA, EPAS1, FHL1, GEM, RHOB, SPARCL1, ITGA8, PLN, and COL14A1. These genes participate in cell migration and adhesion, phenotypic changes of smooth muscle cells, immune and inflammatory reactions, oxidative processes and extracellular matrix remodeling. We have found increased expression levels of CD53, SPI1, FPRL2, SPP1, CTSD, ACP5, LCP1, CTSA and LIPA genes in peripheral blood leukocytes from EH patients and in atherosclerotic lesions of human aorta. The majority of these genes significantly (p<0.005) positively (r>0.5) correlated with AH stage as well as with histological grading of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:19772500

Timofeeva, A V; Goriunova, L E; Khaspekov, G L; Il'inskaia, O P; Sirotkin, V N; Andreeva, E R; Tararak, E M; Bulkina, O S; Buza, V V; Britareva, V V; Karpov, Iu A; Bibilashvili, R Sh



Fused Traditional and Geometric Morphometrics Demonstrate Pinniped Whisker Diversity  

PubMed Central

Vibrissae (whiskers) are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system, and primarily function as detectors of vibrotactile information from the environment. Pinnipeds possess the largest vibrissae among mammals and their vibrissal hair shafts demonstrate a diversity of shapes. The vibrissae of most phocid seals exhibit a beaded morphology with repeating sequences of crests and troughs along their length. However, there are few detailed analyses of pinniped vibrissal morphology, and these are limited to a few species. Therefore, we comparatively characterized differences in vibrissal hair shaft morphologies among phocid species with a beaded profile, phocid species with a smooth profile, and otariids with a smooth profile using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Traditional morphometric measurements (peak-to-peak distance, crest width, trough width and total length) were collected using digital photographs. Elliptic Fourier analysis (geometric morphometrics) was used to quantify the outlines of whole vibrissae. The traditional and geometric morphometric datasets were subsequently combined by mathematically scaling each to true rank, followed by a single eigendecomposition. Quadratic discriminant function analysis demonstrated that 79.3, 97.8 and 100% of individuals could be correctly classified to their species based on vibrissal shape variables in the traditional, geometric and combined morphometric analyses, respectively. Phocids with beaded vibrissae, phocids with smooth vibrissae, and otariids each occupied distinct morphospace in the geometric morphometric and combined data analyses. Otariids split into two groups in the geometric morphometric analysis and gray seals appeared intermediate between beaded- and smooth-whiskered species in the traditional and combined analyses. Vibrissal hair shafts modulate the transduction of environmental stimuli to the mechanoreceptors in the follicle-sinus complex (F-SC), which results in vibrotactile reception, but it is currently unclear how the diversity of shapes affects environmental signal modulation.

Ginter, Carly C.; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Fish, Frank E.; Marshall, Christopher D.



CORRELATED MORPHOMETRIC AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE LIVER CELL: I. Morphometric Model, Stereologic Methods, and Normal Morphometric Data for Rat Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic morphological properties of liver cells are defined in the form of a morphometric model to permit integrated quantitative characterization of functionally important param- eters . Stereologic methods which allow efficient and reliable quantitative evaluation of sectioned liver tissue are presented . Material, obtained by a rigorous three-stage sampling




Mysterious Abdominal Pain  

PubMed Central

A man presented to the emergency room with recurrent episodes of abdominal pain. He had a history of coronary artery bypass grafting of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to the left anterior descending (LAD) artery and the right gastroepiploic artery to the posterior descending artery. After numerous gastrointestinal evaluations, a stress test was performed, which was positive. Coronary angiography showed a proximal occlusion of the LAD and right coronary artery and a normal functioning LIMA bypass. Aortography showed a 95% stenosis of the celiac trunk. Angioplasty and stent implantation of the celiac trunk was successfully performed. Six months later the patient was completely asymptomatic with a negative stress test. In conclusion, abdominal pain in patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass surgery using the right gastroepiploic artery should raise suspicion not only of a stenosis of the arterial conduit but also of a potential stenosis of the celiac trunk.

Cappelletti, Alberto; Cristell, Nicole; Mazzavillani, Monica; Margonato, Alberto



[Abdominal compartment syndrome: current view].  


In the last few years, physiological changes, symptoms, diagnostic tools, and treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome interest surgeons, trauma surgeons and anaesthetists. Sudden, dangerous basic vital function deterioration in patients managed in the intensive care unit, may be results of abdominal compartment syndrome. Abdominal compartment syndrome is secondary to massive intraabdominal haemorrhages, hepatic or retroperitoneal space "packing", fluid collection in tissues, including abdominal organs. Circulatory, respiratory and kidney dysfunction occur, when intraabdominal pressure measured in urinary bladder is 25 H2O or higher. In this condition, rapid surgical decompression is necessary. During decompression abdominal organs reperfusion may produce arterial hypotension and asystole. Abdominal closure must prevent abdominal hypertension. Temporary plastic patch, simple and cheap is the most popular technique. PMID:11603185

Wysocki, A



Obesity-Associated Abdominal Elephantiasis  

PubMed Central

Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare entity. Abdominal elephantiasis is an uncommon, but deformative and progressive cutaneous disease caused by chronic lymphedema and recurrent streptococcal or Staphylococcus infections of the abdominal wall. We present 3 cases of patients with morbid obesity who presented to our hospital with abdominal wall swelling, thickening, erythema, and pain. The abdominal wall and legs were edematous, with cobblestone-like, thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured plaques on the abdomen. Two patients had localised areas of skin erythema, tenderness, and increased warmth. There was purulent drainage from the abdominal wall in one patient. They were managed with antibiotics with some initial improvement. Meticulous skin care and local keratolytic treatment for the lesions were initiated with limited success due to their late presentation. All three patients refused surgical therapy. Conclusion. Early diagnosis is important for the treatment of abdominal elephantiasis and prevention of complications.

Kohli, Ritesh; Argento, Vivian; Amoateng-Adjepong, Yaw



The Abdominal Circulatory Pump  

PubMed Central

Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50–75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4–6% and an output of 750–1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61±0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57±0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart.

Aliverti, Andrea; Bovio, Dario; Fullin, Irene; Dellaca, Raffaele L.; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, Peter T.



Robotic abdominal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a whole, abdominal surgeons possess excellent videoendoscopic surgical skills. However, the limitations of laparoscopy—such as reduced range of motion and instrument dexterity and 2-dimensional view of the operative field—have inspired even the most accomplished laparoscopists to investigate the potential of surgical robotics to broaden their application of the minimally invasive surgery paradigm. This review discusses data obtained from articles

Eric J. Hanly; Mark A. Talamini



Syn-eruptive morphometric variability of monogenetic scoria cones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to Wood's model, morphometric parameters such as slope angle can provide valuable information about the age of conical volcanic edifices such as scoria cones assuming that their initial slopes range from 30° to 33°, measured manually on topographic maps, and assuming that their inner architectures are homogenous. This study examines the morphometric variability of nine young (a few thousand years old) small-volume scoria cones from Tenerife, Canary Islands, using high-resolution digital elevation models in order to assess their slope angle variability. Because of the young age and minimal development of gullies on the flanks, their morphometric variability can be interpreted as the result of syn-eruptive processes including: (1) pre-eruptive surface inclination, (2) vent migration and lava outflow with associated crater breaching and (3) diversity of pyroclastic rocks accumulated in the flanks of these volcanic edifices. Results show that slope angles for flank sectors differ by up to 12° among the studied volcanoes, which formed over the same period of time; this range greatly exceeds the 2-3° indicated by Wood. The greater than expected original slope range suggests that use of morphometric data in terms of morphometry-based relative dating and detection of erosional processes and settings must be done with great care (or detailed knowledge about absolute ages and eruption history), especially in field-scale morphometric investigation.

Kereszturi, Gábor; Jordan, Gyozo; Németh, Károly; Dóniz-Páez, Javier F.



Functional abdominal pain  

PubMed Central

Functional abdominal pain or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is an uncommon functional gut disorder characterised by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain attributed to the gut but poorly related to gut function. It is associated with abnormal illness behaviour and patients show psychological morbidity that is often minimised or denied in an attempt to discover an organic cause for symptoms. Thus the conventional biomedical approach to the management of such patients is unhelpful and a person's symptom experience is more usefully investigated using a biopsychosocial evaluation, which necessarily entails a multidisciplinary system of healthcare provision. Currently the pathophysiology of the disorder is poorly understood but is most likely to involve a dysfunction of central pain mechanisms either in terms of attentional bias, for example, hypervigilance or a failure of central pain modulation/inhibition. Although modern neurophysiological investigation of patients is promising and may provide important insights into the pathophysiology of FAPS, current clinical management relies on an effective physician-patient relationship in which limits on clinical investigation are set and achievable treatment goals tailored to the patient's needs are pursued.

Matthews, P; Aziz, Q



The Effect of Chlorpyrifos on Isolated Thoracic Aorta in Rats  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta and on the level of NO in plasma and aorta. The effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta in organ bath was determined in 10 rats. Another 45 rats were assigned to 3 groups with 15 rats each: control group 1 received distilled water, control group 2 was given corn oil, and the last group was given 13.5?mg/kg chlorpyrifos dissolved in corn oil every other day for 8 weeks orally. Chlorpyrifos (10?10?M–10?5?M) showed no effect on isolated thoracic aorta. Plasma AChE activity was decreased, while LDH, ALT, GGT, and AST activities were increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. Plasma NO level was increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. iNOS expression was present in all groups in the cytoplasm of the endothelia and in the smooth muscle cells of aorta. According to semiquantitative histomorphological analysis, iNOS immunopositive reactions were seen in the decreasing order in chlorpyrifos, control 2, and control 1 groups. eNOS immunopositive reactions were observed in the endothelial cell cytoplasm, rarely in the subintimal layer, and the smooth muscle cells of aorta. There were no differences among the groups in terms of eNOS immunostaining. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos induced NO production in aorta following an increase in NOS expression.

Y?ld?r?m, Ebru; Baydan, Emine; Kanbur, Murat; Kul, Oguz; C?nar, Miyase; Ekici, Husamettin; Atmaca, Nurgul



The effect of chlorpyrifos on isolated thoracic aorta in rats.  


This study investigated the effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta and on the level of NO in plasma and aorta. The effect of chlorpyrifos on thoracic aorta in organ bath was determined in 10 rats. Another 45 rats were assigned to 3 groups with 15 rats each: control group 1 received distilled water, control group 2 was given corn oil, and the last group was given 13.5 mg/kg chlorpyrifos dissolved in corn oil every other day for 8 weeks orally. Chlorpyrifos (10(-10) M-10(-5) M) showed no effect on isolated thoracic aorta. Plasma AChE activity was decreased, while LDH, ALT, GGT, and AST activities were increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. Plasma NO level was increased in chlorpyrifos group compared to control groups. iNOS expression was present in all groups in the cytoplasm of the endothelia and in the smooth muscle cells of aorta. According to semiquantitative histomorphological analysis, iNOS immunopositive reactions were seen in the decreasing order in chlorpyrifos, control 2, and control 1 groups. eNOS immunopositive reactions were observed in the endothelial cell cytoplasm, rarely in the subintimal layer, and the smooth muscle cells of aorta. There were no differences among the groups in terms of eNOS immunostaining. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos induced NO production in aorta following an increase in NOS expression. PMID:23878805

Y?ld?r?m, Ebru; Baydan, Emine; Kanbur, Murat; Kul, O?uz; C?nar, Miyase; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül



Morphometric Analysis of Martian Valley Network Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether the Martian valley networks were formed predominantly by groundwater sapping or surface fluvial runoff continues to be debated and has profoundly different implications for the climatic history of Mars and the possible evolution of life there. This paper attempts to evaluate the relative role of groundwater sapping vs. surface runoff in valley networks generation through quantitative morphometic analysis at watershed basin scale using the highest resolution MOLA DEM data. Treating the hypsometric curve of each basin as a cumulative probability distribution, its integral, skewness, kurtosis, density skewness, and density kurtosis (collectively called hypsometric attributes) can serve as quantitative measures of the basin's morphology. The hypsometric attributes are sensitive to variations in overall basin characteristics and thus are diagnostic of possible processes. These attributes of typical terrestrial sapping basins, typical terrestrial fluvial basins, and typical lunar impact cratering basins were used as endmembers to establish discriminant functions to classify Martian basins. The posteriori probability of each class membership for each Martian basin then serves as the measure of the relative role of sapping, fluvial or cratering process in forming that basin. Initial results in Margaritifer Sinus area show that groundwater sapping played a more dominant role than surface runoff, generally consistent with previous findings based on lower resolution data and supporting a precipitation-recharged groundwater sapping origin for valley networks. Using a circularity function (a ratio of area and perimeter as a function of elevation) as the measure for basin morphology in the discriminant analysis produced similar results. Other traditional morphometric parameters such as drainage density, width function, cumulative area distribution, and slope-area relationship will also be derived for Margaritifer and other areas. The overall spatial pattern of the distribution will be examined to shed more light on past climatic conditions for generating the Martian valley networks.

Luo, W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Howard, A. D.



Hemodynamic Changes Quantified in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms with Increasing Exercise Intensity Using MR Exercise Imaging and Image-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease resulting in a permanent, localized enlargement of the abdominal aorta. We previously hypothesized that the progression of AAA may be slowed by altering the hemodynamics in the abdominal aorta through exercise. To quantify the effect of exercise intensity on hemodynamic conditions in 10 AAA subjects at rest and during mild and moderate intensities of lower-limb exercise (defined as 33 ± 10% and 63 ± 18% increase above resting heart rate, respectively), we used magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics techniques. Subject-specific models were constructed from magnetic resonance angiography data and physiologic boundary conditions were derived from measurements made during dynamic exercise. We measured the abdominal aortic blood flow at rest and during exercise, and quantified mean wall shear stress (MWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and particle residence time (PRT). We observed that an increase in the level of activity correlated with an increase of MWSS and a decrease of OSI at three locations in the abdominal aorta, and these changes were most significant below the renal arteries. As the level of activity increased, PRT in the aneurysm was significantly decreased: 50% of particles were cleared out of AAAs within 1.36 ± 0.43, 0.34 ± 0.10, and 0.22 ± 0.06 s at rest, mild exercise, and moderate exercise levels, respectively. Most of the reduction of PRT occurred from rest to the mild exercise level, suggesting that mild exercise may be sufficient to reduce flow stasis in AAAs.

Suh, Ga-Young; Les, Andrea S.; Tenforde, Adam S.; Shadden, Shawn C.; Spilker, Ryan L.; Yeung, Janice J.; Cheng, Christopher P.; Herfkens, Robert J.; Dalman, Ronald L.; Taylor, Charles A.



Atherosclerosis in coronary artery and aorta in a semi-urban population by applying modified American Heart Association classification of atherosclerosis: An autopsy study  

PubMed Central

Background: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) following atherosclerosis is a giant killer and the incidence of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries is rapidly increasing among Indians. The study was formulated to assess the histomorphological atherosclerotic changes in aorta and coronary arteries at autopsy by applying the modified American Heart Association classification of atherosclerosis based on morphological descriptions to find out the age and sex related prevalence of atherosclerosis in the semi-urban population of Kolar, a district in Southern India. Materials and Methods: Autopsy was conducted on 113 cases whose age ranged from 8-85 years. Autopsy was conducted by the conventional technique; heart and the aorta were removed and fixed in 10% formalin. The heart was dissected along the direction of flow of blood and aorta along the posterior surface. Microscopic assessment of the three main coronary arteries and aorta was done using the modified American Heart Association classification of atherosclerosis. Proportions were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The number of males was 78 (69%) and number of females was 35 (31%). Mean age was 37.11 ± 15.69 years. Increased incidence of intermediate lesions was noted in young individuals (15-34 yrs). Atherosclerotic lesions were more in left anterior descending artery compared to other coronary arteries and in abdominal aorta compared to thoracic and ascending aorta. Vulnerable plaques were more in right coronary artery. Conclusion: With cardiovascular disease attaining pandemic proportions, the study of subclinical atherosclerosis is the need of the hour to estimate the disease burden in the asymptomatic population. The increased amount of atherosclerosis (advanced and intermediate lesions) found in the young population in this study gives an indication that anti-atherogenic preventive measures need to be implemented in young individuals, so as to prevent coronary artery disease from causing premature death.

Thej, Mothakapalli Jagadish; Kalyani, Raju; Kiran, Jayaramaiah



Single-stage transmediastinal replacement of the ascending, arch, and descending thoracic aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Aneurysms of the ascending, arch, and descending thoracic aorta are typically managed with two operations. The first stage involves replacement of the ascending and arch aorta leaving a segment of graft in the proximal descending aorta with a mortality and stroke risk of 8%. The second stage involves replacement of the descending aorta with a mortality of 5% and

Thomas M Beaver; Tomas D Martin



Death of Smooth Muscle Cells and Expression of Mediators of Apoptosis by T Lymphocytes in Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Thinning of the tunica media and rarefaction of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) characterize aneurysmal aortas. Apoptosis determines the cellularity and morphogenesis of tissue. Macrophages and T lymphocytes infiltrate the wall of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and produce death-promoting proteins (perforin, Fas, and FasL). This study investigated whether apoptosis occurs in association with the expression of these proteins. Methods and Results—We

E. Lynne Henderson; Yong-Jian Geng; Galina K. Sukhova; Anthony D. Whittemore; James Knox; Peter Libby


Fluid-structure interaction of a patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm treated with an endovascular stent-graft  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are local dilatations of the infrarenal aorta. If left untreated they may rupture and lead to death. One form of treatment is the minimally invasive insertion of a stent-graft into the aneurysm. Despite this effective treatment aneurysms may occasionally continue to expand and this may eventually result in post-operative rupture of the aneurysm. Fluid-structure interaction

David S Molony; Anthony Callanan; Eamon G Kavanagh; Michael T Walsh; Tim M McGloughlin



Abdominal imaging: An introduction  

SciTech Connect

This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures.

Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.



Pediatric abdominal wall defects.  


This article reviews the incidence, presentation, anatomy, and surgical management of abdominal wall defects found in the pediatric population. Defects such as inguinal hernia and umbilical hernia are common and are encountered frequently by the pediatric surgeon. Recently developed techniques for repairing these hernias are aimed at improving cosmesis and decreasing pain while maintaining acceptably low recurrence rates. Less common conditions such as femoral hernia, Spigelian hernia, epigastric hernia, lumbar hernia, gastroschisis, and omphalocele are also discussed. The surgical treatment of gastroschisis and omphalocele has undergone some advancement with the use of various silos and meshes. PMID:24035087

Kelly, Katherine B; Ponsky, Todd A



[Abdominal penetrating trauma].  


A 19-year-old female was brought to the Emergency Room as a trauma patient. During a tilting contest she fell off the horse and was penetrated by a spear used for tilting the ring. She was respiratorically as well as haemodynamically stable. The spear was supported but not removed by the paramedics. The spear penetrated the patient near the left iliac crest pointing at the heart. Further investigation at the Emergency Room is described briefly and guidelines for penetrating, impaled foreign bodies in the (thoraco)abdominal region are outlined. PMID:19671404

Kring, Søren; Helligsøe, Per; Kåg, Lise



[Rehabilitation after abdominal surgery].  


A combined strategy of anesthetic and surgical care defines postoperative rehabilitation, which aims to accelerate recovery from surgery, shorten convalescence, and reduce postoperative morbidity. Preoperative and early postoperative oral feeding, a relatively "dry" fluid regimen, and the avoidance of or early removal of drains, gastric tubes and bladder catheters all contribute to decreasing postoperative morbidity after abdominal surgery. Postoperative pain control, prevention of nausea and vomiting, shortening the duration of postoperative ileus, and early ambulation can also help to decrease postoperative morbidity. The use of multimodal fast-track clinical rehabilitation programs should improve outcomes and quality of life, reduce hospital stays, and save money. PMID:16783266

Bonnet, Francis; Szymkiewicz, Olga; Marret, Emmanuel; Houry, Sidney



Reoperations on the Aortic Root and Ascending Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Reoperations on the aortic root and the ascending aorta are being performed with increasing frequency and remain a challenging problem.Methods. Eighty-one patients (age range, 14 to 78 years) underwent reoperations on the aortic root or the ascending aorta during a 14.5-year interval ending October 1996. The previous operations were aortic valve procedure (28%), coronary artery bypass grafting (25%), aortic

Dimitrios Dougenis; Bill B Daily; Nicholas T Kouchoukos



Intramural hematoma of the aorta: delayed pericardial tamponade.  


Intramural hematoma of the aorta is a fatal disorder that remains poorly characterized. Recently, it has been accepted as a variant form of aortic dissection, where blood accumulates within the aortic media without the presence of an intimal tear. Clinically, it may present somewhat similar to dissection, and although optimal therapy remains controversial, current opinion supports surgery as the preferred method of treatment for intramural hematomas that involve the ascending aorta and aortic arch. PMID:19241315

Ahmed, F; Salhab, K; Stergiopoulos, K; Seifert, F; Baram, D



Staged hybrid treatment of ascending aorta aneurysm post cardiac surgery.  


We describe the management of ascending aorta aneurysm following a recurrent sternotomy wound infection in 2 male patients. The patients had undergone cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass with late complications of chronic sternal wound infection and saccular aneurysm at the aortic cannulation site. In both patients, following a multidisciplinary approach, a customized stent graft was implanted endovascularly into the ascending aorta to seal the aneurysm orifice followed by resternotomy, repair of the aneurysm and omentopexy. Both patients' postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:23475117

Shaikhrezai, Kasra; Nanjaiah, Prakash; Ingram, Susan M; Brackenbury, Edward T



Acute traumatic abdominal wall hernia.  


Although blunt abdominal trauma is frequent, traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWH) are rare. We describe a large TAWH with associated intra-abdominal lesions that were caused by high-energy trauma. The diagnosis was missed by clinical examination but was subsequently revealed by a computed tomography (CT) scan. Repair consisted of an open anatomical reconstruction of the abdominal wall layers with reinforcement by an intraperitoneal composite mesh. The patient recovered well and the results of a post-operative CT scan are presented. PMID:20440527

den Hartog, D; Tuinebreijer, W E; Oprel, P P; Patka, P



Hypnosis for functional abdominal pain.  


Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other somatic symptoms are easily adaptable for use with functional abdominal pain. The author discusses 2 contrasting hypnotic approaches to functional abdominal pain and provides implications for further research. These approaches may provide new insights into this common and complex disorder. PMID:21922712

Gottsegen, David



Acute embolic occlusion of the distal aorta 1 1 The opinions and assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the United States Government, the Department of Defense, or the Department of the Air Force  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeAcute occlusion of the abdominal aorta requires rapid diagnosis and intervention to prevent loss of life or limb. The overall mortality due to embolic occlusion is reported to be over 30%. The most common source of emboli is the heart, secondary to atrial fibrillation or myocardial infarction.

Ronald B Johnston; E. Jerry Cohn; Alvin M Cotlar



In Vivo Quantification of Murine Aortic Cyclic Strain, Motion, and Curvature: Implications for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Growth  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop methods to quantify cyclic strain, motion, and curvature of the murine abdominal aorta in vivo. Materials and Methods C57BL/6J and apoE?/? mice underwent 3D time-of-flight MR angiography to position cardiac-gated 2D slices at four locations along the abdominal aorta where circumferential cyclic strain and lumen centroid motion were calculated. From the 3D data, a centerline through the aorta was created to quantify geometric curvature at 0.1mm intervals. Medial elastin content was quantified with histology post-mortem. The location and shape of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), created from angiotensin II infusion, were evaluated qualitatively. Results Strain waveforms were similar at all locations and between groups. Centroid motion was significantly larger and more leftward above the renal vessels than below (p<0.05). Maximum geometric curvature occurred slightly proximal to the right renal artery. Elastin content was similar around the circumference of the vessel. AAAs developed in the same location as the maximum curvature and grew in the same direction as vessel curvature and motion. Conclusion The methods presented provide temporally and spatially resolved data quantifying murine aortic motion and curvature in vivo. This non-invasive methodology will allow serial quantification of how these parameters influence the location and direction of AAA growth.

