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Sample records for abdominal aorta morphometric

  1. [Abdominal aorta injury secondary to closed trauma].

    PubMed

    Frizza, J I; Fainstein, D; Lasdica, S; Ontivero, M; Mele, J I; Vilariño, E

    2007-04-01

    Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta with total interruption of blood flow is uncommon. When there is total obstruction of the artery, the clinical picture is dramatic. The most frequent mechanism is compression due to the safety belt during a car accident. The patients have absent femoral and distal pulses, associated to neuropathy in the lower limbs. We present a case of abdominal aorta injury secondary to closed trauma and review the causes, presentation forms and management of the injury. PMID:17439771

  2. Interrenal Coarctation of the Abdominal Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Sokolić, Josip; Luetic, V.; Šoša, T.; Fabečić-Sabadi, V.; Lovrenčić, M.; Grabić-Hančević, D.

    1984-01-01

    We report a case of congenital, segmental, hypoplastic interrenal abdominal aortic coarctation with inadequate collateral circulation. After preoperatively evaluating renal function and intraoperatively measuring vascular pressure, the coarctation was bridged with an aortico-aorta bypass; and an additional bypass graft was placed between the prosthesis and superior mesenteric artery. In this way, besides the successful surgical correction of coarctation, the inverse blood flow in the superior mesenteric artery was reversed to normal. Images PMID:15226879

  3. [Unusual injuries of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Simána, J; Manhal, J; Chytra, I

    1995-04-01

    A 23-year-old patient was admitted after a car accident with multiple fractures of the extremities, contusion of the brain and a sonographically confirmed haematoma in the retroperitoneum. After 24 hours laparotomy was indicated on account of suddenly developed hypotension. On operation a haemoperitoneum was found and an extensive haematoma in the retroperitoneum, the cause of which was injury of the abdominal aorta due to rupture of the lower mesenteric and lumbar artery. The authors demonstrate the not quite typical picture of an injury of a major artery and recommended early angiography. PMID:7652615

  4. Anomalous Posterior Intercostal Arterial Trunk Arising From the Abdominal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Jie, Bing; Yu, Dong; Jiang, Sen

    2016-04-01

    A common trunk of the ipsilateral posterior intercostal artery (PIA) arising from the thoracic aorta is usually an anatomical variation. However, a common trunk of bilateral posterior intercostal arterial trunk (PIAT) arising from the abdominal aorta is rare. It is important to recognize this anatomical variation of PIA when performing interventional radiological procedures. We present a rare case of an anomalous PIAT that originated from the abdominal aorta in a patient with hemoptysis caused by tuberculosis sequelae. Bilateral 4th to 11th PIAs arose from a common trunk and the trunk arising from the posterior aspect of the abdominal aorta at the level of T12/L1 intervertebral space. The pathological right 4th and 5th PIAs and bronchial arteries were embolized. Hemoptysis has been controlled for 3 months. PMID:26253781

  5. [Minimally invasive access to the abdominal aorta in pigs].

    PubMed

    Gnus, Jan; Czerski, Albert; Janeczek, Maciej; Hauzer, Willy; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Ratajczak, Kornel; Rusiecka, Agnieszka; Ferenc, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on 10 sows weighing 50-60 kg. Animals were randomly divided into two experimental groups comprising 5 individuals each. Surgical procedure of reaching the abdominal aorta below the renal arteries was performed using two different methods. In animals from the first group the procedure involved cutting the linea alba in order to obtain access to the abdominal aorta through the abdominal cavity. In the second group the access to the abdominal aorta was obtained by retroperitoneal approach. The approach was made in lower lateral one-third of the abdomen cutting through the muscles and without opening the peritoneal cavity. The study showed superiority of the second surgical method over the median approach along the linea alba in the form of: better animal survival (100% of animals), shorter procedure time, lack of postoperative complications, shorter recovery period and better general postoperative condition PMID:24003662

  6. Blunt injury of the abdominal aorta: a review.

    PubMed

    Roth, S M; Wheeler, J R; Gregory, R T; Gayle, R G; Parent, F N; Demasi, R; Riblet, J; Weireter, L J; Britt, L D

    1997-04-01

    Injury to the abdominal aorta after blunt trauma occurs much less frequently than injury to the thoracic aorta. Although presentations vary, common themes continue to emerge with each patient. Within a 6-month period, our trauma unit diagnosed and treated two cases of blunt abdominal aortic trauma. Both patients were restrained passengers in motor vehicle crashes with resultant abdominal aortic injuries and demonstrated some of the most common associated injuries. Our two cases bring the number found in the literature to 62 and demonstrate the need for rapid recognition and treatment of this potentially lethal injury. This article is a comprehensive review of the management of abdominal aortic injury from blunt trauma. PMID:9137272

  7. Computed tomography of the postoperative abdominal aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, S.; Megibow, A.J.; Naidich, D.P.; Bosniak, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was performed on 46 patients who had undergone graft replacement of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Twelve post-operative complications were found in nine patients. They included hemorrhage, infection, anastomotic pseudoaneurysms, major vessel occlusion, postoperative pancreatitis, and others. The varied apperance of the normal postoperative graft is also presented. It is concluded that CT is a rapid, sensitive, and noninvasive method for detecting or excluding postoperative complications of abdominal aortic surgery.

  8. Axial prestretch and circumferential distensibility in biomechanics of abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Horný, Lukáš; Netušil, Marek; Voňavková, Tereza

    2014-08-01

    Elastic arteries are significantly prestretched in an axial direction. This property minimises axial deformations during pressure cycle. Ageing-induced changes in arterial biomechanics, among others, are manifested via a marked decrease in the prestretch. Although this fact is well known, little attention has been paid to the effect of decreased prestretch on mechanical response. Our study presents the results of an analytical simulation of the inflation-extension behaviour of the human abdominal aorta treated as nonlinear, anisotropic, prestrained thin-walled as well as thick-walled tube with closed ends. The constitutive parameters and geometries for 17 aortas adopted from the literature were supplemented with initial axial prestretches obtained from the statistics of 365 autopsy measurements. For each aorta, the inflation-extension response was calculated three times, with the expected value of the initial prestretch and with the upper and lower confidence limit of the initial prestretch derived from the statistics. This approach enabled age-related trends to be evaluated bearing in mind the uncertainty in the prestretch. Despite significantly decreased longitudinal prestretch with age, the biomechanical response of human abdominal aorta changes substantially depending on the initial axial stretch was used. In particular, substituting the upper limit of initial prestretch gave mechanical responses which can be characterised by (1) low variation in axial stretch and (2) high circumferential distensibility during pressurisation, in contrast to the responses obtained for their weakly prestretched counterparts. The simulation also suggested the significant effect of the axial prestretch on the variation of axial stress in the pressure cycle. Finally, the obtained results are in accordance with the hypothesis that circumferential-to-axial stiffness ratio is the quantity relatively constant within this cycle. PMID:24136338

  9. Assessing abdominal aorta narrowing using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Al-Rawi, Mohammad; Al-Jumaily, Ahmed M

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the effect of developing arterial blockage at the abdominal aorta on the blood pressure waves at an externally accessible location suitable for invasive measurements such as the brachial and the femoral arteries. Arterial blockages are created surgically within the abdominal aorta of healthy Wistar rats to create narrowing resemblance conditions. Blood pressure is measured using a catheter inserted into the right femoral artery. Measurements are taken at the baseline healthy condition as well as at four different severities (20, 50, 80 and 100 %) of arterial blockage. In vivo and in vitro measurements of the lumen diameter and wall thickness are taken using magnetic resonance imaging and microscopic techniques, respectively. These data are used to validate a 3D computational fluid dynamics model which is developed to generalize the outcomes of this work and to determine the arterial stress and strain under the blockage conditions. This work indicates that an arterial blockage in excess of 20 % of the lumen diameter significantly influences the pressure wave and reduces the systolic blood pressure at the right femoral artery. High wall shear stresses and low circumferential strains are also generated at the blockage site. PMID:26319006

  10. An Abdominal Aorta Wall Extraction for Liver Cirrhosis Classification Using Ultrasonic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takaya; Fujita, Yusuke; Mitani, Yoshihiro; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Segawa, Makoto; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method to extract an abdominal aorta wall from an M-mode image. Furthermore, we propose the use of a Gaussian filter in order to improve image quality. The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter is effective in the abdominal aorta wall extraction.

  11. Monitoring heparin and haemostasis during reconstruction of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Porte, R J; de Jong, E; Knot, E A; de Maat, M P; Terpstra, O T; van Urk, H; Groenland, T H

    1987-12-01

    In spite of its unpredictable kinetics, heparin is still not generally monitored during peripheral vascular surgery. To evaluate heparin levels and neutralisation, plasma heparin concentrations were measured using a chromogenic substate method during 20 consecutive operations on the Abdominal Aorta. This was combined with measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (ThT), prothrombin time (PT), antithrombin-III (AT-III) and fibrinogen concentration. Heparin concentration 5 min after administration and the elimination rate showed a wide variation. Using a standard dosage for all patients resulted in plasma heparin levels that are potentially too low in some patients. The APTT and ThT were found to be unsuitable for an exact calculation of heparin levels. Protamine administration based on the surgeon's judgement of haemostasis was inadequate. Furthermore an intraoperative decrease of AT-III and fibrinogen was seen in eight patients. It is advisable and possible to have direct monitoring of heparin concentration during peripheral vascular surgery. PMID:3503034

  12. α1-Adrenoceptor subtypes in the mouse mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Koike, Katsuo

    2001-01-01

    Subtypes of α1-adrenoceptor-mediated contractions to noradrenaline in mouse mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta were examined. In mesenteric artery, BMY7378, 5-methylurapidil, WB4101 and prazosin were inhibited contraction to noradrenaline The good correlation for pA2 values of antagonists in native α1D- (rat thoracic aorta) adrenoceptor subtype and pKi values in rat cloned α1d-adrenoceptor with the pA2 values estimated in the mouse mesenteric artery was obtained. However, the pA2 value for BMY7378 is significantly lower than the accepted value against the α1D-adrenoceptor subtype. In the abdominal aorta, it was obtained the regional difference for the sensitivity for noradrenaline. In the upper abdominal aorta, the good correlation for the pA2 values of the antagonists in the native α1D-adrenoceptor subtype and pKi values in the cloned α1d-adrenoceptor with the pA2 values estimated in the upper abdominal aorta was obtained, and regression line was close to the line of identity. In the lower abdominal aorta, the good correlation for the reported pKi values in the cloned α1a-adrenoceptor subtype with the pA2 values estimated in the mouse lower abdominal aorta was obtained, and regression line was close to the line of identity. In conclusion, the present functional data in the mouse suggest that (1) α1D-like adrenoceptors are present in the mesenteric artery, (2) there is the regional difference for the sensitivity for noradrenaline in the abdominal aorta and (3) noradrenaline evokes the contraction mediated through α1D-adrenoceptor in the upper abdominal aorta, whereas there is α1A-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction in the lower abdominal aorta. PMID:11682453

  13. [Aneurysm of the abdominal aorta and preoperative disseminated intravascular coagulation].

    PubMed

    Chauvet, V; Bussac, J J; Jullian, H; Juhan-Vague, I; Branchereau, A

    1991-01-01

    A case of abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with preoperative signs of disseminated intravascular coagulation is reported. The 69-year-old female patient presented with spontaneously appearing petechiae and bruising. She had 0.95 g.l-1 fibrinogen, 105 G.l-1 platelets, and 100 micrograms.ml-1 fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products. Investigations revealed an 80 mm diameter aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, extending from the coeliac trunk to the iliac arteries. Heparin 7,000 IU.day-1 resulted in a biological improvement for a week only. At that time, levels of coagulation factors were: 92% factor II, 88% factor V, 100% factors VII and X, 100% antithrombin III. Surgical cure of the aneurysm was nevertheless carried out. Twenty standard units of platelets, 8 g fibrinogen, four units of fresh frozen plasma, five homologous and two autologous red cell units were transfused during the procedure. No coagulation factors were necessary during the postoperative course, which was uneventful. The management of coagulation factor infusions, before or after aortic cross-clamping, is discussed. PMID:2058833

  14. An unusual combination of a tuberculous aneurysm of the thoracic aorta and a degenerative aneurysm of the infrarenal abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Amabile, Philippe; Paule, Philippe; Peloni, Jean-Michel; Piquet, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculous aneurysms of the aorta are rare and give rise to various issues related to their diagnosis and treatment. In this article, we report on an exceptional case concerning a patient who presented with a false tuberculous aneurysm of the thoracic aorta and a degenerative aneurysm of the infrarenal abdominal aorta concomitantly. A discussion on how we approached the diagnosis and devised a therapeutic strategy that allowed us to treat this dual aortic disease effectively has also been provided. The discussion includes details of the order of treatment and the choice between an endovascular and a surgical approach. PMID:21724110

  15. Elastin Degradation and Calcification in an Abdominal Aorta Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Basalyga, Dina M.; Simionescu, Dan T.; Xiong, Wanfen; Timothy Baxter, B.; Starcher, Barry C.; Vyavahare, Narendra R.

    2005-01-01

    Background Elastin calcification is a widespread feature of vascular pathology, and circumstantial evidence exists for a correlation between elastin degradation and calcification. We hypothesized that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)–mediated vascular remodeling plays a significant role in elastin calcification. Methods and Results In the present studies, we determined that short-term periadventitial treatment of the rat abdominal aorta with low concentrations of calcium chloride (CaCl2) induced chronic degeneration and calcification of vascular elastic fibers in the absence of aneurysm formation and inflammatory reactions. Furthermore, the rate of progression of calcification depended on the application method and concentration of CaCl2 applied periarterially. Initial calcium deposits, associated mainly with elastic fibers, were persistently accompanied by elastin degradation, disorganization of aortic extracellular matrix, and moderate levels of vascular cell apoptosis. Application of aluminum ions (known inhibitors of elastin degradation) before the CaCl2-mediated injury significantly reduced elastin calcification and abolished both extracellular matrix degradation and apoptosis. We also found that MMP-knockout mice were resistant to CaCl2-mediated aortic injury and did not develop elastin degeneration and calcification. Conclusion Collectively, these data strongly indicate a correlation between MMP-mediated elastin degradation and vascular calcification. PMID:15545515

  16. Right intra lobar pulmonary sequestration with feeding artery arising from abdominal aorta: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fumimoto, Satoshi; Ochi, Kaoru; Ichihashi, Yoshio; Sato, Kiyoshi; Morita, Takuya; Hanaoka, Nobuharu; Katsumata, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is a rare congenital malformation. Right intra lobar PS with a feeding artery arising from the abdominal aorta is extremely rare. This case report describes a 30-year-old man with a history of mental deficiency and repeated pneumonia who was referred to our hospital for further work-up of PS. Three-dimensional enhanced computed tomography of the chest and aorta revealed right intra lobar PS with an aberrant systemic artery from the abdominal aorta. We resected the PS using lower lobectomy by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). The patient was discharged 10 days later without complications. PMID:26109198

  17. Massive Diffuse Calcification of the Ascending Aorta and Minimal Focal Calcification of the Abdominal Aorta in Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, William C; Won, Vera S; Weissenborn, Matthew R; Khalid, Adnan; Lima, Brian

    2016-04-15

    A 41-year-old woman, the mother of 3 offspring, with likely heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, had been asymptomatic until age 38 when angina pectoris and exertional dyspnea appeared leading to the discovery of severe multivessel coronary artery disease and a massively calcified ascending aorta. Coronary bypass grafting using the right and left internal mammary arteries did not alleviate the symptoms. Evidence of overt heart failure subsequently appeared and that led to heart transplantation at age 41. She died 22 days later. The occurrence of massive diffuse calcification of the ascending aorta and minimal focal calcification of the abdominal aorta is rare and in the patient described it appears to be the consequence of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26920080

  18. Mechanical properties of suprarenal and infrarenal abdominal aorta: implications for mouse models of aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Collins, M J; Bersi, M; Wilson, E; Humphrey, J D

    2011-12-01

    Multiple mouse models have been developed to increase our understanding of the natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysms. An advantage of such models is that one can quantify the time course of changes in geometry, histology, cell biology, and mechanics as a lesion develops. One of the most commonly used mouse models yields lesions in the suprarenal abdominal aorta whereas most other models target the infrarenal abdominal aorta, consistent with the clinical observation that nearly all abdominal aneurysms in humans occur in the infrarenal aorta. Understanding reasons for similarities and differences between diverse mouse models and human lesions may provide increased insight that would not be possible studying a single situation alone. Toward this end, however, we must first compare directly the native structure and properties of these two portions of the abdominal aorta in the mouse. In this paper, we present the first biaxial mechanical data and nonlinear constitutive descriptors for the suprarenal and infrarenal aorta in mice, which reveals only subtle mechanical differences despite marked morphological and histological differences. Such data promise to increase our ability to understand and model the natural history of these deadly lesions. PMID:21742539

  19. Diagnosis of High Bifurcation of the Abdominal Aorta with Associated Vascular Variations: Case Report with Multidedector Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Atalar, Mehmet Haydar; Salk, Ismail; Bozbiyik, Nisa; Cetin, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Variations of the branches and bifurcation of the abdominal aorta and their relations with other abdominal structures and organs are important concerning abdominal and spinal surgery. Case Report In this report, authors present a high -positioned bifurcation of the abdominal aorta at the level of the L3 vertebral body and its associations with multiple variations of other abdominal arteries during contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) examination of the abdomen. Conclusions We reported on a unique clinically and surgically significant case of variations of the abdominal aorta as related to the location and type of bifurcation. The awareness of the variations of the abdominal aorta is of great importance for surgeons in order to reduce complications during abdominal and spinal interventions, as well as for radiologists for precise interpretation of angiograms. PMID:26688701

  20. Thoraco-abdominal Aorta Dissection: Look Again Before You Leap

    PubMed Central

    Zeina, Abdel-Rauf; Trachtengerts, Victoria; Abadi, Sobhi; Jarchowsky, Jacob; Soimu, Uri; Nachtigal, Alicia

    2009-01-01

    Aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition that might require immediate assessment and therapy. We present the case of a 71-year-old woman with essential hypertension complaining about low back pain; unenhanced thoracic-lumbar spine computed tomography examination (CT) revealed a hyperdense thin line across the aorta with an appearance of "double aortic lumen". Enhanced CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of type B aortic dissection. Radiologists should be familiar with this finding that could be considered a new radiological sign of aortic dissection on unenhanced CT examination. PMID:22470686

  1. In situ replacement with equine pericardial roll grafts for ruptured infected aneurysms of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Fumio; Ishibashi, Kazuyuki; Motokawa, Mamika

    2009-04-01

    We describe surgical in situ replacement using an equine pericardial roll to treat ruptured infected abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in two patients. A 78-year-old man diagnosed with ruptured infected (Bacteroides fragilis) AAA underwent in situ replacement of the abdominal aorta using a bifurcated equine pericardial roll graft with concomitant omentum flap wrapping. A 50-year-old man diagnosed with ruptured infected (Streptococcus agalactiae) AAA underwent the same procedure, except the graft was straight. Computed tomography of this patient revealed no graft dilation or surrounding fluid accumulation at 48 months after surgery. We therefore suggest that in situ replacement of the abdominal aorta using equine pericardium with concomitant omental flap wrapping may be an option of treating ruptured infected AAAs. PMID:19223149

  2. Thoracic and abdominal aortas stiffen through unique extracellular matrix changes in intrauterine growth restricted fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Dodson, R Blair; Rozance, Paul J; Petrash, Carson C; Hunter, Kendall S; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2014-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a fetal complication of pregnancy epidemiologically linked to cardiovascular disease in the newborn later in life. However, the mechanism is poorly understood with very little research on the vascular structure and function during development in healthy and IUGR neonates. Previously, we found vascular remodeling and increased stiffness in the carotid and umbilical arteries, but here we examine the remodeling and biomechanics in the larger vessels more proximal to the heart. To study this question, thoracic and abdominal aortas were collected from a sheep model of placental insufficiency IUGR (PI-IUGR) due to exposure to elevated ambient temperatures. Aortas from control (n = 12) and PI-IUGR fetuses (n = 10) were analyzed for functional biomechanics and structural remodeling. PI-IUGR aortas had a significant increase in stiffness (P < 0.05), increased collagen content (P < 0.05), and decreased sulfated glycosaminoglycan content (P < 0.05). Our derived constitutive model from experimental data related increased stiffness to reorganization changes of increased alignment angle of collagen fibers and increased elastin (P < 0.05) in the thoracic aorta and increased concentration of collagen fibers in the abdominal aorta toward the circumferential direction verified through use of histological techniques. This fetal vascular remodeling in PI-IUGR may set the stage for possible altered growth and development and help to explain the pathophysiology of adult cardiovascular disease in previously IUGR individuals. PMID:24322609

  3. Endovascular Repair of a Pseudoaneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta Secondary to Translumbar Aortography

    SciTech Connect

    Mir, Naheed; Nunzio, Mario De; Pollock, John G

    2006-12-15

    This report describes an incidental finding of a pseudoaneurysm of the abdominal aorta on a computed tomography (CT) renal angiogram during investigation of chronic renal failure in a 73-year-old man. The patient had undergone a translumbar aortogram 20 years previously. An increase in the size of the aneurysm by 7 mm over 6 months prompted treatment and the aneurysm underwent successful endovascular repair with a custom-made stent-graft.

  4. Thymoquinone protects end organs from abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kocarslan, Sezen; Kucuk, Ahmet; Eser, ?rfan; Sezen, Hatice; Buyukfirat, Evren; Hazar, Abdussemet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have demonstrated that thymoquinone has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs like lungs, kidneys and liver in different experimental models. Objective We aimed to determine whether thymoquinone has favorable effects on lung, renal, heart tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (n=10), control (n=10) and thymoquinone (TQ) treatment group (n=10). Control and TQ-treatment groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 45 minutes followed by a 120-min period of reperfusion. In the TQ-treatment group, thymoquinone was given 5 minutes. before reperfusion at a dose of 20 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in blood serum were measured and lung, kidney, and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. Results Total oxidative status and oxidative stress index activity in blood samples were statistically higher in the control group compared to the sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for TOS and OSI). Control group injury scores were statistically higher compared to sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion Thymoquinone administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and histopathologic injury in an acute abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion rat model. PMID:25859871

  5. Innovations in treating aortic diseases: the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Balachundar; Singh, Nina; Roscher, Christopher; Augoustides, John G T

    2012-10-01

    Patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) could benefit from earlier diagnosis to improve long-term outcomes. Candidate serum biomarkers for earlier AAA diagnosis include D-dimer, fibrinogen, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, lipoprotein(a), and the proteolytic enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases. Furthermore, biomarkers such as brain natriuretic peptide significantly stratify perioperative risk in AAA repair. Statins significantly improve outcomes after AAA repair. They may also significantly slow AAA growth to allow pharmacologic arrest of AAA development. Recent trials have focused attention on fluid management for AAA repair. Although restrictive fluid management may significantly improve clinical outcomes, current evidence does not clearly support crystalloid or colloid for AAA repair. There may be an increased risk of renal dysfunction associated with hetastarch therapy. Endovascular repair has revolutionized the clinical management of AAAs. Recent trials have shown its significant outcome advantages. Furthermore, it is also applicable in high-risk operative cohorts and, in the future, may be suited for earlier AAA repair. This technology continues to advance with the development of branched and fenestrated grafts as well as total percutaneous endovascular AAA repair. Regardless of these advances, the clinical management of endoleaks will remain a major clinical focus. Taken together, these advances in the management of AAAs likely will significantly influence future clinical approaches to this challenging patient cohort. PMID:21216624

  6. Copper and zinc concentrations of abdominal aorta and liver in patients with infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm or aortoiliacal occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, P; Hippeläinen, M; Kantola, M

    1994-01-01

    It has been suggested that low copper concentrations in tissues could be a risk factor in the development of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). To further elucidate this argument, liver and abdominal aortic specimens were obtained from 19 patients with an AAA and 26 patients with aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD) during an operation. After tissue breakdown and liquefaction, the samples were tested for copper and zinc with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean aortic copper level was 3.8 (microgram/g dry weight) in the AAA-group and 3.2 in the AIOD-group. The liver copper values were 27.7 and 25.9 respectively. The zinc concentrations in AAA- and AIOD-groups were 61.1 (microgram/g dry weight) and 62.8 for the aortas and 207.9 and 191.7 for liver specimens, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding the copper and zinc concentrations found in the aorta or liver specimens. On the basis of our findings, it seems unlikely that copper and zinc in the aortic wall or in the liver would play an important role in the pathogenesis of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. PMID:7733614

  7. Reactivity of rat abdominal aorta to U46619 following whole-body gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Warfield, M.E.; Schneidkraut, M.J.; Cunard, C.M.; Ramwell, P.W.; Kot, P.A.

    1989-03-01

    Rats exposed to 20 Gy whole-body irradiation demonstrated a depressed aortic responsiveness to the thromboxane mimic, U46619, 48 h postirradiation. The mechanism for this observed response was investigated. Shielding the abdominal aorta attenuated this altered vascular reactivity. Since this suggests that radiation exposure induces local changes in the aorta, vascular smooth muscle function was assessed with cumulative concentrations of KCl. Radiation-induced smooth muscle damage was insufficient to account for the decreased reactivity to U46619. Next, calcium availability for vascular smooth muscle function was evaluated and found not to be responsible for the radiation-induced depression in aortic responsiveness. Finally, the role that cyclooxygenase products play in the depressed contractile response was investigated. Indomethacin treatment prior to and for 48 h after irradiation attenuated the altered vascular reactivity to U46619. These data suggest that a radiation-induced increase in cyclooxygenase products may play a role in the decreased aortic reactivity to the thromboxane mimic.

  8. Ascending to Abdominal Aorta Extraanatomic Bypass for Descending Aortic Coarctation: A Reconstruction Technique without Laparotomy or Left Thoracotomy

    PubMed Central

    Yuasa, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masahiko; Horiuchi, Kazutaka; Nakata, Shunsuke; Yasuura, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    The descending aortic coarctation is often difficult to anatomically reconstruct. We report two cases of ascending aorta to abdominal aorta bypass without laparotomy or thoracotomy. This approach enabled us to avoid anastomosis close to the inflammatory lesion and left thoracotomy causing bleeding from the collateral vessels, and to allow concomitant cardiac procedures to be performed. The graft contact with the intestines can be preventable by the retroperitoneal approach. This technique is useful for the selective patients. PMID:25298846

  9. An animal-specific FSI model of the abdominal aorta in anesthetized mice.

    PubMed

    Trachet, Bram; Bols, Joris; Degroote, Joris; Verhegghe, Benedict; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Vierendeels, Jan; Segers, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has revealed that angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice can be related to medial ruptures occurring in the vicinity of abdominal side branches. Nevertheless a thorough understanding of the biomechanics near abdominal side branches in mice is lacking. In the current work we present a mouse-specific fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of the abdominal aorta in ApoE(-/-) mice that incorporates in vivo stresses. The aortic geometry was based on contrast-enhanced in vivo micro-CT images, while aortic flow boundary conditions and material model parameters were based on in vivo high-frequency ultrasound. Flow waveforms predicted by FSI simulations corresponded better to in vivo measurements than those from CFD simulations. Peak-systolic principal stresses at the inner and outer aortic wall were locally increased caudal to the celiac and left lateral to the celiac and mesenteric arteries. Interestingly, these were also the locations at which a tear in the tunica media had been observed in previous work on angiotensin II-infused mice. Our preliminary results therefore suggest that local biomechanics play an important role in the pathophysiology of branch-related ruptures in angiotensin-II infused mice. More elaborate follow-up research is needed to demonstrate the role of biomechanics and mechanobiology in a longitudinal setting. PMID:25824368

  10. Effects of hindlimb unweighting on the mechanical and structure properties of the rat abdominal aorta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, Anthony; Delp, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that hindlimb unweighting of rats, a model of microgravity, reduces evoked contractile tension of peripheral conduit arteries. It has been hypothesized that this diminished contractile tension is the result of alterations in the mechanical properties of these arteries (e.g., active and passive mechanics). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the reduced contractile force of the abdominal aorta from 2-wk hindlimb-unweighted (HU) rats results from a mechanical function deficit resulting from structural vascular alterations or material property changes. Aortas were isolated from control (C) and HU rats, and vasoconstrictor responses to norepinephrine (10(-9)-10(-4) M) and AVP (10(-9)-10(-5) M) were tested in vitro. In a second series of tests, the active and passive Cauchy stress-stretch relations were determined by incrementally increasing the uniaxial displacement of the aortic rings. Maximal Cauchy stress in response to norepinephrine and AVP were less in aortic rings from HU rats. The active Cauchy stress-stretch response indicated that, although maximum stress was lower in aortas from HU rats (C, 8.1 +/- 0.2 kPa; HU, 7.0 +/- 0.4 kPa), it was achieved at a similar hoop stretch. There were also no differences in the passive Cauchy stress-stretch response or the gross vascular morphology (e.g., medial cross-sectional area: C, 0.30 +/- 0.02 mm(2); HU, 0.32 +/- 0.01 mm(2)) between groups and no differences in resting or basal vascular tone at the displacement that elicits peak developed tension between groups (resting tension: C, 1.71 +/- 0.06 g; HU, 1.78 +/- 0.14 g). These results indicate that HU does not alter the functional mechanical properties of conduit arteries. However, the significantly lower active Cauchy stress of aortas from HU rats demonstrates a true contractile deficit in these arteries.

  11. Arterial hypertension and neurofibromatosis: renal artery stenosis and coarctation of abdominal aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Schürch, W.; Messerli, F. H.; Genest, J.; Lefebvre, R.; Roy, P.; Carter, P.; Rojo-Ortega, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl had arterial hypertension, generalized neurofibromatosis, coarctation of the abdominal aorta and multiple stenoses at the origin of each renal artery. After resection of the stenotic areas and reimplantation of the renal arteries in the aorta, her arterial pressure decreased substantially. However, hypertension recurred and radiologic follow-up 4 1/2 years later showed distinct progression of the coarctation and renewed stenosis of all renal arteries at their origin. The stenotic areas showed eccentric intimal proliferation, frequently bulging into the lumen, with small nodular aggregates of smooth muscle cells and proliferation of fibrous tissue containing spindle-shaped nuclei in a palisading pattern. Hypertension associated with neurofibromatotic vascular disease has been described in 47 other patients in the literature. These patients have been young (mean age, 14 years) and predominantly male. In contrast to fibromuscular dysplasia, in which 95% of all stenoses are found in the distal two thirds of the renal arteries, in vascular neurofibromatosis more than 50% of the stenoses are found at the origin. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:810239

  12. Analysis of axial prestretch in the abdominal aorta with reference to post mortem interval and degree of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Horny, Lukas; Adamek, Tomas; Kulvajtova, Marketa

    2014-05-01

    It is a well-known fact that the length of an artery in situ and the length of an excised artery differs. Retraction of blood vessels is usually observed. This prestretch plays an important role in arterial physiology. We have recently determined that the decrease of axial prestretch in the human abdominal aorta is so closely correlated with age that it is suitable for forensic applications (estimation of the age at time of death for cadavers of unknown identity). Since post mortem autolysis may affect the reliability of an estimate based on axial prestretch, the present study aims to detail analysis of the effect of post mortem time. The abdominal aorta is a prominent site of atherosclerotic changes (ATH), which may potentially affect longitudinal prestretch. Thus ATH was also involved in the analysis. Axial prestretch in the human abdominal aorta, post mortem interval (PMI), and the degree of ATH were documented in 365 regular autopsies. The data was first age adjusted to remove any supposed correlation with age. After the age adjustment of the sample, the correlation analysis showed no significant PMI effects on the prestretch in non-putrefied bodies. Analysis of the prestretch variance with respect to ATH suggested that ATH is not a suitable factor to explain the prestretch variability remaining after the age adjustment. It was concluded that, although atherosclerotic plaques may certainly change the biomechanics of arteries, they do not significantly affect the longitudinal prestretch in the human abdominal aorta. PMID:23676503

  13. Real-Time Intravascular Shear Stress in the Rabbit Abdominal Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Lisong; Yu, Hongyu; Dai, Wangde; Hale, Sharon L.; Kloner, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Fluid shear stress is intimately linked with the biological activities of vascular cells. A flexible microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensor was developed to assess spatial- and temporal-varying components of intravascular shear stress (ISS) in the abdominal aorta of adult New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. Real-time ISS (ISSreal-time) was analyzed in comparison with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for wall shear stress (WSS). Three-dimensional abdominal arterial geometry and mesh were created using the GAMBIT software. Simulation of arterial flow profiles was established by FLUENT. The Navier–Stokes equations were solved for non-Newtonian blood flow. The coaxial-wire-based MEMS sensor was deployed into the abdominal arteries of rabbits via a femoral artery cutdown. Based on the CFD analysis, the entrance length of the sensor on the coaxial wire (0.4 mm in diameter) was less than 10 mm. Three-dimensional fluoroscope and contrast dye allowed for visualization of the positions of the sensor and ratios of vessel to coaxial wire diameters. Doppler ultrasound provided the velocity profiles for the CFD boundary conditions. If the coaxial wire were positioned at the center of vessel, the CFD analysis revealed a mean ISS value of 31.1 with a systolic peak at 102.8 dyn · cm−2. The mean WSS was computed to be 10.1 dyn · cm−2 with a systolic peak at 33.2 dyn · cm−2, and the introduction of coaxial wire increased the mean WSS by 5.4 dyn · cm−2 and systolic peak by 18.0 dyn · cm−2. Experimentally, the mean ISS was 11.9 dyn · cm−2 with a systolic peak at 47.0 dyn · cm−2. The waveform of experimental ISS was similar to that of CFD solution with a 30.2% difference in mean and 8.9% in peak systolic shear stress. Despite the difference between CD and experimental results, the flexible coaxial-wire-based MEMS sensors provided a possibility to assess real-time ISS in the abdominal aorta of NZW rabbits. PMID:19527952

  14. Extra-anatomic endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a horseshoe kidney supplied by the aneurysmal aorta.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge; Golpanian, Samuel; Yang, Jane K; Moreno, Enrique; Velazquez, Omaida C; Goldstein, Lee J; Chahwala, Veer

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by a horseshoe kidney (HSK, fused kidney) represents a unique challenge for repair. Renal arteries arising from the aneurysmal aorta can further complicate intervention. Reports exist describing the repair of these complex anatomies using fenestrated endografts, hybrid open repairs (debranching), and open aneurysmorrhaphy with preservation of renal circulation. We describe an extra-anatomic, fully endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a HSK partially supplied by a renal artery arising from the aneurysm. We successfully applied aortouni-iliac endografting, femorofemoral bypass, and retrograde renal artery perfusion via the contralateral femoral artery to exclude the abdominal aortic aneurysm and preserve circulation to the HSK. PMID:25770382

  15. Aortoenteric fistula as a complication of open reconstruction and endovascular repair of abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Tagowski, Marek; Vieweg, Hendryk; Wissgott, Christian; Andresen, Reimer

    2014-01-01

    The paper intends to present a review of imaging characteristics of secondary aortoenteric fistula (AEF). Mechanical injury, infection, and adherence of a bowel segment to the aorta or aortic graft are major etiologic factors of AEF after open aortic repair. The pathogenesis of AEF formation after endovascular abdominal aortic repair is related to mechanical failure of the stent-graft, to stent graft infection, and to persistent pressurization of the aneurysmal sac. The major clinical manifestations of AEF comprise haematemesis, melaena, abdominal pain, sepsis, and fever. CT is the initial diagnostic modality of choice in a stable patient. However, the majority of reported CT appearances are not specific. In case of equivocal CT scans and clinical suspicion of AEF, scintigraphy, (67)Ga citrate scans or (18)F-FDG PET/CT is useful. Diagnostic accuracy of endoscopy in evaluation of AEF is low; nevertheless it allows to evaluate other than AEF etiologies of gastrointestinal bleeding. Without adequate therapy, AEF is lethal. Conventional surgical treatment is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The endovascular repair may be an option in hemodynamically unstable and high-risk surgical patients. We also illustrate an example of a secondary AEF with highly specific albeit rare radiologic picture from our institution. PMID:25302119

  16. Endovascular Repair of an Actively Hemorrhaging Stab Wound Injury to the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Qasim; Maleux, Geert Heye, Sam; Fourneau, Inge

    2008-09-15

    Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta is rare and potentially lethal (Yeh et al., J Vasc Surg 42(5):1007-1009, 2005; Chicos et al., Chirurgia (Bucur) 102(2):237-240, 2007) as it can result in major retroperitoneal hemorrhage, requiring an urgent open surgery. In case of concomitant bowel injury or other conditions of hostile abdomen, endovascular repair can be an alternative treatment. This case report deals with a 50-year-old man presenting at the emergency ward with three stab wounds: two in the abdomen and one in the chest. During explorative laparotomy, liver laceration and bowel perforation were repaired. One day later, abdominal CT-scan revealed an additional retroperitoneal hematoma associated with an aortic pseudoaneurysm, located anteriorly 3 cm above the aortic bifurcation. Because of the risk of graft infection, an endovascular repair of the aortic injury using a Gore excluder stent-graft was performed. Radiological and clinical follow-up revealed a gradual shrinkage of the pseudo-aneurysm and no sign of graft infection at two years' follow-up.

  17. Morphometric Properties of the Thoracic Aorta of Warmblood and Friesian Horses with and without Aortic Rupture.

    PubMed

    Saey, V; Ploeg, M; Delesalle, C; van Loon, G; Gröne, A; Ducatelle, R; Duchateau, L; Chiers, K

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of the aorta is much more common in Friesians compared with other breeds of horse. Rupture always occurs adjacent to the scar of the ligamentum arteriosum. Previous histological examination of ruptured aortic walls suggested the presence of an underlying connective tissue disorder. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the structural characteristics of the tunica media of the mid-thoracic aorta, distant to the lesion, in warmblood and Friesian horses with and without thoracic aortic rupture. In unaffected Friesian horses, the thickness of the tunica media, as well as the percentage area comprised of collagen type I, were significantly higher compared with the warmblood horses, supporting the hypothesis of a primary collagen disorder in the Friesian horse breed. However, in the tunica media of the affected Friesian horses there was no significant wall thickening. Moreover, the percentage area comprised of elastin was significantly lower, while the percentage area comprised of smooth muscle was higher, compared with unaffected Friesian and warmblood horses. These lesions are suggestive of an additional mild elastin deficiency with compensatory smooth muscle cell hypertrophy in affected Friesians. PMID:26987511

  18. A computational simulation of the effect of hybrid treatment for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm on the hemodynamics of abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jun; Yuan, Ding; Wang, Qingyuan; Hu, Yao; Zhao, Jichun; Zheng, Tinghui; Fan, Yubo

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid visceral-renal debranching procedures with endovascular repair have been proposed as an appealing technique to treat conventional thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA). This approach, however, still remained controversial because of the non-physiological blood flow direction of its retrograde visceral revascularization (RVR) which is generally constructed from the aortic bifurcation or common iliac artery. The current study carried out the numerical simulation to investigate the effect of RVR on the hemodynamics of abdominal aorta. The results indicated that the inflow sites for the RVR have great impact on the hemodynamic performance. When RVR was from the distal aorta, the perfusion to visceral organs were adequate but the flow flux to the iliac artery significantly decreased and a complex disturbed flow field developed at the distal aorta, which endangered the aorta at high risk of aneurysm development. When RVR was from the right iliac artery, the abdominal aorta was not troubled with low WSS or disturbed flow, but the inadequate perfusion to the visceral organs reached up to 40% and low WSS and flow velocity predominated appeared at the right iliac artery and the grafts, which may result in the stenosis in grafts and aneurysm growth on the host iliac artery. PMID:27029949

  19. A computational simulation of the effect of hybrid treatment for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm on the hemodynamics of abdominal aorta

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jun; Yuan, Ding; Wang, Qingyuan; Hu, Yao; Zhao, Jichun; Zheng, Tinghui; Fan, Yubo

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid visceral-renal debranching procedures with endovascular repair have been proposed as an appealing technique to treat conventional thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA). This approach, however, still remained controversial because of the non-physiological blood flow direction of its retrograde visceral revascularization (RVR) which is generally constructed from the aortic bifurcation or common iliac artery. The current study carried out the numerical simulation to investigate the effect of RVR on the hemodynamics of abdominal aorta. The results indicated that the inflow sites for the RVR have great impact on the hemodynamic performance. When RVR was from the distal aorta, the perfusion to visceral organs were adequate but the flow flux to the iliac artery significantly decreased and a complex disturbed flow field developed at the distal aorta, which endangered the aorta at high risk of aneurysm development. When RVR was from the right iliac artery, the abdominal aorta was not troubled with low WSS or disturbed flow, but the inadequate perfusion to the visceral organs reached up to 40% and low WSS and flow velocity predominated appeared at the right iliac artery and the grafts, which may result in the stenosis in grafts and aneurysm growth on the host iliac artery. PMID:27029949

  20. [Diameter decrement of abdominal aorta and redistribution of systemic blood flow in non-ambulant Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients].

    PubMed

    Shinoe, T; Kawai, M

    1996-10-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a major life-threatening complication in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Cardiac output is always low in advanced stage patients. Impaired muscles presumably require extremely low circulation, while blood flow to brain and internal organs is probably maintained. Therefore, the redistribution of systemic circulation must be another important factor which determines whether or not the cardiomyopathy results in fatal heart failure. Although great efforts have been focused on the cardiac function, this problem has seldom attracted attentions. Assuming that diameter of blood vessels reflects blood flow, we measured the diameter of abdominal aorta on CT at four levels: 1) beginning of the abdominal aorta, 2) before and 3) after the branching of renal arteries, 4) before bifurcation of the common iliac arteries. Six bed-ridden DMD patients were compared with 10 ambulant patients suffering from other neurological and non-neurological diseases. We obtained following results. First, the diameter of abdominal aorta is significantly smaller in DMD patients. Second, the decrement is most prominent between before and after the branching of the renal arteries. These results clearly showed predilection of renointestinal circulation at the sacrifice of lower extremities. This narrowing of distal aorta was also observed in Kugelberg-Welander disease and understood as a sequelae of longstanding abolition of lower extremity functions. PMID:8997143

  1. The role of cystatin C in vascular remodeling of balloon-injured abdominal aorta of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang-Jun; Dong, Zhao-Qiang; Lu, Qing-Hua

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the role of cystatin C (CysC) in the vascular remodeling of balloon-injured abdominal aorta of rabbits. Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: the balloon-injured injury group (n = 16), the CysC monoclonal antibody group (n = 16), and the sham-operative group (n = 16). Serum CysC levels were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Changes in adventitial area, adventitial thickness, lumen area (LA), neointimal area (IA), internal elastic lamina area (IELA), external elastic lamina area (EELA), vascular remodeling index (VRI) and residual stenosis (RS) were measured by the Leica image analysis system. Immunohistochemical analysis of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were performed. Serum CysC levels of rabbits in the balloon-injured injury group were significantly higher than those in the CysC monoclonal antibody group and the sham-operative group (both P < 0.05). At 6 weeks after balloon injury, the adventitial area and thickness, LA, IA, IELA and EELA in the balloon-injured injury group were also higher than those in the CysC monoclonal antibody and sham-operative groups (all P < 0.05). In addition, the balloon-injured injury group showed higher VRI and RS than those of the CysC monoclonal antibody group (both P < 0.05). The positive expression of α-SMA in the vascular adventitia and media in the balloon-injured group were higher than that of the CysC monoclonal antibody and sham-operative groups. The balloon-injured group also showed a stronger expression of α-SMA in the neointima than that of the CysC monoclonal antibody group. There was a strong positive expression of PCNA in the vascular adventitia and neointima in the balloon-injured and CysC monoclonal antibody groups. However, the number of PCNA-positive cells in the balloon-injured group was higher than that of the CysC monoclonal antibody group (25.45 ± 4.21 vs. 6.75 ± 1.11, P = 0.003). Our findings provide empirical evidence that serum CysC levels may play an important role in the vascular remodeling of balloon-injured abdominal aorta of rabbits. PMID:24981928

  2. A comparison of CORVITA and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene vascular grafts implanted in the abdominal aortas of dogs.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, N; Esato, K; Fujioka, K; Zempo, N

    1997-01-01

    The utility of CORVITA vascular grafts, composed of an inner layer of meshed polyurethane fibers and an outer layer of meshed Dacron reinforcement, for replacement of the abdominal aorta was assessed in a canine model and compared with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) grafts. CORVITA or ePTFE vascular grafts were implanted and left in place for 3 or 6 months. After removal, they were inspected macroscopically and histologically. Microspectrophotometry was used to quantify smooth muscle cells (SMCs), elastin (EL), and collagen (CL) in the media of the native artery. The patency rate of the CORVITA grafts after 6 months was 100%, whereas that of the ePTFE grafts was only 50%. Moreover, stenoses were apparent in all of the ePTFE grafts, but in only 43% of the CORVITA grafts. The intimal thickness at the distal anastomosis was significantly greater at 3 months in the ePTFE grafts (P < 0.01), and there were significantly more SMCs in the host arterial media at the proximal and distal anastomoses in these grafts. Thus, better long-term patency can be expected with CORVITA grafts than with ePTFE grafts. This conferred advantage is most likely attributable to the less pronounced intimal hyperplasia which results from the proliferation of SMCs in the media of the native artery. PMID:9306607

  3. The retroperitoneal approach to the abdominal aorta in the endovascular era.

    PubMed

    Twine, Christopher P; Lane, Ian F; Williams, Ian M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the place of retroperitoneal (RP) aortic surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in the endovascular era and evaluate the evidence supporting it in preference to the more traditional transperitoneal approach. As endovascular graft technology improves, open aortic surgery is declining. AAAs unsuitable for endovascular aneurysm repair are, by definition, anatomically challenging. The RP approach is especially suited to anatomic challenges such as those posed by contemporary open AAA because it facilitates access to the suprarenal aorta. There is evidence that the RP approach reduces postoperative morbidity and length of stay compared with transperitoneal approaches. The evidence available indicates that the RP approach should be the first considered for any AAA unsuitable for endovascular aneurysm repair; however, the technique is more difficult to learn and less commonly practiced than the transperitoneal approach. Combined with a decrease in training hours in the United Kingdom, there is a real threat that the RP technique will only be performed by an ever-decreasing number of enthusiasts. PMID:22796332

  4. Determination of the layer-specific distributed collagen fibre orientations in human thoracic and abdominal aortas and common iliac arteries

    PubMed Central

    Schriefl, Andreas J.; Zeindlinger, Georg; Pierce, David M.; Regitnig, Peter; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2012-01-01

    The established method of polarized microscopy in combination with a universal stage is used to determine the layer-specific distributed collagen fibre orientations in 11 human non-atherosclerotic thoracic and abdominal aortas and common iliac arteries (63 ± 15.3 years, mean ± s.d.). A dispersion model is used to quantify over 37 000 recorded fibre angles from tissue samples. The study resulted in distinct fibre families, fibre directions, dispersion and thickness data for each layer and all vessels investigated. Two fibre families were present for the intima, media and adventitia in the aortas, with often a third and sometimes a fourth family in the intima in the respective axial and circumferential directions. In all aortas, the two families were almost symmetrically arranged with respect to the cylinder axis, closer to the axial direction in the adventitia, closer to the circumferential direction in the media and in between in the intima. The same trend was found for the intima and adventitia of the common iliac arteries; however, there was only one preferred fibre alignment present in the media. In all locations and layers, the observed fibre orientations were always in the tangential plane of the walls, with no radial components and very small dispersion through the wall thickness. A wider range of in-plane fibre orientations was present in the intima than in the media and adventitia. The mean total wall thickness for the aortas and the common iliac artery was 1.39 and 1.05 mm, respectively. For the aortas, a slight thickening of the intima and a thinning of the media in increasingly distal regions were observed. A clear intimal thickening was present distal to the branching of the celiac arteries. All data, except for the media of the common iliac arteries, showed two prominent collagen fibre families for all layers so that two-fibre family models seem most appropriate. PMID:22171063

  5. Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer of the Abdominal Aorta Involving the Celiac Trunk Origin and Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G. Petrocelli, Francesco; Seitun, Sara; Robaldo, Alessandro; Mazzei, Raffaele

    2011-02-15

    We describe a case of endovascular treatment in a 64-year-old woman affected by a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) of the abdominal aorta with a 26-mm pseudoaneurysm involving the celiac trunk (CT) origin and with superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion in the first 30 mm. The patient underwent stenting to treat the SMA occlusion and subsequent deployment of a custom-designed fenestrated endovascular stent-graft to treat the PAU involving the CT origin. Follow-up at 6 months after device placement demonstrated no complications, and there was complete thrombosis of the PAU and patency of the two branch vessels.

  6. A comparison of fenoldopam with dopamine and sodium nitroprusside in patients undergoing cross-clamping of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Oliver, William C; Nuttall, Gregory A; Cherry, Kenneth J; Decker, Paul A; Bower, Thomas; Ereth, Mark H

    2006-10-01

    Fenoldopam, a selective dopamine-1-receptor agonist, decreases arterial blood pressure rapidly, with a brief duration of action similar to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), but in contrast to SNP, it increases renal blood flow. We compared the hemodynamic and renal effects of fenoldopam in patients undergoing abdominal aortic surgery requiring cross-clamping of the aorta with another therapeutic option, dopamine and SNP. Fenoldopam or 2 mcg x kg(-1) x min(-1) of dopamine and SNP was infused before incision in 60 randomly selected patients in a double-blind fashion. Hemodynamic variables were recorded before incision, immediately before clamping the aorta, 5 min after cross-clamp release and upon completion of surgery. Urine output, serum creatinine, and creatinine clearance were measured intraoperatively and postoperatively. Characteristics were compared between groups using two-sample rank sum test for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for discrete variables. The occurrence of severe hypotension, maximum systolic blood pressure, and need for additional antihypertensive drugs were not different between the groups. Most intraoperative hemodynamic variables and all indices of renal function did not differ according to treatment. Therefore, fenoldopam has no therapeutic advantage compared with similar therapies in patients undergoing major vascular surgery involving cross-clamping of the aorta. PMID:17000789

  7. Surgical treatment of chronic occlusive disease of the enteric visceral branches of the abdominal aorta. Experience with 119 operations.

    PubMed Central

    Pokrovsky, A V; Kasantchjan, P O

    1980-01-01

    Whenever abdominal circulatory disorders are caused by obstruction of the abdominal aortic visceral branches, adequate blood flow may be restored only by surgical intervention. With the development of symptoms suggesting inadequate collateral circulation and disturbance of splanchnic blood supply, operation is indicated. The choice of operation depends on the nature and the cause of the disease and the type of occlusion. With intravascular obstruction, correction of blood flow may be achieved by a reconstructive procedure. In many patients with extravascular compression of the celiac artery, adequate flow is restored by simple external decompression. The present communication is based on experience with 119 operations, 102 reconstructive and 17 decompressive. Of the 102 reconstructive procedures, 94 were complex with one-stage revascularization of several arteries. Transaortic endarterectomy as described in our method of choice although with widespread lesions resection and replacement is preferred. A thoracolumbar approach is the most expedient incision for reconstruction. The results obtained provide evidence for the effectiveness of surgical treatment of chronic occlusive disease of the visceral branches of the abdominal aorta. PMID:7352776

  8. WR2721 ameliorates the radiation-induced depression in reactivity of rat abdominal aorta to U46619

    SciTech Connect

    Warfield, M.E.; Schneidkraut, M.J.; Ramwell, P.W.; Kot, P.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies showed that 20 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation results in a decreased response of the abdominal aorta to the stable thromboxane A2 (TXA2) mimic, U46619. The present study evaluated the effect of WR2721 on this radiation-induced decrease in vascular responsiveness. Rats receiving WR2721 (200 mg/kg, i.p.) 20 min before irradiation showed no depression in vascular reactivity to U46619 compared to control. The abolition of the radiation-induced decrease in vascular responsiveness was not caused by a direct vasoconstrictor action of WR2721 or its metabolites. The vascular response of rat abdominal aortic rings to KCl was unchanged after in vivo exposure to ionizing radiation. WR2721 did not alter the vascular response to KCl. These studies confirm that exposure to whole-body ionizing radiation decreased abdominal aortic vascular responsiveness to U46619. This depressed vascular reactivity can be abolished by pretreatment with the radioprotectant, WR2721. These observations may provide a rapid initial screening method for evaluating the in vivo efficacy of radioprotectant drugs.

  9. In vitro contractility of normal and aneurysmal abdominal aorta muscle coat sections in human and animal material.

    PubMed

    Gnus, Jan; Czerski, Albert; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Hauzer, Willy; Rusiecka, Agnieszka; Ferenc, Stanisław

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to demonstrate spontaneous contractile activity of the smooth muscle coat of the aorta in human and animal material. Spontaneous contractility of smooth muscle tissue, or tonus, is essential for the proper function of many internal organs as observed in the many types of muscle cells which make up the internal structures. The spontaneous contractile activity of the muscle tissue in blood vessels is particularly marked in resistance vessels, regulating circulation within organs or tissues. It can also be observed in large blood vessels such as arteries and veins. The contractile activity of muscular tissue isolated from arteries is the result of a number of factors, including endogenous paracrine substances, neurotransmitters released at postganglionic endings (mostly within the sympathetic system), cells capable of spontaneously generation of functional potentials (pacemaking cells) and the vascular endothelium. Pacemaking cells present in the aortic wall are an important factor in the development of the spontaneous contractility of the muscular coat of the aorta. They are capable of generating functional potentials, resulting in the constant tonus of the smooth muscular coat (comprising the aortic wall) due to tonic contraction. In vitro studies were carried out on abdominal aortic sections collected from 30 New Zealand rabbits with a body mass of 3-4 kilograms each and also on aneurysmal abdominal aortic sections collected during elective aneurysm repair procedures in humans (10 abdominal aortic sections). The 1.5 cm-long sections were mounted in chambers of an automated water bath. The sections were oriented in a transverse and longitudal fashion in order to compare contractility. The incubation medium consisted of Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Spontaneous contractile activity was observed during the study, characterized by rhythmic contractions of the muscular layer of the aorta. The contractile tension within the sections was 0.15 mN in the case of rabbit sections and 0.8 mN in the case of human sections. The average duration of a single contraction was 38.3 +/- 15.05 seconds. The average contraction frequency, i.e. the average number of contractions per minute, was 1.61 +/- 0.54 contractions per minute. The spontaneous contraction is modulated by many factors like endogenous paracrine substances, neurotransmitters or vascular endothelium. PMID:22428311

  10. Gradient Echo MRI Characterization of Development of Atherosclerosis in the Abdominal Aorta in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J. Kuribayashi, Hideto; Wagberg, Maria; Holmes, Andrew P.; Tessier, Jean J.; Waterton, John C.

    2006-08-15

    Purpose. The Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit provides an important model of spontaneous atherosclerosis. With a strain of WHHL rabbits which do not develop abdominal aorta lumen stenosis even with advanced atherosclerosis, we studied the MRI-histology correlation, and the natural progression of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta. In addition, intra-reader segmentation repeatability and scan-rescan reproducibility were assessed. Methods. Two batches of female WHHL rabbits were used. The first batch of 6 rabbits was scanned at 20 weeks old. A second batch of 17 rabbits was scanned at 50 weeks old and then randomly divided into two subgroups: 8 were killed for histologic investigation; 9 were kept alive for follow-up, with repeat scanning a week later to assess scan-rescan reproducibility, and again at 73 weeks old to assess disease progression. MR images were acquired at 4.7 T using a chemical shift selective fat suppression gradient echo with a saturation band suppressing blood signal within the aortic lumen. Five slices per animal were acquired, centered around the renal artery region of the abdominal aorta, with in-plane resolution of 0.195 mm and slice thickness of 3 mm. Results. The coefficient of variation for intra-reader reproducibility for aortic wall thickness measurements was 2.5% for repeat segmentations of the same scans on the same day, but segmentations of these same scans made 8 months later showed a systematic change, suggesting that intra-reader bias as well as increased variability could compromise assessments made over time. Comparative analyses were therefore performed in one postprocessing session. The coefficient of variation for scan-rescan reproducibility for aortic wall thickness was 5.5% for nine pairs of scans acquired a week apart and segmented on the same day. Good MRI-histology correlation was obtained. The MRI-measured mean aortic wall thickness of animals at 20 weeks of age was 76% that of animals at 50 weeks of age (p < 0.001). There was a small increase in aortic wall thickness between 50 and 73 weeks of age, but this was not significant (p > 0.05). The corresponding differences in lumen cross-sectional areas at 20, 50, and 73 weeks of age were not significant. These results were consistent with in-house historical histology data on this strain of rabbits. Conclusions. High-resolution gradient echo MRI can follow disease progression in the WHHL rabbit spontaneous atherosclerosis disease model.

  11. A 3D model of thrombus formation in a stent-graft after implantation in the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Polanczyk, Andrzej; Podyma, Marek; Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Szubert, Wojciech; Zbicinski, Ireneusz

    2015-02-01

    Here we present a 3D kinetic model of thrombus formation in an endovascular prosthesis after implantation in an abdominal aorta with an aneurysm. The computational fluid dynamic technique (CFD) was used to determine the process of thrombus formation and growth in the stent-graft on the basis of the medical data from computed tomography angiography and Doppler ultrasound examination of 10 patients. The Quemada model was used to describe rheological properties of blood. Results of the CFD simulations were validated based on actual data from patients with diagnosed thrombi in aortic implants. The results show that the elaborated CFD model correctly predicted thrombus formation, shape and deposition site in an endovascular prosthesis. The developed CFD model of thrombus growth can be applied to predict the risk of thrombus formation in stent-grafts and assist in selection of geometry of the endovascular prosthesis to reduce possible complications after stent-graft implantation using only basic medical data. PMID:25543277

  12. Chronic myocardial infarction due to arteriosclerosis of coronary arteries followed by acute thromboembolism of caudal abdominal aorta in a cat.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Kumiko; Hikasa, Yoshiaki; Minami, Saburo; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Morita, Takehito; Shimada, Akinori

    2005-06-01

    A 10-year-old cat with the paresis of hind limbs was initially diagnosed as a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy followed by acute thromboembolism of caudal abdominal aorta from the findings of the medical examinations. However, this case was proved to be an chronic myocardial infarction due to arteriosclerosis of coronary arteries by the pathologic diagnosis. In the left ventricular, the hypertrophy and the narrowing were slight, and a coagulative infarction was seen obviously. The intramural coronary arteriosclerosis showed thickening of the wall due to medial hyperplasia by fibrosis, and arterial stenosis. Myocardial infarction and arteriosclerosis are scarcely any reports of these lesions in cats. This case is valuable for an extremely rare case of myocardial infarction in the cat. PMID:15997196

  13. The diabetes-induced functional and distributional changes of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor of the abdominal aorta and distal mesenteric artery from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Hwan; Park, Sang-Hyun; Huh, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diabetes on the function and distribution of vascular α1-adrenoceptors in the abdominal aorta and distal mesenteric artery from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats at the level of the α1-adrenoceptor subtypes. Methods Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) in 8 week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 11). Age-matched normal rats (n = 14) were used as a control group. Four weeks after STZ injection, the tilting-induced change of the mean arterial pressure was recorded. The α1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating the contractions of the distal mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta were investigated using the agonist phenylephrine and subtype-selective antagonists that included prazocin, 5-methylurapidil and BMY 7378. The expressions of the α1-adrenoceptor subtypes of each artery were examined by immunofluorescence staining using the subtype selective antibodies. Results The recovery of the mean arterial pressure was delayed after positional change in the diabetic rats. Compared with that of the normal rats, the contractile response to phenylephrine was increased in the abdominal aortas and it was decreased in the distal mesenteric arteries in the diabetic rats. In addition, compared with the normal rats, the fluorescent intensity of all the α1-adrenoceptor subtypes was increased in the abdominal aortas and it was decreased in the mesenteric arteries of the diabetic rats. Conclusions Diabetes increased the contractility of the abdominal aorta in response to phenylephrine, yet diabetes decreased that of the mesenteric arteries in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. Those results are mainly based on the overall change of the α1-adrenoceptor, and not on the change of the specific α1-adrenoceptor subtypes. PMID:21602978

  14. Transperitoneal versus extraperitoneal approach for routine vascular reconstruction of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, H; Van Hemelrijk, J; Nevelsteen, A; Suy, R

    1994-01-01

    In this non-randomised retrospective study we have compared 79 cases with transperitoneal approach and 90 cases with extended postero-lateral extraperitoneal approach for elective reconstruction of the infrarenal aorta. In the extraperitoneal group more patients were diabetic (7.8% vs 1.3%, p < 0.05) or had a serum creatinine of more than 1.5 mg % (10.1% vs 2.5%, p < 0.05). The study shows that in spite of a higher proportion of risk factors, a longer preparation (61' vs 44', p < 0.001), dissection (55' vs 46', p < 0.05) and total procedure time (193' vs 173', p < 0.05), the need for more blood transfusion (2.8 U vs 2.3 U, p < 0.05) and colloid perfusion (2.1 L vs 1.8 L, p < 0.05) in the extraperitoneal group, the incidence of complications is not higher compared to the transperitoneal group (29% vs 24%, NS). On the contrary, problems of intestinal transit were found exclusively in the transperitoneal group (7.6%, p < 0.01). Therefore it seems that, as far as the peri- and postoperative period is concerned the extraperitoneal approach might be the technique of choice for the simple elective infrarenal aorta reconstructions. PMID:8184643

  15. Mechanical behavior of abdominal aorta aneurysm in rat model treated by cell therapy using mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zidi, Mustapha; Allaire, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative medicine to substitute conventional surgery or an endovascular stent constitutes currently a challenge to treat abdominal aneurysm artery (AAA). The present paper addresses the following question: Can a cellular therapy from mesenchymal stem cells reestablish the mechanical properties of damaged abdominal aorta? For that, the xenograft rat model that mimics arterial dilatation due to aneurysmal disease is used to study the effects of the proposed cellular therapy. To investigate the changes in the mechanical behavior of the arterial wall, the artery is assumed to be made of a hyperelastic and incompressible material characterized by a strain energy function fitted to the average data set of uniaxial tests of AAA tissue samples. In order to compute the stresses in the artery by using an analytical approach, the aneurysm is represented as a "parabolic-exponential" thin membrane. Thus, when compared to healthy, untreated and treated arteries, the obtained results demonstrate that the cellular therapy stabilizes the geometry of AAAs, improves the stiffness of the tissue and decreases stress variations in the arterial wall. PMID:24781283

  16. Biaxial mechanical properties of the human thoracic and abdominal aorta, common carotid, subclavian, renal and common iliac arteries.