Goergen, Craig J.; Barr, Kyla N.; Huynh, Diem T.; Eastham-Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Choi, Gilwoo; Hedehus, Maj; Dalman, Ronald L.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Taylor, Charles A.; Tsao, Philip S.; Greve, Joan M.



Modification of an endovascular stent graft for abdominal aortic aneurysm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endovascular surgery is currently used to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). A stent graft is deployed to exclude blood flow from the aneurysm sac. It is an effective procedure used in preventing aneurysm rupture, with reduced patient morbidity and mortality compared to open surgical repair. Migration and leakage around the device ("endoleak") due to poor sealing of the stent graft to the aorta have raised concerns about the long-term durability of endovascular repair. A preliminary study of cell migration and proliferation is presented as a prelude to a more extensive in vivo testing. A method to enhance the biological seal between the stent graft and the aorta is proposed to eliminate this problem. This can be achieved by impregnating the stent graft with 50/50 poly (DL-lactide co glycolic acid) (PLGA) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), at the proximal and distal ends. It is hypothesized that as PLGA degrades it will release the growth factors that will promote proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells to the coated site, leading to a natural seal between the aorta and the stent graft. In addition, growth factor release should promote smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction that will help keep the stent graft in place at the proximal and distal ends. It is shown that a statistically significant effect of increased cell proliferation and migration is observed for CTGF release. Less of an effect is noted for bFGF or just the PLGA. The effect is estimated to be large enough to be clinically significant in a future animal study. The long term goal of this study is to reduce migration encounter after graft deployment and to reduce secondary interventions of EVAR especially for older patients who are unfit for open surgical treatment.

Moloye, Olajompo Busola


Doxycycline inhibition of aneurysmal degeneration in an elastase-induced rat model of abdominal aortic aneurysm: Preservation of aortic elastin associated with suppressed production of 92 kD gelatinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Increased local production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is a potential mechanism underlying structural protein degradation in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). With an elastase-induced rodent model of AAA, we determined whether pharmacologic treatment with an MMP-inhibiting tetracycline might limit the development of experimental AAA in vivo.Methods: Forty-eight Wistar rats underwent a 2-hour perfusion of the abdominal aorta with 50 U

Drazen Petrinec; Shixiong Liao; Dennis R. Holmes; Jeffrey M. Reilly; William C. Parks; Robert W. Thompson



[Pathophysiology of abdominal pain].  


Abdominal pain can be induced by stimulation of visceral nociceptors. Activation of nociceptors usually requires previous sensitization by pathological events, such as inflammation, ischemia or acidosis. Although abdominal pain can obviously be caused by pathology of a visceral structure, clinicians frequently observe that such a pathology explains only part of the pain complaints. Occasionally, there is lack of objective signs of visceral lesions. There is clear evidence that pain states are associated with profound changes of the central processing of the sensory input. The main consequences of such alterations for patients are twofold: 1) a central sensitization, i.e. an increased excitability of the central nervous system; 2) an alteration of the endogenous pain modulation, which under normal conditions inhibits the processing of nociceptive signals in the central nervous system. Both phenomena lead to a spread of pain to other body regions and an amplification of the pain perception. The interactions between visceral pathology and alterations of the central pain processes represent an at least partial explanation for the discrepancy between objective signs of peripheral lesions and severity of the symptoms. Today, both central hypersensitivity and alteration in endogenous pain modulation can be measured in clinical practice. This information can be used to provide the patients with an explanatory model for their pain. Furthermore, first data suggest that alterations in central pain processing may represent negative prognostic factors. A better understanding of the individual pathophysiology may allow in the future the development of individual therapeutic strategies. PMID:21796591

Curatolo, Michele



Lipase activity in the human aorta.  


The hydrolysis of triglycerides by grossly normal male human aortas has been studied in vitro. The tissue contains an acid lipase (pH optimum, 5.4) and an alkaline lipase (pH optimum, 8.8). Both lipases catalyze the hydrolysis of saturated triglycerides; the rate decreases with increasing fatty acyl chain from C(10) to C(18). Glycerol trioleate, trilinoleate, and trilinolenate are hydrolyzed at similar rates. Alkaline lipase is inhibited about 50% at 7.2 mm glycerol trioleate, while acid lipase is unaffected at this concentration. Both lipases are activated by Ca(++) ions. The acid lipase is easily inactivated by deionized water used either as a homogenizing or dialyzing medium. Acid lipase is strongly inhibited by BSA, sodium deoxycholate, and sodium taurocholate; alkaline lipase is unaffected by BSA and is activated about twofold by bile salts. The products of hydrolysis of glycerol trioleate by aortic lipases are predominantly oleic acid and glycerol 1,2-dioleate with a small accumulation of glycerol monooleate. The aortic preparations appear to contain inhibitors for both the acid and alkaline lipase. The substance which inhibits alkaline lipase also inhibits pancreatic lipase; it is heat-stable and dialyzable. The inhibitor of the acid lipase is also heat-stable but is nondialyzable. PMID:5441245

Hayase, K; Miller, B F



Multivariate morphometric analysis of Apis cerana of southern mainland Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract – Multivariate morphometric analyses were performed on a series of worker honeybees, Apis cerana, representing 557 colonies from all of southern mainland Asia extending from Afghanistan to Vietnam south of the Himalayas. Scores from the principal components,analysis revealed five statistically separable but not entirely distinct morphoclusters of bees: (1) the HinduKush, Kashmir, N. Myanmar, N. Vietnam and S. China;

Sarah E. RADLOFFa; H. Randall Hepburn; C. Hepburn; Stefan Fuchs; Gard W. Otis; M. M. Sein; H. L. Aung; H. T. Pham; D. Q. Tam; A. M. Nuru; Tan Ken




EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for neuropathological and morphometric assessments of rat pups on postnatal day (PND) 11 and at study termination (after PND 60). In recent discussions about conducting these studies on pesti...


Morphometric study of collagen maturation in chick compact bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultrastructural-morphometric study was carried out on the process of osteoid maturation in growing surfaces of parallel-fibered chick bone. The aim was to investigate the distribution, size and amount of collagen fibrils (CFs), as well as the proteoglycan (PG) content, throughout the osteoid seam and in the adjacent bone. The results show that the organic components secreted by osteoblasts undergo

Carla Palumbo; Marzia Ferretti; Silvana Palazzini; Davide Zaffe



Morphometric studies of the neuropathological changes in choreatic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The striatum, pallidum and subthalamic nucleus were studied by combined morphometric methods in serial sections of 13 brains of normal adults and of 15 patients with choreatic diseases . In addition the volume of the hemispheres and of the cortex were measured . All data obtained were corrected by the shrinkage factor to represent fresh brain values . In




Morphometric analysis and biogeography of Apis koschevnikovi Enderlein (1906)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate morphometric analyses were performed on workers of Apis koschevnikovi from throughout their distribution in Malaysia, Borneo and Indonesia. Principal component analysis showed one morphocluster comprising bees from Kalimantan Indonesia, Sarawak, Sabah and the Malay Peninsula. The population is more homogeneous than A. cerana over the same geographical area, as seen from the average coefficient of variation in 12 characters

S. Hadisoesilo; Rika Raffiudin; Wirian Susanti; Tri Atmowidi; Colleen Hepburn; Sarah E. Radloff; Stefan Fuchs; H. Randall Hepburn



Diffuse thalamic degeneration in fatal familial insomnia. A morphometric study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A morphometric investigation disclosed most thalamic nuclei severely degenerated in two patients with fatal familial insomnia. Associative and motor nuclei lost 90% neurons, and limbic–paralimbic, intralaminar and reticular nuclei lost 60%. These findings point to the disorganization of most thalamic circuits as a condition necessary for the sleep–wake rhythm being affected.

Giorgio Macchi; Giacomina Rossi; Anna Laura Abbamondi; Giorgio Giaccone; Domenico Mancia; Fabrizio Tagliavini; Orso Bugiani



In situ morphometric characterization of Aframomum melegueta accessions in Ghana.  


In spite of the huge economic importance of Aframomum melegueta in the herbal and pharmaceutical industries, its production is limited by lack of planting materials (propagules). The plant also lacks scientific descriptors, which has often led to misidentification with adverse health implications. We therefore aimed at developing a descriptor list to facilitate the identification of A. melegueta using 34 morphometric traits comprising 18 quantitative and 16 qualitative characters. The morphological traits showed that A. melegueta has a characteristic stolon that produces tillers instead of rhizomes. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean using both the nearest-neighbour and complete-linkage methods based on the 34 morphometric traits clustered the eight accessions into two main groups based on ecological location. The accessions from the Eastern and Ashanti regions were separated at similarity coefficients of 0.822 and 0.644, respectively, with a highly significant discriminant function. The Eastern accessions were further clustered into red or yellow fruits at similarity indexes of 0.936 and 0.865 using the nearest-neighbour and complete-linkage methods, respectively. The present study has shown that morphometric traits of A. melegueta are greatly influenced by its ecological habitat. It is envisaged that the descriptor list developed coupled with a morphometric description would enhance its identification and utilization. PMID:23799183

Amponsah, J; Adamtey, N; Elegba, W; Danso, K E



Distinct evolutionary patterns of morphometric sperm traits in passerine birds  

PubMed Central

The striking diversity of sperm shape across the animal kingdom is still poorly understood. Postcopulatory sexual selection is an important factor driving the evolution of sperm size and shape. Interestingly, morphometric sperm traits, such as the length of the head, midpiece and flagellum, exhibit a strong positive phenotypic correlation across species. Here we used recently developed comparative methods to investigate how such phenotypic correlations between morphometric sperm traits may evolve. We compare allometric relationships and evolutionary trajectories of three morphometric sperm traits (length of head, midpiece and flagellum) in passerine birds. We show that these traits exhibit strong phenotypic correlations but that allometry varies across families. In addition, the evolutionary trajectories of the midpiece and flagellum are similar while the trajectory for head length differs. We discuss our findings in the light of three scenarios accounting for correlated trait evolution: (i) genetic correlation; (ii) concerted response to selection acting simultaneously on different traits; and (iii) phenotypic correlation between traits driven by mechanistic constraints owing to selection on sperm performance. Our results suggest that concerted response to selection is the most likely explanation for the phenotypic correlation between morphometric sperm traits.

Immler, Simone; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Birkhead, Tim R.



Stroke assessment: morphometric infarct size versus neurologic deficit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We presently examine the relation between histologic infarct size and neurologic deficit as endpoints and seek to clarify their sensitivity in defining stroke outcome. Neurologic deficits of 76 cats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion were assessed daily and correlated with the corresponding infarct sizes determined morphometrically after 2 weeks' survival. A five-item neurologic deficit score included the time elapsed

Gabrielle M de Courten Myers; Marla Kleinholz; Kenneth R Wagner; Ronald E Myers



How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)|

Haycock, Christine E.



Hypnosis for Functional Abdominal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic abdominal pain is a common pediatric condition affecting 20% of the pediatric population worldwide. Most children with this disorder are found to have no specific organic etiology and are given the diagnosis of functional abdominal pain. Well-designed clinical trials have found hypnotherapy and guided imagery to be the most efficacious treatments for this condition. Hypnotic techniques used for other

David Gottsegen



Thirty years of abdominal pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the author describes a brief psychotherapy with a man who has struggled with abdominal symptoms for most of his adult life. After an unhappy childhood, the patient (Mr A) married and then was witness to the birth of his stillborn child, in a foreign country. Soon after his abdominal symptoms started, and plagued him for the following



Updates on abdominal desmoid tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desmoid tumor is a monoclonal, fi broblastic proliferation arising in musculoaponeurotic structures. This connective tissue hyperplasia infi ltrates locally, recurs frequently after resection but does not metastasize. Abdominal desmoid occurs sporadically, in association with some familial syndromes and often represents a clinical dilemma for surgeons. The enigmatic biology and anatomical location of abdominal desmoids make treatment recommendations diffi cult. This

Bernardino Rampone; Corrado Pedrazzani; Daniele Marrelli; Enrico Pinto; Franco Roviello



Urgent Abdominal Re-Explorations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Treatment of a number of complications that occur after abdominal surgeries may require that Urgent Abdominal Re-explorations (UARs), the life-saving and obligatory operations, are performed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reasons for performing UARs, outcomes of relaparotomies (RLs) and factors that affect mortality. METHODS: Demographic characteristics; initial diagnoses; information from and complications of the first

Haluk Recai Unalp; Erdinc Kamer; Haldun Kar; Ahmet Bal; Mustafa Peskersoy; Mehmet Ali Onal



Hemodynamic variations due to spiral blood flow through four patient-specific bifurcated stent graft configurations for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms.  


Endovascular repair is now a recognised procedure for treating abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, post-operative complications such as stent graft migration and thrombus may still occur. To assess these complications numerically, the correct input boundary conditions, which include the full human aorta with associated branching, should be included. Four patient-specific computed tomography scanned bifurcated stent grafts (SGs) were modelled and attached onto a full human aorta, which included the ascending, aortic arch and descending aortas. Two of the SG geometries had a twisted leg configuration, while the other two had conventional nontwisted leg configurations. Computational fluid dynamics was completed for both geometries and the hemodynamics assessed. The complexity of the flow patterns and secondary flows were influenced by the inclusion of the full human aorta at the SG proximal section. During the decelerating phase significant recirculations occurred along the main body of all SG configurations. The inclusion of the full human aorta did not impact the velocity contours within the distal legs and there was no difference in drag forces with the SG containing the full human aorta and those without. A twisted leg configuration further promoted a spiral flow formation along its distal legs. PMID:23255342

Stefanov, Florian; McGloughlin, Tim; Delassus, Patrick; Morris, Liam



Diagnostic value of multiplanar CT reconstructions in the assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms.  


The increased use of ultrasonography and computed tomography result in the increased number of detected aneurysms, especially with relatively small diameters so the prevalence of the abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is increasing. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of multiplanar (MPR) CT reconstructions in the evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Material comprises a group of 30 patients with the abdominal aortic aneurysm. There were 22 men and eight women, aged between 54 and 78 years (mean age was 62 years). In all the patients the CT examination of the abdominal aorta was performed. The diameter of the aortic aneurysm, measured using computed tomography scans and the rate of growth are the most important determinants of the risk of rupture, and in determining when elective repair is justified. The exact measurements of the aortic aneurysm are required. The tortuous aorta is clearly visible on MPR reconstruction, which enables choosing the proper axial section to measure the true diameter of the aneurysm. The exact measurement of the aneurysm length, possible on MPR sections is essential in determining the rate of aneurysm growth. The presence and size of thrombus correlate with the risk of aneurysm rupture. The MPR reconstructions enable exact measurements of the thrombus length. The visualization of aortic bifurcation is better on MPR reconstructions in coronal plane. The beginning of the dissection in some patients is visible only on MPR images. An MPR reconstruction provides additional information in CT examination of abdominal aortic aneurysm and should be performed in each CT examination of aortic aneurysms. PMID:16145962

Pas?awski, Marek; Krzyzanowski, Konrad; Z?omaniec, Janusz



Abdominal wall gossypiboma.  


A 71-year-old woman, one year following a fleur-de-lis abdominoplasty and incisional hernia repair, presented with two chronic, draining peri-umbilical sinuses. Her immediate postoperative course was complicated by a superficial surgical site infection with central skin breakdown that was treated with vacuum assisted closure (VAC). After the wound had closed completely, two midline sinus tracts developed. A CT scan demonstrated an 8x3x1.6cm thick-walled collection along the anterior abdominal wall containing numerous air bubbles. Surgical debridement revealed a cavity containing an 8x3x1.6cm block of well incorporated VAC foam. With the increasing clinical use of VAC wound therapy, this image serves as an important reminder to include gossypiboma in the differential diagnosis for patients with chronic wound problems who have previously received VAC treatment. PMID:19683975

Huston, Tara L; Grant, Robert T



CT of abdominal tuberculosis  

SciTech Connect

Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.

Epstein, B.M. (Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa); Mann, J.H.



Total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy.  


Hysterectomy is one of the most frequently performed operations in the world, accounting for 500,000-600,000 procedures annually in the USA; the abdominal route for hysterectomy is the preferred route in 60-80% of these operations. Although the number of total abdominal hysterectomies performed annually has decreased, the number of subtotal abdominal hysterectomies increased by >400%. The major indications for abdominal hysterectomy include abnormal uterine bleeding, myomata uteri, adenomyosis, endometriosis, neoplasia, and chronic salpingitis. The basis for selection for subtotal versus total hysterectomy has little in the way of factual data to support it and may actually present some significant disadvantages, such as continued menstruation and cervical prolapse. The detailed technique for performing intrafascial abdominal hysterectomy relies heavily on precise knowledge of pelvic anatomy and compulsive detail to tissue handling. The consistent and correct usage of prophylactic antimicrobials, measures to prevent thromboemboli, and procedures to avoid urinary retention are key to the overall success of the surgery. PMID:15985251

Baggish, Michael S



Investigation of pulsatile flowfield in healthy thoracic aorta models.  


Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Complex hemodynamics plays a critical role in the development of aortic dissection and atherosclerosis, as well as many other diseases. Since fundamental fluid mechanics are important for the understanding of the blood flow in the cardiovascular circulatory system of the human body aspects, a joint experimental and numerical study was conducted in this study to determine the distributions of wall shear stress and pressure and oscillatory WSS index, and to examine their correlation with the aortic disorders, especially dissection. Experimentally, the Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PC-MRI) method was used to acquire the true geometry of a normal human thoracic aorta, which was readily converted into a transparent thoracic aorta model by the rapid prototyping (RP) technique. The thoracic aorta model was then used in the in vitro experiments and computations. Simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code ACE+((R)) to determine flow characteristics of the three-dimensional, pulsatile, incompressible, and Newtonian fluid in the thoracic aorta model. The unsteady boundary conditions at the inlet and the outlet of the aortic flow were specified from the measured flowrate and pressure results during in vitro experiments. For the code validation, the predicted axial velocity reasonably agrees with the PC-MRI experimental data in the oblique sagittal plane of the thoracic aorta model. The thorough analyses of the thoracic aorta flow, WSSs, WSS index (OSI), and wall pressures are presented. The predicted locations of the maxima of WSS and the wall pressure can be then correlated with that of the thoracic aorta dissection, and thereby may lead to a useful biological significance. The numerical results also suggest that the effects of low WSS and high OSI tend to cause wall thickening occurred along the inferior wall of the aortic arch and the anterior wall of the brachiocephalic artery, similar implication reported in a number of previous studies. PMID:19890715

Wen, Chih-Yung; Yang, An-Shik; Tseng, Li-Yu; Chai, Jyh-Wen



Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.  


The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. PMID:24035086

Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott



Serial postmortem abdominal radiographic findings in canine cadavers.  


Postmortem radiographic examinations of animals are often performed in judicial investigation to rule out gunshot and fractures due to cruelty or illegal hunting or poaching activities. Literature describing postmortem changes seen on radiographs of animals is rarely available. Serial abdominal radiography of 6 recently euthanized dogs were performed in an interval of 8h at a tropical ambient temperature of 22-33 degrees C. Severe decomposition of the cadavers prevented the study to be performed beyond 24h. Gradual increment of gas accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, kidney and blood vessels were observed. Increased amount of gas in the gastrointestinal tract was detected as early as 8h post-euthanasia and continuously increased throughout the study. Gas was seen in the portal vein and caudal vena cava of all cadavers at 16h post-euthanasia. The presence of gas in the aorta occurred at a later stage. Tubular branching gas pattern in the liver and spleen was first observed and progressed to vesicular gas pattern due to tissue decomposition. This study showed that abdominal radiographic postmortem changes occurred most rapidly between 8 and 16h post-euthanasia at the ambient temperature of 22-33 degrees C. PMID:19716666

Heng, Hock Gan; Selvarajah, Gayathri Thevi; Lim, Hiang Tee; Ong, Jin Seng; Lim, Jiehan; Ooi, Jin Tatt



A crossbeam co-ordinate caliper for the morphometric analysis of lithic nuclei: a description, test and empirical examples of application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last four decades, there has been surprisingly little advance in the quantitative morphometric analysis of Palaeolithic stone tools, especially compared to that which has taken place in biological morphometrics over a comparable time frame. In Palaeolithic archaeology's sister discipline of palaeoanthropology, detailed quantitative morphometric, geometric morphometric, and even 3D geometric morphometric analyses are now seen almost as routine.

Stephen J. Lycett; Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel; Robert A. Foley



Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome.  


Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is seen with increasing frequency in the critically-ill. Elevated intraabdominal pressures interfere with vital organ function and contribute to mortality. Prevention, when possible and early recognition of occurrence with timely therapy will improve survival. Measurement of bladder pressures plays a critical role in diagnosis and guiding therapy. Treatment includes non-invasive and invasive methodologies designed to decrease the volume of abdominal contents and invasive methods to increase the compartment dimensions. PMID:23097942

Early, Gerald L; Wesp, Julie; Augustin, Stanley M


Evisceration through multiple abdominal wall defects following blunt abdominal injury.  


We report an unusual case of a posttraumatic evisceration of small and large bowel through 2 holes in the anterior abdominal wall after a motor vehicle accident. Prompt adequate management consists of reestablishing the perfusion of the eviscerated organ if the blood supply is compromised, performing a full laparotomy to exclude intra-abdominal organ injury and meticulous cleaning of the eviscerated organs before reducing them in the abdomen and closing the abdomen in layers. PMID:14578838

van As, A B; Rode, H



Surgical treatment of ascending aorta and aortic root aneurysms.  


Aneurysms of the aortic root and ascending aorta are often due to degenerative disease of media. Aneurysm of the aortic root often affects patients in their second to fourth decades of life, whereas aneurysm of the ascending aorta occurs mostly in the fifth to seventh decades of life. These aneurysms can cause aortic insufficiency, dissection, and/or rupture. Current guidelines recommend surgical treatment when the diameter of the aneurysm exceeds 50 mm. In patients with family history of aortic dissection or with Loyes-Dietz syndrome (a more severe form of Marfan syndrome), surgery should be considered when they are even smaller. Composite replacement of the aortic valve and ascending aorta used to be the standard treatment for patients with aortic root aneurysms. During the past 2 decades, a conservative procedure whereby the aneurysm is replaced with Dacron graft and the aortic valve is preserved has gained widespread use, and the results have been excellent in experienced hands. PMID:20226961

David, Tirone E


Functional morphometric analysis in cellular behaviors: shape and size matter.  


Cellular morphogenesis in response to biophysical and topographical cues provides insights into cytoskeletal status, biointerface communications, and phenotypic adaptations in an incessant signaling feedback that governs cellular fate. Morphometric characterization is an important element in the study of the dynamic cellular behaviors, in their interactive response to environmental influence exerted by culture system. They collectively serve to reflect cellular proliferation, migration, and differentiation, which may serve as prognostic indices for clinical and pathological diagnosis. Various parameters are proposed to categorize morphological adaptations in relation to cellular function. In this review, the underlying principles, assumptions, and limitations of morphological characterizations are discussed. The significance, challenges, and implications of quantitative morphometric characterization of cell shapes and sizes in determining cellular functions are discussed. PMID:23713066

Yu, Haiyang; Lim, Kee Pah; Xiong, Sijing; Tan, Lay Poh; Shim, Winston



Morphometric changes in boar spermatozoa induced by cryopreservation.  


Computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis was used to determine the effects of cryopreservation on boar sperm head and midpiece morphometry. Sperm-rich fractions were collected from five mature boars. Three microscope slides were prepared from single extended sperm samples prior freezing and post-thawing. All slides were stained with Hemacolor, and 250 sperm images were obtained from each slide. The sperm head dimensions for length, width, area, perimeter and four shape factors and sperm-midpiece dimensions for area, width, angle and distance were determined in each spermatozoa. The effects of sperm freezing on sperm dimensions within and among boars were determined. A previous discriminant analysis of the results was able to correctly classify a 78.3 and 82% of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa respectively. Sperm heads were significantly smaller in cryopreserved spermatozoa than in the companion extended samples for length, width, area and perimeter. Sperm midpieces were also significantly smaller in cryopreserved spermatozoa for width and area. The highest changes in morphometric dimensions after the freeze-thawing process were found in the midpiece of spermatozoa. The variability of morphometric measurements only was significantly different between fresh and thawed samples for head rugosity and midpiece area. The effects of cryopreservation on morphometric parameters were similar in the boars, which allow us to conclude that cryopreservation process does not have a different effect in each individual boar. In summary, morphometric changes associated with the cryopreservation process on boar spermatozoa do not apparently depends on an effect at individual level. PMID:17651399

García-Herreros, M; Barón, F J; Aparicio, I M; Santos, A J; García-Marín, L J; Gil, M C



Morphometric analysis and biogeography of Apis koschevnikovi Enderlein (1906)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate morphometric analyses were performed on workers of Apis koschevnikovi from throughout their distribution in Malaysia, Borneo and Indonesia. Principal component analysis showed one morphocluster\\u000a comprising bees from Kalimantan Indonesia, Sarawak, Sabah and the Malay Peninsula. The population is more homogeneous than\\u000a A. cerana over the same geographical area, as seen from the average coefficient of variation in 12 characters

S. Hadisoesilo; Rika Raffiudin; Wirian Susanti; Tri Atmowidi; Colleen Hepburn; Sarah E. Radloff; Stefan Fuchs; H. Randall Hepburn



Morphometric development of the human auditory system: ventral cochlear nucleus.  


The development of the human cochlear nucleus was studied in serial sections of the brain of 12 fetuses at 12-40 weeks of gestation, an infant at 2 months of age and an adult of 63 years using an electronic planimeter with a computer. Morphometric analysis of the development of the ventral cochlear nucleus showed that its development accelerates after 18 weeks of gestation in terms of columnar volume, columnar length, neuronal number and neuronal size. PMID:8486125

Nara, T; Goto, N; Nakae, Y; Okada, A



Morphometric variations as acclimation mechanisms in Zostera noltii beds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of morphometric variations as acclimation mechanisms was tested in natural populations of the intertidal seagrass Zostera noltii in Ria Formosa (Algarve, southern Portugal). To achieve the objective, two populations of Z. noltii were studied; a bed exposed and physically impacted by the artificial opening of a new inlet, and a second bed protected from dynamic impacts. At each meadow, morphometry and other plant-key variables such as tissue composition, photosynthetic parameters and dynamic properties (i.e. modules and whole plant growth rates) were monitored. After severe physical impacts in winter 1998, the newly appeared plants in the exposed meadow showed permanent morphometric changes. This new morphotype (small-leaved morphotype, SLM) had shorter (65%) and narrower leaves (25%) with longer internodes (4 times), than the large-leaved morphotype (LLM) found in the protected meadow or in the exposed meadow prior to the large disturbance. The SLM also had a larger non-photosynthetic biomass fraction, but increased photosynthetic capacity compared with the LLM. The morphometric and physiological changes were related to the fast recovery (<6 months) exhibited in the exposed meadow. In the protected meadow, morphometric changes (minor and short term) were associated with seasonal patterns. After the recovery, exposed and protected meadows gave similar production estimates supporting the hypothesis that a new stable state had been established in the exposed meadow. From these results, it can be concluded that Z. noltii has a remarkable phenotypic plasticity supported by coordinated changes in dynamic variables (i.e. leaf and internodal elongation rates and plastochrone index). Phenotypic plasticity seems to be the main mechanism by which this species is able to cope with short and long term environmental changes.

Peralta, G.; Brun, F. G.; Hernandez, I.; Vergara, J. J.; Perez-Llorens, J. L.



Subclinical thrombosis of the ascending aorta: a possible paraneoplastic syndrome.  


Thrombosis of the ascending aorta is a rare, potentially lethal complication. We report the case of a 56-year-old woman with a massive but subclinic thrombosis of the ascending aorta after two cycles of chemotherapy due to an epidermoid lung carcinoma stage T3 N2 M0. An emergent aortic thrombectomy was performed under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. This thrombotic event occurred in an arterial vessel with high laminar flow, which is extremely uncommon and did not present any clinical manifestation. PMID:19559238

Mosquera, Victor X; Cuenca, José J; Pazos, Pablo; Herrera, José M; Mohammad, Mohammad; Juffé, Alberto



Abdominal actinomycosis: a case report.  


Actinomycosis is an anaerobic infection caused by actinomycetes, which are part of the normal flora in the intestinal, anal and genital tracts. Although the infection is often cured medically with appropriate antimicrobial therapy, diagnosis is usually made surgically. We report the case of a 41 year-old woman with intra-abdominal mass secondary to extensive actinomycosis involving the hepatic flexura. She required emergency surgery during which the mass was excised. A review of the literature on abdominal actinomycosis during the last 20 years is reported. Emergency surgery has been rarely described in this condition. Although the incidence of actinomycosis has decreased, the abdominal form has been observed with increasing frequency: it could be the result of prolonged use of intra-uterine device. Abdominal actinomycosis is an extremely rare infection that can mimic multiple disease processes and requires accurate diagnosis for successful therapy. PMID:14653043

Coban, A; Yetkin, G; Kebudi, A



Disseminated Intra-Abdominal Hydatidosis  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 26-year-old male Peruvian patient who presented with disseminated intra-abdominal hydatidosis. The patient was treated with surgical removal of the cysts and prolonged medical treatment with albendazole.

Concha, Fatima; Maguina, Ciro; Seas, Carlos



Abdominal ultrasonography, 2nd Ed  

SciTech Connect

This volume is a new and updated edition of an extensively illustrated text and reference on the capabilities and imaging of gray scale ultrasonography for each major abdominal organ. Each major organ system is treated separately, including liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, pancreas, kidney, retroperitoneum, abdominal vasculature, and more. There are over 500 illustrations and ten pages of full color plates for cross sectional anatomy.

Goldberg, B.B.



Functional Abdominal Pain in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Approximately 50 years ago, Apley and Naish described children who presented with repeated episodes of abdominal pain for\\u000a at least 3 months without any identifiable cause under the term recurrent abdominal pain (Apley and Naish 1958). Later studies\\u000a showed that this term was a “waste basket” encompassing functional and organic conditions. More recent symptom-based criteria,\\u000a known as Rome criteria, exclusively

Miguel Saps; Gati Dhroove


Management of functional abdominal pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The diagnosis of functional abdominal pain should be made based on the Rome II symptom criteria with only limited testing\\u000a to exclude other disease. During physical examination the clinician may look for evidence of pain behavior which would be\\u000a supportive of the diagnosis. Reassurance and proper education regarding the clinical entity of functional abdominal pain is\\u000a critical for successful

Yuri A. Saito; Jean C. Fox



Therapeutic laparoscopy for abdominal trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Background: Instead of open laparotomy, laparoscopy can be used safely and effectively for the diagnosis and treatment of\\u000a traumatic abdominal injuries. Methods: Between February 1998 and January 2002, 78 hemodynamically stable patients (49 males\\u000a and 29 females) with suspicious abdominal injuries underwent diagnostic or therapeutic laparoscopy. The patients ranged in\\u000a age from 15 to 79 years (median, 40.9 years). Of

Y. B. Chol; K. S. Lim



Customized fenestrated endovascular graft repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm with concomitant horseshoe kidney.  


The occurrence of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with horseshoe kidney (HSK) is an uncommon but complex surgical problem. This report outlines three such cases, the particular issues encountered and how customized endovascular grafts were successfully used to overcome them. Case one shows an accessory renal artery arising from the left common iliac artery, case two shows a right accessory renal artery from the AAA sac and case three has the right renal artery coming off the distal abdominal aorta within the sac. Across three patients, each graft had a single custom fenestration, which preserved a total of three major vessels with no change in renal function. Customized endografts are a viable tool to preserve aberrant vessels and thus renal mass in AAA and HSK. Customized endografts require an extensive work-up and are currently expensive to fabricate. However they are rapidly evolving as a mainstream tool in vascular surgery and provide a solution in cases of aberrant visceral vasculature. PMID:23526102

Brown, Kai; Robinson, David; Bray, Alan



Abdominal aortic injury associated with transverse lumbar spine fracture--imaging findings.  


The association of abdominal aortic injury with transverse fractures of the lumbar spine is not well recognized. Three cases are presented with description of a mechanism common to both injuries that may explain this association--that of distraction and hyperflexion, such as occurs in seat-belt injuries. Whenever a transverse lumbar spine fracture following such a mechanism of injury is recognized, the co-existence of an injury to the abdominal aorta should be excluded by aortography if there is any doubt concerning the integrity of the peripheral pulses. This is best performed prior to laparotomy for any associated intraperitoneal injuries. Repeated clinical examination may detect deterioration in those cases with initially normal pulses. Ultimately, detection of the aortic injury rests on a high index of suspicion. PMID:8536393

Reaney, S M; Parker, M S; Mirvis, S E; Bundschuh, C V; Luebbert, P D; Vingan, H L



Sexual dimorphism of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a striking example of "male disadvantage" in cardiovascular disease.  


The abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent, localised, dilation of the abdominal aorta that causes death in 80% of patients if left untreated. An apparent male predominance in AAA has been observed in most studies, with a male: female gender ratio of ?6:1 between the ages 60 years-64 years. The majority of risk factors for AAA exhibit sexual dimorphism but no single risk factor shows a higher magnitude of "male disadvantage" than AAA itself. This in turn suggests that the additive effects of risk factors may better explain the higher prevalence of AAA in men than women compared to each individual factor. Amongst others, sex steroids and sex chromosomes have been hypothesised to act as the drivers of this sexual dimorphism. Future research should focus on the major biological differences between the sexes identifying why men are at more risk of AAA than women. PMID:22840688

Bloomer, Lisa D S; Bown, Matthew J; Tomaszewski, Maciej



Acute abdomen and abdominal pain in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abdominal pain in pregnancy may be due to the anatomical and physiological changes of the pregnant state or may be totally unrelated to pregnancy. Some conditions that are associated with the pregnant state, such as urinary tract infections, may present with abdominal pain. Acute abdomen refers to an intra-abdominal process that is characterized by abdominal pain, tenderness and muscular rigidity,

Edwin Chandraharan; Sabaratnam Arulkumaran




Microsoft Academic Search

EU~S~~~ Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) populations, established by intro- ductions outside of the native range, provide a unique opportunity to assess the relationship of morphometric and genetic change in a new environment. No statistically significant morphometric-genetic relationships were found among six populations ofP. montanus when we (1) correlated morphometric size with heterozygosity; and (2) estimated degree of pop- ulation differentiation



Identification of Africanized honey bees through wing morphometrics: two fast and efficient procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently available morphometric and genetic techniques that can accurately identify Africanized honey bees are both costly\\u000a and time consuming. We tested two new morphometric techniques (ABIS — Automatic Bee Identification System and geometric morphometrics\\u000a analysis) on samples consisting of digital images of five worker forewings per colony. These were collected from 394 colonies\\u000a of Africanized bees from all over Brazil

Tiago Mauricio Francoy; Dieter Wittmann; Martin Drauschke; Stefan Müller; Volker Steinhage; Marcela A. F. Bezerra-Laure; David De Jong; Lionel Segui Gonçalves



Abdominal aortic aneurysm combined with a second intraabdominal non vascular disease--a clinical study and surgical treatment.  


The surgical tactics in cases of aneurysm of the infrarenal abdominal aorta and a second intraperitoneal operative procedure are not uniform in the literature and still remain a matter of debate. In 170 aneurysms of the abdominal aorta there were 18/170 (10.5%) other co-existent surgical non-vascular diseases as follows: Thirteen cases with symptomatic or asymptomatic cholecystopathy, one case with abdominal hernia, three cases with Ca of the colon and one case with Ca of the liver. In 9 cases, the aneurysm and the gallbladder were removed concomitantly, in 3 cases only aneurysmectomy was carried out due to cardiopulmonary problems, of which in two cholecystectomy was carried out in a second stage. In one case with cholecystitis, the gallbladder was removed and aneurysmectomy followed one month after. Aneurysmectomy and sigmoidectomy were carried out in one case and in a second similar case sigmoidectomy preceded followed by aneurysmectomy 6 months later. In one case aneurysmectomy and restoration of the abdominal hernia was performed concomitantly, while two more cases, one with liver lobectomy and another with orthosigmoidectomy due to Ca. No one of the above patients presented with any infection of the graft or other postoperative complication. No other complications were noted during a follow-up period of 19 months. The one stage operation management of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and a second (intra-abdominal) surgical procedure is feasible if appropriate care is given to the technical details and due consideration to the rules of antisepsis, without affecting surgical morbidity and mortality of the patient. PMID:8885682

Dimakakos, P B; Arkadopoulos, N; Antoniades, P; Gouliamos, A



A morphometric study of the variations in subcellular structures of rat hepatocytes during 24 hours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcellular structures of hepatocytes in periportal and perivenous zones were examined during 24 h. The volume, surface and numerical profile densities of cytoplasmic organelles were analysed morphometrically.

Yasuo Uchiyama; Akira Asari



Electromyographic response of the abdominal musculature to varying abdominal exercises.  


This study examined the electromyographic (EMG) response of the upper rectus abdominis (URA), lower rectus abdominis (LRA), internal obliques (IOs), external obliques (EOs), and the rectus femoris (RF) during various abdominal exercises (crunch, supine V-up, prone V-up on ball, prone V-up on slide board, prone V-up on TRX, and prone V-up on Power Wheel). The subjects (n = 21) performed an isometric contraction of the abdominal musculature while performing these exercises. Testing revealed no statistically significant differences between any of the exercises with respect to the EOs, the URA, or the LRA. However, when examining the IO muscle, the supine V-up exercise displayed significantly greater muscle activity than did the slide exercise. In addition, EMG activity of the RF during the crunch was significantly less than in any of the other 5 exercises. These results indicate that when performing isometric abdominal exercises, non-equipment-based exercises stressed the abdominal muscles similarly to equipment-based exercises. Based on the findings of the current study, the benefit of training the abdominal musculature in an isometric fashion using commercial equipment could be called into question. PMID:21088553

Schoffstall, James E; Titcomb, David A; Kilbourne, Brianne F



ACR Appropriateness Criteria® pulsatile abdominal mass, suspected abdominal aortic aneurysm.  


Clinical palpation of a pulsating abdominal mass alerts the clinician to the presence of a possible abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Generally an arterial aneurysm is defined as a localized arterial dilatation ?50% greater than the normal diameter. Imaging studies are important in diagnosing the cause of a pulsatile abdominal mass and, if an AAA is found, in determining its size and involvement of abdominal branches. Ultrasound (US) is the initial imaging modality of choice when a pulsatile abdominal mass is present. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) may be substituted in patients for whom US is not suitable. When aneurysms have reached the size threshold for intervention or are clinically symptomatic, contrast-enhanced multidetector CT angiography (CTA) is the best diagnostic and preintervention planning study, accurately delineating the location, size, and extent of aneurysm and the involvement of branch vessels. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) may be substituted if CT cannot be performed. Catheter arteriography has some utility in patients with significant contraindications to both CTA and MRA. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:22644671

Desjardins, Benoit; Dill, Karin E; Flamm, Scott D; Francois, Christopher J; Gerhard-Herman, Marie D; Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Mansour, M Ashraf; Mohler, Emile R; Oliva, Isabel B; Schenker, Matthew P; Weiss, Clifford; Rybicki, Frank J



Hemodynamic correlates of spontaneous echo contrast in the descending aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the hemodynamic associations of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) in the descending aorta (DA), we measured aortic flow parameters in 102 consecutive patients studied with transesophageal echocardiography. SEC in the DA was identified in 19 of 102 patients (19%). Patients with SEC in the DA were older (67 ± 9 vs 57 ± 17 years; p = 0.001), had

Mikhail R. Sukernik; Oscar West; Olujide Lawal; Babu Chittivelu; Ronald Henderson; Ali A. Sherzoy; Eric J. Vanderbush; Charles K. Francis



Flow impeding fungal thrombus in the ascending aorta.  


Mycotic endoaortitis is a rarely occurring infectious entity with an extremely high mortality rate. We report an uncommon case of Phialemonium endoaortits with its management. This large fungal thrombus in the ascending aorta caused significant impediment to the blood flow. PMID:18805204

Huang, Jiapeng; Bouvette, Michael J; Hagi, Yousef; Subramanian, Sujata; Zhou, Jing; Austin, Erle H



Percutaneous coil occlusion of ascending aorta to pulmonary artery shunts.  


Two patients with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum each underwent early palliative surgery with a pulmonary valvotomy and an ascending aorta to pulmonary artery shunt. Adequate right ventricular growth and relief of pulmonary stenosis rendered the shunts unnecessary. The shunts were successfully occluded percutaneously with Gianturco coils. PMID:9631986

Lane, G K; Lucas, V W; Sklansky, M S; Kashani, I A; Rothman, A



The Photoactivated Relaxation of Smooth Muscle of Rabbit Aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

n B S T R n C T Smooth muscle of strips of rabbit aorta, placed in a state of ac- tive tonic contraction by addition of a stimulating drug, relaxes during exposure to light. The relaxation is reversible. The extent of relaxation produced by a standard exposure depends on the preexposure level of active contraction but not on the




Subtype-specific estrogen receptor-mediated vasodilator activity in the cephalic, thoracic, and abdominal vasculature of female rat.  


Estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate genomic and nongenomic vasodilator effects, but estrogen therapy may not provide systemic vascular protection. To test whether this is because of regional differences in ER distribution or vasodilator activity, cephalic (carotid artery), thoracic (thoracic aorta and pulmonary artery), and abdominal arteries (abdominal aorta, mesenteric artery, and renal artery) from female Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared to measure contraction to phenylephrine and relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and the ER activators 17?-estradiol (E2) (all ERs), 4,4',4?-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)-tris-phenol (PPT) (ER?), diarylpropionitrile (DPN) (ER?), and (±)-1-[(3aR*,4S*,9bS*)-4-(6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinolin-8-yl]-ethanone (G1) (GPR30). Phenylephrine caused contraction that was enhanced in endothelium-denuded aorta, supporting endothelial release of vasodilators. In cephalic and thoracic arteries, ACh relaxation was abolished by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), suggesting a role of NO. In mesenteric vessels, ACh-induced relaxation was partly inhibited by the L-NAME + cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin and blocked by the K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium, suggesting a hyperpolarization pathway. E2 and PPT caused similar relaxation in all vessels. DPN and G1 caused smaller relaxation that was more prominent in abdominal vessels. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed variable ER? messenger RNA expression and increased ER? in carotid artery and GPR30 in abdominal arteries. Western blots revealed greater amounts of ER?, ER?, and GPR30 in abdominal arteries. In thoracic aorta, E2-, PPT-, and DPN-induced relaxation was blocked by L-NAME and was associated with increased nitrite/nitrate production, suggesting a role of NO. In abdominal vessels, E2-, PPT-, DPN-, and G1-induced relaxation persisted in L-NAME + indomethacin + tetraethylammonium-treated or endothelium-denuded arteries, suggesting direct effect on vascular smooth muscle. E2, PPT, DPN, and G1 caused greater relaxation of KCl-induced contraction in abdominal vessels, suggesting inhibitory effects on Ca2+ entry. Thus, E2 and ER? stimulation produces similar relaxation of the cephalic, thoracic, and abdominal arteries. In the cephalic and thoracic arteries, particularly the thoracic aorta, E2-induced and ER?- and ER?-mediated vasodilation involves NO production. ER?- and GPR30-mediated relaxation is greater in the abdominal arteries and seems to involve hyperpolarization and inhibition of vascular smooth muscle Ca2+ entry. Specific ER agonists could produce vasodilation in specific vascular beds without affecting other vessels in the systemic circulation. PMID:23429596

Reslan, Ossama M; Yin, Zongzhi; do Nascimento, Graciliano R A; Khalil, Raouf A



The novel phenylpropiophenone derivates induced relaxation of isolated rat aorta.  


Our aim was to define how different chemical properties of newly developed phenylpropiophenone derivates (PhPds) influenced their potency and efficacy to relax rat aorta. A contribution of ion channels in the PhPds and propafenone mechanism of vasodilatation was tested. PhPds were syntethysed by substitution in the benzyl moiety with -F, -CH3 or -CF3 groups on the ortho or para position. The vasodilatation by PhPds was examined on the rings of rat aorta precontracted with phenylephrine. In order to test involvement of voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels and L-type Ca2+ channels in a mechanism of action of PhPds, we used their blockers: lidocaine, nifedipine and 4-aminopiridine, respectively. Aorta was more sensitive to 5-ortho-trifluoromethyl derivate than to propafenone and other PhPds. The 5-para-methyl derivate had lower potency and efficacy than propafenone and other PhPds. Lidocaine did not influenced relaxation induced by PhPds, but slightly inhibited the effect of propafenone. The 4-aminopiridine only inhibited relaxation induced by 5-para-methyl derivate. Nifedipine inhibited relaxation of the rat aorta induced by 5-ortho-trifluoromethyl derivate and by propafenone. Introduction of 5-ortho-trifluoromethyl and 5-para-methyl group in the benzyl moiety of propafenone molecule changed its potency, efficacy and mechanism of action in the rat aorta. The 4-aminopiridine- and nifedipine sensitive ion channels are involved in mechanism of action of 5-para-methyl and 5-ortho-trifluoromethyl derivate. The introduction of other tested groups in the benzyl moiety does not affect pharmacological properties of the PhPds in relation to propafenone. PMID:22628063

Ivkovi?, B; Vladimirov, S; Novakovi?, R; Cupi?, V; Heinle, H; Gojkovi?-Bukarica, L



Is cerebrospinal fluid drainage of benefit to neuroprotection in patients undergoing surgery on the descending thoracic aorta or thoracoabdominal aorta?  

PubMed Central

A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was ‘Is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage of benefit in patients undergoing surgery on the descending thoracic aorta or thoracoabdominal aorta?’ Altogether 1177 papers were found using the reported search, of which 17 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Ten of 13 studies demonstrate significant neurological protection from CSF drainage (±additional adjuncts), with two further papers showing no significant difference between patients who had or had not had CSF drainage and one study unable to provide any conclusions. For patients having surgery on the thoracic aorta or thoracoabdominal aorta CSF drainage, maintaining pressures <10 mmHg (P < 0.03), in conjunction with other neuroprotective strategies, minimizes the risk of neurological sequelae when compared with patients treated with similar adjuncts but without CSF drainage. The majority of studies used additional neuroprotective strategies, including cooling and reattachment of the intercostal arteries as adjuncts to CSF drainage. Logistic regression curves demonstrated that the longer the ischaemia time, the greater the benefit from CSF drainage (P < 0.04). Four papers observed complications of CSF drainage, of which the main complications were: catheter occlusion or dislodgement, headache, meningitis and subdural haematoma. Overall, CSF drainage does offer a neuroprotective benefit; preventing paraplegia if CSF pressures are maintained <10 mmHg.