    PubMed

    Kamenskiy, Alexey V; Dzenis, Yuris A; Kazmi, Syed A Jaffar; Pemberton, Mark A; Pipinos, Iraklis I; Phillips, Nick Y; Herber, Kyle; Woodford, Thomas; Bowen, Robert E; Lomneth, Carol S; MacTaggart, Jason N

    2014-11-01

    The biomechanics of large- and medium-sized arteries influence the pathophysiology of arterial disease and the response to therapeutic interventions. However, a comprehensive comparative analysis of human arterial biaxial mechanical properties has not yet been reported. Planar biaxial extension was used to establish the passive mechanical properties of human thoracic (TA, [Formula: see text]) and abdominal (AA, [Formula: see text]) aorta, common carotid (CCA, [Formula: see text]), subclavian (SA, [Formula: see text]), renal (RA, [Formula: see text]) and common iliac (CIA, [Formula: see text]) arteries from 11 deceased subjects ([Formula: see text] years old). Histological evaluation determined the structure of each specimen. Experimental data were used to determine constitutive parameters for a structurally motivated nonlinear anisotropic constitutive model. All arteries demonstrated appreciable anisotropy and large nonlinear deformations. Most CCA, SA, TA, AA and CIA specimens were stiffer longitudinally, while most RAs were stiffer circumferentially. A switch in anisotropy was occasionally demonstrated for all arteries. The CCA was the most compliant, least anisotropic and least frequently diseased of all arteries, while the CIA and AA were the stiffest and the most diseased. The severity of atherosclerosis correlated with age, but was not affected by laterality. Elastin fibers in the aorta, SA and CCA were uniformly and mostly circumferentially distributed throughout the media, while in the RA and CIA, elastin was primarily axially aligned and concentrated in the external elastic lamina. Constitutive modeling provided good fits to the experimental data for most arteries. Biomechanical and architectural features of major arteries differ depending on location and functional environment. A better understanding of localized arterial mechanical properties may support the development of site-specific treatment modalities for arterial disease. PMID:24710603

  17. Ruptured aneurysm of the infrarenal abdominal aorta: impact of age and postoperative complications on mortality.

    PubMed

    Alric, Pierre; Ryckwaert, Frédérique; Picot, Marie-Christine; Branchereau, Pascal; Colson, Pascal; Mary, Henri; Marty-Ané, Charles

    2003-05-01

    Between 1985 and 2000, a total of 871 patients underwent surgical treatment for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), including 98 (11.2%) presenting with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAA). An optimized operative protocol was used to treat 77 RAAA starting in January 1989. The main features of the optimized protocol are routine use of intraoperative autotransfusion, revascularization by aortoaortic bypass, absence of systemic heparinization, and use of a collagen-impregnated prosthesis. Intraoperative mortality (IOM) was 3.8%. Postoperative mortality at 1 month (POM1) was 25.9% and postoperative mortality at 3 months (POM3) was 33.7%. Heart failure (p <0.001), hemodynamic shock (p <0.001), and hemorrhage (p = 0.04) were the only complications correlated with POM1. Pneumonia (p = 0.01) and sepsis (p = 0.01) were the only complications correlated with POM3. Isolated acute renal insufficiency was not a significant risk factor for postoperative mortality. Using a cutoff of 75 years, there was a significant age-related difference (p = 0.025) for POM1 but not for IOM and POM3. The findings of this study show that optimizing the operative protocol decreases mortality related to RAAA. The main predictor of POM1 was hemodynamic status while the main predictor of POM3 was infection. Isolated acute renal insufficiency was not a risk factor for mortality. Age should not be considered a contraindication for operative treatment. PMID:12704541

  18. Multiple absences of the branches of abdominal aorta with congenital absence of the portal vein, unilateral adrenal agenesis and persistent ductus arteriosus in a female cadaver

    PubMed Central

    Foghi, Khadijeh

    2014-01-01

    We report on an extremely rare case of multiple absences of the branches of abdominal aorta with congenital absence of the portal vein, unilateral adrenal agenesis and persistent ductus arteriosus in an adult female cadaver. Specifically, instead of celiac trunk, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, solely a single arterial trunk aroused from the anterior aspect of abdominal aorta, inferior phrenic and ovarian arteries were absent in both sides. Left kidneys drained by two veins. There were not superior, splenic and mesenteric veins, while left renal vein received an additional vein, which run downward and drained primarily all parts of digestive tract and its associated glands (portal vein did not exist). Right adrenal gland was absent. To the best of our knowledge, it is the only reported case with such widespread anomalies. We think the importance of this case is beyond the surgical consideration and needs more profound developmental studies. PMID:25548727

  19. Vulnerability of an equine pericardial roll graft to Gram-positive cocci after graft replacement for a ruptured infected abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Fumio; Tanaka, Fuminobu; Nishikawa, Yuji

    2011-05-01

    We describe the influence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia on histopathological alteration of a glutaraldehyde-fixed equine pericardial roll (EPR) graft in a 77-year-old male who underwent in-situ EPR replacement of a ruptured infected abdominal aorta with concomitant repair of the perforated duodenum. The patient died of circulatory failure after septic shock due to MRSA infection and gastrointestinal bleeding on postoperative day (POD) 23. The autopsy revealed no perforation of the EPR graft or anastomotic disruption between the native abdominal aorta and EPR graft. Histological examination revealed that the inner layer of the EPR graft was colonized and damaged by Gram-positive cocci (MRSA suspected). We therefore suggest that the infection-resistant property of EPR grafts may be uncertain in patients with postoperative sustained MRSA bacteremia when these grafts are used for arterial reconstruction. PMID:21303871

  20. Layer-specific damage experiments and modeling of human thoracic and abdominal aortas with non-atherosclerotic intimal thickening.

    PubMed

    Weisbecker, Hannah; Pierce, David M; Regitnig, Peter; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2012-08-01

    Many treatments for cardiovascular diseases include an endovascular insertion of stents or stent grafts into arteries, a procedure which may cause high tissue stresses and even damage in the arterial wall. In order to study such problems by using finite element methods, both appropriate constitutive models and experimental data on human tissue samples are required. Layer-specific experimental data for human tissue tested up to the supra-physiological loading range are rare in the literature. In this study, intact and layer-separated experimental data from uniaxial extension tests are presented for human thoracic and abdominal aortas with non-atherosclerotic intimal thickening undergoing supra-physiological loading. A novel pseudo-elastic damage model, proposed to describe discontinuous softening in aortic arterial tissues, is fit to the obtained experimental data. Fitting of the model with and without consideration of damage accumulation in the non-collagenous matrix material reveals that tissue damage is primarily related to the collagen fiber fabric. By employing the fit model, the effect of aortic tissue pre-conditioning on the material parameters from the resulting data fits is evaluated. Histological examination of the collagen fibers under different applied stretches is used to gain more insights into the structural changes of the tissue under supra-physiological loading. PMID:22659370

  1. Influence of Selective Biochemical and Morphological Agents on Natural History of Aneurysm of Abdominal Aorta Development

    PubMed Central

    Wołoszko, Tomasz; Skórski, Maciej; Kwasiborski, Przemysław; Kmin, Ewelina; Gałązka, Zbigniew; Pogorzelski, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is probably influenced by many factors. The role of some of these factors, such as intraluminal thrombus (ILT) or cystatin C serum levels, remains controversial. Proving their influence could have therapeutic implications for some patients with AAA. Associations between the rate of increase in diameter of an aneurysm and ILT, as well as other factors, including biochemical factors (C-Reactive Protein – CRP, cystatin C), age, sex, and comorbidities, could predict disease progression in individual patients. Material/Methods Seventy patients with small AAA were included into the study. The patients were followed using ultrasound and CT imaging. We evaluated aneurysm dimensions and aneurysm wall thickness, as well as ILT and its dimensions, aneurysm wall morphology, CRP, and cystatin C. Results We observed significant growth of AAA and thinning of aneurysmal wall. Aneurysms over 4 cm grew significantly faster in the second year of observation. ILT grew together with AAA size. Age, sex, smoking, dyslipidemias, or controlled arterial hypertension had no influence on aneurysm progression rate. Changes in serum of CRP concentration did not reach statistical significance, but cystatin C levels did. Conclusions Presence and size of ILT, wall thickness, and cystatin C levels may be considered in prediction of AAA progression. ILT might exert a protective influence on the risk of aneurysm rupture. However, larger aneurysms containing larger thrombi grow faster and their walls undergo more rapid degradation, which in turn increases the risk of rupture. This matter requires further studies. PMID:26859744

  2. Influence of Selective Biochemical and Morphological Agents on Natural History of Aneurysm of Abdominal Aorta Development.

    PubMed

    Wo?oszko, Tomasz; Skrski, Maciej; Kwasiborski, Przemys?aw; Kmin, Ewelina; Ga??zka, Zbigniew; Pogorzelski, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is probably influenced by many factors. The role of some of these factors, such as intraluminal thrombus (ILT) or cystatin C serum levels, remains controversial. Proving their influence could have therapeutic implications for some patients with AAA. Associations between the rate of increase in diameter of an aneurysm and ILT, as well as other factors, including biochemical factors (C-Reactive Protein - CRP, cystatin C), age, sex, and comorbidities, could predict disease progression in individual patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventy patients with small AAA were included into the study. The patients were followed using ultrasound and CT imaging. We evaluated aneurysm dimensions and aneurysm wall thickness, as well as ILT and its dimensions, aneurysm wall morphology, CRP, and cystatin C. RESULTS We observed significant growth of AAA and thinning of aneurysmal wall. Aneurysms over 4 cm grew significantly faster in the second year of observation. ILT grew together with AAA size. Age, sex, smoking, dyslipidemias, or controlled arterial hypertension had no influence on aneurysm progression rate. Changes in serum of CRP concentration did not reach statistical significance, but cystatin C levels did. CONCLUSIONS Presence and size of ILT, wall thickness, and cystatin C levels may be considered in prediction of AAA progression. ILT might exert a protective influence on the risk of aneurysm rupture. However, larger aneurysms containing larger thrombi grow faster and their walls undergo more rapid degradation, which in turn increases the risk of rupture. This matter requires further studies. PMID:26859744

  3. Evaluation of the intraoperative specimens of the thoracic and abdominal aorta

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the histological patterns of acute and chronic aortic pathology with regard to medial degeneration, atherosclerosis and aortitis as well as their distribution in different age groups. The aim of the study was to evaluate histopathological findings of intraoperatively gained aortic specimens with regard to the incidence of medial degeneration, atherosclerosis and aortitis. Methods Intraoperatively gained aortic specimens were evaluated in 151 patients including 83 (55%) aortic aneurysms (65 thoracic, 18 abdominal) and 68 (45%) acute type A aortic dissections. Histological stainings used were hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson as well as alcian blue. Patients were stratified according to above and below 65 years of age. High grade medial degeneration represented pooling of mucoid material in the whole aortic wall. High grade atherosclerosis represented severe intimal fibrosis, massive accumulation of macrophages and foam cells or massive calcification of the aortic wall. Results Medial degeneration was diagnosed in 106 (70%) patients including 55 (52%) aortic aneurysms and 51 (48%) acute type A aortic dissections. High grade medial degeneration was found in 50% of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms < 65 years of age vs. 44% in patients ≥ 65 years of age (p = 0.64) and in 36% of patients with thoracic aortic dissections < 65 years of age vs. 14% in patients ≥ 65 years of age (p = 0.07). Atherosclerosis was diagnosed in 71 (47%) patients including 46 (65%) aortic aneurysms and 25 (35%) aortic dissections. High grade atherosclerosis was found in 23% of patients with thoracic aneurysms < 65 years of age vs. 36% in patients ≥ 65 years of age (p = 0.24) and in 13% of patients with aortic dissections < 65 years of age vs. 52% in patients ≥ 65 years of age (p < 0.001). Aortitis was rare (n = 2). Conclusions Medial degeneration was the most frequent diagnosis in this series of aortic specimens. Medial degeneration was equally common in patients above and below 65 years of age. However in cases with acute type A aortic dissections, high grade atherosclerosis was the leading histopathological diagnosis in patients older than 65 years. Acute type A aortic dissections seem to have different underlying pathologies in different age groups. PMID:23618074

  4. Intimal cell masses in the abdominal aortas of swine fed a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet for up to twelve years of age.

    PubMed

    Kim, D N; Schmee, J; Lee, K T; Thomas, W A

    1985-05-01

    The normal subendothelial intima of large arteries in man, swine and most other species is a variegated structure from birth onwards. In some regions it contains only a few scattered cells; in others there may be a continuous single layer of cells; and in still others the cells pile up to form what we have called intimal cell masses (ICM). The cells in the normal ICM are mostly smooth muscle cells although there is also a small resident population of monocyte-like cells. We have been studying the ICM in swine with emphasis on the abdominal aorta. We have found that atherosclerotic lesions in the abdominal aorta of swine induced by high-fat high-cholesterol diets begin by a hyperplastic reaction of the smooth muscle cells in the ICM and progress to form large lesions characterized by extensive regions of lipid-rich calcific necrotic debris similar to advanced lesions in man. Because of the putative key role of the ICM in atherogenesis we think that it is important to learn as much as possible about their natural history under conditions as normal as possible. In this report we present data on ICM in the abdominal aortas of 34 male and female Hormel miniature swine maintained on a low-fat low-cholesterol diet for up to 12 years of age. The ICM grow slowly with aging and in the distal portion of the aorta account for an average of 9% in the male and 15% in the female of the total cells in the aortic wall (intima + media).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4004988

  5. Partially thrombosed aneurysm of the abdominal aorta: Unusual cause of chronic inflammation and resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin

    PubMed Central

    El Amrani, M.; El Kharras, A.; Asserraji, M.

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of chronic inflammatory syndrome is often a challenge. In dialysis patients, this condition leads to resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). We here report a case of a 72-year-old male undergoing chronic hemodialysis and developed rHuEPO resistance without any obvious etiology. Investigations showed a partially thromosed aneurysm of the infrarenal aorta. Antiplatelet therapy was started with a satisfactory outcome. PMID:24574630

  6. Inhibition of intimal hyperplasia via local delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor cDNA nanoparticles in a rabbit model of restenosis induced by abdominal aorta balloon injury

    PubMed Central

    XIE, HONGZHI; YANG, JING; HAN, YECHEN; ZHU, XUEQING; FANG, QUAN

    2015-01-01

    In-stent restenosis (ISR) is one of the major factors affecting long-term outcomes of percutaneous coronary interventions. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been hypothesized to have a positive role in preventing ISR, however, this remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to assess whether nanoparticles can be used to deliver VEGF to injured arteries and whether this is beneficial in preventing restenosis. New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into a control group, an empty nanoparticles group and a VEGF nanoparticles group (n=6 in each group). Polylactic-polyglycolic acid VEGF nanoparticles were prepared using a phacoemulsification method. A rabbit model of restenosis was established following abdominal aorta balloon injury, and VEGF gene nanoparticles, empty nanoparticles or normal saline were delivered locally at the site of injury via a GENIE Catheter™ perfusion balloon. Intimal proliferation determination and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed at day 28 following arterial injury. Compared with the control and empty nanoparticle groups, the neointima area (0.49±0.09, 0.48±0.08 and 0.19±0.11 mm2, respectively; P<0.001) and proliferation index (0.32±0.03, 0.32±0.05 and 0.13±0.06, respectively; P<0.001) were significantly lower in the VEGF nanoparticles group. In addition, in the VEGF nanoparticles group, the immunoreactivity of α-actin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were significantly lower (P≤0.001), while the immunoreactivity of VEGF was higher (P=0.01). Therefore, the results revealed that local delivery of VEGF gene nanoparticles reduced intimal thickening and cell proliferation following abdominal aorta balloon injury in a rabbit model, demonstrating the efficacy of this therapy against restenosis. PMID:26170912

  7. New approach of assessing hypovolemic shock class 1 during acute emergencies: Ultrasonographic inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta diameter ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Rashidi; Kunji, Mohamad Iqhbal; Hj Abd Kareem, Meera Mohaideen; Halim, Shamimi A.

    2013-09-01

    In a patient with hypovolemic shock class 1, the vital signs and biochemical properties are almost normal. The alteration of hemodynamic parameters and biochemical values occurs mainly in advanced hypovolemia state (neuroendocrine response). The availability of ultrasound machine at healthcare centers makes the measurement of vascular calibre feasible and possible. Inspiration and expiration inferior vena cava diameter changes predict hypovolemic shock class 1 but in acute emergencies this method is impractical. The purpose of this study is to develop a new approach in identifying hypovolemic shock at early phase by measuring the inferior vena cava and aorta diameter ratio using bedside ultrasound machine.

  8. Intimal sarcoma of the abdominal aorta and common iliac arteries presenting as epithelioid angiosarcoma of the skin: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Shogo; Hoshina, Katsuyuki; Oushik, Tets; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Fukayama, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Intimal sarcoma (IS) is the most common type of sarcoma of the aorta. IS tumor emboli can involve various organs, including the skin. However, a limited number of IS cases with an initial presentation of skin metastasis has been reported. Cutaneous metastasis as a form of epithelioid angiosarcoma (EAS) has not been well described. Herein, we present a 61-year-old Japanese man with an initial presentation of EAS of the skin, followed by multiple metastases to the skin as a form of EAS prior to detection of IS of the infrarenal aorta and common iliac arteries. In our case, the IS was CD31 and cytokeratin positive but did not express CD34 and factor VIII-related antigen. The EASs in our case exhibited diffuse CD31 expression, and focal factor VIII-related antigen and cytokeratin expression were observed throughout the tumor, including the neoplastic vascular structure; CD34 expression was not identifiable. IS metastasis to the skin has been documented as a form of angiosarcoma. However, IS metastasis has not been well described as a form of EAS. Our case could prove a morphological change from IS to EAS. Given the rarity of primary cutaneous EAS, it is recommended that primary sites other than the skin should be thoroughly investigated when EAS of the skin is encountered. PMID:26191309

  9. Ethnic-specific risks for atherosclerotic calcification of the thoracic and abdominal aorta (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    PubMed

    Allison, Matthew A; Budoff, Matthew J; Nasir, Khurram; Wong, Nathan D; Detrano, Robert; Kronmal, Richard; Takasu, Junichiro; Criqui, Michael H

    2009-09-15

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the association between ethnicity and thoracic aortic calcium (TAC) and abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) and (2) investigate associations between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and TAC and AAC. Participants were 1,957 men and women enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who had computed tomographic scans of the chest and abdomen. These scans were obtained at the same clinic visit and calcium scores were computed using the Agatston method. Regression analyses were conducted using relative risk regression. Mean age was 65 years and 50% were women. Forty percent were white, 26% Hispanic, 21% African-American, and 13% Chinese. Whites had the highest prevalence of AAC (80%), which was significantly higher than Hispanics (68%, p <0.001), African-Americans (63%, p <0.001), and Chinese (74%, p = 0.029). Similarly, whites had the highest prevalence of TAC (42%), which was significantly higher than in Hispanics (30%, p <0.01) and African-Americans (27%, p <0.001) but was not significantly different from that in Chinese (38%). Compared to whites and after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, and family history of CVD, Hispanics and African-Americans, but not Chinese-Americans, had a significantly lower risk for the presence of any AAC or any TAC. In these models, diabetes, smoking, and dyslipidemia had stronger associations with AAC, whereas hypertension was stronger for TAC. In conclusion, compared to whites, African-Americans and Hispanics, but not Chinese, have evidence of less atherosclerosis in the thoracic and abdominal aortas, which does not appear to be accounted for by traditional CVD risk factors. PMID:19733716

  10. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ... High blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often seen in males over age ...

  11. Protective effect of delta opioid agonist [D-Ala2, D-Leu5] enkephalin on spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury by regional perfusion into abdominal aorta in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haitong; Chen, Binbin; Zhang, Yi; Qiu, Yimin; Xia, Yunfei; Li, Shitong; Yao, Junyan

    2015-01-01

    [D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)] enkephalin (DADLE) has been reported to exhibit protective effects against hypoxic or ischemic induced brain insult. However its efficacy on the spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury remains unclear. Here we investigate whether DADLE could attenuate ischemia and reperfusion induced neural injury in the rabbit spinal cord. New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to spinal cord ischemia by infrarenal aortic occlusion for 30 min. In the period of spinal cord ischemia, DADLE 0.5 mg/kg or NS were infused continuously into the distal clamped abdominal aorta. The heart rate, blood pressure, and core temperature were monitored continuously during the whole experimental procedure. Then the neurological behavioral function was assessed with Tarlov scale system at 1h, 6h, 24h, 48 h after reperfusion, and neuronal injury evaluation in the ventral horn of gray matter was measured by counting the normal motor neurons at 48 h after reperfusion. Comparing with the control group, the Tarlov scores were significantly higher and the incidences of paraplegia were significantly lower in the DADLE group at four time-point recorded. In addition, the normal neurons numbers in the DADLE group were significant more than those in the control group at 48 h after reperfusion. These results suggested that DADLE infused into the abdominal aorta during ischemia period could attenuate behavioral retardation and the loss of normal motor neuron induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rabbits. PMID:25283992

  12. STUDIES ON EXPERIMENTAL HYPERTENSION : IX. THE EFFECT ON BLOOD PRESSURE OF CONSTRICTION OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTA ABOVE AND BELOW THE SITE OF ORIGIN OF BOTH MAIN RENAL ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, H; Kahn, J R; Hanzal, R F

    1939-04-30

    Constriction of the aorta just above the origin of both main renal arteries invariably resulted in elevation of the carotid systolic and carotid mean pressure. The hypertension was not immediate, but developed in about the same time as after constriction of the main renal arteries (3). Constriction of the aorta just below the origin of both main renal arteries had no significant effect on the carotid systolic or carotid mean pressure. Since these results were first reported (1), Rytand (88, 89) has shown by an indirect method, namely, the demonstration of the development of cardiac hypertrophy, that hypertension in the upper part of the body can be produced in the rat by constriction of the aorta just above the origin of both main renal arteries. The immediate effect of constriction of the aorta either below or above the main renal arteries is a fall of blood pressure (femoral mean pressure) below the site of the clamp, the extent of the fall being directly dependent upon the degree of constriction of the aorta. Of particular interest is the eventual elevation of the femoral mean pressure above the normal in some animals with the aorta constricted or even occluded above the origin of the main renal arteries. This was most pronounced and persistent in those animals in which, in addition, the aorta below the origin of the renal arteries, and, in some animals, the main renal arteries, also were constricted. The most important factors which determined this elevation of blood pressure in the lower part of the body were probably increased flow of blood into the vascular bed below the clamp and peripheral vasoconstriction of renal and humoral origin, as in the case of the hypertension produced by constriction of the main renal arteries alone (2-86). Although elevation of the carotid systolic or carotid mean pressure occurred invariably within 24 to 48 hours after the constriction of the aorta above the site of origin of both main renal arteries, yet there was a tendency, after a variable period, for the elevated blood pressure to become lower or even to drop to the original level. Increased constriction, and finally occlusion of the aorta, above the origin of the main renal arteries, and even constriction or occlusion of the aorta below the renal arteries, in addition, failed to induce hypertension that persisted for a long time at a high level. In order to produce this effect, it was necessary to constrict the main renal arteries as well. The possible explanation of the failure of the hypertension to persist for a long time after constriction of the aorta alone, is that the initial ischemia of the kidneys disappeared due to the improvement of the blood flow through the kidneys as a result of (a) the increase of the natural accessory circulation to the kidneys; (b) the increased blood pressure above the site of the clamp and consequent increased flow of blood into the part of the aorta below the clamp; (c) increased pressure below the site of the clamp due, in great part, to peripheral vasoconstriction, and in part to the increased inflow of blood into the lower part of the body through the aorta and collateral channels. For the dog, this method is not necessary for the production of persistent hypertension. Constriction of the main renal arteries is easily performed and is effective for the production of generalized hypertension (2-11). However, constriction of the aorta in addition to constriction of the renal arteries results in greatly elevated persistent hypertension. Constriction of the aorta alone above the origin of the main renal arteries would be useful in the dog only for the production of relatively short periods of hypertension in the upper part of the body. For small animals it may be a more effective and useful method. In the dog, the only technical difficulty encountered was the erosion of the wall of the aorta by the clamp. This may not occur in small animals. In previous studies (2-11) that have dealt with the constriction of the main renal arteries, this accident rarely occurred. When the constriction of the aorta above the origin of the main renal arteries was of moderate degree, or was gradually made very great, the resultant hypertension was not accompanied by impairment of renal excretory function, as determined by urea clearance or by the quantity of urea, creatinine or non-protein nitrogen in the blood, the benign phase of hypertension (3). When the constriction of the aorta was suddenly made very great, impairment of the renal excretory function usually followed, and the animal developed fatal convulsive uremia and characteristic vascular lesions, the malignant phase of hypertension (9). These facts, are all indicative of the renal origin of the hypertension which results from the constriction of the aorta just above the origin of both main renal arteries. Hypertension did not persist for a sufficiently long time to permit any conclusive comparison between the effect of the high and low pressures on the structure of the vascular system, above and below the site of the clamp, respectively. During the period of survival of these animals, no significant differences were observed between the appearance of the vascular system of the upper part of the body and that of the lower part of the body, and significant cardiac hypertrophy did not develop. In the aorta and large arteries, intimal arteriosclerosis was not observed. In the aorta of one old animal several small plaques of calcification were found in the media, but these were present in the portion of the aorta below, as well as above the clamp, and they were no larger or more abundant than were observed in some old dogs with normal blood pressure. Dogs 3-50 and 3-83, that are still alive, with very high blood pressure above the site of the aortic clamps, and relatively low pressure (though greater than normal) below the site of the aortic clamps, will be valuable for the determination of possible differences between the effects of the two levels of blood pressure in the large and small blood vessels. In these dogs also, it will be possible to determine the effect of the persistently high blood pressure on the myocardium. The possible application of the results of this study to the problem of the pathogenesis of human eclampsia is mentioned here for consideration. Since this condition occurs in pregnancy only at a time when the uterus is greatly enlarged, it is at least possible that the mass may press on the aorta or both main renal arteries sufficiently to produce renal ischemia. The suddenness with which the uremic convulsive phase of eclampsia develops is in keeping with this idea. In the dog, an aggravating effect of pregnancy on an already established hypertension has not been noted. As a matter of fact, most of the hypertensive dogs that have become pregnant, have shown a slight or moderate fall, rather than an increased rise of pressure. Since the dog stands with the body in a horizontal position, and does not lie on its back, pressure of the pregnant uterus on the aorta and blood vessels is less than in human beings who stand erect and frequently lie on their backs. The soundness of this suggestion could be tested by placing pregnant women, in the early stage of eclampsia, in a position which could relieve possible pressure on the aorta and main renal arteries. A possible explanation of the fall of pressure in the pregnant hypertensive dogs is the compensatory effect of the normal kidneys of the pups, as in the case of an animal with one main renal artery constricted and the other kidney normal. As has been shown (3, 31, 72), the presence of one normal kidney in an animal hypertensive due to constriction of the other main renal artery, results, after a variable period, in a return of the blood pressure to normal. How the normal kidney acts to produce this effect is not known. PMID:19870869

  13. [Acute and chronic aortic diseases of the thoracic and abdominal aorta of the adult - 2014 AS SMC Guidelines on the classification and diagnosis of aortic diseases].

    PubMed

    Gavorník, Peter; Dukát, Andrej; Gašpar, Ľudovít

    2015-01-01

    In addition to organovascular arterial ischemic diseases (cardiovascular, vasculovascular, neurovascular, extre-mitovascular, renovascular, genitovascular, bronchopulmovascular, mesenteriovascular, osteoarthromusculovascular, dermovascular, oculovascular, otovascular, stomatovascular etc.), aortic diseases contribute to the wide spectrum of arterial diseases: aortic aneurysms (AA), acute aortic syndromes (AAS) including aortic dissection (AD), intramural haematoma (IMH), penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) and traumatic aortic injury (TAI), pseudoaneurysm, aortic rupture, atherosclerosis, vasculitis as well as genetic diseases (e.g. Turner syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome) and congenital abnormalities including the coarctation of the aorta (CoA). Similarly to other arterial diseases, aortic diseases may be diagnosed after a long period of subclinical development or they may have an acute presentation. Acute aortic syndrome is often the first sign of the disease, which needs rapid diagnosis and decisionmaking to reduce the extremely poor prognosis. Key clinical-etiology-anatomy-patophysiology (CEAP) diagnostic aspects of aortic diseases are discussed in this document (project Vessels). PMID:25693619

  14. The relationship between insulin resistance and vascular calcification in coronary arteries, and the thoracic and abdominal aorta: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Kwok-Leung; McClelland, Robyn L.; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Cheung, Bernard M.Y.; Post, Wendy S.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Criqui, Michael H.; Cushman, Mary; Barter, Philip J.; Allison, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Insulin resistance may be related to vascular calcification as both are associated with abdominal obesity. We investigated the association of insulin resistance with abdominal aortic calcium (AAC), coronary artery calcium (CAC) and thoracic aortic calcium (TAC), and whether it differs according to different levels of subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and visceral fat area (VFA) in a cross-sectional study design. Methods We investigated 1632 participants without diabetes from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with valid data on homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR), AAC, CAC, and TAC. Adipocytokines, SFA, and VFA were also determined. Results HOMA-IR was associated with the presence of CAC, but not AAC and TAC, and the association remained significant after adjusting for traditional risk factors, adipocytokines, abdominal muscle mass, SFA, and VFA (prevalence ratio=1.04 per one interquartile range [IQR] increase, P=0.01). As the strength of the association of HOMA-IR with vascular calcification may differ by abdominal fat composition, subgroup analysis was performed among participants with different tertiles of SFA and VFA. Significant interactions between HOMA-IR with SFA and VFA separately were observed for the presence of TAC, but not AAC and CAC, even after adjusting for confounding factors. The association of HOMA-IR with TAC tended to be stronger in participants with more SFA and VFA. Conclusions Atherosclerotic calcification, especially in the coronary arteries, is related to insulin resistance. Further studies are needed to delineate the mechanisms by which visceral obesity can lead to vascular calcification. PMID:25108074

  15. Self-Expandable Nitinol Stent Placement in Homocysteinemic Porcine Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Frana, Lus Henrique Gil; Pereira, Adamastor Humberto; Perini, Slvio Csar

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare aortic intimal thickening of normal and hyperhomocysteinemic pigs (induced with a methionine-rich diet) following placement of a self-expanding nitinol stent. METHODS Eighteen Macau pigs were used. They were older than eight weeks in age and had an average weight of 30 kg. Pigs were randomly divided into two groups. The first, Group C (control), was fed a regular diet, and the second group, Group M, was fed a methionine-rich diet for 30 days to induce hyperhomocysteinemia. The self-expandable nitinol stents were 25mm in length and 8 mm in diameter after expansion. Blood samples were collected to measure total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and homocysteine concentrations. All animals were subjected to angiography. Thirty days after the procedure, the animals were sacrificed, and the abdominal aorta was removed for histological and digital morphometry analysis. RESULTS Under microscopic evaluation, the intima was significantly thicker in Group C than in Group M. When groups were compared by digital morphometric analysis, intimal thickening of the vessel wall was higher in Group C than in Group M. There was no significant change in total cholesterol, triglycerides or HDL concentrations in either group. In group C the levels of plasma homocysteine ranged from 14,40 to 16,73?mol/l; in Group M, plasma homocysteine levels ranged from 17.47 to 59.80 ?mol/l after 30 days of a methionine-rich diet. CONCLUSION Compared to normal pigs, less intimal hyperplasia was observed in the abdominal aortas of hyperhomocysteinemic pigs thirty days after the insertion of a self-expandable nitinol stent. PMID:18438578

  16. Characterization of the time course of the superior mesenteric, abdominal aorta, internal carotid and vertebral arteries blood flow response to the oral glucose challenge test using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Totman, J J; Marciani, L; Foley, S; Campbell, E; Hoad, C L; Macdonald, I A; Spiller, R C; Gowland, P A

    2009-10-01

    Blood flow to the splanchnic circulation increases postprandially which may cause a reduction in systemic and cerebral perfusion leading to postprandial syncope in the elderly who lack adequate cardiovascular reserve. We used multi-station 2D phase contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) with the aim of characterizing the time course of the haemodynamic response to an oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) in the large arteries perfusing the splanchnic, systemic and cerebral circulations (superior mesenteric artery SMA, abdominal aorta AA, internal carotid arteries, ICA and vertebral arteries VA). In this study nine fasted healthy volunteers were studied. Separate cine PC-MRI scans were acquired in the neck and in the abdomen every 88 s, these two measurements being interleaved for ten baseline scans at each station with the scanner automatically moving the subject between the two stations. After ingestion of the OGCT, a further 30 cine PC-MRI scans were acquired at each station. Using this technique we were able to characterize with frequent sampling of volumetric blood flow the time course of blood flow response to the OGCT of the SMA, AA and both VA and ICA. We found a substantial variation between individuals in the amplitude and the time to the peak of the SMA blood flow response to the OGCT which correlated positively with body mass index. MRI provides a robust, non-invasive method of studying normal physiology that could be valuable in studies of diseases such as postprandial hypotension. PMID:19759401

  17. Comparison of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Computed Tomography in Classifying Endoleaks After Endovascular Treatment of Abdominal Aorta Aneurysms: Preliminary Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo Lagana, Domenico; Recaldini, Chiara; Mangini, Monica; Bertolotti, Elena; Caronno, Roberto; Tozzi, Matteo; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Annibale Genovese, Eugenio; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in endoleak classification after endovascular treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to computed tomography angiography (CTA). From May 2001 to April 2003, 10 patients with endoleaks already detected by CTA underwent CEUS with Sonovue (registered) to confirm the CTA classification or to reclassify the endoleak. In three conflicting cases, the patients were also studied with conventional angiography. CEUS confirmed the CTA classification in seven cases (type II endoleaks). Two CTA type III endoleaks were classified as type II using CEUS and one CTA type II endoleak was classified as type I by CEUS. Regarding the cases with discordant classification, conventional angiography confirmed the ultrasound classification. Additionally, CEUS documented the origin of type II endoleaks in all cases. After CEUS reclassification of endoleaks, a significant change in patient management occurred in three cases. CEUS allows a better attribution of the origin of the endoleak, as it shows the flow in real time. CEUS is more specific than CTA in endoleak classification and gives more accurate information in therapeutic planning.

  18. "Lower limbs revascularization from supraceliac and thoracic aorta".

    PubMed

    Wistuba, Mariel Riedemann; Alonso-Pérez, Manuel; Al-Sibbai, Amer Zanabili; González-Gay, Mario; Alvarez Marcos, Francisco; Camblor, Lino A; Llaneza-Coto, José Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Revascularization of femoral arteries from descending thoracic or supraceliac aorta is an uncommon procedure, in part because of the popularization of the technically easier extra-anatomic bypasses. However, using those aortic levels as the source of the bypass inflow is a useful alternative in selected patients with aortoiliac disease, with excellent results. We report long-term results in 4 patients with revascularization from thoracic aorta and another 2 cases from aorta at supraceliac level. This technique should be considered as a good alternative in patients with adverse abdominal conditions or with a severely diseased infrarenal aorta due to heavy calcification. PMID:25771745

  19. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    MedlinePlus

    Open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is surgery to fix a widened part in your aorta. This is called an aneurysm. The ... Open surgery to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm is sometimes ... is bleeding inside your body from the aneurysm. You may have an ...

  20. Coarctation of the Aorta

    MedlinePlus

    ... cases, doctors might do a procedure known as balloon dilation (also called balloon angioplasty ). For this procedure, a cardiologist inserts a ... the aorta. This specialized catheter has a deflated balloon inside. When the catheter is in the aorta, ...

  1. Vasa vasorum in the tunica media and tunica adventitia of the porcine aorta.

    PubMed

    Tonar, Zbyněk; Tomášek, Petr; Loskot, Petr; Janáček, Jiří; Králíčková, Milena; Witter, Kirsti

    2016-05-01

    Vasa vasorum supply both the tunica adventitia and the tunica media of major arteries with nutrients and oxygen. We estimated the density of von Willebrand factor-positive profiles of vasa vasorum visible in transversal histological sections of 123 tissue samples collected from five anatomical positions in the porcine aortae of growing pigs (n=25). The animals ranged in age from 0 to 230 days. The tunica media of the thoracic aorta had a greater vasa vasorum density, with microvessels penetrating deeper towards the lumen than in the abdominal aorta. The density of vasa vasorum gradually decreased with age in both the media and the adventitia. The relative depth into which the vasa vasorum penetrated and where they branched remained constant during the ageing and growth of the media. The ratio of the tunica media and tunica adventitia thicknesses did not change in the single aortic segments during ageing. The media of older animals received fewer but equally distributed vasa vasorum. A greater density of vasa vasorum in the media was correlated with greater media thickness and a greater elastin fraction (data on elastin taken from another study on the same samples). Immunohistochemical quantification revealed deeper penetration of vasa vasorum towards the adluminal layers of the tunica media that were hitherto reported to be avascular. The complete primary morphometric data, in the form of continuous variables, have been made available as a supplement. Mapping of the vasa vasorum profile density and position has promising illustrative potential for studies on atherosclerotic and inflammatory neovascularization, aortic aneurysms, and drug distribution from arterial stents in experimental porcine models. PMID:26844625

  2. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue that can form between abdominal tissues and organs. [ Top ] What is the abdominal cavity? The abdominal cavity is the internal area of ... tissues and organs. Abdominal adhesions cause tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity to stick together. Abdominal surgery is the most ...

  3. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... body moves. However, abdominal adhesions cause tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity to stick together. What is the abdominal cavity? ... tissues and organs. Abdominal adhesions cause tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity to stick together. • Abdominal surgery is the most ...

  4. Ascending aorta to bifemoral artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Baird, R J; Oates, T K

    1981-07-01

    In certain patients the standard bypass procedure for aortoiliac occlusion is unsuitable. Included in this group are those who are obese, who have horseshoe kidneys, abnormal renal arteries, large incisional hernias, thoracoabdominal coarctation, failed previous aortoiliac repair or who have undergone multiple laparotomies. Since 1975 the authors have operated on 16 such patients to construct a bypass graft from the ascending aorta to the femoral arteries without entering the abdominal cavity. The new ventral aorta follows the natural anastomotic axis of the mammary and epigastric arteries, behind the rectus muscle and in front of the posterior rectus sheath. The operation is simple and effective and is especially applicable to the patient with obstruction of both the coronary and aortoiliac arteries. PMID:7272859

  5. Chapter 2. Atherosclerosis of the aorta in five towns

    PubMed Central

    Vihert, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    Fatty streak was always present in both the thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta in the youngest subjects studied (aged 10-14 years). Fibrous plaque was present in a small proportion of these young subjects, but a rapid increase in prevalence occurred as early as the fourth decade. Complicated and calcified lesions appeared as early as the age of 20-25 years but a rapid increase in prevalence was seen after age 40 for complicated lesions and after age 50 for calcified lesions. There were differences in the prevalence of severe lesions among the five towns. There was little increase in the extent of atherosclerosis in the thoracic aorta before the age of 40 and in the abdominal aorta before the age of 20. The increase was more rapid after those ages. When atherosclerosis had affected about 50% of the intimal surface of the thoracic aorta and 70% of the intimal surface of the abdominal aorta, the increase slowed down considerably. In contrast to other types of lesion, the extent of fatty streak increased only up to 30 years of age, when it occupied 25-30% of the intimal surface. Then it declined and in the older age groups did not exceed 4-5% in men or women. The extent of fibrous plaque and complicated lesions was at all ages greater in men than in women, while the extent of fatty streak and calcified lesions in older age groups was greater in women. There were marked differences in the extent of atherosclerotic lesions in the five towns. PMID:1087188

  6. Diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm using 67-gallium citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Blumoff, R.L.; McCartney, W.; Jaques, P.; Johnson, G. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta are uncommon, but potentially lethal problems. Clinical subtleties may suggest their presence, but in the past, definitive diagnosis has been dependent on surgical exploration or autopsy findings. A case is presented in which 67-gallium citrate abdominal scanning localized the site of sepsis in an abdominal aortic aneurysm and allowed for prompt and successful surgical therapy. This noninvasive technique is recommended as a adjunct in the diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  7. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... bad abdominal pain if you have gas or stomach cramps due to viral gastroenteritis . However, life-threatening ...

  8. [Embolism of aorta bifurcation].

    PubMed

    Mel'nikov, M V; Barsukov, A E; Kariakin, A M

    2002-01-01

    Results of treatment of 146 patients with embolism of aorta bifurcation have been analyzed and compared to that of extremity arteries. The severity of general condition of the patient, ischemic intoxication, postoperative complications are responsible for high death rate: postoperative mortality--53.7%, general--60.9%. The main measures of improving the treatment results are as follows: early hospitalization to a specialized vascular surgery unit, urgent operation, treatment of ischemic intoxication and adequate postoperative rehabilitation. PMID:12661242

  9. [The small aorta syndrome].

    PubMed

    Velimirović, D; Anojcić, S; Djordjević, M; Davidović, L; Savić, D

    1990-01-01

    Angiograms of 956 patients (94.7% of males and females) with aortoiliac occlusive disease were analyzed retrospectively. The existence of small aorta syndrome (SAS) was documented in 9 female patients with a mean age of 41.1 yrs. In this population the incidence was 0.9%; however, in the female patients the incidence was higher (18%). Clinical signs of arterial insufficiency of the lower limbs included: claudication in 8 pts and digital gangrene in 1 patient. Risk factor status was as follows: cigarette smoking was present in 100%, hypertension in 33%, obesitas in 25% and hyperlipidemia in 20% of cases. Dimensions of aortoiliac segments on angiograms and belongs to SAS were made by De Laurentis classification. Aortoiliac segment dimensions of SAS determined on angiograms were compared with operative findings. The mean cross sectional area of the infrarenal aorta was 14.1 mm, at the bifurcation 10 mm, common iliac artery 8 mm, and external iliac artery 4.3 mm. Of 9 female patients with small aorta syndrome 8 were operated by bypass technique. The mean follow-up time was 12.3 months. In 7 pts the reconstructive vascular procedure was successful. In one patient the graft became occluded, 3 month after operation, due to poor run-off. This necessitated limb amputation. PMID:2075538

  10. Tenascin C protects aorta from acute dissection in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Taizo; Shiraishi, Kozoh; Furusho, Aya; Ito, Sohei; Hirakata, Saki; Nishida, Norifumi; Yoshimura, Koichi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Miyamoto, Takanobu; Ueno, Takafumi; Hamano, Kimikazu; Hiroe, Michiaki; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Aoki, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is caused by the disruption of intimomedial layer of the aortic walls, which is immediately life-threatening. Although recent studies indicate the importance of proinflammatory response in pathogenesis of AAD, the mechanism to keep the destructive inflammatory response in check is unknown. Here, we report that induction of tenascin-C (TNC) is a stress-evoked protective mechanism against the acute hemodynamic and humoral stress in aorta. Periaortic application of CaCl2 caused stiffening of abdominal aorta, which augmented the hemodynamic stress and TNC induction in suprarenal aorta by angiotensin II infusion. Deletion of Tnc gene rendered mice susceptible to AAD development upon the aortic stress, which was accompanied by impaired TGFβ signaling, insufficient induction of extracellular matrix proteins and exaggerated proinflammatory response. Thus, TNC works as a stress-evoked molecular damper to maintain the aortic integrity under the acute stress.

  11. Surgical treatment of symptomatic and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Tonev, A; Dimitrov, S; Shkvarla, L; Zahariev, T; Nachev, G

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increased volume of patients undergoing selective reconstruction on the occasion of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in the last decades, the number of patients with rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAA) is not significantly decreased. RAAA is catastrophic and life-threatening condition. It remains a challenge to every practitioner. To optimize the surgical practice we studied the literature for the treatment of symptomatic and rupture aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. PMID:24151748

  12. Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis caused by paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Riccioni, G; Bucciarelli, V; Bisceglia, N; Totaro, G; Scotti, L; Aceto, A; Martini, F; Gallina, S; Bucciarelli, T; Macarini, L

    2013-01-01

    Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis is a rare and potential fatal event, which occurs in adult subjects. We present the case of a 72-year-old-man, who referred to the emergency Department of our hospital because of persistent severe abdominal and perineal pain. Doppler ultrasounds and computerized tomography angiography revealed the acute thrombosis of the abdominal aorta. Immediate revascularization through aortic thrombo-endoarterectomy resolved the disease. PMID:23830410

  13. Abdominal Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Deborah; Weilitz, Pamela Becker

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints by patients, and assessment of abdominal pain and associated symptoms can be challenging for home healthcare providers. Reasons for abdominal pain are related to inflammation, organ distention, and ischemia. The history and physical examination are important to narrow the source of acute or chronic problems, identify immediate interventions, and when necessary, facilitate emergency department care. PMID:26925941

  14. [Results of treating inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Michalak, T; Gutowski, P; Szumiłowicz, G; Kładny, J

    1993-05-01

    The authors present the results of treatment of six inflammatory aneurysms in the material of 53 aneurysms treated surgically in the years 1987-1992. Direct results of surgical treatment, hospitalization period, and peri-operational complications are the subject of analysis. Peri-operational mortality of the patients with inflammatory aneurysm was higher than that of patients with non-inflammatory aneurysm, undergoing elective surgery. Higher incidence of peri-operational complications indicates higher operational risk of inflammatory aneurysm. PMID:8236990

  15. Clostridium septicum Aortitis of the Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Aditya; Yousuf, Tariq; Rachid, Mohammed; Ali, Naureen; Tabriz, Muhammad; Loughry, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium septicum aortitis is a rare infection that has a strong association with occult colonic malignancy. There is also emerging evidence to support the combination of medical and surgical management over medical management alone. To the best of our knowledge, we report the 40th known case of C. septicum aortitis. PMID:26767087

  16. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Patient with Renal Transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.; Arya, N. Lee, B.; Hannon, R.J.; Loan, W.; Soong, C.V.

    2004-09-15

    Patients with functioning renal transplant who develop abdominal aortic aneurysm can safely be treated with endovascular repair. Endovascular repair of aneurysm avoids renal ischemia associated with cross-clamping of aorta.

  17. Distribution, Size, and Shape of Abdominal Aortic Calcified Deposits and Their Relationship to Mortality in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Melanie; de Bruijne, Marleen; Dam, Erik B.; Pettersen, Paola; Karsdal, Morten A.; Christiansen, Claus; Nielsen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal aortic calcifications (AACs) correlate strongly with coronary artery calcifications and can be predictors of cardiovascular mortality. We investigated whether size, shape, and distribution of AACs are related to mortality and how such prognostic markers perform compared to the state-of-the-art AC24 marker introduced by Kauppila. Methods. For 308 postmenopausal women, we quantified the number of AAC and the percentage of the abdominal aorta that the lesions occupied in terms of their area, simulated plaque area, thickness, wall coverage, and length. We analysed inter-/intraobserver reproducibility and predictive ability of mortality after 8-9 years via Cox regression leading to hazard ratios (HRs). Results. The coefficient of variation was below 25% for all markers. The strongest individual predictors were the number of calcifications (HR = 2.4) and the simulated area percentage (HR = 2.96) of a calcified plaque, and, unlike AC24 (HR = 1.66), they allowed mortality prediction also after adjusting for traditional risk factors. In a combined Cox regression model, the strongest complementary predictors were the number of calcifications (HR = 2.76) and the area percentage (HR = −3.84). Conclusion. Morphometric markers of AAC quantified from radiographs may be a useful tool for screening and monitoring risk of CVD mortality. PMID:22719751

  18. Abdominal sounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood flow. For example, blood clots can cause mesenteric artery occlusion . Mechanical bowel obstruction is caused by ... abdominal distention ? Do you have excessive or absent gas (flatus) ? Have you noticed any bleeding from the ...

  19. Abdominal aortic aneurysm in giant cell arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyunwook; Han, Youngjin; Son, Da Hye; Cho, Yong-Pil

    2015-01-01

    Aortic complications of giant cell arteritis are a rare cause of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Here, we describe a case of a ruptured aortic aneurysm in a patient with giant call arteritis (GCA) who was preoperatively suspected of having an infectious aortic aneurysm. Intraoperative inspection revealed infectious granulation tissue on the anterior wall of the abdominal aorta. GCA was finally confirmed by pathological diagnosis. Our findings suggest that the surgical and postoperative treatment of nonatheromatous aortic aneurysm should be based on accurate diagnosis. PMID:26448922

  20. Morphometrics for cephalometric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Halazonetis, Demetrios J

    2004-05-01

    This article demonstrates morphometric methods by applying them to an orthodontic sample. A total of 150 pretreatment cephalograms of consecutive patients (84 female, 66 male) were traced and digitized. Fifteen points were used for the analysis. The tracings were superimposed by the Procrustes method, and shape variability was assessed by principal component analysis. Approximately 70% of the total sample variability was incorporated in the first 5 principal components. The most significant principal component, accounting for 29% of shape variability, was the divergence of skeletal pattern; the second principal component, accounting for 20% of shape variability, was the anteroposterior maxillary relationship. It is recommended that Procrustes superimposition and principal component analysis be incorporated into routine cephalometric analysis for more valid and comprehensive shape assessment. PMID:15127026

  1. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  2. Equine pericardial roll graft replacement of infected pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Hiroshi; Endo, Hidehito; Noma, Mio; Tsuchiya, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Akihiro; Takahashi, Yu; Inaba, Yusuke; Matsukura, Mitsuru; Sudo, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    The standard procedure for treating infected aortic aneurysms is to resect the infected aorta, debridement of the surrounding tissue, in situ graft replacement, and omentopexy. However, the question of which graft material is optimal is still a matter of controversy. We recently treated a patient with an infected ascending aortic aneurysm. Because of previous abdominal surgery, the omentum was unavailable. The ascending aorta was replaced in situ with equine pericardial roll grafts. The patient is alive and well 29 months after the operation. PMID:22697377

  3. Clear Depiction of Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Orta Kilickesmez, Kadriye; Kilickesmez, Ozgur

    2010-04-15

    We report the case of an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm incidentally detected clearly with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) during the examination of a patient with myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia that later converted to acute myeloid leukemia. DW-MRI revealed a hyperintense halo surrounding the abdominal aorta with aneurysmatic dilatation, establishing the diagnosis.

  4. Feasibility of low contrast media volume in CT angiography of the aorta

    PubMed Central

    Seehofnerov, Anna; Kok, Madeleine; Mihl, Casper; Douwes, Dave; Sailer, Anni; Nijssen, Estelle; de Haan, Michiel J.W.; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Das, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Using smaller volumes of contrast media (CM) in CT angiography (CTA) is desirable in terms of cost reduction and prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of low CM volume in CTA of the aorta. Methods 77 patients referred for CTA of the aorta were scanned using a standard MDCT protocol at 100kV. A bolus of 50ml CM (Iopromide 300mg Iodine/ml) at a flow rate of 6ml/s was applied (Iodine delivery rate IDR=1.8g/s; Iodine load 15g) followed by a saline bolus of 40ml at the same flow rate. Scan delay was determined by the test bolus method. Subjective image quality was assessed and contrast enhancement was measured at 10 anatomical levels of the aorta. Results Diagnostic quality images were obtained for all patients, reaching a mean overall contrast enhancement of 32428HU. Mean attenuation was 35060HU at the thoracic aorta and 31583HU at the abdominal aorta. Conclusions A straightforward low volume CM protocol proved to be technically feasible and led to CTA examinations reaching diagnostic image quality of the aorta at 100kV. Based on these findings, the use of a relatively small CM bolus can be incorporated into routine clinical imaging.

  5. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePlus

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  6. Abdominal cocoon.

    PubMed

    Katz, Christian B S; Diggory, Robert T; Samee, Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction secondary to cocoon formation is not common. We report a case of a patient who had presented with abdominal pain and distension accompanied by vomiting. Investigations, laparotomy and histology together revealed primary peritoneal carcinoma as the cause of the patient's symptoms. PMID:24682136

  7. Abdominal cocoon

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Christian B S; Diggory, Robert T; Samee, Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction secondary to cocoon formation is not common. We report a case of a patient who had presented with abdominal pain and distension accompanied by vomiting. Investigations, laparotomy and histology together revealed primary peritoneal carcinoma as the cause of the patient's symptoms. PMID:24682136

  8. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  9. [Abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Beer, D; Bettschart, V

    2001-01-01

    The doctor on duty conducting home visits is frequently asked to care for patients with non-traumatic severe abdominal pain. For this reason, visiting doctors should be able to recognize tell-tale alarm signs, evaluate ailments that call for surgical referral to--particularly those that require emergency surgery--and, if necessary, perform simple paraclinical exams at the patient's bedside. In the case of intense abdominal pain requiring a rapid and effective "analgesia", the doctor should be able to administer an opiate, without of the surgical unit impairing the judgement. When hospitalisation or referral for surgery is not necessary, a re-evaluation at 12 to 36 hours later should be offered. PMID:11234707

  10. Elastin and collagen fibre microstructure of the human aorta in ageing and disease: a review

    PubMed Central

    Tsamis, Alkiviadis; Krawiec, Jeffrey T.; Vorp, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Aortic disease is a significant cause of death in developed countries. The most common forms of aortic disease are aneurysm, dissection, atherosclerotic occlusion and ageing-induced stiffening. The microstructure of the aortic tissue has been studied with great interest, because alteration of the quantity and/or architecture of the connective fibres (elastin and collagen) within the aortic wall, which directly imparts elasticity and strength, can lead to the mechanical and functional changes associated with these conditions. This review article summarizes the state of the art with respect to characterization of connective fibre microstructure in the wall of the human aorta in ageing and disease, with emphasis on the ascending thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta where the most common forms of aortic disease tend to occur. PMID:23536538

  11. Endovascular treatment of penetrating ulcers of the paraceliac aorta using fenestrated endografts.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, Mauro; Gallitto, Enrico; Freyrie, Antonio; Stella, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers (PAUs) are usually focal aortic lesions found in patients with significant comorbidities. They are ideal targets for an endovascular approach if localized in the descending thoracic or infrarenal aorta, but when an origin in the visceral vessels is involved, a standard endovascular approach might not be feasible or effective. We report 2 cases of endovascular treatment of PAUs involving the paraceliac abdominal aorta, using a custom-made tube fenestrated endograft with 4 fenestrations for the abdominal visceral vessels (i.e., celiac-trunk, superior mesenteric artery, and renal arteries). There were no intra- or perioperative complications. At 1 year of follow-up, patients were asymptomatic and computed tomography angiography revealed total lesion exclusion and patency of the visceral vessels. The use of a fenestrated endograft is a safe and effective option to treat paraceliac PAUs. PMID:24342443

  12. Genetic and Environmental Effects on the Abdominal Aortic Diameter Development

    PubMed Central

    Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Littvay, Levente; Garami, Zsolt; Karlinger, Kinga; Berczi, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Background Configuration of the abdominal aorta is related to healthy aging and a variety of disorders. Objectives We aimed to assess heritable and environmental effects on the abdominal aortic diameter. Methods 114 adult (69 monozygotic, 45 same-sex dizygotic) twin pairs (mean age 43.6 ± 16.3 years) underwent abdominal ultrasound with Esaote MyLab 70X ultrasound machine to visualize the abdominal aorta below the level of the origin of the renal arteries and 1-3 cm above the bifurcation. Results Age- and sex-adjusted heritability of the abdominal aortic diameter below the level of the origin of the renal arteries was 40% [95% confidence interval (CI), 14 to 67%] and 55% above the aortic bifurcation (95% CI, 45 to 70%). None of the aortic diameters showed common environmental effects, but unshared environmental effects were responsible for 60% and 45% of the traits, respectively. Conclusions Our analysis documents the moderate heritability and its segment-specific difference of the abdominal aortic diameter. The moderate part of variance was explained by unshared environmental components, emphasizing the importance of lifestyle factors in primary prevention. Further studies in this field may guide future gene-mapping efforts and investigate specific lifestyle factors to prevent abdominal aortic dilatation and its complications. PMID:26559855

  13. Topographical mapping of sites of enhanced HRP permeability in the normal rabbit aorta.

    PubMed

    Barakat, A I; Uhthoff, P A; Colton, C K

    1992-08-01

    The spatial distribution of sites of enhanced permeability to the macromolecule horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the normal rabbit aorta after one min circulation was studied using image analysis. These sites, referred to as "HRP spots," exhibit a nonuniform distribution that is qualitatively similar in all rabbits studied. The density of HRP spots is highest in the aortic arch, decreases distally, reaches a minimum in the lower descending thoracic aorta, and then increases again in the abdominal aorta. The region of highest spot density follows a clockwise helical pattern in the aortic arch and outside the arch occurs in streaks largely oriented in the bulk flow direction. The streaks in the abdominal aorta localize along the anatomical right lateral wall and occasionally along the left lateral wall proximal to the celiac artery and along the ventral wall between the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. The density of spots is high in the immediate vicinity of aortic ostia with the most elevated density being distal to ostia in most cases. At a short distance from the ostium edge of the celiac and superior mesenteric branches the proximal density is comparably high, and no preferred spot orientation is observed around the brachiocephalic vessel. These results are consistent with an influence of localizing factors such as detailed hemodynamic phenomena and/or arterial wall structural and/or functional variations. PMID:1522721

  14. Fatal diffuse atheromatous embolization following endovascular grafting for an abdominal aortic aneurysm: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Zempo, N; Sakano, H; Ikenaga, S; Harada, M; Yamashita, A; Morikage, N; Harada, M; Takenaka, H; Fujioka, K; Esato, K

    2001-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman with an abdominal aortic aneurysm, 57 mm in diameter, was admitted to our hospital for endovascular grafting. Preoperative computed tomography and angiography showed friable mural thrombus in the suprarenal and infrarenal aorta, and a diagnosis of shaggy aorta was made. Postoperatively, the patient suffered cerebral infarction, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy with multiple organ failure developed, resulting in early death on the third day after surgery. An autopsy revealed diffuse atheromatous embolization into the celiac, superior mesenteric, bilateral renal, bilateral hypogastric (trash buttock), and peripheral arteries. This case report serves to demonstrate that an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a shaggy aorta in the proximal neck is a contraindication to endovascular grafting, and that predicting the possibility of diffuse atheromatous embolization by detecting a shaggy aorta is the best way to prevent this catastrophic complication. PMID:11318137

  15. Morphological and molecular characterization of healthy human ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Forte, A; Della Corte, A; Grossi, M; Finicelli, M; Bancone, C; Provenzano, R; Pepino, P; Nappi, G A; De Feo, M; Galderisi, U; Cotrufo, M; Cipollaro, M

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the characteristics of the normal human aorta has been constrained by lack of data on fresh aortic tissue, especially from healthy individuals. In this study, the gene expression and morphological characteristics of the thoracic ascending aorta (AA) of healthy organ donors have been evaluated, with the aim of providing reference data for the analysis of pathological AAs. We analysed by RT-PCR the differential expression of mRNAs coding for myocardin, smoothelin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and the ED-A isoform of fibronectin (ED-A FN) in AA specimens from donors, integrating the results with immunohistochemical analysis of the same targets. Morphological and morphometric characteristics of the AAs were also evaluated. In order to account for possible regional variations in wall structure, the convexity of the aortic profile was compared to the concavity. No differences in gene expression occurred for any of the target genes between the concavity and the convexity of AAs. Immunohistochemistry revealed a different distribution of total FN and of its ED-A isoform in the media and in the intima. Smoothelin is expressed by the majority of cells in the media, with some positive cells also in the intima. Alpha-SMA is expressed in all the tunicae. Immunohistochemistry also revealed in the convexity of 50% of AAs the presence of discrete areas in the subadventital media with altered structure and cell morphology and with altered gene expression, resulting positive for ED-A FN and alpha-SMA, but not for smoothelin, indicating the occurrence of early lesions also in macroscopically healthy AAs. PMID:22127602

  16. Human abdominal aortic aneurysms. Immunophenotypic analysis suggesting an immune-mediated response.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, A. E.; Haines, G. K.; Rizzo, R. J.; Radosevich, J. A.; Pope, R. M.; Robinson, P. G.; Pearce, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    Cellular immunity may play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this report the potential role of these cells in the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms by immunohistochemistry was investigated. Aortic tissues from 32 patients were examined: 4 normal aortas, 6 aortas with occlusive atherosclerotic disease, 17 abdominal aortic aneurysms, and 5 inflammatory abdominal aneurysms. Using monoclonal anti-CD3 (T cells), anti-CD19 (B cells), anti-CD11c (macrophages), anti-CD4 (T helper cells), and anti-CD8 (T suppressor cells), several distinctions among these groups were found. The amount of inflammatory cell infiltrate was as follows: inflammatory aneurysms more than abdominal aortic aneurysms more than occlusive aortas more than normal aortas. CD3-positive T lymphocytes rarely were found in the adventitia of normal or occlusive aortas. In contrast, abdominal aortic aneurysms and inflammatory aneurysms exhibited most of the CD3-positive infiltrates in the adventitia. CD19-positive B lymphocytes were present mainly in the adventitia of all pathologic tissues. The CD4-positive:CD8-positive ratio was greater in abdominal aortic aneurysms and inflammatory aneurysms than in the other groups, both in the adventitia and in the media of the aortas. CD11c-positive macrophages were present throughout the diseased tissues, often surrounded by lymphoid aggregates; the greatest numbers of macrophages were found in the inflammatory aneurysm group. Our data suggests that the aneurysmal disease may progress from occlusive disease and is accompanied by an increase in chronic inflammatory cells as well as a redistribution of these cell types. Therefore it is suggested that aneurysmal disease may represent an immune-mediated event. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 6 PMID:1700620

  17. Segmental differences in the orientation of smooth muscle cells in the tunica media of porcine aortae.

    PubMed

    Tonar, Zbynek; Kochova, Petra; Cimrman, Robert; Perktold, Josef; Witter, Kirsti

    2015-04-01

    The orientation of vascular smooth muscle cells of porcine aortae was assessed to test the widely accepted assumption that these smooth muscle cells are arranged in two helices. We used tangential histological sections of 82 samples of five anatomical segments of thoracic and abdominal porcine aortae and three age groups in animals ranging in age from 5 to 210 days. The distribution of the orientation of smooth muscle cell nuclei in five proximodistal segments of the porcine aortae was determined using an algorithm that fitted a mixture of one to five von Mises probability distributions of the data retrieved from histological micrographs. Automated tracking of the nuclei was confirmed by and consistent with manual histological analysis. The orientation of the vascular smooth muscle cells was successfully fitted using two von Mises distributions in most of the samples with different ages, wall thicknesses, and anatomical positions, which corresponds to two populations of vascular smooth muscle cells. A minor fraction of samples also required a tertiary von Mises distribution to describe the orientation of the smooth muscle cell nuclei. The distribution of vascular smooth muscle cells in five aortic segments ranging from the thoracic ascending aorta to the abdominal intrarenal aorta exhibited similar main directions but different shapes. These results are consistent with the widely used model of two muscular helices intermingling in the arterial wall. Furthermore, we calculated the central angles of symmetry and the mean value of angles between the two assumed smooth muscle directions. We also successfully approximated the orientation of the smooth muscle cells using a mixture of von Mises distributions and our open-source software named dist_mixtures. This method is openly available to researchers who are interested in mathematically assessing the orientation of cell nuclei in various tissues. PMID:25038625

  18. Obstruction of the Superior Mesenteric Artery Due to Emboli from the Thoracic Aorta in a Patient with Thromboangiitis Obliterans

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Chiaki; Kitaoka, Tadashi; Suzuki, Jun; Abe, Keiko; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman presented at our hospital with acute abdominal pain 3 years after being diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO). Computed tomography revealed occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and multiple kidney infarction with thrombus floating in the thoracic aorta connected with the intercostal artery. Despite emergency embolectomy, further thromboembolism eventually required massive resection of the intestine with jejunostomy and colostomy and permanent intravenous hyper-alimentation therapy. Although TAO rarely involves the large artery, the aorta could be the source of embolization in patients with TAO. PMID:25298837

  19. Hemodynamic Influences on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Disease: Application of Biomechanics to Aneurysm Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Monica M.; Dalman, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    “Atherosclerotic” abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) occur with the greatest frequency in the distal aorta. The unique hemodynamic environment of this area predisposes it to site-specific degenerative changes. In this review, we summarize the differential hemodynamic influences present along the length of the abdominal aorta, and demonstrate how alterations in aortic flow and wall shear stress modify AAA progression in experimental models. Improved understanding of aortic hemodynamic risk profiles provides an opportunity to modify patient activity patterns to minimize risk of aneurysmal degeneration. PMID:20347049

  20. [Stent grafting for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair].