Bilal, Haris; O'Neill, Bridie; Mahmood, Sarah; Waterworth, Paul



Spectrum of CT findings in rupture and impending rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms.  


Prompt diagnosis of rupture and impending rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms is imperative. The computed tomographic (CT) findings of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are often straightforward. Most ruptures are manifested as a retroperitoneal hematoma accompanied by an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Periaortic blood may extend into the perirenal space, the pararenal space, or both. Intraperitoneal extravasation may be an immediate or a delayed finding. Discontinuity of the aortic wall or a focal gap in otherwise continuous circumferential wall calcifications may point to the location of a rupture. There usually is a delay of several hours between the initial intramural hemorrhage and frank extravasation into the periaortic soft tissues. Contained or impending ruptures are more difficult to identify. A small amount of periaortic blood may be confused with the duodenum, perianeurysmal fibrosis, or adenopathy. Imaging features suggestive of instability or impending rupture include increased aneurysm size, a low thrombus-to-lumen ratio, and hemorrhage into a mural thrombus. A peripheral crescent-shaped area of hyperattenuation within an abdominal aortic aneurysm represents an acute intramural hemorrhage and is another CT sign of impending rupture. Draping of the posterior aspect of an aneurysmal aorta over the vertebrae is associated with a contained rupture. PMID:17374865

Rakita, Dmitry; Newatia, Amit; Hines, John J; Siegel, David N; Friedman, Barak


MicroRNA expression signature in human abdominal aortic aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilatation of the aorta affecting most frequently elderly men. Histologically AAAs are characterized by inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, and extracellular matrix degradation. The mechanisms of AAA formation, progression, and rupture are currently poorly understood. A previous mRNA expression study revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes between AAA and non-aneurysmal control aortas. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, could provide a mechanism for the differential expression of genes in AAA. Methods To determine differences in miRNA levels between AAA (n?=?5) and control (n?=?5) infrarenal aortic tissues, a microarray study was carried out. Results were adjusted using Benjamini-Hochberg correction (adjusted p?



Abdominal trauma: never underestimate it.  


Introduction. We present a case of a sports injury. The initial presentation and clinical examination belied serious intra-abdominal injuries. Case Presentation. A 16-year-old male patient came to emergency department after a sports-related blunt abdominal injury. Though on clinical examination the injury did not seem to be serious, FAST revealed an obscured splenorenal window. The CT scan revealed a large left renal laceration and a splenic laceration that were managed with Cook coil embolization. Patient remained tachycardic though and had to undergo splenectomy, left nephrectomy, and a repair of left diaphragmatic rent. Patient had no complication and had normal renal function at 6-month followup. Conclusion. The case report indicates that management of blunt intra-abdominal injury is complicated and there is a role for minimally invasive procedures in management of certain patients. A great deal of caution is required in monitoring these patients, and surgical intervention is inevitable in deteriorating patients. PMID:23326699

Bodhit, Aakash N; Bhagra, Anjali; Stead, Latha Ganti



Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.



Lap Pak for Abdominal Retraction  

PubMed Central

Retraction of the bowels during abdominal surgery is generally facilitated by the use of a combination of various retractors along with surgical towels or sponges. The use of surgical towels and sponges may lead to retained foreign bodies or adhesions. In addition, these towels and sponges often require manipulation during long surgical procedures. The ideal way to avoid these problems in abdominal surgery is to develop a technique for retraction of the abdominal contents that eliminates the requirement for these foreign bodies. This article presents the results of a small trial for Lap Pak (Seguro Surgical, Columbia, MD), a disposable radio-opaque device that is made of silicone and retracts the bowels in a cephalad orientation without the need for towels or sponges.

Sivarajan, Ganesh; Chang, Sam S; Fergany, Amr; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Steinberg, Gary D; Lepor, Herbert



Morphometric and Visual Evaluation of Fibrosis in Renal Biopsies  

PubMed Central

Interstitial fibrosis is an outcome measure of increasing importance in clinical trials of both renal transplantation and native disease, but data on the comparative advantages of fibrosis measurement methods are limited. We compared four morphometric techniques and contrasted these with two visual fibrosis-scoring methods on trichrome-stained slides. Two morphometric methods included whole-slide digital images: collagen III immunohistochemistry and a new technique using trichrome and periodic acid–Schiff subtraction morphometry; the other two methods included Sirius Red with and without polarization on multiple digital fields. We evaluated 10 serial sections from 15 renal biopsies with a range of fibrosis extent and diagnoses on duplicate sections with each method on separate days. Three pathologists performed visual scoring on whole-slide images. Visual and morphometric techniques had good to excellent interassay reproducibility (R2 = 0.62 to 0.96) and interobserver reproducibility (R2 = 0.75 to 0.99, all P < 0.001). Morphometry showed less variation between observers than visual assessment (mean of 1% to 5% versus 11% to 13%). Collagen III, Sirius Red unpolarized, and visual scores had the strongest correlations (R2 = 0.78 to 0.89), the greatest dynamic range, and the best correlation with estimated GFR (R2 = 0.38 to 0.50, P < 0.01 to 0.001). Considering efficiency, reproducibility, and functional correlation, two current techniques stand out as potentially the best for clinical trials: collagen III morphometry and visual assessment of trichrome-stained slides.

Adams, Catherine D.; Brousaides, Nicole; Della Pelle, Patricia A.; Collins, A. Bernard; Moradi, Ellie; Smith, R. Neal; Grimm, Paul C.; Colvin, Robert B.



Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.  


Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy. PMID:17630175

Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac


Abdominal imaging in child abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Abdominal injuries in abused children are less common than musculoskeletal and craniocerebral injuries; however they carry\\u000a high mortality and morbidity rates. In every case of trauma, regardless of aetiology, radiologists are responsible for the\\u000a documentation and evaluation of injuries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Injuries  Any abdominal injury pattern maybe observed following physical abuse and none is specific for abuse. However, a high index\\u000a of suspicion

Maria Raissaki; Corinne Veyrac; Eleonore Blondiaux; Christiana Hadjigeorgi



Functional abdominal bloating with distention.  


Ten to 25% of healthy persons experience bloating. It is particularly common in persons with the irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. While the cause of bloating remains unknown old explanations such as a excessive intestinal gas, exaggerated lumbar lordosis and psychiatric problems have been disproved. New suggestions include recent weight gain, weak or inappropriately relaxed abdominal muscles, an inappropriately contracted diaphragm and retained fluid in loops of distal small bowel. No treatment is of unequivocal benefit but a low FODMAPs diet, probiotics and the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin offer some hope. Treatment by weight loss, abdominal exercise, prokinetics and girdles need more study. PMID:22778978

Sullivan, Stephen Norman



Pericardiectomy causing abdominal hernia incarceration.  


A 26-year-old Rwandan male presented with constrictive pericarditis, massive ascites and a giant umbilical hernia that had been asymptomatic for over a decade. Successful pericardiectomy was complicated by prompt incarceration of the abdominal hernia. This unexpected complication was caused by rapid resolution of the ascites due to autodiuresis and subsequent collapse of the hernial orifice. Patients with constrictive pericarditis and massive ascites who are evaluated for pericardiectomy should be carefully examined for the presence of abdominal hernias. If any such hernias are found, perioperative hernia repair should be considered and postoperative diuresis should be undertaken under close observation. PMID:21930673

Rajab, Taufiek Konrad; Maurice, Musoni; Munyana, Jackline; Robinson, Barbara



Functional Abdominal Bloating with Distention  

PubMed Central

Ten to 25% of healthy persons experience bloating. It is particularly common in persons with the irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. While the cause of bloating remains unknown old explanations such as a excessive intestinal gas, exaggerated lumbar lordosis and psychiatric problems have been disproved. New suggestions include recent weight gain, weak or inappropriately relaxed abdominal muscles, an inappropriately contracted diaphragm and retained fluid in loops of distal small bowel. No treatment is of unequivocal benefit but a low FODMAPs diet, probiotics and the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin offer some hope. Treatment by weight loss, abdominal exercise, prokinetics and girdles need more study.

Sullivan, Stephen Norman



Laparoscopic resection of abdominal paragangliomas.  


Paragangliomas are rare catecholamine-secreting tumors arising from chromaffin tissue of the autonomic nervous system. Although they can arise anywhere along the paravertebral axis, the majority is intra-abdominal in location. Frequently, these tumors are closely associated with major vascular structures, necessitating open techniques for resection. As laparoscopic techniques have advanced, minimally invasive approaches to these complex tumors have been attempted. This study presents 3 patients with abdominal paragangliomas, highlighting the use of high-quality preoperative imaging and intraoperative surgeon-performed ultrasound in allowing safe minimally invasive resection of these tumors. PMID:21304376

Mitchell, Jamie; Siperstein, Allan; Milas, Mira; Berber, Eren



Intra-abdominal abscess after penetrating abdominal trauma.  


We reviewed our experience with intra-abdominal abscess after penetrating abdominal trauma. Of a total of 872 laparotomies (1980-1986), 29 patients (0.7% of stab wounds and 6% of gunshot wounds) developed abscesses. Pancreatic and duodenal injuries, in the presence of concomitant colon perforation, were most frequently associated with abscess formation. Fourteen of the 29 patients had multiorgan failure (MOF), Group I, and 15 patients did not have MOF, Group II. Group I had a significantly higher Abdominal Trauma Index (ATI) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II), received greater number of perioperative transfusions and underwent a higher number of reoperations for sepsis than Group II patients. Radiologic imaging techniques were frequently inconclusive for the diagnosis and localization of intra-abdominal abscess in Group I. They were highly accurate in Group II. Fifty per cent of Group I patients died from sepsis and MOF. We conclude that the anatomic (ATI) and the physiologic (APACHE) scores are useful predictors of the potential for uncontrolled sepsis. In the presence of ongoing multiorgan failure, reoperation for sepsis is warranted on clinical grounds alone. PMID:3411646

Ivatury, R R; Zubowski, R; Psarras, P; Nallathambi, M; Rohman, M; Stahl, W M



Characterization of human aortic elastase found in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms.  


Recent evidence indicates that the homeostatic balance between elastase and antiprotease activity is altered in the infrarenal aorta of those patients with different types of aortic pathologic findings. The specific properties of elastase found in the aorta of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are discussed herein. Activity of elastase extracted from ten pooled AAA specimens was observed when incubated with several inhibitors: 13.2 per cent for phenyl-suphonyl flouride (PSF); 43.3 per cent for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); 77.7 per cent for pepstatin; 137.0 per cent for leupeptin, and 24.0 per cent for alpha-1-antitrypsin. Irreversible inhibition by PSF indicates that the elastase is a serine protease. The elastase is most likely not a metallo enzyme, since it had no absolute requirement for divalent cations as indicated by only partial inhibition by EDTA. Elastase activity is most likely not due to cathepsins B or D, since cathepsins are active in an acid pH and selectively inhibited by leupeptin and pepstatin. The pH curve revealed a maximum activity at pH 8.2 and elastase activity was significantly inhibited by alpha-1-antitrypsin in a dose response manner determining functional elastase activity. These data indicate that the elastase in the aorta of patients with an AAA has the exact properties of the serine elastase found in the smooth muscle cells of the aorta in rats. These results also confirm the critical role of alpha-1-antitrypsin in determining functional elastase activity. Smooth muscle cell regulation of elastin metabolism may be important in determining why some patients have AAA and others have occlusive aortic disease develop. PMID:3477880

Cohen, J R; Mandell, C; Wise, L



Morphometric analysis of commercially important penaeid shrimps from the Zhujiang estuary, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphometric characteristics of several commercially important penaeid shrimps from the Zhujiang estuary, China, were studied. Morphometric equations were constructed for males and females of Penaeus chinensis, Penaeus penicillatus, Metapenaeus affinis, Metapenaeus ensis, Metapenaeus joyneri and Parapenaeopsis hungerfordi. Males were generally smaller than females. Differences in length-weight relationship between males and females were found in Metapenaeus affinis and Metapenaeus joyneri.

K. H. Chu; Q. C. Chen; L. M. Huang; C. K. Wong




Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic variability of 37 honey bee populations of Greece was studied, using geometric morphometrics analysis, on a sample of 798 honey bees collected from 105 different apiaries. The geometric morphometrics analysis was based on coordinates of 19 landmarks located at vein intersections of the left wing. Statistical analysis of measurements, using MS Excel and Matlab packages, showed high hybridization

Maria Boug; Fani Hatjina


Development of the human principal sensory trigeminal nucleus: a morphometric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomical development of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus was assessed with morphometric features using serial celloidin sections of 15 human brains, including 12 brains obtained from fetuses and neonates. A microscope and an optical electronic planimeter combined with a computer were employed for morphometric measurements of columnar areas, neuronal numbers, neuronal areas and neuronal perimeters to statistically analyze and

Shin-ichiro Hamano; Noboru Goto; Takahiro Nara; Akira Okada; Kihei Maekawa



Morphometric analysis of populations of Centris aenea Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae) from Northeastern Brazil.  


Centris aenea Lepeletier is a solitary bee that has raised interest in management to pollinate crops, such as acerola, Malpighia emarginata. This study investigated the level of morphometric variability among populations of C. aenea from Northeastern Brazil. Traditional and geometric morphometric analyses were used. Head length, leg length, wing length, and wing shape were measured in samples (5-10 females) from eight localities. We did not find statistically significant differences among the populations (P > 0.01). The partial wing warps were similar in the populations and indicated that the bees were not morphometrically different. Our results suggest that C. aenea shows low population morphometric variability and highlight the need for further investigations on population variation in this species, preferably including populations sampled at the extremes of their geographic distribution. Significant insight into the population variation of C. aenea will probably require the use of molecular markers to allow a comparative approach between morphometric variability and genetic variability. PMID:21437489

Ferreira, V S; Aguiar, C M L; Costa, M A; Silva, J G


Hemodynamic changes quantified in abdominal aortic aneurysms with increasing exercise intensity using mr exercise imaging and image-based computational fluid dynamics.  


Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease resulting in a permanent, localized enlargement of the abdominal aorta. We previously hypothesized that the progression of AAA may be slowed by altering the hemodynamics in the abdominal aorta through exercise [Dalman, R. L., M. M. Tedesco, J. Myers, and C. A. Taylor. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1085:92-109, 2006]. To quantify the effect of exercise intensity on hemodynamic conditions in 10 AAA subjects at rest and during mild and moderate intensities of lower-limb exercise (defined as 33 ± 10% and 63 ± 18% increase above resting heart rate, respectively), we used magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics techniques. Subject-specific models were constructed from magnetic resonance angiography data and physiologic boundary conditions were derived from measurements made during dynamic exercise. We measured the abdominal aortic blood flow at rest and during exercise, and quantified mean wall shear stress (MWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and particle residence time (PRT). We observed that an increase in the level of activity correlated with an increase of MWSS and a decrease of OSI at three locations in the abdominal aorta, and these changes were most significant below the renal arteries. As the level of activity increased, PRT in the aneurysm was significantly decreased: 50% of particles were cleared out of AAAs within 1.36 ± 0.43, 0.34 ± 0.10, and 0.22 ± 0.06 s at rest, mild exercise, and moderate exercise levels, respectively. Most of the reduction of PRT occurred from rest to the mild exercise level, suggesting that mild exercise may be sufficient to reduce flow stasis in AAAs. PMID:21509633

Suh, Ga-Young; Les, Andrea S; Tenforde, Adam S; Shadden, Shawn C; Spilker, Ryan L; Yeung, Janice J; Cheng, Christopher P; Herfkens, Robert J; Dalman, Ronald L; Taylor, Charles A



Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare,

Vivek Nama; Bright Gyampoh; Mahantesh Karoshi; Reynold McRae; Isaac Opemuyi




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen Se presenta un caso de distensión abdominal por parálisis parietal debida a herpes zoster con erup- ción cutánea a nivel del 11° dermatoma dorsal izquierdo. El déficit motor en el zoster es inusual (2-3% de los casos publicados) y generalmente se observa en las extremidades. La frecuencia del compromiso de los músculos abdominales en series clínicas se estima en




Microsoft Academic Search

for family medicine).Kingdom of Bahrain studied (the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patient with increase waist circumference) Kingdom of Bahrain has many overweight, obese and also many abdominal obesity patient follow up in OPC which lead to many disease related to obesity the situations need more knowledge and data and analysis data to sit standard when to begin to prevention,

Ali Mohammed Mustafa


[An elderly woman abdominal pain].  


A 91-year-old woman came to the hospital with vomiting, abdominal pain and absence of defaecation for 1 day. Her medical history listed atrial fibrillation for which she received acenocoumarol and digoxine. CT imaging of her abdomen revealed an intramural haematoma of the jejunum. PMID:22027451

Wevers, Kevin; Wertenbroek, Marieke



Evaluation of acute abdominal pain.  


: Abdominal pain is a common complaint encountered in primary care and in the ED. Varying levels of pain dictate the immediacy of the intervention. Time is vital when making the decision to initiate therapeutic interventions. A comprehensive assessment with physical exam and diagnostic studies is required. PMID:24141550

Saccomano, Scott J; Ferrara, Lucille R



Blunt abdominal trauma in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite improved technology and imaging techniques, problems and controversies still exist as to the best methods of diagnosis and management of visceral injuries in children with blunt abdominal trauma. The authors discuss these topics based on their experience with 732 organ injuries in 587 children under 13 years of age during the 11-year period 1978–1988.

S. Cywes; D. H. Bass; H. Rode; A. J. W. Millar



Characterization of thromboxane A 2 prostaglandin endoperoxide receptors in aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thromboxane A2prostaglandin endoperoxide receptor antagonists were studied in rat and guinea-pig aortas contracted with U-46619 (9,11-dideoxy-11?,9?-epoxymethanoprostaglandin F2?) or 8-epi-prostaglandin F2?. In rat aorta, the antagonists competitively inhibited contractions evoked by either agonist with a rank order of potency as follows: BMS-180291 ([1s-(exo,exo)]-2-[[3-[4-[(pentylamino)carbonyl]-2-oxazolyl]-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]methyl]-benzenepropanoic acid) ? SQ 29,548 ([1s-[1?,2?-(5z),3?,4?)]-7-[3-[[2-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]hydrozino]methyl]-7-oxobicyclo-[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]-5-heptanoic acid) > daltroban (4-[2-(4-chlorobenzenesulfonylamino) ethyl]-benzene acetic acid) ? SQ 30,741 ([1s-[1?,2?(5z),3?,4?

Rongan Zhang; Martin L. Ogletree; Suzanne Moreland



Circumferential Dissection of the Ascending Aorta "Intimo-Intimal Intussusception"  

PubMed Central

We describe a rare case of acute Stanford type A dissection with “intimo-intimal intussusception.” A 38-year-old male with sudden back pain and unconsciousness was admitted to the hospital. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed the presence of an intimal flap in the aortic root and the aortic arch, absence of an intimal flap in the ascending aorta along with dilatation and occlusion of the brachiocephalic artery. Surgical treatment consisted of ascending aorta replacement under circulatory arrest. During the operation, complete circumferential detachment of the intima at the level of the sinotubular junction with an inverted flap intruding into the brachiocephalic artery was visualized. The surgery was successful with an uneventful postoperative recovery.

Nakamura, Kunihide; Yano, Mitsuhiro; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Matsuyama, Masakazu; Nishimura, Masanori; Yokota, Atsuko



Double outlet right ventricle with 1-malposition of the aorta.  

PubMed Central

Four patients are described with a recently recognized variant of double outlet right ventricle. Clinical examination favoured tetralogy of Fallot, but the chest X-ray suggested corrected transposition. Catheterization and angiocardiography showed that the aorta was to the left of the main pulmonary artery, and both arose from a normally positioned morphological right ventricle. Egress of blood from the left ventricle was through a subaortic ventricular septal defect. In all patients severe pulmonary stenosis was present and the right coronary artery ran an anomalous course anterior to the pulmonary valve ring. Two children had successful total correction, and one a palliative Blalock-Taussing shunt. Necropsy material from the fourth patient allowed confirmation of the ventricular morphology and the conducting tissued was examined. In corrective surgery, blood from the left ventricle was rerouted into the aorta by an intraventricular baffle. Pulmonary stenosis was relived by infundibulectomy and outflow tract patch. Images

Lincoln, C; Anderson, R H; Shinebourne, E A; English, T A; Wilkinson, J L



Moving into the paravisceral aorta using fenestrated and branched endografts.  


When one compares the potential advantages of endovascular aortic repair with respect to traditional open repair, it would seem logical that extension into the paravisceral aorta would be easily justified, given the complexity of open aortic repair and its associated complications. Eight years have transpired between trial initiation and Food and Drug Administration approval of the first fenestrated device in the United States for the treatment of juxtarenal aneurysms. While there are only a few centers in the United States with substantial experience performing fenestrated and branched endovascular aortic repair, there is a diverse experience outside the United States that has been gained over the past decade. It is through the experience of these centers that the technical and procedural complexities of complex endovascular aortic repair has been solved and provide the foundation that has allowed aortic specialists to move endovascular therapy into the paravisceral aorta with fenestrated and branched endovascular aortic repairs. PMID:23206565

Farber, Mark A; Vallabhaneni, Raghuveer



[Influence of morphometric intercondylar notch parameters in ACL ruptures].  


The most important anatomic risk factors in ACL lesions are the morphometric parameters of intercondylar notch. In the morphometric studies index of notch width and index of notch shape (NWI and NSI) are commonly used. The certain morphologic parameters of distal femoral part are used in calculation. Beside standard parameters we measured the maximal width of intercondylar notch and distal part of femur, which we used for calculation of maximal index of notch width and maximal index of notch shape (NWI max and NSI max). We compared two different methods of calculation of intercondylar notch indexes to find out which one represent anatomic risk factor and influence the ACL lesions. The indexes were measured in the two groups of patients (33) who have the history of knee injuries, the first group has document of ACL injuries and the second without ACL injuries (control one). The important difference between two groups was founded in NWI (p < 0.01) and NSI (p < 0.05). NWImax and NSImax do not show the difference (p > 0.05). The NWI and NSI importance is higher in males, and smaller in females. There is no difference in NWImax and NSImax (p > 0.05) comparing to the gender. PMID:17688039

Stijak, L; Nikoli?, V; Blagojevi?, Z; Radonji?, V; Santrac-Stijak, G; Stankovi?, G; Popovi?, N



Morphometric analysis of cerebral ventricular system from MR images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerebrospinal fluid filled ventricular system is an essential part of brain. The volume, shape and size of this ventricular system remain more or less constant and various pathologies directly or indirectly affect them. Morphometric analysis of cerebral ventricular system is important for evaluating changes due to growth, aging, intrinsic and extrinsic pathologies. Previous quantification efforts using ex vivo techniques suffered considerable error due to deformation of slices during sectioning, and numerous other factors. In vivo studies using air or contrast media also introduce volumetric changes in the ventricles thus giving erroneous quantitative information. Imaging of ventricular anatomy avoids these problems and allows repetitive studies following progression of ventricular system changes due to disease or natural processes. We have developed a methodology for automated extraction of ventricular system from MR neuroimages. Once extracted, landmarks are located on the surface of ventricular system automatically. These landmarks are then used for calculation of the ventricular shape, volume and size. A total of 20 brain ventricular systems were analyzed. The morphometric dimensions of the ventricles are presented in this paper. This study forms an initial basis for more advanced work on ventricular segmentation and morphometry.

Aziz, Aamer; Hu, QingMao; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.



Dactylogyrus species parasitizing European Barbus species: morphometric and molecular variability.  