    PubMed

    Zempo, N; Esato, K

    1999-08-01

    Stent grafting for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair uses three types of stent graft: the aorto-aortic straight type; aorto-uniiliac tapered type; and aorto-biiliac bifurcated type. Stent grafting for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is performed in the operating room under X-ray fluoroscopy with digital subtraction angiography. Intraoperative angiography marks the bilateral renal arteries, bifurcation of the terminal aorta, and the bilateral internal and external iliac arteries. An X-ray fluoroscope is fixed until the completion of all procedures. The pull-through technique, in which a guidewire extends from the brachial artery to the external iliac artery, yields a 100% deployment success rate, and safety and reliability for the second graft deployment or balloon dilatation of the stent graft. The guidewire is removed after all procedures have been completed. PMID:10495991

  1. Human Aorta Is a Passive Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    Impedance pump is a simple valveless pumping mechanism that operates based on the principles of wave propagation and reflection. It has been shown in a zebrafish that a similar mechanism is responsible for the pumping action in the embryonic heart during early stages before valve formation. Recent studies suggest that the cardiovascular system is designed to take advantage of wave propagation and reflection phenomena in the arterial network. Our aim in this study was to examine if the human aorta is a passive pump working like an impedance pump. A hydraulic model with different compliant models of artificial aorta was used for series of in-vitro experiments. The hydraulic model includes a piston pump that generates the waves. Our result indicates that wave propagation and reflection can create pumping mechanism in a compliant aorta. Similar to an impedance pump, the net flow and the flow direction depends on the frequency of the waves, compliance of the aorta, and the piston stroke.

  2. Coarctation of the Aorta (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Heart and Circulatory System ECG (Electrocardiogram) Congenital Heart Defects The Heart Your Heart & Circulatory System Heart Murmurs Arrhythmias Coarctation of the Aorta Atrial ...

  3. Facts about Coarctation of the Aorta

    MedlinePlus

    ... be done with surgery or a procedure called balloon angioplasty. A balloon angioplasty is a procedure that uses a thin, ... reaches the narrow area of the aorta, a balloon at the tip is inflated to expand the ...

  4. Sizing the Shape: Understanding Morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: One of the most fundamental limitations associated with the conventional cephalometrics is its inability to delineate size from shape as it depends mainly on linear and angular measurements. However, the biological structures warrant greater description in terms of shape and form for better comparison of variation in a particular population. To overcome these shortcomings, morphometrics are now being employed for describing the biological structures in terms of quantifying the shape and form. Also, statistical analysis is being applied to find the variability of this form in the population. The present paper assesses the use of the Procuste superimposition technique and the subsequent form analysis by the principal component analysis (PCA). Materials and Methods: The lateral cephalograms of 10 adult females were taken from existing records, traced & digitized & then superimposed by means of procuste superimposition. A comparison was made with the conventional superimposition methods based on arbitrary reference planes like cranial base, FHP, SN. The statistical analysis for assessment of shape variability of the structures seen on the lateral cephalogram was done by calculating the principal components for 3 out of these 10 samples. Results: The conventional superimposition methods do not provide realistic picture of variation in the biological structures as they themselves are prone to variability even in a particular population. Conclusion: Concepts in Morphometrics can be applied for the purpose of orthodontic assessment of a particular patient with regards to his craniofacial morphology. With the help of morphometrics, norms for a population can be determined based on all the kinds of variations present naturally in that particular population & individuals can thus be compared more realistically regarding the morphological variations. PMID:25738080

  5. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... tummy tuck. It can range from a simple mini-tummy tuck to more extensive surgery. Abdominal wall ... abdomen. Your abdominal muscles may be tightened also. Mini abdominoplasty is performed when there are areas of ...

  6. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veronese, E.; Tarroni, G.; Visentin, S.; Cosmi, E.; Linguraru, M. G.; Grisan, E.

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction and increased cardiovascular risk in later life have been shown to be associated with an increased intima-media thickness (aIMT) of the abdominal aorta in the fetus. In order to assess and manage atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease risk in adults and children, in recent years the measurement of abdominal and carotid artery thickness has gained a growing appeal. Nevertheless, no computer aided method has been proposed for the analysis of prenatal vessels from ultrasound data, yet. To date, these measurements are being performed manually on ultrasound fetal images by skilled practitioners. The aim of the presented study is to introduce an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal data. The algorithm locates the aorta, then segments it and, by modeling the arterial wall longitudinal sections by means of a gaussian mixture, derives a set of measures of the aorta diameter (aDiam) and of the intima-media thickness (aIMT). After estimating the cardiac cycle, the mean diameter and the aIMT at the end-diastole phase are computed. Considering the aIMT value for each subject, the correlation between automatic and manual end-diastolic aIMT measurements is 0.91 in a range of values 0.44-1.10 mm, corresponding to both normal and pathological conditions. The automatic system yields a mean relative error of 19%, that is similar to the intra-observer variability (14%) and much lower that the inter-observer variability (42%). The correlation between manual and automatic measurements and the small error confirm the ability of the proposed system to reliably estimate aIMT values in prenatal ultrasound sequences, reducing measurement variability and suggesting that it can be used for an automatic assessment of aIMT. Preliminary results have been presented in E Veronese, E Cosmi, S Visentin, E Grisan: 'Semiautomatic estimation of fetal aorta intima-media thickness from ultrasound examination', MICCAI Workshop on Perinatal and Paediatric Imaging: PaPI 2012.

  7. Estimation of prenatal aorta intima-media thickness in ultrasound examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veronese, Elisa; Poletti, Enea; Cosmi, Erich; Grisan, Enrico

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal events such as intrauterine growth restriction have been shown to be associated with an increased thickness of abdominal aorta in the fetus. Therefore the measurement of abdominal aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) has been recently considered a sensitive marker of artherosclerosis risk. To date measure of aortic diameter and of aIMT has been performed manually on US fetal images, thus being susceptible to intra- and inter- operator variability. This work introduces an automatic algorithm that identifies abdominal aorta and estimates its diameter and aIMT from videos recorded during routine third trimester ultrasonographic fetal biometry. Firstly, in each frame, the algorithm locates and segments the region corresponding to aorta by means of an active contour driven by two different external forces: a static vector field convolution force and a dynamic pressure force. Then, in each frame, the mean diameter of the vessel is computed, to reconstruct the cardiac cycle: in fact, we expect the diameter to have a sinusoidal trend, according to the heart rate. From the obtained sinusoid, we identify the frames corresponding to the end diastole and to the end systole. Finally, in these frames we assess the aIMT. According to its definition, we consider as aIMT the distance between the leading edge of the blood-intima interface, and the leading edge of the media-adventitia interface on the far wall of the vessel. The correlation between end-diastole and end-systole aIMT automatic and manual measures is 0.90 and 0.84 respectively.

  8. Automatic Ascending Aorta Detection in CTA Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, Stefan C.; Kühhnel, Caroline; Boskamp, Tobias; Székely, Gábor; Cattin, Philippe

    The assessment of coronary arteries is an essential step when diagnosing coronary heart diseases. There exists a wide range of specialized algorithms for the segmentation of the coronary arteries in Computed Tomography Angiography datasets. In general, these algorithms have to be initialized by manually placing a seed point at the origins of the coronary arteries or within the ascending aorta. In this paper we present a fast and robust algorithm for the automatic detection of the ascending aorta in Computed Tomography Angiography datasets using a two-level threshold ray propagation approach. We further combine this method with an aorta segmentation and coronary artery tree detection algorithm to achieve a fully automatic coronary artery segmentation.

  9. Can proteomics yield insight into aging aorta?

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zongming; Wang, Mingyi; Everett, Allen; Lakatta, Edward; Van Eyk, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The aging aorta exhibits structural and physiological changes that are reflected in the proteome of its component cells types. The advance in proteomic technologies has made it possible to analyze the quantity of proteins associated with the natural history of aortic aging. These alterations reflect the molecular and cellular mechanisms of aging and could provide an opportunity to predict vascular health. This paper focuses on whether discoveries stemming from the application of proteomic approaches of the intact aging aorta or vascular smooth muscle cells can provide useful insights. Although there have been limited studies to date, a number of interesting proteins have been identified that are closely associated with aging in the rat aorta. Such proteins, including milk fat globule-EGF factor 8(MFG-E8), matrix metalloproteinase type-2 (MMP2), and vitronectin, could be used as indicators of vascular health, or even explored as therapeutic targets for aging-related vascular diseases. PMID:23788441

  10. Digital subtraction angiography of the thoracic aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, L.B.; Buonocore, E.; Modic, M.T.; Meaney, T.F.

    1984-02-01

    Forty-three patients with acquired and congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta were studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after an intravenous bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast material. Abnormalities studied included coarctation, pseudocoarctation, Marfan syndrome, cervical aorta, double aortic arch, aneurysm, dissection, and tumor. Twenty-four patients also had conventional angiography. DSA was accurate in 95% of cases; in the other 5%, involving patients with acute type I dissection, the coronary arteries could not be seen. The authors concluded that in 92% of their patients, DSA could have replaced the standard aortogram.

  11. Effectiveness of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm during echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Aboyans, Victor; Bataille, Vincent; Bliscaux, Pascale; Ederhy, Stphane; Filliol, Didier; Honton, Benjamin; Kurtz, Baptiste; Messas, Emmanuel; Mohty, Dania; Brochet, Eric; Kownator, Serge

    2014-10-01

    Screening patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is associated with reduced AAA-related mortality, but population screening is poorly implemented. Opportunistic screening during imaging for other indications might be efficient. Single-center series reported AAA rates of 0.8% to 6.5% in patients undergoing transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), with disparities due to selection bias. In this first multicenter study, we aimed to assess the feasibility and criteria for screening AAA during TTE in real-life practice. During a week of May 2011, 79 centers participated in a nationwide survey. All patients aged ?65 years requiring TTE for any indication were eligible, except for those with operated abdominal aorta. We defined AAA by an anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal aorta?30 mm. Of 1,382 consecutive patients, abdominal aorta imaging was feasible in 96.7%, with a median delay of 1.7 minutes (>3 minutes in 3.6% of cases). We found AAA in 50 patients (3.7%). Unknown AAA (2.7%) was more frequent in men than women (3.7% vs 1.3%, respectively, p=0.007) and increased by age at 2.2%, 2.5%, and 5.8% in age bands of 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85+ years, respectively. None of the female participants aged <75 years had AAA. Smoking status and family history of AAA were significantly more frequent among patients with AAA. The ascending aorta was larger in those with AAA (36.24.7 vs 34.05.2 mm, p=0.006), and bicuspid aortic valve and/or major aortic regurgitation were also more frequent (8% vs 2.6%, p=0.017). In conclusion, rapid AAA screening during TTE is feasible and should be limited to men ?65 years and women?75 years. PMID:25127549

  12. Abdominal Compartment Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maluso, Patrick; Olson, Jody; Sarani, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare but potentially morbid diagnoses. Clinical index of suspicion for these disorders should be raised following massive resuscitation, abdominal wall reconstruction/injury, and in those with space-occupying disorders in the abdomen. Gold standard for diagnosis involves measurement of bladder pressure, with a pressure greater than 12 mm Hg being consistent with IAH and greater than 25 mm Hg being consistent with ACS. Decompressive laparotomy is definitive therapy but paracentesis can be equally therapeutic in properly selected patients. Left untreated, ACS can lead to multisystem organ failure and death. PMID:27016163

  13. Abdominal Circulatory Interactions.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Gaurav; Taneja, Amit; Nanchal, Rahul S

    2016-04-01

    The abdominal compartment is separated from the thoracic compartment by the diaphragm. Under normal circumstances, a large portion of the venous return crosses the splanchnic and nonsplanchnic abdominal regions before entering the thorax and the right side of the heart. Mechanical ventilation may affect abdominal venous return independent of its interactions at the thoracic level. Changes in pressure in the intra-abdominal compartment may have important implications for organ function within the thorax, particularly if there is a sustained rise in intra-abdominal pressure. It is important to understand the consequences of abdominal pressure changes on respiratory and circulatory physiology. This article elucidates important abdominal-respiratory-circulatory interactions and their clinical effects. PMID:27016167

  14. Modeling Blood Flow in the Aorta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Colin J.; Carmichael, Jonathan B.; DeMont, M. Edwin

    1997-01-01

    Presents an exercise to demonstrate two fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics: the Reynolds number and the Principle of Continuity. The exercise demonstrates flow in a major blood vessel, such as the aorta, with and without a stenosis. Students observe the transition from laminar to turbulent flow as well as downstream persistence of turbulence.…

  15. Morphometrics, 3D Imaging, and Craniofacial Development.

    PubMed

    Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Percival, Christopher J; Green, Rebecca; Young, Nathan M; Mio, Washington; Marcucio, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown how volumetric imaging and morphometrics can add significantly to our understanding of morphogenesis, the developmental basis for variation, and the etiology of structural birth defects. On the other hand, the complex questions and diverse imaging data in developmental biology present morphometrics with more complex challenges than applications in virtually any other field. Meeting these challenges is necessary in order to understand the mechanistic basis for variation in complex morphologies. This chapter reviews the methods and theory that enable the application of modern landmark-based morphometrics to developmental biology and craniofacial development, in particular. We discuss the theoretical foundations of morphometrics as applied to development and review the basic approaches to the quantification of morphology. Focusing on geometric morphometrics, we discuss the principal statistical methods for quantifying and comparing morphological variation and covariation structure within and among groups. Finally, we discuss the future directions for morphometrics in developmental biology that will be required for approaches that enable quantitative integration across the genotype-phenotype map. PMID:26589938

  16. The preventive effect of fish oil on abdominal aortic aneurysm development.

    PubMed

    Kugo, Hirona; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Mouri, Youhei; Tanaka, Hiroki; Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Urano, Tetsumei; Unno, Naoki; Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease involving gradual dilation of the abdominal aorta and high rupture-related mortality rates. AAA is histologically characterized by oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and extracellular matrix degradation in the vascular wall. We previously demonstrated that aortic hypoperfusion could cause the vascular inflammation and AAA formation. However, the preventive method for hypoperfusion-induced AAA remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effect of fish oil on AAA development using a hypoperfusion-induced AAA animal model. Dilation of the abdominal aorta in the fish oil administration group was smaller than in the control group. Collagen destruction and oxidative stress were suppressed in the fish oil administration group than in the control group. These results suggested that fish oil could prevent the development of AAA induced by hypoperfusion. PMID:27022887

  17. Endovascular treatment of an abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm as a late complication of inferior vena cava filter placement.

    PubMed

    Medina, Carlos R; Indes, Jeffrey; Smith, Christopher

    2006-06-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of abdominal aorta after inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement are uncommon, with associated morbidity and mortality. We report a case in which an abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm resulted from erosion of a Bird's Nest (Cook, Bloomington, IN) IVC filter into the wall of the abdominal aorta. A 64-year-old woman with an IVC filter placed 10 years prior presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a 1.4-cm x 2.0-cm infrarenal aortic pseudoaneurysm adjacent to the IVC filter site. A Zenith endograft (Cook) was used via an open femoral artery exposure to successfully treat the pseudoaneurysm. PMID:16765254

  18. Effects of dietary fish oil and trans fat on rat aorta histopathology and cardiovascular risk markers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seonhye

    2009-01-01

    Fish oil and shortening have been suggested to have opposite effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the effect of shortening and fish oil on CVD risk factors and aorta histopathology, and the association between risk factors and aorta histopathology. Male Wister rats (n=30) were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 20% fat in the form of fish oil, shortening, or soybean oil for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), triacylglyceride (TG), and C-reactive protein levels were significantly (P<0.001) lower in the fish oil than in soybean oil and shortening groups. HDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly different (P<0.001) between groups. In addition, LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly (P<0.001) lower in the fish oil and shortening groups than in the soybean oil group. Insulin and glucose concentrations did not differ among groups. Effect of dietary fat on tissue fatty acid composition significantly differed in abdominal fat and brain compared with RBC, heart, kidney and liver. The aortic wall was significantly (P=0.02) thinner in the fish oil group than in the soybean oil and shortening groups. The aortic wall thickness was positively correlated with TG and TC, but negatively with EPA + DHA levels of all tissues. These results suggested that fish oil had protective effects on aorta histopathology by hypolipidemic action in this rat model. PMID:20016709

  19. [Ultrasound of the large abdominal vessels.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-García, A A; Algaba-Montes, M; Segura-Grau, A; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, A

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound has recently become an indispensable tool for the family physician, whether exercised in primary care and emergency department; and likewise it has spread to many other specialties: internal medicine, critical care, neurology, pneumology, digestive, etc. and that ultrasound has proven to be a safe diagnostic tool and have great capacity. We firmly believe that ultrasound done to «bedside» the patient by the family doctor, can greatly complement the physical examination and greatly improve clinical effectiveness, allowing the browser an immediate view of the anatomy and physiology of certain structures. It is within this context is particularly relevant ultrasonography of the Aorta and large abdominal vessels, made by the family doctor or the emergency itself, which will develop along this chapter. PMID:25475534

  20. Syphilitic aneurysm of the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Nelson; Cascarejo, José; Vouga, Luís

    2012-02-01

    Syphilitic aortic aneurysm is a rare occurrence in the antibiotic era, making the diagnose assumption even more infrequent. Nonetheless, this pathology can appear and should be suspected in patients with aortic aneurysm. We report a case of a 57-year old patient who presents with neurosyphilis and, in the following study, a large ascending aorta aneurysm is identified. The authors discuss the diagnostic challenge, the epidemiologic concerns, surgical indication and treatment and subsequent follow-up. PMID:22159251

  1. Syphilitic aneurysm of the ascending aorta

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Nelson; Cascarejo, José; Vouga, Luís

    2012-01-01

    Syphilitic aortic aneurysm is a rare occurrence in the antibiotic era, making the diagnose assumption even more infrequent. Nonetheless, this pathology can appear and should be suspected in patients with aortic aneurysm. We report a case of a 57-year old patient who presents with neurosyphilis and, in the following study, a large ascending aorta aneurysm is identified. The authors discuss the diagnostic challenge, the epidemiologic concerns, surgical indication and treatment and subsequent follow-up. PMID:22159251

  2. Abdominal Aortic Thrombosis in a Healthy Neonate.

    PubMed

    Bogović, Marko; Papeš, Dino; Mitar, Davorin; Smiljanić, Ranko; Sršen-Medančić, Suzana; Ćavar, Stanko; Antabak, Anko; Luetić, Tomislav

    2016-04-01

    Abdominal aortic thrombosis is a rare entity in neonates and has mostly been associated with umbilical artery or cardiac catheterization. We present a complicated case of an otherwise healthy neonate who developed thrombosis of abdominal aorta with renal failure. Therapy with intravenous heparin was unsuccessful, and thrombolysis was contraindicated because of disseminated intravascular coagulation so we decided to perform open thrombectomy using the left retroperitoneal approach. The following day, thrombosis recurred in the same extent and despite high risk of bleeding Alteplase was eventually given, which resulted in recanalization of the aorta 6 hours later. Renal function recovered, dialysis was discontinued, and further course was uneventful. The treatment of abdominal aortic thrombosis in neonates should be considered on a case-by-case basis because the available data on the condition are limited to case report and series. If open thrombectomy is performed, retroperitoneal approach should be preferred because it allows for easy institution of peritoneal dialysis should the need arise. PMID:26802308

  3. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  4. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9737070

  5. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantify Collagen and Elastin in an In Vitro Model of Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Cheheltani, Rabee; McGoverin, Cushla M.; Rao, Jayashree; Vorp, David A.; Kiani, Mohammad F.; Pleshko, N.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key component and regulator of many biological tissues including aorta. Several aortic pathologies are associated with significant changes in the composition of the matrix, especially in the content, quality and type of aortic structural proteins, collagen and elastin. The purpose of this study was to develop an infrared spectroscopic methodology that is comparable to biochemical assays to quantify collagen and elastin in aorta. Enzymatically degraded porcine aorta samples were used as a model of ECM degradation in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). After enzymatic treatment, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the aortic tissue were acquired by an infrared fiber optic probe (IFOP) and FTIR imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS). Collagen and elastin content were quantified biochemically and partial least squares (PLS) models were developed to predict collagen and elastin content in aorta based on FTIR spectra. PLS models developed from FT-IRIS spectra were able to predict elastin and collagen content of the samples with strong correlations (RMSE of validation = 8.4% and 11.1% of the range respectively), and IFOP spectra were successfully used to predict elastin content (RMSE = 11.3% of the range). The PLS regression coefficients from the FT-IRIS models were used to map collagen and elastin in tissue sections of degraded porcine aortic tissue as well as a human AAA biopsy tissue, creating a similar map of each component compared to histology. These results support further application of FTIR spectroscopic techniques for evaluation of AAA tissues. PMID:24761431

  6. Graphical-Model-based Morphometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Herskovits, Edward H

    2005-10-01

    We propose a novel method for voxel-based morphometry (VBM), which we call Graphical-Model-based Morphometric Analysis (GAMMA), to identify morphological abnormalities automatically, and to find complex probabilistic associations among voxels in magnetic-resonance images and clinical variables. GAMMA is a fully automatic, nonparametric morphometric-analysis algorithm, with high sensitivity and specificity. It uses a Bayesian network to represent the associations among voxels and the function variable, and uses a contextual-clustering method based on a Markov random field to find clusters in which all voxels have similar associations with the function variable. We use loopy belief propagation to infer the unobserved label field and belief map. As opposed to voxel-based morphometric methods based on general linear models, GAMMA is capable of identifying nonlinear associations among the function variable and voxels. Compared with our previous approach, a Bayesian morphometry algorithm, GAMMA has greater sensitivity, specificity, and computational efficiency. PMID:16229411

  7. Apparent adiposity assessed by standardised scoring systems and morphometric measurements in horses and ponies.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rebecca A; Geor, Raymond J; Burton Staniar, W; Cubitt, Tania A; Harris, Pat A

    2009-02-01

    This study described a scoring system for the assessment of apparent neck adiposity and evaluated morphometric measurements for assessment of neck and overall adiposity. Twenty-one barren Thoroughbred mares, 13 Arabian geldings and 75 Welsh, Dartmoor, or crossbred pony mares, were clinically examined and blood samples analysed for insulin, glucose, leptin, and triglycerides. Bodyweight (BW), height, length, girth and abdominal circumferences, neck length, neck crest height and neck circumference were measured, and body condition scores (BCS) and cresty neck scores (CNS) were rated. Girth:height ratio had the strongest associations with BCS (r(s)=0.64, P<0.001 in horses; r(s)=0.83, P<0.001 in ponies) and blood variables, such as leptin (r(s)=0.39, P=0.024 in horses; r(s)=0.68, P<0.001 in ponies). Crest height and neck circumference:height ratio had the strongest association with CNS (r(s)>0.50, P<0.01) and blood variables, such as insulin (r(s)0.40, P<0.05). Cresty neck score was useful in the assessment of neck crest adiposity and had physiological relevance, as demonstrated by associations with blood variables. Girth:height was the most suitable morphometric for assessment of overall adiposity, and either crest height or neck circumference:height was a suitable morphometric for assessment of apparent neck adiposity. PMID:18440844

  8. Unusual Presentation of Melioidosis in a Case of Pseudoaneurysm of Descending Thoracic Aorta: Review of Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Padmaja, Kanne; Lakshmi, Vemu; Sudhaharan, Sukanya; Venkata Surya Malladi, Subbalaxmi; Gopal, Palanki; Venkata Ravinuthala, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Melioidosis is a rapidly fatal infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, an agent of potential biothreat, endemic in several parts of India. Most melioidosis-induced infected aneurysms are located in the abdominal or thoracic aorta. Case Presentation: We reported two unusual cases of melioidosis resulting in pseudoaneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta. In both cases, blood cultures yielded B. pseudomallei. The first patient was managed with resection of aneurysm and reconstruction with Dacron graft followed by medical treatment and was discharged uneventfully. The second patient died within one week of admission before the infecting etiological agent was identified and aneurysmal repair was planned. Conclusions: A high clinical index of suspicion, especially in areas of endemicity is essential for timely management of intracavitary infected pseudoaneurysms caused by B. pseudomallei and use of rapid microbiological techniques, such as bact/alert 3D system, which enables rapid and early recovery of the etiological agent. PMID:26380820

  9. MicroRNAs in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Adam, Matti; Raaz, Uwe; Spin, Joshua M; Tsao, Philip S

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are an important source of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and worldwide. Treatment options are limited, with open surgery or endovascular repair remaining the only curative treatments. Classical cardiovascular medications have generally failed to prevent or significantly alter AAA formation or progression. Therefore, there is a tremendous need for better therapeutic approaches. With increasing knowledge of microRNA (miR) regulation in the context of cardiovascular disease, and with improving technical options permitting alteration of miRexpression levels in vitro and in vivo, we are offered a glimpse into the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities of using miRs to treat vascular pathobiology. This review focuses on the role of miRs in aneurysmal disease of the abdominal aorta, summarizing recent publications regarding this topic, and outlining known effects of relevant miRs in AAA formation, including miR-21 and miR-29b. Despite there being only limited studies available, several other miRs also display clear potential for alteration of the disease process including miR-26a, the miR-17-92-cluster, miRs-221/222, miR-133 and miR-146a. While studies have shown that miRs can regulate the activity and interplay of vascular inflammatory cells, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, all key elements leading to AAA formation, much work remains to be done. PMID:23713862

  10. Combined procedure of heart transplantation and ascending aorta replacement.

    PubMed

    de Castro, João Gonçalves; Estefanía, Rafael Hernández; Delgado, Cristian; Del Barrio, Loreto García; Rábago, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    Concomitant heart transplantation and ascending aorta replacement is infrequent. In the few cases where this simultaneous procedure was performed, most patients were diagnosed with Marfan syndrome. We report the combined procedure of heart transplantation and ascending aorta replacement using the donor's ascending aorta, in a 70-year-old man who was not diagnosed with Marfan syndrome. This combined procedure can be performed successfully, providing a potentially life-saving heart transplant for patients with aortic disease of different etiologies. PMID:25737588

  11. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society - update. Ultrasound examination of the aorta and arteries of the lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Małek, Grzegorz; Elwertowski, Michał; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    A Doppler ultrasound examination has an advantage over other vessel imaging methods as it can be carried out by the patient's bedside and allows to make a diagnosis without exposing the patient to the inconveniency of transportation or an X-ray scan. The purpose of testing the lower extremities and the aorta is to objectively confirm a preliminary clinical diagnosis, localize lesions responsible for the symptoms of the disease, determine their severity and nature (e.g., if they are calcifications or soft lesions), and finally evaluate the hemodynamic criteria. In assessment of the aorta attention is paid not only to aortic diameter measurements, but also to the vascular lumen (dissections with the formation of two flow channels, detachments, balloting of atherosclerotic plaques, etc.) and the presence of atherosclerotic plaques with influx into them (PAU - penetrating ulcer in the plaque or lesions surrounding the aorta, such as retroperitoneal fibrosis or mycotic aneurysm). A correct diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm requires repeated measurements of the abdominal aorta diameter, and in particular its transverse dimension. When assessing the degree of peripheral arterial stenosis on the basis of hemodynamic parameters, degree of morphological stenosis must be taken into consideration. Collateral circulation may reduce the flow through the main vessel, and thus, the achieved systolic velocities are lower and may understate the degree of the assessed stenosis. Calf vessels are difficult to detect, which results both from the thickness of the muscle and the presence of calcifications. This article has been prepared on the basis of Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society (2011) and updated on the basis of the latest reports from relevant literature. PMID:26673404

  12. [Pathobiological determinants of atherosclerosis in youths: data from a macromorphometric and histomorphometric investigation of the aorta and coronary arteries].

    PubMed

    Lesauskaite, Vaiva; Stalioraityte, Elena; Tanganelli, Piero; Epistolato, Maria Carmela

    2004-01-01

    We present a review of data from epidemiological and morphological studies carried out in Kaunas of atherosclerosis in youths. Since 1985, Kaunas has been a Collaborating Center involved with the World Health Organization and International Society and Federation of Cardiology studying the pathobiological determinants of atherosclerosis in youth. During the pilot study (1985-1987), we estimated the prevalence and extent of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta and coronary arteries correlated to various risk factors in Kaunas residents aged 5 to 44 years. Within the framework of this international study, we compared histomorphometric characteristics of arteries collected from trauma victims aged 5 to 34 years in Budapest (Hungary), Heidelberg (Germany), Kaunas (Lithuania), Yaounde (Cameroon), and Mexico City (Mexico). These data revealed that males from countries with a high mortality from ischemic heart disease (Hungary, Lithuania, Germany) tended to have thicker intima in the thoracic and abdominal aorta and left anterior descending coronary artery than did males from countries with low mortality from ischemic heart disease (Mexico, Cameroon). We detected an increased mean intimal thickness of the abdominal aorta in male smokers aged 25-34 years. Males with hypertension aged 15-24 and 25-34 years had a thicker intima in the aorta and left anterior descending coronary artery than normotensive males. The morphological and epidemiological studies of atherosclerosis in youths carried out in Kaunas demonstrated that aortic and coronary atherosclerotic lesions appeared as early as childhood and advanced until the lesions become clinically apparent in adulthood. Histomorphometric findings support the postulate that increased intimal thickness can be considered a structural determinant of atherogenesis. These data draw attention to the means for the primary prevention of atherosclerosis in youth. PMID:15252227

  13. Current management of coarctation of the aorta

    PubMed Central

    Suradi, Hussam; Hijazi, Ziyad M.

    2015-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (C) is the sixth most common lesion in congenital heart disease and represents a spectrum of aortic narrowing that varies from a discrete entity to tubular hypoplasia. This condition was once thought to be a relatively simple lesion that would be “cured” upon repair of the narrowing, however, despite relief of the anatomical obstruction the subsequent risk of early morbidity and death persists. This review outlines the optimal management strategy of this disease from neonatal to adult life and provides insights to approach this straightforward but challenging condition. PMID:26779519

  14. Hydroelastic effects in the aorta bifurcation zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volmir, A. S.; Gersheyn, M. S.; Purinya, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of the vessels and blood is mathematically analyzed at the point of aortic bifurcation using a homogeneous single layer channel as a model of the aorta. Allowance is made for the fact that the aortic intima is considerably less rigid than the other layers. For analysis of blood flow in the major arteries, the blood is treated as a viscous Newtonian fluid whose movements are described by Navier-Stokes equations and a continuity equation. Blood flow dynamics at the aortic bifurcation are discussed on the basis of the results.

  15. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  16. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    An abdominal x-ray is an imaging test to look at organs and structures in the abdomen. Organs include the spleen, stomach, and intestines. When the test is done to look at the bladder and kidney structures, ...

  17. Abdominal exploration - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgical exploration of the abdomen, also called an exploratory laparotomy, may be recommended when there is abdominal ... blunt trauma"). Diseases that may be discovered by exploratory laparotomy include: inflammation of the appendix (acute appendicitis) ...

  18. Anatomical and morphometric variations in the arterial system of the domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, V H; Ball, S; Cramer, R; Smith, A

    2015-12-01

    We document the anatomical architecture and frequency of occurrence of variations in the branching pattern of the brachiocephalic artery and the origin of the internal iliac arteries in the domestic cat, a widely used model organism in both anatomical training and research. Based on the study of 56 preserved specimens, we observed three distinct arrangements in the branching pattern of the brachiocephalic artery. The most common pattern (52% of the examined specimens) was that in which the brachiocephalic artery was divided into two branches, the left common carotid artery and a common branch for the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery. The frequency of occurrence of each variation type was independent of the gender and body size. The internal iliac arteries originated caudal to the point at which the external iliac arteries branched off from the abdominal aorta. However, the portion of the abdominal aorta between the external and internal iliac arteries varied greatly in length and was not significantly correlated with its width, nor with body size or gender. This study is the first to report and quantify the occurrence of such variations in North American cats. Given the anatomical similarity between the cat and other felids, the results of this study can be applied to other species, including endangered species. PMID:25318975

  19. 3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents a method for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm from computed tomography angiography images. The proposed method is automatic and requires minimal user assistance. Segmentation is performed in two steps. First inner and then outer aortic border is segmented. Those two steps are different due to different image conditions on two aortic borders. Outputs of these two segmentations give a complete 3-D model of abdominal aorta. Such a 3-D model is used in measurements of aneurysm area. The deformable model is implemented using the level-set algorithm due to its ability to describe complex shapes in natural manner which frequently occur in pathology. In segmentation of outer aortic boundary we introduced some knowledge based preprocessing to enhance and reconstruct low contrast aortic boundary. The method has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

  20. Appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, G; Ho, P W; Ng, K L; Jegan, T

    2002-03-01

    A young boy presented with history of abdominal trauma. History and initial clinical findings suggested a soft tissue injury. Due to increasing abdominal pain and fever, we proceeded with an exploratory laparotomy with a diagnosis of intra-abdominal injury, at which we found a perforated appendix. Appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma needs high index of suspicion. PMID:14569731

  1. Inhibition of PKC-dependent extracellular Ca2+ entry contributes to the depression of contractile activity in long-term pressure-overloaded endothelium-denuded rat aortas

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, J.; López, R.M.; López, P.; Castillo, M.C.; Querejeta, E.; Ruiz, A.; Castillo, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the contractile responsiveness of rat thoracic aortas under pressure overload after long-term suprarenal abdominal aortic coarctation (lt-Srac). Endothelium-dependent angiotensin II (ANG II) type 2 receptor (AT2R)-mediated depression of contractions to ANG II has been reported in short-term (1 week) pressure-overloaded rat aortas. Contractility was evaluated in the aortic rings of rats subjected to lt-Srac or sham surgery (Sham) for 8 weeks. ANG I and II levels and AT2R protein expression in the aortas of lt-Srac and Sham rats were also evaluated. lt-Srac attenuated the contractions of ANG II and phenylephrine in the aortas in an endothelium-independent manner. However, lt-Srac did not influence the transient contractions induced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings by ANG II, phenylephrine, or caffeine in Ca2+-free medium or the subsequent tonic constrictions induced by the addition of Ca2+ in the absence of agonists. Thus, the contractions induced by Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca2+ influx through stored-operated channels were not inhibited in the aortas of lt-Srac rats. Potassium-elicited contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats remained unaltered compared with control tissues. Consequently, the contractile depression observed in aortic tissues of lt-Srac rats cannot be explained by direct inhibition of voltage-operated Ca2+ channels. Interestingly, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced contractions in endothelium-denuded aortic rings of lt-Srac rats were depressed in the presence but not in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Neither levels of angiotensins nor of AT2R were modified in the aortas after lt-Srac. The results suggest that, in rat thoracic aortas, lt-Srac selectively inhibited protein kinase C-mediated activation of contraction that is dependent on extracellular Ca2+ entry. PMID:25098618

  2. [Endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm in a patient with horseshoe kidney].

    PubMed

    Ignatyev, I M; Volodyukhin, M Yu; Zanochkin, A V; Rafikov, A Yu; Khairullin, R N

    2015-01-01

    Presented herein is a case report concerning successful endovascular treatment of a patient with an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm combined with a horseshoe kidney. The diagnosis was verified by multispiral computed tomography. The patient underwent of endovascular repair of the abdominal aorta with a stent-graft AORFIX (Lombard Medical). The postoperative period turned out uneventful, with no complications. The patient was examined 3 years after the intervention. The findings of control check-up computed tomography showed no signs of either stent graft dislocation or endoleak. PMID:26355924

  3. Enhanced production of the chemotactic cytokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, A. E.; Kunkel, S. L.; Pearce, W. H.; Shah, M. R.; Parikh, D.; Evanoff, H. L.; Haines, G. K.; Burdick, M. D.; Strieter, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    Inflammatory leukocytes play a central role in the pathogenesis of human atherosclerotic disease, from early atherogenesis to the late stages of atherosclerosis, such as aneurysm formation. We have shown previously that human abdominal aortic aneurysms are characterized by the presence of numerous chronic inflammatory cells throughout the vessel wall (Am J Pathol 1990, 137: 1199-1213). The signals that attract lymphocytes and monocytes into the aortic wall in aneurysmal disease remain to be precisely defined. We have studied the production of the chemotactic cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by aortic tissues obtained from 47 subjects. We compared the antigenic production of these cytokines by explants of: 1) human abdominal aneurysmal tissue, 2) occlusive (atherosclerotic) aortas, and 3) normal aortas. IL-8, which is chemotactic for neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells was liberated in greater quantities by abdominal aortic aneurysms than by occlusive or normal aortas. Using immunohistochemistry, macrophages, and to a lesser degree endothelial cells, were found to be positive for the expression of antigenic IL-8. Similarly, MCP-1, a potent chemotactic cytokine for monocytes/macrophages, was released by explants from abdominal aortic aneurysms in greater quantities than by explants from occlusive or normal aortas. Using immunohistochemistry, the predominant MCP-1 antigen-positive cells were macrophages and to a lesser extent smooth muscle cells. Our results indicate that human abdominal aortic aneurysms produce IL-8 and MCP-1, both of which may serve to recruit additional inflammatory cells into the abdominal aortic wall, hence perpetuating the inflammatory reaction that may result in the pathology of vessel wall destruction and aortic aneurysm formation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8494046

  4. Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Para-Anastomotic Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Sfyroeras, Giorgos S.; Lioupis, Christos Bessias, Nikolaos; Maras, Dimitris; Pomoni, Maria; Andrikopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-07-15

    We report a case of a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm treated with implantation of a bifurcated stent-graft. A 72-year-old patient, who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease 16 years ago, presented with a ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysm. A bifurcated stent-graft was successfully deployed into the old bifurcated graft. This is the first report of a bifurcated stent-graft being placed through an 'end-to-side' anastomosed old aortobifemoral graft. Endovascular treatment of ruptured para-anastomotic aortic aneurysms can be accomplished successfully, avoiding open surgery which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

  5. A segmentation method for stentgrafts in the abdominal aorta from ECG-gated CTA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Almar; Renema, W. KlaasJan; Oostveen, Luuk J.; Schultze Kool, Leo J.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2008-03-01

    Endovascular aortic replacement (EVAR) is an established technique, which uses stentgrafts to treat aortic aneurysms in patients at risk of aneurysm rupture. The long-term durability of a stentgraft is affected by the stresses and hemodynamic forces applied to it, and may be reflected by the movements of the stentgraft itself during the cardiac cycle. A conventional CT scan (which results in a 3D volume) is not able to visualize these movements. However, applying ECG-gating does provide insight in the motion of the stentgraft caused by hemodynamic forces at different phases of the cardiac cycle. The amount of data obtained is a factor of ten larger compared to conventional CT, but the radiation dose is kept similar for patient safety. This causes the data to be noisy, and streak artifacts are more common. Algorithms for automatic stentgraft detection must be able to cope with this. Segmentation of the stentgraft is performed by examining slices perpendicular to the centreline. Regions with high CT-values exist at the locations where the metallic frame penetrates the slice. These regions are well suited for detection and sub-pixel localization. Spurious points can be removed by means of a clustering algorithm, leaving only points on the contour of the stent. We compare the performance of several different point detection methods and clustering algorithms. The position of the stent's centreline is calculated by fitting a circle through these points. The proposed method can detect several stentgraft types, and is robust against noise and streak artifacts.

  6. [Chronic post-traumatic aneurysms of the thoracic aorta].

    PubMed

    Roques, X

    1991-09-01

    Chronic traumatic aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are dilatations resulting from a rupture of isthmus unknown at the time of the trauma. They are observed inn youngs and require a prompt surgical repair as soon as diagnostic is know. Direct suture of the aorta is possible without prosthetic graft. Perioperative mortality is very low and long-term prognosis is good. PMID:1925357

  7. Varicella Zoster Virus Infection in Granulomatous Arteritis of the Aorta.

    PubMed

    Gilden, Don; White, Teresa; Boyer, Philip J; Galetta, Kristin M; Hedley-Whyte, E Tessa; Frank, Meredith; Holmes, Dawn; Nagel, Maria A

    2016-06-15

    Granulomatous arteritis characterizes the pathology of giant cell arteritis, granulomatous aortitis, and intracerebral varicella zoster virus (VZV) vasculopathy. Because intracerebral VZV vasculopathy and giant cell arteritis are strongly associated with productive VZV infection in cerebral and temporal arteries, respectively, we evaluated human aortas for VZV antigen and VZV DNA. Using 3 different anti-VZV antibodies, we identified VZV antigen in 11 of 11 aortas with pathologically verified granulomatous arteritis, in 1 of 1 cases of nongranulomatous arteritis, and in 5 of 18 control aortas (28%) obtained at autopsy. The presence of VZV antigen in granulomatous aortitis was highly significant (P = .0001) as compared to control aortas, in which VZV antigen was never associated with pathology, indicating subclinical reactivation. VZV DNA was found in most aortas containing VZV antigen. The frequent clinical, radiological, and pathological aortic involvement in patients with giant cell arteritis correlates with the significant detection of VZV in granulomatous aortitis. PMID:27037084

  8. Novel pathways in the pathobiology of human abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hinterseher, Irene; Erdman, Robert; Elmore, James R; Stahl, Elizabeth; Pahl, Matthew C; Derr, Kimberly; Golden, Alicia; Lillvis, John H; Cindric, Matthew C; Jackson, Kathryn; Bowen, William D; Schworer, Charles M; Chernousov, Michael A; Franklin, David P; Gray, John L; Garvin, Robert P; Gatalica, Zoran; Carey, David J; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), a dilatation of the infrarenal aorta, typically affects males > 65 years. The pathobiological mechanisms of human AAA are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to identify novel pathways involved in the development of AAAs. Methods A custom-designed AAA-chip was used to assay 43 of the differentially expressed genes identified in a previously published microarray study between AAA (n = 15) and control (n = 15) infrarenal abdominal aorta. Protein analyses were performed on selected genes. Results Altogether 38 of the 43 genes on the AAA-chip showed significantly different expression. Novel validated genes in AAA pathobiology included ADCY7, ARL4C, BLNK, FOSB, GATM, LYZ, MFGE8, PRUNE2, PTPRC, SMTN, TMODI and TPM2. These genes represent a wide range of biological functions, such as calcium signaling, development and differentiation, as well as cell adhesion not previously implicated in AAA pathobiology. Protein analyses for GATM, CD4, CXCR4, BLNK, PLEK, LYZ, FOSB, DUSP6, ITGA5 and PTPRC confirmed the mRNA findings. Conclusion The results provide new directions for future research into AAA pathogenesis to study the role of novel genes confirmed here. New treatments and diagnostic tools for AAA could potentially be identified by studying these novel pathways. PMID:22797469

  9. Computer-assisted diagnosis in CT angiography of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebich, Martin; Tomiak, Myrosia M.; Engelmann, Roger M.; McGill, James; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop methods for automatic 3D-segmentation and automatic quantification of vascular structures in CT angiographic studies, e.g., abdominal aortic aneurysms. Methods for segmentation were developed based on thresholding, maximum gradient, and second derivative techniques. All parameters for the segmentation are generated automatically, i.e. no user interaction is necessary for this process. Median filtering of all images is initially performed to reduce the image noise. The algorithm then automatically identifies the starting point inside the aorta for the volume growing. The segmentation of the vascular tree is achieved in two steps. First, only the aorta and small parts of branch vessels are segmented by using strong restrictions in the parameters for threshold and gradient. A description of the aorta is generated by fitting the detected outer border of the aorta with an ellipse. This description includes centerline, direction, contour, eccentricity, and area. In the second step, segmentation parameters are changed automatically for segmentation of branch vessels. A shaded surface display of the segmented structures is then generated. The segmentation of the aorta appears accurate, is fast, and the 3D display can be manipulated in real time. The quantitative description of the aorta is reliable giving reproducible information. Total CPU time for the segmentation and description is less than five minutes on a standard workstation. Time-consuming manual segmentation and parameterization of vascular structures are obviated, with 3D visualization and quantitative results available in minutes instead of hours. This technique for segmentation and description of the aorta and renal arteries shows the feasibility of computer assisted diagnosis in CT angiographic studies without user interaction. Besides the description, a rapid 3D view of the vessels is generated, often needed by the physician and normally only achievable by time consuming manual segmentation.

  10. Aorta-Left Renal Vein Fistula Complicating an Aortic Aneurysm: Preoperative and Postoperative Multislice CT Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Barrier, Pierre Otal, Philippe; Garcia, Olivier; Vahdat, Olivier; Domenech, Brice; Lannareix, Valerie; Joffre, Francis; Rousseau, Herve

    2007-06-15

    Fistulas complicating an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are rare, and fistulas involving the left renal vein are particularly uncommon. We highlight here a fistula between an infrarenal aortic aneurysm and a retroaortic left renal vein, revealed by left flank pain associated with hematuria and acute renal failure. The multislice CT angiography performed in this 68-year-old patient revealed communication and equal enhancement between the aorta and the left gonadic vein, suggesting the presence of a fistula. The three-dimensional VRT reconstructions presented in this case were of great value in the preoperative planning, enabling immediate visualization of this unusual feature. Alternative diagnoses to consider when encountering this clinical presentation are reviewed.

  11. [Abdominal actinomycosis: four cases].

    PubMed

    Ghannouchi Jaafoura, N; Kaabia, N; Khalifa, M; Ben Jazia, I; Hachfi, W; Braham, A; Letaief, A; Bahri, F

    2008-12-01

    The abdominal actinomycosis (AA) is a rare and often unrecognised suppurative chronic illness. It is caused by an anaerobic Gram positive bacteria, Actinomyces israelii. Abdominal actinomycosis is responsible for pseudotumoral syndrome often leading, to a large and mutilating surgery whereas a prolonged treatment by antibiotics would have permitted to cure the disease. The diagnosis is obtained generally from anatomopathologic exam. We report four cases of abdominal actinomycosis being revealed by a pseudotumoral syndrome. The diagnosis was only made after surgery. In spite of an active treatment by antibiotics during several months, two of our patients had a relapse of the infectious process. These four observations confirm the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties previously reported by other authors. PMID:19180833

  12. In vivo monitoring of the inflammatory response in a stented mouse aorta model.

    PubMed

    Kapnisis, Konstantinos K; Pitsillides, Costas M; Prokopi, Marianna S; Lapathitis, George; Karaiskos, Christos; Eleftheriou, Polyvios C; Brott, Brigitta C; Anderson, Peter G; Lemons, Jack E; Anayiotos, Andreas S

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of vascular stents continues to increase for a variety of applications, including coronary, lower limb, renal, carotid, and neurovascular disorders. However, their clinical effectiveness is hindered by numerous postdeployment complications, which may stimulate inflammatory and fibrotic reactions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vessel inflammatory response via in vivo imaging in a mouse stent implantation model. Corroded and noncorroded self-expanding miniature nitinol stents were implanted in mice abdominal aortas, and novel in vivo imaging techniques were used to assess trafficking and accumulation of fluorescent donor monocytes as well as cellular proliferation at the implantation site. Monocytes were quantitatively tracked in vivo and found to rapidly clear from circulation within hours after injection. Differences were found between the test groups with respect to the numbers of recruited monocytes and the intensity of the resulting fluorescent signal. Image analysis also revealed a subtle increase in matrix metalloproteinase activity in corroded compared with the normal stented aortas. In conclusion, this study has been successful in developing a murine stent inflammation model and applying novel in vivo imaging tools and methods to monitor the complex biological processes of the host vascular wall response. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 227-238, 2016. PMID:26362825

  13. The use of the TDMAC-heparin shunt in replacement of the descending thoracic aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Connors, J P; Ferguson, T B; Roper, C L; Weldon, C S

    1975-01-01

    The use of a flexible polyvinyl tube bonded with tridodecylmethylammonium-heparin (Gott) as a temporary shunt during the resection of lesions of the descending thoracic aorta has proven a safe and simple means of providing adequate circulation to the abdominal viscera and spinal cord. This technique avoids the metabolic consequences of ischemia to the lower body, diminishes left ventricular afterload during aortic clamping, and obviates the requirement for systemic anticoagulation associated with pump bypass. Between September 1970 and October 1974, 24 patients have been operated using the TDMAC shunt. There were two deaths (9%) among the 22 patients undergoing elective resections. Two patients with acutely dissecting and ruptured aneurysms expired. Followup data has been obtained on all patients from one to 46 months postoperative. The ease with which the shunt is inserted and its adaptability to varied clinical and anatomic situations is stressed. We feel that TDMAC-Heparin shunt provides the best method of circulatory support for elective operative procedures on the descending thoracic aorta. Images Fig. 4A. Fig. 4B. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1130887

  14. Geometric Morphometrics of Rodent Sperm Head Shape

    PubMed Central

    Varea Sánchez, María; Bastir, Markus; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa, particularly those of rodent species, are extremely complex cells and differ greatly in form and dimensions. Thus, characterization of sperm size and, particularly, sperm shape represents a major challenge. No consensus exists on a method to objectively assess size and shape of spermatozoa. In this study we apply the principles of geometric morphometrics to analyze rodent sperm head morphology and compare them with two traditional morphometry methods, that is, measurements of linear dimensions and dimensions-derived parameters calculated using formulae employed in sperm morphometry assessments. Our results show that geometric morphometrics clearly identifies shape differences among rodent spermatozoa. It is also capable of discriminating between size and shape and to analyze these two variables separately. Thus, it provides an accurate method to assess sperm head shape. Furthermore, it can identify which sperm morphology traits differ between species, such as the protrusion or retraction of the base of the head, the orientation and relative position of the site of flagellum insertion, the degree of curvature of the hook, and other distinct anatomical features and appendices. We envisage that the use of geometric morphometrics may have a major impact on future studies focused on the characterization of sperm head formation, diversity of sperm head shape among species (and underlying evolutionary forces), the effects of reprotoxicants on changes in cell shape, and phenotyping of genetically-modified individuals. PMID:24312234

  15. Abdominal Vascular Catastrophes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manpreet; Koyfman, Alex; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal vascular catastrophes are among the most challenging and time sensitive for emergency practitioners to recognize. Mesenteric ischemia remains a highly lethal entity for which the history and physical examination can be misleading. Laboratory tests are often unhelpful, and appropriate imaging must be quickly obtained. A multidisciplinary approach is required to have a positive impact on mortality rates. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm likewise may present in a cryptic fashion. A specific type of ruptured aneurysm, the aortoenteric fistula, often masquerades as the more common routine gastrointestinal bleed. The astute clinician recognizes that this is a more lethal variant of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. PMID:27133247

  16. Intra-abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Holliday, R L

    1976-01-01

    Intra-abdominal sepsis remains one of the major challenges to the surgeon. With a proper appreciation of the bacteriology and pathophysiology involved and an awareness of new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, hopefully, mortality and morbidity rates can be reduced. PMID:1048948

  17. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation ...

  18. JAMA Patient Page: Abdominal Hernia

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Journal of the American Medical Association Abdominal Hernia Common abdominal hernias A HERNIA DEVELOPS WHEN A WEAKNESS THAT FORMS IN THE ... through it. Among the most common are umbilical hernias that occur at the navel and inguinal hernias ...

  19. Trans-Iliac Rat Aorta Stenting: A Novel High Throughput Preclinical Stent Model for Restenosis and Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Oyamada, Shizu; Ma, Xiaodong; Wu, Tim; Robich, Michael P.; Wu, Hao; Wang, Xingwei; Buchholz, Bryan; McCarthy, Stephen; Bianchi, Cesario F.; Sellke, Frank W.; Laham, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently, preclinical stent development requires elaborate large animal models which are time consuming and expensive. We herein report a high throughput rat aorta stenting model which could provide a rapid and low-cost platform for preclinical stent development. Methods A total of 86 metal stents (316L stainless steel 13mm, VasoTech, Inc.) coated with poly (D, L-lactide -co-glycolide) / amorphous calcium phosphate (PLGA/ACP) copolymer were pre-mounted on 1.5mm × 15mm balloon catheters and were implanted into aspirin treated Sprague-Dawley rats (500-700g) initially using either direct placement in the abdominal aorta (Group A, n = 7) or a trans-iliac approach (cut-down, Group B, n = 79). The surviving rats were sacrificed at 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 12 weeks post implantation and the stented arteries were analyzed histopathologically Results Four rats died in group A and nine rats died in group B within 48 hours post stent implantation (mortality: 57% vs. 11%, P<0.05). All animals that died had stent thrombosis/paralysis with visible thrombus on necropsy. Histologically, neointimal growth peaked at approximately 4 weeks post implantation. Conclusion This result suggests that human-sized stents can be successfully implanted into the rat aorta via iliac artery insertion with a significantly higher survival rate than trans-aorta implantation. The model system allows rapid (4-12 weeks) assessment of stent biocompatibility with mortality/paralysis used as an indicator of stent thrombosis. PMID:21195423

  20. Palpation Simulator of Beating Aorta for Cardiovascular Surgery Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Nakao, Megumi; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Oyama, Hiroshi; Komori, Masaru; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Sakaguchi, Genichi; Komeda, Masashi; Takahashi, Takashi

    In field of cardiovascular surgeries, palpation of aorta plays important roles in decision of surgical site.This paper develops palpation simulator of aorta based on a finite element based physical model.The proposed model calculates soft tissue deformation according to the affection of inner pressure and the operation of a surgeon.The proposed method is implemented on a prototype with dual PHANToM device.Experimental results confirmed our model achieves real time simulation of the surgical palpation.