The aims of the study were (1) to describe the Dactylogyrus communities living on selected South European Barbus species, (2) to analyse morphometric variability of their attachment and reproductive organs, and (3) to perform molecular phylogenetic analyses, in order to investigate the mode of speciation in Dactylogyrus species parasitizing congeneric hosts. In Bulgaria, Dactylogyrus crivellius, D. dyki and D. petenyi were found on B. balcanicus, and D. dyki on B. cyclolepis. In Spain, Dactylogyrus carpathicus and D. dyki were detected on B. meridionalis. Morphometric analyses of D. dyki revealed significant differences in the attachment and reproductive organs when individuals from different Barbus species were compared. Two monophyletic groups were recognized from the molecular phylogenetic analyses: the first included D. carpathicus and D. crivellius which have large body size and anchors, with a weakly supported basal position of D. malleus from B. barbus; the second included D. dyki and D. petenyi which have small body and anchor sizes. The comparison of host and parasite phylogenies did not indicate the intrahost speciation. Intraspecific molecular variability was found between individuals of D. dyki and D. carpathicus from different Barbus species, suggesting the need for a taxonomic revision for these species. PMID:17662164

Simková, A; Pecínková, M; Rehulková, E; Vyskocilová, M; Ondracková, M



Diagnostic imaging of traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the study was the presentation of findings and diagnostic imaging in patients with traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the thoracic aorta, as a rare consequence of road traffic accidents. Patients and methods In 22 years we have found 8 traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the thoracic aorta, out of which 7 (87.5%) in male and 1 (12.5%) in female patients. At the time of accidents the youngest patient was 21 and the oldest was 55 (mean age 33.8 years), and at the moment of diagnosing a pseudoaneurysm they were 26 and 55 years old, respectively (mean age 38.7 years). In all patients chest radiography was performed as well as CT scan, in 6 (75%) patients intra-venous digital subtraction angiography was performed (i.v. DSA) and in 1 (12.5%) MRI. CT was performed with the application of 120 ml, and i.v. DSA with 60 ml of contrast medium, respectively. Results In 8 (100%) patients, who suffered a road traffic accident, and whose chest radiograph showed the enlargement of the aortic knob and widening of the mediastinum, CT, i.v. DSA and MRI revealed a traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta. Periods of time between the accidents and the initial diagnosis of the pseudoaneurysm varied from 7 days to 18 years (median 2.0 years). The diameter of the pseudoaneurysm was from 4.5 to 9.2 cm (median 5.5 cm). In 7 (87.5%) isthmus was involved, and in 1 (12.5%) descending thoracic aorta, respectively. The chest radiograph revealed marginal calcifications in 4 (50%), and on the CT in 5 (62.5%) patients. Intraluminal thrombosis was found by CT in 2(25%) traumatized patients. Conclusions Traumatic pseudoaneurysm should be taken into consideration in blunt chest trauma, where a chest radiograph shows suspicious regions. A multislice CT is a diagnostic method of choice.

Beslic, Serif; Beslic, Nermina; Beslic, Selma; Sofic, Amela; Ibralic, Muris; Karovic, Jasmina



Magnetic Resonance Angiography of the Aorta and Peripheral Arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has virtually replaced diagnostic conventional X-ray angiography and has become the primary\\u000a imaging tool for the evaluation of the diseases of the aorta and branches for many indications (1–13). Development of faster magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners with shorter TR (relaxation time) and TE (echo time) and\\u000a powerful gradients, allowing completion of principal MRA sequences within

Servet Tatli


Multilayer material properties of aorta determined from nanoindentation tests  

PubMed Central

In a wide range of biomechanical modeling of aorta from traumatic injury to stent grafts, the arterial wall has been considered as a single homogeneous layer vessel, ignoring the fact that arteries are composed of distinct anatomical layers with different mechanical characteristics. In this study, using a custom-made nanoindentation technique, changes in the mechanical properties of porcine thoracic aorta wall in the radial direction were characterized using a quasi-linear viscoelastic model. Two layers of equal thickness were mechanically distinguishable in descending aorta based on the radial variations in the instantaneous Young's modulus E and reduced relaxation function G(t). Overall, comparison of E and G? of the outer half (70.27 ± 2.47 kPa and 0.35 ± 0.01) versus the inner half (60.32 ± 1.65 kPa and 0.33 ± 0.01) revealed that the outer half was stiffer and showed less relaxation. The results were used to explain local mechanisms of deformation, force transmission, tear propagation and failure in arteries.

Hemmasizadeh, Ali; Autieri, Michael; Darvish, Kurosh



Hemodynamic Modeling of Surgically Repaired Coarctation of the Aorta  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Late morbidity of surgically repaired coarctation of the aorta includes early cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, shortened life expectancy, abnormal vasomodulator response, hypertension and exercise-induced hypertension in the absence of recurrent coarctation. Observational studies have linked patterns of arch remodeling (Gothic, Crenel, and Romanesque) to late morbidity, with Gothic arches having the highest incidence. We evaluated flow in native and surgically repaired aortic arches to correlate respective hemodynamic indices with incidence of late morbidity. METHODS Three dimensional reconstructions of each remodeled arch were created from an anatomic stack of magnetic resonance (MR) images. A structured mesh core with a boundary layer was generated. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was performed assuming peak flow conditions with a uniform velocity profile and unsteady turbulent flow. Wall shear stress (WSS), pressure and velocity data were extracted. RESULTS The region of maximum WSS was located in the mid-transverse arch for the Crenel, Romanesque and Native arches. Peak WSS was located in the isthmus of the Gothic model. Variations in descending aorta flow patterns were also observed among the models. CONCLUSION The location of peak WSS is a primary difference among the models tested, and may have clinical relevance. Specifically, the Gothic arch had a unique location of peak WSS with flow disorganization in the descending aorta. Our results suggest that varied patterns and locations of WSS resulting from abnormal arch remodeling may exhibit a primary effect on clinical vascular dysfunction.

Olivieri, Laura J; de Zelicourt, Diane A.; Haggerty, Christopher M.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Cross, Russell R; Yoganathan, Ajit P.



Multilayer material properties of aorta determined from nanoindentation tests.  


In a wide range of biomechanical modeling of aorta from traumatic injury to stent grafts, the arterial wall has been considered as a single homogeneous layer vessel, ignoring the fact that arteries are composed of distinct anatomical layers with different mechanical characteristics. In this study, using a custom-made nanoindentation technique, changes in the mechanical properties of porcine thoracic aorta wall in the radial direction were characterized using a quasi-linear viscoelastic model. Two layers of equal thickness were mechanically distinguishable in descending aorta based on the radial variations in the instantaneous Young's modulus E and reduced relaxation function G(t). Overall, comparison of E and G(?) of the outer half (70.27±2.47 kPa and 0.35±0.01) versus the inner half (60.32±1.65 kPa and 0.33±0.01) revealed that the outer half was stiffer and showed less relaxation. The results were used to explain local mechanisms of deformation, force transmission, tear propagation and failure in arteries. PMID:23123343

Hemmasizadeh, Ali; Autieri, Michael; Darvish, Kurosh



Endovascular Repair of Contained Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of stent-grafts for the treatment of acute rupture of the thoracic aorta. Methods: Four patients with acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta were treated by insertion of stent-grafts. The underlying aortic lesions were aneurysm, acute aortic ulcer, acute type B dissection and giant cell aortitis. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia in three patients and local anesthesia in one patient. Results: All stent-grafts were successfully deployed. All patients survived the procedure and are now alive and well at follow-up (mean 6.3 months, range 44 days-16 months). One patient underwent a second stent procedure 10 days after the first procedure because of a proximal endoleak. All hemothoraces have resolved. There were no complications. Conclusion:Treatment of acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta by the insertion of stent-grafts is feasible. The technical success rates,complication rates and patient survival compare favorably with emergency surgery.

Morgan, Robert [Department of Radiology, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Loosemore, Tom [Department of Vascular Surgery, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Belli, Anna-Maria [Department of Radiology, St. George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom)



Renal autotransplant for subsequent endovascular exclusion of the thoracoabdominal aorta.  


In the last 20 years, endovascular procedures have radically altered the treatment of diseases of the aorta. The objective of endovascular treatment of dissections is to close the entry point to redirect blood flow toward the true lumen, thereby achieving thrombosis of the false lumen. In extensive chronic dissections that have evolved with the formation of a large aneurysm, the dissection is maintained from the end of the endoprosthesis due to multiple orifices, or reentries, that communicate with the lumens. In addition, one of the primary limitations of this technique is when the visceral arteries have disease involvement. In this report we present a case where, despite having treated the entire length of the descending thoracic aorta, the dissection was maintained distally, leading to progression of the diameter of the aneurysm. After reviewing the literature, and to the best of our knowledge, we describe the first case in which renal autotransplant was performed to allow for subsequent exclusion of the aorta at the thoracoabdominal level using a fenestrated endoprosthesis for the celiac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery. PMID:23993115

Espinosa, Gaudencio; Grochowicz, Lukasz; Pascual, Ignacio; Lavilla, Javier; Olavide, Isidro; Hernández, Miguel David; Landecho, Manuel Fortún; Lucena, Juan Felipe; Bastarrika, Gorka; Del Pozo, José Luis; Gavira, Juan José; Alegre, Félix



Structural and functional modifications of human aorta proteoglycans in atherosclerosis.  


Proteoglycans (PGs) were extracted from minced normal human aorta intima and media and adjacent atherosclerotic plaques. Samples obtained from each individual artery which showed different degrees of atherosclerotic involvement were studied separately. Comparing normal and atherosclerotic areas from the same aorta, the hexuronic acid content was always lower in the atherosclerotic minces. Atherosclerotic samples always contained a higher percentage amount of chondroitinase AC resistant material. PGs were sequentially extracted with increasing guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) concentrations. 0.4 M GuHCl extracted about 13% of total PGs, containing mostly chondroitin sulphate (CS), whilst 4 M GuHCl extracted about 50% of total PGs, containing CS, dermatan sulphate (DS), heparan sulphate and hyaluronic acid. PGs from atherosclerotic minces showed a higher DS amount, based on electrophoretic glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analysis. PGs extracted with 4 M GuHCl were further characterized by gel-chromatography and by CsCl density gradient centrifugation. The relative content of PGs with highest hydrodynamic size appeared to be markedly reduced in all the atherosclerotic samples. LDL/GAGs and LDL/PGs interactions were studied by affinity chromatography. GAGs obtained by papain digestion of PGs extracted from atherosclerotic areas contained a glycosaminoglycuronan interacting more strongly with human LDL than GAGs from normal areas of the same artery. The complete elution of PGs required higher NaCl concentration than GAGs. Moreover, PGs from atherosclerotic samples showed higher affinity for LDL than PGs from normal areas of the same aorta. PMID:2084515

Cherchi, G M; Coinu, R; Demuro, P; Formato, M; Sanna, G; Tidore, M; Tira, M E; De Luca, G



Production and localization of 92-kilodalton gelatinase in abdominal aortic aneurysms. An elastolytic metalloproteinase expressed by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages.  


Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are characterized by disruption and degradation of the elastic media, yet the elastolytic proteinases involved and their cellular sources are undefined. We examined if 92-kD gelatinase, an elastolytic matrix metalloproteinase, participates in the pathobiology of AAA. Gelatin zymography of conditioned medium from normal, atheroocclusive disease (AOD), or AAA tissues in organ culture showed that all tissues produced 72-kD gelatinase. AOD and AAA cultures also secreted 92-kD gelatinase, but significantly more enzyme was released from AAA tissues. ELISA confirmed that AAA tissues released approximately 2-fold more 92-kD gelatinase than AOD tissue and approximately 10-fold more than normal aorta. Phorbol ester induced a 5.3-fold increase in 92-kD gelatinase secretion by normal aorta and AOD and an 11.5-fold increase by AAA. By immunohistochemistry, 92-kD gelatinase was not detected in normal aorta and was only occasionally seen within the neointimal lesions of AOD tissue. In all AAA specimens, however, 92-kD gelatinase was readily localized to numerous macrophages in the media and at the adventitial-medial junction. The expression of 92-kD gelatinase mRNA by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages was confirmed by in situ hybridization. These results demonstrate that diseased aortic tissues secrete greater amounts of gelatinolytic activity than normal aorta primarily due to increased production of 92-kD gelatinase. In addition, the localization of 92-kD gelatinase to macrophages in the damaged wall of aneurysmal aortas suggests that chronic release of this elastolytic metalloproteinase contributes to extracellular matrix degradation in AAA. PMID:7615801

Thompson, R W; Holmes, D R; Mertens, R A; Liao, S; Botney, M D; Mecham, R P; Welgus, H G; Parks, W C



Production and localization of 92-kilodalton gelatinase in abdominal aortic aneurysms. An elastolytic metalloproteinase expressed by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages.  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are characterized by disruption and degradation of the elastic media, yet the elastolytic proteinases involved and their cellular sources are undefined. We examined if 92-kD gelatinase, an elastolytic matrix metalloproteinase, participates in the pathobiology of AAA. Gelatin zymography of conditioned medium from normal, atheroocclusive disease (AOD), or AAA tissues in organ culture showed that all tissues produced 72-kD gelatinase. AOD and AAA cultures also secreted 92-kD gelatinase, but significantly more enzyme was released from AAA tissues. ELISA confirmed that AAA tissues released approximately 2-fold more 92-kD gelatinase than AOD tissue and approximately 10-fold more than normal aorta. Phorbol ester induced a 5.3-fold increase in 92-kD gelatinase secretion by normal aorta and AOD and an 11.5-fold increase by AAA. By immunohistochemistry, 92-kD gelatinase was not detected in normal aorta and was only occasionally seen within the neointimal lesions of AOD tissue. In all AAA specimens, however, 92-kD gelatinase was readily localized to numerous macrophages in the media and at the adventitial-medial junction. The expression of 92-kD gelatinase mRNA by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages was confirmed by in situ hybridization. These results demonstrate that diseased aortic tissues secrete greater amounts of gelatinolytic activity than normal aorta primarily due to increased production of 92-kD gelatinase. In addition, the localization of 92-kD gelatinase to macrophages in the damaged wall of aneurysmal aortas suggests that chronic release of this elastolytic metalloproteinase contributes to extracellular matrix degradation in AAA. Images

Thompson, R W; Holmes, D R; Mertens, R A; Liao, S; Botney, M D; Mecham, R P; Welgus, H G; Parks, W C



[Continuous inhalation administration of surfactant-BL for control of adult respiratory distress syndrome after reconstruction of the abdominal aorta].  


A 62-year-old patient with Leriche's syndrome and critical ischemia of the low extremities has undergone the surgery of aortofemoral grafting. A patient has developed the severe ARDS on the second day of reperfusion (bilateral diffuse infiltrates, PO2/FiO2 < 100, lung injury score was 3). Different ways of administration of bovine surfactant (SURFACTANT BL, Russia) were used during the treatment. Total application time was 84 hours, total dose was 4000 mg (50 mg/kg). Considerable improvement of lung function occurred after start of the continuous inhalation of surfactant with a constant rate of 63 mg/h. Two hours after this step PO2/FiO2 reached 400 mm Hg and remained stable 12 hours more, up to the end of surfactant administration. The patient was soon successfully extubated and discharged on the 25th day after surgery. It is supposed that in spite of a small total dose of bovine surfactant the success was achieved due to an early start of the surfactant replacement, continuous inhalation and its definite rate. PMID:10481892

Shevchenko, Iu L; Rozenberg, O A; Khubulava, G G; Osovskikh, V V; Bautin, A E; Se?liev, A A; Sazonov, A B; Krivtsov, V A; Khlebov, V F



Effects of cilostazol and k-134 on reconstructive surgery using prosthetic grafts in the abdominal aorta of beagle dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems associated with prosthetic graft replacement are stenosis at the anastomosis site and thrombus formation on the inner surface. Cilostazol is known to have antiplatelet activity and inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointima thickening. A cilostazol derivative, (-)-6-[3-[3-cyclopropyl-3-[(1R,2R)-2-hydroxycyclohexyl]ureido]-propoxy]-2-(1H)-quinolinone (K-134), has more potent anti-platelet activity and anti-neointimal thickening activity than cilostazol in the in-vitro platelet aggregation and in-vivo anti-hyperplastic

Yoshinori Inoue; Norihide Sugano; Masatoshi Jibiki; Toshifumi Kudo; Takehisa Iwai



Measuring Mouse Abdominal Aorta Dimensions in Vivo: A Comparison between (3D) Ultrasound and Micro-CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mouse models are very useful to study the origin and progression of cardiovascular disease. An important component for a successful\\u000a long-term study is the possibility of in vivo follow-up of cardiovascular structures. Recently, several imaging techniques\\u000a already used in humans have become available for small animal research, namely the introduction of high-frequency ultrasound\\u000a (US) technology and specific contrast agents for

B. Trachet; P. Segers; F. Claes; A. Berges


False aneurysm on distal part of coarctation of the aorta in a parous Turner syndrome patient.  


False aneurysm associated with untreated coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is an uncommon vascular complication. We present a 41-year-old woman with mosaic Turner syndrome who had CoA complicated with a small false aneurysm on descending aorta just distal to the coarctation. The patient had not been diagnosed with Turner syndrome despite several physical characteristics of the syndrome because she had histories of natural childbirth. The false aneurysm was resected with the coarctation through a thoracotomy and proximal aorta was directly anastomosed to distal aorta. Endovascular therapy has become preferred method in recent years in treatment for coarctation of the aorta. However, careful consideration should be given to the irregularities on the aorta with the coarctation for diagnosis of false aneurysm. PMID:23207878

Oi, Keiji; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Takeshita, Masashi; Tsuruta, Goro



The renaissance of abdominal tuberculosis.  


During the last decade, abdominal tuberculosis (TB) has experienced a renaissance. The number of cases diagnosed in Western European and North American countries has dramatically increased. The reasons for this are multiple and include the appearance of AIDS as a significant disorder and the increased morbidity of peoples across the world with the migration of many people from areas of high incidence of TB to the West. Recent epidemiological work is reviewed, and its relationship to these changes considered. The distribution of disease along the gastrointestinal tract and in the mesentery is discussed. The frequency of involvement at various sites and the clinical symptoms caused by the disease are reviewed. The need to diagnose abdominal TB in the 1990s is considered in detail in areas where the disease had previously been thought rare. PMID:8443955

Jayanthi, V; Probert, C S; Sher, K S; Wicks, A C; Mayberry, J F



[Abdominal bruit associated with hypertension].  


First cause of secondary hypertension is renovascular hypertension which presents abdominal bruit in 16 to 20% of cases. This clinical sign is also associated with other vascular disease of the abdomen such as celiac trunk stenosis and/or aneurysms located on the pancreaticoduodenal or gastroduodenal arcs level, with little representation among aneurysm. They usually appear on a context of digestive complications like neoplasias, chronic pancreatitis or gastric obstructions possibly with obstructive icterus, hemorrhage and acute abdomen episodes. Its presentation in other contexts is rare and constitutes a diagnostic challenge. Diagnosis is made by abdominal arteriography which is the best method because you can locate the problem as well as intervene therapeutically with embolization of the aneurysme. We would like to emphasize the importance of a quick diagnosis due to the risk of rupture and the high morbi-mortality associated. PMID:15219082

Fontseré, N; Bonet, J; Bonal, J; Romero, R



Effect of telmisartan on the expression of adiponectin receptors and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in the heart and aorta in type 2 diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic cardiovascular disease is associated with decreased adiponectin and increased oxidative stress. This study investigated the effect of telmisartan on the expression of adiponectin receptor 2 (adipoR2) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits in the heart and the expression of adiponectin receptor 1 (adipoR1) in aorta in type 2 diabetic rats. Methods Type 2 diabetes was induced by high-fat and high-sugar diet and intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ). Heart function, adipoR2, p22phox, NOX4, glucose transporter 4(GLUT4), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)in the heart, and adipoR1, MCP-1 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in aorta were analyzed in controls and diabetic rats treated with or without telmisartan (5mg/kg/d) by gavage for 12 weeks. Results Heart function, plasma and myocardial adiponectin levels, the expression of myocardial adipoR2 and GLUT4 were significantly decreased in diabetic rats (P <0.05). The expression of myocardial p22phox, NOX4, MCP-1, and CTGF was significantly increased in diabetic rats (P <0.05). The expression of adipoR1 was decreased and the expression of MCP-1 and NF-?B was increased in the abdominal aorta in diabetic rats (P <0.05). Telmisartan treatment significantly attenuated these changes in diabetic rats (P <0.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that telmisartan upregulates the expression of myocardial adiponectin, its receptor 2 and GLUT4. Simultaneously, it downregulates the expression of myocardial p22phox, NOX4, MCP-1, and CTGF, contributing so to the improvement of heart function in diabetic rats. Telmisartan also induces a protective role on the vascular system by upregulating the expression of adipoR1 and downregulating the expression of MCP-1 and NF-?B in the abdominal aorta in diabetic rats.



Abdominal Injuries: Indications for Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This overview addresses the indications for laparotomy following trauma. The authors will suggest algorithms and tenants of\\u000a care, but there is not a cookie-cutter approach that incorporates all trauma patients or their injuries. Laparotomy for trauma\\u000a is an individualized decision based collectively upon clinical evaluation and diagnostic adjuncts. Multiple tools exist within\\u000a the surgeon’s armamentarium, including focused abdominal sonography for

Clay Cothren Burlew; Ernest E. Moore



PubMed Central

Oxygen consumption and cytochrome oxidase activity of aortas of rats with experimental hypertension were found to be higher than the corresponding values for aortas of normotensive animals. The higher metabolic activity of aortas of hypertensive animals appeared to be due both to an increase in the proportion of muscle cells to connective tissue fibers and to a higher activity of the intracellular portion of the tissue.

Daly, Marie M.; Gurpide, E. Gambetta



A Case of Aorta-Right Atrial Tunnel Presented with an Asymptomatic Murmur  

PubMed Central

Aorta-right atrial tunnel is a rare and distinct congenital anomaly. It is a vascular channel that originates from one of the sinuses of Valsalva with a tortuous course anterior or posterior to the ascending aorta, and terminates either in the superior vena cava or in the right atrium (RA). We report a 42-year-old female briefly with aorta-right atrial tunnel in which the left coronary artery arose from the tunnel and terminated into the RA.

Kim, Kyoung-Nyoun; Kim, Jae-Joon; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Goo, Ja-Jun; Lee, Ja-Young; Kim, Seong-Man



Morphometrical analysis of hemosiderin deposits in relation to wound age.  


A morphometrical analysis of the extent of hemosiderin deposits in 71 human skin wounds with post-infliction intervals between 2 days and 7 months was performed. Earliest positive findings were detectable in a lesion aged 3 days, and with increasing wound age an increase in the amount of hemosiderin occurred. A value of more than 20% of the microscopic field with hemosiderin deposits was found earliest 8 days after wounding and therefore the detection of considerable amounts of hemosiderin (arbitrarily defined as 20% or more of the evaluated area) indicates a minimum wound age of approximately 1 week. Since the extent of hemosiderin formation depends upon the extent of the initial hemorrhage and a "physiological" reduction in the amount of this pigment with advanced wound age, slight or absent hemosiderin deposits cannot provide information on the post-infliction interval. PMID:8721428

Betz, P; Eisenmenger, W



[Morphometric analysis of neural tube cells in neurulating chick embryos].  


Preliminary report on a morphometric study of the neuroepithelium of 1 S and 7 S -- stage chick embryos. We show first that the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio and then, that the volume fraction of intercellular spaces, nuclei and cytoplasm as they relate to the neural tube, differ significatively from cephalic to caudal portion of the neural tube. At stage 7 S only the volume fraction of intercellular spaces, nuclei and cytoplasm in the neural tube change along the cephalo-caudal axis of the embryos. Finally, between the two stages, at the back of the head, 1) volume fraction of intercellular spaces in the neural tube remains unchanged 2) nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio increase 3) volumetric density and size of mitochondria do not change, while surface density of endoplasmic reticulum in cytoplasm increases. PMID:1178939

Mathieu, O; Messier, P E


Morphometric correlation of impulsivity in medial prefrontal cortex.  


Impulsivity is a complex behaviour composed of different domains encompassing behavioural dis-inhibition, risky decision-making and delay discounting abnormalities. To investigate regional brain correlates between levels of individual impulsivity and grey matter volume, we performed voxel-based morphometric correlation analysis in 34 young, healthy subjects using impulsivity scores measured with Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11 and computerized Kirby's delay discounting task. The VBM analysis showed that impulsivity appears to be reliant on a network of cortical (medial prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and subcortical (ventral striatum) structures emphasizing the importance of brain networks associated with reward related decision-making in daily life as morphological biomarkers for impulsivity in a normal healthy population. While our results in healthy volunteers may not directly extend to pathological conditions, they provide an insight into the mechanisms of impulsive behaviour in patients with abnormalities in prefrontal/frontal-striatal connections, such as in drug abuse, pathological gambling, ADHD and Parkinson's disease. PMID:23274773

Cho, Sang Soo; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Aminian, Kelly; Ray, Nicola; Segura, Barbara; Obeso, Ignacio; Strafella, Antonio P



Congestive gastropathy and Helicobacter pylori: an endoscopic and morphometric study.  

PubMed Central

Congestive gastropathy is a frequent cause of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. The pathogenesis is thought to involve venous congestion with gastric mucosal capillary dilatation. We studied the relation between gastric mucosal capillary dilatation, measured morphometrically, and endoscopic appearances in 74 patients with portal hypertension and 20 control subjects. We also investigated the frequency of gastric colonisation with Helicobacter pylori. Mucosal capillaries in patients were significantly dilated compared with control subjects (p less than 0.001) but the degree of dilatation was not related to the severity of the endoscopic appearances. H pylori was identified in 19 of 74 (26%) patients but was not related to the severity of the endoscopic appearances. These results suggest that other factors in addition to mucosal venous and capillary congestion are important in the pathogenesis of endoscopic congestive gastropathy and that gastric colonisation with H pylori is unlikely to be one of these factors. Images Figure 1

McCormick, P A; Sankey, E A; Cardin, F; Dhillon, A P; McIntyre, N; Burroughs, A K



Development of the human pontine nuclei: a morphometric study.  


The morphometric development of the pontine nuclei in the human fetus from 16 to 40 gestational weeks, in a 2-month-old infant and in a 63-year-old adult were examined employing a serial celloidin section method and computer assisted electronic planimeter. The results of our study can be summarized as follows: (1) the development of the human pontine nuclei accelerated in volume after 32 gestational weeks and continued after birth, (2) neuron numbers remained relatively constant after 27 gestational weeks. It was difficult to clearly distinguish neurons from glia before 27 gestational weeks. The total estimated neuronal numbers were not indicative of the gestational stages in infants 27 gestational weeks and older, (3) individual neurons appeared to continue to develop after 32 gestational weeks in accordance with size, distribution and circularity ratio, (4) many islet-shaped groups of large neurons appeared and were scattered throughout the pontine nuclei after 32 gestational weeks. PMID:1551229

Nozaki, H; Goto, N; Nara, T



Terrestrial mammal feces: a morphometric summary and description.  


The study of feces of terrestrial mammals brings out biological and ecological data such as the species presence, diet, behaviour, territory, parasitic fauna, and home-range use, which can be applied for conservation projects and support paleoecological research that use coprolites as the main source of study. Although the new biotechnological techniques allow more accurate data, the diagnosis based on morphometric analyses permits the primary identification of the taxonomic group origin to support the best choice of subsequent analyses. We present the compilation list of fecal shape and measurements available in the literature published in North America, Eastern and Southern Africa, Europe, and new data from Brazil. Shape and diameters are the best characteristics for taxonomic identification. Feces were assembled in 9 groups that reflect the Order, sometimes the Family, and even their common origin. PMID:12687767

Chame, Marcia



Use of the boundary element method for biological morphometrics.  


Tensorial morphometric assessments of form difference can aid in the understanding of the cause of the form difference by providing reference frame independent, anisotropic, non-homogenous descriptions. The majority of biological and prosthetic structures cannot be adequately analyzed by current methods due to the paucity of anatomical landmarks and methodological requirements of subdivision through the domain. Internal subdivisions can be eliminated with the boundary element method (BEM). A non-landmark (NL) method can be developed by the combination of elliptical Fourier analysis (EFA) and BEM. The appropriateness of NL and BEM was investigated. The growth of the female rat neural skull from 7 to 14 postnatal days was calculated with respect to increase in area. Linear and quadratic BEM landmark analysis were made using 10 and 5 elements, respectively. Five hundred linear BEM elements were constructed from the EFA equations for NL. The form change tensors were obtained by the solution of the Laplace equation using boundary displacements as the essential boundary conditions. For comparison, simplex triangular finite element analysis (FEA), quadrilateral FEA and macroelement analysis were made on the same structure. Results correspond well to the two major growth process in this time period; (1) high cerebellar growth, and (2) relatively higher facial versus neural growth. The results in other regions are close to the biologically observed 36% increase in area. The average difference between BEM, NL versus FEA is 1.9 and 2.8%. Trends in results with position are almost identical for BEM, NL, MEM and quadrilateral FEA. The morphometric landmark BEM technique requires an additional numerical scheme to eliminate the singularities near the boundary.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7775496

McAlarney, M E



Assessment of internal diameters of abdominal and femoral blood vessels in 250 living subjects using color Doppler ultrasonography.  


Acquiring data about venous or arterial vessel size is important for several reasons, given the increasing incidence of thomboembolic phenomena and arterial aneurysms and the emerging new vascular techniques. We studied 250 healthy subjects (125 men and 125 women; age range: 50 to 91 years) with no known vascular pathology, nor hypertension, nor diabetes. We assessed the caliber of abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, iliac and femoral arteries and viens by color doppler ultrasonography, and analyzed the results with regard to sex, height, weight and body surface of each subject. The mean caliber measure of the large abdominal vessels appeared lower than the value obtained from cadavers. There was a direct proportion between the left and right vessels of the same subject. The difference in vessel caliber between male and female subjects was statistically significant. There was no correlation between vessel caliber and age, height or body surface area. PMID:21287972

Valecchi, Debora; Bacci, Duccio; Gulisano, Massimo; Sgambati, Eleonora; Sibilio, Maurizio; Lipomas, Mario; Macchi, Claudio



Abdominal aortic aneurysm: Treatment options, image visualizations and follow-up procedures  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common vascular disease that affects elderly population. Open surgical repair is regarded as the gold standard technique for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm, however, endovascular aneurysm repair has rapidly expanded since its first introduction in 1990s. As a less invasive technique, endovascular aneurysm repair has been confirmed to be an effective alternative to open surgical repair, especially in patients with co-morbid conditions. Computed tomography (CT) angiography is currently the preferred imaging modality for both preoperative planning and post-operative follow-up. 2D CT images are complemented by a number of 3D reconstructions which enhance the diagnostic applications of CT angiography in both planning and follow-up of endovascular repair. CT has the disadvantage of high cummulative radiation dose, of particular concern in younger patients, since patients require regular imaging follow-ups after endovascular repair, thus, exposing patients to repeated radiation exposure for life. There is a trend to change from CT to ultrasound surveillance of endovascular aneurysm repair. Medical image visualizations demonstrate excellent morphological assessment of aneurysm and stent-grafts, but fail to provide hemodynamic changes caused by the complex stent-graft device that is implanted into the aorta. This article reviews the treatment options of abdominal aortic aneurysm, various image visualization tools, and follow-up procedures with use of different modalities including both imaging and computational fluid dynamics methods. Future directions to improve treatment outcomes in the follow-up of endovascular aneurysm repair are outlined.

Sun, Zhong-Hua



Mycotic Abdominal Aneurysm Caused by Campylobacter Fetus: A Case Report for Surgical Management  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with Campylobacter fetus. A 72-year-old male admitted to the hospital because of pain in the right lower quadrant with pyrexia. The enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) examination showed abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) measuring 50 mm in maximum diameter and a high-density area of soft tissue density from the right lateral wall to the anterior wall of the aorta. However, since the patient showed no significant signs of defervescence after antibiotics administration, so we performed emergency surgery on the patient based on the diagnosis of impending rupture of mycotic AAA. The aneurysm was resected in situ reconstruction using a bifurcated albumin-coated knitted Dacron graft was performed. The cultures of blood and aneurysmal wall grew Campylobacter fetus, allowing early diagnosis and appropriate surgical management in this case, and the patient is making satisfactory progress. This is the fifth report of mycotic AAA characterizing culture positive for Campylobacter fetus in blood and tissue culture of the aortic aneurysm wall.

Noda, Yukihiro; Sawada, Ko-ichiro; Yoshida, Syu-hei; Nishida, Satoru; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Otake, Yuji; Watanabe, Go



On the prediction of monocyte deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms using computational fluid dynamics.  


In abdominal aortic aneurysm disease, the aortic wall is exposed to intense biological activity involving inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase-mediated degradation of the extracellular matrix. These processes are orchestrated by monocytes and rather than affecting the aorta uniformly, damage and weaken focal areas of the wall leaving it vulnerable to rupture. This study attempts to model numerically the deposition of monocytes using large eddy simulation, discrete phase modelling and near-wall particle residence time. The model was first applied to idealised aneurysms and then to three patient-specific lumen geometries using three-component inlet velocities derived from phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. The use of a novel, variable wall shear stress-limiter based on previous experimental data significantly improved the results. Simulations identified a critical diameter (1.8 times the inlet diameter) beyond which significant monocyte deposition is expected to occur. Monocyte adhesion occurred proximally in smaller abdominal aortic aneurysms and distally as the sac expands. The near-wall particle residence time observed in each of the patient-specific models was markedly different. Discrete hotspots of monocyte residence time were detected, suggesting that the monocyte infiltration responsible for the breakdown of the abdominal aortic aneurysm wall occurs heterogeneously. Peak monocyte residence time was found to increase with aneurysm sac size. Further work addressing certain limitations is needed in a larger cohort to determine clinical significance. PMID:23886969

Hardman, David; Doyle, Barry J; Semple, Scott Ik; Richards, Jennifer Mj; Newby, David E; Easson, William J; Hoskins, Peter R



Expression and significance of ?-SMA and PCNA in the vascular adventitia of balloon-injured rat aorta  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the vascular adventitia of balloon-injured rat aortas in the second and sixth postoperative weeks. A total of 32 rats were divided into a control group and a balloon-injured group. The rats underwent vascular morphometric analysis and adventitial cell counting, as well as immunohistochemical staining of ?-SMA and PCNA in postoperative weeks 2 and 6 for observation of the expression of each immune parameter in the vascular adventitia and calculation of the number of PCNA-positive nuclei and the PCNA labeling index (PCNALI) in the vascular adventitia. The area and thickness of the adventitia, the number of nuclei and the PCNALI of the vascular adventitia were significantly increased in the injured group compared with the control group (P<0.05), while the external elastic lamina area (EELA), internal elastic lamina area (IELA) and lumen area (LA) were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the second week. The area and thickness of the adventitia, the number of nuclei and the PCNALI of the vascular adventitia were significantly increased in the injured group compared with the control group (P<0.05), while the EELA, IELA and LA were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in the sixth week, and were significantly lower than those in the injured group in the second week (P<0.05). The positive expression levels of ?-SMA and PCNA in the vascular adventitia were significantly reduced compared with those in the second week after injury. The vascular adventitial cells underwent proliferation and phenotypic switching and participated in vascular remodeling and vascular restenosis following balloon-induced injury. The vascular contractile remodeling in the injured group was more evident in the sixth week than in the second week, followed by a more aggravated vascular stenosis. Consequently, the vascular remodeling was one of the causes of vascular restenosis.




Dysphagia lusoria caused by a right-sided aorta.  


We report a case of an 80-year-old female with dysphagia lusoria caused by oesophageal compression by a right-sided atheromatous aorta. The relationship between aortic root vascular anomalies and dysphagia has been clearly established in literature and can be diagnosed by a barium swallowing study, followed by CT or MRI. Aortic anomalies and variations in aortic branches are caused by embryonic malformations and are mostly described in association with congenital heart lesions. In this pauci-symptomatic patient, the preferred treatment is a conservative management. PMID:22870794

De Caluwe, E; Verhaegen, S; Van Roey, G; Janssens, J; Van Gool, S



Current Management of Traumatic Rupture of the Descending Thoracic Aorta  

PubMed Central

Traumatic rupture of the descending thoracic aorta remains a leading cause of death following major blunt trauma. Management has evolved from uniformly performing emergent open repair with clamp and sew technique to include open repair with mechanical circulatory support, medical management and most recently, endovascular repair. This latter approach appears, in the short term, to be associated with perhaps better outcome, but long term data is still accruing. While an attractive option, there are specific anatomic and physiologic factors to be considered in each individual case.

Karmy-Jones, Riyad; Jackson, Nichole; Long, William; Simeone, Alan




EPA Science Inventory

Efforts to restore more natural freshwater flows in South Florida will impact Biscayne Bay. In order to evaluate possible effects of decreased freshwater discharge on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum , we determined the biomass, density, morphometrics (width, length, nu...


Optimizing data acquisition and analysis of morphometric X-ray absorptiometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphometric X-ray absorptiometry (MXA) uses dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanners to perform vertebral morphometric\\u000a measurements of the vertebrae. In this study we evaluated the four available MXA scan modes - single-energy (SE) and dual-energy\\u000a fast (F), array (A) and high definition (HD) - on a commercial bone densitometer (Hologic QDR-4500A). Sixty postmenopausal\\u000a women (mean age 59 years, range 40–73 years)

J. A. Rea; P. Steiger; G. M. Blake; I. Fogelman



Hypertrophic and hypoactive smooth endoplasmic reticulum in hepatocytes of uremic patients. A morphometric and biochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Morphometric analysis of the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum and assays of drug-metabolizing enzymes in microsomes prepared\\u000a from needle biopsy specimens were performed with samples from uremic patients on chronic hemodialysis and normal controls.\\u000a The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) morphometrically increased in the uremic patients, whereas the cytochrome P-450 content\\u000a and the activity of ?-nitroanisoleO-demethylase per mg microsomal protein decreased in the

Sumio Kawata; Kouichi Seki; Yoshitake Shinji; Seiichiro Tarui; Toshihiro Sugiyama; Toshio Yamano



Cervical pedicle screw placement: feasibility and accuracy of two new insertion techniques based on morphometric data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This morphometric and experimental study was designed to assess the dimensions and axes of the subaxial cervical pedicles\\u000a and to compare the accuracy of two different techniques for subaxial cervical pedicle screw (CPS) placement using newly designed\\u000a aiming devices. Transpedicular fixation is increasingly used for stabilizing the subaxial cervical spine. Development of the\\u000a demanding technique is based on morphometric studies

M. Reinhold; F. Magerl; M. Rieger; M. Blauth



Effect of SRTM resolution on morphometric feature identification using neural network - self organizing map  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we present a semi-automatic procedure using Neural Networks—Self Organizing Map—and Shuttle Radar Topography\\u000a Mission DEMs to characterize morphometric features of the landscape in the Man and Biosphere Reserve “Eastern Carpathians”.\\u000a We investigate specially the effect of two resolutions, SIR-C with 3 arc seconds and X-SAR with 1 arc second for morphometric\\u000a feature identification. Specifically we investigate how

Amir Houshang Ehsani; Friedrich Quiel; Arash Malekian



Morphometric trajectory analysis for the C2 crossing laminar screw technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a morphometric study of the C2 laminae to provide quantitative anatomical data for safe crossing laminar\\u000a screw placement. A valid trajectory is essential for C2 crossing laminar screw placement. Although several clinical technique\\u000a notes and modifications to define a safe screw trajectory have been introduced in the recent years, no morphometric analysis\\u000a has been performed to confirm

Bin Yue; Dai-Soon Kwak; Moon-Kyu Kim; Seong-Oh Kwon; Seung-Ho Han



Importance of initial aortic properties on the evolving regional anisotropy, stiffness and wall thickness of human abdominal aortic aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Complementary advances in medical imaging, vascular biology and biomechanics promise to enable computational modelling of abdominal aortic aneurysms to play increasingly important roles in clinical decision processes. Using a finite-element-based growth and remodelling model of evolving aneurysm geometry and material properties, we show that regional variations in material anisotropy, stiffness and wall thickness should be expected to arise naturally and thus should be included in analyses of aneurysmal enlargement or wall stress. In addition, by initiating the model from best-fit material parameters estimated for non-aneurysmal aortas from different subjects, we show that the initial state of the aorta may influence strongly the subsequent rate of enlargement, wall thickness, mechanical behaviour and thus stress in the lesion. We submit, therefore, that clinically reliable modelling of the enlargement and overall rupture-potential of aneurysms may require both a better understanding of the mechanobiological processes that govern the evolution of these lesions and new methods of determining the patient-specific state of the pre-aneurysmal aorta (or correlation to currently unaffected portions thereof) through knowledge of demographics, comorbidities, lifestyle, genetics and future non-invasive or minimally invasive tests.

Wilson, J. S.; Baek, S.; Humphrey, J. D.



Morphometric assessment of liver fibrosis may enhance early diagnosis of biliary atresia.  


BACKGROUND: Neonatal cholestasis syndrome is considered as a major challenge in pediatric practice. This study was undertaken to investigate the value of morphometric assessment of hepatic fibrosis in early diagnosis of biliary atresia. METHODS: We studied liver biopsy specimens from 53 patients with neonatal cholestasis. The patients were assigned to two groups: group 1 (25 patients with biliary atresia) and group 2 (28 patients with non-obstructive cholestasis). Morphometric assessment of fibrosis was performed for all biopsies; in addition, another twelve histological parameters were estimated and scored on a scale of 0 to 4. Biopsies of infants aged 60 days or younger were characterized and analyzed separately. RESULTS: Morphometric value of fibrosis was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (16.8±8.4% vs. 5.9±2.3%, respectively; P<0.001). By multiple regression analysis, bile ductular plugs, morphometric assessment of fibrosis, rosetting, portal tract inflammation and pattern of cholestasis were found to be significant in discriminating the two groups. In infants aged 60 days or younger, a cutoff value for morphometric assessment of fibrosis of 7.5% was the discriminating point between the two groups with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 84%. CONCLUSION: Morphometric assessment of hepatic fibrosis could enhance the value of liver biopsy in early diagnosis of biliary atresia. PMID:23775681

Abdalla, Ahmed F; Fathy, Abeer; Zalata, Khaled R; Megahed, Ahmed; Abo-Alyazeed, Ahmed; El Regal, Mohammed Ezz



[Sudden onset of abdominal distension...].  


We report the case of a 39 years old patient with sudden onset of abdominal distension and icterus. Occlusion of the liver veins discovered by doppler ultrasound caused the portal hypertension and liver disease. Given the erythrocytosis the detection of JAK 2-mutation proved polycythemia vera as underlying disease for the Budd Chiari syndrome. The implantation of a TIPS wasn't successful because of an early thrombotic occlusion. Therefore a surgical mesocaval shunt was done. At the moment the patient is therapied with oral anticoagulation and hydroxycarbamide and is fully capable of work again. PMID:22991152

Dünkel, J; Oestmann, A



Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old man is complaining of abdominal pain. Visitors are given the radiology, gross and microscopic descriptions, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostics, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Latulippe, Steven; Ohori, N. P.



Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 72-year-old man has abdominal pain, anorexia, and weight loss but no significant past medical history. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in autopsy pathology.

Nine, Jeff S.; Weir, Ed



Management of Functional Abdominal Pain.  


The diagnosis of functional abdominal pain should be made based on the Rome II symptom criteria with only limited testing to exclude other disease. During physical examination the clinician may look for evidence of pain behavior which would be supportive of the diagnosis. Reassurance and proper education regarding the clinical entity of functional abdominal pain is critical for successful treatment and good patient satisfaction. Education should include validation that symptoms are real, and that other individuals experience similar symptoms. No further treatment may be required for those with mild symptoms. For patients with more severe symptoms, a long-term management plan of either pharmacological or psychological treatments is warranted. This will require a commitment by both the patient and the physician to engage in a partnership with active involvement and responsibility by both individuals. The goal of treatment--to decrease pain and increase function over time, not to cure the disorder-- should be explained. Strong consideration should be made for the use of an antidepressant to treat analgesic effects. Tricyclic antidepressants are the mainstay of therapy for functional pain disorders. The analgesic effect is generally quicker in onset and occurs at a lower dose than their effect on mood. To maximize patient compliance, patients should be told the rationale behind their use, warned of the potential side effects, and reassured that many of the side effects will disappear with time. Choice of an antidepressant should be based on the presence of concomitant symptoms (eg, depression), cost, and physician familiarity with specific agents. All patients with functional abdominal pain should be screened for underlying psychiatric disturbance as an untreated mood disorder will adversely affect response to treatment. If a concurrent mood disorder is found, it should be treated by either using a higher dose of the tricyclic antidepressant or by adding another antidepressant agent. Psychological interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy may be important as adjuvant therapy or as an alternative to treatment with antidepressants for those patients who find antidepressants ineffective or are intolerant to them. Narcotics and benzodiazepines should not be used to treat chronic abdominal pain due to the high risk of physical and psychological dependence. PMID:15238203

Saito, Yuri A.; Fox, Jean C.



Automatic segmentation of the aorta and the adjoining vessels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diseases of the cardiovascular system are one of the main causes of death in the Western world. Especially the aorta and its main descending vessels are of high importance for diagnosis and treatment. Today, minimally invasive interventions are becoming increasingly popular due to their advantages like cost effectiveness and minimized risk for the patient. The training of such interventions, which require much of coordination skills, can be trained by task training systems, which are operation simualtion units. These systems require a data model that can be reconstructed from given patient data sets. In this paper, we present a method that allows to segment and classify aorta, carotides, and ostium (including coronary arteries) in one run, fully automatic and highly robust. The system tolerates changes in topology, streak artifacts in CT caused by calcification and inhomogeneous distribution of contrast agent. Both CT and MRI-Images can be processed. The underlying algorithm is based on a combination of Vesselness Enhancement Diffusion, Region Growing, and the Level Set Method. The system showed good results on all 15 real patient data sets whereby the deviation was smaller than two voxels.

Stutzmann, Tobias; Hesser, Jürgen; Völker, Wolfram; Dobhan, Matthias



Progressive structural and biomechanical changes in elastin degraded aorta  

PubMed Central

Aortic aneurysm is an important clinical condition characterized by common structural changes such as the degradation of elastin, loss of smooth muscle cells, and increased deposition of fibrillary collagen. With the goal of investigating the relationship between the mechanical behavior and the structural/biochemical composition of an artery, this study used a simple chemical degradation model of aneurysm and investigated the progressive changes in mechanical properties. Porcine thoracic aortas were digested in a mild solution of purified elastase (5U/mL) for 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 h. Initial size measurements show that disruption of the elastin structure leads to increased artery dilation in the absence of periodic loading. The mechanical properties of the digested arteries, measured with a biaxial tensile testing device, progress through four distinct stages termed (1) initial-softening, (2) elastomer-like, (3) extensible-but-stiff, and (4) collagen-scaffold-like. While stages 1, 3, and 4 are expected as a result of elastin degradation, the S-shaped stress versus strain behavior of the aorta resulting from enzyme digestion has not been reported previously. Our results suggest that gradual changes in the structure of elastin in the artery can lead to a progression through different mechanical properties and thus reveal the potential existence of an important transition stage that could contribute to artery dilation during aneurysm formation.