  1. The Abdominal Circulatory Pump

    PubMed Central

    Aliverti, Andrea; Bovio, Dario; Fullin, Irene; Dellacà, Raffaele L.; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50–75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4–6% and an output of 750–1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61±0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57±0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart. PMID:19440240

  2. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  3. Innovative Chimney-Graft Technique for Endovascular Repair of a Pararenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Galianes, Edgar Luis; Hernandez-Vila, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    After abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, progressive degeneration of the aneurysm can be challenging to treat. Multiple comorbidities and previous operations place such patients at high risk for repeat surgery. Endovascular repair is a possible alternative; however, challenging anatomy can push the limits of available technology. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a 5.3-cm pararenal aneurysm 4 years after undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. To avoid reoperation, we excluded the aneurysm by endovascular means, using visceral-artery stenting, a chimney-graft technique. Low-profile balloons on a monorail system enabled the rapid exchange of coronary wires via a buddy-wire technique. This novel approach facilitated stenting and simultaneous angioplasty of multiple visceral vessels and the abdominal aorta. PMID:25873796

  4. Innovative chimney-graft technique for endovascular repair of a pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Galianes, Edgar Luis; Hernandez-Vila, Eduardo A; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2015-02-01

    After abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, progressive degeneration of the aneurysm can be challenging to treat. Multiple comorbidities and previous operations place such patients at high risk for repeat surgery. Endovascular repair is a possible alternative; however, challenging anatomy can push the limits of available technology. We describe the case of a 71-year-old man who presented with a 5.3-cm pararenal aneurysm 4 years after undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. To avoid reoperation, we excluded the aneurysm by endovascular means, using visceral-artery stenting, a chimney-graft technique. Low-profile balloons on a monorail system enabled the rapid exchange of coronary wires via a buddy-wire technique. This novel approach facilitated stenting and simultaneous angioplasty of multiple visceral vessels and the abdominal aorta. PMID:25873796

  5. Characterization of rupture of abdominal artery aneurysm in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Catherine G; Guard, Charles L; Erb, Hollis N; Njaa, Bradley L

    2007-05-01

    In this retrospective study, the authors describe the gross and histologic changes associated with rupture of an abdominal artery aneurysm in 33 mature female Holstein cattle between January 1980 and June 2005 from 29 farms in upstate New York and northern Pennsylvania. Over this period, there was an increase in the number of cases submitted for necropsy per year, and a seasonal trend did not exist. Affected animals ranged from 2.5 to 5.5 years of age. Grossly affected cattle exhibited marked hemoabdomen. There was marked dilation and rupture of the abdominal aorta or one of its branches, including the mesenteric, left gastric, celiac artery, right ruminal artery, or left ruminal artery. Histologically, the tunica media of the affected arteries was often thin and irregular in width with disrupted, fragmented, and coiled elastin. Granulation tissue and hemorrhage was localized at the site of rupture. There was mild-to-marked hyperplasia of the tunica intima that was irregular and disorderly with adjacent smooth-muscle hyperplasia within the tunica media. In addition, in a fraction of cases, there was mild-to-moderate mucinous change (48%) and mineralization (30%) within the tunica media. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of the gross and histologic changes in Holstein cows with abdominal artery aneurysm and rupture. PMID:17459856

  6. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms and Risk Factors for Adverse Events.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Raheel; Ghoorah, Kuldeepa; Kunadian, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a focal full thickness dilatation of the abdominal aorta, greater than 1.5 times its normal diameter. Although some patients with AAA experience back or abdominal pain, most remain asymptomatic until rupture. The prognosis after AAA rupture is poor. Management strategies for patients with asymptomatic AAAs include risk factor reduction, such as smoking cessation, optimizing antihypertensive treatment, and treating dyslipidemia, as well as surveillance by ultrasound. Currently, aneurysm diameter alone is often used to assess risk of rupture. Once the aneurysm diameter reaches 5.5 cm, the risk of rupture is considered greater than the risk of intervention and elective aneurysm repair is undertaken. There is increasing interest in detecting AAAs early, and national screening programs are now in place. Furthermore, there is increasing research interest in biomarkers, genetics, and functional imaging to improve detection of AAAs at risk of progression and rupture. In this review, we discuss risk factors for AAA rupture, which should be considered during the management process, to advance current deficiencies in management pathways. PMID:25580705

  7. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Genotype as a Potential Genetic Marker for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Duellman, Tyler; Warren, Christopher L.; Peissig, Peggy; Wynn, Martha; Yang, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Background Degradation of extracellular matrix support in the large abdominal arteries contribute to abnormal dilation of aorta, leading to abdominal aortic aneurysms, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is the predominant enzyme targeting elastin and collagen present in the walls of the abdominal aorta. Previous studies have suggested a potential association between MMP-9 genotype and abdominal aortic aneurysm, but these studies have been limited only to the p-1562 and (CA) dinucleotide repeat microsatellite polymorphisms in the promoter region of the MMP-9 gene. We determined the functional alterations caused by 15 MMP-9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported to be relatively abundant in the human genome through Western blots, gelatinase, and promoter–reporter assays and incorporated this information to perform a logistic-regression analysis of MMP-9 SNPs in 336 human abdominal aortic aneurysm cases and controls. Methods and Results Significant functional alterations were observed for 6 exon SNPs and 4 promoter SNPs. Genotype analysis of frequency-matched (age, sex, history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking) cases and controls revealed significant genetic heterogeneity exceeding 20% observed for 6 SNPs in our population of mostly white subjects from Northern Wisconsin. A step-wise logistic-regression analysis with 6 functional SNPs, where weakly contributing confounds were eliminated using Akaike information criteria, gave a final 2 SNP (D165N and p-2502) model with an overall odds ratio of 2.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–5.70). Conclusions The combined approach of direct experimental confirmation of the functional alterations of MMP-9 SNPs and logistic-regression analysis revealed significant association between MMP-9 genotype and abdominal aortic aneurysm. PMID:22942228

  8. Morphological Evidence of Telocytes in Mice Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Qi; Lu, Shan-Shan; Xu, Ting; Feng, Yan-Ling; Li, Hua; Ge, Jun-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Telocytes (TCs) are a novel type of interstitial cells, which have been recently described in a large variety of cavitary and noncavitary organs. TCs have small cell bodies, and remarkably thin, long, and moniliform prolongations called telopodes (Tps). Until now, TCs have been found in various loose connective tissues surrounding the arterioles, venules, and capillaries, but as a histological cellular component, whether TCs exist in large arteries remains unexplored. Methods: TCs were identified by transmission electron microscope in the aortic arch of male C57BL/6 mice. Results: TCs in aortic arch had small cell bodies (length: 6.06–13.02 μm; width: 1.05–4.25 μm) with characteristics of specific long (7.74–39.05 μm), thin, and moniliform Tps; TCs distributed in the whole connective tissue layer of tunica adventitia: TCs in the innermost layer of tunica adventitia, located at the juncture between media and adventitia, with their long axes oriented parallel to the outer elastic membrane; and TCs in outer layers of tunica adventitia, were embedded among transverse and longitudinal oriented collagen fibers, forming a highly complex three-dimensional meshwork. Moreover, desmosomes were observed, serving as pathways connecting neighboring Tps. In addition, vesicles shed from the surface of TCs into the extracellular matrix, participating in some biological processes. Conclusions: TCs in aorta arch are a newly recognized complement distinct from other interstitial cells in large arteries, such as fibroblasts. And further biologically functional correlations need to be elucidated. PMID:25635430

  9. Zinc Prevents Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation by Induction of A20-Mediated Suppression of NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Shu-Ling; Hou, Wei-Jian; Li, Xiang; Tong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and degradation of elastin are the main processes in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Recent studies show that zinc has an anti-inflammatory effect. Based on these, zinc may render effective therapy for the treatment of the AAA. Currently, we want to investigate the effects of zinc on AAA progression and its related molecular mechanism. Rat AAA models were induced by periaortic application of CaCl2. AAA rats were treated by daily intraperitoneal injection of ZnSO4 or vehicle alone. The aorta segments were collected at 4 weeks after surgery. The primary rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were stimulated with TNF-α alone or with ZnSO4 for 3 weeks. The results showed that zinc supplementation significantly suppressed the CaCl2-induced expansion of the abdominal aortic diameter, as well as a preservation of medial elastin fibers in the aortas. Zinc supplementation also obviously attenuated infiltration of the macrophages and lymphocytes in the aortas. In addition, zinc reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 production in the aortas. Most importantly, zinc treatment significantly induced A20 expression, along with inhibition of the NF-κB canonical signaling pathway in vitro in VSMCs and in vivo in rat AAA. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that zinc supplementation could prevent the development of rat experimental AAA by induction of A20-mediated inhibition of the NF-κB canonical signaling pathway. PMID:26918963

  10. Zinc Prevents Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation by Induction of A20-Mediated Suppression of NF-κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ya-Wei; Fan, Jun; Bai, Shu-Ling; Hou, Wei-Jian; Li, Xiang; Tong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and degradation of elastin are the main processes in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Recent studies show that zinc has an anti-inflammatory effect. Based on these, zinc may render effective therapy for the treatment of the AAA. Currently, we want to investigate the effects of zinc on AAA progression and its related molecular mechanism. Rat AAA models were induced by periaortic application of CaCl2. AAA rats were treated by daily intraperitoneal injection of ZnSO4 or vehicle alone. The aorta segments were collected at 4 weeks after surgery. The primary rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were stimulated with TNF-α alone or with ZnSO4 for 3 weeks. The results showed that zinc supplementation significantly suppressed the CaCl2-induced expansion of the abdominal aortic diameter, as well as a preservation of medial elastin fibers in the aortas. Zinc supplementation also obviously attenuated infiltration of the macrophages and lymphocytes in the aortas. In addition, zinc reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 production in the aortas. Most importantly, zinc treatment significantly induced A20 expression, along with inhibition of the NF-κB canonical signaling pathway in vitro in VSMCs and in vivo in rat AAA. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that zinc supplementation could prevent the development of rat experimental AAA by induction of A20-mediated inhibition of the NF-κB canonical signaling pathway. PMID:26918963

  11. Method for extracting the aorta from 3D CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2007-03-01

    Bronchoscopic biopsy of the central-chest lymph nodes is vital in the staging of lung cancer. Three-dimensional multi-detector CT (MDCT) images provide vivid anatomical detail for planning bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, many lymph nodes are situated close to the aorta, and an inadvertent needle biopsy could puncture the aorta, causing serious harm. As an eventual aid for more complete planning of lymph-node biopsy, it is important to define the aorta. This paper proposes a method for extracting the aorta from a 3D MDCT chest image. The method has two main phases: (1) Off-line Model Construction, which provides a set of training cases for fitting new images, and (2) On-Line Aorta Construction, which is used for new incoming 3D MDCT images. Off-Line Model Construction is done once using several representative human MDCT images and consists of the following steps: construct a likelihood image, select control points of the medial axis of the aortic arch, and recompute the control points to obtain a constant-interval medial-axis model. On-Line Aorta Construction consists of the following operations: construct a likelihood image, perform global fitting of the precomputed models to the current case's likelihood image to find the best fitting model, perform local fitting to adjust the medial axis to local data variations, and employ a region recovery method to arrive at the complete constructed 3D aorta. The region recovery method consists of two steps: model-based and region-growing steps. This region growing method can recover regions outside the model coverage and non-circular tube structures. In our experiments, we used three models and achieved satisfactory results on twelve of thirteen test cases.

  12. Abdominal imaging: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures.

  13. Abdominal Superficial Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Rachel; Shelef, Ilan; Rudich, Assaf; Gepner, Yftach; Shemesh, Elad; Chassidim, Yoash; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Henkin, Yaakov; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Ben Avraham, Sivan; Witkow, Shula; Liberty, Idit F.; Tangi-Rosental, Osnat; Sarusi, Benjamin; Stampfer, Meir J.; Shai, Iris

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Unlike visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the association between subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and obesity-related morbidity is controversial. In patients with type 2 diabetes, we assessed whether this variability can be explained by a putative favorable, distinct association between abdominal superficial SAT (SSAT) (absolute amount or its proportion) and cardiometabolic parameters. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 73 patients with diabetes (mean age 58 years, 83% were men) and cross-sectionally analyzed fat distribution at S1-L5, L5-L4, and L3-L2 levels. Patients completed food frequency questionnaires, and subgroups had 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and 24-h ambulatory electrocardiography. RESULTS Women had higher %SSAT (37 vs. 23% in men; P < 0.001) despite a similar mean waist circumference. Fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.046) and HbA1c (P = 0.006) were both lower with increased tertile of absolute SSAT. In regression models adjusted for age, waist circumference, and classes of medical treatments used in this patient population, increased %SSAT was significantly associated with decreased HbA1c (β = −0.317; P = 0.013), decreased daytime ambulatory blood pressure (β = −0.426; P = 0.008), and increased HDL cholesterol (β = 0.257; P = 0.042). In contrast, increased percent of deep SAT (DSAT) was associated with increased HbA1c (β = 0.266; P = 0.040) and poorer heart rate variability parameters (P = 0.030). Although total fat and energy intake were not correlated with fat tissue distribution, increased intake of trans fat tended to be associated with total SAT (r = 0.228; P = 0.05) and DSAT (r = 0.20; P = 0.093), but not with SSAT. CONCLUSIONS Abdominal SAT is composed of two subdepots that associate differently with cardiometabolic parameters. Higher absolute and relative distribution of fat in abdominal SSAT may signify beneficial cardiometabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:22344612

  14. Functional abdominal bloating.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, S N

    1994-07-01

    Ten to 25% of healthy persons have bloating at some time or other. It is very common in those with the irritable bowel syndrome, constipation, or anorexia nervosa. Although the cause of functional bloating remains unknown, old explanations such as a low diaphragm, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, and psychiatric problems have been disproved. New suggestions on its etiology include recent weight gain, weak abdominal muscles, and retained fluid in loops of small intestine. No treatment is of proven benefit, but treatment by weight loss, exercise, and prokinetics should be studied. PMID:7930428

  15. Recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Stickler, G B; Murphy, D B

    1979-05-01

    A long-term follow-up study (minimum of five years) of 161 children with recurrent abdominal pain disclosed that three had organic disease and that was missed--inflammatory bowel disease. Anorexia nervosa developed in one patient. Three fourths of the patients recovered from the initial symptom; most recovered within a few weeks; but some patients continued to have complaints for a number of years. Approximately 20% of patients underwent additional surgical or medical treatments of doubtful necessity. In 18% of patients, other psychosomatic symptoms developed. PMID:433872

  16. Lower Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, David J; Lee, Stephen D; Dubin, Jeffrey S

    2016-05-01

    Although most frequently presenting with lower abdominal pain, appendicitis, colitis, and diverticulitis can cause pain throughout the abdomen and can cause peritoneal and retroperitoneal symptoms. Evaluation and management of lower intestinal disease requires a nuanced approach by the emergency physician, sometimes requiring computed tomography, ultrasonography, MRI, layered imaging, shared decision making, serial examination, and/or close follow-up. Once a presumed or confirmed diagnosis is made, appropriate treatment is initiated, and may include surgery, antibiotics, and/or steroids. Appendicitis patients should be admitted. Diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease can frequently be managed on an outpatient basis, but may require admission and surgical consultation. PMID:27133242

  17. Modification of an endovascular stent graft for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moloye, Olajompo Busola

    Endovascular surgery is currently used to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). A stent graft is deployed to exclude blood flow from the aneurysm sac. It is an effective procedure used in preventing aneurysm rupture, with reduced patient morbidity and mortality compared to open surgical repair. Migration and leakage around the device ("endoleak") due to poor sealing of the stent graft to the aorta have raised concerns about the long-term durability of endovascular repair. A preliminary study of cell migration and proliferation is presented as a prelude to a more extensive in vivo testing. A method to enhance the biological seal between the stent graft and the aorta is proposed to eliminate this problem. This can be achieved by impregnating the stent graft with 50/50 poly (DL-lactide co glycolic acid) (PLGA) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), at the proximal and distal ends. It is hypothesized that as PLGA degrades it will release the growth factors that will promote proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells to the coated site, leading to a natural seal between the aorta and the stent graft. In addition, growth factor release should promote smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction that will help keep the stent graft in place at the proximal and distal ends. It is shown that a statistically significant effect of increased cell proliferation and migration is observed for CTGF release. Less of an effect is noted for bFGF or just the PLGA. The effect is estimated to be large enough to be clinically significant in a future animal study. The long term goal of this study is to reduce migration encounter after graft deployment and to reduce secondary interventions of EVAR especially for older patients who are unfit for open surgical treatment.

  18. B2 Cells Suppress Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Akshaya K.; Johnston, William F.; Lu, Guanyi; Pope, Nicolas H.; Bhamidipati, Castigliano M.; Harmon, Daniel B.; Su, Gang; Zhao, Yunge; McNamara, Coleen A.; Upchurch, Gilbert R.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports of rupture in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) receiving B-cell depletion therapy highlight the importance of understanding the role of B cells (B1 and B2 subsets) in the development of AAA. We hypothesized that B2 cells aggravate experimental aneurysm formation. The IHC staining revealed infiltration of B cells in the aorta of wild-type (C57BL/6) mice at day 7 after elastase perfusion and persisted through day 21. Quantification of immune cell types using flow cytometry at day 14 showed significantly greater infiltration of mononuclear cells, including B cells (B2: 93% of total B cells) and T cells in elastase-perfused aortas compared with saline-perfused or normal aortas. muMT (mature B-cell deficient) mice were prone to AAA formation similar to wild-type mice in two different experimental AAA models. Contradicting our hypothesis, adoptive transfer of B2 cells suppressed AAA formation (102.0% ± 7.3% versus 75.2% ± 5.5%; P < 0.05) with concomitant increase in the splenic regulatory T cell (0.24% ± 0.03% versus 0.92% ± 0.23%; P < 0.05) and decrease in aortic infiltration of mononuclear cells. Our data suggest that B2 cells constitute the largest population of B cells in experimental AAA. Furthermore, B2 cells, in the absence of other B-cell subsets, increase splenic regulatory T-cell population and suppress AAA formation. PMID:25194661

  19. Spiral blood flow in aorta-renal bifurcation models.

    PubMed

    Javadzadegan, Ashkan; Simmons, Anne; Barber, Tracie

    2016-07-01

    The presence of a spiral arterial blood flow pattern in humans has been widely accepted. It is believed that this spiral component of the blood flow alters arterial haemodynamics in both positive and negative ways. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of spiral flow on haemodynamic changes in aorta-renal bifurcations. In this regard, a computational fluid dynamics analysis of pulsatile blood flow was performed in two idealised models of aorta-renal bifurcations with and without flow diverter. The results show that the spirality effect causes a substantial variation in blood velocity distribution, while causing only slight changes in fluid shear stress patterns. The dominant observed effect of spiral flow is on turbulent kinetic energy and flow recirculation zones. As spiral flow intensity increases, the rate of turbulent kinetic energy production decreases, reducing the region of potential damage to red blood cells and endothelial cells. Furthermore, the recirculation zones which form on the cranial sides of the aorta and renal artery shrink in size in the presence of spirality effect; this may lower the rate of atherosclerosis development and progression in the aorta-renal bifurcation. These results indicate that the spiral nature of blood flow has atheroprotective effects in renal arteries and should be taken into consideration in analyses of the aorta and renal arteries. PMID:26414530

  20. Helical CT angiography of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G D

    1997-04-01

    Five years after its introduction (11,36), spiral or helical CTA is being embraced as an important noninvasive tool for imaging the thoracic aorta and its branches. The high degree of accessibility and ease with which the studies are performed make it a viable alternative to aortography in the acute setting. Once the examiner is familiar with the principles of CTA, the acquisition phase of the examination can be completed in as little as 15 minutes, but it is critical that a thorough understanding of these principles guide the radiologist to maximize information gained by the technique. Several important challenges remain for CTA. First, the proliferation of image-processing workstations and software is improving our ability to exploit these CT data by allowing us to visualize them in novel ways (37) and create alternative renderings with greater ease and speed. Before relying on these alternative visualization techniques, their accuracy and pitfalls, and the incremental gain they achieve over interpretation of the primary transverse sections must be fully established. This requires that carefully designed studies with multiple blinded and independent reviewers isolate interpretative variations based on rendering technique alone, and not a combination of rendering and acquisition techniques where variables readily are confounded (38). Second, more investigators must step forward with results of the clinical utility of CTA to triage patients appropriately and direct medical and surgical therapy. Although well designed prospective comparisons of imaging examinations and measurement of patient outcomes are challenging to implement, they are critical to the rational selection of appropriate diagnostic tests. This is particularly true for the application of helical CTA to imaging of the posttraumatic aortic and aortic dissection. Finally, helical CT technology is far from static. Every year, new advances in engineering bring better image quality, improved resolution, and faster scan times. As medical imagers, we must not become complacent, but rather constantly challenge ourselves to consider how we might further improve on our use of CT equipment to maximize the collection of information relevant to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:9179826

  1. Geometric morphometric footprint analysis of young women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most published attempts to quantify footprint shape are based on a small number of measurements. We applied geometric morphometric methods to study shape variation of the complete footprint outline in a sample of 83 adult women. Methods The outline of the footprint, including the toes, was represented by a comprehensive set of 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Shape coordinates were computed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Results The first four principal components represented the major axes of variation in foot morphology: low-arched versus high-arched feet, long and narrow versus short and wide feet, the relative length of the hallux, and the relative length of the forefoot. These shape features varied across the measured individuals without any distinct clusters or discrete types of footprint shape. A high body mass index (BMI) was associated with wide and flat feet, and a high frequency of wearing high-heeled shoes was associated with a larger forefoot area of the footprint and a relatively long hallux. Larger feet had an increased length-to-width ratio of the footprint, a lower-arched foot, and longer toes relative to the remaining foot. Footprint shape differed on average between left and right feet, and the variability of footprint asymmetry increased with BMI. Conclusions Foot shape is affected by lifestyle factors even in a sample of young women (median age 23 years). Geometric morphometrics proved to be a powerful tool for the detailed analysis of footprint shape that is applicable in various scientific disciplines, including forensics, orthopedics, and footwear design. PMID:23886074

  2. [Pathophysiology of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Michele

    2011-08-01

    Abdominal pain can be induced by stimulation of visceral nociceptors. Activation of nociceptors usually requires previous sensitization by pathological events, such as inflammation, ischemia or acidosis. Although abdominal pain can obviously be caused by pathology of a visceral structure, clinicians frequently observe that such a pathology explains only part of the pain complaints. Occasionally, there is lack of objective signs of visceral lesions. There is clear evidence that pain states are associated with profound changes of the central processing of the sensory input. The main consequences of such alterations for patients are twofold: 1) a central sensitization, i.e. an increased excitability of the central nervous system; 2) an alteration of the endogenous pain modulation, which under normal conditions inhibits the processing of nociceptive signals in the central nervous system. Both phenomena lead to a spread of pain to other body regions and an amplification of the pain perception. The interactions between visceral pathology and alterations of the central pain processes represent an at least partial explanation for the discrepancy between objective signs of peripheral lesions and severity of the symptoms. Today, both central hypersensitivity and alteration in endogenous pain modulation can be measured in clinical practice. This information can be used to provide the patients with an explanatory model for their pain. Furthermore, first data suggest that alterations in central pain processing may represent negative prognostic factors. A better understanding of the individual pathophysiology may allow in the future the development of individual therapeutic strategies. PMID:21796591

  3. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and histological, clinical, radiological correlation.

    PubMed

    Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita; Bonomini, Francesca; Peroni, Michele; Cocchi, Marco Angelo; Hirtler, Lena; Bonardelli, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    To date, the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA) still remains unclear. As such, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes of the aortic structure during AAA. We analysed the microscopic frame of vessels sections, starting from the primum movens leading to abnormal dilatation. AAA samples were collected and processed through various staining methods (Verhoeff-Van Gieson, Masson Goldner, Sirius Red). Subsequently, the vessel morphology and collagenic web of the tunica media and adventitia were determined and the amount of type I and type III collagen was measured. We also applied immune-histochemistry markers for CD34 and PGP 9.5 in order to identify vascular and nerve structures in the aorta. Immune-positivity quantification was used to calculate the percentage of the stained area. We found increasing deposition of type I collagen and reduced type III collagen in both tunica media and adventitia of AAA. The total amount of vasa vasorum, marked with CD34, and nerva vasorum, marked with PGP 9.5, was also higher in AAA samples. Cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking) and radiological data (maximum aneurism diameter, intra-luminal thrombus, aortic wall calcification) increased these changes. These results suggest that the tunica adventitia may have a central role in the pathogenesis of AAA as clearly there are major changes characterized by rooted inflammatory infiltration. The presence of immune components could explain these modifications within the framework of the aorta. PMID:26858185

  4. Improving the Efficiency of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress Computations

    PubMed Central

    Zelaya, Jaime E.; Goenezen, Sevan; Dargon, Phong T.; Azarbal, Amir-Farzin; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a pathological dilation of the abdominal aorta, which carries a high mortality rate if ruptured. The most commonly used surrogate marker of rupture risk is the maximal transverse diameter of the aneurysm. More recent studies suggest that wall stress from models of patient-specific aneurysm geometries extracted, for instance, from computed tomography images may be a more accurate predictor of rupture risk and an important factor in AAA size progression. However, quantification of wall stress is typically computationally intensive and time-consuming, mainly due to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the abdominal aortic aneurysm walls. These difficulties have limited the potential of computational models in clinical practice. To facilitate computation of wall stresses, we propose to use a linear approach that ensures equilibrium of wall stresses in the aneurysms. This proposed linear model approach is easy to implement and eliminates the burden of nonlinear computations. To assess the accuracy of our proposed approach to compute wall stresses, results from idealized and patient-specific model simulations were compared to those obtained using conventional approaches and to those of a hypothetical, reference abdominal aortic aneurysm model. For the reference model, wall mechanical properties and the initial unloaded and unstressed configuration were assumed to be known, and the resulting wall stresses were used as reference for comparison. Our proposed linear approach accurately approximates wall stresses for varying model geometries and wall material properties. Our findings suggest that the proposed linear approach could be used as an effective, efficient, easy-to-use clinical tool to estimate patient-specific wall stresses. PMID:25007052

  5. Generation of Aorta Transcript Atlases of Wild-Type and Apolipoprotein E-null Mice by Laser Capture Microdissection-Based mRNA Expression Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Yin, Changjun; Mohanta, Sarajo; Ma, Zhe; Weber, Christian; Hu, Desheng; Weih, Falk; Habenicht, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a transmural chronic inflammatory disease of medium and large arteries. Though it is well recognized that immune responses contribute to atherosclerosis, it remains unclear whether these responses are carried out in secondary lymphoid organs such as the spleen and lymph nodes and/or within the arterial wall. Arteries are composed of three major layers, i.e., the laminae intima, media, and adventitia. However, each of these layers may play different roles in arterial wall biology and atherogenesis. We identified well-structured artery tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs) in the abdominal aorta adventitia but not in the intima of aged apolipoprotein E-null (ApoE(-/-)) mice. These observations suggested that disease-associated immune responses are highly territorialized within the arterial wall and that the adventitia may play distinct and hitherto unrecognized roles. Here, we set out to apply laser capture microdissection (LCM) to dissect plaque, media, adventitia, and adjacent aorta-draining lymph nodes (LN) in aged ApoE(-/-) mice in attempts to establish the territoriality of atherosclerosis immune responses. Using whole-genome mRNA expression microarrays of arterial wall tissues, we constructed robust transcript atlases of wild-type and ApoE(-/-) mouse aortas. Data were deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information's gene expression omnibus (GEO) and are accessible to the public through the Internet. These transcript atlases are anticipated to prove valuable to address a wide scope of issues ranging from atherosclerosis immunity and inflammation to the role of single genes in regulating arterial wall remodeling. This chapter presents protocols for LCM of mouse aorta and microarray expression analysis from LCM-isolated aorta laminae. PMID:26445797

  6. Electroosmotic Characteristics of Canine Aorta and Vena Cava Wall

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Philip N.; Harshaw, David H.

    1966-01-01

    Experiments in which canine aorta and vena cava walls are subjected to electroosmosis in an open system at constant pressure are described. Electroosmosis reveals that the blood vessel walls studied have a negative zeta potential. The calculated zeta potentials are different for aorta and vena cava, -9.0 5.0 mv compared with -4.7 1.2 mv, respectively, and again of different magnitude with different bathing solutions. The calculated membrane pore charge per centimeter of effective pore surface in statcoulombs is approximately 6.2 103 for aorta compared with 3.5 103 for vena cava. The implications of the negative electroosmotic zeta potential in terms of the surrounding electric double layer, ion transport, and thrombosis are briefly discussed. PMID:5970568

  7. Cardiovascular syphilis complicated by Lower thoracic and upper abdominal aneurysm – A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Gayathri, K.; Shankar, S. Vijay; Venkatesan, S.; Kalaivani, S.

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old male presented with left lower abdominal pain, visible pulsation below xiphoid process, and tenderness in the left iliac fossa for the past 10 days. Chest X-ray revealed blunting of left cardiophrenic angle. Echocardiogram revealed descending thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest and abdomen revealed dissecting aneurysm of lower thoracic and upper abdominal aorta. Thoracoabdominal aortogram revealed erosion of D12 vertebra and infected aneurysm of adjacent thoracoabdominal aorta. Serum venereal disease research laboratory assay was positive in 1:4 dilution Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was positive. The patient was treated with Injection procaine penicillin for 20 days undercover of steroids. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was normal. Aortic aneurysm repair with reconstruction was done. Histopathology was in favor of syphilitic etiology. This case is being presented as descending thoracic and upper abdominal aortic aneurysm due to syphilis complicated by dissection and erosion of vertebral body is rare and has not been reported nowadays to the best of our knowledge. PMID:27190418

  8. Cardiovascular syphilis complicated by Lower thoracic and upper abdominal aneurysm - A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Gayathri, K; Shankar, S Vijay; Venkatesan, S; Kalaivani, S

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old male presented with left lower abdominal pain, visible pulsation below xiphoid process, and tenderness in the left iliac fossa for the past 10 days. Chest X-ray revealed blunting of left cardiophrenic angle. Echocardiogram revealed descending thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest and abdomen revealed dissecting aneurysm of lower thoracic and upper abdominal aorta. Thoracoabdominal aortogram revealed erosion of D12 vertebra and infected aneurysm of adjacent thoracoabdominal aorta. Serum venereal disease research laboratory assay was positive in 1:4 dilution Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was positive. The patient was treated with Injection procaine penicillin for 20 days undercover of steroids. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was normal. Aortic aneurysm repair with reconstruction was done. Histopathology was in favor of syphilitic etiology. This case is being presented as descending thoracic and upper abdominal aortic aneurysm due to syphilis complicated by dissection and erosion of vertebral body is rare and has not been reported nowadays to the best of our knowledge. PMID:27190418

  9. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor protects against abdominal aortic aneurysm in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Fukuda, Yamato; Takayanagi, Takehiko; Taro, Yoshinori; Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; Elliott, Katherine J; Choi, Eric; Daugherty, Alan; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been implicated in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), Ang II activates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediating growth promotion. We hypothesized that inhibition of EGFR prevents Ang II-dependent AAA. C57BL/6 mice were co-treated with Ang II and β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) to induce AAA with or without treatment with EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib. Without erlotinib, 64.3% of mice were dead due to aortic rupture. All surviving mice had AAA associated with EGFR activation. Erlotinib-treated mice did not die and developed far fewer AAA. The maximum diameters of abdominal aortas were significantly shorter with erlotinib treatment. In contrast, both erlotinib-treated and non-treated mice developed hypertension. The erlotinib treatment of abdominal aorta was associated with lack of EGFR activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, interleukin-6 induction and matrix deposition. EGFR activation in AAA was also observed in humans. In conclusion, EGFR inhibition appears to protect mice from AAA formation induced by Ang II plus BAPN. The mechanism seems to involve suppression of vascular EGFR and ER stress. PMID:25531554

  10. Saccular aneurysm caused by bacterial endocarditis in a syphilitic aorta

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. M.; McMillan, I. K. R.; Johnson, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Robinson, W.M., McMillan, I.K.R., and Johnson, A. M. (1973). Thorax, 529-532. Saccular aneurysm caused by bacterial endocarditis in a syphilitic aorta. The rapid development of a saccular aneurysm during successfully treated bacterial endocarditis, in an ascending aorta previously affected by syphilis which had been treated with adequate chemotherapy 15 years previously, is described. Although bacterial endocarditis does occasionally complicate syphilitic aortic valve disease, the literature does not contain any report of resulting aneurysm development. The investigation and successful surgical treatment of the case are described. Images PMID:4741460

  11. Demonstration of coarctation of the aorta by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Amparo, E.; Higgins, C.B.; Shafton, E.P.

    1984-12-01

    The physical findings in coarctation of the aorta are sufficiently characteristic to allow a reasonably accurate clinical diagnosis. The preoperative evaluation has been accomplished by catheterization, aortography, intravenous digital subtraction angiography, computed tomography (CT), and two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography. The authors report a case of coarctation of the aorta clinically suspected in a 29-year-old man. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was the initial preoperative imaging technique. In retrospect, it provided sufficient information for preoperative evaluation so that other imaging techniques would not have been required.

  12. Frequent neurally mediated reflex syncope in a young patient with dextrocardia: Efficacy of catheter ablation of the superior vena cava-aorta ganglionated plexus.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Hidetaka; Murakami, Masato; Tani, Tomoyuki; Saito, Shigeru

    2015-06-01

    Neurally mediated reflex syncope is the most common cause of syncope in young individuals without cardiac or neurological pathology. We report a case of successful catheter ablation in a 17-year-old male with neurally mediated syncope (NMS) of the cardioinhibitory type. The patient had dextrocardia situs inversus totalis with a mirror-image reversal of the thoracic and abdominal organs. Because he experienced multiple syncope episodes despite pharmacological intervention, we performed endocardial ablation of the superior vena cava-aorta ganglionated plexus. Shortly afterwards, his heart rate increased from 40 to 76 beats per minutes. He has not experienced syncope during the 1-year follow-up. PMID:26336554

  13. Frequent neurally mediated reflex syncope in a young patient with dextrocardia: Efficacy of catheter ablation of the superior vena cava–aorta ganglionated plexus

    PubMed Central

    Suenaga, Hidetaka; Murakami, Masato; Tani, Tomoyuki; Saito, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Neurally mediated reflex syncope is the most common cause of syncope in young individuals without cardiac or neurological pathology. We report a case of successful catheter ablation in a 17-year-old male with neurally mediated syncope (NMS) of the cardioinhibitory type. The patient had dextrocardia situs inversus totalis with a mirror-image reversal of the thoracic and abdominal organs. Because he experienced multiple syncope episodes despite pharmacological intervention, we performed endocardial ablation of the superior vena cava–aorta ganglionated plexus. Shortly afterwards, his heart rate increased from 40 to 76 beats per minutes. He has not experienced syncope during the 1-year follow-up. PMID:26336554

  14. MORPHOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN ENGLISH SOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present an application of the powerful thin plate spline method of morphometric analysis to demonstrate its utility for detecting environmental stress in an estuarine flatfish. Juvenile English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) were captured from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, photographed w...

  15. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  16. CT of abdominal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.

  17. System and method for 3-D/3-D registration between non-contrast-enhanced CBCT and contrast-enhanced CT for abdominal aortic aneurysm stenting.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shun; Liao, Rui; Pfister, Marcus; Zhang, Li; Ordy, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an image guidance system for abdominal aortic aneurysm stenting, which brings pre-operative 3-D computed tomography (CT) into the operating room by registering it against intra-operative non-contrast-enhanced cone-beam CT (CBCT). Registration between CT and CBCT volumes is a challenging task due to two factors: the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio of the abdominal aorta in CBCT without contrast enhancement, and the drastically different field of view between the two image modalities. The proposed automatic registration method handles the first issue through a fast quasi-global search utilizing surrogate 2-D images, and solves the second problem by relying on neighboring dominant structures of the abdominal aorta (i.e. the spine) for initial coarse alignment, and using a confined and image-processed volume of interest around the abdominal aorta for fine registration. The proposed method is validated offline using 17 clinical datasets, and achieves 1.48 mm target registration error and 100% success rate in 2.83 s. The prototype system has been installed in hospitals for clinical trial and applied in around 30 clinical cases, with 100% success rate reported qualitatively. PMID:24505689

  18. Geometric morphometric analysis reveals sexual dimorphism in the distal femur.

    PubMed

    Cavaignac, Etienne; Savall, Frederic; Faruch, Marie; Reina, Nicolas; Chiron, Philippe; Telmon, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    An individual's sex can be determined by the shape of their distal femur. The goal of this study was to show that differences in distal femur shape related to sexual dimorphism could be identified, visualized, and quantified using 3D geometric morphometric analysis. Geometric morphometric analysis was carried out on CT scans of the distal femur of 256 subjects living in the south of France. Ten landmarks were defined on 3D reconstructions of the distal femur. Both traditional metric and geometric morphometric analyses were carried out on these bone reconstructions; these analyses identified trends in bone shape in sex-based subgroups. Sex-related differences in shape were statistically significant. The subject's sex was correctly assigned in 77.3% of cases using geometric morphometric analysis. This study has shown that geometric morphometric analysis of the distal femur is feasible and has revealed sexual dimorphism differences in this bone segment. This reliable, accurate method could be used for virtual autopsy and be used to perform diachronic and interethnic comparisons. Moreover, this study provides updated morphometric data for a modern population in the south of France. PMID:26743712

  19. Biometrics, biomathematics and the morphometric synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bookstein, F L

    1996-03-01

    At the core of contemporary morphometrics--the quantitative study of biological shape variation--is a synthesis of two originally divergent methodological styles. One contributory tradition is the multivariate analysis of covariance matrices originally developed as biometrics and now dominant across a broad expanse of applied statistics. This approach, couched solely in the linear geometry of covariance structures, ignores biomathematical aspects of the original measurements. The other tributary emphasizes the direct visualization of changes in biological form. However, making objective the biological meaning of the features seen in those diagrams was always problematical; also, the representation of variation, as distinct from pairwise difference, proved infeasible. To combine these two variants of biomathematical modeling into a valid praxis for quantitative studies of biological shape was a goal earnestly sought though most of this century. That goal was finally achieved in the 1980s when techniques from mathematical statistics, multivariate biometrics, non-Euclidean geometry and computer graphics were combined in a coherent new system of tools for the complete regionalized quantitative analysis of landmark points together with the biomedical images in which they are seen. In this morphometric synthesis, correspondence of landmarks (biologically labeled geometric points, like "bridge of the nose") across specimens is taken as a biomathematical primitive. The shapes of configurations of landmarks are defined as equivalence classes with respect to the Euclidean similarity group and then represented as single points in David Kendall's shape space, a Riemannian manifold with Procrustes distance as metric. All conventional multivariate strategies carry over to the study of shape variation and covariation when shapes are interpreted in the tangent space to the shape manifold at an average shape. For biomathematical interpretation of such analyses, one needs a basis for the tangent space compatible with the reality of local biotheoretical processes and explanations at many different geometric scales, and one needs graphics for visualizing average shape differences and other statistical contrasts there. Both of these needs are managed by the thin-plate spline, a deformation function that has an unusually helpful linear algebra. The spline also links the biometrics of landmarks to deformation analysis of the images from which the landmarks originally arose. This article reviews the history and principal tools of this synthesis in their biomathematical and biometrical context and demonstrates their usefulness in a study of focal neuroanatomical anomalies in schizophrenia. PMID:8713662

  20. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Level Contributes to Structural Integrity and Component Production of Elastic Fibers in the Aorta.

    PubMed

    Tai, Haw-Chih; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chen, Ju-Yi; Lai, Chao-Han; Wang, Kuan-Chieh; Teng, Shih-Hua; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Alice Y W; Jiang, Meei-Jyh; Li, Yi-Heng; Wu, Hua-Lin; Maeda, Nobuyo; Tsai, Yau-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Loss of integrity and massive disruption of elastic fibers are key features of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been shown to attenuate AAA through inhibition of inflammation and proteolytic degradation. However, its involvement in elastogenesis during AAA remains unclear. PPARγ was highly expressed in human AAA within all vascular cells, including inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. In the aortas of transgenic mice expressing PPARγ at 25% normal levels (Pparg(C) (/-) mice), we observed the fragmentation of elastic fibers and reduced expression of vital elastic fiber components of elastin and fibulin-5. These were not observed in mice with 50% normal PPARγ expression (Pparg(+/-) mice). Infusion of a moderate dose of angiotensin II (500 ng/kg per minute) did not induce AAA but Pparg(+/-) aorta developed flattened elastic lamellae, whereas Pparg(C/-) aorta showed severe destruction of elastic fibers. After infusion of angiotensin II at 1000 ng/kg per minute, 73% of Pparg(C/-) mice developed atypical suprarenal aortic aneurysms: superior mesenteric arteries were dilated with extensive collagen deposition in adventitia and infiltrations of inflammatory cells. Although matrix metalloproteinase inhibition by doxycycline somewhat attenuated the dilation of aneurysm, it did not reduce the incidence nor elastic lamella deterioration in angiotensin II-infused Pparg(C/-) mice. Furthermore, PPARγ antagonism downregulated elastin and fibulin-5 in fibroblasts, but not in vascular smooth muscle cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated PPARγ binding in the genomic sequence of fibulin-5 in fibroblasts. Our results underscore the importance of PPARγ in AAA development though orchestrating proper elastogenesis and preserving elastic fiber integrity. PMID:27045031

  1. Techniques of imaging of the aorta and its first order branches by endoscopic ultrasound (with videos)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Malay; Rai, Praveer; Mehta, Varun; Rameshbabu, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a useful modality for imaging of the blood vessels of the mediastinum and abdomen. The aorta acts as an important home base during EUS imaging. The aorta and its branches are accessible by standard angiographic methods, but endosonography also provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the aorta and its branches. This article describes the techniques of imaging of different part of the aorta by EUS. PMID:26020043

  2. Abdominal aortic aneurysm demonstrated on renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Phisitkul, Sorot; Brian, Susan; Rakvit, Ariwan; Jenkins, Leigh A; Bohannon, W Todd; Harris, Jennifer; Tsikouris, James; Silva, Michael B; Meyerrose, Gary E

    2003-08-01

    A 74-year-old hypertensive woman presented with abdominal discomfort and a pulsatile abdominal mass. Anterior abdominal angiography during cardiac blood pool, and renal scintigraphic imaging demonstrated a large abdominal aortic aneurysm. 1, 2 Before endovascular repair with an aortoiliac endograft, the abdominal aneurysm measured 7.5 x 7.0 cm on abdominal computed tomography. This study demonstrates that a suspected abdominal aortic aneurysm can be confirmed using the addition of anterior abdominal imaging with normal posterior imaging at the time of renal scintigraphy. PMID:12897671

  3. Marfanoid hypermobility syndrome associated with coarctation of the aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Daneshwar, A; Tavakoli, D; Nazarian, J

    1979-01-01

    There are intimate interrelations between various elements of connective tissue, viz. collagen, elastin, and glycoproteins. It is not unexpected that Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes share common features. The condition is labelled as Marfanoid hypermobility syndrome. In the patient described here, the Marfanoid hypermobility syndrome was associated with coarctation of the aorta which was corrected surgically. Images PMID:465233

  4. [Evaluation of the blood coagulation system after surgeries on abdominal aortic aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Nikul'nikov, P I; Liksunov, O V; Ratushniuk, A V; Lugovs'koĭ, E V; Kolesnikova, I M; Lytvynova, L M; Kostiuchenko, O P; Chernyshenko, T M; Hornyts'ka, O V; Platonova, T M

    2012-09-01

    Basing on data of analysis of the hemostasis system state in the patients, suffering abdominal aorta aneurysm, a tendency for raising of postoperative soluble fibrin and D-dimer content in the blood plasm and reduction of these indices on the third day was noted. The abovementioned markers content depends on the aneurysm size, the fibrin deposits presence, the terms from clinical signs beginning to the certain therapy administration and anticoagulants application. Information about correlation between content of D-dimer and soluble fibrin in the treatment dynamics is important for determination of activation degree in the patients blood coagulation system and the thrombotic complications prognosis. PMID:23285650

  5. Numerical analysis of the hemodynamics of an abdominal aortic aneurysm repaired using the endovascular chimney technique.

    PubMed

    Ben Gur, Hila; Kosa, Gabor; Brand, Moshe

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the hemodynamics in an abdominal aorta (AA) with an aneurysm repaired by a stent graft (SG) system using the chimney technique. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted in a model of an AA repaired with a chimney stent graft (CSG) inserted into a renal artery parallel to an aortic SG and a model of a healthy AA. Comparing the simulation results of these two cases suggests that the presence of the CSG in the AA causes changes in average wall shear stress (WSS), potentially damaging recirculation zones, and additional changes in flow patterns. PMID:26736427

  6. Exploring Eucladoceros ecomorphology using geometric morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Curran, Sabrina C

    2015-01-01

    An increasingly common method for reconstructing paleoenvironmental parameters of hominin sites is ecological functional morphology (ecomorphology). This study provides a geometric morphometric study of cervid rearlimb morphology as it relates to phylogeny, size, and ecomorphology. These methods are then applied to an extinct Pleistocene cervid, Eucladoceros, which is found in some of the earliest hominin-occupied sites in Eurasia. Variation in cervid postcranial functional morphology associated with different habitats can be summarized as trade-offs between joint stability versus mobility and rapid movement versus power-generation. Cervids in open habitats emphasize limb stability to avoid joint dislocation during rapid flight from predators. Closed-adapted cervids require more joint mobility to rapidly switch directions in complex habitats. Two skeletal features (of the tibia and calcaneus) have significant phylogenetic signals, while two (the femur and third phalanx) do not. Additionally, morphology of two of these features (tibia and third phalanx) were correlated with body size. For the tibial analysis (but not the third phalanx) this correlation was ameliorated when phylogeny was taken into account. Eucladoceros specimens from France and Romania fall on the more open side of the habitat continuum, a result that is at odds with reconstructions of their diet as browsers, suggesting that they may have had a behavioral regime unlike any extant cervid. PMID:25338504

  7. How morphometric characteristics affect flow accumulation values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farek, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Remote sensing methods (like aerial based LIDAR recording, land-use recording etc.) become continually more available and accurate. On the other hand in-situ surveying is still expensive. Above all in small, anthropogenically uninfluenced catchments, with poor, or non-existing surveying network could be remote sensing methods extremely useful. Overland flow accumulation (FA) values belong to important indicators of higher flash floods or soil erosion exposure. This value gives the number of cells of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) grid, which are drained to each point of the catchment. This contribution deals with relations between basic geomorphological and morphometric characteristics (like hypsometric integral, Melton index of subcatchment etc.) and FA values. These relations are studied in the rocky sandstone landscapes of National park Ceské Svycarsko with the particular occurrence of broken relief. All calculations are based on high-resolution LIDAR DEM named Genesis created by TU Dresden. The main computational platform is GIS GRASS . The goal of the conference paper is to submit a quick method or indicators to estimate small particular subcatchments threatened by higher flash floods or soil erosion risks, without the necessity of using sophisticated rainfall-runoff models. There is a possibility to split catchments easily to small subcatchments (or use existing disjunction), compute basic characteristics and (with knowledge of links between this characteristics and FA values) identify, which particular subcatchment is potentially threatened by flash floods or soil erosion.

  8. Serial postmortem abdominal radiographic findings in canine cadavers.

    PubMed

    Heng, Hock Gan; Selvarajah, Gayathri Thevi; Lim, Hiang Tee; Ong, Jin Seng; Lim, Jiehan; Ooi, Jin Tatt

    2009-11-20

    Postmortem radiographic examinations of animals are often performed in judicial investigation to rule out gunshot and fractures due to cruelty or illegal hunting or poaching activities. Literature describing postmortem changes seen on radiographs of animals is rarely available. Serial abdominal radiography of 6 recently euthanized dogs were performed in an interval of 8h at a tropical ambient temperature of 22-33 degrees C. Severe decomposition of the cadavers prevented the study to be performed beyond 24h. Gradual increment of gas accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, kidney and blood vessels were observed. Increased amount of gas in the gastrointestinal tract was detected as early as 8h post-euthanasia and continuously increased throughout the study. Gas was seen in the portal vein and caudal vena cava of all cadavers at 16h post-euthanasia. The presence of gas in the aorta occurred at a later stage. Tubular branching gas pattern in the liver and spleen was first observed and progressed to vesicular gas pattern due to tissue decomposition. This study showed that abdominal radiographic postmortem changes occurred most rapidly between 8 and 16h post-euthanasia at the ambient temperature of 22-33 degrees C. PMID:19716666

  9. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  10. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. PMID:25398912

  11. CT of abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Epstein, B M; Mann, J H

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1)irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trail of antituberculous therapy) be instituted. PMID:6981966

  12. Fused Traditional and Geometric Morphometrics Demonstrate Pinniped Whisker Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ginter, Carly C.; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Fish, Frank E.; Marshall, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrissae (whiskers) are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system, and primarily function as detectors of vibrotactile information from the environment. Pinnipeds possess the largest vibrissae among mammals and their vibrissal hair shafts demonstrate a diversity of shapes. The vibrissae of most phocid seals exhibit a beaded morphology with repeating sequences of crests and troughs along their length. However, there are few detailed analyses of pinniped vibrissal morphology, and these are limited to a few species. Therefore, we comparatively characterized differences in vibrissal hair shaft morphologies among phocid species with a beaded profile, phocid species with a smooth profile, and otariids with a smooth profile using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Traditional morphometric measurements (peak-to-peak distance, crest width, trough width and total length) were collected using digital photographs. Elliptic Fourier analysis (geometric morphometrics) was used to quantify the outlines of whole vibrissae. The traditional and geometric morphometric datasets were subsequently combined by mathematically scaling each to true rank, followed by a single eigendecomposition. Quadratic discriminant function analysis demonstrated that 79.3, 97.8 and 100% of individuals could be correctly classified to their species based on vibrissal shape variables in the traditional, geometric and combined morphometric analyses, respectively. Phocids with beaded vibrissae, phocids with smooth vibrissae, and otariids each occupied distinct morphospace in the geometric morphometric and combined data analyses. Otariids split into two groups in the geometric morphometric analysis and gray seals appeared intermediate between beaded- and smooth-whiskered species in the traditional and combined analyses. Vibrissal hair shafts modulate the transduction of environmental stimuli to the mechanoreceptors in the follicle-sinus complex (F-SC), which results in vibrotactile reception, but it is currently unclear how the diversity of shapes affects environmental signal modulation. PMID:22509310

  13. Incentive spirometry after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Suja P

    Patients face various possible complications after abdominal surgery. This article examines best practice in guiding and teaching them how to use an incentive spirometer to facilitate recovery and prevent respiratory complications. PMID:22866486

  14. A rare but potentially lethal case of tuberculous aortic aneurysm presenting with repeated attacks of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yao-Min; Chang, Yun-Te; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Wang, Paul Yung-Pou; Wann, Shue-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculous aortic aneurysm is an extremely rare disease with a high mortality rate. The clinical features of this condition are highly variable, ranging from asymptomatic with or without constitutional symptoms, abdominal pain to frank rupture, bleeding and shock. We herein report the case of a 56-year-old man with a large tuberculous mycotic aneurysm in the abdominal aorta with an initial presentation of repeated attacks of abdominal pain lasting for several months. Due to the vague nature of the initial symptoms, tuberculous aortic aneurysms may take several months to diagnose. This case highlights the importance of having a high index of suspicion and providing timely surgery for this rare but potentially lethal disease. PMID:25948366

  15. Leucine and isoleucine as in vitro precursors for lipid synthesis by rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Stillway, L W; Weigand, D A; Riefler, J F; Buse, M G

    1977-12-01

    The in vitro conversion of 14C-labeled leucine, isoleucine, and pyruvate to specific lipids was compared in rat aorta, diaphragm, anf fat pad. Total lipid specific radioactivity from all precursors was greatest in aorta. The ratio of label incorporated into polar lipids vs. neutral lipids by aorta was generally several-fold that incorporated by muscle and fat pad. The labeling of sterols in the aorta from 14C-leucine and pyruvate was equivalent. It is concluded that leucine may be a substantial precursor to polar lipids and to sterols in rat aorta. PMID:593068

  16. Increased cardiovascular risk without generalized arterial dilating diathesis in persons who do not have abdominal aortic aneurysm but who are first-degree relatives of abdominal aortic aneurysm patients.

    PubMed

    De Basso, Rachel; Sandgren, Thomas; Ahlgren, Åsa Rydén; Länne, Toste

    2015-06-01

    There is a strong genetic predisposition towards abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), but it is unknown whether persons without AAA but with first-degree relatives who are AAA patients have a generalized dilating diathesis, defect arterial wall mechanics, or increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to investigate arterial diameters and wall mechanics at multiple arterial sites in these subjects and compare them with controls without a family history of AAA. This study included 118 first-degree relatives of patients with AAA and 66 controls (age: 40-80 years). The abdominal aorta, common carotid artery, common femoral artery, and popliteal artery were investigated by echo-tracking ultrasound. The relatives had no arterial dilatation, but they did tend to have smaller diameters than controls. Relatives had a higher heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure than controls. The distensibility coefficient and the compliance coefficient were decreased in all arteries in male relatives, adjusted for age and smoking; these coefficients were normalized after adjustment for mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Female relatives had a lower compliance coefficient in the abdominal aorta, adjusted for age and smoking. After adjustment for mean arterial pressure and heart rate, the difference disappeared. No general arterial dilatation in relatives without AAA was found, supporting the hypothesis that the dilating diathesis is linked to the aneurysmal manifestation in the abdominal aorta. Although the threat of aneurysmal dilatation and rupture seems to be lacking in these subjects, heart rate, blood pressure, and arterial wall stiffness were all increased, which may indicate a higher risk of developing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:25882720

  17. Customized fenestrated endovascular graft repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm with concomitant horseshoe kidney.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kai; Robinson, David; Bray, Alan

    2014-06-01

    The occurrence of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with horseshoe kidney (HSK) is an uncommon but complex surgical problem. This report outlines three such cases, the particular issues encountered and how customized endovascular grafts were successfully used to overcome them. Case one shows an accessory renal artery arising from the left common iliac artery, case two shows a right accessory renal artery from the AAA sac and case three has the right renal artery coming off the distal abdominal aorta within the sac. Across three patients, each graft had a single custom fenestration, which preserved a total of three major vessels with no change in renal function. Customized endografts are a viable tool to preserve aberrant vessels and thus renal mass in AAA and HSK. Customized endografts require an extensive work-up and are currently expensive to fabricate. However they are rapidly evolving as a mainstream tool in vascular surgery and provide a solution in cases of aberrant visceral vasculature. PMID:23526102

  18. Low prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in the Seychelles population aged 50 to 65 years.

    PubMed

    Yerly, Patrick; Madeleine, George; Riesen, Walter; Bovet, Pascal

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and its risk factors are well known in Western countries but few data are available from low- and middle- income countries. We are not aware of systematically collected population- based data on AAA in the African region. We evaluated the prevalence of AAA in a population- based cardiovascular survey conducted in the Republic of Seychelles in 2004 (Indian Ocean, African region). Among the 353 participants aged 50 to 64 years and screened with ultrasound, the prevalence of AAA was 0.3% (95% CI: 0- 0.9) and the prevalence of ectatic dilatations of the abdominal aorta was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.2- 2.8). The prevalence of AAA in the general population seemed lower in Seychelles than in Western countries, despite a high prevalence in Seychelles of risk factors of AAA, such as smoking (in men), high blood pressure and hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:23612948

  19. Hypoperfusion of the Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Develops an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Takaaki; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Sugiura, Yuki; Sato, Kohji; Kugo, Hirona; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Konno, Hiroyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Unno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The aortic wall is perfused by the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV). Tissue hypoxia has previously been observed as a manifestation of enlarged abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). We sought to determine whether hypoperfusion of the adventitial VV could develop AAAs. We created a novel animal model of adventitial VV hypoperfusion with a combination of a polyurethane catheter insertion and a suture ligation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta in rats. VV hypoperfusion caused tissue hypoxia and developed infrarenal AAA, which had similar morphological and pathological characteristics to human AAA. In human AAA tissue, the adventitial VV were stenotic in both small AAAs (30–49 mm in diameter) and in large AAAs (> 50 mm in diameter), with the sac tissue in these AAAs being ischemic and hypoxic. These results indicate that hypoperfusion of adventitial VV has critical effects on the development of infrarenal AAA. PMID:26308526

  20. Neonatal morphometrics after endurance exercise during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Clapp, J F; Capeless, E L

    1990-12-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that continuation of a regular running and/or aerobics program during late pregnancy at or above 50% of preconceptional levels limits fetal growth. Accordingly, detailed neonatal morphometric data were gathered in the offspring of two groups: 77 well-conditioned recreational runners and aerobic dancers who were delivered at term after continuing their exercise regimen at or above 50% of the preconceptional level throughout pregnancy and 55 matched controls. Daily exercise performance was quantitated before conception and throughout pregnancy. Significant reductions in birth weight (-310 gm), birth weight percentile (-20), ponderal index (-0.24), its percentile (-30), and the fetoplacental weight ratio (-0.7) were seen in the offspring of the exercise group whereas crown-heel length (51.4 cm) and head circumference (35.0) were similar in the two groups. Reductions in two-site skin-fold thickness (-1.5 mm), skin-fold percentile (-30), calculated percent body fat (-5.0%), and fat mass (-220 gm) in the offspring of the exercise group confirmed the asymmetric pattern of growth restriction and indicated that approximately 70% of the difference in birth weight could be explained by the difference in neonatal fat mass. In runners, the relative level of exercise performance in the last 5 months of pregnancy explained 40% of the variability in birth weight over an 1100 gm birth weight range. We conclude that continuation of a regular aerobic or running program at or above a minimal training level during late pregnancy results in an asymmetric pattern of growth restriction that primarily impacts on neonatal fat mass. PMID:2256486

  1. Morphometric Classification Of Martian Valley Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, S.; Reiss, D.; Hoyer, M.; Hauber, E.; Matz, K.-D.; Jaumann, R.

    We present a database containing morphometric information about the global distri- bution of Martian valley networks. The classification of valley networks is based on morphometry only (e.g. width to length relationship, amount of tributaries). This ap- proach avoids possible misinterpretations which might be induced by a genetic clas- sification (e.g., sapping valleys). Valleys were mapped on a Viking derived base map (i.e., the MDIM2 of the U.S. Geol. Survey). Elevations were measured in a spa- tially coregistered, MOLA-based digital elevation model (DEM) with a horizontal resolution of 500 m/pixel. Valleys and tributaries were subdivided into one or several straight segments. For each segment, we measured (a) the length, (b) the azimuth, (c) the elevation difference along the segment, and (d) the geographic coordinates of the start and end points. Four major types of valley networks were classified: begin{enumerate} longitudinal valley networks have short (i.e. shorter than the width of the main valley) or very few tributaries, dendritic valley networks have more than three tributaries and a width which is comparable to the length of the main branch, radial or (sub)-parallel channels which have no tributaries ("gullies"), valley networks, perpendicular to large canyon and graben systems ("slope valleys"). The compiled web-based database enables us to select all combinations of parameters within a class. A data plot will be generated automatically. The data can be exported to GIS software for postprocessing and analysis. Ongoing work focuses on the evaluation of volumetric (depth, cross-section, volume) and planimetric measurements (width at different locations) to derive flow parameters for each valley network. Morpho- metric parameters of mapped features on Viking MDIM will be completely reviewed using the MOC-WA global orthoimage map, recently developed at the DLR.

  2. Morphometric Analysis of Auxin-Mediated Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Daniel

    Auxin controls many aspects of plant development through its effects on growth. Its distribution is controlled by specific tissue and organ level polar transport streams. The responses to environmental cues such as gravity light, nutrient availability are largely controlled by coordinated regulation of distinct auxin transport streams. Many plant responses to the environment involve changes in shape. Much can be learned about the underlying processes controlling plant form if the response is measured with sufficient resolution. Computer-aided analysis of digital images or 'machine vision' can be used to greatly increase the speed and consistency of data from a morphometric study of plant form. Advances in image acquisition and analysis pioneered at UW-Madison have allowed unprecedented resolution of the growth and gravitropism of Arabidopsis. A reverse genetic analysis was used to determine if the MDR-like ABC transporters influence auxin distribution important for plant development and the response to environmental cues in Arabidopsis. Mutations in MDR1 (At3g28860) reduce acropetal auxin transport in the root. This is correlated with deviation from the vertical axis. Mutations in MDR4 (At2g47000) reduce basipetal auxin transport in the root. This is correlated with hypergravitropism. It was theorized that reduced transport whithin the elongation zone is responsible for the increased curvature. Flavanols were found to regulate gravitropism upstream of MDR4. The mdr1 mdr4 double mutant showed additive but not synergistic phenotypes, suggesting that the two auxin transport streams are more independent than interdependent. MDR proteins seem to enhance auxin transport in situations where PIN-type effux alone is insufficient.