Chow, Ming-Jay; Mondonedo, Jarred R.; Johnson, Victor M.



Endoscopically drained abdominal abscess compressing the sigmoid.  


Intra-abdominal abscesses (IAA) complicate numerous medical and surgical pathologic conditions. Accurate radiological diagnosis combined with percutaneous or surgical drainage and antibiotics is the current standard of care for IAA. We herein report a case of a 52-year-old woman with a 10-day history of fever and abdominal pain. An intra-abdominal abscess externally compressing the sigmoid was revealed and successfully drained during colonoscopy. PMID:22843307

Polymeros, Dimitrios; Sioulas, Athanasios D; Tsiamoulos, Zacharias; Kontopoulou, Christina; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos



Traumatic abdominal wall injuries: a review.  


Traumatic abdominal wall injuries have been described in literature for over 100 years. These injuries involve abdominal wall from skin to the level of fascia. These are often associated with underlying visceral injuries. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and is based on clinical examination and radiologic investigations. Management ranges from conservative management to complex abdominal wall reconstruction. In the following review we describe the incidence, clinical features, diagnosis, management and possible interventions for prevention of these injuries. PMID:23774087

Rathore, A; Murherjee, I; Kumar, P



Biphasic synovial sarcoma of the abdominal wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synovial sarcoma arising in the abdominal wall is a rare tumor. We report a case of a 38-year-old man who complained of abdominal\\u000a pain. Physical examination revealed a firm mobile mass, 25 cm in diameter, in the left lower abdominal wall. The tumor was\\u000a first thought to be a sarcoma arising from the omentum or mesentery. During surgery, a large tumor

Jesús Vera; María-Dolores García; Miguel Marigil; Manuel Abascal; Jose-Ignacio Lopez; Luis Ligorred



Mini-laparoscopy in blunt abdominal trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Blunt abdominal trauma in multiorgan injured or comatose patients always presents a problem. The aim is to assess, in the\\u000a shortest period of time, which organ injury requires priority and whether intra-abdominal bleeding or perforation exists.\\u000a Abdominal lavage proved to be too sensitive. Not every positive case needs exploration. Approximately 15%–20% of the cases\\u000a explored because of positive lavage did

Dennis Wood; George Berci; Leon Morgenstern; Margaret Paz-Partlow; D. Lorenz



Obstruction of the Aorta and Left Pulmonary Artery After Gianturco Coil Occlusion of Patent Ductus Arteriosus  

SciTech Connect

We report an unusual case of simultaneous obstruction of the left pulmonary artery and descending thoracic aorta after Gianturco coil occlusion in a 15-month-old boy. The diagnosis was made by echocardiography and cardiac angiography. At surgery, thrombi coating on the protruded parts of the Gianturco coil in the pulmonary artery and aorta were found.

Kuo, H.-Cg [Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics (China); Ko, Sheung-Fat [Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Department of Radiology (China); Wu, Yu-Tsun; Huang, Chien-Fu; Chien, Shao-Ju; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Liang, Chi-Di [Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics (China)], E-mail:



Immediate and follow-up findings after stent treatment for severe coarctation of aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies have shown that stents implanted at the aorta become incorporated within the aortic wall and can be further expanded in growing animals. Few clinical studies have shown that the stent repair of severe coarctation of aorta provides excellent initial results, and little is known on the follow-up of these patients. We assessed the immediate and follow-up results obtained

José Suárez de Lezo; Manuel Pan; Miguel Romero; Alfonso Medina; José Segura; Mercedes Lafuente; Djordje Pavlovic; Enrique Hernández; Francisco Melián; José Espada



Successful treatment of Salmonella mycotic aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta.  


Salmonella mycotic aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta are exceedingly rare. There are few case reports and even fewer reports of long term survival. The case of a 68-year-old female presenting with a mycotic aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta caused by Salmonella species is described, which involved successful surgical intervention. PMID:12895636

Lin, Chih-Yuan; Hong, Gou-Jieng; Lee, Kou-Chen; Tsai, Chien-Sung



Superoxide Anion From the Adventitia of the Rat Thoracic Aorta Inactivates Nitric Oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether superoxide anion is produced endogenously in the rat aortic adventitia and whether sufficient superoxide anion is produced to interfere with the response of the rat aorta to nitric oxide. Relaxation was measured in rings of the rat thoracic aorta, which were oriented so that the adventitial or luminal surface could be

Hui Di Wang; Patrick J. Pagano; Yue Du; Antonio J. Cayatte; Mark T. Quinn; Peter Brecher; Richard A. Cohen


Large mobile thrombus in non-atherosclerotic thoracic aorta as the source of peripheral arterial embolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of thrombi in the atherosclerotic and\\/or aneurysmatic aorta with peripheral arterial embolism is a common scenario. Thrombus formation in a morphologically normal aorta, however, is a rare event. A 50 years old woman was admitted to the mergency department for pain, coldness, and anesthesia in the the left foot. She had a 25 years history of cigarette smoking,

Nasser M Malyar; Rolf A Janosi; Zoran Brkovic; Raimund Erbel



Aorta-to-left ventricle tunnel associated with noncompaction left ventricle.  


We present a case of aorta-to-left ventricle (LV) tunnel and noncompaction LV in a 26-year-old woman. She was referred to our echocardiography laboratory for evaluation of aortic regurgitation by echocardiographic examination, which led to the diagnosis of the congenital abnormality of aorta-to-LV tunnel and noncompaction LV. PMID:16880108

Sadeghpour, Anita; Peighambari, Mahdi; Dalirrooyfard, Mahboobeh; Esmailzadeh, Maryam; Maleki, Majid; Noohi, Fereidoun; Ojaghi, Mahshid; Samiei, Niloofar



A novel cultured tissue model of rat aorta: VSMC proliferation mechanism in relationship to atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of a cultured tissue experimental model of rat aorta was explored in order to study mechanism of vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) proliferation. This particular model has potential with regard to amelioration of atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases in comparison to whole animal and cell culture models. The aorta segments of rats were divided into 4 experimental groups: the injured

Caiying Wang; Yanlin Zhang; Qin Yang; Yaan Yang; Yongping Gu; Mincheng Wang; Kaiyun Wu



Effect of non-Newtonian and pulsatile blood flow on mass transport in the human aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effects of both non-Newtonian behavior and the pulsation of blood flow on the distributions of luminal surface LDL concentration and oxygen flux along the wall of the human aorta, we numerically compared a non-Newtonian model with the Newtonian one under both steady flow and in vivo pulsatile flow conditions using a human aorta model constructed from MRI

Xiao Liu; Yubo Fan; Xiaoyan Deng; Fan Zhan



Expression and localization of macrophage elastase (matrix metalloproteinase-12) in abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed Central

Elastolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), a disorder characterized by chronic aortic wall inflammation and destruction of medial elastin. The purpose of this study was to determine if human macrophage elastase (HME; MMP-12) might participate in this disease. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, HME mRNA was consistently demonstrated in AAA and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (AOD) tissues (six of six), but in only one of six normal aortas. Immunoreactive proteins corresponding to proHME and two products of extracellular processing were present in seven of seven AAA tissue extracts. Total HME recovered from AAA tissue was sevenfold greater than normal aorta (P < 0.001), and the extracted enzyme exhibited activity in vitro. Production of HME was demonstrated in the media of AAA tissues by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, but HME was not detected within the media of normal or AOD specimens. Importantly, immunoreactive HME was specifically localized to residual elastin fragments within the media of AAA tissue, particularly areas adjacent to nondilated normal aorta. In vitro, the fraction of MMP-12 sequestered by insoluble elastin was two- to fivefold greater than other elastases found in AAA tissue. Therefore, HME is prominently expressed by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages within the degenerating aortic media of AAA, where it is also bound to residual elastic fiber fragments. Because elastin represents a critical component of aortic wall structure and a matrix substrate for metalloelastases, HME may have a direct and singular role in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms.

Curci, J A; Liao, S; Huffman, M D; Shapiro, S D; Thompson, R W



Endograft-preserving therapy of a patient with Coxiella burnetii-infected abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, may cause endocarditis and vascular infections that result in severe morbidity and mortality. We report a case of a C. burnetii-infected abdominal aorta and its management in a patient with a previous endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. Case presentation A 62-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to our hospital three months after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair with a bifurcated stent graft. He had increasing abdominal complaints and general malaise. A computed tomography scan of his abdomen revealed several para-aneurysmal abscesses. Surgery was performed via midline laparotomy. The entire abdominal wall of his aneurysmal sac, including the abscesses, was removed. The vascular endoprosthesis showed no macroscopic signs of infection. The decision was made to leave the endograft in place because of the severe cardiopulmonary comorbidities, thereby avoiding suprarenal clamping and explantation of this device with venous reconstruction. The proximal and distal parts of the endograft were secured to the aortic wall and common iliac artery walls, respectively, to avoid future migration. Polymerase chain reaction for C. burnetii was positive in all specimens of aortic tissue. Specific antibiotic therapy was initiated. Our patient was discharged in good clinical condition after six days. Conclusions In our patient, the infection was limited to the abdominal aneurysm wall, which was removed, leaving the endograft in place. Vascular surgeons should be familiar with this bailout procedure in high-risk patients.



The inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm and coronary artery disease. Case report and review.  


Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is defined as an unusually thickened aneurysmatic wall, encircled by a wide dense perianeurysmal and/or retroperitoneal fibrosis with adjacent tissues adhesion, and is now considered as an extreme shape of the common phlogistic process involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Latest studies demonstrated that inflammation plays an important role in coronary disease and in other atherosclerosis manifestations. We introduce the clinical case of a patient with IAAA who developed an acute myocardial infarction 6 months after the surgical procedure on the aorta. Through a literature review about IAAA we stress the clinical usefulness of the inflammatory markers as independent predictors in management of patients with coronary disease and we present the hypothesis, related to the introduced case, of an advanced coronary disease, aggravated or clinically revealed after the cytokine storm related to important localized inflammatory engagements or great vascular surgery treatments. PMID:16778758

Monte, I; Capodanno, D; Licciardi, S; Ferraro, C; Giannone, M T; Grasso, S; Nicolosi, E



Blood flow and coherent vortices in the normal and aneurysmatic aortas: a fluid dynamical approach to intra-luminal thrombus formation  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are frequently characterized by the development of an intra-luminal thrombus (ILT), which is known to have multiple biochemical and biomechanical implications. Development of the ILT is not well understood, and shear–stress-triggered activation of platelets could be the first step in its evolution. Vortical structures (VSs) in the flow affect platelet dynamics, which motivated the present study of a possible correlation between VS and ILT formation in AAAs. VSs educed by the ?2-method using computational fluid dynamics simulations of the backward-facing step problem, normal aorta, fusiform AAA and saccular AAA were investigated. Patient-specific luminal geometries were reconstructed from computed tomography scans, and Newtonian and Carreau–Yasuda models were used to capture salient rheological features of blood flow. Particularly in complex flow domains, results depended on the constitutive model. VSs developed all along the normal aorta, showing that a clear correlation between VSs and high wall shear stress (WSS) existed, and that VSs started to break up during late systole. In contrast, in the fusiform AAA, large VSs developed at sites of tortuous geometry and high WSS, occupying the entire lumen, and lasting over the entire cardiac cycle. Downward motion of VSs in the AAA was in the range of a few centimetres per cardiac cycle, and with a VS burst at that location, the release (from VSs) of shear-stress-activated platelets and their deposition to the wall was within the lower part of the diseased artery, i.e. where the thickest ILT layer is typically observed. In the saccular AAA, only one VS was found near the healthy portion of the aorta, while in the aneurysmatic bulge, no VSs occurred. We present a fluid-dynamics-motivated mechanism for platelet activation, convection and deposition in AAAs that has the potential of improving our current understanding of the pathophysiology of fluid-driven ILT growth.

Biasetti, Jacopo; Hussain, Fazle; Gasser, T. Christian



Morphometric analysis of Leydig cells in the normal rat testis  

PubMed Central

Leydig cells are thought to be the source of most, if not all, the testosterone produced by the testis. The goal of this study was to obtain quantitative information about rat Leydig cells and their organelles that might be correlated with pertinent physiological and biochemical data available either now or in the future. Morphometric analysis of Leydig cells in mature normal rats was carried out on tissue fixed by perfusion with buffered glutaraldehyde, and embedded in glycol methacrylate for light microscopy and in Epon for electron microscopy. In a whole testis, 82.4% of the volume was occupied by seminiferous tubules, 15.7% by the interstitial tissue, and 1.9% by the capsule. Leydig cells constituted 2.7% of testicular volume. Each cubic centimeter (contained approximatelyy 1 g) of rat testis contained about 22 million Leydig cells. An average Leydig cell had a volume of 1,210 micron3 and its plasma membrane had a surface area of 1,520 micron2. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), the most prominent organelle in Leydig cells and a major site of steroidogenic enzymes, had a surface area of approximately 10,500 micron2/cell, which is 6.9 times that of the plasma membrane and is 60% of the total membrane area of the cell. The total surface area of Leydig SER per cubic centimeter of testis tissue is approximately 2,300 cm2 or 0.23 m2. There were 3.0 mg of Leydig mitochondria in 1 g of testis tissue. The average Leydig cell contained approximately 622 mitochondria, measuring on the average 0.35 micron in diameter and 2.40 micron in length. The mitochondrial inner membrane (including cristae), another important site of steroidogenic enzymes, had a surface area of 2,920 micron2/cell, which is 1.9 times that of the plasma membrane. There were 644 cm2 of inner mitochondrial membrane/cm3 of testis tissue. These morphometric results can be correlated with published data on the rate of testosterone secretion to show that an average Leydig cell secretes approximately 0.44 pg of testosterone/d or 10,600 molecules of testosterone/s. The rate of testosterone production by each square centimeter of SER is 4.2 ng/d or 101 million molecules/s: the corresponding rate for each square centimeter of mitochondrial inner membrane is 15 ng testosterone/d or 362 million molecules/s.



Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood.  


Recurrent abdominal pain in childhood is common, and continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is usually attributed to a functional gastrointestinal disorder rather than an organic disease. In most cases, a comprehensive history and physical examination should enable one to make a positive diagnosis of functional disorder. The presence of alarm symptoms and signs, such as weight loss, gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic severe diarrhoea, warrants further investigations and referral to a paediatric gastrointestinal specialist. The mainstay of therapy in functional abdominal pain is education, reassurance and avoidance of triggering factors. While symptom-based pharmacological therapy may be helpful in patients who do not respond to simple management, it is best used on a time-limited basis due to the lack of good evidence of its efficacy. The primary goal of therapy is a return to normal daily activities rather than complete elimination of pain. In recalcitrant cases, psychological interventions such as cognitive behaviour therapy and relaxation training have proven to be efficacious. PMID:23624445

Chiou, Fang Kuan; How, Choon How; Ong, Christina



CD14 Directs Adventitial Macrophage Precursor Recruitment: Role in Early Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation  

PubMed Central

Background Recruitment of macrophage precursors to the adventitia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), but molecular mechanisms remain undefined. The innate immune signaling molecule CD14 was reported to be upregulated in adventitial macrophages in a murine model of AAA and in monocytes cocultured with aortic adventitial fibroblasts (AoAf) in vitro, concurrent with increased interleukin?6 (IL?6) expression. We hypothesized that CD14 plays a crucial role in adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment early during AAA formation. Methods and Results CD14?/? mice were resistant to AAA formation induced by 2 different AAA induction models: aortic elastase infusion and systemic angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. CD14 gene deletion led to reduced aortic macrophage infiltration and diminished elastin degradation. Adventitial monocyte binding to AngII?infused aorta in vitro was dependent on CD14, and incubation of human acute monocytic leukemia cell line?1 (THP?1) monocytes with IL?6 or conditioned medium from perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) upregulated CD14 expression. Conditioned medium from AoAf and PVAT induced CD14?dependent monocyte chemotaxis, which was potentiated by IL?6. CD14 expression in aorta and plasma CD14 levels were increased in AAA patients compared with controls. Conclusions These findings link CD14 innate immune signaling via a novel IL?6 amplification loop to adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment in the pathogenesis of AAA.

Blomkalns, Andra L.; Gavrila, Daniel; Thomas, Manesh; Neltner, Bonnie S.; Blanco, Victor M.; Benjamin, Stephanie B.; McCormick, Michael L.; Stoll, Lynn L.; Denning, Gerene M.; Collins, Sean P.; Qin, Zhenyu; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A.; Thompson, Robert W.; Weiss, Robert M.; Lindower, Paul D.; Pinney, Susan M.; Chatterjee, Tapan; Weintraub, Neal L.



A Rare Complication of a Retained Wire during Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.  


We present a case of a high-risk 76-year-old man who was electively admitted for repair of a large infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. After placement of the main body of the bifurcated graft, the contralateral guidewire became entrapped at the level of suprarenal fixation. Multiple endovascular maneuvers were attempted to remove this wire from the femoral approach, but all were unsuccessful. The wire was then transected at the level of the common femoral artery and anchored to the arterial wall with 1 small monofilament suture. A short bare stent was also used to secure this wire to the inner wall of the external iliac artery. However, the proximal end of the wire that extended freely up to the mid-descending aorta was left undisturbed. On postoperative day 2, an attempt at snaring the proximal end of the wire via a brachial approach also failed to displace the trapped wire. At 1-year of follow-up, the patient has been asymptomatic with no obvious sequelae, such as thromboembolism or aortic dissection, and there is no evidence of damage to the aorta or graft on computed tomographic imaging. To our knowledge, this complication has not been previously reported. PMID:23938030

Derderian, Trevor; Ascher, Enrico; Hingorani, Anil; Jimenez, Robert



Uncluttered single-image visualization of the abdominal aortic vessel tree: Method and evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The authors develop a method to visualize the abdominal aorta and its branches, obtained by CT or MR angiography, in a single 2D stylistic image without overlap among branches. Methods: The abdominal aortic vasculature is modeled as an articulated object whose underlying topology is a rooted tree. The inputs to the algorithm are the 3D centerlines of the abdominal aorta, its branches, and their associated diameter information. The visualization problem is formulated as an optimization problem that finds a spatial configuration of the bounding boxes of the centerlines most similar to the projection of the input into a given viewing direction (e.g., anteroposterior), while not introducing intersections among the boxes. The optimization algorithm minimizes a score function regarding the overlap of the bounding boxes and the deviation from the input. The output of the algorithm is used to produce a stylistic visualization, made of the 2D centerlines modulated by the associated diameter information, on a plane. The authors performed a preliminary evaluation by asking three radiologists to label 366 arterial branches from the 30 visualizations of five cases produced by the method. Each of the five patients was presented in six different variant images, selected from ten variants with the three lowest and three highest scores. For each label, they assigned confidence and distortion ratings (low/medium/high). They studied the association between the quantitative metrics measured from the visualization and the subjective ratings by the radiologists. Results: All resulting visualizations were free from branch overlaps. Labeling accuracies of the three readers were 93.4%, 94.5%, and 95.4%, respectively. For the total of 1098 samples, the distortion ratings were low: 77.39%, medium: 10.48%, and high: 12.12%. The confidence ratings were low: 5.56%, medium: 16.50%, and high: 77.94%. The association study shows that the proposed quantitative metrics can predict a reader's subjective ratings and suggests that the visualization with the lowest score should be selected for readers. Conclusions: The method for eliminating misleading false intersections in 2D projections of the abdominal aortic tree conserves the overall shape and does not diminish accurate identifiability of the branches.

Won, Joong-Ho; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Napel, Sandy [Department of Electrical Engineering and Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)



Abdominal atlas mapping in CT and MR volume images using a normalized abdominal coordinate system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a normalized abdominal coordinate system is defined for abdominal atlas mapping in CT and MR volume images. This coordinate system is independent of both the abdomen size and the respiratory motion. A real-time atlas mapping algorithm based on this coordinate system is also proposed. The purpose of this algorithm is to provide initial positions for abdominal organ

Hongkai Wang; Jing Bai; Yongxin Zhou; Yonghong Zhang



Feasibility of Angioplasty and Stenting for Abdominal Aortic Lesions Adjacent to Previously Stented Visceral Artery Lesions in Patients with Takayasu Arteritis  

SciTech Connect

Two young female patients with Takayasu arteritis presented with symptomatic long-segment abdominal aortic stenosis in the vicinity of previously deployed celiac and renal artery stents that projected markedly into the narrowed aortic lumen. Crushing or distortion of the visceral artery stents during aortic angioplasty was avoided by performing simultaneous or alternating balloon dilatations in the aorta and in the visceral artery stents. Consequently, the visceral artery stents remained patent and shortened longitudinally, allowing unhindered deployment of Wallstents in the adjacent aorta and abolition of a pressure gradient across the aortic lesions. Access to side branches covered by the Wallstent was obtained without difficulty, enabling the performance of balloon dilatation in multiple side branches and ostial stent deployment in a renal artery. These techniques could increase the scope of endovascular therapy in the treatment of patients with Takayasu arteritis.

Joseph, George, E-mail:; George, Paul V.; Pati, Purendra Kumar; Chandy, Sunil Thomas [Christian Medical College, Department of Cardiology (India)



Morphometric aspects of peripheral nerves in adults and the elderly.  


There have been inconsistencies among reports of age-related differences in human peripheral nerves (PNs). For such studies, normal control values are necessary. Moreover, the diversity of methods employed makes it difficult to compare results. We used the same histological procedures and methods to measure 12 PNs: 8 in the cranial nerves, 2 motor nerves in the lower limb, and 2 nerves in the autonomic system. We performed a morphometric analysis of nerve fibers and estimated the change in the total number (TN) and average transverse area (ATA) of myelinated axons from adulthood to old age. The spinal nerves demonstrated notable age-related changes in TN and ATA. Most of the cranial nerves also demonstrated notable age-related changes in TN and ATA. However, some nerves demonstrated no such age-related changes and were affected more by other factors. With regards to the autonomic nerves, the lesser splanchnic nerve indicated age-related changes in TN, but the greater splanchnic nerve indicated no age-related changes in either TN or ATA. The autonomic nerves were affected not only by the aging process but also by the pathological changes to the peripheral tissues that they innervate. PMID:17868247

Moriyama, Hiroshi; Amano, Kaori; Itoh, Masahiro; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Otsuka, Naruhito



Morphometric study of cardiac muscle: the problem of tissue shrinkage  

SciTech Connect

Comparison of data from morphometric studies dealing with the heart is complicated by the fact that little information dealing with cell size changes during tissue processing is available. To investigate these changes, isolated cardiac myocytes were adhered to glass cover slips of Sykes Moore chambers and photographed after each step of processing for transmission electron microscopy. Six different experiments with a minimum of 10 cells each were followed through the entire procedure after fixation with isoosmolar glutaraldehyde. Cellular dimension changes were determined by tracing individual isolated myocytes after each step of the procedure with a sonic digitizer. Significant cell volume changes occurred after osmium (16 per cent swelling), postosmium wash (10 per cent swelling), and uranyl acetate (25 per cent shrinkage). Hypertonic aldehyde solutions resulted in cellular shrinkage during fixation not found with isotonic solutions. Changes in cell cross-sectional area rather than length were largely responsible for altered cell volumes during any given phase of processing. The results indicate that, although cell volume changes occur during processing, final cell dimensions of embedded cells were not different from unfixed cells. In whole tissue blocks, inclusion of propylene oxide in the procedure resulted in tissue shrinkage which was not observed in isolated myocytes, suggesting that different tissue components react in a variable manner to propylene oxide. After each of the other steps in processing, tissue blocks reacted in a similar manner to the isolated myocytes.

Gerdes, A.M.; Kriseman, J.; Bishop, S.P.