  3. Pooling Morphometric Estimates: A Statistical Equivalence Approach.

    PubMed

    Pardoe, Heath R; Cutter, Gary R; Alter, Rachel; Hiess, Rebecca Kucharsky; Semmelroch, Mira; Parker, Donna; Farquharson, Shawna; Jackson, Graeme D; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Changes in hardware or image-processing settings are a common issue for large multicenter studies. To pool MRI data acquired under these changed conditions, it is necessary to demonstrate that the changes do not affect MRI-based measurements. In these circumstances, classical inference testing is inappropriate because it is designed to detect differences, not prove similarity. We used a method known as statistical equivalence testing to address this limitation. Equivalence testing was carried out on 3 datasets: (1) cortical thickness and automated hippocampal volume estimates obtained from healthy individuals imaged using different multichannel head coils; (2) manual hippocampal volumetry obtained using two readers; and (3) corpus callosum area estimates obtained using an automated method with manual cleanup carried out by two readers. Equivalence testing was carried out using the "two one-sided tests" (TOST) approach. Power analyses of the TOST were used to estimate sample sizes required for well-powered equivalence testing analyses. Mean and standard deviation estimates from the automated hippocampal volume dataset were used to carry out an example power analysis. Cortical thickness values were found to be equivalent over 61% of the cortex when different head coils were used (q < .05, false discovery rate correction). Automated hippocampal volume estimates obtained using the same two coils were statistically equivalent (TOST P = 4.28 × 10(-15) ). Manual hippocampal volume estimates obtained using two readers were not statistically equivalent (TOST P = .97). The use of different readers to carry out limited correction of automated corpus callosum segmentations yielded equivalent area estimates (TOST P = 1.28 × 10(-14) ). Power analysis of simulated and automated hippocampal volume data demonstrated that the equivalence margin affects the number of subjects required for well-powered equivalence tests. We have presented a statistical method for determining if morphometric measures obtained under variable conditions can be pooled. The equivalence testing technique is applicable for analyses in which experimental conditions vary over the course of the study. PMID:26094850

  4. Rhinosinusal Polyposis and Inverted Papilloma: A Morphometric Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Gabriel Costa; Fujise, Luciana Harumi; Fernandes, Atílio Maximino; Azoubel, Reinaldo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nasal obstruction is one of the main rhinologic complaints, and two diseases must be investigated as differential diagnosis: rhinosinusal polyposis and inverted papilloma. Using traditional methods, the differential diagnosis between these diseases may be difficult. The morphometric study may be a useful tool for differential diagnosis and to define prognosis. Objective Calculate the morphometric values of rhinosinusal polyposis and inverted papilloma and compare the average of variables obtained between the groups. Methods The nasal mucus of 10 patients who had surgery in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Surgery of Head and Neck was studied; 5 had rhinosinusal polyposis and 5 had inverted papilloma. After the capture and print of corresponding data of each slide, the largest and smallest diameters of the nuclei were measured and the morphometric variables were calculated: average diameter, perimeter, ratio between largest and smallest diameter, volume, area, ratio of volume to area, form coefficient, contour index, and eccentricity. Results We found a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the two groups in the following morphometric variables: largest diameter, smallest diameter, average diameter, volume, area, perimeter, and ratio of volume to area, indicating that these parameters can be useful in diagnostic differentiation between these diseases. Conclusion We founded morphometric variables higher in patients with inverted papilloma, which can be related to the neoplastic origin of the inverted papilloma. The analysis of nuclear parameters is an instrument of great value in the differential diagnosis between rhinosinusal polyposis and inverted papilloma. PMID:26157491

  5. Testing and quantifying phylogenetic signals and homoplasy in morphometric data.

    PubMed

    Klingenberg, Christian Peter; Gidaszewski, Nelly A

    2010-05-01

    The relationship between morphometrics and phylogenetic analysis has long been controversial. Here we propose an approach that is based on mapping morphometric traits onto phylogenies derived from other data and thus avoids the pitfalls encountered by previous studies. This method treats shape as a single, multidimensional character. We propose a test for the presence of a phylogenetic signal in morphometric data, which simulates the null hypothesis of the complete absence of phylogenetic structure by permutation of the shape data among the terminal taxa. We also propose 2 measures of the fit of morphometric data to the phylogeny that are direct extensions of the consistency index and retention index used in traditional cladistics. We apply these methods to a small study of the evolution of wing shape in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, for which a very strongly supported phylogeny is available. This case study reveals a significant phylogenetic signal and a relatively low degree of homoplasy. Despite the low homoplasy, the shortest tree computed from landmark data on wing shape is inconsistent with the well-supported phylogenetic tree from molecular data, underscoring that morphometric data may not provide reliable information for inferring phylogeny. PMID:20525633

  6. Syn-eruptive morphometric variability of monogenetic scoria cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, Gbor; Jordan, Gyozo; Nmeth, Kroly; Dniz-Pez, Javier F.

    2012-11-01

    According to Wood's model, morphometric parameters such as slope angle can provide valuable information about the age of conical volcanic edifices such as scoria cones assuming that their initial slopes range from 30 to 33, measured manually on topographic maps, and assuming that their inner architectures are homogenous. This study examines the morphometric variability of nine young (a few thousand years old) small-volume scoria cones from Tenerife, Canary Islands, using high-resolution digital elevation models in order to assess their slope angle variability. Because of the young age and minimal development of gullies on the flanks, their morphometric variability can be interpreted as the result of syn-eruptive processes including: (1) pre-eruptive surface inclination, (2) vent migration and lava outflow with associated crater breaching and (3) diversity of pyroclastic rocks accumulated in the flanks of these volcanic edifices. Results show that slope angles for flank sectors differ by up to 12 among the studied volcanoes, which formed over the same period of time; this range greatly exceeds the 2-3 indicated by Wood. The greater than expected original slope range suggests that use of morphometric data in terms of morphometry-based relative dating and detection of erosional processes and settings must be done with great care (or detailed knowledge about absolute ages and eruption history), especially in field-scale morphometric investigation.

  7. Abdominal emergencies in the geriatric patient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons that elderly people visit the emergency department (ED). In this article, we review the deadliest causes of abdominal pain in this population, including mesenteric ischemia, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and appendicitis and potentially lethal non-abdominal causes. We also highlight the pitfalls in diagnosing, or rather misdiagnosing, these clinical entities. PMID:25635203

  8. Mesoesophagus and other fascial structures of the abdominal and lower thoracic esophagus: a histological study using human embryos and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Si Eun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Bae, Sang In; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2014-12-01

    A term "mesoesophagus" has been often used by surgeons, but the morphology was not described well. To better understand the structures attaching the human abdominal and lower thoracic esophagus to the body wall, we examined serial or semiserial sections from 10 embryos and 9 fetuses. The esophagus was initially embedded in a large posterior mesenchymal tissue, which included the vertebral column and aorta. Below the tracheal bifurcation at the fifth week, the esophagus formed a mesentery-like structure, which we call the "mesoesophagus," that was sculpted by the enlarging lungs and pleural cavity. The pneumatoenteric recess of the pleuroperitoneal canal was observed in the lowest part of the mesoesophagus. At the seventh week, the mesoesophagus was divided into the upper long and lower short parts by the diaphragm. Near the esophageal hiatus, the pleural cavity provided 1 or 2 recesses in the upper side, while the fetal adrenal gland in the left side was attached to the lower side of the mesoesophagus. At the 10th and 18th week, the mesoesophagus remained along the lower thoracic esophagus, but the abdominal esophagus attached to the diaphragm instead of to the left adrenal. The mesoesophagus did not contain any blood vessels from the aorta and to the azygos vein. The posterior attachment of the abdominal esophagus seemed to develop to the major part of the phrenoesophageal membrane with modification from the increased mass of the left fetal adrenal. After postnatal degeneration of the fetal adrenal, the abdominal esophagus might again obtain a mesentery. Consequently, the mesoesophagus seemed to correspond to a small area containing the pulmonary ligament and aorta in adults. PMID:25548720

  9. [Clinico-histologic-morphometric correlations in pulmonary arteries among patients with heart malformations ].

    PubMed

    Fischbach, H; Hoffmeister, H M; Hoffmeister, H E; Apitz, J; Schmidt, C

    1982-01-01

    To improve the evaluation of grades of pulmonary vascular lesions in congenital heart malformations, we studied the extent to which there is a measurable relationship between pressure conditions in the pulmonary circulation and the area of the media in small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries, and the possibility of a correlation between the subjective evaluation of grades of hypertensive pulmonary vascular lesions according to Heath and Edwards (1958). Material and methods. The lungs in 68 children (mean age, 22.7 months) with congenital malformations of the heart or great vessels resulting in pulmonary hypertension were examined. The lungs were fixed in a 4% formalin solution passed via the trachea under a constant filling pressure of 150 cm H2O. Peripheral as well as central tissue was removed from all lobes of the lungs; the specimens were stained with Elastica-van Gieson. The extent of hypertensive pulmonary vasculopathy was staged, without knowledge of the pressure conditions, according to the grading system developed by Heath and Edwards. The diameter and the area of all muscular arteries with diameters smaller or larger than 100 micron were measured using a semiautomatic measurement device for quantitative morphometric analysis (MOP/AM 01). Cardiac catheter values were available for all cases. The quotient of systolic pressures in the pulmonary artery and the aorta was taken as the measure of hemodynamic conditions in the pulmonary circulation. The Pearson-Bravais correlation coefficient (r) was computed from the respective area quotient and the corresponding pressure values. In addition, the coefficient of determination (r2) and regression functions were determined. Results. A linear correlation (r = 0.70) exists between the pressure quotient (Psyst. pulm. art./ Psyst. aorta) and the vessel area quotient (media area/total area). The correlation is expressed by the following functions: x = 1.89 y - 0.08 y = 0.26 x + 0.24 Using the Heath and Edwards grading, the following frequencies were obtained: Grade 0: 21, Grade I: 7, Grade II: 16, Grade III: 15, Grade IV: 6, and 3 children were undeterminable. No relationship exists between the grades and certain heart malformations. In spite of the fact that hypertensive vasculopathy becomes progressively more severe as the child grows older, we found four cases of Grade IV in children under the age of one. On the whole, a comparison of the measured area quotients and the Heath and Edwards grading showed a good correlation. Although we considered only pressure quotients and no other hemodynamic parameters, conclusions can be drawn about the operability of congenital heart malformations based on these findings. Using measured pressure values, the morphologic state of the pulmonary arteries can be approximately evaluated. PMID:7122326

  10. A novel measurement technique for the design of fenestrated stent grafts: Comparison with three-dimensional aorta models

    PubMed Central

    You, Ji Hoon; Kang, Sung-Gwon; Kim, Bong Man

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stent graft placement is an acceptable treatment option for aortic disease, particularly for abdominal aortic aneurysm. At present, the use of stent grafts is expanding beyond current indications for use. Fenestrated stent grafts are used in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms whose aortic anatomy is unsuitable for repair using standard devices. The success of fenestrated stent graft placement is largely dependent on planning, including obtaining measurements and designing the stent. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a measurement technique that may be used for the design of fenestrated stent grafts to repair endovascular aneurysms, and to compare these measurements, obtained using archived two-dimensional patient data, with measurements obtained using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer-assisted design model. METHODS: Fenestrated stent grafts were designed and fabricated based on computed tomographic angiography images. 3-D models were constructed using modelling software and rapid prototyping technology incorporated with fused deposition modelling. The stent grafts were trunk-type, with four holes for the visceral branches (celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery, right renal artery and left renal artery). Computed tomography scans of 10 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were reviewed. Axial, multiplanar reconstruction and curved multiplanar reconstruction images were used to measure 11 parameters. Sizing of the fenestrated aortic stent grafts was performed independently by an experienced interventional radiologist, and the results were compared with the same measurements calculated using the 3-D aorta model (generated using Materialise Interactive Medical Image Control System software [Materialise NV, Belgium]). Data were reported as the mean of the measurements. Measurements were evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis and concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs). RESULTS: A total of 10 fenestrated stent grafts were fabricated. The proximal landing section above the celiac axis (one point of the wall being defined as the standard point) was 3 cm, and the distal flared section was 3 cm below the lowest renal artery. Ten computer-assisted design aorta models were successfully constructed. Measurements of the aortic diameter showed high agreement between those obtained using the archived patient computer system stent graft and those obtained using the 3-D aorta model. The CCC for variability was 0.9974. The distance from the standard point to the branch vessels also demonstrated good agreement. The CCC for variability was 0.9999. DISCUSSION: A direct measurement technique using a standard point was simple to perform and was easily applied to the fabrication process. Preparation time will likely be shortened and the versatility of stent grafts will be improved using this method. It will be possible to produce standardized fenestrated stent grafts once patients measurements are recorded and analyzed. CONCLUSION: A fenestrated stent graft design technique using measurements of distance from a standard point generally showed a high level of agreement with a 3-D aorta model. PMID:24294038

  11. Dietary ecology of Murinae (Muridae, Rodentia): a geometric morphometric approach.

    PubMed

    Gómez Cano, Ana Rosa; Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Alvarez-Sierra, M Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Murine rodents represent a highly diverse group, which displays great ecological versatility. In the present paper we analyse the relationship between dental morphology, on one hand, using geometric morphometrics based upon the outline of first upper molar and the dietary preference of extant murine genera, on the other. This ecomorphological study of extant murine rodents demonstrates that dietary groups can be distinguished with the use of a quantitative geometric morphometric approach based on first upper molar outline. A discriminant analysis of the geometric morphometric variables of the first upper molars enables us to infer the dietary preferences of extinct murine genera from the Iberian Peninsula. Most of the extinct genera were omnivore; only Stephanomys showed a pattern of dental morphology alike that of the herbivore genera. PMID:24236090

  12. Experimental unsteady flow study in a patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysm model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatopoulos, Ch.; Mathioulakis, D. S.; Papaharilaou, Y.; Katsamouris, A.

    2011-06-01

    The velocity field in a patient-specific abdominal aneurysm model including the aorto-iliac bifurcation was measured by 2D PIV. Phase-averaged velocities obtained in 14 planes reveal details of the flow evolution during a cycle. The aneurysm expanding asymmetrically toward the anterior side of the aorta causes the generation of a vortex at its entrance, covering the entire aneurysm bulge progressively before flow peak. The fluid entering the aneurysm impinges on the left side of its distal end, following the axis of the upstream aorta segment, causing an increased flow rate in the left (compared to the right) common iliac artery. High shear stresses appear at the aneurysm inlet and outlet as well as along the posterior wall, varying proportionally to the flow rate. At the same regions, elevated flow disturbances are observed, being intensified at flow peak and during the deceleration phase. Low shear stresses are present in the recirculation region, being two orders of magnitude smaller than the previous ones. At flow peak and during the deceleration phase, a clockwise swirling motion (viewed from the inlet) is present in the aneurysm due to the out of plane curvature of the aorta.

  13. MagnetoHemoDynamics in the aorta and electrocardiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Vincent; Drochon, Agnès; Fokapu, Odette; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    This paper addresses a complex multi-physical phenomenon involving cardiac electrophysiology and hemodynamics. The purpose is to model and simulate a phenomenon that has been observed in magnetic resonance imaging machines: in the presence of a strong magnetic field, the T-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) gets bigger, which may perturb ECG-gated imaging. This is due to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect occurring in the aorta. We reproduce this experimental observation through computer simulations on a realistic anatomy, and with a three-compartment model: inductionless MHD equations in the aorta, bi-domain equations in the heart and electrical diffusion in the rest of the body. These compartments are strongly coupled and solved using finite elements. Several benchmark tests are proposed to assess the numerical solutions and the validity of some modeling assumptions. Then, ECGs are simulated for a wide range of magnetic field intensities (from 0 to 20 T).

  14. Elastic arteries in invertebrates: mechanics of the octopus aorta.

    PubMed

    Shadwick, R E; Gosline, J M

    1981-08-14

    The aorta of the octopus, Octopus dofleini, is a highly distensible, elastic tube. The circumferential elastic modulus increases with inflation in the physiological range from abut 10(4) to 10(5) newtons per square meter. Rubber-like fibers have been isolated, apparently for the first time, from the aorta of an invertebrate. These fibers have an elastic modulus, like elastin, of about 4 x 10(5) newtons per square meter and are present in sufficient quantity to account for the elastic properties of the intact vessel under physiological conditions. Thus the circulatory system of an invertebrate animal provides an "elastic reservoir" (much like that of the vertebrate system), which increases the efficiency of the circulation. PMID:7256277

  15. Study of the strontium response in isolated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Barreda, A; Anselmi, E

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the cumulative application of Sr2+ in isolated rat aorta in a normal and in a Ca2+-free solution containing EDTA 1 mM. Sr2+ induced a concentration-dependent contraction which was reduced by verapamil (5 X 10(-6) and 10(-7) M) and lanthanum (1 and 2 mM). Sr2+ also induced a contraction in K+-depolarized medium. In aorta strips depleted of Ca2+ by several applications of noradrenaline (10(-6) M), Sr2+ induced a dose-response contraction in a Ca2+-free solution. These findings suggest that the influx of external Ca2+ is only partly responsible for the Sr2+-induced contraction and that another intracellular mechanism is involved in the response. PMID:2774765

  16. A new technique for intra-abdominal arteries revascularization via extra-anatomic bypass from the brachiocephalic artery with a videoscopic retrosternal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Javerliat, Isabelle; Pichon, Audrey; Glorion, Matthieu; Coscas, Raphaël; Goëau-Brissonnière, Olivier; Coggia, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Extra-anatomic revascularizations of intra-abdominal or lower limbs arteries, or both, are indicated (1) when the aorta is unsuitable for anatomic bypasses, (2) in patients unfit for aortic surgery, (3) for graft infections, and (4) for visceral debranching during hybrid treatment of a thoracoabdominal aneurysm. We describe a new extra-anatomic bypass from the brachiocephalic artery with video-guided retrosternal tunneling. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of this technique. PMID:25936654

  17. Ascending Aorta Elastography After Kawasaki Disease Compared to Systemic Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nandlall, Ian; Maurice, Roch L; Fournier, Anne; Merouani, Aïcha; Dahdah, Nagib

    2015-10-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis, classically affecting large- and medium-size arteries. The coronary arteries draw most of the clinical attention, whereas few studies have taken interest in the ascending aorta. Using a proprietary imaging-based mechanical biomarker (ImBioMark), we sought to determine aortic stiffness in KD compared to systemic hypertension (HTN) and healthy children. We evaluated parasternal long-axis views focused on the ascending aorta in 20 controls, 12 KD, and 8 HTN as a comparative clinical model of vascular stiffness. We calculated systolic and diastolic aortic wall strain with ImBioMark. Strain was tested for normality against height, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure in normal subjects. Strain from KD and HTN was normalized (Z score) accordingly. Z score comparisons were performed using nonparametric statistics. Age was similar between KD and HTN (9.1 ± 5.3 and 9.9 ± 5.3 years old; p = NS). Systolic and diastolic strain values were normally distributed against height, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure in healthy subjects. HTN subjects had abnormal systolic and diastolic strain values (p < 0.0001). Whereas KD subjects had normal diastolic strain, systolic strain was significantly lower (p < 0.001), and systolic strain was intermediate between controls and HTN. There were no significant differences in aortic strain among KD, however, according to the presence of coronary artery aneurysms. Despite normal blood pressure, the ascending aorta in KD exhibits reduced strain during systole. This may reflect in situ rigidity of the aorta. The normal diastolic strain in KD may, in contrast, reflect normal peripheral vascular resistance. PMID:25921428

  18. Relaxant effects of selected sildenafil analogues in the rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Mojzych, Mariusz; Kubacka, Monika; Mogilski, Szczepan; Filipek, Barbara; Fornal, Emilia

    2016-06-01

    A new series of sulfonamide derivatives of pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazine with chiral amino group has been synthesized and characterized. The compounds were tested for their relaxant effects in the rat aorta. Evaluation of prepared derivatives demonstrated that compound (8a) is probably a non-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, as it induced aortic relaxation through endothelium-independent mechanism. PMID:25798686

  19. Genetic and Morphometric Evidence for the Conspecific Status of the Bumble Bees, Bombus melanopygus and Bombus edwardsii

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Robin E.; Whidden, Troy L.; Plowright, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    The taxonomic status of closely related bumble bee species is often unclear. The relationship between the two nominate taxa, Bombus melanopygus Nylander (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Bombus edwardsii Cresson (Hymenoptera: Apidae), was investigated using genetic (enzyme electrophoretic) and morphometric analyses. The taxa differ in the color of the abdominal terga two and three, being ferruginous in B. melanopygus and black in B. edwardsii. B. edwardsii occurs throughout California, while B. melanopygus extends north through Oregon, to Alaska and Canada. They are sympatric only in southern Oregon and northern California. The taxonomic status of these taxa was questioned when Owen and Plowright (1980) reared colonies from queens collected in the area of sympatry, and discovered that pile coloration was due to a single, biallelic Mendelian gene, with the red (R) allele dominant to the black (r). Here it is shown that all the taxa, whether from California, Oregon, or Alberta, have the same electrophoretic profile and cannot be reliably distinguished by wing morphometrics. This strongly supports the conclusion that B. melanopygus and B. edwardsii are conspecific and should be synonymized under the name B. melanopygus. Hence, there is a gene frequency cline running from north to south, where the red allele is completely replaced by the black allele over a distance of about 600 km. PMID:20874396

  20. Comparative hemodynamics in an aorta with bicuspid and trileaflet valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmanov, Anvar; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-04-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital heart defect that has been associated with serious aortopathies, such as aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, infective endocarditis, aortic dissection, calcific aortic valve and dilatation of ascending aorta. There are two main hypotheses to explain the increase prevalence of aortopathies in patients with BAV: the genetic and the hemodynamic. In this study, we seek to investigate the possible role of hemodynamic factors as causes of BAV-associated aortopathy. We employ the curvilinear immersed boundary method coupled with an efficient thin-shell finite-element formulation for tissues to carry out fluid-structure interaction simulations of a healthy trileaflet aortic valve (TAV) and a BAV placed in the same anatomic aorta. The computed results reveal major differences between the TAV and BAV flow patterns. These include: the dynamics of the aortic valve vortex ring formation and break up; the large-scale flow patterns in the ascending aorta; the shear stress magnitude, directions, and dynamics on the heart valve surfaces. The computed results are in qualitative agreement with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging data and suggest that the linkages between BAV aortopathy and hemodynamics deserve further investigation.

  1. Analysis of human aorta using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira-Damiani, Gislaine; Adur, J.; Ferro, D. P.; Adam, R. L.; Pelegati, V.; Thomáz, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, K.

    2012-03-01

    The use of photonics has improved our understanding of biologic phenomena. For the study of the normal and pathologic architecture of the aorta the use of Two-Photon Excited Fluorescence (TPEF) and Second Harmonic Generation showed interesting details of morphologic changes of the elastin-collagen architecture during aging or development of hypertension in previous studies. In this investigation we tried to apply fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for the morphologic analysis of human aortas. The aim of our study was to use FLIM in non-stained formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples of the aorta ascendants in hypertensive and normotensive patients of various ages, examining two different topographical regions. The FLIM-spectra of collagen and elastic fibers were clearly distinguishable, thus permitting an exact analysis of unstained material on the microscopic level. Moreover the FLIM spectrum of elastic fibers revealed variations between individual cases, which indicate modifications on a molecular level and might be related to FLIM age or diseases states and reflect modifications on a molecular level.

  2. Endovascular Repair of Contained Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Robert; Loosemore, Tom; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2002-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of stent-grafts for the treatment of acute rupture of the thoracic aorta. Methods: Four patients with acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta were treated by insertion of stent-grafts. The underlying aortic lesions were aneurysm, acute aortic ulcer, acute type B dissection and giant cell aortitis. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia in three patients and local anesthesia in one patient. Results: All stent-grafts were successfully deployed. All patients survived the procedure and are now alive and well at follow-up (mean 6.3 months, range 44 days-16 months). One patient underwent a second stent procedure 10 days after the first procedure because of a proximal endoleak. All hemothoraces have resolved. There were no complications. Conclusion:Treatment of acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta by the insertion of stent-grafts is feasible. The technical success rates,complication rates and patient survival compare favorably with emergency surgery.

  3. Multilayer material properties of aorta determined from nanoindentation tests

    PubMed Central

    Hemmasizadeh, Ali; Autieri, Michael; Darvish, Kurosh

    2013-01-01

    In a wide range of biomechanical modeling of aorta from traumatic injury to stent grafts, the arterial wall has been considered as a single homogeneous layer vessel, ignoring the fact that arteries are composed of distinct anatomical layers with different mechanical characteristics. In this study, using a custom-made nanoindentation technique, changes in the mechanical properties of porcine thoracic aorta wall in the radial direction were characterized using a quasi-linear viscoelastic model. Two layers of equal thickness were mechanically distinguishable in descending aorta based on the radial variations in the instantaneous Young's modulus E and reduced relaxation function G(t). Overall, comparison of E and G∞ of the outer half (70.27 ± 2.47 kPa and 0.35 ± 0.01) versus the inner half (60.32 ± 1.65 kPa and 0.33 ± 0.01) revealed that the outer half was stiffer and showed less relaxation. The results were used to explain local mechanisms of deformation, force transmission, tear propagation and failure in arteries. PMID:23123343

  4. Hemodynamics in an Aorta with Bicuspid and Trileaflet Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmanov, Anvar; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-11-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital heart defect that has been associated with serious aortopathies, such as ascending aortic aneurysm, aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, infective endocarditis, aortic dissection, calcific aortic valve and dilatation of ascending aorta. Two main hypotheses - the genetic and the hemodynamic are discussed in literature to explain the development and progression of aortopathies in patients with BAV. In this study we seek to investigate the possible role of hemodynamic factors as causes of BAV-associated aortopathy. We employ the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (CURVIB) method coupled with an efficient thin-shell finite element (TS-FE) formulation for tissues to carry out fluid-structure interaction simulations of a healthy tri-leaflet aortic valve (TAV) and a BAV placed in the same anatomic aorta. The computed results reveal major differences between the TAV and BAV flow patterns. These include: the dynamics of the aortic valve vortex ring formation and break up; the large scale flow patterns in the ascending aorta; and the shear stress magnitude on the aortic wall. The computed results are in qualitative agreement with in vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data and suggest that the linkages between BAV aortopathy and hemodynamics deserve further investigation. This work is supported by the Lillehei Heart Institute at the University of Minnesota and the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  5. Comparative hemodynamics in an aorta with bicuspid and trileaflet valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmanov, Anvar; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-09-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital heart defect that has been associated with serious aortopathies, such as aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, infective endocarditis, aortic dissection, calcific aortic valve and dilatation of ascending aorta. There are two main hypotheses to explain the increase prevalence of aortopathies in patients with BAV: the genetic and the hemodynamic. In this study, we seek to investigate the possible role of hemodynamic factors as causes of BAV-associated aortopathy. We employ the curvilinear immersed boundary method coupled with an efficient thin-shell finite-element formulation for tissues to carry out fluid-structure interaction simulations of a healthy trileaflet aortic valve (TAV) and a BAV placed in the same anatomic aorta. The computed results reveal major differences between the TAV and BAV flow patterns. These include: the dynamics of the aortic valve vortex ring formation and break up; the large-scale flow patterns in the ascending aorta; the shear stress magnitude, directions, and dynamics on the heart valve surfaces. The computed results are in qualitative agreement with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging data and suggest that the linkages between BAV aortopathy and hemodynamics deserve further investigation.

  6. Morphometric, Geographic and Territorial Characterization of Brain Arterial Trees

    PubMed Central

    Mut, Fernando; Wright, Susan; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Cebral, Juan R.

    2014-01-01

    Morphometric information of the brain vascularization is valuable for a variety of clinical and scientific applications. In particular, this information is important when creating arterial tree models for imposing boundary conditions in numerical simulations of the brain hemodynamics. The purpose of this work is to provide quantitative descriptions of arterial branches, bifurcation patterns, shape and geographical distribution of the arborization of the main cerebral arteries as well as estimations of the corresponding vascular territories. For this purpose, subject-specific digital reconstructions of the brain vascular network created from 3T magnetic resonance angiography images of healthy volunteers are used to derive population averaged morphometric characteristics of the cerebral arterial trees. PMID:24470176

  7. Serelaxin (recombinant human relaxin-2) prevents high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction by ameliorating prostacyclin production in the mouse aorta.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hooi Hooi; Leo, Chen Huei; Parry, Laura J

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction is a critical initiating factor in the development of cardiovascular complications. Treatment with relaxin improves tumour necrosis factor α-induced endothelial dysfunction by enhancing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and restoring superoxide dismutase 1 protein in rat aortic rings ex vivo. It is, therefore, possible that relaxin treatment could alleviate endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that serelaxin (recombinant human relaxin-2) prevents high glucose-induced vascular dysfunction in the mouse aorta. Abdominal aortae were isolated from C57BL/6 male mice and incubated in M199 media for 3days with either normal glucose (5.5mM) or high glucose (30mM), and co-incubated with placebo (20mM sodium acetate) or 10nM serelaxin at 37°C in 5% CO2. Vascular function was analysed using wire-myography. High glucose significantly reduced the sensitivity to the endothelium-dependent agonist, acetylcholine (ACh) (pEC50; normal glucose=7.66±0.10 vs high glucose=7.29±0.10, n=11-12, P<0.05) and the contraction induced by NOS inhibitor, L-NAME (200μM) (normal glucose=59.9±8.3% vs high glucose=38.7±4.3%, n=6, P<0.05), but had no effect on the endothelium-independent agonist, sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-mediated relaxation. Treatment with serelaxin restored endothelial function (pEC50; 7.83±0.11, n=11) but not NO availability. The presence of the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, indomethacin (1μM) (pEC50; control=7.29±0.10 vs indo=7.74±0.18, n=6-12, P<0.05) and a superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol (10μM) (pEC50; control=7.29±0.10 vs tempol=7.82±0.05, n=6-12, P<0.01) significantly improved sensitivity to ACh in high glucose treated aortae, but had no effect in serelaxin treated aortae. This suggests that high glucose incubation alters the superoxide and COX-sensitive pathway, which was normalized by co-incubation with serelaxin. Neither high glucose incubation nor serelaxin treatment had an effect on cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (Ptgs1, Ptgs2), prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS) and receptor (Ptgir) as well as thromboxane A2 receptor (Tbxa2r) mRNA expression. Importantly, production of prostacyclin was significantly (P<0.05) attenuated in high glucose treated aortae, which was prevented by serelaxin treatment. Our data show that serelaxin treatment for 3 days restores high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction by ameliorating vasodilator prostacyclin production and possibly through the reduction of superoxide in the mouse aorta. PMID:26993102

  8. Does Lower Limb Exercise Worsen Renal Artery Hemodynamics in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Xu, Zaipin; Deng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) and renal complications emerge in some patients after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to treat abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). The mechanisms for the causes of these problems are not clear. We hypothesized that for EVAR patients, lower limb exercise could negatively influence the physiology of the renal artery and the renal function, by decreasing the blood flow velocity and changing the hemodynamics in the renal arteries. To evaluate this hypothesis, pre- and post-operative models of the abdominal aorta were reconstructed based on CT images. The hemodynamic environment was numerically simulated under rest and lower limb exercise conditions. The results revealed that in the renal arteries, lower limb exercise decreased the wall shear stress (WSS), increased the oscillatory shear index (OSI) and increased the relative residence time (RRT). EVAR further enhanced these effects. Because these parameters are related to artery stenosis and atherosclerosis, this preliminary study concluded that lower limb exercise may increase the potential risk of inducing renal artery stenosis and renal complications for AAA patients. This finding could help elucidate the mechanism of renal artery stenosis and renal complications after EVAR and warn us to reconsider the management and nursing care of AAA patients. PMID:25946196

  9. Abdominal obesity is associated with heart disease in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between overall obesity and fat distribution in dogs and the development of heart disease is unclear. In the present study we evaluated the association between overall obesity and fat distribution and clinical heart disease by morphometric and computed tomography (CT)-based measurements. Body condition score (BCS), modified body mass index (MBMI, kg/m2), waist-to-hock-to-stifle distance ratio (WHSDR), waist-to-ilium wing distance ratio (WIWDR), and waist-to-truncal length ratio (WTLR) were compared between dogs with (n = 44) and without (n = 43) heart disease using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous fat (SQF) were measured in dogs with (n = 8) and without (n = 9) heart disease at the center of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae by CT. Results BCS was similar between heart disease and healthy groups (3.6 ± 0.2 vs. 3.3 ± 0.1, P = 0.126). The following morphometric measurements were greater in the heart disease group compared with healthy canines: MBMI (65.0 ± 4.5 vs. 52.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2, respectively, P = 0.035); WIWDR (4.1 ± 0.1 vs. 3.1 ± 0.1, P < 0.01); and WTLR (1.25 ± 0.04 vs. 1.05 ± 0.04, P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in WHSDR (3.6 ± 0.1 vs. 3.7 ± 0.2, P = 0.875). Interestingly, IAF was significantly increased in dogs with heart disease compared with healthy dogs (23.5 ± 1.5% vs. 19.4 ± 1.2%, P = 0.039) whereas SQF was similar between two groups (35.5 ± 2.7% vs. 38.6 ± 3.5%, P = 0.496). Of the five morphometric indices studied, WIWDR and WTLR provided acceptable discrimination for diagnosing heart disease in dogs, with areas under the ROC curve of 0.778 (95% confidence interval [CI]:0.683-0.874) and 0.727 (95% CI:0.619-0.835), respectively. Conclusions Our data indicate that abdominal obesity, rather than overall obesity, is associated with heart disease in dogs. Measurements of both WIWDR and WTLR are particular useful for detection of an abdominal obesity in dogs. PMID:24923277

  10. "V" aortoplasty of the proximal descending aorta in the elephant trunk procedure.

    PubMed

    Kolesar, Adrian; Bily, Boris; Spak, Lubomir; Luczy, Jan; Artemiou, Panagiotis; Sabol, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Complex pathology of the aorta, especially in patients presenting an aneurysm involving the entire aortic arch and proximal descending aorta has been approached in one or two stages. Surgical management of those with an extremely wide diameter of the proximal descending aorta is not yet well defined. The patient in this case was an asymptomatic 47-year-old female with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated with aneurysm of the ascending aorta, whose aortic arch and descending aorta had presented only overall weakness (examination by inspection and palpation without histological verification). The imaging identified a giant aorta arising at the level of the sinotubular junction (STJ), ending up immediately below the diaphragm. In the first stage she underwent surgical replacement of the entire ascending aorta, aortic arch and proximal part of the descending aorta by combining the elephant trunk with a new type of aortoplasty. In the second stage an endovascular stent graft was inserted into the elephant trunk in the descending aorta. The patient continues to do well 20 months following the repair. In this manuscript type we describe a novel technique of "V" aortoplasty of the proximal descending aorta in order to facilitate the performing of anastomosis between the Dacron graft and aortic aneurysm. PMID:25637000

  11. Hemodynamic simulation study of a novel intra-aorta left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Yanjiao; Chang, Yu; Gu, Kaiyun; Gao, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The intra-aorta pump proposed here is a novel left ventricular assist device (LVAD). The mathematic model and the in vitro experiment demonstrate that the pump can satisfy the demand of human blood perfusion. However, the implantation of LVAD will change the fluid distribution or even generate a far-reaching influence on the aorta. At present, the characteristics of endaortic hemodynamics under the support of intra-aorta pump are still unclear. In this article, a computational fluid dynamics study based on a finite-element method was performed for the aorta under the support of intra-aorta pump. To explore the hemodynamic influence of intra-aorta pump on aorta, fully coupled fluid-solid interaction simulation was used in this study. From the flow profiles, we observed that the maximum disturbed flow and nonuniform flow existed within the aortic arch and the branches of the aortic arch. Flow waveforms at the inlets of aortas were derived from the lumped parameter model that we proposed in our previous study. The results demonstrated that the intra-aorta pump increased the blood flow in the aorta to normal physiologic conditions, but decreased the pulsatility of the flow and pressure. The pulsatility index changed from 2,540 to 1,370. The pressure gradient (PG) for heart failure conditions was 18.88 mm Hg/m vs. 25.51 mm Hg/m for normal physiologic conditions; for intra-aorta pump assist conditions, normal PG value could not be regained. Furthermore, our experimental results showed that the wall shear stress (WSS) of aorta under heart failure and normal physiologic conditions were 1.5 and 6.3 dynes/cm, respectively. The intra-aorta pump increased the WSS value from 1.5 to 4.1 dynes/cm. PMID:22929899

  12. Abdominal aortic aneurysm or aortic occlusive disease: role of trace element imbalance.

    PubMed

    Koksal, Cengiz; Ercan, Meltem; Bozkurt, A Kursat; Cortelekoglu, Tansel; Konukoglu, Dildar

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between atheromatous disease and degenerative aneurysm is yet to be defined. The purpose of this study was to compare tissue Fe, Cu, Zn, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels (as a marker of lipid peroxidation) in the abdominal aorta in relation to the development of aneurysmal and occlusive disease in the infrarenal aorta. This was a prospective clinical study in an institutional referral center, in hospitalized patients. Eighty male patients who underwent surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) or aortic occlusive disease (AOD) were included in the study. Age, risk factors and comorbid conditions were recorded, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, smoking, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Aortic wall biopsies were collected at operation from the anterolateral section of the infrarenal aorta. Tissue Fe, Cu, Zn, and TBARS levels were determined. The mean age of the AAA group was 66.2 (56-75) years and of the AOD group 57.8 (47-72) years (p <0.001). There was a higher prevalence of hypertension in AAA patients compared to AOD patients (62.5%, 35% respectively; p <0.05). The comparison of tissue Zn levels showed no significant difference. Tissue levels of Fe, Cu, and TBARS were found to be higher in the AAA group, compared with the AOD group (p<0.001 for each). These results suggest that higher oxidative stress as a result of higher Fe and Cu levels in the AAA, compared with AOD, may be one of the contributing factors in aneurysmal formation as a result of promoted wall erosion. PMID:17495268

  13. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  14. Abdominal actinomycosis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Robert Joseph; Riela, Steven; Patel, Ravi; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old Hispanic woman presented to the emergency department, reporting worsening sharp lower right quadrant abdominal pain for 3 days. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed evidence of inflammation in the peritoneal soft tissues adjacent to an enlarged and thick-walled appendix, an appendicolith, no abscess formation and a slightly thickened caecum consistent with acute appendicitis. During laparoscopic appendectomy, the caecum was noted to be firm, raising suspicion of malignancy. Surgical oncology team was consulted and open laparotomy with right hemicolectomy was performed. Pathology reported that the ileocaecal mass was not a malignancy but was, rather, actinomycosis. The patient was discharged after 10 days of intravenous antibiotics in the hospital, with the diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis. Although the original clinical and radiological findings in this case were highly suggestive of acute appendicitis, abdominal actinomycosis should be in the differential for right lower quadrant pain as it may be treated non-operatively. PMID:26611488

  15. Abdominal trauma: never underestimate it.

    PubMed

    Bodhit, Aakash N; Bhagra, Anjali; Stead, Latha Ganti

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. We present a case of a sports injury. The initial presentation and clinical examination belied serious intra-abdominal injuries. Case Presentation. A 16-year-old male patient came to emergency department after a sports-related blunt abdominal injury. Though on clinical examination the injury did not seem to be serious, FAST revealed an obscured splenorenal window. The CT scan revealed a large left renal laceration and a splenic laceration that were managed with Cook coil embolization. Patient remained tachycardic though and had to undergo splenectomy, left nephrectomy, and a repair of left diaphragmatic rent. Patient had no complication and had normal renal function at 6-month followup. Conclusion. The case report indicates that management of blunt intra-abdominal injury is complicated and there is a role for minimally invasive procedures in management of certain patients. A great deal of caution is required in monitoring these patients, and surgical intervention is inevitable in deteriorating patients. PMID:23326699

  16. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

    1998-01-01

    A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  17. Fibrolipomas masquerading as abdominal hernias

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hannah Isabella; Saunders, Andrew John

    2013-01-01

    A 15-year-old Caucasian girl presented to her general practitioner with a tender, irreducible mass in the paraumbilical region. On examination, two small masses could be felt. She was referred to general surgery. Ultrasound imaging and MRI were unremarkable. However, clinical suspicion suggested multiple areas of abdominal wall herniation. The patient was admitted for elective surgery to exclude herniation. At operation, three subcutaneous masses were found but with no evidence of abdominal wall herniation. Histopathology results from the specimens showed mature adipose tissue mixed with fibrous deposits. There was no evidence of malignancy. A diagnosis of fibrolipoma was given. PMID:24343803

  18. Postprandial Vomiting and Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Halper; MacKenzie

    1996-10-01

    A 14-year-old Asian female presented with complaints of abdominal pain that was intermittent, crampy, periumbilical, without radiation, and aggravated by eating. She had been vomiting "green-colored" material 4 days earlier, after meals, associated with abdominal pain. On hospital day 3, after no improvement was noted, an upper GI series demonstrated an obstruction at the third portion of the duodenum. She was evaluated for an eating disorder, but further history failed to elicit diagnostic criteria. She responded favorably to total parenteral nutrition and symptoms were relieved with changes in position. Her symptoms and diagnostic studies were consistent with the diagnosis of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome. PMID:10359987

  19. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING GUIDELINES: VARIABILITY IN MORPHOMETRIC ASSESSMENTS OF NEUROPATHOLOGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for neuropathological and morphometric assessments of rat pups on postnatal day (PND) 11 and at study termination (after PND 60). In recent discussions about conducting these studies on pesti...

  20. In situ morphometric characterization of Aframomum melegueta accessions in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Amponsah, J.; Adamtey, N.; Elegba, W.; Danso, K. E.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the huge economic importance of Aframomum melegueta in the herbal and pharmaceutical industries, its production is limited by lack of planting materials (propagules). The plant also lacks scientific descriptors, which has often led to misidentification with adverse health implications. We therefore aimed at developing a descriptor list to facilitate the identification of A. melegueta using 34 morphometric traits comprising 18 quantitative and 16 qualitative characters. The morphological traits showed that A. melegueta has a characteristic stolon that produces tillers instead of rhizomes. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean using both the nearest-neighbour and complete-linkage methods based on the 34 morphometric traits clustered the eight accessions into two main groups based on ecological location. The accessions from the Eastern and Ashanti regions were separated at similarity coefficients of 0.822 and 0.644, respectively, with a highly significant discriminant function. The Eastern accessions were further clustered into red or yellow fruits at similarity indexes of 0.936 and 0.865 using the nearest-neighbour and complete-linkage methods, respectively. The present study has shown that morphometric traits of A. melegueta are greatly influenced by its ecological habitat. It is envisaged that the descriptor list developed coupled with a morphometric description would enhance its identification and utilization. PMID:23799183

  1. Sodium metabisulfite-induced changes on testes, spermatogenesis and epididymal morphometric values in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Shekarforoush, Shahnaz; Ebrahimi, Zahra; Hoseini, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sulphites are widely used as a preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Many types of biological and toxicological effects of sulphites in multiple organs of mammals have been shown in previous studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium metabisulfite (SMB) on testicular function and morphometric values of epididymis in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 rats were randomly divided into four groups. The experimental groups received SMB at doses of 10 mg/kg (S10), 100mg/kg (S100), and 260 mg/kg (S260) while an equal volume of normal saline was administered to the control group via gavage. The rats were anaesthetized after 28 days and the left testis with the head of epididimis was excised following abdominal incision for histological observation using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Serum samples were collected for assay of testosterone level. The initial epididymis was analyzed for motility, morphology, and the number of sperms. Result: The results of this study showed that normal morphology, count, and motility of sperms and testosterone level were decreased in the SMB treated groups. In comparison with the control group, SMB resulted in a lower total number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, spermatids, and Leydig cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that SMB decreases the sperm production and has the potential to affect the fertility adversely in male rats.

  2. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    AAA - open - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open - discharge ... You had open aortic aneurysm surgery to repair an aneurysm (a widened part) in your aorta, the large artery that carries blood to your ...

  3. A case of aorta-right atrial tunnel presented with an asymptomatic murmur.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Nyoun; Cho, Kyoung-Im; Kim, Jae-Joon; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Goo, Ja-Jun; Lee, Ja-Young; Kim, Seong-Man

    2013-09-01

    Aorta-right atrial tunnel is a rare and distinct congenital anomaly. It is a vascular channel that originates from one of the sinuses of Valsalva with a tortuous course anterior or posterior to the ascending aorta, and terminates either in the superior vena cava or in the right atrium (RA). We report a 42-year-old female briefly with aorta-right atrial tunnel in which the left coronary artery arose from the tunnel and terminated into the RA. PMID:24174967

  4. Coarctation of the aorta associated with agenesis of left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Ding, Shiao; Xu, Gaojun; Liu, Hao; Ding, Fangbao

    2016-05-01

    We describe the case of a 10-year-old boy with coarctation of the aorta complicated by innominate artery stenosis and agenesis of left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery. The patient was treated with an interposition graft between the ascending and descending aorta. The right subclavian was revascularized with another graft from the interposition graft to the distal right subclavian. This is a rare case of the combination of coarctation of the aorta and other vascular malformations. PMID:27162694

  5. Coarctation of the aorta associated with agenesis of left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Ding, Shiao; Xu, Gaojun; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 10-year-old boy with coarctation of the aorta complicated by innominate artery stenosis and agenesis of left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery. The patient was treated with an interposition graft between the ascending and descending aorta. The right subclavian was revascularized with another graft from the interposition graft to the distal right subclavian. This is a rare case of the combination of coarctation of the aorta and other vascular malformations. PMID:27162694

  6. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal pain. The term “functional” refers to the fact that there is no blockage, inflammation or infection causing the discomfort. Nevertheless, the pain is very real, and is due to extra sensitivity of the digestive organs, sometimes combined with changes ...

  7. Human dilated ascending aorta: Mechanical characterization via uniaxial tensile tests.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Anna; Morganti, Simone; Totaro, Pasquale; Mazzola, Alessandro; Auricchio, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the ascending aorta (AsAA), i.e., a progressive and localized dilatation of the first part of the aorta, represent a severe life-threatening condition, often occurring with no symptom. AsAA formation is associated with a degeneration of the aortic wall tissue, which leads to changes in the tissue mechanical properties, and in particular to increased wall stress and/or decreased wall ultimate strength. Nowadays, the decision to surgically operate is usually based on the AsAA diameter, although such a criterion is not always predictive. The present study focuses on the mechanical characterization of the AsAA tissues. Specimens were cut from portions of dilated ascending aorta excised from 46 patients through open-heart surgery. Peak strain, peak stress, and maximum elastic modulus (i.e., tissue stiffness) were measured from uniaxial stress-strain curves. Such (ultimate) mechanical properties were collected for different regions of the aortic wall (anterior and posterior) as well as for different specimen orientations (circumferential and longitudinal). Relationships of ultimate mechanical properties with patient age and sex were also investigated. The obtained results highlighted a significant anisotropy of the AsAA tissue (as also observed for healthy aortic tissues), with higher value of strength and stiffness in the circumferential than in the longitudinal direction. Higher strength and stiffness were also found in the posterior region with respect to the anterior one for the circumferential orientation, whereas an opposite result was found for the longitudinal orientation. A decreasing trend of ultimate mechanical properties with aging was also highlighted. Finally, a significant difference in the strength between male and female was observed only in the circumferential direction. PMID:26356765

  8. Management of severe abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Hasper, Dietrich; Schefold, Joerg C; Baumgart, Daniel C

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nearly all bacteria causing abdominal infections are derived from the endogenous flora of the alimentary tract. The resulting infection is typically polymicrobial and comprised of both aerobic and anaerobic microbes. They can be classified by their severity as uncomplicated and complicated or by their origin as community or hospital acquired. Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis are the most frequently isolated bacteria in community-acquired abdominal infections. Nosocomial infections typically involve a more resistant flora (e.g. Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Gram-negative bacilli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBL], vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE] and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA]). Antimicrobial therapy should be guided by microbiological testing and frequently requires other interventions as well. In uncomplicated infections antimicrobial prophylaxis for < 24h may be considered. Patients with underlying or acquired immunodeficiency, i.e. organ transplant recipients and other patients on complex immunosuppressant regimens require special attention and antimicrobial coverage. We discuss the relevant microbiota, a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach including strategies to handle challenging infections. The application of novel compounds and/or drug classes for abdominal infections such as glycylcyclines (i.e. tigecycline), glycopeptides (i.e. dalbavancin, telavancin, oritavancin), carbapenems (i.e. doripenem), and forth generation cephalosporins (i.e. ceftaroline, ceftobiprole) as well as patents on metalloproteinase and caspase inhibitors, interleukin antagonists, fusion proteins and nitric oxide donators is critically reviewed. The information is summarized in flow charts and algorithms for use in daily clinical practice and the review article also shows the useful information of the patents for the treatment of abdominal infections. PMID:19149697

  9. Pharmacological Inhibitor of Notch Signaling Stabilizes the Progression of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jeeyun; Koenig, Sara N.; Kuivaniemi, Helena S.; Garg, Vidu; Hans, Chetan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) involves a sustained influx of proinflammatory macrophages, which exacerbate tissue injury by releasing cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases. Previously, we showed that Notch deficiency reduces the development of AAA in the angiotensin II–induced mouse model by preventing infiltration of macrophages. Here, we examined whether Notch inhibition in this mouse model prevents progression of small AAA and whether these effects are associated with altered macrophage differentiation. Methods and Results Treatment with pharmacological Notch inhibitor (DAPT [N‐(N‐[3,5‐difluorophenacetyl]‐L‐alanyl)‐S‐phenylglycine t‐butyl ester]) at day 3 or 8 of angiotensin II infusion arrested the progression of AAA in Apoe−/− mice, as demonstrated by a decreased luminal diameter and aortic width. The abdominal aortas of Apoe−/− mice treated with DAPT showed decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases and presence of elastin precursors including tropoelastin and hyaluronic acid. Marginal adventitial thickening observed in the aorta of DAPT‐treated Apoe−/− mice was not associated with increased macrophage content, as observed in the mice treated with angiotensin II alone. Instead, DAPT‐treated abdominal aortas showed increased expression of Cd206‐positive M2 macrophages and decreased expression of Il12‐positive M1 macrophages. Notch1 deficiency promoted M2 differentiation of macrophages by upregulating transforming growth factor β2 in bone marrow–derived macrophages at basal levels and in response to IL4. Protein expression of transforming growth factor β2 and its downstream effector pSmad2 also increased in DAPT‐treated Apoe−/− mice, indicating a potential link between Notch and transforming growth factor β2 signaling in the M2 differentiation of macrophages. Conclusions Pharmacological inhibitor of Notch signaling prevents the progression of AAA by macrophage differentiation–dependent mechanisms. The study also provides insights for novel therapeutic strategies to prevent the progression of small AAA. PMID:25349182

  10. Production and localization of 92-kilodalton gelatinase in abdominal aortic aneurysms. An elastolytic metalloproteinase expressed by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, R W; Holmes, D R; Mertens, R A; Liao, S; Botney, M D; Mecham, R P; Welgus, H G; Parks, W C

    1995-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are characterized by disruption and degradation of the elastic media, yet the elastolytic proteinases involved and their cellular sources are undefined. We examined if 92-kD gelatinase, an elastolytic matrix metalloproteinase, participates in the pathobiology of AAA. Gelatin zymography of conditioned medium from normal, atheroocclusive disease (AOD), or AAA tissues in organ culture showed that all tissues produced 72-kD gelatinase. AOD and AAA cultures also secreted 92-kD gelatinase, but significantly more enzyme was released from AAA tissues. ELISA confirmed that AAA tissues released approximately 2-fold more 92-kD gelatinase than AOD tissue and approximately 10-fold more than normal aorta. Phorbol ester induced a 5.3-fold increase in 92-kD gelatinase secretion by normal aorta and AOD and an 11.5-fold increase by AAA. By immunohistochemistry, 92-kD gelatinase was not detected in normal aorta and was only occasionally seen within the neointimal lesions of AOD tissue. In all AAA specimens, however, 92-kD gelatinase was readily localized to numerous macrophages in the media and at the adventitial-medial junction. The expression of 92-kD gelatinase mRNA by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages was confirmed by in situ hybridization. These results demonstrate that diseased aortic tissues secrete greater amounts of gelatinolytic activity than normal aorta primarily due to increased production of 92-kD gelatinase. In addition, the localization of 92-kD gelatinase to macrophages in the damaged wall of aneurysmal aortas suggests that chronic release of this elastolytic metalloproteinase contributes to extracellular matrix degradation in AAA. Images PMID:7615801

  11. Coarctation of the Aorta: Strategies for Improving Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lan; Cook, Stephen C

    2015-11-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is a common congenital heart defect through which management has rapidly evolved over the last few decades. The role of transcatheter-based therapies is expanding and seems to be an effective treatment option for coarctation, especially in adults. Patients with prior coarctation repair are at risk of long-term complications related to prior surgeries and associated congenital heart defects, in particular, the risk of restenosis and aortic aneurysm development related to the timing and mode of prior intervention. This article outlines the evaluation and management of adults with unrepaired coarctation and patients after coarctation repair. PMID:26471817

  12. Compression of the oesophagus by the aorta 1

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, I. K. R.; Hyde, I.

    1969-01-01

    Compression of the lower dorsal oesophagus by the aorta in elderly women sufficient to cause dysphagia has not received the attention it deserves. It is not a rare condition. The reasons for its neglect are probably two-fold: (1) the degree of dysphagia is often only slight or moderate, and (2) misdiagnosis. Occasionally, the dysphagia is serious and a threat to life. The clinical and radiological features are here described and a rational operative treatment for the severe cases is proposed. Such operative intervention does not seem to have been described previously. Images PMID:5763508

  13. [Double isthmic coarctation of the aorta: "tandem" coarctation].

    PubMed

    Binet, J P; Pernot, C; Artru, B; Worms, A M; Belhaj, M; Bruniaux, S; Marçon, F

    1983-05-01

    A second case of double coarctation of the thoracic aorta is reported, the first having been observed at the Marie-Lannelongue Surgical Center in an older child. This case was a 3 months infant in which the missed pre- and postoperative diagnosis led to reoperation after control catheter and angiographic studies. These investigations were carried out one month after the first operation because of persistent severe cardiac failure. Surgical cure in two stages consisted in a Waldhausen plastic enlargement procedure and a Crafoord-type resection anastomosis, ensuring the best chances for a good result. PMID:6411036

  14. Penetration of an Inferior Vena Cava Filter into the Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Hosaka, Akihiro; Miyahara, Takuya; Hoshina, Katsuyuki; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Transvenous placement of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters is commonly performed in selected patients with deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. However, filter placement is sometimes associated with serious complications. A common complication is asymptomatic perforation of the IVC and penetration of adjacent organs by the filter. Here, we report a case of an 83-year-old man whose prophylactic IVC filter penetrated the aorta. The patient was closely followed without surgical intervention for more than a year, and no additional complications were observed. PMID:25593628

  15. Automatic segmentation and co-registration of gated CT angiography datasets: measuring abdominal aortic pulsatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentz, Robert; Manduca, Armando; Fletcher, J. G.; Siddiki, Hassan; Shields, Raymond C.; Vrtiska, Terri; Spencer, Garrett; Primak, Andrew N.; Zhang, Jie; Nielson, Theresa; McCollough, Cynthia; Yu, Lifeng

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To develop robust, novel segmentation and co-registration software to analyze temporally overlapping CT angiography datasets, with an aim to permit automated measurement of regional aortic pulsatility in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Methods: We perform retrospective gated CT angiography in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Multiple, temporally overlapping, time-resolved CT angiography datasets are reconstructed over the cardiac cycle, with aortic segmentation performed using a priori anatomic assumptions for the aorta and heart. Visual quality assessment is performed following automatic segmentation with manual editing. Following subsequent centerline generation, centerlines are cross-registered across phases, with internal validation of co-registration performed by examining registration at the regions of greatest diameter change (i.e. when the second derivative is maximal). Results: We have performed gated CT angiography in 60 patients. Automatic seed placement is successful in 79% of datasets, requiring either no editing (70%) or minimal editing (less than 1 minute; 12%). Causes of error include segmentation into adjacent, high-attenuating, nonvascular tissues; small segmentation errors associated with calcified plaque; and segmentation of non-renal, small paralumbar arteries. Internal validation of cross-registration demonstrates appropriate registration in our patient population. In general, we observed that aortic pulsatility can vary along the course of the abdominal aorta. Pulsation can also vary within an aneurysm as well as between aneurysms, but the clinical significance of these findings remain unknown. Conclusions: Visualization of large vessel pulsatility is possible using ECG-gated CT angiography, partial scan reconstruction, automatic segmentation, centerline generation, and coregistration of temporally resolved datasets.

  16. A reappraisal of pediatric abdominal surface anatomy utilizing in vivo cross-sectional imaging.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Hemanth; Taghavi, Kiarash; Mirjalili, S Ali

    2016-03-01

    Despite being integral to medical and surgical practice, pediatric anatomy has remained relatively neglected except for a few landmark works. Neonatal and pediatric anatomy differs structurally and functionally from adult anatomy in many ways. The aim of the current study was to reappraise common abdominal surface landmarks of important structures in infants and children. After cases with related pathologies had been excluded, computer tomography scans of 90 children were divided into three age groups and systematically analyzed. The vertebral levels of the unpaired branches of the abdominal aorta (AA) were recorded. The vertebral level and relationship to the midline of the bifurcation of the AA and the formation of the inferior vena cava were measured. The renal long axes, costal relationships, renal artery vertebral levels, and hilar vertebral levels were measured. The splenic long axis and relationship to the mid-axillary line were also measured. The renal length was disproportionately large in the youngest age group and increased less with age (7.12 cm, 7.85 cm, 8.86 cm). The renal artery was consistently found around L1; the left kidney was related to the 11th and 12th ribs posteriorly, the right kidney only to the 12th rib. The AA bifurcated to the right of the midline in 10% of children. The unpaired visceral branches of the aorta were commonly found at T12 (celiac artery), L1 (superior mesenteric artery), and L3 (inferior mesenteric artery). The current study provides age-standardized surface landmarks and measurements for major abdominal vascular structures and solid organs in normal children. The clinical applications of these data are multiple and diverse. Clin. Anat. 29:197-203, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26615977

  17. Pulse wave imaging in normal, hypertensive and aneurysmal human aortas in vivo: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ronny X.; Luo, Jianwen; Balaram, Sandhya K.; Chaudhry, Farooq A.; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2013-07-01

    Arterial stiffness is a well-established biomarker for cardiovascular risk, especially in the case of hypertension. The progressive stages of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) have also been associated with varying arterial stiffness. Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is a noninvasive, ultrasound imaging-based technique that uses the pulse wave-induced arterial wall motion to map the propagation of the pulse wave and measure the regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) as an index of arterial stiffness. In this study, the clinical feasibility of PWI was evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and aneurysmal human aortas. Radiofrequency-based speckle tracking was used to estimate the pulse wave-induced displacements in the abdominal aortic walls of normal (N = 15, mean age 32.5 ± 10.2 years), hypertensive (N = 13, mean age 60.8 ± 15.8 years), and aneurysmal (N = 5, mean age 71.6 ± 11.8 years) human subjects. Linear regression of the spatio-temporal variation of the displacement waveform in the anterior aortic wall over a single cardiac cycle yielded the slope as the PWV and the coefficient of determination r2 as an approximate measure of the pulse wave propagation uniformity. The aortic PWV measurements in all normal, hypertensive, and AAA subjects were 6.03 ± 1.68, 6.69 ± 2.80, and 10.54 ± 6.52 m s-1, respectively. There was no significant difference (p = 0.15) between the PWVs of the normal and hypertensive subjects while the PWVs of the AAA subjects were significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to those of the other two groups. Also, the average r2 in the AAA subjects was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than that in the normal and hypertensive subjects. These preliminary results suggest that the regional PWV and the pulse wave propagation uniformity (r2) obtained using PWI, in addition to the PWI images and spatio-temporal maps that provide qualitative visualization of the pulse wave, may potentially provide valuable information for the clinical characterization of aneurysms and other vascular pathologies that regionally alter the arterial wall mechanics.

  18. Endovascular Repair of Traumatic Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta: Single-Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Saratzis, Nikolaos A. Saratzis, Athanasios N.; Melas, Nikolaos; Ginis, Georgios; Lioupis, Athanasios; Lykopoulos, Dimitrios; Lazaridis, John; Dimitrios, Kiskinis

    2007-06-15

    Purpose. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta secondary to blunt chest trauma is a life-threatening emergency and a common cause of death, usually following violent collisions. The objective of this retrospective report was to evaluate the efficacy of endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions with a single commercially available stent-graft. Methods. Nine men (mean age 29.5 years) were admitted to our institution between January 2003 and January 2006 due to blunt aortic trauma following violent motor vehicle collisions. Plain chest radiography, spiral computed tomography, aortography, and transesophageal echocardiography were used for diagnostic purposes in all cases. All patients were diagnosed with contained extramural thoracic aortic hematomas, secondary to aortic disruption. One patient was also diagnosed with a traumatic thoracic aortic dissection, secondary to blunt trauma. All subjects were poor surgical candidates, due to major injuries such as multiple bone fractures, abdominal hematomas, and pulmonary contusions. All repairs were performed using the EndoFit (LeMaitre Vascular) stent-graft. Results. Complete exclusion of the traumatic aortic disruption and pseudoaneurysm was achieved and verified at intraoperative arteriography and on CT scans, within 10 days of the repair in all patients. In 1 case the deployment of a second cuff was necessary due to a secondary endoleak. In 2 cases the left subclavian artery was occluded to achieve adequate graft fixation. No procedure-related deaths have occurred and no cardiac or peripheral vascular complications were observed within the 12 months (range 8-16 months) follow-up. Conclusions. This is the first time the EndoFit graft has been utilized in the treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions secondary to chest trauma. The repair of such pathologies is technically feasible and early follow-up results are promising.