Pulmonary veins in high-altitude residents: a morphometric study.  

PubMed Central

The thickness of the media of pulmonary veins and arteries was morphometrically assessed in 12 normal adults resident at altitudes over 3000 m and 12 resident at sea level. The pulmonary veins in the latter group were very thin walled. The average thickness of the pulmonary venous media in the group of highlanders was significantly thicker but this appeared to be due to prominent medial hypertrophy in seven individuals, five others having normal or near-normal pulmonary veins. In six of the 12 highlanders bundles of longitudinal smooth muscle cells occurred in the venous intima. There was close correlation between the thickness of the venous and that of the arterial media, suggesting an individual reactivity with a simultaneous response of all pulmonary vascular smooth muscle to high-altitude hypoxia. Hypertrophy of the media of pulmonary veins is likely to be an expression of venoconstriction and narrowing of the venous lumen may be enhanced by the development of longitudinal smooth muscle cells in the intima. Possibly venoconstriction is one of the factors responsible for high-altitude pulmonary oedema. Images

Wagenvoort, C A; Wagenvoort, N



Petrous carotid exposure with eustachian tube preservation: a morphometric elucidation.  


Inadvertent injury to eustachian tube leading to cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea is a known complication associated with drilling of Glasscock's triangle to expose the horizontal petrous internal carotid artery (ICA) for management of difficult tumors (especially malignant) or aneurysms at the cranial base. Contrary to the usual approach, we hypothesize that a "medial-to-lateral" approach to Glasscock's triangle drilling will minimize eustachian tube injury. Four formalin-fixed human cadaveric heads were dissected, and underwent appropriate morphometric analysis; yielding a total of eight datasets. The diameter of the horizontal petrous ICA exposed was 4.7?±?0.9 mm (range, 3.8 to 5.6 mm).The mean distance from the medial carotid wall midpoint to the medial-most point on the eustachian tube was 6.35?±?0.58 mm (range, 5.4 to 7.1 mm), yielding a "safety zone" for eustachian tube, ranging 0.2 to 1.9 mm lateral to the lateral carotid wall. With the medial-to-lateral approach, the eustachian tube remained preserved in all the specimens. The results of our study provide a practical, consistent, and safe method of maximizing horizontal petrous carotid artery exposure while minimizing the eustachian tube injury. PMID:22451834

Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Thakur, Jai Deep; Ezer, Haim; Chittiboina, Prashant; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil



Functional Morphometric Analysis of the Furcula in Mesozoic Birds  

PubMed Central

The furcula displays enormous morphological and structural diversity. Acting as an important origin for flight muscles involved in the downstroke, the form of this element has been shown to vary with flight mode. This study seeks to clarify the strength of this form-function relationship through the use of eigenshape morphometric analysis coupled with recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs), including phylogenetic Flexible Discriminant Analysis (pFDA). Additionally, the morphospace derived from the furculae of extant birds is used to shed light on possible flight adaptations of Mesozoic fossil taxa. While broad conclusions of earlier work are supported (U-shaped furculae are associated with soaring, strong anteroposterior curvature with wing-propelled diving), correlations between form and function do not appear to be so clear-cut, likely due to the significantly larger dataset and wider spectrum of flight modes sampled here. Interclavicular angle is an even more powerful discriminator of flight mode than curvature, and is positively correlated with body size. With the exception of the close relatives of modern birds, the ornithuromorphs, Mesozoic taxa tend to occupy unique regions of morphospace, and thus may have either evolved unfamiliar flight styles or have arrived at similar styles through divergent musculoskeletal configurations.

Close, Roger A.; Rayfield, Emily J.



The shape of human evolution: a geometric morphometrics perspective.  


Study of morphological form is fundamental to the discipline of paleoanthropology. The size and shape of our ancestors' anatomical features have long been the focus of research on hominin systematics, phylogeny, functional morphology, ontogeny, variation, and evolutionary change. Early physical anthropologists relied on both qualitative descriptions of anatomical shape and linear measurements to assess variation among hominins. The seminal works of W. W. Howells and C. E. Oxnard helped to bring multivariate techniques to the forefront of physical anthropology. Howells' intention was the objective delineation of components of shape, which could then fuel further analyses and interpretations, as well as clarification of the ways that growth influences interindividual and interpopulational differences in shape. He expressed concern that previous comparisons of individual measurements did not capture the overall shape of the skull, which is "expressed by the relations between measurements." Similarly, Oxnard recognized that a multivariate approach to the study of complex shapes allows "for such perturbations (e.g., variation and covariation)…that are difficult to evaluate by eye and impossible to reveal by measurement and simple analysis alone." While multivariate methods offered clear advantages over univariate or bivariate representations of shape, the analysis of traditional morphometric measures such as linear distances, angles, and ratios, has limitations when it comes to quantifying the complex geometry of some anatomical structures. PMID:22907868

Baab, Karen L; McNulty, Kieran P; Rohlf, F James


Functional morphometric analysis of the furcula in mesozoic birds.  


The furcula displays enormous morphological and structural diversity. Acting as an important origin for flight muscles involved in the downstroke, the form of this element has been shown to vary with flight mode. This study seeks to clarify the strength of this form-function relationship through the use of eigenshape morphometric analysis coupled with recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs), including phylogenetic Flexible Discriminant Analysis (pFDA). Additionally, the morphospace derived from the furculae of extant birds is used to shed light on possible flight adaptations of Mesozoic fossil taxa. While broad conclusions of earlier work are supported (U-shaped furculae are associated with soaring, strong anteroposterior curvature with wing-propelled diving), correlations between form and function do not appear to be so clear-cut, likely due to the significantly larger dataset and wider spectrum of flight modes sampled here. Interclavicular angle is an even more powerful discriminator of flight mode than curvature, and is positively correlated with body size. With the exception of the close relatives of modern birds, the ornithuromorphs, Mesozoic taxa tend to occupy unique regions of morphospace, and thus may have either evolved unfamiliar flight styles or have arrived at similar styles through divergent musculoskeletal configurations. PMID:22666324

Close, Roger A; Rayfield, Emily J



Morphometric relationships of take-off speed in anuran amphibians.  


Locomotory speed correlates with muscle mass (determining force and stride rate), limb length (stride rate and distance), and laterally compressed body trunk (force and stride distance). To delineate generalization of the locomotory-morphometric relationships specifically in anuran amphibians, we investigated take-off speed and the three morphological variables from seven species, Rana nigromaculata, R. rugosa, and Bombina orientalis, Eleuthrodectilus fitzingeri, E. diastema, Bufo typhonius, Colostethus flotator and Physalaemus pustulosus. The fastest jumper E. fitzingeri (3.41 m s(-1)) showed 2.49-fold greater speed than the slowest B. typhonius. Take-off speed correlated well with both thigh muscle mass relative to body mass and hindlimb length relative to snout-vent length (HL/SVL), but poorly correlated with the inter-ilial width relative to SVL. The best morphological predictor was HL/SVL (speed=-3.28+3.916 HL/SVL, r=0.968, P<0.0001), suggesting that anuran take-off speed is portrayed well with high gear and acceleration distance characterized by hindlimbs. PMID:12975797

Choi, Inho; Shim, Jae Han; Ricklefs, Robert E



Stented elephant trunk procedure combined with ascending aorta and arch replacement for acute type A aortic dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Despite steadily improving outcomes, surgery for acute type A aortic dissection has several unresolved problems such as expansion of the residual false lumen in the descending aorta. We performed transaortic stented graft implantation into the descending aorta combined with the ascending aorta and aortic arch replacement for acute type A aortic dissection. We review the efficacy and outcomes of

Tomohiro Mizuno; Masaaki Toyama; Noriyuki Tabuchi; Haison Wu; Makoto Sunamori



Stented elephant trunk procedure combined with ascending aorta and arch replacement for acute type A aortic dissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Despite steadily improving outcomes, surgery for acute type A aortic dissection has several unresolved problems such as expansion of the residual false lumen in the descending aorta. We performed transaortic stented graft implantation into the descending aorta combined with the ascending aorta and aortic arch replacement for acute type A aortic dissection. We review the efficacy and outcomes of

Tomohiro Mizuno; Masaaki Toyama; Noriyuki Tabuchi; Haison Wu; Makoto Sunamori


[Intra- and inter-specific morphometric variation between Odontophrynus populations (Anura: Cycloramphidae) of central Argentina].  


Intra- and inter-specific morphometric variation between Odontophrynus populations (Anura: Cycloramphidae) of central Argentina. Morphometric analyses are particularly important, and for many years they have supported evolutionary and ecological phenomena, and have been useful for the classification of new species, mainly to the lowest taxonomic levels. In order to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism, the intra-specific morphometric variation and the inter-specific morphological differences, we performed morphometric analyses of two morphologically cryptic species, Odontophrynus cordobae (diploid) and O. americanus (tetraploid). For this, we measured 15 morphometric variables on 211 individuals from 18 localities of Córdoba province. We found sexual dimorphism in six and three parameters in O. cordobae and O. americanus, respectively. Diploid and tetraploid males significantly differed in six morphometric variables. Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) including all populations correctly classified a 76.37% of individuals within their respective species. DFA based on four groups (1- allopatric O. cordobae, 2-syntopic O. cordobae; 3- allopatric O. americanus; 4- syntopic O. americanus) accurately classified a 73.45% of individuals within their respective groups. Allopatric individuals of each species and, allopatric and syntopic individuals within each species were clearly segregated. Syntopic individuals of O. cordobae and O. americanus showed the lowest percentages of correct classification. Morphometric differences between sympatric diploids and tetraploids were not greater than those observed in allopatry. These findings deviate from the expected results under the hypothesis of character displacement, and they suggest that external morphological characters would not have a major influence on the recognition and choice of conspecific males by females. PMID:23342513

Grenat, Pablo Raúl; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico




Microsoft Academic Search

CT scans of a child's abdomen after blunt abdominal trauma have become a widely accepted technique for evaluating intra-abdominal organ injuries, because clinical findings of children may not reveal anything in such circumstances. This report reviews the CT findings over a 6 year period of 26 children under 15 years old with blunt abdomi- nal trauma at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang

Nuttaya Pattamapaspong; Pannee Visrutaratna



Motor programs for abdominal positioning in crayfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using chronically implanted suction electrodes (Fig. 2), records were obtained from the tonic abdominal flexor motor neurons of crayfish while they were undergoing various self-generated movements (Fig. 3). The main behavior examined in this study was one of abdominal extension (Fig. 1), a response which could be evoked repeatedly. Other stereotyped movements were also observed. Each class of behavior we

James L. Larimer; Alan C. Eggleston



CT of abdominal and pelvic trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

CT is the diagnostic study of choice at most institutions in the evaluation of hemodynamically stable, blunt abdominal trauma. It is highly specific and sensitive in the detection and definition of the extent of most intra-abdominal and pelvic injuries. The clinical examination is the most important factor in the decision regarding whether surgery should be undertaken. However, a progressive and

John L Roberts



Abdominal disease in calves: A diagnostic challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of colic in calves presents a challenge for veterinarians. The main goal in examining calves with suspected abdominal disease is to determine whether a surgi- cal or medical condition is present. Once the nature of the condition has been ascer- tained, decisions regarding treatment and prognosis can be made. Since every case of abdominal disease presents differently, often

Erin Fierheller


Utility of laparoscopy in chronic abdominal pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPatients with chronic abdominal pain can undergo numerous diagnostic tests with little change in their pain. This study was undertaken to assess the utility of performing diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy in patients with chronic abdominal pain for longer than 12 weeks.

Raymond P Onders; Elizabeth A Mittendorf



Infected abdominal sacrocolpopexies: diagnosis and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abdominal sacrocolpopexy is an excellent procedure to surgically treat vaginal vault prolapse. A synthetic graft is often used to support the vaginal apex, but has the potential to become infected or erode, requiring its removal or revision. The purpose of this paper is to report our experience in the management of patients with infected synthetic grafts after abdominal sacrocolpopexy.

T. Fleming Mattox; Edward J. Stanford; E. Varner



Syndrome compartimental abdominal après chirurgie cardiaque  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who underwent mitral valve replacement and tricuspid valve repair. Following surgery she developed rapid onset of ascitis and secondary abdominal compartmental syndrome with low cardiac output and oliguria. Following drainage of the ascitis, the abdominal pressure dropped with a spectacular improvement of both the cardiac ant the urine output.

S. Madi-Jebara; G. Hayek; A. Yazigi; F. Haddad; P. Yazbeck



[Laparoscopic interventions in emergency abdominal surgery].  


The use of videolaparoscopic methods for the treatment of penetrating stomach and duodenal ulcers, acute cholecystitis, acute pancreatitis, acute appendicitis, intestinal obstruction, acute gynecological diseases and abdominal trauma is analyzed. Laparoscopic methods at urgent abdominal surgery improves the quality of diagnosis and treatment, decrease the rate of postoperative complications and lethality, reduce the hospital stay. PMID:23786014

Abu Shamsiia, R N



Computed tomography of pediatric blunt abdominal trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computed tomography (CT) is the imaging method of choice in the evaluation of hemodynamically stable children after blunt abdominal trauma. Evaluation with CT will show whether intraperitoneal fluid or blood is present and whether the liver, spleen, kidneys, and pancreas are intact. Although the principal role of CT after blunt abdominal trauma is the assessment of solid viscus injury, an

Carlos J. Sivit; Aletta A. Frazier; Martin R. Eichelberger



Prophylactic cholecystectomy during abdominal surgery.  


The presence of asymptomatic gallstones is no longer an indication for elective prophylactic cholecystectomy (PC) according to the recommendations of the 1991 French Consensus Conference on cholelithiasis. However, there may be potential benefits of performing prophylactic cholecystectomy during certain abdominal procedures for non-biliary disease; this remains a subject of debate. This debate has become livelier with the recent increase in bariatric surgery. Gastrectomy for cancer, small bowel resection, colonic resection, and splenectomy for hereditary spherocytosis as well as all bariatric surgical interventions can all alter the physiology of gallstone disease raising the question of the value of PC, but the specific morbidity of cholecystectomy must be kept in mind. The purpose of this study was to report epidemiological and pathophysiological data and the results from literature reports in order to assess the value of concomitant prophylactic cholecystectomy during various common surgical situations. PMID:23916848

Cabarrou, P; Portier, G; Chalret Du Rieu, M



Endoluminal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair  

PubMed Central

Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is an attractive alternative to open surgical repair. Distal endograft migration and type 1 endoleak are recognized to be the 2 main complications of EVAR. First-generation endografts had a stronger propensity for distal migration, modular component separation, thrombosis, and loss of structural integrity. Substantial progress has been made in recent years with 2nd- and 3rd-generation devices to prevent these complications. Some of the most common predictors of endograft failure are angulated and short infrarenal necks, large-diameter necks, and thrombus in the aneurysmal sac. The purpose of this study is to describe and review our experience in using innovative techniques and a newer generation of endografts to prevent distal migration and type 1 endoleak in patients with challenging infrarenal neck anatomy. The use of these innovative EVAR techniques and the new generation of endografts in patients with challenging infrarenal neck anatomy has yielded encouraging procedural and intermediate-term results.

Ghouri, Maaz; Krajcer, Zvonimir



Mechanical characterization of porcine abdominal organs.  


Typical automotive related abdominal injuries occur due to contact with the rim of the steering wheel, seatbelt and armrest, however, the rate is less than in other body regions. When solid abdominal organs, such as the liver, kidneys and spleen are involved, the injury severity tends to be higher. Although sled and pendulum impact tests have been conducted using cadavers and animals, the mechanical properties and the tissue level injury tolerance of abdominal solid organs are not well characterized. These data are needed in the development of computer models, the improvement of current anthropometric test devices and the enhancement of our understanding of abdominal injury mechanisms. In this study, a series of experimental tests on solid abdominal organs was conducted using porcine liver, kidney and spleen specimens. Additionally, the injury tolerance of the solid organs was deduced from the experimental data. PMID:17096218

Tamura, Atsutaka; Omori, Kiyoshi; Miki, Kazuo; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I



Impaired distensibility of ascending aorta in patients with HIV infection  

PubMed Central

Background Our aim was to investigate the aortic distensibility (AD) of the ascending aorta and carotid artery intima-media thickness (c-IMT) in HIV-infected patients compared to healthy controls. Methods One hundred and five HIV-infected patients (86 males [82%], mean age 41?±?0.92 years), and 124 age and sex matched HIV-1 uninfected controls (104 males [84%], mean age 39.2?±?1.03 years) were evaluated by high-resolution ultrasonography to determine AD and c-IMT. For all patients and controls clinical and laboratory factors associated with atherosclerosis were recorded. Results HIV- infected patients had reduced AD compared to controls: 2.2?±?0.01 vs. 2.62?±?0.01 10-6 cm2 dyn-1, respectively (p?aorta, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Increasing age and duration of exposure to HAART are factors further contributing to decreased AD.



21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a...



21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Abdominal decompression chamber. 884.5225...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a...



Diagnostic and surgical management of patients with aneurysms of the thoracic aorta with various causes. Echocardiography and contrast enhanced computed tomography in prophylactic replacement of the ascending aorta.  

PubMed Central

Sixty eight patients with aneurysms of the thoracic aorta were studied. Forty one had aortic dissection, 24 had dilatation only, and three had transverse aortic rupture. Sixteen had Marfan's syndrome; 17 had hypertension; and in eight there were other causal factors. In 17 the cause of the aneurysm was unknown. Histological examination did not help to establish the cause of aneurysm. Echocardiography failed to detect dissection of the ascending aorta in four (21%) out of 19 cases studied. The mortality rate in the whole series was 26%. Early (operative and hospital) and late deaths occurred in 20% and 6% of patients respectively. The early mortality rate was 40% in the 24 emergency cases of dissection of the ascending aorta, 9% in patients operated on for dilatation of the ascending and transverse aorta without dissection, and 8% in patients with chronic dissection of the ascending aorta who had elective operation. Early and late mortality rates were no higher in patients with Marfan's disease than in any of the other groups. It is suggested that contrast enhanced computer tomography should be performed in all patients with pronounced aortic root dilatation and in patients with Marfan's disease with symptoms which suggest dissection, even if they have only slight aortic root dilatation. Preventive replacement of the ascending aorta should be considered in more patients to reduce the number of emergency operations, in which the mortality rate is high. There is no definite limit of aortic root dilatation above which preventive replacement of the ascending aorta should be routinely considered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Bruno, L; Prandi, M; Colombi, P; La Vecchia, L



Decreased vascular smooth muscle cell density in medial degeneration of human abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by structural deterioration of the aortic wall leading to progressive aortic dilatation and eventual rupture. The histopathological changes in AAAs are particularly evident within the elastic media, which is normally dominated by vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). To determine whether a decrease in vascular SMCs contributes to medial degeneration, we measured SMC density in 21 normal and pathological human abdominal aortic tissue specimens using immunohistochemistry for alpha-SMC actin and direct cell counts (medial SMCs per high-power field (HPF)). Medial SMC density was not significantly different between normal aorta (n = 5; 199.5 +/- 14.9 SMCs/HPF) and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (n = 6; 176.4 +/- 13.9 SMCs/HPF), but it was reduced by 74% in AAA (n = 10; 50.9 +/- 6.1 SMCs/HPF; P < 0.01 versus normal aorta). Light and electron microscopy revealed no evidence of overt cellular necrosis, but SMCs in AAAs exhibited ultrastructural changes consistent with apoptosis. Using in situ end-labeling (ISEL) of fragmented DNA to detect apoptotic cells, up to 30% of aortic wall cells were ISEL positive in AAAs. By double-labeling techniques, many of these cells were alpha-actin-positive SMCs distributed throughout the degenerative media. In contrast, ISEL-positive cells were observed only within the intimal plaque in atherosclerotic occlusive disease. The amount of p53 protein detected by immunoblotting was increased nearly fourfold in AAA compared with normal aorta and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (P < 0.01), and immunoreactive p53 was localized to lymphocytes and residual SMCs in the aneurysm wall. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays a substantial amount of p53 mRNA expression was observed in AAAs. These results demonstrate that medial SMC density is significantly decreased in human AAA tissues associated with evidence of SMC apoptosis and increased production of p53, a potential mediator of cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death. Given the role that SMCs normally play in maintaining medial architecture and in arterial wall matrix remodeling, the induction of SMC apoptosis likely makes an important contribution to the evolution of aneurysm degeneration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Lopez-Candales, A.; Holmes, D. R.; Liao, S.; Scott, M. J.; Wickline, S. A.; Thompson, R. W.



Stenosis of a Reconstructed Aorta Caused a Paradoxical Diastolic Pressure Gradient After Norwood Operation  

PubMed Central

An infant with hypoplastic left heart syndrome showed paroxysmal episodes of bradycardia, hypotension, and hypoxemia upon crying after modified Norwood operation. Echocardiography showed decreased right ventricular ejection with grade III tricuspid regurgitation, a markedly enlarged aortic arch, and accelerated blood flow distal to the enlarged aorta. Aortography demonstrated an aneurysmal neo-aorta with an apple-shaped appearance. The pressure measurements revealed intriguing aortic hemodynamics: the diastolic pressure of the ascending aorta was lower than that of the descending aorta (42 mmHg vs. 52 mmHg) despite no systolic pressure gradient. Markedly reduced compliance in the ascending aorta relative to that in the descending aorta, which was suggested by the difference in time constant of aortic pressure decay, may explain this hemodynamics. Impaired coronary circulation caused by lowered diastolic pressure in ascending aorta was indicated by reduced subendocardial viability ratio, and may account for her symptom and lowered ventricular ejection. The patient’s condition was indeed significantly improved by surgical correction of the aortic shape. This case highlights the importance of aortic shape and properties after Norwood operation.

Masutani, Satoshi; Saiki, Hirofumi; Ishido, Hirotaka; Senzaki, Hideaki



Screening of abdominal aortic aneurysm: a pragmatic approach.  

PubMed Central

In order to evaluate the feasibility of a selective screening programme for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) within an urban setting and assess its impact on the expected increase in workload for the local hospital(s), a population based, prospective study was performed. A total of 4823 men aged 65 years were invited for ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta between January 1993 and April 1997 as part of a general practice-based aneurysm screening programme covering two districts with a general hospital each. All examinations were carried out by senior radiographers using a portable B mode grey scale machine and a 3.5 MHz curvi-linear array probe. Patients with a maximum aortic diameter of over 3 cm were annually recalled, those with over 4 cm were referred to hospital for an out-patient's appointment. Those with AAA greater than 5 cm were considered for surgery. Of those approached, 3497 (72.5%) took part in the study, 1206 (25%) did not attend and 120 (2.5%) were excluded by their general practitioners (GPs) on medical grounds. Of the men taking part, 3130 (89.5%) had an aortic diameter equal to or less than 2.5 cm, 196 (5.6%) between 2.6 and 3.0 cm, and 171 (4.9%) had aortic diameters greater than 3 cm--29 of whom had AAA greater than 5 cm with a mean diameter of 6.0 cm (range 5.1-9.0 cm). Of 127 men with an initial diameter of 3.1-4.0 cm (mean progression in size of 2.3 mm/year), 22 enlarged to > 4 cm and 3 to > 5 cm. Of 24 men with an initial diameter of 4.1-5.0 cm, 6 enlarged to > 5 cm. Some 69 (2%) patients were referred to hospital requiring a total of 125 consultations (1.8 consultations per patient); 21 underwent surgery and one died from rupture whilst awaiting surgery. Five patients refused their operation and two failed to attend the clinic (all > 5 cm) but remain well to date. No patient died following surgery. We conclude that, screening for AAA in men at age 65 years within an urban setting is feasible and well received by patients and GPs. Screening does not lead to a huge increase in terms of outpatient appointments and operations for AAA.