  19. Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be at an increased risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm, a new study suggests. An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a weak spot in the body's main ... those without recent asthma activity. "People with abdominal aortic aneurysm who were diagnosed with asthma within the past ...

  20. Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:25239980

  1. The use of Doppler ultrasonography for pre- and post-surgery monitoring of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Case report.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Monica Elia; Arbeille, Philippe; Dobre, Michaela; Stefanescu, Victorita

    2016-03-01

    A 75 year old male patient was monitored for 3 years by Doppler Ultrasonography (US) for an abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). Because the aneurysm increased significantly, an aortic prosthesis was installed via an endovascular procedure. After one month of post-surgery monitoring, both Doppler US exam and contrast enhancement US (CEUS) suspected the presence of a leak at the level of the prosthesis. A new surgical procedure was scheduled and intraoperative arteriography confirmed an endoleak type II. Although not always able to specify the correct type of linkage, CEUS remains a reliable method for investigating the postoperative complications of AAA. PMID:26962567

  2. Efficacy of Transcerebellar Diameter/Abdominal Circumference Versus Head Circumference/Abdominal Circumference in Predicting Asymmetric Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Bhimarao; Bhat, Venkataramana; Gowda, Puttanna VN

    2015-01-01

    Background The high incidence of IUGR and its low recognition lead to increasing perinatal morbidity and mortality for which prediction of IUGR with timely management decisions is of paramount importance. Many studies have compared the efficacy of several gestational age independent parameters and found that TCD/AC is a better predictor of asymmetric IUGR. Aim To compare the accuracy of transcerebellar diameter/abdominal circumference with head circumference/abdominal circumference in predicting asymmetric intrauterine growth retardation after 20 weeks of gestation. Materials and Methods The prospective study was conducted over a period of one year on 50 clinically suspected IUGR pregnancies who were evaluated with 3.5 MHz frequency ultrasound scanner by a single sonologist. BPD, HC, AC and FL along with TCD were measured for assessing the sonological gestational age. Two morphometric ratios- TCD/AC and HC/AC were calculated. Estimated fetal weight was calculated for all these pregnancies and its percentile was determined. Statistical Methods The TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios were correlated with advancing gestational age to know if these were related to GA. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy (DA) for TCD/AC and HC/AC ratios in evaluating IUGR fetuses were calculated. Results In the present study, linear relation of TCD and HC in IUGR fetuses with gestation was noted. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV & DA were 88%, 93.5%, 77.1%, 96.3% & 92.4% respectively for TCD/AC ratio versus 84%, 92%, 72.4%, 95.8% & 90.4% respectively for HC/AC ratio in predicting IUGR. Conclusion Both ratios were gestational age independent and can be used in detecting IUGR with good diagnostic accuracy. However, TCD/AC ratio had a better diagnostic validity and accuracy compared to HC/AC ratio in predicting asymmetric IUGR. PMID:26557588

  3. Morphometric assessment of uplifting coral reef sequences, Sumba Island, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nexer, Maëlle; Authemayou, Christine; Schildgen, Taylor; Hantoro, Wayhoe; Molliex, Stephane; Delcaillau, Bernard; Pedoja, Kevin; Husson, Laurent; Regard, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Rates and patterns of vertical ground motions constitute a basic framework for understanding the kinematics of the deforming lithosphere. Calibrating morphometric indices with landscape maturity and tectonic deformation requires comparisons with regions of known uplift history. The ability to derive uplift histories from marine or reefal terrace analysis in coastal zones therefore makes such settings ideal for testing morpho-tectonic analysis techniques. To explore the relationships between uplift rates and landscape morphology, we studied a 300-km-long coastal stretch affected by slow to moderate uplift rates, varying laterally from ≈0.02 to ≈0.6 mm/yr. We exploited the systematic spatial variation in rock uplift rates recorded in well-dated sequences of coral reef terraces of Sumba Island to assess the manner and degree to which the eight morphometric indices selected for this study can be correlated with tectonic forcing. The uniform equatorial climate and lithology (most of the bedrock is composed of Quaternary reefal limestones) across the study area allow us to evaluate which morphometric indices best reflect the spatial variations in Pleistocene coastal uplift rates. Morphometric indices extracted from digital elevation models include residual relief, incision, stream length index, ksn, hypsometric integral, drainage area, mean relief, and shape factor. We calculated and extracted these indices at three scales: across the whole island, from grouped sequences of coral reef terraces undergoing comparable uplift rates and individual catchments draining mainly the coral reef zones located in the northern part of Sumba Island. We find that SL, hypsometric integral, mean relief and shape factor of catchments positively correlate with uplift rates, whereas incision, residual relief, and ksn do not. Interestingly enough, we find that only the areas that are uplifting at a rate faster than 0.3 mm/yr can yield the extreme values for these indices, implying in turn that these extreme values are powerful indicators of fast uplifting areas. However, the relationship is not bivalent, as we find that any uplift rate can be associated with low values of the same indices. For all indices, the transient conditions of the drainage influence the correlation with Pleistocene mean uplift rates, illustrating the necessity to extract morphometric indices taking into account the choice of catchment scale. This analysis identifies the morphometric indices that are most useful for tectonic analysis in areas of unknown uplift, allowing for an easy identification of short spatial variations of uplift rate and detection areas of relatively fast uplift rates in unstudied coastal zones. Our results suggest that this procedure may be applied to identify rapidly uplifting areas along any given coastal area that includes a sequence of reefal or marine terraces.

  4. Vasorelaxation Effect of Estrone Derivate EA204 in Rabbit Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen and its derivatives exert vascular protective effects, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be studied fully. Objective. To investigate the vasorelaxation effect and related mechanisms of an estrone derivate EA204[3-(2-piperidin-1-yl)-ethoxy-estra-1, 3, 5 (10)-trien-17-one] on isolated arterial preparation from rabbit thoracic aorta. Methods. Aortic rings from rabbit thoracic aorta were prepared and held in small organ bath filled with Krebs solution; tension change was recorded by a multichannel physiological signal collection and handling system. Results. EA204 (10−5 to 10−3 M) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings with endothelium and without endothelium. In denuded arterial preparations, EA204 had a potent relaxing effect on isolated arterial preparations contracted with phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and high-K+ solution or BaCl2. Mechanism study indicates that EA204 relaxes aortic rings by inhibiting Ca2+ channels (both receptor-operating Ca2+ channels and the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels were involved) to decrease extracellular Ca2+ influx and intracellular Ca2+ release. EA204 is different from verapamil, which is a noncompetitive inhibitor of Ca2+ channels. In addition, K+ channels opening may contribute to this vasorelaxation effect. Conclusion. EA204 had a potent endothelium-independent relaxing effect on isolated arterial preparation by inhibiting Ca2+ channels and opening K+ channels. The results suggest that EA204 is a potential compound for treatment of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. PMID:27190689

  5. Elastin aging and lipid oxidation products in human aorta

    PubMed Central

    Zarkovic, Kamelija; Larroque-Cardoso, Pauline; Pucelle, Mélanie; Salvayre, Robert; Waeg, Georg; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Zarkovic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    Vascular aging is associated with structural and functional modifications of the arteries, and by an increase in arterial wall thickening in the intima and the media, mainly resulting from structural modifications of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Among the factors known to accumulate with aging, advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs) are a hallmark of oxidative stress-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. Aldehydes generated from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), (4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, acrolein), form adducts on cellular proteins, leading to a progressive protein dysfunction with consequences in the pathophysiology of vascular aging. The contribution of these aldehydes to ECM modification is not known. This study was carried out to investigate whether aldehyde-adducts are detected in the intima and media in human aorta, whether their level is increased in vascular aging, and whether elastin fibers are a target of aldehyde-adduct formation. Immunohistological and confocal immunofluorescence studies indicate that 4-HNE-histidine-adducts accumulate in an age-related manner in the intima, media and adventitia layers of human aortas, and are mainly expressed in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, even if the structure of elastin fiber is strongly altered in the aged vessels, our results show that elastin is not or very poorly modified by 4-HNE. These data indicate a complex role for lipid peroxidation and in particular for 4-HNE in elastin homeostasis, in the vascular wall remodeling during aging and atherosclerosis development. PMID:25553420

  6. Coarctation of the aorta: Management from infancy to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Torok, Rachel D; Campbell, Michael J; Fleming, Gregory A; Hill, Kevin D

    2015-11-26

    Coarctation of the aorta is a relatively common form of congenital heart disease, with an estimated incidence of approximately 3 cases per 10000 births. Coarctation is a heterogeneous lesion which may present across all age ranges, with varying clinical symptoms, in isolation, or in association with other cardiac defects. The first surgical repair of aortic coarctation was described in 1944, and since that time, several other surgical techniques have been developed and modified. Additionally, transcatheter balloon angioplasty and endovascular stent placement offer less invasive approaches for the treatment of coarctation of the aorta for some patients. While overall morbidity and mortality rates are low for patients undergoing intervention for coarctation, both surgical and transcatheter interventions are not free from adverse outcomes. Therefore, patients must be followed closely over their lifetime for complications such as recoarctation, aortic aneurysm, persistent hypertension, and changes in any associated cardiac defects. Considerable effort has been expended investigating the utility and outcomes of various treatment approaches for aortic coarctation, which are heavily influenced by a patient's anatomy, size, age, and clinical course. Here we review indications for intervention, describe and compare surgical and transcatheter techniques for management of coarctation, and explore the associated outcomes in both children and adults. PMID:26635924

  7. Coarctation of the aorta: Management from infancy to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Rachel D; Campbell, Michael J; Fleming, Gregory A; Hill, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is a relatively common form of congenital heart disease, with an estimated incidence of approximately 3 cases per 10000 births. Coarctation is a heterogeneous lesion which may present across all age ranges, with varying clinical symptoms, in isolation, or in association with other cardiac defects. The first surgical repair of aortic coarctation was described in 1944, and since that time, several other surgical techniques have been developed and modified. Additionally, transcatheter balloon angioplasty and endovascular stent placement offer less invasive approaches for the treatment of coarctation of the aorta for some patients. While overall morbidity and mortality rates are low for patients undergoing intervention for coarctation, both surgical and transcatheter interventions are not free from adverse outcomes. Therefore, patients must be followed closely over their lifetime for complications such as recoarctation, aortic aneurysm, persistent hypertension, and changes in any associated cardiac defects. Considerable effort has been expended investigating the utility and outcomes of various treatment approaches for aortic coarctation, which are heavily influenced by a patient’s anatomy, size, age, and clinical course. Here we review indications for intervention, describe and compare surgical and transcatheter techniques for management of coarctation, and explore the associated outcomes in both children and adults. PMID:26635924

  8. Monitoring and Staging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Disease with Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI)

    PubMed Central

    Nandlall, Sacha D.; GoldKlang, Monica P.; Kalashian, Aubrey; Dangra, Nida A.; D’Armiento, Jeanine M.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2014-01-01

    The Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a silent and often deadly vascular disease caused by the localized weakening of the arterial wall. Previous work has shown that local changes in wall stiffness can be detected with Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI), which is a noninvasive technique for tracking the propagation of pulse waves along the aorta at high spatial and temporal resolutions. This study aims at assessing the capability of PWI to monitor and stage AAA progression in a murine model of the disease. ApoE/TIMP-1 knockout mice (N = 18) were given angiotensin II for 30 days via subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps. The suprarenal sections of the abdominal aortas were imaged every 2-3 days after implantation using a 30 MHz Visualsonics Vevo 770 with 115 μm lateral resolution. Pulse wave propagation was monitored at an effective frame rate of 8 kHz by using retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG) gating and by performing 1-D cross-correlation on the radio-frequency (RF) signals to obtain the displacements induced by the waves. In normal aortas, the pulse waves propagated at constant velocities (2.8±0. 9 m/s, r2 = 0.89±0.11), indicating that the composition of these vessels was relatively homogeneous. In the mice that developed AAAs (N = 10), the wave speeds in the aneurysm sac were 45% lower (1.6±0.6 m/s) and were more variable (r2 = 0.66±0.23). Moreover, the wave-induced wall displacements were at least 80% lower within the sacs compared to the surrounding vessel. Finally, in mice that developed fissures (N = 5) or ruptures (N = 3) at the sites of their AAA, higher displacements directed out of the lumen and with no discernible wave pattern (r2 < 0.20) were observed throughout the cardiac cycle. These findings show that PWI can be used to distinguish normal murine aortas from aneurysmal, fissured, and ruptured ones. Hence, PWI could potentially be used to monitor and stage human aneurysms by providing information complementary to standard B-modes. PMID:25130446

  9. Distribution of Wall Stress in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasheras, Juan

    2005-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is believed to occur when the mechanical stress acting on the wall exceeds the strength of the wall tissue. Therefore, knowledge of the AAA wall stress distribution could be useful in assessing its risk of rupture. In our research, a finite element analysis was used to determine the wall stresses both in idealized models and in a real clinical model in which the aorta was considered isotropic with nonlinear material properties and was loaded with a given pressure. In the idealized models, both maximum diameter and asymmetry were found to have substantial influence on the distribution of the wall stress. The thrombus inside the AAA was also found to help protecting the walls from high stresses. Using CT scans of the AAA, the actual geometry of the aneurysm was reconstructed and we found that wall tension increases on the flatter surface (typically corresponds to the posterior surface) and at the inflection points of the bulge. In addition to the static analysis, we also performed simulations of the effect of unsteady pressure wave propagation inside the aneurysm.

  10. 3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we propose a technique for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) from computed tomography angiography (CTA) images. Output data (3-D model) form the proposed method can be used for measurement of aortic shape and dimensions. Knowledge of aortic shape and size is very important in planning of minimally invasive procedure that is for selection of appropriate stent graft device for treatment of AAA. The technique is based on a 3-D deformable model and utilizes the level-set algorithm for implementation of the method. The method performs 3-D segmentation of CTA images and extracts a 3-D model of aortic wall. Once the 3-D model of aortic wall is available it is easy to perform all required measurements for appropriate stent graft selection. The method proposed in this paper uses the level-set algorithm for deformable models, instead of the classical snake algorithm. The main advantage of the level set algorithm is that it enables easy segmentation of complex structures, surpassing most of the drawbacks of the classical approach. We have extended the deformable model to incorporate the a priori knowledge about the shape of the AAA. This helps direct the evolution of the deformable model to correctly segment the aorta. The algorithm has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

  11. Possible Dual Role of Decorin in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Koshiro; Yoshimura, Koichi; Yamashita, Osamu; Harada, Takasuke; Morikage, Noriyasu; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by chronic inflammation, which leads to pathological remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Decorin, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan, has been suggested to regulate inflammation and stabilize the extracellular matrix. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of decorin in the pathogenesis of AAA. Decorin was localized in the aortic adventitia under normal conditions in both mice and humans. AAA was induced in mice using CaCl2 treatment. Initially, decorin protein levels decreased, but as AAA progressed decorin levels increased in all layers. Local administration of exogenous decorin prevented the development of CaCl2-induced AAA. However, decorin was highly expressed in the degenerative lesions of human AAA walls, and this expression positively correlated with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression. In cell culture experiments, the addition of decorin inhibited secretion of MMP-9 in vascular smooth muscle cells, but had the opposite effect in macrophages. The results suggest that decorin plays a dual role in AAA. Adventitial decorin in normal aorta may protect against the development of AAA, but macrophages expressing decorin in AAA walls may facilitate the progression of AAA by up-regulating MMP-9 secretion. PMID:25781946

  12. 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway In Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Bhamidipati, Castigliano M; Whatling, Carl A; Mehta, Gaurav S; Meher, Akshaya K; Hajzus, Vanessa A; Su, Gang; Salmon, Morgan; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Owens, Gary K; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2014-01-01

    Objective The impact of leukotriene production by the 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway in the pathophysiology of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) has been debated. Moreover, a clear mechanism through which 5-LO influences AAA remains unclear. Approach and Results Aneurysm formation was attenuated in 5-LO−/− mice, and in lethally irradiated WT mice reconstituted with 5-LO−/− bone marrow in an elastase perfusion model. Pharmacologic inhibition of 5-LO attenuated aneurysm formation in both aortic elastase perfused WT and angiotensin II treated LDLr−/− mice, with resultant preservation of elastin and fewer 5-LO and MMP9 producing cells. Separately, analysis of WT mice 7 days after elastase perfusion showed that 5-LO inhibition was associated with reduced polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration to the aortic wall. Importantly, 5-LO inhibition initiated 3 days after elastase perfusion in WT mice arrested progression of small AAA. Human AAA and control aorta corroborated these elastin and 5-LO expression patterns. Conclusions Inhibition of 5-LO by pharmacologic or genetic approaches attenuates aneurysm formation and prevents fragmentation of the medial layer in two unique AAA models. Administration of 5-LO inhibitor in small AAA slows progression of AAA. Targeted interruption of the 5-LO pathway is a potential treatment strategy in AAA. PMID:25324573

  13. [Abdominal bruit associated with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Fontseré, N; Bonet, J; Bonal, J; Romero, R

    2004-01-01

    First cause of secondary hypertension is renovascular hypertension which presents abdominal bruit in 16 to 20% of cases. This clinical sign is also associated with other vascular disease of the abdomen such as celiac trunk stenosis and/or aneurysms located on the pancreaticoduodenal or gastroduodenal arcs level, with little representation among aneurysm. They usually appear on a context of digestive complications like neoplasias, chronic pancreatitis or gastric obstructions possibly with obstructive icterus, hemorrhage and acute abdomen episodes. Its presentation in other contexts is rare and constitutes a diagnostic challenge. Diagnosis is made by abdominal arteriography which is the best method because you can locate the problem as well as intervene therapeutically with embolization of the aneurysme. We would like to emphasize the importance of a quick diagnosis due to the risk of rupture and the high morbi-mortality associated. PMID:15219082

  14. MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Klingenberg, Christian Peter

    2011-03-01

    Increasingly, data on shape are analysed in combination with molecular genetic or ecological information, so that tools for geometric morphometric analysis are required. Morphometric studies most often use the arrangements of morphological landmarks as the data source and extract shape information from them by Procrustes superimposition. The MorphoJ software combines this approach with a wide range of methods for shape analysis in different biological contexts. The program offers an integrated and user-friendly environment for standard multivariate analyses such as principal components, discriminant analysis and multivariate regression as well as specialized applications including phylogenetics, quantitative genetics and analyses of modularity in shape data. MorphoJ is written in Java and versions for the Windows, Macintosh and Unix/Linux platforms are freely available from http://www.flywings.org.uk/MorphoJ_page.htm. PMID:21429143

  15. Morphometric Characterization and Reconstruction Effect Among Lunar Impact Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Weiming; Wang, Jiao; Wan, Cong

    2014-05-01

    Impact craters on the lunar surface have a variety of morphometric characteristics that are very useful in understanding the evolutionary history of lunar landscape morphologies. Based on digital elevation model data and photographs from China's Chang'E-1 lunar orbiter, we develop morphologic parameters and quantitative methods for presenting the morphometric characteristics of impact craters, analyzing their relational distribution, and estimating the relative order of their formation. We also analyze features in profile where craters show signs of having formed on the edge of previously existing craters to show that superimposed impacts affect morphologic reconstructions. As a result, impact craters have significant effects on the reconstruction of ancient topography and the estimation of relative formation ages.

  16. Acute Abdominal Pain in Children.

    PubMed

    Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy

    2016-05-15

    Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27175718

  17. Improved Protein Extractionand Protein Identification from Archival Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Human Aortas

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zongming; Yan, Kun; Rosenberg, Avraham; Jin, Zhicheng; Crain, Barbara; Athas, Grace; Vander Heide, Richard S; Howard, Timothy; Everett, Allen D.; Herrington, David; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate combination of heat and elevated pressure to enhance protein extraction and quality of formaldehyde-fixed (FF), and FF paraffin-embedded (FFPE) aorta for proteomics. Experiment design Proteins were extracted from fresh frozen aorta at RT. FF and FFPE aortas (3 months and 15 years) were extracted at RT, heat alone, or a combination of heat and high pressure. Protein yields were compared, and digested peptides from the extracts were analyzed with mass spectrometry. Results Combined heat and elevated pressure increased protein yield from human FF or FFPE aorta compared to matched tissues with heat alone (1.5 fold) or at RT (8.3 fold), resulting in more proteins identified and with more sequence coverage. The length of storage did adversely affect the quality of proteins from FF tissue. For long term storage, aorta was preserved better with FFPE than FF alone. Periostin and MGF-E8 were demonstrated suitable for MRM assays from FFPE aorta. Conclusions and clinical relevance Combination of heat and high pressure is an effective method to extract proteins from FFPE aorta for downstream proteomics. This method opens the possibility for use of archival and often rare FFPE aortas and possibly other tissues available to proteomics for biomarker discovery and quantification. PMID:23339088

  18. Obstruction of the Aorta and Left Pulmonary Artery After Gianturco Coil Occlusion of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, H.-Cg; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Wu, Yu-Tsun; Huang, Chien-Fu; Chien, Shao-Ju; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Liang, Chi-Di

    2005-01-15

    We report an unusual case of simultaneous obstruction of the left pulmonary artery and descending thoracic aorta after Gianturco coil occlusion in a 15-month-old boy. The diagnosis was made by echocardiography and cardiac angiography. At surgery, thrombi coating on the protruded parts of the Gianturco coil in the pulmonary artery and aorta were found.

  19. Morphometric Atlas Selection for Automatic Brachial Plexus Segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Velde, Joris; Wouters, Johan; Vercauteren, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; Duprez, Fréderic; De Neve, Wilfried; Van Hoof, Tom

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of atlas selection based on different morphometric parameters, on the accuracy of automatic brachial plexus (BP) segmentation for radiation therapy planning. The segmentation accuracy was measured by comparing all of the generated automatic segmentations with anatomically validated gold standard atlases developed using cadavers. Methods and Materials: Twelve cadaver computed tomography (CT) atlases (3 males, 9 females; mean age: 73 years) were included in the study. One atlas was selected to serve as a patient, and the other 11 atlases were registered separately onto this “patient” using deformable image registration. This procedure was repeated for every atlas as a patient. Next, the Dice and Jaccard similarity indices and inclusion index were calculated for every registered BP with the original gold standard BP. In parallel, differences in several morphometric parameters that may influence the BP segmentation accuracy were measured for the different atlases. Specific brachial plexus-related CT-visible bony points were used to define the morphometric parameters. Subsequently, correlations between the similarity indices and morphometric parameters were calculated. Results: A clear negative correlation between difference in protraction-retraction distance and the similarity indices was observed (mean Pearson correlation coefficient = −0.546). All of the other investigated Pearson correlation coefficients were weak. Conclusions: Differences in the shoulder protraction-retraction position between the atlas and the patient during planning CT influence the BP autosegmentation accuracy. A greater difference in the protraction-retraction distance between the atlas and the patient reduces the accuracy of the BP automatic segmentation result.

  20. Statolith Morphometrics Can Discriminate among Taxa of Cubozoan Jellyfishes.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Christopher J; Kingsford, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Identification of potentially harmful cubomedusae is difficult due to their gelatinous nature. The only hard structure of medusae, the statolith, has the potential to provide robust measurements for morphometric analysis. Traditional morphometric length to width ratios (L: W) and modern morphometric Elliptical Fourier Analysis (EFA) were applied to proximal, oral and lateral statolith faces of 12 cubozoan species. EFA outperformed L: W as L: W did not account for the curvature of the statolith. Best discrimination was achieved with Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) when analysing proximal + oral + lateral statolith faces in combination. Normalised Elliptical Fourier (NEF) coefficients classified 98% of samples to their correct species and 94% to family group. Statolith shape agreed with currently accepted cubozoan taxonomy. This has potential to assist in identifying levels of risk and stock structure of populations in areas where box jellyfish envenomations are a concern as the severity of envenomation is family dependent. We have only studied 12 (27%) of the 45 currently accepted cubomedusae, but analyses demonstrated that statolith shape is an effective taxonomic discriminator within the Class. PMID:27192408

  1. Statolith Morphometrics Can Discriminate among Taxa of Cubozoan Jellyfishes

    PubMed Central

    Kingsford, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of potentially harmful cubomedusae is difficult due to their gelatinous nature. The only hard structure of medusae, the statolith, has the potential to provide robust measurements for morphometric analysis. Traditional morphometric length to width ratios (L: W) and modern morphometric Elliptical Fourier Analysis (EFA) were applied to proximal, oral and lateral statolith faces of 12 cubozoan species. EFA outperformed L: W as L: W did not account for the curvature of the statolith. Best discrimination was achieved with Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) when analysing proximal + oral + lateral statolith faces in combination. Normalised Elliptical Fourier (NEF) coefficients classified 98% of samples to their correct species and 94% to family group. Statolith shape agreed with currently accepted cubozoan taxonomy. This has potential to assist in identifying levels of risk and stock structure of populations in areas where box jellyfish envenomations are a concern as the severity of envenomation is family dependent. We have only studied 12 (27%) of the 45 currently accepted cubomedusae, but analyses demonstrated that statolith shape is an effective taxonomic discriminator within the Class. PMID:27192408

  2. Regional morphometric and geomorphologic mapping of Martian landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan Capitan, Radu; Van De Wiel, Marco J.

    2012-08-01

    Initial mapping of the Martian surface, based on stratigraphic markers identified from Viking imagery, resulted in the demarcation of broad planetary scale geological zones. Recent advances in image resolution have established the presence of many smaller surface elements superposed on the older geological zones, thereby indicating younger surface morphologies that are in contradiction with the older mapping. Moreover, the stratigraphic mapping technique is subjective and relatively cumbersome because of its reliance on visual interpretation of images. In this paper a new analytical technique is developed which uses morphometric analysis of the Martian elevation map (MOLA data) to automate delineation and mapping of landforms at the regional scale. The analysis relies on altitude, local relief and local watershed clustering to delineate the landforms, and applies statistical clustering to identify structures with similar properties. As a case study, the technique is applied to Atlantis and Gorgonum basins. Comparison of the delineated features with landforms visible on high-resolution THEMIS images illustrates the accuracy of the morphometric technique in delineating and classifying surface structures, and also permits interpretation of the origin and evolution of the landforms. Our results also show that morphometric data and morphologic evaluation can be combined into a single interpretation of the distribution of surface patterns. A new geomorphological map of the study area is produced and contrasted with the existing stratigraphic map.

  3. On the prediction of monocyte deposition in abdominal aortic aneurysms using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hardman, David; Doyle, Barry J; Semple, Scott I K; Richards, Jennifer M J; Newby, David E; Easson, William J; Hoskins, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    In abdominal aortic aneurysm disease, the aortic wall is exposed to intense biological activity involving inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase-mediated degradation of the extracellular matrix. These processes are orchestrated by monocytes and rather than affecting the aorta uniformly, damage and weaken focal areas of the wall leaving it vulnerable to rupture. This study attempts to model numerically the deposition of monocytes using large eddy simulation, discrete phase modelling and near-wall particle residence time. The model was first applied to idealised aneurysms and then to three patient-specific lumen geometries using three-component inlet velocities derived from phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. The use of a novel, variable wall shear stress-limiter based on previous experimental data significantly improved the results. Simulations identified a critical diameter (1.8 times the inlet diameter) beyond which significant monocyte deposition is expected to occur. Monocyte adhesion occurred proximally in smaller abdominal aortic aneurysms and distally as the sac expands. The near-wall particle residence time observed in each of the patient-specific models was markedly different. Discrete hotspots of monocyte residence time were detected, suggesting that the monocyte infiltration responsible for the breakdown of the abdominal aortic aneurysm wall occurs heterogeneously. Peak monocyte residence time was found to increase with aneurysm sac size. Further work addressing certain limitations is needed in a larger cohort to determine clinical significance. PMID:23886969

  4. The effect of calcium on the mechanical behaviour of aorta media elastin and collagen.

    PubMed Central

    Minns, R. J.; Steven, F. S.

    1977-01-01

    Mechanical tests were conducted on rings of pig thoracic aorta that had been treated with calcium ions to evaluate their effect on aorta media collagen and elastin. There was an increase in stiffness just before rupture and a decrease in storage energy when calcium was introduced into intact rings, but there was no significant difference in mechanical properties when it was introduced into the elastin framework of the media. The calcium was able to bind to the intact aorta media far more readily than to the elastin alone, suggesting that the collagen and muscle framework were far more susceptible to the introduction of calcium than elastin. The calcium content rose along the length of the aorta, as did the collagen content, whilst the elastin content fell, which was also reflected in the change in mechanical properties along the aorta. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:588444

  5. Protective effect of zingerone on increased vascular contractility in diabetic rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Ghareib, Salah A; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Elberry, Ahmed A; Azhar, Ahmad; Watson, Malcolm L; Banjar, Zainy M; Alahdal, Abdulrahman M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and possible mechanism of action of zingerone, the main constituent of ginger, on vascular reactivity in isolated aorta from diabetic rats. The results show that incubation of aortae with zingerone alleviates the exaggerated vasoconstriction of diabetic aortae to phenylephrine, as well as the impaired relaxatory response to acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, Zingerone directly relax phenylephrine-precontracted aortae. The vasorelaxatory response is significantly attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride and the guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue but no effect of either the potassium channels blocker tetraethylammonium chloride, or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin was observed. Zingerone had no effect on advanced glycation end product formation as well. In conclusion, zingerone ameliorates enhanced vascular contraction in diabetic aortae which may be mediated by its vasodilator effect through NO- and guanylate cyclase stimulation. PMID:27020549

  6. Blood flow and coherent vortices in the normal and aneurysmatic aortas: a fluid dynamical approach to intra-luminal thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Biasetti, Jacopo; Hussain, Fazle; Gasser, T Christian

    2011-10-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are frequently characterized by the development of an intra-luminal thrombus (ILT), which is known to have multiple biochemical and biomechanical implications. Development of the ILT is not well understood, and shear-stress-triggered activation of platelets could be the first step in its evolution. Vortical structures (VSs) in the flow affect platelet dynamics, which motivated the present study of a possible correlation between VS and ILT formation in AAAs. VSs educed by the λ(2)-method using computational fluid dynamics simulations of the backward-facing step problem, normal aorta, fusiform AAA and saccular AAA were investigated. Patient-specific luminal geometries were reconstructed from computed tomography scans, and Newtonian and Carreau-Yasuda models were used to capture salient rheological features of blood flow. Particularly in complex flow domains, results depended on the constitutive model. VSs developed all along the normal aorta, showing that a clear correlation between VSs and high wall shear stress (WSS) existed, and that VSs started to break up during late systole. In contrast, in the fusiform AAA, large VSs developed at sites of tortuous geometry and high WSS, occupying the entire lumen, and lasting over the entire cardiac cycle. Downward motion of VSs in the AAA was in the range of a few centimetres per cardiac cycle, and with a VS burst at that location, the release (from VSs) of shear-stress-activated platelets and their deposition to the wall was within the lower part of the diseased artery, i.e. where the thickest ILT layer is typically observed. In the saccular AAA, only one VS was found near the healthy portion of the aorta, while in the aneurysmatic bulge, no VSs occurred. We present a fluid-dynamics-motivated mechanism for platelet activation, convection and deposition in AAAs that has the potential of improving our current understanding of the pathophysiology of fluid-driven ILT growth. PMID:21471188

  7. Blood flow and coherent vortices in the normal and aneurysmatic aortas: a fluid dynamical approach to intra-luminal thrombus formation

    PubMed Central

    Biasetti, Jacopo; Hussain, Fazle; Gasser, T. Christian

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are frequently characterized by the development of an intra-luminal thrombus (ILT), which is known to have multiple biochemical and biomechanical implications. Development of the ILT is not well understood, and shear–stress-triggered activation of platelets could be the first step in its evolution. Vortical structures (VSs) in the flow affect platelet dynamics, which motivated the present study of a possible correlation between VS and ILT formation in AAAs. VSs educed by the λ2-method using computational fluid dynamics simulations of the backward-facing step problem, normal aorta, fusiform AAA and saccular AAA were investigated. Patient-specific luminal geometries were reconstructed from computed tomography scans, and Newtonian and Carreau–Yasuda models were used to capture salient rheological features of blood flow. Particularly in complex flow domains, results depended on the constitutive model. VSs developed all along the normal aorta, showing that a clear correlation between VSs and high wall shear stress (WSS) existed, and that VSs started to break up during late systole. In contrast, in the fusiform AAA, large VSs developed at sites of tortuous geometry and high WSS, occupying the entire lumen, and lasting over the entire cardiac cycle. Downward motion of VSs in the AAA was in the range of a few centimetres per cardiac cycle, and with a VS burst at that location, the release (from VSs) of shear-stress-activated platelets and their deposition to the wall was within the lower part of the diseased artery, i.e. where the thickest ILT layer is typically observed. In the saccular AAA, only one VS was found near the healthy portion of the aorta, while in the aneurysmatic bulge, no VSs occurred. We present a fluid-dynamics-motivated mechanism for platelet activation, convection and deposition in AAAs that has the potential of improving our current understanding of the pathophysiology of fluid-driven ILT growth. PMID:21471188

  8. Descending thoracic aorta remodeling after multilayer stent release.

    PubMed

    Bozzani, Antonio; Arici, Vittorio; Bonalumi, Giovanni; Argenteri, Angelo

    2015-07-01

    The multilayer flow modulator (MFM) is a device whose real effectiveness in the treatment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms is not clear yet. A 68-year-old man with a 18-mm blister-like aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta underwent endovascular exclusion, complicated by the thrombosis of a previous aortobi-iliac prosthesis, treated with embolectomy and femorofemoral bypass. Therefore, an MFM placement was planned. The postoperative course was uneventful and the 6-month computed tomography scan showed a complete thrombosis and remodeling of the aneurysm. The MFM stent could be an alternative treatment for saccular thoracic aortic aneurysm in high-risk patients but should not be used indiscriminately when other modalities of aortic repair are not feasible. Longer follow-up is mandatory to prove the efficacy of this technology. PMID:25765638

  9. Ayahuasca Alters Structural Parameters of the Rat Aorta.

    PubMed

    Pitol, Dimitrius L; Siéssere, Selma; Dos Santos, Rafael G; Rosa, Maria L N M; Hallak, Jaime E C; Scalize, Priscilla H; Pereira, Bruno F; Iyomasa, Melina M; Semprini, Marisa; Riba, Jordi; Regalo, Simone C H

    2015-07-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic brew traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian indigenous groups for therapeutic purposes. It is prepared by the decoction of Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of Psychotria viridis. Banisteriopsis caapi contains β-carbolines that are inhibitors of monoamine oxidase and P. viris is rich in dimethyltryptamine, a 5-HT(1A/2A/2C) agonist. Acute ayahuasca administration produces moderate cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers, but information regarding long-term use is lacking. This study investigated the effects of ayahuasca (2-4 mL/kg) in the rat aorta after acute and chronic (14 days) administration. Ayahuasca caused flattening and stretching of vascular smooth muscle cells and changes in the arrangement and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. Chronic treatment with the higher dose significantly increased media thickness and the ratio of media thickness to lumen diameter. More research is needed on the cardiovascular function of long-term ayahuasca consumers. PMID:25714595

  10. Caring for patients with traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Collins, Angela Smith; Dinsmore, David

    2007-01-01

    Trauma is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States, with blunt traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta continuing to occur despite the increased use of seatbelts and airbags. Emerging from crash analysis are effective interventions and provides increased awareness of the occult nature of these types of injuries. This article describes those interventions that healthcare providers must embed throughout the continuum of care for patients experiencing thoracic aortic injuries. Outcomes will be dependent upon the healthcare provider's knowledge of the physics of the event and the urgency of the diagnosis, as well as the ability to assess and manage all the variables involved. Current procedural issues are delineated and case studies are used to illustrate the processes of care needed by these patients. PMID:17312407

  11. [Aneurysm of the thoracic aorta and spondylodiscitis disclosing brucellosis].

    PubMed

    Blain, H; Laraki, R; Lévy-Soussan, M; Du-Boutin, L T; Koskas, F; Godeau, P; Piette, J C

    1997-01-01

    Brucellosis, which decreased during the eighties in France, remains a public health problem in many Mediterranean countries. We report the case of a 65-year old patient native of Morocco, of thoracic aorta aneurysm and lumbar spondylodiscitis due to Brucella melitensis, revealed by haemoptysis and lumbar pains, with a favourable outcome after aortic graft resection, spinal plaster immobilization and specific lengthy antibiotic treatment. This case report is characterized by the absence of endocarditis or infectious focus near the aneurysm. Diagnosis of aneurysm and spondilitis due to Brucella melitensis is based on imaging and bacteriological and serological examination. Because of a clinical and biological intolerance for rifampicin and cotrimoxazole, this patient received ofloxacin-doxycyclin-streptomycin. We discuss antibiotic recommendations and stress the interest of the early diagnosis of complicated forms of brucellosis for a better prognosis. PMID:9499988

  12. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA): a population based gap analysis of trauma patients in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Edward Benjamin Graham; Morrison, Jonathan James; Madureira, Ricardo Mondoni; Lendrum, Robbie; Fragoso-Iñiguez, Marisol; Edwards, Antoinette; Lecky, Fiona; Bouamra, Omar; Lawrence, Thomas; Jansen, Jan Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Non-compressible torso haemorrhage (NCTH) carries a high mortality in trauma as many patients exsanguinate prior to definitive haemorrhage control. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an adjunct that has the potential to bridge patients to definitive haemostasis. However, the proportion of trauma patients in whom REBOA may be utilised is unknown. Methods We conducted a population based analysis of 2012–2013 Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) data. We identified the number of patients in whom REBOA may have been utilised, defined by an Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥3 to abdominal solid organs, abdominal or pelvic vasculature, pelvic fracture with ring disruption or proximal traumatic lower limb amputation, together with a systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg. Patients with non-compressible haemorrhage in the mediastinum, axilla, face or neck were excluded. Results During 2012–2013, 72 677 adult trauma patients admitted to hospitals in England and Wales were identified. 397 patients had an indication(s) and no contraindications for REBOA with evidence of haemorrhagic shock: 69% men, median age 43 years and median Injury Severity Score 32. Overall mortality was 32%. Major trauma centres (MTCs) received the highest concentration of potential REBOA patients, and would be anticipated to receive a patient in whom REBOA may be utilised every 95 days, increasing to every 46 days in the 10 MTCs with the highest attendance of this injury type. Conclusions This TARN database analysis has identified a small group of severely injured, resource intensive patients with a highly lethal injury that is theoretically amenable to REBOA. The highest density of these patients is seen at MTCs, and as such a planned evaluation of REBOA should be further considered in these hospitals. PMID:26598631

  13. Effect of Excessive Potassium Iodide on Rat Aorta Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lin, Xinying; Bian, Jianchao; Meng, Huicui; Liu, Dan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of excess iodine on rat aorta endothelial cells and the potential underlying mechanisms. Rat aorta endothelial cells were cultured with iodide ion (3506, 4076, 4647, 5218, 5789, 6360, 6931, and 7512 mg/L) for 48 h. Morphological changes of cells were observed with microscope after Wright-Giemsa staining and acridine orange staining. Cell proliferation was determined with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and cell apoptosis was assessed with flow cytometry. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and protein carbonyl in culture medium were determined with colorimetric method. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that excess iodine induced abnormal morphologic changes of cells, inhibited cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis rate. Iodine also reduced the activity of SOD, GSH-Px, and concentrations of GSH and increased the concentrations of MDA and protein carbonyl in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, excess iodine decreased the activity of eNOS and increased the activity of iNOS and the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in culture medium. Our results suggested that excess iodine exposure increased oxidative stress, caused damage of vascular endothelial cells, and altered the expression of adhesion factors and the activity of NOS. These changes may explain the mechanisms underlying excess iodine-induced vascular injury. PMID:25690517

  14. Regional variation in the permeability of rat thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, F; Wiener, J

    1974-06-01

    The permeability and ultrastructure of the intercostal orifices and interostial regions of rat thoracic aorta have been compared in the present study. The ostial regions consist of two different portions, an annulus and an inflow tract, the latter being continuous with the intercostal artery. The wall of the inflow tract has a sharp bend, demarcating inner and outer portions. Faint blueing of the lateral portions of aortic annuli is visible from 3(1/2) to 4(1/2) hours after injection of Evans blue dye and is no longer apparent at 5(1/2) hours, when there is diffuse discoloration of the thoracic aorta. Only the annuli are labeled by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for 1(1/2) to 3(1/2) minutes after intravenous injection. There is more extensive and progressively heavier labeling of annuli and inner halves of the inflow tracts between 5 to 12 minutes. HRP is transported across aortic endothelium within micropinocytotic vesicles. Intercellular endothelial clefts do not appear to be directly permeated from the lumen through their junctions for a period of at least 3(1/2) minutes. The present observations preclude an assessment of the penetration of the junctions by HRP at later intervals. No appreciable differences are observed in the mode of transport of peroxidase through the more permeable endothelium of the annulus and less permeable endothelium of inflow tract and interostial regions. Observations made on tissues exposed to colloidal lanthanum, and on specimens stained en bloc with uranyl acetate and subjected to a combination of rotation-tilting, fail to demonstrate appreciable differences in the ultrastructure of the endothelial cell junctions of intercostal orifices and interostial regions. Since morphologic differences do not seem to account for the greater permeability of annular regions, the role of hemodynamic forces is considered. The relationship between regional variation in permeability and the development of atherosclerotic lesions is also discussed PMID:4135041

  15. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Mussa, Firas F

    2015-09-01

    Guidelines are systematically developed statements to assist patients and providers in choosing appropriate health care for specific clinical conditions. Consensus exists across guidelines on one-time screening of elderly men to detect and treat abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) ≥5.5 cm. However, the recommendations regarding other age groups, imaging intervals for small AAAs, inclusion of women, and cost-effectiveness have not been universally adopted. As many countries are considering the initiation of an AAA screening program, this is an overview on the current status of such programs. PMID:26169012

  16. Blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Tepas, J J

    1993-06-01

    The growing popularity of nonoperative treatment of children with splenic injuries has seduced some physicians into a false sense of security regarding care of the injured child. Although it has been established that hemodynamically stable children with splenic, hepatic, and even renal injuries can safely be treated "expectantly," this concept cannot be applied indiscriminately. Accurate diagnosis and effective care of the child with blunt abdominal trauma is an exercise of clinical precision that demands attention to detail and thorough evaluation. This review addresses this process in light of recent advances in diagnostic imaging and in consideration of recent reports analyzing different protocols for therapeutic decision making. PMID:8374651

  17. [Abdominal vascular malformations and Down syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nso Roca, A P; García Sánchez, P; Quero Jiménez, J

    2007-04-01

    Malformations of the abdominal venous system are rare vascular disorders. These entities are associated with other malformations and with chromosomal anomalies such as trisomy 21. Abdominal venous malformations are probably the most frequent congenital vascular malformations in Down syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis allows the early follow-up and treatment of complications. We present a case of Down syndrome associated with an abdominal venous malformation diagnosed at the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:17430719

  18. Morphometric Development of Sphincter of Oddi in Human Fetuses During Fetal Period: Microscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Desdicio?lu, Kadir; Bozkurt, Kemal K.; U?uz, Ceren; Evcil, E. Hilal; Malas, Mehmet A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In this study, morphometric developments of the sphincter of Oddi in human fetuses were observed. Material and Methods: We observed 113 human fetuses consisting of 67 male and 46 female subjects, whose ages varied between 14 to 40 weeks who showed no signs of any pathology or anomaly externally. The common external measurements of fetuses were carried out, followed by abdominal dissection to determine where the sphincters of Oddi were localized within the duodenum and pancreas. Histological specimens of tissue samples were gathered from the inner wall of the duodenum where it was assumed that the sphincters of Oddi had been localized. The parameters of total external diameters, lumen diameters, wall thickness, diameters of ductus choledochus and ductus pancreaticus, and the distance between these two structures, which are also known as the origins of the sphincter of Oddi, were measured by using a light microscope. The standard deviations of the measurements were calculated for each gestational week and trimester. Results: The calculations suggested that there were statistically significant correlations between gestational age and all of the other parameters with the exception of the ductus choledochus (p<0.001). It was observed that the wall thickness of the ductus choledochus increased at the first half of the fetal stage and decreased at the second half, as the lumen diameter increased through the 40th week. The gender difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The data we collected in our study were considered as useful for the evaluation of the development of the sphincter of Oddi area and fetal stage. PMID:25207017

  19. Assessment of Hemodynamic Conditions in the Aorta Following Root Replacement with Composite Valve-Conduit Graft.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhuo; Kidher, Emaddin; Jarral, Omar A; O'Regan, Declan P; Wood, Nigel B; Athanasiou, Thanos; Xu, Xiao Yun

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the analysis of detailed hemodynamics in the aortas of four patients following replacement with a composite bio-prosthetic valve-conduit. Magnetic resonance image-based computational models were set up for each patient with boundary conditions comprising subject-specific three-dimensional inflow velocity profiles at the aortic root and central pressure waveform at the model outlet. Two normal subjects were also included for comparison. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of the valve-conduit on flow in the proximal and distal aorta. The results suggested that following the composite valve-conduit implantation, the vortical flow structure and hemodynamic parameters in the aorta were altered, with slightly reduced helical flow index, elevated wall shear stress and higher non-uniformity in wall shear compared to normal aortas. Inter-individual analysis revealed different hemodynamic conditions among the patients depending on the conduit configuration in the ascending aorta, which is a key factor in determining post-operative aortic flow. Introducing a natural curvature in the conduit to create a smooth transition between the conduit and native aorta may help prevent the occurrence of retrograde and recirculating flow in the aortic arch, which is particularly important when a large portion or the entire ascending aorta needs to be replaced. PMID:26369636

  20. Rat aorta as a pharmacological tool for in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Rameshrad, Maryam; Babaei, Hossein; Azarmi, Yadollah; Fouladia, Daniel Fadaei

    2016-01-15

    Rat aorta assay provides a low cost and rapid platform, especially for preclinical in vivo models. The signaling pathways of the analog on the vessels could be evaluated separately on the endothelium or smooth muscle cells by rings of the rat aorta in vitro. The rat aorta is used for angiogenesis modeling to integrate the benefits of the both in vivo and in vitro models. These explain the importance and usage of rat aorta in researches. Furthermore, about 4503 articles have been published with the key word "rat aorta" in title or abstract from 1955 until the end of 2013 in Medline. In this review, these articles were organized into two main categories: in vivo and in vitro studies. The in vitro section focused on the rat aorta model, as a tool for evaluate the mechanism of vasodilation, vasoconstriction and angiogenesis. In the in vivo section, the most important usage of this tissue was evaluated. Also, the vasotonic signaling pathways in the vessel are explained briefly and some rat aorta applications in vitro and in vivo have been discussed. PMID:26731041

  1. Ureteral calculus presenting as generalized abdominal cramps.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Alexander K. C.; Robson, Wm Lane M.; Ng, Anthony Chi Fai

    2007-01-01

    We describe a 58-year-old man with a left ureteral calculus who presented with normal-looking urine, generalized abdominal cramps and abdominal distension that was thought to be due to acute intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis of ureteral calculus was established with an abdominal radiograph and a nonenhanced helical computed tomography of the abdomen, and the symptoms were promptly relieved by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Physicians should be vigilant that ureteral calculus may, although very rarely, present with generalized abdominal cramps. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:17668648

  2. Abdominal pain and hematuria: duodenal perforation from ingested foreign body causing ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, Nina; Sisson, Kathleen; Albaran, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a relatively common reason for visits to the emergency room. If the FB is symptomatic or damaging to the patient, either endoscopic or surgical intervention should ensue. We present a case of abdominal pain and hematuria beginning ∼24 h after an incidental FB ingestion. Initial CT imaging defined a linear opacity perforating through the posterior duodenal wall abutting the ureter causing inflammation and hydronephrosis. After two unsuccessful endoscopic attempts at retrieval, we were able to identify the object with the aid of intraoperative fluoroscopy and surgically remove the FB. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged home. Posterior duodenal perforation by an FB may not manifest with obvious localized or systemic symptoms unless the perforation involves surrounding structures such as the aorta, vena cava or ureter. In such cases, surgical intervention is required for FB removal. PMID:26903557

  3. A large un-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm causing pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Jahangir; Ahmed, Abubakr; Coveney, Andrew; Fulton, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    A 79 years old woman presented in a peripheral hospital with dyspnea, right-sided pleuritic chest pain and cough for 3 days. On examination, she was tachycardiac and tachypneic. She had reduced air entry bilaterally on auscultation. Computed tomography-pulmonary angiogram, performed in peripheral Hospital, confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, and she was commenced on warfarin. Ultrasonography showed no evidence of deep venous thrombosis in legs; however, ultrasound of the abdomen revealed an aortic aneurysm. She was hemodynamically stable on transfer to vascular surgery department, and her complete clinical examination revealed a pulsatile mass in the central abdomen. Computed tomography angiogram of aorta showed 8.7-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm. Venogram performed during inferior vena cava (IVC) filter insertion showed that IVC was displaced and compressed due to this large aortic aneurysm, causing thromboembolism. An open repair of the aneurysm was performed with uneventful recovery. PMID:26205717

  4. A large un-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm causing pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Sajjad, Jahangir; Ahmed, Abubakr; Coveney, Andrew; Fulton, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    A 79 years old woman presented in a peripheral hospital with dyspnea, right-sided pleuritic chest pain and cough for 3 days. On examination, she was tachycardiac and tachypneic. She had reduced air entry bilaterally on auscultation. Computed tomography-pulmonary angiogram, performed in peripheral Hospital, confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, and she was commenced on warfarin. Ultrasonography showed no evidence of deep venous thrombosis in legs; however, ultrasound of the abdomen revealed an aortic aneurysm. She was hemodynamically stable on transfer to vascular surgery department, and her complete clinical examination revealed a pulsatile mass in the central abdomen. Computed tomography angiogram of aorta showed 8.7-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm. Venogram performed during inferior vena cava (IVC) filter insertion showed that IVC was displaced and compressed due to this large aortic aneurysm, causing thromboembolism. An open repair of the aneurysm was performed with uneventful recovery. PMID:26205717

  5. Abdominal aortic occlusion and vascular compromise secondary to acute gastric dilatation in a patient with bulimia

    PubMed Central

    Doulias, T; Aljundi, W; Balchandra, S

    2014-01-01

    Acute gastric dilation is a rare but recognised complication in patients with bulimia and anorexia following binge episodes owing to decreased bowel motility. We present a rare case of acute gastric dilation secondary to bulimia in an otherwise healthy 18-year-old female patient that resulted in compression and complete occlusion of the abdominal aorta, leading to acute mesenteric and bilateral lower limb ischaemia. This resolved immediately following a laparotomy and gastric decompression. Management of these patients is very challenging owing to the lack of a successful precedent. To our knowledge, such a catastrophic complication has only ever been reported once in the literature and the outcome was fatal. Our case is of additional importance as it offers a successful management strategy for these patients. PMID:25350169

  6. Abdominal pain and hematuria: duodenal perforation from ingested foreign body causing ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kolbe, Nina; Sisson, Kathleen; Albaran, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a relatively common reason for visits to the emergency room. If the FB is symptomatic or damaging to the patient, either endoscopic or surgical intervention should ensue. We present a case of abdominal pain and hematuria beginning ∼24 h after an incidental FB ingestion. Initial CT imaging defined a linear opacity perforating through the posterior duodenal wall abutting the ureter causing inflammation and hydronephrosis. After two unsuccessful endoscopic attempts at retrieval, we were able to identify the object with the aid of intraoperative fluoroscopy and surgically remove the FB. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged home. Posterior duodenal perforation by an FB may not manifest with obvious localized or systemic symptoms unless the perforation involves surrounding structures such as the aorta, vena cava or ureter. In such cases, surgical intervention is required for FB removal. PMID:26903557

  7. Correlation between thoracic aorta 18F-natrium fluoride uptake and cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Fiz, Francesco; Morbelli, Silvia; Bauckneht, Matteo; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Ferrarazzo, Giulia; Nieri, Alberto; Artom, Nathan; Cabria, Manlio; Marini, Cecilia; Canepa, Marco; Sambuceti, Gianmario

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigating the relationship between thoracic and cardiac 18F-Natrium-Fluoride (18F-NaF) uptake, as a marker of ongoing calcification and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Seventy-eight patients (44 females, mean age 63, range 44-83) underwent whole body 18F-NaF positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Cardiovascular risk (CVR) was used to divide these patients in three categories: Low (LR), medium (MR) and high risk (HR). 18F-NaF uptake was measured by manually drawing volumes of interest on the ascending aorta, on the aortic arch, on the descending aorta and on the myocardium; average standardized uptake value was normalized for blood-pool, to obtain target-to-background ratio (TBR). Values from the three aortic segments were then averaged to obtain an index of the whole thoracic aorta. RESULTS: A significant difference in whole thoracic aorta TBR was detected between HR and LR (1.84 ± 0.76 vs 1.07 ± 0.3, P < 0.001), but also between MR and HR-LR (1.4 ± 0.4, P < 0.02 and P < 0.01, respectively). Significance of this TBR stratification strongly varied among thoracic aorta subsegments and the lowest P values were reached in the descending aorta (P < 0.01). Myocardial uptake provided an effective CVR classes stratification (P < 0.001).Correlation between TBR and CVR was appreciable when the whole thoracic aorta was considered (R = 0.67), but it peaked when correlating the descending thoracic segment (R = 0.75), in comparison with the aortic arch and the ascending segment (R = 0.55 and 0.53, respectively). CONCLUSION: Fluoride uptake within the thoracic aorta wall effectively depicts patients’ risk class and correlates with cardiovascular risk. Descending aorta is the most effective in CVR determination. PMID:26834946

  8. Reclosure of disrupted abdominal incisions.

    PubMed

    Walters, M D; Dombroski, R A; Davidson, S A; Mandel, P C; Gibbs, R S

    1990-10-01

    We evaluated prospectively a technique of delayed reclosure of disrupted abdominal incisions. Forty-one consecutive postoperative obstetric and gynecologic patients with abdominal incisions that had opened because of infection, hematoma, or seroma and had intact fascia participated in the study. All wounds were first managed identically, with surgical drainage and debridement, for a minimum of 4 days. The patients then were randomized to either wound reclosure by a standardized en bloc technique (35) or healing by second intention (six). Reclosure was successful in 30 of 35 cases (85.7%). The mean time to complete healing was 15.8 days in successful cases, 67.2 days in failed cases, and 23.2 days for all patients who were reclosed. Failure to heal after reclosure was due to subcutaneous infection in two patients and seroma in three; these women were significantly heavier than those in whom reclosure was successful. There were no other major complications of wound reclosure. Patients randomized to healing by second intention required a mean of 71.8 days of wound care. The time to complete healing in the wound-reclosure group was significantly shorter compared with the group that healed by second intention (P = .002, log rank test). We conclude that en bloc reclosure of disrupted surgical incisions, compared with nonsurgical treatment, significantly decreases the time required for wound healing and has minimal morbidity. PMID:2216186

  9. Advanced techniques in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Monson, J R

    1993-01-01

    Almost every abdominal organ is now amenable to laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic appendicectomy is a routine procedure which also permits identification of other conditions initially confused with an inflamed appendix. However, assessment of appendiceal inflammation is more difficult. Almost all colonic procedures can be performed laparoscopically, at least partly, though resection for colonic cancer is still controversial. For simple patch repair of perforated duodenal ulcers laparoscopy is ideal, and inguinal groin hernia can be repaired satisfactorily with a patch of synthetic mesh. Many upper abdominal procedures, however, still take more time than the open operations. These techniques reduce postoperative pain and the incidence of wound infections and allow a much earlier return to normal activity compared with open surgery. They have also brought new disciplines: surgeons must learn different hand-eye coordination, meticulous haemostasis is needed to maintain picture quality, and delivery of specimens may be problematic. The widespread introduction of laparoscopic techniques has emphasised the need for adequate training (operations that were straight-forward open procedures may require considerable laparoscopic expertise) and has raised questions about trainee surgeons acquiring adequate experience of open procedures. Images FIG 9 p1347-a p1347-b p1349-a p1350-a p1350-b PMID:8257893

  10. Expression and Cellular Localization of 15-Hydroxy-Prostaglandin-Dehydrogenase in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Solà-Villà, David; Dilmé, Jaime-Félix; Rodríguez, Cristina; Soto, Begoña; Vila, Luis; Escudero, José-Román; Martínez-González, José; Camacho, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    PGE2 has been implicated in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) associated hypervascularization. PGE2-metabolism involves 15-hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) the expression of which in AAA is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and cell distribution of 15-PGDH in AAA. Here, we show that 15-PGDH mRNA levels were significantly higher in aorta samples from patients undergoing AAA repair than in those from healthy multiorgan donors. Consequently, the ratio of metabolized PGE2 secreted by aortic samples was significantly higher in AAA. AAA production of total PGE2 and PGE2 metabolites correlated positively with PGI2 production, while the percentage of metabolized PGE2 correlated negatively with the total amount of PGE2 and with PGI2. Transcript levels of 15-PGDH were statistically associated with leukocyte markers but did not correlate with microvascular endothelial cell markers. Immunohistochemistry revealed 15-PGDH in the areas of leukocyte infiltration in AAA samples, mainly associated with CD45-positive cells, but not in normal aorta samples. We provide new data concerning 15-PGDH expression in human AAA, showing that 15-PGDH is upregulated in AAA and mainly expressed in infiltrating leukocytes. Our data suggest that microvasculature was not involved in PGE2 catabolism, reinforcing the potential role of microvasculature derived PGE2 in AAA-associated hypervascularization. PMID:26287481

  11. Spontaneous isolated dissection at renal upper abdominal aortic: a rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Ping; Liu, Feng-En; Duan, Qing; Ye, Rong; Xiao, Jun-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Arterial dissection is defined as a cleavage of the arterial wall caused by intramural hematoma. Isolated extra-aortic arterial dissection has been reported in renal and carotid arteries in few literatures but suprarenal aorta dissection associated with retrograde formation of a giant descending thoracic aneurysm is considered very rare. We present a quite unusual case of suprarenal aorta dissection associated with retrograde formation of a giant descending thoracic aneurysm sparing both renal and mesenteric vessels, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage. Because of the patient’s persistent epigastric pain, endovascular celiac artery stent implantation was performed with 3 multiple overlapping uncovered stents. Twelve months after the procedure, computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the abdomen showed patency of both celiac stents with thrombus formation in the retrograde dissection sac, and the patient remained asymptomatic. This case and others in the medical literature suggest that endovascular treatment can be feasible in symptomatic patients with spontaneous isolated dissection at renal upper abdominal aortic. PMID:26221391

  12. CD14 Directs Adventitial Macrophage Precursor Recruitment: Role in Early Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Blomkalns, Andra L.; Gavrila, Daniel; Thomas, Manesh; Neltner, Bonnie S.; Blanco, Victor M.; Benjamin, Stephanie B.; McCormick, Michael L.; Stoll, Lynn L.; Denning, Gerene M.; Collins, Sean P.; Qin, Zhenyu; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A.; Thompson, Robert W.; Weiss, Robert M.; Lindower, Paul D.; Pinney, Susan M.; Chatterjee, Tapan; Weintraub, Neal L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruitment of macrophage precursors to the adventitia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), but molecular mechanisms remain undefined. The innate immune signaling molecule CD14 was reported to be upregulated in adventitial macrophages in a murine model of AAA and in monocytes cocultured with aortic adventitial fibroblasts (AoAf) in vitro, concurrent with increased interleukin‐6 (IL‐6) expression. We hypothesized that CD14 plays a crucial role in adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment early during AAA formation. Methods and Results CD14−/− mice were resistant to AAA formation induced by 2 different AAA induction models: aortic elastase infusion and systemic angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. CD14 gene deletion led to reduced aortic macrophage infiltration and diminished elastin degradation. Adventitial monocyte binding to AngII‐infused aorta in vitro was dependent on CD14, and incubation of human acute monocytic leukemia cell line‐1 (THP‐1) monocytes with IL‐6 or conditioned medium from perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) upregulated CD14 expression. Conditioned medium from AoAf and PVAT induced CD14‐dependent monocyte chemotaxis, which was potentiated by IL‐6. CD14 expression in aorta and plasma CD14 levels were increased in AAA patients compared with controls. Conclusions These findings link CD14 innate immune signaling via a novel IL‐6 amplification loop to adventitial macrophage precursor recruitment in the pathogenesis of AAA. PMID:23537804

  13. Stereoscopic visualization and editing of automatic abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) measurements for stent graft planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Luping; Wang, Yapeng; Goh, Lin-Chia; Kockro, Ralf A.; Serra, Luis

    2006-02-01

    For stent graft selection in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) anatomic considerations are important. They determine GO/NO-GO of the treatment and help customize the stent. Current systems for AAA stent insertion planning based on pre-operative CT and MR of the patient do not provide an intuitive interface to view the resulting measurements against the pre-operative CT/MR. Subsequent modifications of the measurements are frequent when automatic algorithms are inaccurate. However, 3D editing is difficult to achieve because of the limitations of monoscopic displays and 2D interface. In this paper, we present a system for automatic AAA measurement and interactive 3D editing. The strength of this approach is that the resulting measurements can be reviewed and edited interactively in the 3D context of the volumetric rendering of the aorta, so that relationships of the measurements and the aorta are clearly perceived. This understanding is facilitated by the stereoscopic rendering that makes it possible to see the transparent vessel and its corresponding measurements all in one image.

  14. Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaşı, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This study shows that morphometric analysis of the basins in regional level are very important to understand general morphological characteristics of the basins. In this case, tectonic and lithological conditions of the basins have greatly affected the morphometric characteristics of the north and south basins of the Marmara Sea. References Abrahams, AD. 1984. Channel Networks: A Geomorphological Perspective. Water Resources Research, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 161-188. Horton, R.E. 1932. Drainage basin characteristics. Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361. Keller, E.A., Pinter, N. 2002. Active Tectonics Earthquakes, Uplift, and Landscape, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Ozdemir H., Bird D. 2009. Evaluation of morphometric parameters of drainage networks derived from topographic maps and DEM in point of floods, Environmental Geology, vol.56, pp.1405-1415. Schumm, S.A. 1956. Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Geol Soc Am Bull 67:597-646. Strahler, A.N. 1957. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage and channel networks. In: Chow YT (ed) Handbook of appliecl hydrology. Me Graw Hill Book Company, New York. Verstappen, H.Th. 1983. Applied geomorphology. ITC, Enschede.

  15. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor decreases abdominal aortic aneurysm formation through GLP-1-dependent monocytic activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsin Ying; Huang, Chun Yao; Shih, Chun Ming; Chang, Wei Hung; Tsai, Chein Sung; Lin, Feng Yen; Shih, Chun Che

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening situation affecting almost 10% of elders. There has been no effective medication for AAA other than surgical intervention. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been shown to have a protective effect on cardiovascular disease. Whether DPP-4 inhibitors may be beneficial in the treatment of AAA is unclear. We investigated the effects of DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin on the angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused AAA formation in apoE-deficient (apoE-/-) mice. Mice with induced AAA were treated with placebo or 2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day sitagliptin. Ang II-infused apoE-/- mice exhibited a 55.6% incidence of AAA formation, but treatment with sitagliptin decreased AAA formation. Specifically, administered sitagliptin in Ang II-infused mice exhibited decreased expansion of the suprarenal aorta, reduced elastin lamina degradation of the aorta, and diminished vascular inflammation by macrophage infiltration. Treatment with sitagliptin decreased gelatinolytic activity and apoptotic cells in aorta tissues. Sitaglipitn, additionally, was associated with increased levels of plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In vitro studies, GLP-1 decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell migration, and MMP-2 as well as MMP-9 activity in Ang II-stimulated monocytic cells. The results conclude that oral administration of sitagliptin can prevent abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in Ang II-infused apoE-/-mice, at least in part, by increasing of GLP-1 activity, decreasing MMP-2 and MMP-9 production from macrophage infiltration. The results indicate that sitagliptin may have therapeutic potential in preventing the development of AAA. PMID:25876091

  16. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Decreases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation through GLP-1-Dependent Monocytic Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsin Ying; Huang, Chun Yao; Shih, Chun Ming; Chang, Wei Hung; Tsai, Chein Sung; Lin, Feng Yen; Shih, Chun Che

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening situation affecting almost 10% of elders. There has been no effective medication for AAA other than surgical intervention. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been shown to have a protective effect on cardiovascular disease. Whether DPP-4 inhibitors may be beneficial in the treatment of AAA is unclear. We investigated the effects of DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin on the angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused AAA formation in apoE-deficient (apoE-/-) mice. Mice with induced AAA were treated with placebo or 2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day sitagliptin. Ang II-infused apoE-/- mice exhibited a 55.6% incidence of AAA formation, but treatment with sitagliptin decreased AAA formation. Specifically, administered sitagliptin in Ang II-infused mice exhibited decreased expansion of the suprarenal aorta, reduced elastin lamina degradation of the aorta, and diminished vascular inflammation by macrophage infiltration. Treatment with sitagliptin decreased gelatinolytic activity and apoptotic cells in aorta tissues. Sitaglipitn, additionally, was associated with increased levels of plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In vitro studies, GLP-1 decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell migration, and MMP-2 as well as MMP-9 activity in Ang II-stimulated monocytic cells. The results conclude that oral administration of sitagliptin can prevent abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in Ang II-infused apoE-/-mice, at least in part, by increasing of GLP-1 activity, decreasing MMP-2 and MMP-9 production from macrophage infiltration. The results indicate that sitagliptin may have therapeutic potential in preventing the development of AAA. PMID:25876091

  17. [Antiatherogenic characteristics of korvitin: effect on proteasome activity of the aorta, heart, and blood cells].

    PubMed

    Pashevin, D O; Dosenko, B Ie; Byts', Iu V; Moĭbenko, O O

    2009-01-01

    We studied the changes in proteasomal proteolisis during modelling of rabbit cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. It was determined that in aorta the TL activity of proteasome increased 2.4-fold (P < 0.05), CTL activity increased by 43%, and PGPG--by 10%. In heart tissue it was observed the increase of CTL proteasome activity by 14%. The application of "Korvitin" (water-soluble form of quercetine) followed by considerable decrease of proteasomal activity both in tissues (aorta and heart) and leucocytes. The intensity ofatherosclerotic changes in aorta was significantly smaller. Obtained data suggest that "Korvitin" reveales angioprotective properties mediated by it effect on proteasomal proteolisis. PMID:19827630

  18. Characterizing Floral Symmetry in the Core Goodeniaceae with Geometric Morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew G; Fitz Gerald, Jonathan N; Menz, John; Shepherd, Kelly A; Howarth, Dianella G; Jabaily, Rachel S

    2016-01-01

    Core Goodeniaceae is a clade of ~330 species primarily distributed in Australia. Considerable variation in flower morphology exists within this group and we aim to use geometric morphometrics to characterize this variation across the two major subclades: Scaevola sensu lato (s.l.) and Goodenia s.l., the latter of which was hypothesized to exhibit greater variability in floral symmetry form. We test the hypothesis that floral morphological variation can be adequately characterized by our morphometric approach, and that discrete groups of floral symmetry morphologies exist, which broadly correlate with subjectively determined groups. From 335 images of 44 species in the Core Goodeniaceae, two principal components were computed that describe >98% of variation in all datasets. Increasing values of PC1 ventralize the dorsal petals (increasing the angle between them), whereas increasing values of PC2 primarily ventralize the lateral petals (decreasing the angle between them). Manipulation of these two morphological "axes" alone was sufficient to recreate any of the general floral symmetry patterns in the Core Goodeniaceae. Goodenia s.l. exhibits greater variance than Scaevola s.l. in PC1 and PC2, and has a significantly lower mean value for PC1. Clustering clearly separates fan-flowers (with dorsal petals at least 120° separated) from the others, whereas the distinction between pseudo-radial and bilabiate clusters is less clear and may form a continuum rather than two distinct groups. Transitioning from the average fan-flower to the average non-fan-flower is described almost exclusively by PC1, whereas PC2 partially describes the transition between bilabiate and pseudo-radial morphologies. Our geometric morphometric method accurately models Core Goodeniaceae floral symmetry diversity. PMID:27148960

  19. Characterizing Floral Symmetry in the Core Goodeniaceae with Geometric Morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andrew G.; Fitz Gerald, Jonathan N.; Menz, John; Shepherd, Kelly A.; Howarth, Dianella G.; Jabaily, Rachel S.

    2016-01-01

    Core Goodeniaceae is a clade of ~330 species primarily distributed in Australia. Considerable variation in flower morphology exists within this group and we aim to use geometric morphometrics to characterize this variation across the two major subclades: Scaevola sensu lato (s.l.) and Goodenia s.l., the latter of which was hypothesized to exhibit greater variability in floral symmetry form. We test the hypothesis that floral morphological variation can be adequately characterized by our morphometric approach, and that discrete groups of floral symmetry morphologies exist, which broadly correlate with subjectively determined groups. From 335 images of 44 species in the Core Goodeniaceae, two principal components were computed that describe >98% of variation in all datasets. Increasing values of PC1 ventralize the dorsal petals (increasing the angle between them), whereas increasing values of PC2 primarily ventralize the lateral petals (decreasing the angle between them). Manipulation of these two morphological “axes” alone was sufficient to recreate any of the general floral symmetry patterns in the Core Goodeniaceae. Goodenia s.l. exhibits greater variance than Scaevola s.l. in PC1 and PC2, and has a significantly lower mean value for PC1. Clustering clearly separates fan-flowers (with dorsal petals at least 120° separated) from the others, whereas the distinction between pseudo-radial and bilabiate clusters is less clear and may form a continuum rather than two distinct groups. Transitioning from the average fan-flower to the average non-fan-flower is described almost exclusively by PC1, whereas PC2 partially describes the transition between bilabiate and pseudo-radial morphologies. Our geometric morphometric method accurately models Core Goodeniaceae floral symmetry diversity. PMID:27148960

  20. Morphological and morphometrical analysis of Heterodera spp. populations in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Lafi, Hamzeh A.; Al-Banna, Luma; Sadder, Monther T.; Migdadi, Hussein M.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity of five Jordanian populations of cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp. collected from five regions from Jordan (Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana, Al-Karak, and Jerash) was investigated. Soil samples were collected from one representative field in each region. Morphological and morphometrical characteristics revealed that Heterodera latipons is dominated in cereal fields at Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana and Al-Karak regions and Heterodera schachtii in Jerash. Cysts populations from all cereal fields had bifenestrate vulval cone and a strong underbridge. Wherever, cysts of the cabbage population had ambifenestrate vulval cone with long vulval slit. The bullae were absent in Ar-Ramtha, Madaba and Dana populations, but present in Al-Karak and Jerash. Based on 12 morphometrical characters, the first three functions in canonical discriminant analysis accounted 99.3% of the total variation. Distance from dorsal gland duct opening to stylet base, underbridge length, a=L/W (body length/midbody width) and length of hyaline tail tip had strong and significant contributions in the first function. While the second function was strongly influenced by length of hyaline tail, fenestral length, fenestral width and tail length. However, the third canonical discriminate function was found to be influenced by stylet length, fenestral length, a=L/W (body length/midbody width) and underbridge width. The graphical representation of the distribution of the samples showed that the first canonical discriminant function clearly separated H. schachtii from Jerash from other populations. Whereas, H. latipons collected from Madaba and Dana were clearly separated in the second function. The results indicated that differences at morphological and morphometrical levels revealed diverse populations of Heterodera spp. in Jordan. PMID:26858546

  1. Morphological and morphometrical analysis of Heterodera spp. populations in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Lafi, Hamzeh A; Al-Banna, Luma; Sadder, Monther T; Migdadi, Hussein M

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity of five Jordanian populations of cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp. collected from five regions from Jordan (Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana, Al-Karak, and Jerash) was investigated. Soil samples were collected from one representative field in each region. Morphological and morphometrical characteristics revealed that Heterodera latipons is dominated in cereal fields at Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana and Al-Karak regions and Heterodera schachtii in Jerash. Cysts populations from all cereal fields had bifenestrate vulval cone and a strong underbridge. Wherever, cysts of the cabbage population had ambifenestrate vulval cone with long vulval slit. The bullae were absent in Ar-Ramtha, Madaba and Dana populations, but present in Al-Karak and Jerash. Based on 12 morphometrical characters, the first three functions in canonical discriminant analysis accounted 99.3% of the total variation. Distance from dorsal gland duct opening to stylet base, underbridge length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and length of hyaline tail tip had strong and significant contributions in the first function. While the second function was strongly influenced by length of hyaline tail, fenestral length, fenestral width and tail length. However, the third canonical discriminate function was found to be influenced by stylet length, fenestral length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and underbridge width. The graphical representation of the distribution of the samples showed that the first canonical discriminant function clearly separated H. schachtii from Jerash from other populations. Whereas, H. latipons collected from Madaba and Dana were clearly separated in the second function. The results indicated that differences at morphological and morphometrical levels revealed diverse populations of Heterodera spp. in Jordan. PMID:26858546

  2. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Targeted by Functionalized Polysaccharide Microparticles: a new Tool for SPECT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonnard, Thomas; Yang, Gonord; Petiet, Anne; Ollivier, Véronique; Haddad, Oualid; Arnaud, Denis; Louedec, Liliane; Bachelet-Violette, Laure; Derkaoui, Sidi Mohammed; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cedric; Le Visage, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysm diagnostic is nowadays limited by the lack of technology that enables early detection and rupture risk prediction. New non invasive tools for molecular imaging are still required. In the present study, we present an innovative SPECT diagnostic tool for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) produced from injectable polysaccharide microparticles radiolabeled with technetium 99m (99mTc) and functionalized with fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide with the ability to target P-Selectin. P-Selectin is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated endothelial cells and platelets which can be found in the thrombus of aneurysms, as well as in other vascular pathologies. Microparticles with a maximum hydrodynamic diameter of 4 µm were obtained by crosslinking the polysaccharides dextran and pullulan. They were functionalized with fucoidan. In vitro interactions with human activated platelets were assessed by flow cytometry that demonstrated a specific affinity of fucoidan functionalized microparticles for P-Selectin expressed by activated platelets. For in vivo AAA imaging, microparticles were radiolabeled with 99mTc and intravenously injected into healthy and AAA rats obtained by elastase perfusion through the aorta wall. Animals were scanned by SPECT imaging. A strong contrast enhancement located in the abdominal aorta of AAA rats was obtained, while no signal was obtained in healthy rats or in AAA rats after injection of non-functionalized control microparticles. Histological studies revealed that functionalized radiolabeled polysaccharide microparticles were localized in the AAA wall, in the same location where P-Selectin was expressed. These microparticles therefore constitute a promising SPECT imaging tool for AAA and potentially for other vascular diseases characterized by P-Selectin expression. Future work will focus on validating the efficiency of the microparticles to diagnose these other pathologies and the different stages of AAA. Incorporation of a therapeutic molecule is also considered. PMID:24723981

  3. Feasibility of Angioplasty and Stenting for Abdominal Aortic Lesions Adjacent to Previously Stented Visceral Artery Lesions in Patients with Takayasu Arteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, George George, Paul V.; Pati, Purendra Kumar; Chandy, Sunil Thomas

    2007-04-15

    Two young female patients with Takayasu arteritis presented with symptomatic long-segment abdominal aortic stenosis in the vicinity of previously deployed celiac and renal artery stents that projected markedly into the narrowed aortic lumen. Crushing or distortion of the visceral artery stents during aortic angioplasty was avoided by performing simultaneous or alternating balloon dilatations in the aorta and in the visceral artery stents. Consequently, the visceral artery stents remained patent and shortened longitudinally, allowing unhindered deployment of Wallstents in the adjacent aorta and abolition of a pressure gradient across the aortic lesions. Access to side branches covered by the Wallstent was obtained without difficulty, enabling the performance of balloon dilatation in multiple side branches and ostial stent deployment in a renal artery. These techniques could increase the scope of endovascular therapy in the treatment of patients with Takayasu arteritis.

  4. Abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm secondary to melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Rao, Jaideepraj; Kaushal, A S; Hoong, Chia Kok

    2009-01-01

    Melioidosis is an infective condition which is common in South East Asia. It can present in various forms like cutaneous abscess, pneumonia and severe septicaemia. However, melioidosis causing abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysms is extremely rare and a difficult condition to diagnose and treat. We present our management of two cases of abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysms secondary to melioidosis and their subsequent outcomes. PMID:19321406

  5. Pediatric Abdominal Pain: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremiah; Fox, Sean M

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint that leads to pediatric patients seeking emergency care. The emergency care provider has the arduous task of determining which child likely has a benign cause and not missing the devastating condition that needs emergent attention. This article reviews common benign causes of abdominal pain as well as some of the cannot-miss emergent causes. PMID:27133248

  6. Kikuchi-Fujimoto’s disease with abdominal pain due to intra-abdominal lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Ayako; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Sakatani, Takashi; Kajii, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    A 29-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with fever and abdominal pain. Abdominal echogram and CT revealed intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. Seven days after the onset, she developed cervical lymphadenitis. Kikuchi-Fujimoto’s disease (KFD) was diagnosed on cervical lymph node biopsy. Although KFD with intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy is rare, it should be considered in young adults with intra-abdominal lymphadenitis. Because KFD is a benign, self-limiting disease, we suggest the use of a minimally invasive method of diagnosis such as superficial lymph node biopsy. PMID:24667948

  7. Abdominal aortic aneurysms in women.

    PubMed

    Lo, Ruby C; Schermerhorn, Marc L

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has long been recognized as a condition predominantly affecting males, with sex-associated differences described for almost every aspect of the disease from pathophysiology and epidemiology to morbidity and mortality. Women are generally spared from AAA formation by the immunomodulating effects of estrogen, but once they develop, the natural history of AAAs in women appears to be more aggressive, with more rapid expansion, a higher tendency to rupture at smaller diameters, and higher mortality following rupture. However, simply repairing AAAs at smaller diameters in women is a debatable solution, as even elective endovascular AAA repair is fraught with higher morbidity and mortality in women compared to men. The goal of this review is to summarize what is currently known about the effect of gender on AAA presentation, treatment, and outcomes. Additionally, we aim to review current controversies over screening recommendations and threshold for repair in women. PMID:26747679

  8. Clinical outcome of abdominal sacrocolpopexy

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Shikha; Pandher, Dilpreet Kaur; Huria, Anju; Mehra, Reeti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vaginal vault prolapse is one of the distressing conditions which occur after hysterectomy. This is due to the weakness or detachment of sacrouterine cardinal ligament complex from the vaginal cuff. Till now, the most accepted procedure for this condition is sacrocolpopexy. Materials and Methods: We present a cohort of patients who underwent abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC) from April 2009 to August 2013. These patients were followed till April 2014 and were evaluated for subjective and objective outcomes following ASC. Results: One patient had intraoperative hemorrhage and postoperative hematoma formation. One patient had vault abscess which was managed conservatively. Hundred percent success rate was noted at 1 year. Long-term patient satisfaction score was 85 (70-90). PMID:26903757

  9. Endovascular stent graft repair of suture-line pseudoaneurysm following ascending aorta replacement.

    PubMed

    Zicho, David; Cartwright, Neil; Bizzarri, Federico; Malkin, Christopher; Cross, Michael; Mcpherson, Simon; Kaul, Pankaj; Puppala, Sapna

    2014-04-01

    Ascending aorta pseudoaneurysm (AAPA) is an uncommon complication following replacement of the ascending aorta with a prosthetic graft, carry a high risk of rupture, and warrant urgent intervention. The open surgical procedure "gold standard" of care is not always favorable, as the reoperations are technically more difficult or patient's general condition doesn't allow proceeding. Case discussed is an 80-year-old male patient who presented with worsening cough and hemoptysis. He underwent ascending aorta replacement 10 years ago. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a contrast-filled mediastinal mass communicating with the ascending aorta and extended into the right lung. Due to the patient's advanced age, friability and clinical condition, combined with the position of the AAPA behind the sternum, surgery was deemed to be high risk. However, favorable anatomical conditions provided a safe landing zone for an endovascular stent. The patient underwent closed procedure. Postprocedure CT showed complete obliteration of the AAPA. PMID:24334913

  10. Coarctation of the aorta in adults: what is the best treatment? Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Daraban, AM; Lorber, A; Deleanu, D; Amzulescu, MS; Zara, C; Popescu, BA; Ginghina, C

    2011-01-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital cardiac malformation that can go undiagnosed until old age with only hypertension as a marker of its presence because clinical signs can be subtle and overlooked if a complete physical exam is not performed. We report the case of a 45 year–old women, diagnosed with severe coarctation of the aorta just distal to the left subclavian artery, with poststenotic dilatation of the descending aorta and difficult control of blood pressure values. The patient was successfully treated interventionally, by balloon angioplasty with deployment of a covered stent. We review here the different methods employed for the treatment of coarctation of the aorta in adults, including surgical or percutaneous balloon angioplasty with or without stent placement, underlying their complications and the factors that influence the choice of the best coarctation repair method. PMID:21776305

  11. [Abdominal tuberculosis in CT imaging].

    PubMed

    Malíková, H; Míková, B

    2007-01-01

    According to WHO declaration, tuberculosis is considered the world health danger. Almost 1% of world population is infected by tuberculosis every year and up to 3 millions of new cases are registered in the south-east Asia only. Prevalence of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis is rising, which is probably caused by the rising prevalence of AIDS. Fifty eight years old man, the immigrant from south-east Asia was accepted in a subileous state at the department of Internal medicine. He had suffered for longer period from the torpidness, tabescence and other non-specific symptoms. Among results of laboratory tests, the higher erythrocyte sedimentation and elevation of liver tests were conspicuous. After the colonoscopy, suspicion on the Crohn's disease was expressed. CT examination revealed several segments of the infected intestine. Both the small and large intestine were affected with skip-lesions; short afflicted segments had not the passage impaired with no ring-like dilatations. Mesenterial, periportal and retroperitoneal lymph nodes were enlarged. In the small pelvis, between the intestine and at the dorsal margin of the liver, some free fluid was visible. Abdominal parenchymatose organs had no obvious focal afflictions. In the differential diagnose, the Crohn's disease and the malignant lymphoma were considered. The probatory laparoscopy gave the correct diagnosis of the abdominal tuberculosis. Prevalence of tuberculosis is rising in the whole world, and in western countries rare cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis can be found. A higher attention is necessary in cases of immuno-suppressed patients, who earlier lived in countries with endemic tuberculosis, or in cases of patients originating in those countries. PMID:17650598

  12. Abdominal Pain following Gastric Bypass: Suspects & Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Greenstein, Alexander J.; O’Rourke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Gastric bypass remains the mainstay of surgical therapy for obesity. Abdominal pain after gastric bypass is common, and accounts for up to half of all postoperative complaints and emergency room visits. This manuscript reviews the most important causes of abdominal pain specific to gastric bypass and discusses management considerations. Data Sources The current surgical literature was reviewed using PubMed, with a focus on abdominal pain after gastric bypass and the known pathologies that underlie its pathogenesis. Conclusions The differential diagnosis for abdominal pain after gastric bypass is large and includes benign and life-threatening entities. Its diverse causes require a broad evaluation that should be directed by history and clinical presentation. In the absence of a clear diagnosis, the threshold for surgical exploration in patients with abdominal pain after gastric bypass should be low. PMID:21333269

  13. Abdominal tuberculosis of the gastrointestinal tract: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Debi, Uma; Ravisankar, Vasudevan; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal tuberculosis is an increasingly common disease that poses diagnostic challenge, as the nonspecific features of the disease which may lead to diagnostic delays and development of complications. This condition is regarded as a great mimicker of other abdominal pathology. A high index of suspicion is an important factor in early diagnosis. Abdominal involvement may occur in the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lymphnodes or solid viscera. Various investigative methods have been used to aid in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and initiation of antituberculous therapy and surgical treatment are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality. Most of the patients respond very well to standard antitubercular therapy and surgery is required only in a minority of cases. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis because early recognition of this condition is important. We reviewed our experience with the findings on various imaging modalities for diagnosis of this potentially treatable disease. PMID:25356043

  14. The Morphometrics of “Masculinity” in Human Faces

    PubMed Central

    Mitteroecker, Philipp; Windhager, Sonja; Müller, Gerd B.; Schaefer, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    In studies of social inference and human mate preference, a wide but inconsistent array of tools for computing facial masculinity has been devised. Several of these approaches implicitly assumed that the individual expression of sexually dimorphic shape features, which we refer to as maleness, resembles facial shape features perceived as masculine. We outline a morphometric strategy for estimating separately the face shape patterns that underlie perceived masculinity and maleness, and for computing individual scores for these shape patterns. We further show how faces with different degrees of masculinity or maleness can be constructed in a geometric morphometric framework. In an application of these methods to a set of human facial photographs, we found that shape features typically perceived as masculine are wide faces with a wide inter-orbital distance, a wide nose, thin lips, and a large and massive lower face. The individual expressions of this combination of shape features—the masculinity shape scores—were the best predictor of rated masculinity among the compared methods (r = 0.5). The shape features perceived as masculine only partly resembled the average face shape difference between males and females (sexual dimorphism). Discriminant functions and Procrustes distances to the female mean shape were poor predictors of perceived masculinity. PMID:25671667

  15. Individual identification of disguised faces by morphometrical matching.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Mineo; Noguchi, Kasumi; Atsuchi, Masaru; Kubota, Satoshi; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Thomas, C David L; Clement, John G

    2002-06-25

    The reliability of a morphometrical matching method for identifying disguised faces was examined experimentally using a computer-assisted facial image identification system. The 2D right oblique facial images of three target persons disguised with sunglasses, cap and gauze mask were each compared with each of the 3D facial images of 100 subjects, yielding 900 face-to-face superimpositions. The average perpendicular distance between the facial outlines and the average point-to-point distance of the corresponding landmarks in the 2D image of the disguised face and the 3D facial image, were calculated. As a matching criterion, the sum of the values of the average perpendicular difference of the facial outlines and the average point-to-point difference between the corresponding landmarks was used (abbreviation: average difference). The range of the average difference was 2.3-2.8mm for the same person (a match) and 4.0-14.6mm for different (non-matching) people, respectively. The ranges for matching and non-matching faces did not overlap. Even the 3D facial images of the non-matching person showing the closest value of average difference to the average difference for the matching person could be excluded easily. It was concluded that the morphometrical matching method can reliably identify disguised faces and the results produced by this method could be easily understandable by a court of law. PMID:12098532

  16. A geometric morphometric analysis of hominin upper first molar shape.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Robles, A; Martinón-Torres, M; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Margvelashvili, A; Bastir, M; Arsuaga, J L; Pérez-Pérez, A; Estebaranz, F; Martínez, L M

    2007-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed interesting differences in upper first molar morphology across the hominin fossil record, particularly significant between H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis. Usually these analyses have been performed by means of classic morphometric methods, including the measurement of relative cusp areas or the angles defined between cusps. Although these studies have provided valuable information for the morphological characterization of some hominin species, we believe that the analysis of this particular tooth could be more conclusive for taxonomic assignment. In this study, we have applied geometric morphometric methods to explore the morphological variability of the upper first molar (M(1)) across the human fossil record. Our emphasis focuses on the study of the phenetic relationships among the European middle Pleistocene populations (designated as H. heidelbergensis) with H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens, but the inclusion of Australopithecus and early Homo specimens has helped us to assess the polarity of the observed traits. H. neanderthalensis presents a unique morphology characterized by a relatively distal displacement of the lingual cusps and protrusion in the external outline of a large and bulging hypocone. This morphology can be found in a less pronounced degree in the European early and middle Pleistocene populations, and reaches its maximum expression with the H. neanderthalensis lineage. In contrast, modern humans retain the primitive morphology with a square occlusal polygon associated with a round external outline. PMID:17599390

  17. Validating whole slide digital morphometric analysis as a microscopy tool.

    PubMed

    Diller, Robert B; Kellar, Robert S

    2015-02-01

    Whole slide imaging (WSI) can be used to quantify multiple responses within tissue sections during histological analysis. Feature Analysis on Consecutive Tissue Sections (FACTS®) allows the investigator to perform digital morphometric analysis (DMA) within specified regions of interest (ROI) across multiple serial sections at faster rates when compared with manual morphometry methods. Using FACTS® in conjunction with WSI is a powerful analysis tool, which allows DMA to target specific ROI across multiple tissue sections stained for different biomarkers. DMA may serve as an appropriate alternative to classic, manual, histologic morphometric measures, which have historically relied on the selection of high-powered fields of views and manual scoring (e.g., a gold standard). In the current study, existing preserved samples were used to determine if DMA would provide similar results to manual counting methods. Rodent hearts (n=14, left ventricles) were stained with Masson's trichrome, and reacted for cluster of differentiation 68 (CD-68). This study found no statistical significant difference between a classic, manual method and the use of digital algorithms to perform the similar counts (p=0.38). DMA offers researchers the ability to accurately evaluate morphological characteristics in a reproducible fashion without investigator bias and with higher throughput. PMID:25399639

  18. Morphometric Approach to Pulp Fibroblast Development in Tooth Germ

    PubMed Central

    Căruntu, Irina-Draga; Săvinescu, Sergiu Daniel; Amălinei, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    This paper builds a morphometric framework for the analysis of dental pulp fibroblast evolution during tooth development. We investigated 15 tooth germs (cases) organized, by histological criteria, in three groups corresponding to cap, early bell, and late bell stages, respectively. Each group comprised five cases. The morphometric description used the following parameters: area (A), perimeter (P)—automatically extracted by a color segmentation technique, and form factor (FF)—calculated as 4πA/P2. The designed framework operated at inter- and intragroup levels. The intergroup analysis quantified the differences between groups, in the sense of a relative distance (RD) adequately defined by mean-value scaling. We showed that the stage of early bell is approximately 5 times closer to late bell than to cap. The quantification procedure required concomitant information about A, P parameters (as P versus A dependences, or FF values), whereas the procedure failed for A or P separately used. The intragroup analysis quantified the similarity of the cases belonging to the same stage. We proved that, unlike the intergroup tests, the individual exploitation of all three descriptors A, P, and FF is effective, yielding highly compatible results. Within any group, most cases presented RDs less than 10% from the group mean value, regardless of the descriptor type. PMID:25057501

  19. Time-related morphometric studies of neurofilaments in brain contusions.

    PubMed

    Kobek, M; Jankowski, Z; Szala, J; Gąszczyk-Ożarowski, Z; Pałasz, A; Skowronek, R

    2016-01-01

    In forensic pathology age determination of injuries is of key importance. The purpose of the study was to analyze morphometrically changes in neurofilaments following the brain contusion and relate them to the length of the time of survival. To do this, the authors analyzed specimens of brains collected during medicolegal autopsies. According to the available literature, no such study involving material from deceased humans was conducted. The researched material was divided into nine subgroups (10 cases each) according to the time of death of persons: immediately at the crime site, 12 hours, 24 hours, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days and 7 days after head trauma. Neurofilaments were immunohistochemically stained and evaluated quantitatively using the Met-Ilo computer application. The initial results were then analyzed statistically with the one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the least significant difference (LSD) tests. It was calculated that there are significant differences in numbers and area fractions of neurofilaments within 7 days after head trauma. It must be concluded that morphometric analysis of neurofilaments is a promising method but further studies are required. PMID:27179221

  20. Application of multilevel models to morphometric data. Part 2. Correlations.

    PubMed

    Tsybrovskyy, O; Berghold, A

    2003-01-01

    Multilevel organization of morphometric data (cells are "nested" within patients) requires special methods for studying correlations between karyometric features. The most distinct feature of these methods is that separate correlation (covariance) matrices are produced for every level in the hierarchy. In karyometric research, the cell-level (i.e., within-tumor) correlations seem to be of major interest. Beside their biological importance, these correlation coefficients (CC) are compulsory when dimensionality reduction is required. Using MLwiN, a dedicated program for multilevel modeling, we show how to use multivariate multilevel models (MMM) to obtain and interpret CC in each of the levels. A comparison with two usual, "single-level" statistics shows that MMM represent the only way to obtain correct cell-level correlation coefficients. The summary statistics method (take average values across each patient) produces patient-level CC only, and the "pooling" method (merge all cells together and ignore patients as units of analysis) yields incorrect CC at all. We conclude that multilevel modeling is an indispensable tool for studying correlations between morphometric variables. PMID:14501085

  1. Phorbol ester and spontaneous activity in SHR aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Moisey, D.M.; Cox, R.H.

    1986-03-01

    Thoracic aortas (TA) were excised from 6-week old SHR and WKY. 2mm rings were mounted isometrically at optimum preload. Spontaneous rhythmical activity developed in TA from SHR and had a frequency of 3-4/min with varying periods of quiescence between bursts of activity. The spontaneous activity often produced an increase in tension development which was associated with increased frequency of oscillations. Verapamil (10/sup -7/ M) or Ca/sup + +/-free solution added during the contractile phase resulted in an immediate loss of tension and spontaneous activity. Addition of ouabain (10/sup -4/ M) during the contractile phase of spontaneous activity, increased the frequency of oscillations which appeared to fuse into a tetanus. Spontaneous rhythmical activity was infrequently observed in TA from WKY. However, addition of phorbol 12-myristate-13 acetate (TPA), frequently induced spontaneous rhythmic oscillations associated with tension development in TA from WKY. TPA contracted the SHR TA and increased the frequency of oscillations. SHR TA were more sensitive to TPA than WKY. This study demonstrates (1) spontaneous rhythmical activity, independent of agonist stimulation in TA from 6-week old SHR and (2) TPA induced spontaneous oscillatory activity. The mechanism underlying the spontaneous oscillatory activity may involve membrane coupling events and Na-pump difference between SHR and WKY.

  2. Phosphoinositide metabolism and metabolism-contraction coupling in rabbit aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Coburn, R.F.; Baron, C.; Papadopoulos, M.T. )

    1988-12-01

    The authors tested a hypothesis that metabolism-contraction coupling in vascular smooth muscle is controlled by the rate of delivery of energy to ATP-dependent reactions in the inositol phospholipid transduction system that generate second messengers exerting control on smooth muscle force. Rabbit aorta was contracted by norepinephrine (NOR) under conditions of normoxia and hypoxia, and changes in inositol phospholipid pool sizes and metabolic flux rates (J{sub F}) were determined. J{sub F} was determined by labeling free cytosolic myo-inositol by incubation of unstimulated muscle with myo-({sup 3}H)inositol and then measuring rates of incorporation of this isotope into inositol phospholipids and inositol phosphates when the muscle was activated by NOR. J{sub F} measured during maintenance of NOR-induced force was markedly inhibited during hypoxia to 40-50% of that determined during normoxia; rates of increases in inositol phosphate radioactivities were similarly depressed during NOR activation under hypoxia. The hypoxia-induced decrease in J{sub F} was associated with four- to fivefold increase in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) total pool size, suggesting PIP kinase was inhibited and rate limiting. These data suggest that activation of inositol phospholipid metabolism, which generates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and diacylglycerol, is blunted under conditions where aerobic energy production is inhibited. Data are consistent with rate-limiting effects of decreased ATP delivery, or decreased phosphate potential, on PIP kinase and reactions that control resynthesis of phosphatidylinositol.

  3. Allopurinol prevents nitroglycerin-induced tolerance in rat thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Azarmi, Yadollah; Babaei, Hossein; Alizadeh, Fatemeh; Gharebageri, Afsaneh; Fouladi, Daniel F; Nikkhah, Elhameh

    2014-02-01

    Xanthine oxidase is an important source of reactive oxygen species; so, it may play a role in the pathogenesis of endothelium dysfunction and its consequences. Allopurinol, a purine analog, is a famous xanthine oxidase inhibitor. This study aimed to investigate possible effects of allopurinol on nitroglycerin tolerance, vasoconstriction, and vasorelaxation in rat aortic ring. Using thoracic aortic rings obtained from male Wistar rats, the effect of allopurinol was examined on nitroglycerin-induced tolerance. In addition, changes of vasoconstriction (by using KCl and phenylephrine) and vasorelaxation (by using carbachol, sodium nitroprusside, and nitroglycerin) were also measured and compared between tissues treated with and without allopurinol. All 3 concentrations of allopurinol (50, 100, and 150 μM) significantly acted against the development of nitroglycerin-induced tolerance in comparison with controls. In terms of vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation, the effect of allopurinol was significant only on carbachol-induced (endothelium related) vasorelaxation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, although allopurinol had no significant effect on the contractile response of the aorta, in accord with the previous data, it significantly intensified endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The inhibitory effect of allopurinol against the development of nitrate-induced tolerance may suggest its clinical benefit and is worth to be studied more extensively. PMID:24126565

  4. Metformin restores endothelial function in aorta of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sena, Cristina M; Matafome, Paulo; Louro, Teresa; Nunes, Elsa; Fernandes, Rosa; Seiça, Raquel M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The effects of metformin, an antidiabetic agent that improves insulin sensitivity, on endothelial function have not been fully elucidated. This study was designed to assess the effect of metformin on impaired endothelial function, oxidative stress, inflammation and advanced glycation end products formation in type 2 diabetes mellitus. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, an animal model of nonobese type 2 diabetes, fed with normal and high-fat diet during 4 months were treated with metformin for 4 weeks before evaluation. Systemic oxidative stress, endothelial function, insulin resistance, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, glycation and vascular oxidative stress were determined in the aortic rings of the different groups. A pro-inflammatory biomarker the chemokine CCL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) was also evaluated. KEY RESULTS High-fat fed GK rats with hyperlipidaemia showed increased vascular and systemic oxidative stress and impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. Metformin treatment significantly improved glycation, oxidative stress, CCL2 levels, NO bioavailability and insulin resistance and normalized endothelial function in aorta. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Metformin restores endothelial function and significantly improves NO bioavailability, glycation and oxidative stress in normal and high-fat fed GK rats. This supports the concept of the central role of metformin as a first-line therapeutic to treat diabetic patients in order to protect against endothelial dysfunction associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:21250975

  5. Ascending aorta-right pulmonary artery anastomosis: Waterston's operation

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Díaz, F.; Brito, J. M.; Cordovilla, G.; De León, J. Pérez; Sanchez, P. A.; Bordiú, C. M.

    1973-01-01

    The results of 180 cases of congenital heart disease with diminished pulmonary flow operated upon with Waterston's technique are presented. It is considered that Waterston's operation is to be preferred in children under 2 years of age and in older children who have had a previous thrombotic or insufficient Blalock operation and in whom total correction is not indicated. The problem of pseudotruncus with hypoplastic pulmonary arteries is discussed. The convenience of the Waterston operation in these cases, and the importance of creating an anastomosis at the pulmonary bifurcation and as far back as possible in the aorta, is emphasized. The need to perform this technique in the correct way is stressed. This will avoid the kinking and pulling of the right pulmonary artery, which are causes of preferential blood flow to the right lung, as we have demonstrated experimentally. The possible complications caused by such a technical failure are discussed. The necessity for previous angiocardiographic study, in order properly to repair the defect during total correction, is also considered. Images PMID:4731106

  6. Computed tomography in the diagnosis of latrogenic false aneurysms of the ascending aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, E.H.; Farmer, D.W.; Geller, S.C.; Golden, J.A.; Gamsu, G.

    1984-06-01

    False aneurysm (contained rupture) of the ascending aorta is a rare complication of aortic valve replacement. The authors have dealt with two such cases that resulted from breakdown of the aortotomy suture line. In both cases, CT scan with intravenous injection of contrast material demonstrated opacification of the lumen of the false aneurysm sac; in neither case was communication with the aorta demonstrable on aortography.

  7. Effect of valve orientation on flow development past aortic valve prostheses in a model human aorta.

    PubMed

    Chandran, K B; Khalighi, B; Chen, C J; Falsetti, H L; Yearwood, T L; Hiratzka, L F

    1983-06-01

    The effect of valve orientation on flow development in a model human aorta was studied by means of a qualitative flow visualization technique. The model replicated the geometry of the human aorta and the experiment simulated a physiologically realistic pulsatile flow. The following valves were studied: Starr-Edwards Stellite, Starr-Edwards silicone, Björk-Shiley spherical disc, Björk-Shiley convexo-concave disc, and Hall-Kaster tilting disc. All the valves had a tissue anulus diameter of 27 mm. With the ball-in-cage valves, the flow in the ascending aorta was predominantly axial and uniform throughout systole, while vortex formation was observed downstream from the ball. With the tilting disc valves, the flow development in the aorta was a function of the orientation of the valves. With the major flow orifice directed toward the commissure between the right and noncoronary cusps, the fluid motion was predominantly in the axial direction through early systole. A vortex developed along the wall of lesser curvature of the aorta with the progression of systole. In early diastole, a well-defined flow reversal was observed along the lesser curvature of the aorta. With the major flow orifice directed toward the left coronary cusp, the fluid motion, although predominantly axial, was not uniform in the ascending aorta. Regions of relative stasis present near the wall of greater curvature subsequently developed into a trapped vortex throughout the cardiac cycle. With the major flow orifice directed more posteriorly, an improved fluid dynamic characteristic was observed, and there was no trapped vortex present near the wall of greater curvature. The flow visualization study in the model human aorta suggests that, from a fluid dynamic point of view, orientation of the major flow orifice of the tilting disc valve toward the wall of lesser curvature is not advisable. PMID:6855259

  8. Impaired Collagen Biosynthesis and Cross‐linking in Aorta of Patients With Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Wågsäter, Dick; Paloschi, Valentina; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Hultenby, Kjell; Bank, Ruud A.; Franco‐Cereceda, Anders; Lindeman, Jan H. N.; Eriksson, Per

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) have an increased risk of developing ascending aortic aneurysm. In the present study, collagen homeostasis in nondilated and dilated aorta segments from patients with BAV was studied, with normal and dilated aortas from tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) patients as reference. Methods and Results Ascending aortas from 56 patients were used for biochemical and morphological analyses of collagen. mRNA expression was analyzed in 109 patients. Collagen turnover rates were similar in nondilated and dilated aortas of BAV patients, showing that aneurysmal formation in BAV is, in contrast to TAV, not associated with an increased collagen turnover. However, BAV in general was associated with an increased aortic collagen turnover compared with nondilated aortas of TAV patients. Importantly, the ratio of hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) to lysyl pyridinoline (LP), 2 distinct forms of collagen cross‐linking, was lower in dilated aortas from patients with BAV, which suggests that BAV is associated with a defect in the posttranslational collagen modification. This suggests a deficiency at the level of lysyl hydroxylase (PLOD1), which was confirmed by mRNA and protein analyses that showed reduced PLOD1 expression but normal lysyl oxidase expression in dilated aortas from patients with BAV. This suggests that impaired collagen cross‐linking in BAV patients may be attributed to changes in the expression and/or activity of PLOD1. Conclusions Our results demonstrate an impaired biosynthesis and posttranslational modification of collagen in aortas of patients with BAV, which may explain the increased aortic aneurysm formation in BAV patients. PMID:23525417

  9. Enhancement of cholesterol and cholesteryl ester accumulation in re-endothelialized aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, D. J.; Hajjar, D. P.; Minick, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments reported here was to determine chemically the character and quantity of lipid in re-endothelialized and de-endothelialized areas of rabbit aortas. The aortas of 22 rabbits, Groups I and II, were de-endothelialized with a balloon catheter, and the rabbits were maintained on a lipid-poor diet for 4 weeks. Thirteen rabbits, Group II, were then fed an egg-supplemented diet for 6 weeks. Nine rabbits, Group I, were continued on the lipid-poor diet for an additional 6 weeks. Control rabbits with uninjured aortas were fed a lipid-poor diet for 10 weeks (Group III) or an egg-supplemented diet for 6 weeks (Group IV). Nonesterified cholesterol and fatty acids, cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, and squalene were quantitated in re-endothelialized and de-endothelialized aorta by thin-layer chromatography and fluorometric analysis. The results indicate 1) that there was approximately three times as much nonesterified cholesterol and cholesteryl ester in re-endothelialized aorta of Groups I and II as compared with adjacent de-endothelialized aorta and 2) that in re-endothelialized aorta of Group II the amount of total cholesterol correlated with serum cholesterol concentration in contrast to adjacent de-endothelialized aorta, with no correlation over a range of nearly 900 mg/100 ml. These studies indicate that the presence of endothelium favors accumulation of aortic cholesteryl esters. The results suggest that arterial lipid accumulation is not simply a result of passive filtration but may result from metabolic differences in the re-endothelialized neointima. PMID:7361865

  10. Decreased vascular smooth muscle cell density in medial degeneration of human abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    López-Candales, A.; Holmes, D. R.; Liao, S.; Scott, M. J.; Wickline, S. A.; Thompson, R. W.

    1997-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by structural deterioration of the aortic wall leading to progressive aortic dilatation and eventual rupture. The histopathological changes in AAAs are particularly evident within the elastic media, which is normally dominated by vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). To determine whether a decrease in vascular SMCs contributes to medial degeneration, we measured SMC density in 21 normal and pathological human abdominal aortic tissue specimens using immunohistochemistry for alpha-SMC actin and direct cell counts (medial SMCs per high-power field (HPF)). Medial SMC density was not significantly different between normal aorta (n = 5; 199.5 +/- 14.9 SMCs/HPF) and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (n = 6; 176.4 +/- 13.9 SMCs/HPF), but it was reduced by 74% in AAA (n = 10; 50.9 +/- 6.1 SMCs/HPF; P < 0.01 versus normal aorta). Light and electron microscopy revealed no evidence of overt cellular necrosis, but SMCs in AAAs exhibited ultrastructural changes consistent with apoptosis. Using in situ end-labeling (ISEL) of fragmented DNA to detect apoptotic cells, up to 30% of aortic wall cells were ISEL positive in AAAs. By double-labeling techniques, many of these cells were alpha-actin-positive SMCs distributed throughout the degenerative media. In contrast, ISEL-positive cells were observed only within the intimal plaque in atherosclerotic occlusive disease. The amount of p53 protein detected by immunoblotting was increased nearly fourfold in AAA compared with normal aorta and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (P < 0.01), and immunoreactive p53 was localized to lymphocytes and residual SMCs in the aneurysm wall. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays a substantial amount of p53 mRNA expression was observed in AAAs. These results demonstrate that medial SMC density is significantly decreased in human AAA tissues associated with evidence of SMC apoptosis and increased production of p53, a potential mediator of cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death. Given the role that SMCs normally play in maintaining medial architecture and in arterial wall matrix remodeling, the induction of SMC apoptosis likely makes an important contribution to the evolution of aneurysm degeneration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9060837

  11. Surgical Repair of Abdominal Aortic and Renal Artery Aneurysms in Takayasu's Arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Margaret E; Cafasso, Danielle E; Golarz, Scott R; Ayubi, Farhan S; Kellicut, Dwight C

    2016-01-01

    Takayasu's arteritis is a large vessel vasculitis that can be a challenging diagnosis to make and has a varied clinical presentation. Management largely depends on affected vessel disease severity and individual patient considerations. The diagnosis must be considered in a young patient with large vessel aneurysms. We present a case of a 30 year-old woman of Pacific Islander descent who presented to the Tripler Army medical Center Vascular Surgery Department in Honolulu, Hawai‘i seeking repair of her abdominal aortic and renal artery aneurysms prior to conception. A 30 year-old Pacific Islander woman with a history of a saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm and renal artery aneurysms presented to our clinic seeking vascular surgery consultation prior to a planned pregnancy. She had a renal artery stent placed at an outside institution for hypertension. She met the diagnosis of Takayasu's arteritis by Sharma's criteria. Physical exam was significant for a palpable, pulsatile, abdominal mass and CT angiography revealed a saccular irregular-appearing infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm, extending to the aortic bifurcation, with a maximum diameter of 3.3 cm. A right renal artery aneurysm was also identified proximally, contiguous with the aorta, with a maximal transverse diameter of 1.7 cm. The patient underwent a supraceliac bypass to the right renal artery with a 7mm Dacron graft, as well as excision of the right renal artery aneurysm. The abdominal aortic aneurysm was replaced using a Hemashield Dacron bifurcated 14mm x 7mm bypass graft. Intraoperative measurements of the renal artery aneurysm were 1.5 x 1.5 cm and the saccular appearing distal abdominal aortic aneurysm measured 3.6 x 3.3cm. The patient was discharged from the hospital 7 days post-operatively. At 1-year follow up, CT scan of the abdominal aorta revealed the repair was without any evidence of aneurysm formation, anastomotic pseudoaneurysm formation, or areas of stenosis. She has remained normotensive with a normal serum creatinine 18 months after her repair. She has since delivered her second child. It is rare for Takayasu's arteritis to present with aneurysmal disease. It is much more common to present with stenosis or occlusion. It has yet to be proven that Takayasu's truly has a higher incidence in those of Asian descent. Takayasu's can be a difficult diagnosis to make but can be aided with the use of Sharma's criteria. Our particular patient posed unique considerations on the effects of the physiology of pregnancy on her aneurysms and repair. Managing the active phases of disease is imperative, and though medical management is first line, surgical intervention may be necessary. Surgical intervention should be performed in a quiescent period of disease if possible given that biological inflammation at the time of intervention increases the complication rate. Repair of aneurysmal disease in a young female should also be considered prior to pregnancy. PMID:26870600

  12. Fluid Dynamics of Coarctation of the Aorta and Effect of Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Kadem, Lyes

    2013-01-01

    Up to 80% of patients with coarctation of the aorta (COA) have a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Patients with COA and BAV have elevated risks of aortic complications despite successful surgical repair. The development of such complications involves the interplay between the mechanical forces applied on the artery and the biological processes occurring at the cellular level. The focus of this study is on hemodynamic modifications induced in the aorta in the presence of a COA and a BAV. For this purpose, numerical investigations and magnetic resonance imaging measurements were conducted with different configurations: (1) normal: normal aorta and normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: aorta with COA (75% reduction by area) and normal aortic valve; (3) complex COA: aorta with the same severity of COA (75% reduction by area) and BAV. The results show that the coexistence of COA and BAV significantly alters blood flow in the aorta with a significant increase in the maximal velocity, secondary flow, pressure loss, time-averaged wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index downstream of the COA. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of why patients with complex COA have adverse outcome even following a successful surgery. PMID:24015239

  13. Paraoxonase-1 overexpression prevents experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm progression.

    PubMed

    Burillo, Elena; Tarin, Carlos; Torres-Fonseca, Monica-Maria; Fernandez-García, Carlos-Ernesto; Martinez-Pinna, Roxana; Martinez-Lopez, Diego; Llamas-Granda, Patricia; Camafeita, Emilio; Lopez, Juan Antonio; Vega de Ceniga, Melina; Aviram, Michael; Egido, Jesus; Blanco-Colio, Luis-Miguel; Martín-Ventura, Jose-Luis

    2016-06-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent dilation of the aorta due to excessive proteolytic, oxidative and inflammatory injury of the aortic wall. We aimed to identify novel mediators involved in AAA pathophysiology, which could lead to novel therapeutic approaches. For that purpose, plasma from four AAA patients and four controls were analysed by a label-free proteomic approach. Among identified proteins, paraoxonase-1 (PON1) was decreased in plasma of AAA patients compared with controls, which was further validated in a bigger cohort of samples by ELISA. The phenylesterase enzymatic activity of PON1 was also decreased in serum of AAA patients compared with controls. To address the potential role of PON1 as a mediator of AAA, experimental AAA was induced by aortic elastase perfusion in wild-type (WT) mice and human transgenic PON1 (HuTgPON1) mice. Similar to humans, PON1 activity was also decreased in serum of elastase-induced AAA mice compared with healthy mice. Interestingly, overexpression of PON1 was accompanied by smaller aortic dilation and higher elastin and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) content in the AAA of HuTgPON1 compared with WT mice. Moreover, HuTgPON1 mice display decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis, as well as macrophage infiltration and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) expression, in elastase-induced AAA. In conclusion, decreased circulating PON1 activity is associated with human and experimental AAA. PON1 overexpression in mice protects against AAA progression by reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation, suggesting that strategies aimed at increasing PON1 activity could prevent AAA. PMID:26993251

  14. Effect of coarctation of the aorta and bicuspid aortic valve on flow dynamics and turbulence in the aorta using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Gaillard, Emmanuel; Maftoon, Nima; Di Labbio, Giuseppe; Cloutier, Guy; Kadem, Lyes

    2014-03-01

    Blood flow in the aorta has been of particular interest from both fluid dynamics and physiology perspectives. Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a congenital heart disease corresponding to a severe narrowing in the aortic arch. Up to 85 % of patients with COA have a pathological aortic valve, leading to a narrowing at the valve level. The aim of the present work was to advance the state of understanding of flow through a COA to investigate how narrowing in the aorta (COA) affects the characteristics of the velocity field and, in particular, turbulence development. For this purpose, particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted at physiological flow and pressure conditions, with three different aorta configurations: (1) normal case: normal aorta + normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + normal aortic valve and (3) complex COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + pathological aortic valve. Viscous shear stress (VSS), representing the physical shear stress, Reynolds shear stress (RSS), representing the turbulent shear stress, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), representing the intensity of fluctuations in the fluid flow environment, were calculated for all cases. Results show that, compared with a healthy aorta, the instantaneous velocity streamlines and vortices were deeply changed in the presence of the COA. The normal aorta did not display any regions of elevated VSS, RSS and TKE at any moment of the cardiac cycle. The magnitudes of these parameters were elevated for both isolated COA and complex COA, with their maximum values mainly being located inside the eccentric jet downstream of the COA. However, the presence of a pathologic aortic valve, in complex COA, amplifies VSS (e.g., average absolute peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 36 N/m2; isolated COA = 19 N/m2), RSS (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 84.6 N/m2; isolated COA = 44 N/m2) and TKE (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 215 N/m2; isolated COA = 100 N/m2). This demonstrates that the pathological aortic valve strongly interacts with the COA. Findings of this study indicate that the presence of both a COA and a pathological aortic valve significantly alters hemodynamics in the aorta and thus might contribute to the progression of the disease in this region. This study can partially explain the complications associated in patients with COA, in the presence of a pathological aortic valve and the consequent adverse outcome post-surgery.

  15. Intestinal injury mechanisms after blunt abdominal impact.

    PubMed

    Cripps, N P; Cooper, G J

    1997-03-01

    Intestinal injury is frequent after non-penetrating abdominal trauma, particularly after modern, high-energy transfer impacts. Under these circumstances, delay in the diagnosis of perforation is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. This study establishes patterns of intestinal injury after blunt trauma by non-penetrating projectiles and examines relationships between injury distribution and abdominal wall motion. Projectile impacts of variable momentum were produced in 31 anaesthetised pigs to cause abdominal wall motion of varying magnitude and velocity. No small bowel injury was observed at initial impact velocity of less than 40 m/s despite gross abdominal compression. At higher velocity, injury to the small bowel was frequent, irrespective of the degree of abdominal compression (P = 0.00044). Large bowel injury was observed at all impact velocities and at all degrees of abdominal compression. This study confirms the potential for intestinal injury in high velocity, low momentum impacts which do not greatly compress the abdominal cavity and demonstrates apparent differences in injury mechanisms for the small bowel and colon. Familiarity with injury mechanisms may reduce delays in the diagnosis of intestinal perforation in both military and civilian situations. PMID:9135238

  16. Reproducibility of aortic pulsatility measurements from ECG-gated abdominal CTA in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, Armando; Fletcher, Joel G.; Wentz, Robert J.; Shields, Raymond C.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Siddiki, Hassan; Nielson, Theresa

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: ECG-gated abdominal CT angiography with reconstruction of multiple, temporally overlapping CT angiography datasets has been proposed for measuring aortic pulsatility. The purpose of this work is to develop algorithms to segment the aorta from surrounding structures from CTA datasets across cardiac phases, calculate registered centerlines and measurements of regional aortic pulsatility in patients with AAA, and to assess the reproducibility of these measurements. Methods: ECG-gated CTA was performed with a temporal resolution of 165 ms, reconstructed to 1 mm slices ranging at 14 cardiac phase points. Data sets were obtained from 17 patients on which two such scans were performed 6 to 12 months apart. Automated segmentation, centerline generation, and registration of centerlines between phases was performed, followed by calculation of cross-sectional areas and regional and local pulsatility. Results: Pulsatility calculations for the supraceliac region were very reproducible between earlier and later scans of the same patient, with average differences less than 1% for pulsatility values ranging from 2% to 13%. Local radial pulsatilities were also reproducible to within ~1%. Aneurysm volume changes between scans can also be quantified. Conclusion: Automated segmentation, centerline generation, and registration of temporally resolved CTA datasets permit measurements of regional changes in cross-sectional area over the course of the cardiac cycle (i.e., regional aortic pulsatility). These measurements are reproducible between scans 6-12 months apart, with differences in aortic areas reflecting both aneurysm remodeling and changes in blood pressure. Regional pulsatilities ranged from 2 to 13% but were reproducible at the 1% level.

  17. Abdominal sepsis managed by leaving abdomen open.

    PubMed

    Duff, J H; Moffat, J

    1981-10-01

    Intra-abdominal sepsis and necrotizing infection of the abdominal wall are usually fatal unless adequate drainage and wide debridement are possible. To follow these principles, we managed 18 seriously ill patients with abdominal sepsis by leaving the abdomen completely open. All except two of the patients had severe intra-abdominal sepsis. Eight patients had full-thickness wound infections and intra-abdominal infections refractory to the usual surgical drainage techniques. Two had necrotizing wound infections only. In 12 an upper abdominal incision was managed open, and in six the open incision was lower. As part of the initiating illness, there were eight small bowel and six colon fistulas. They were managed by colostomy in five patients and ileostomy in two. More than one organism was cultured in all patients and 12 of 18 had a positive blood culture. Respiratory failure made mechanical ventilation necessary in 13 patients for an average of 44 days. Previous adhesions, usually present, or an intact greater omentum, were necessary to prevent bowel evisceration, but three patients required paralysis and mechanical ventilation until adhesions became strong enough to prevent evisceration. There were seven deaths (39%), six caused by continuing sepsis and one from hemorrhage. In those surviving, granulation tissue grew over omentum or bowel loops to eventually seal the abdominal cavity. The late management was split-skin grafting in five and secondary closure in two. Four healed by second intention. We conclude that leaving the abdomen completely open facilitates the widest possible drainage, uncompromising debridement of the abdominal wall, and is compatible with good recovery. The ultimate result in survivors is acceptable. This technique is preferable to closing an abdominal wall of questionable viability in the face of intraperitoneal sepsis. PMID:6456563

  18. Sand mining and morphometric dynamics along Ologe Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaddeus, D.; Odunuga, S.

    2015-04-01

    The study focuses on the sand mining activities and morphometric dynamics of Ologe Lagoon, in Lagos, Nigeria. It determines the sand mining activities and morphometric dynamics of Ologe Lagoon catchment area, the quantity of sand mined per unit time, and the extent of environmental degradation due to the continuous sand mining activities. Topographic maps of the 1985 and 2013 Ikonos satellite imagery were used to identify the morphometric dynamics of the area. Two hypotheses were generated to determine if there are significant differences between the means of the sampled population that lost properties due to flooding, and to determine if there was a correlation between building subsidence and loss of property; it was tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with a correlation coefficient at 0.05 α significance level. The results of geometric measurement of the Ologe Lagoon between the two years interval show that perimeter width and circularity of the basin had reduced and shrunk, while the form factor remains the same at 0.15 km2. The basin elongation increased significantly by 0.01 km2, thus, increasing the rate at which water will be supplied to the lagoon. The ration of the form factor of 0.69/0.5 is close to the unity value R1, which shows a higher peak runoff; the values of the circularity ratio of 3.94/3.13 indicates circularity. This shows that the basin is circular time. The impact of the geometry indicates the development of mud flats and sandy bars, particularly at the lower portion of the lagoon; there is also modification of sediment deposition. The anthropogenic activity of sand mining causes destruction of the riparian forest around the lagoon. There is no significant difference in the means of sampled respondents regarding loss properties due to flooding, while there is a correlation between building subsidence and loss of life. It is recommended that a road map should be developed and implemented by the relevant agency of the government to guide anthropogenic activities around the lagoon to enhance sustainable development.

  19. Flow topology in patient-specific abdominal aortic aneurysms during rest and exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn

    2012-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent, localized widening of the abdominal aorta. Flow in AAA is dominated by recirculation, transitional turbulence and low wall shear stress. Image-based CFD has recently enabled high resolution flow data in patient-specific AAA. This study aims to characterize transport in different AAAs, and understand flow topology changes from rest to exercise, which has been a hypothesized therapy due to potential acute changes in flow. Velocity data in 6 patients with different AAA morphology were obtained using image-based CFD under rest and exercise conditions. Finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields were computed from integration of the velocity data to identify dominant Lagrangian coherent structures. The flow topology was compared between rest and exercise conditions. For all patients, the systolic inflow jet resulted in coherent vortex formation. The evolution of this vortex varied greatly between patients and was a major determinant of transport inside the AAA during diastole. During exercise, previously observed stagnant regions were either replaced with undisturbed flow, regions of uniform high mixing, or persisted relatively unchanged. A mix norm measure provided a quantitative assessment of mixing. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, grant number 5R21HL108272.

  20. Surgical treatment of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms: Outcome and predictors analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nuellari, Edmond; Esposito, Giampiero; Kuci, Saimir; Kapedani, Edmond

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to report our experience on the postoperative outcome of surgical treatment of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA). Materials and Methods Between 1997–2014, 35 patients with IAAA underwent surgery. The mean age was 63 ± 18 years. Chronic renal failure was identified in 11 (31.4%) patients and confirmed ischemic heart disease in 15 (43%) patients. The mean aortic aneurysm diameter was 68 ± 25 mm. The abdominal aorta was clamped above the renal arteries in 6 (17%) patients. Results The hospital mortality was 5.7% (2 patients). Three patients developed an aortic pseudoaneurysm and underwent a redo operation. Another patient developed a femoral anastomotic pseudoaneurysm 7 years after operation and he was treated surgically. The actuarial free-reoperation actuarial survival at 1, 5 and 7 years was 94%, 62% and 50%, respectively. The Cox model revealed the delta erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p = 0.002), ischemic heart disease (p = 0.006) and renal failure (p = 0.036) as strong predictors for poor overall outcome. Conclusion Early postoperative outcome in terms of mortality and morbidity seems acceptable, however, patients with IAAA have an increased risk for reoperation due to pseudonaneurysm formation. Strong predictors for poor overall outcome seem to be the elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ischemic heart disease and chronic renal failure. PMID:25243075

  1. The Benefits of Internal Thoracic Artery Catheterization in Patients With Chronic Abdominal Aortic Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ilic, Nikola Davidovic, Lazar; Koncar, Igor; Dragas, Marko; Markovic, Miroslav; Colic, Momcilo; Cinara, Ilijas

    2011-04-15

    Occlusion of the abdominal aorta may be caused by an embolic lesion, but more commonly by thrombotic disease at the aortoiliac area, progressing retrograde. However, the visualization of the distal run-off via internal thoracic-epigastric inferior artery collateral channel may be a very important diagnostic tool, especially in countries with poor technical equipment. This study was designed to show the benefit of the selective internal thoracic angiography in cases with complete aortic occlusion. We present 30 patients with chronic aortic abdominal occlusion who were submitted to the transaxillary aortography and selective ITA angiography with purpose of distal run off evaluation. Angiographic evaluation was performed by two independent radiologists according to previously defined classification. Good angiographic score via internal thoracic angiography by first observer was achieved in 19 (63.3%) patients and in 18 (60%) by a second observer. Transaxillary aortography showed inferior results: good angiographic score by the first observer in six (20%) patients and by the second observer in three (3%) patients. Low extremity run-off is better visualized during internal thoracic angiography than during transaxillary aortography.

  2. Evolution of the wall shear stresses during the progressive enlargement of symmetric abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, A.-V.; Sparks, S. R.; Chomaz, J.-M.; Lasheras, J. C.

    2006-08-01

    The changes in the evolution of the spatial and temporal distribution of the wall shear stresses (WSS) and gradients of wall shear stresses (GWSS) at different stages of the enlargement of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are important in understanding the aetiology and progression of this vascular disease since they affect the wall structural integrity, primarily via the changes induced on the shape, functions and metabolism of the endothelial cells. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed in in vitro aneurysm models, while changing their geometric parameters systematically. It has been shown that, even at the very early stages of the disease, i.e. increase in the diameter ≤ 50%, the flow separates from the wall and a large vortex ring, usually followed by internal shear layers, is created. These lead to the generation of WSS that drastically differ in mean and fluctuating components from the healthy vessel. Inside the AAA, the mean WSS becomes negative along most of the aneurysmal wall and the magnitude of the WSS can be as low as 26% of the value in a healthy abdominal aorta.

  3. The potential role of DNA methylation in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Toghill, Bradley J; Saratzis, Athanasios; Harrison, Seamus C; Verissimo, Ana R; Mallon, Eamonn B; Bown, Matthew J

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterised by the chronic degradation and gradual, irreversible dilation of the abdominal aorta. Smoking, genetics, male sex and increased age are major factors associated with developing AAA. Rupture contributes to around 2% of deaths in all Caucasians over 65, and there is no pharmaco-therapeutic treatment. Methylation is an epigenetic modification to DNA, where a methyl group is added to a cytosine base 5' to a guanine (CpG dinucleotide). Methylation patterns are long term, inherited signatures that can induce changes in gene transcription, and can be affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Methylation changes are involved in hypertension and atherosclerosis, both of which are risk factors of, and often coexist with AAA. Extra-cellular matrix degradation and inflammation, both important pathological hallmarks of AAA, are also promoted by changes in CpG methylation in other diseases. Additionally, the adverse effects of smoking and ageing take place largely through epigenetic manipulation of the genome. Every factor associated with AAA appears to be associated with DNA methylation, yet no direct evidence confirms this. Future work to identify a link between global methylation and AAA, and differentially methylated regions may reveal valuable insight. The identification of a common epigenetic switching process may also signify a promising future for AAA pharmaco-therapeutic strategies. Epigenetic therapies are being designed to target pathogenic CpG methylation changes in other diseases, and it is feasible that these therapies may also be applicable to AAA in the future. PMID:25974102

  4. Chronic Contained Rupture of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: From Diagnosis to Endovascular Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto Chiocchi, Marcello; Maresca, Luciano; Pipitone, Vincenzo; Messina, Massimo; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2008-07-15

    A male patient, 69 years old, presented with fever, leucocytosis, and persistent low back pain; he also had an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), as previously diagnosed by Doppler UltraSound (US), and was admitted to our hospital. On multislice computed tomography (msCT), a large abdominal mass having no definite border and involving the aorta and both of the psoas muscles was seen. This mass involved the forth-lumbar vertebra with lysis, thus simulating AAA rupture into a paraspinal collection; it was initially considered a paraspinal abscess. After magnetic resonance imaging examination and culture of the fluid aspirated from the mass, no infective organisms were found; therefore, a diagnosisof chronically contained AAA rupture was made, and an aortic endoprosthesis was subsequently implanted. The patient was discharged with decreased lumbar pain. At 12-month follow-up, no evidence of leakage was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of endoprosthesis implantation in a patient, who was a poor candidate for surgical intervention due to renal failure, leucocytosis and high fever, having a chronically contained AAA ruptured simulatingspodilodiscitis abscess. Appropriate diagnosis and therapy resolved potentially crippling pathology and avoided surgical graft-related complications.

  5. Update on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Research: From Clinical to Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kuivaniemi, Helena; Ryer, Evan J.; Elmore, James R.; Hinterseher, Irene; Smelser, Diane T.; Tromp, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilatation of the abdominal aorta with a diameter of at least 3.0 cm. AAAs are often asymptomatic and are discovered as incidental findings in imaging studies or when the AAA ruptures leading to a medical emergency. AAAs are more common in males than females, in individuals of European ancestry, and in those over 65 years of age. Smoking is the most important environmental risk factor. In addition, a positive family history of AAA increases the person's risk for AAA. Interestingly, diabetes has been shown to be a protective factor for AAA in many large studies. Hallmarks of AAA pathogenesis include inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, extracellular matrix degradation, and oxidative stress. Autoimmunity may also play a role in AAA development and progression. In this Outlook paper, we summarize our recent studies on AAA including clinical studies related to surgical repair of AAA and genetic risk factor and large-scale gene expression studies. We conclude with a discussion on our research projects using large data sets available through electronic medical records and biobanks. PMID:24834361

  6. Fluid Characteristics in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) and Its Correlation to Thrombus Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Rubing; Bar-Yoseph, Pinhas Z.; Lasheras, Juan

    2008-11-01

    It has been observed that most large Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) develop an intraluminal thrombus as they progressively enlarge. Previous studies have suggested that the build up of the thrombus may be associated with the altered hemodynamic patterns that arise inside the AAA. We have performed a parametrical computational study of the flow patterns inside enlarging AAA to investigate the possible mechanism controlling the thrombus formation. Pulsatile blood flows were simulated in idealized models of fusiform aneurysms with different dilatation ratios and the effects of shear-activated platelet accumulation and platelet/wall interaction were evaluated based on the calculated flow fields. The platelet activation level (PAL) was determined by computing the integral over time of flow shear stresses exerted over the platelets as they are transported throughout the aneurysm. Our results have shown that the values of PAL in AAAs are in fact smaller than the maximum value obtained in a healthy abdominal aorta. However, we show that the transportation of blood cells towards the wall and the formation of stagnation points on the aneurysm's wall play more significant roles in thrombus formation than PAL.

  7. Abdominal Pain in the Geriatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Leuthauser, Amy; McVane, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain in the elderly can be a challenging and difficult condition to diagnose and treat. The geriatric population has significant comorbidities and often takes polypharmacy that can mask symptoms. The presentation of common conditions can be different than that in the younger population, often lacking the traditional indicators of disease, making it of pivotal importance for the clinician to consider a wide differential during their workup. It is also important to consider extra-abdominal abnormality that may manifest as abdominal pain. PMID:27133249

  8. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture. PMID:24298780

  9. Endovascular Stenting for Unsuccessful Angioplasty of the Aorta in Aortoarteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, Sanjay; Kaul, Upkar A.; Arora, Ramesh

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: The efficacy and safety of endovascular stent implantation to correct dissection or a suboptimal result after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was evaluated in patients suffering from aortic stenosis due to aortoarteritis. Methods: Twelve children and young adults [aged (mean {+-} SD) 18.2 {+-} 8.7 years] underwent stent implantation after PTA of the aorta, seven for obstructive dissection, four for ineffective balloon dilatation, and one for recurrent restenosis. Nine patients underwent implantation of self-expandable stents and three received balloon-expandable Palmaz stents. Results: Stent implantation could be successfully performed in all 12 patients. After stent implantation, the peak systolic pressure gradient decreased from 91 {+-} 33.5 mmHg to 12.4 {+-} 12.5 mmHg (p < 0.001). The diameter of the stenosed segment increased from 4.6 {+-} 0.8 mm to 11.1 {+-} 1.9 mm (p < 0.001). The dissection was completely covered in all seven patients with dissection. Except for epigastric pain with vomiting in one patient, there was no complication. On follow-up, over 12-57 months (mean 26.8 {+-} 10.8 months), 11 patients (91.6%) had marked improvement in their blood pressure. Patients with congestive heart failure and claudication also showed improvement. Repeat catheterization in five patients, between 6-30 months (mean 16.8 {+-} 9.1 months) after stent implantation, showed sustained improvement in four and a fusiform, long segment, intrastent restenosis after 30 months in one child. The stenosis was safely redilated. Conclusion: Endovascular aortic stent implantation is safe and provides good immediate relief in patients with unsatisfactory results after balloon angioplasty. Improvement is sustained in most patients on intermediate-term follow-up.

  10. AGE-DEPENDENT ASCENDING AORTA MECHANICS ASSESSED THROUGH MULTIPHASE CT

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Caitlin; Sun, Wei; Primiano, Charles; McKay, Raymond; Elefteriades, John

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of the age- and gender-specific in vivo mechanical characteristics of the ascending aorta (AA) will allow for identification of abnormalities aside from changes brought on by aging alone. Multiphase clinical CT scans of 45 male patients between the ages of 30 and 79 years were analyzed to assess age-dependent in vivo AA characteristics. The three-dimensional AA geometry for each patient was reconstructed from the CT scans for 9–10 phases throughout the cardiac cycle. The AA circumference was measured during each phase and was used to determine the corresponding diameter, circumferential strain, and wall tension at each phase. The pressure-strain modulus was also determined for each patient. The mean diastolic AA diameter was significantly smaller among young (42.6±5.2 years) at 29.9±2.8 mm than old patients (69.0±5.2 years) at 33.2±3.2 mm. The circumferential AA strain from end-diastole to peak-systole decreased from 0.092±0.03 in young to 0.056±0.03 in old patients. The pressure-strain modulus increased two-fold from 68.4±30.5 kPa in young to 162.0±93.5 kPa in old patients, and the systolic AA wall tension increased from 268.5±31.3 kPa in young to 304.9±49.2 kPa in old patients. The AA dilates and stiffens with aging which increases the vessel wall tension, likely predisposing aneurysm and dissection. PMID:23817767

  11. Effects of freezing on white perch Morone americana (Gmelin, 1789): Implications for multivariate morphometrics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that duration of freezing differentially affects whole-body morphometrics of a derived teleost. Whole-body morphometrics are frequently analyzed to test hypotheses of different species, or stocks within a species, of fishes. Specimens used for morphometric analyses are typically fixed or preserved prior to analysis, yet little research has been done on how fixation or preservation methods or duration of preservation of specimens might affect outcomes of multivariate statistical analyses of differences in shape. To determine whether whole-body morphometrics changed as a result of freezing, 23 whole-body morphometrics of age-1 white perch (Morone americana) from western Lake Erie (n = 211) were analyzed immediately after capture, after being held on ice overnight, and after freezing for 100 or 200 days. Discriminant function analysis revealed that all four groups differed significantly from one another (P < 0.0001). The first canonical axis reflected long-axis morphometrics, where there was a clear pattern of positive translation along this axis with duration of preservation. Re-classification analysis demonstrated fish were typically assigned to their original preservation class except for fish frozen 100 days, which assigned mostly to frozen 200 days. Morphometric comparisons using frozen fish must be done on fish frozen for identical periods of time to avoid biases related to the length of time they were frozen. Similar experiments should be conducted on other species and also using formalin- and alcohol-preserved specimens.

  12. Regional flood susceptibility analysis in mountainous areas through the use of morphometric and land cover indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelis, M. C.; Werner, M.

    2013-12-01

    A classification of susceptibility to flooding of 106 mountain watersheds was carried out in Bogotá (Colombia) through the use of an index composed of a morphometric indicator and a land cover indicator. Susceptibility was considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flows. Morphological variables recognised in literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows were used to construct the morphometric indicator by applying principal component analysis. Subsequently, this indicator was compared with the results of debris flow propagation to assess its capacity in indentifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation of debris flows was carried out using the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the slope-area curve of the watersheds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped in four categories: size, shape, hypsometry and energy, with energy being the component that best explains the capability of a watershed to transport debris flows. However, the morphometric indicator was found to not sufficiently explain the records of past floods in the study area. Combining the morphometric indicator with land cover indicators improved the agreement, showing that even if morphometric parameters identify a high disposition to the occurrence of debris flow, improving land cover can reduce the susceptibility. On the contrary, if good morphometric conditions are present but deterioration of the land cover in the watershed takes place then the susceptibility to debris flow events increases.

  13. Current Evidence and Insights about Genetics in Thoracic Aorta Disease

    PubMed Central

    Muneretto, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also sporadic forms have been found to be potentially associated with genetic disorders, as highlighted by the analysis of rare variants and expression of specific microRNAs. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive review of the role of genetic causes in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms, by analyzing in detail the current evidence of genetic alterations in syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehler-Danlos, familial or sporadic forms, or forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve. PMID:24453931

  14. Morphometrics and adaptatives aspects in africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Oliveira; Brandeburgo; Marcolino

    2000-05-01

    The introduction of the African bees (Apis mellifera scutelata) in Brazil and their expansion in the American Continent created the opportunity to study the process of species adaptation in a new environment. In that process, within intra-specific variability, normalising selection can favour individuals that present a better adaptative morphology and they will constitute the most frequent type found in the population. To test that hypothesis morphometric analyses in samples of colonies of africanized bees and in samples of the populations were performed. The development of the colonies was also evaluated in terms of the amount of their brood, honey and pollen. Analysis of the data indicates that more developed colonies are formed by individuals closer to the population average with concerning morphological traits. PMID:10959115

  15. Statistical, Morphometric, Anatomical Shape Model (Atlas) of Calcaneus

    PubMed Central

    Melinska, Aleksandra U.; Romaszkiewicz, Patryk; Wagel, Justyna; Sasiadek, Marek; Iskander, D. Robert

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to develop a morphometric and anatomically accurate atlas (statistical shape model) of calcaneus. The model is based on 18 left foot and 18 right foot computed tomography studies of 28 male individuals aged from 17 to 62 years, with no known foot pathology. A procedure for automatic atlas included extraction and identification of common features, averaging feature position, obtaining mean geometry, mathematical shape description and variability analysis. Expert manual assistance was included for the model to fulfil the accuracy sought by medical professionals. The proposed for the first time statistical shape model of the calcaneus could be of value in many orthopaedic applications including providing support in diagnosing pathological lesions, pre-operative planning, classification and treatment of calcaneus fractures as well as for the development of future implant procedures. PMID:26270812

  16. Morphometric correlation of impulsivity in medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang Soo; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Aminian, Kelly; Ray, Nicola; Segura, Barbara; Obeso, Ignacio; Strafella, Antonio P

    2013-07-01

    Impulsivity is a complex behaviour composed of different domains encompassing behavioural dis-inhibition, risky decision-making and delay discounting abnormalities. To investigate regional brain correlates between levels of individual impulsivity and grey matter volume, we performed voxel-based morphometric correlation analysis in 34 young, healthy subjects using impulsivity scores measured with Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11 and computerized Kirby's delay discounting task. The VBM analysis showed that impulsivity appears to be reliant on a network of cortical (medial prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and subcortical (ventral striatum) structures emphasizing the importance of brain networks associated with reward related decision-making in daily life as morphological biomarkers for impulsivity in a normal healthy population. While our results in healthy volunteers may not directly extend to pathological conditions, they provide an insight into the mechanisms of impulsive behaviour in patients with abnormalities in prefrontal/frontal-striatal connections, such as in drug abuse, pathological gambling, ADHD and Parkinson's disease. PMID:23274773

  17. PTOV1: a novel testosterone-induced atherogenic gene in human aorta.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Y; Suzuki, T; Igarashi, K; Kanno, J; Furukawa, T; Tazawa, C; Fujishima, F; Miura, I; Ando, T; Moriyama, N; Moriya, T; Saito, H; Yamada, S; Sasano, H

    2006-08-01

    There are gender differences in the development of atherosclerosis, possibly owing to differences in sex steroid hormone action and/or metabolism. One of the atherogenic effects of testosterone is thought to be androgen receptor (AR)-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. However, the detailed mechanism of this effect, particularly the identity of the genes associated with VSMC proliferation, remains largely unknown. Therefore, we first employed microarray analysis and, subsequently, quantitative RT-PCR to analyse RNA expression in AR-positive human VSMCs treated with testosterone in order to detect testosterone-induced genes associated with cell proliferation. We further examined whether the genes identified were involved in cell proliferation using small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. Expression of the gene products was then evaluated in human aorta with various degrees of atherosclerosis in order to evaluate the clinical relevance of the findings. Both microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses demonstrated marked induction of the human prostate overexpressed protein 1 (PTOV1) gene by testosterone in the cell lines: this gene was recently identified as a novel androgen-induced gene involved in prostate tumour cell proliferation. Inhibition of PTOV1 by transfection of its corresponding siRNA suppressed testosterone-induced cell proliferation. In human aorta, PTOV1 immunoreactivity in the nuclei of neointimal VSMCs was abundantly detected in male aorta with mild atherosclerotic changes compared with female aorta or male aorta with severe atherosclerotic changes. These findings indicate that the PTOV1 gene is androgen-responsive in VSMCs and that it may play an important role in androgen-related atherogenesis in the human aorta, particularly early atherosclerosis in the male aorta, through regulating proliferation of neointimal VSMCs. PMID:16639697

  18. Selective inhibition of NADPH oxidase reverses the over contraction of diabetic rat aorta?

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Atif ur; Dugic, Elma; Benham, Chris; Lione, Lisa; Mackenzie, Louise S.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal vascular responsiveness in diabetes has been attributed to a number of changes in contractile pathways, affected in part by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been reported that NADPH oxidase (NOX) is increased in diabetic (streptozotocin treated; STZ) rat arteries; however the pharmacological agents used to inhibit NOX activity are known to be unsuitable for in vitro studies and have a high level of non-selectivity. Here we have used the highly selective NOX inhibitor VAS2870 in diabetic rat aorta and compared its effects with apocynin, SOD, and allopurinol on phenylephrine and U46619 induced contraction. Male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with 65mg/kg STZ and development of diabetes was confirmed by testing blood glucose levels. Rats were killed by CO2 asphyxiation, and the thoracic aorta removed and mounted in an organ bath under a tension of 1g. Diabetic rat aortas exhibit a greatly increased response to phenylephrine, which was reduced to a level consistent with control rat aorta by 10?5M VAS2870 and 150U/ml SOD. Incubation with VAS2870 led to an increase in normal rat aorta contraction, but led to a significant reduction in phenylephrine and U46619 induced tone in diabetic rat aorta, which indicates that ROS in diabetic rats directly contributes to these contractile responses. Apocynin and allopurinol had no effect on contraction in diabetic or normal rat aorta. This data is the first to show that selective inhibition of NOX reduces diabetic arterial contraction in direct comparison with inhibition of other known contributors of ROS. PMID:25460721

  19. Selective inhibition of NADPH oxidase reverses the over contraction of diabetic rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Atif Ur; Dugic, Elma; Benham, Chris; Lione, Lisa; Mackenzie, Louise S

    2013-12-11

    Abnormal vascular responsiveness in diabetes has been attributed to a number of changes in contractile pathways, affected in part by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been reported that NADPH oxidase (NOX) is increased in diabetic (streptozotocin treated; STZ) rat arteries; however the pharmacological agents used to inhibit NOX activity are known to be unsuitable for in vitro studies and have a high level of non-selectivity. Here we have used the highly selective NOX inhibitor VAS2870 in diabetic rat aorta and compared its effects with apocynin, SOD, and allopurinol on phenylephrine and U46619 induced contraction. Male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with 65mg/kg STZ and development of diabetes was confirmed by testing blood glucose levels. Rats were killed by CO2 asphyxiation, and the thoracic aorta removed and mounted in an organ bath under a tension of 1g. Diabetic rat aortas exhibit a greatly increased response to phenylephrine, which was reduced to a level consistent with control rat aorta by 10(-5)M VAS2870 and 150U/ml SOD. Incubation with VAS2870 led to an increase in normal rat aorta contraction, but led to a significant reduction in phenylephrine and U46619 induced tone in diabetic rat aorta, which indicates that ROS in diabetic rats directly contributes to these contractile responses. Apocynin and allopurinol had no effect on contraction in diabetic or normal rat aorta. This data is the first to show that selective inhibition of NOX reduces diabetic arterial contraction in direct comparison with inhibition of other known contributors of ROS. PMID:25460721

  20. Histological and genetic studies in patients with bicuspid aortic valve and ascending aorta complications†

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Calogera; Maresi, Emiliano; Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Candore, Giuseppina; Merlo, Daniele; Fattouch, Khalil; Bianco, Giuseppe; Ruvolo, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Aneurysm diameter and growing rate does not represent a definite parameter for operation in bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), ascending aortic aneurysm and normal root patients. Thus, we investigated histological and immunohistochemical aspects of different segments of ascending aorta (precisely, aortic root without dilatation, aneurysmatic tubular portion, dissected ascending aorta) and genetic features of patients with BAV and ascending aorta complication (aneurysm or dissection). METHODS Aorta tissue samples of 24 BAV patients were examined. The patients comprised of 18 men and 6 women; the mean age was 54.2 ± 14.3 years. All patients underwent composite aortic root replacement (button Bentall operation). Multiple histological sections were prepared from each aortic specimen. The evaluated features included elastic fibre fragmentation, cystic medial change, smooth muscle cell necrosis, medial fibrosis, and the markers of medial apoptosis and the metalloproteinases. Furthermore, genetic risk factors were also investigated. RESULTS The same medial degenerative lesions in tissue samples of different aorta segments (precisely of aortic root without dilatation, and aneurysmatic ascending aorta portion) were observed. More significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (−786T/C endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme, D/I angiotensin-converting enzyme, −1562C/T metalloproteinase-9 and −735C/T metalloproteinase-2) and aneurysm risk were detected in BAV patients than in controls. CONCLUSIONS Based on our histological and genetic data, we underline that a surgical approach in patients with BAV, ascending aortic aneurysm and normal root, should consider not only the diameter of the aneurysmatic aortic portion but also the histological features of the whole ascending aorta and the genetic risk profile. PMID:22194275

  1. Geometric morphometric analysis of mandibular shape diversity in Pan.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Chris

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this research is to determine whether geometric morphometric (GM) techniques can provide insights into how the shape of the mandibular corpus differs between bonobos and chimpanzees and to explore the potential implications of those results for our understanding of hominin evolution. We focused on this region of the mandible because of the relative frequency with which it has been recovered in the hominin fossil record. In addition, no previous study had explored in-depth three-dimensional (3D) mandibular corpus shape differences between adults of the two Pan species using geometric morphometrics. GM methods enable researchers to quantitatively analyze and visualize 3D shape changes in skeletal elements and provide an important compliment to traditional two-dimensional analyses. Eighteen mandibular landmarks were collected using a Microscribe 3DX portable digitizer. Specimen configurations were superimposed using Generalized Procrustes analysis and the projections of the fitted coordinates to tangent space were analyzed using multivariate statistics. The size-adjusted corpus shapes of Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes could be assigned to species with approximately 93% accuracy and the Procrustes distance between the two species was significant. Analyses of the residuals from a multivariate linear regression of the data on centroid size suggested that much of the shape difference between the species is size-related. Chimpanzee subspecies and a small sample of Australopithecus specimens could be correctly identified to taxon, at best, only 75% of the time, although the Procrustes distances between these taxa were significant. The shape of the mandibular symphysis was identified as especially useful in differentiating Pan species from one another. This suggests that this region of the mandible has the potential to be informative for taxonomic analyses of fossil hominoids, including hominins. The results also have implications for phylogenetic hypotheses of hominoid evolution. PMID:22682959

  2. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  3. [Morphometric variations of the rumen ciliate, Ophryoscolex purkynjei Stein, 1858 (Ciliophora: Entodiniomorphida) from cypriot domestic goats].

    PubMed

    Mermer, Ahmet; Göçmen, Bayram; Ciçek, Kerim; Ergen, Gürsel; Sezgin, Yavuz; Yildiz, Mehmet Z

    2006-01-01

    The species Ophryoscolex purkynjei and its four formae [O. p. f. purkynjei, O. p. f. bifidobicinctus, O. p. f. bicoronatus and O. p. f. tricoronatus] from the Cypriot domestic goats (Capra hircus) have been investigated from the viewpoint of the diagnostic morphometrical characteristics. Moreover, it was demonstrated that there was significant morphometrical variations among the same formae in different host animals. As the result of our investigation, it has been suggested that all of the morphometrical variations determined may originate from the individual physiological differences of the host animals (e.g. the other ciliate fauna, bacterial population, inter-specific antagonism etc.). PMID:17160863

  4. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuehai; Lu, Huixia; Huang, Ziyang; Lin, Huili; Lei, Zhenmin; Tang, Mengxiong; Gao, Fei; Dong, Mei; Li, Rongda; Lin, Ling

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • The spleen weights and glomerular areas were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • Expressions of IgG and C3 in glomeruli were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • IgG, C3 and macrophage infiltration in aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. - Abstract: Background: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup −/−}) mice is a classic model of atherosclerosis. We have found that ApoE{sup −/−} mice showed splenomegaly, higher titers of serum anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibody compared with C57B6/L (B6) mice. However, whether ApoE{sup −/−} mice show autoimmune injury remains unclear. Methods and results: Six females and six males in each group, ApoE{sup −/−}, Fas{sup −/−} and B6 mice, were used in this study. The titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein were measured by ELISA after 4 months of high-fat diet. The spleen weight and the glomerular area were determined. The expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in kidney and atherosclerotic plaque were detected by immunostaining followed by morphometric analysis. Similar to the characteristics of Fas{sup −/−} mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ApoE{sup −/−} mice, especially female, displayed significant increases of spleen weight and glomerular area when compared to B6 mice. Also, elevated titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein. Moreover, the expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in glomeruli and aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. In addition, the IgG and C3 expressions in glomeruli and plaques significantly increased (or a trend of increase) in female ApoE{sup −/−} mice compared with males. Conclusions: Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta.

  5. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... this kind of pain when they have a stomach virus, indigestion, gas, or when they become constipated. ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... size and can usually be diagnosed early in fetal development, typically between the tenth and fourteenth weeks of ... organs at the abdominal wall opening late in fetal development may also contribute to organ injury. Intestinal damage ...

  7. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: A ticking time bomb.

    PubMed

    Howell, Christopher M; Rabener, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a clinical challenge in risk assessment, recognition, treatment, and prevention. This article explores the pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of AAA. PMID:26840606

  8. Correlation between intra-abdominal pressure and pulmonary volumes after superior and inferior abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    de Cleva, Roberto; de Assumpção, Marianna Siqueira; Sasaya, Flavia; Chaves, Natalia Zuniaga; Santo, Marco Aurelio; Fló, Claudia; Lunardi, Adriana C.; Filho, Wilson Jacob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing abdominal surgery are at risk for pulmonary complications. The principal cause of postoperative pulmonary complications is a significant reduction in pulmonary volumes (FEV1 and FVC) to approximately 65-70% of the predicted value. Another frequent occurrence after abdominal surgery is increased intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study was to correlate changes in pulmonary volumes with the values of intra-abdominal pressure after abdominal surgery, according to the surgical incision in the abdomen (superior or inferior). METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 60 patients who underwent elective open abdominal surgery with a surgical time greater than 240 minutes. Patients were evaluated before surgery and on the 3rd postoperative day. Spirometry was assessed by maximal respiratory maneuvers and flow-volume curves. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured in the postoperative period using the bladder technique. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 56±13 years, and 41.6% 25 were female; 50 patients (83.3%) had malignant disease. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical incision (superior or inferior). The lung volumes in the preoperative period showed no abnormalities. After surgery, there was a significant reduction in both FEV1 (1.6±0.6 L) and FVC (2.0±0.7 L) with maintenance of FEV1/FVC of 0.8±0.2 in both groups. The maximum intra-abdominal pressure values were similar (p = 0.59) for the two groups. There was no association between pulmonary volumes and intra-abdominal pressure measured in any of the groups analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that superior and inferior abdominal surgery determines hypoventilation, unrelated to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Patients at high risk of pulmonary complications should receive respiratory care even if undergoing inferior abdominal surgery. PMID:25029580

  9. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    PubMed

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving a critical clinical condition of Polycompartment Syndrome. The monitoring of Abdominal Perfusion Pressure (APP) is more correct than the measurement of IAP because it reveals hydrodynamic alterations in the abdominal compartment. The APP (MAP-IAP) depends on arterial flow, venous outflow and capacity of the abdominal compartments response to increased internal volumes. The medical therapy used to decrease IAH and to contrast ACS is intestinal decompression with gastric and rectal tube; colonic endoscopic detention; correction of electrolytic abnormalities and prokinetic agents. Surgery, besides being decompressive and resolutive, must prevent a recurrence of ACS through the "tension-free closure" procedure. PMID:20476671

  10. Management of Postoperative Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Howard T

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative incisional pain is expected after surgery. However, when a patient is complaining of pain months after surgery, this can be a source of frustration and confusion to the patient and the surgeon. Whether the pain is a result of myofascial pain, incisional hernia, or nerve injury, understanding potential sources of abdominal wall pain can simplify this diagnostic dilemma. This chapter will focus on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of postsurgical abdominal wall pain. PMID:26512441

  11. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as immunodeficiency and prolonged antibacterial exposure. Therapy should focus on the obtainment of adequate source control and adequate use of antimicrobial therapy dictated by individual patient risk factors. Other critical issues remain debated and more controversies are still open mainly because of the limited number of randomized controlled trials. PMID:20302628

  12. Effect of rectal distension on abdominal girth.

    PubMed

    Marino, B; Ogliari, C; Basilisco, G

    2004-08-01

    It has been postulated that a viscerosomatic reflex activated by gut distension and inhibiting abdominal wall muscle tone may be one of the mechanisms underlying functional abdominal distension. Any demonstration of such a reflex has to take into account the fact that gut distension may increase abdominal girth as a result of volume displacement. As biomechanical and sensory rectal responses vary at different rates of rectal distension, we hypothesized that different rates of rectal distension might reveal different changes in abdominal girth. Abdominal girth was continuously recorded in 14 healthy subjects using a previously validated extensometer. The rectal distensions were made in a randomized order at rates of 100 mL min(-1) or 10 mL min(-1) up to 150 mL, and sham distensions were used as controls. An increase in abdominal girth was observed at the end of both distensions (P

  13. Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos, SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-10 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Conclusions: Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. PMID:26298655

  14. Genes and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hinterseher, Irene; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Since first candidate gene studies were published 20 years ago, nearly 100 genetic association studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biologically relevant genes have been reported on AAA. The studies investigated SNPs in genes of the extracellular matrix, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and signaling pathways. Very few studies were large enough to draw firm conclusions and very few results could be replicated in another sample set. The more recent unbiased approaches are family-based DNA linkage studies and genome-wide genetic association studies, which have the potential of identifying the genetic basis for AAA, if appropriately powered and well-characterized large AAA cohorts are used. SNPs associated with AAA have already been identified in these large multicenter studies. One significant association was of a variant in a gene called CNTN3 which is located on chromosome 3p12.3. Two follow-up studies, however, could not replicate the association. Two other SNPs, which are located on chromosome 9p21 and 9q33 were replicated in other samples. The two genes with the strongest supporting evidence of contribution to the genetic risk for AAA are the CDKN2BAS gene, also known as ANRIL, which encodes an antisense RNA that regulates expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival. Functional studies are now needed to establish the mechanisms by which these genes contribute to AAA pathogenesis. PMID:21146954

  15. Composition of proteoglycans in the aortas of copper-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnamurthy, B.; Ruiz, H.; Dalferes, E.R. Jr.; Klevay, L.M. ); Berenson, G. )

    1989-01-01

    Copper deficiency adversely affects the extracellular matrix of the arterial wall, leading to cardiovascular lesions. To study the lesions resulting from copper deficiency, the composition of proteoglycans from aortas of copper-deficient rats was compared with proteoglycans of aortas from copper-supplemented rats. Copper deficiency in rats was verified by copper levels in adrenal glands (mean {plus minus} SE, 0.37 {plus minus} 0.07 vs 1.03 {plus minus} 0.17 {mu}g/g wet wt in supplemented rats). Total uronate in the aortas from copper-deficient rats was 25% greater than in aortas from copper-supplemented rats, and the proteoglycans from copper-deficient rat aortas were of greater molecular size. Among the glycosaminoglycans the concentration ({mu}g/mg tissue) of isomeric chondroitin sulfates, particularly dermatan sulfate, was greater in copper-deficient animals than in copper-supplemented animals. These observations are similar to earlier findings in experimental atherosclerosis and to a response of cardiovascular connective tissue to injury.

  16. Polydimethylsiloxane embedded mouse aorta ex vivo perfusion model: proof-of-concept study focusing on atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueya; Wolf, Marc P.; Keel, Rahel Bänziger; Lehner, Roman; Hunziker, Patrick R.

    2012-07-01

    Existing mouse artery ex vivo perfusion models have utilized arteries such as carotid, uterine, and mesenteric arteries, but not the aorta. However, the aorta is the principal vessel analyzed for atherosclerosis studies in vivo. We have devised a mouse aorta ex vivo perfusion model that can bridge this gap. Aortas from apoE(-/-) mice are embedded in a transparent, gas-permeable, and elastic polymer matrix [polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)] and artificially perfused with cell culture medium under cell culture conditions. After 24 h of artificial ex vivo perfusion, no evidence of cellular apoptosis is detected. Utilizing a standard confocal microscope, it is possible to image specific receptor targeting of cells in atherosclerotic plaques during 24 h. Imaging motion artifacts are minimal due to the polymer matrix embedding. Re-embedding of the aorta enables tissue sectioning and immuno-histochemical analysis. The ex vivo data are validated by comparison with in vivo experiments. This model can save animal lives via production of multiple endpoints in a single experiment, is easy to apply, and enables straightforward comparability with pre-existing atherosclerosis in vivo data. It is suited to investigate atherosclerotic disease in particular and vascular biology in general.

  17. Effect of dopexamine hydrochloride on contractions of rabbit isolated aorta evoked by various agonists.

    PubMed

    Nedergaard, O A

    1994-01-01

    The inhibitory affinity of dopexamine hydrochloride to postsynaptic adrenoceptors, cholinoceptors, 5-hydroxytryptamine and histamine receptors was studied in rabbit isolated aorta. Dopexamine (10(-7)-10(-5) M) antagonized competitively the contractions of rabbit aorta evoked by noradrenaline (pA2: 6.60). Neither cocaine plus corticosterone nor cocaine, corticosterone plus propranolol altered the inhibition (pA2: 6.77 and 6.63, respectively). The antagonism of dopexamine against noradrenaline-evoked contractions was the same after 1 and 4 hr of pretreatment with dopexamine. In the presence of cocaine plus corticosterone, dopexamine antagonized the contractions evoked by phenylephrine (pA2: 6.94). Removal of endothelium did not influence this antagonism (pA2: 7.06). Dopexamine (10(-7)-10(-5) M) did not antagonize the contractions of aorta evoked by histamine (3 x 10(-7)-6 x 10(-5) M) and by 5-hydroxytryptamine (3 x 10(-7)-3 x 10(-4) M). Dopexamine (10(-8 and 10(-7) M) did not alter the contractions of endothelium-free aorta evoked by carbachol. Dopexamine (10(-7)-10(-5) M) slightly enhanced the contractions of aorta evoked by potassium (10(-2)-5.5 x 10(-2) M). These results suggest that dopexamine is an alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist. Furthermore, dopexamine has no affinity to cholinoceptors, histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT2) receptors and is apparently not a calcium antagonist. PMID:7909151

  18. [Videoendosurgical diagnosis and treatment of abdominal injuries in combined trauma].

    PubMed

    Sitnikov, V N; Cherkasov, M F; Litvinov, B I; Sarkisian, V A; Turbin, M V

    2006-01-01

    Experience with videolaparoscopy in 1332 patients with combined abdominal trauma is analyzed. The original method of diagnosis of traumatic abdominal multitraumas in shock patients was proposed and patented. Diagnostic and treatment algorithm for hemoperitoneum in patients with abdominal multitrauma based on USE or CT data on liquid in the abdominal cavity has been developed. Videolaparoscopy helped to avoid open surgery in 73.3% patients with dominating abdominal trauma. PMID:16883252

  19. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm diagnosed through non-contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chatra, Priyank S

    2013-01-01

    Rupture of an aneurysm is a rare complication although it is considered a common cause of death. Some of these patients present with the classic triad of symptoms such as abdominal pain, pulsatile abdominal mass and shock. Most symptoms are misleading and will only present as vague abdominal pain. Here we describe one such patient with an unusual presentation of a misleading abdominal mass which was eventually diagnosed as a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm after an emergency MRI. PMID:25003065

  20. FSI analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suito, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Kenji; Huynh, Viet Q. H.; Sze, Daniel; Ueda, Takuya

    2014-10-01

    We present a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of the blood flow and geometrical characteristics in the thoracic aorta. The FSI is handled with the sequentially-coupled arterial FSI technique. The fluid mechanics equations are solved with the ST-VMS method, which is the variational multiscale version of the deforming-spatial-domain/stabilized space-time (DSD/SST) method. We focus on the relationship between the centerline geometry of the aorta and the flow field, which influences the wall shear stress distribution. The centerlines of the aorta models we use in our analysis are extracted from the CT scans, and we assume a constant diameter. Torsion-free model geometries are generated by projecting the original centerline to its averaged plane of curvature. The flow fields for the original and projected geometries are compared to examine the influence of the torsion.

  1. Optical coherence tomography assessment of vessel wall degradation in aneurysmatic thoracic aortas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, Eusebio; Eguizabal, Alma; Pontón, Alejandro; Val-Bernal, J. Fernando; Mayorga, Marta; Revuelta, José M.; López-Higuera, José; Conde, Olga M.

    2013-06-01

    Optical coherence tomographic images of ascending thoracic human aortas from aneurysms exhibit disorders on the smooth muscle cell structure of the media layer of the aortic vessel as well as elastin degradation. Ex-vivo measurements of human samples provide results that correlate with pathologist diagnosis in aneurysmatic and control aortas. The observed disorders are studied as possible hallmarks for aneurysm diagnosis. To this end, the backscattering profile along the vessel thickness has been evaluated by fitting its decay against two different models, a third order polynomial fitting and an exponential fitting. The discontinuities present on the vessel wall on aneurysmatic aortas are slightly better identified with the exponential approach. Aneurysmatic aortic walls present uneven reflectivity decay when compared with healthy vessels. The fitting error has revealed as the most favorable indicator for aneurysm diagnosis as it provides a measure of how uniform is the decay along the vessel thickness.

  2. [Tension Hemothorax Associated with Spontaneous Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Yutarou; Sasa, Souichirou; Matsuoka, Hisashi; Hokimoto, Norihiro; Yamai, Hiromichi; Ohnishi, Kazuhisa; Tanida, Nobuyuki; Fujishima, Noriaki; Hamaguchi, Nobumasa; Ichikawa, Youichi; Tano, Kazutoshi

    2015-08-01

    A 94-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with sudden onset of chest pain without any episode of trauma. Computed tomography(CT) revealed left massive pleural effusion and extravasation of contrast medium from the side chest wall to the back. Neither aortic aneurysm nor dissection was evident. During the investigation, the patient went into hypovolemic shock. Hemothorax due to bleeding from an intercostal artery was diagnosed, and emergency surgery was performed. A 1-mm hole was detected in the descending aorta, and closed by a single suture. The final diagnosis was spontaneous rupture of the thoracic aorta. Three-dimensional CT (3D-CT), reconstructed postoperatively, revealed extravasation of the contrast medium from the descending aorta. The postoperative course was satisfactory, and the patient was discharged on the 20th postoperative day. 3D-CT may be useful for identifying the source of bleeding in such cases. PMID:26329715

  3. Geodesic Distance Algorithm for Extracting the Ascending Aorta from 3D CT Images.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yeonggul; Jung, Ho Yub; Hong, Youngtaek; Cho, Iksung; Shim, Hackjoon; Chang, Hyuk-Jae

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the automatic 3D segmentation of the ascending aorta from coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). The segmentation is performed in three steps. First, the initial seed points are selected by minimizing a newly proposed energy function across the Hough circles. Second, the ascending aorta is segmented by geodesic distance transformation. Third, the seed points are effectively transferred through the next axial slice by a novel transfer function. Experiments are performed using a database composed of 10 patients' CCTA images. For the experiment, the ground truths are annotated manually on the axial image slices by a medical expert. A comparative evaluation with state-of-the-art commercial aorta segmentation algorithms shows that our approach is computationally more efficient and accurate under the DSC (Dice Similarity Coefficient) measurements. PMID:26904151

  4. Geodesic Distance Algorithm for Extracting the Ascending Aorta from 3D CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeonggul; Jung, Ho Yub; Hong, Youngtaek; Cho, Iksung; Shim, Hackjoon; Chang, Hyuk-Jae

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the automatic 3D segmentation of the ascending aorta from coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). The segmentation is performed in three steps. First, the initial seed points are selected by minimizing a newly proposed energy function across the Hough circles. Second, the ascending aorta is segmented by geodesic distance transformation. Third, the seed points are effectively transferred through the next axial slice by a novel transfer function. Experiments are performed using a database composed of 10 patients' CCTA images. For the experiment, the ground truths are annotated manually on the axial image slices by a medical expert. A comparative evaluation with state-of-the-art commercial aorta segmentation algorithms shows that our approach is computationally more efficient and accurate under the DSC (Dice Similarity Coefficient) measurements. PMID:26904151

  5. A study on the influence of calcified intervertebral disk and aorta in determining bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Cherney, David D; Laymon, Michael S; McNitt, Amy; Yuly, Steve

    2002-01-01

    This study utilized dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to determine the association that age-related calcinosis of the aorta and intervertebral disks have in determining bone mineral density (BMD). Eight cadavers were chosen at random and were scanned with DXA before and after the removal of the aorta and intervertebral disks. Our results showed that the removal of sclerotic aortas decreased the vertebral BMD an average of 4.64% and the removal of two lumbar intervertebral disks further decreased BMD an average of 11.93%. These results were deemed significant at the 0.01 level using a Friedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks. It can be concluded that the presence of aortic arteriosclerotic lesions and intervertebral disk chondrocalcinosis add a significant contribution to BMD. PMID:12110763

  6. Concomitant reconstruction of infrarenal aorta and inferior vena cava after en bloc resection of retroperitoneal rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Cheema, Zulfiqar F; Davies, Mark G; Lumsden, Alan B; Reardon, Michael J

    2011-11-01

    Adult paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma (PRMS) with invasion of the retroperitoneum and involvement of the infrarenal aorta and inferior vena cava (IVC) is rare. We describe a 23-year-old male diagnosed with PRMS in 2008, previously treated with right orchiectomy, chemotherapy, and radiation, who presented with new onset of lower back pain. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a 4.8 × 4.2 cm mass involving both the infrarenal aorta and the IVC. We resected the tumor en bloc with in situ reconstruction of the aorta utilizing a Dacron graft and the IVC with a bovine pericardium roll graft. His postoperative period was uneventful, and he was discharged on postoperative day 6 in stable condition. At 2-month follow-up, the patient recovered well from the surgery, patent grafts on CT scan with no clinical signs of lower extremity ischemia or edema, and he continues to receive cycles of chemotherapy. PMID:21914678

  7. Clinical diagnosis of intra-abdominal infections.

    PubMed

    Emmi, V; Sganga, G

    2009-07-01

    Abdominal sepsis results in high morbidity and mortality. Intra-abdominal infectious complications are one of the most common infectious pathologies seen in critically ill patients. Approximately 30% of patients admitted to an ICU with intra-abdominal infection succumb to their illness, and when peritonitis arises as a complication of a previous surgical procedure, or recurs during ICU admission, mortality rates exceed 50%. Thus early detection and treatment are essential to minimize patient complications.Critically ill patients are often clinically unevaluable due to distracting injuries, respiratory failure, obtundation, or other pathology. even when patients can be examined, the clinical exam is frequently unreliable and/or misleading. the diagnostic approach to identifying abdominal problems will differ, depending upon the hemodynamic stability of the patient. Patients who have low systolic blood pressures, who are pressor-dependent, may be too unstable to undergo analyses that require trips away from the ICU or emergency department. intra-abdominal pathology may be detected by ultrasound or diagnostic peritoneal lavage. When critically ill patients are stable enough to undergo some diagnostic evaluation of their abdomen, the approach is somewhat simpler. Overall, computerized tomography (CT) is the imaging modality of choice for most intra-abdominal processes. for diagnosis of intra-abdominal conditions using CT scanning it is optimal if patients receive both oral and intravenous contrast. An exception to the use of CT scanning is evaluation of suspected biliary pathology, which is best imaged by ultrasound. it will identify calculous and acalculous cholecystitis and may show changes in the gallbladder or common bile duct associated with biliary obstruction. PMID:19622446

  8. Morphometric Identification of Queens, Workers and Intermediates in In Vitro Reared Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    A. De Souza, Daiana; Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; De Jong, David; V. Amdam, Gro; S. Gonçalves, Lionel; M. Francoy, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    In vitro rearing is an important and useful tool for honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) studies. However, it often results in intercastes between queens and workers, which are normally are not seen in hive-reared bees, except when larvae older than three days are grafted for queen rearing. Morphological classification (queen versus worker or intercastes) of bees produced by this method can be subjective and generally depends on size differences. Here, we propose an alternative method for caste classification of female honey bees reared in vitro, based on weight at emergence, ovariole number, spermatheca size and size and shape, and features of the head, mandible and basitarsus. Morphological measurements were made with both traditional morphometric and geometric morphometrics techniques. The classifications were performed by principal component analysis, using naturally developed queens and workers as controls. First, the analysis included all the characters. Subsequently, a new analysis was made without the information about ovariole number and spermatheca size. Geometric morphometrics was less dependent on ovariole number and spermatheca information for caste and intercaste identification. This is useful, since acquiring information concerning these reproductive structures requires time-consuming dissection and they are not accessible when abdomens have been removed for molecular assays or in dried specimens. Additionally, geometric morphometrics divided intercastes into more discrete phenotype subsets. We conclude that morphometric geometrics are superior to traditional morphometrics techniques for identification and classification of honey bee castes and intermediates. PMID:25894528

  9. Correlation of laser-Doppler-velocity measurements and endothelial cell shape in a stenosed dog aorta.

    PubMed

    Liepsch, D W; Levesque, M; Nerem, R M; Moravec, S T

    1988-01-01

    Laser-Doppler-velocity measurements were carried out in an elastic 1:1 true-to-scale silicone rubber model of a dog aorta with stenosis. The model was constructed from a cast of a severely stenosed dog aorta (71% of its area). The stenosis in the dog aorta was prepared by wrapping a cotton band around the aorta. This band was tightened until the presence of a thrill or a bruit was felt distal to the band. Twelve weeks later the animal was sacrificed and a cast was prepared from the aorta. From this vascular cast, the cross-sectional area was calculated. Endothelial cell geometry and orientation was studied using computerized analysis to determine the cell area and shape index. An elastic silicone rubber model was prepared from the cast to measure the velocity profiles and to estimate the local wall shear stress. Velocity measurements were done at steady and pulsatile flow using a Newtonian aqueous-glycerol solution and a non-Newtonian blood-like fluid. From those velocity measurements the velocity gradients near the wall were determined and the shear stress calculated. The flow distal to the stenosis separates from the wall at physiological conditions. The endothelial cells are smaller and more elongated in the throat; distal to the stenosis they are larger and rounder. The shape index distribution along the stenosed aorta is correlated with the level of wall shear stress. It is shown that even low changes in the wall shear stress have an influence on the orientation of the endothelial cells. PMID:2977525

  10. Blood flow in the rabbit aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Vincent, P E; Plata, A M; Hunt, A A E; Weinberg, P D; Sherwin, S J

    2011-12-01

    The distribution of atherosclerotic lesions within the rabbit vasculature, particularly within the descending thoracic aorta, has been mapped in numerous studies. The patchy nature of such lesions has been attributed to local variation in the pattern of blood flow. However, there have been few attempts to model and characterize the flow. In this study, a high-order continuous Galerkin finite-element method was used to simulate blood flow within a realistic representation of the rabbit aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta. The geometry, which was obtained from computed tomography of a resin corrosion cast, included all vessels originating from the aortic arch (followed to at least their second generation) and five pairs of intercostal arteries originating from the proximal descending thoracic aorta. The simulations showed that small geometrical undulations associated with the ductus arteriosus scar cause significant deviations in wall shear stress (WSS). This finding highlights the importance of geometrical accuracy when analysing WSS or related metrics. It was also observed that two Dean-type vortices form in the aortic arch and propagate down the descending thoracic aorta (along with an associated skewed axial velocity profile). This leads to the occurrence of axial streaks in WSS, similar in nature to the axial streaks of lipid deposition found in the descending aorta of cholesterol-fed rabbits. Finally, it was observed that WSS patterns within the vicinity of intercostal branch ostia depend not only on local flow features caused by the branches themselves, but also on larger-scale flow features within the descending aorta, which vary between branches at different locations. This result implies that disease and WSS patterns in the vicinity of intercostal ostia are best compared on a branch-by-branch basis. PMID:21593030

  11. Lipid Emulsion Attenuates Acetylcholine-Induced Relaxation in Isolated Rat Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Seong-Ho; Lee, Soo Hee; Yu, Jongsun; Park, Jungchul; Shin, Il-Woo; Lee, Youngju; Cho, Hyunhoo; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Baik, Jiseok; Hong, Jeong-Min; Han, Jeong Yeol; Lee, Heon Keun; Chung, Young-Kyun; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Lipofundin MCT/LCT and Intralipid on acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide- (NO-) mediated relaxation in rat aorta to determine which lipid emulsion (LE) is more potent in terms of inhibition of NO-induced relaxation. Dose-response curves of responses induced by acetylcholine, the calcium ionophore A23187, and sodium nitroprusside were generated using isolated rat aorta with or without LE. The effect of Lipofundin MCT/LCT on acetylcholine-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated using western blotting. Lipofundin MCT/LCT (0.1 and 0.2%) attenuated acetylcholine-induced relaxation in endothelium-intact aorta with or without tiron, whereas 0.2% Intralipid only inhibited relaxation. Lipofundin MCT/LCT inhibited relaxation induced by the calcium ionophore A23187 and sodium nitroprusside in endothelium-intact aorta, but Lipofundin MCT/LCT had no effect on sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation in the endothelium-denuded aorta. Combined pretreatment with l-arginine plus Lipofundin MCT/LCT increased acetylcholine-induced maximal relaxation in endothelium-intact aorta compared with Lipofundin MCT/LCT alone. l-Arginine attenuated Lipofundin MCT/LCT-mediated inhibition of acetylcholine-induced eNOS phosphorylation in HUVECs. Taken together, Lipofundin MCT/LCT attenuated acetylcholine-induced NO-mediated relaxation via an inhibitory effect on the endothelium including eNOS, which is proximal to activation of guanylyl cyclase. PMID:26273653

  12. Morphological analysis of the hagfish heart. I. The ventricle, the arterial connection and the ventral aorta.

    PubMed

    Icardo, José M; Colvee, Elvira; Schorno, Sarah; Lauriano, Eugenia R; Fudge, Douglas S; Glover, Chris N; Zaccone, Giacomo

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the heart in three species of hagfish: Myxine glutinosa, Eptatretus stoutii, and Eptatretus cirrhatus and report about the morphology of the ventricle, the arterial connection and the ventral aorta. On the whole, the hagfish heart lacks outflow tract components, the ventricle and atrium adopt a dorso-caudal rather than a ventro-dorsal relationship, and the sinus venosus opens into the left side of the atrium. This may indicate a "defective" cardiac looping during embryogenesis. The ventral aorta is elongated in M. glutinosa and E. stoutii but sac-like in E. cirrhatus. The ventricles are entirely trabeculated. The myocytes show a low myofibrillar content and junctional complexes formed by fascia adherens and desmosomes. Gap junctions could not be demonstrated. Myocardial cells in M. glutinosa contain numerous lipid droplets. These droplets are less numerous in E. stoutii and practically absent in E. cirrhatus, suggesting different metabolic requirements. Other cell types present in the ventricle are chromaffin cells and granular leukocytes that contain rod-shaped granules. The ventricle-aorta connection is guarded by a bicuspid valve with left and right, pocket-like leaflets. The leaflets extend from the cranial end of the ventricle into the aorta but the junction is asymmetrical. This junction contains a ganglion-like structure in E. cirrhatus. The ventral aorta shows endothelial, media, and adventitial layers. The media contains smooth muscle cells surrounded by dense bands formed by tightly-packed extracellular filaments. In addition, a short number of elastic fibers are observed in M. glutinosa and E. stoutii. Cellular and extracellular elements are more loosely organized in the aorta of E. cirrhatus. The collagenous adventitia contains ganglion-like cells in the three species. In the absence of nerves, chromaffin and ganglion-like cells may control the activity of the myocardium and that of the aortic smooth muscle cells, respectively. J. Morphol. 277:326-340, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26611522

  13. Morphometric analysis of sinkholes in a karst coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, A.; Bruno, E.; Parise, M.; Pepe, M.

    2012-04-01

    Salento, the southern portion of Apulia region (SE Italy) is a narrow and elongated peninsula in carbonate rocks, with prevailing low coastlines, locally interrupted by high rock cliffs. The long stretches of low coasts are marked by typical karst landforms consisting of collapse sinkholes. These are locally designated with the dialectal term "spunnulate" (deriving from the verb "spunnare", which means to break, to sink; PARISE et al., 2003). As observed in many other karst coastal settings worldwide (FORTH et al., 1999), development of sinkholes may be particularly severe along the coast, where both natural and anthropogenic processes contribute to accelerate the dissolution of carbonate rocks and subsidence processes, influencing the coastline evolution. Following a previous study, where the main features of sinkholes at Torre Castiglione (Taranto province) were investigated and described, and a preliminary susceptibility map produced (BRUNO et al., 2008), in the present paper we perform a detailed morphometric analysis on the sample of identified sinkholes. The main morphometric parameters generally used for sinkhole characterization have been considered in this study: shape of the sinkhole, azimuth and length of major and minimum axes, depth, elongation ratio, distance from the shorelines. Each of them is described, both as individual parameter and in conjunction with the others, in the attempt to identify the main factors controlling development of sinkholes in the area, and their evolution as well. As regards this latter aspect, beside simple morphometry of the sample of sinkholes at Torre Castiglione, we also focused our attention on the likely relationships existing between distribution and shape of the sinkholes and the tectonic discontinuities. The role played by discontinuities in controlling both distribution and evolution of sinkholes has been pointed out by several authors (WHITE & WHITE, 1987; DENIZMAN, 2003; FLOREA, 2005). To investigate the matter, a three-stage analysis has been carried out in this study by means of: field measurements of the fractures bounding the sinkholes; field measurement of the long axes azimuth of the elongated sinkholes; comparison of the previously described sets with the strikes of the main regional geological structures. Eventually, the approach here presented may be applied in other karst coastal sinkhole-prone areas, to gain new knowledge on the genesis and evolution of coastal sinkholes, and to properly evaluate the hazard they pose to the anthropogenic environment.

  14. CT Findings of Ruptured Intramural Hematoma of the Aorta Extending Along the Pulmonary Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Sueyoshi, Eijun Sakamoto, Ichiro; Uetani, Masataka; Matsuoka, Yojiro; Suenaga, Etsuro

    2007-04-15

    Mediastinal hematoma extending along the pulmonary artery is a rare complication of Stanford type A classic (double-barreled) aortic dissection. Rupture from the posterior aspect of the aortic root penetrates the shared adventitia of the aorta and pulmonary artery. From this location, hematoma can spread along the adventitial planes of the pulmonary arteries out into the lungs. We report a case of ruptured intramural hematoma of the aorta (IMH) extending along the pulmonary artery. To our knowledge, this finding in patients with IMH has not been reported in the literature.

  15. Thoracic aorta aneurysm open repair in heart transplant recipient; the anesthesiologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Fabrizio; Oriani, Alessandro; De Luca, Monica; Bignami, Elena; Sala, Alessandra; Chiesa, Roberto; Melissano, Germano; Zangrillo, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Many years following transplantation, heart transplant recipients may require noncardiac major surgeries. Anesthesia in such patients may be challenging due to physiological and pharmacological problems regarding allograft denervation and difficult immunosuppressive management. Massive hemorrhage, hypoperfusion, renal, respiratory failure, and infections are some of the most frequent complications related to thoracic aorta aneurysm repair. Understanding how to optimize hemodynamic and infectious risks may have a substantial impact on the outcome. This case report aims at discussing risk stratification and anesthetic management of a 54-year-old heart transplant female recipient, affected by Marfan syndrome, undergoing thoracic aorta aneurysm repair. PMID:26750703

  16. Immunostaining of macrophages, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in the atherosclerotic mouse aorta

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Prashanthi; Fisher, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The atherosclerotic mouse aorta consists of a heterogeneous population of cells, including macrophages, endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC), that play critical roles in cardiovascular disease. Identification of these vascular cells in the vessel wall is important to understanding their function in pathological conditions. Immunohistochemistry is an invaluable technique used to detect the presence of cells in different tissues. Here, we describe immunohistochemical techniques commonly used for the detection of the vascular cells in the atherosclerotic mouse aorta using cell specific markers. PMID:26445786

  17. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  18. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%-70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  19. Caveolin 1 is critical for abdominal aortic aneurysm formation induced by angiotensin II and inhibition of lysyl oxidase.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Takehiko; Crawford, Kevin J; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Elliott, Katherine J; Hashimoto, Tomoki; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2014-06-01

    Although AngII (angiotensin II) and its receptor AT1R (AngII type 1 receptor) have been implicated in AAA (abdominal aortic aneurysm) formation, the proximal signalling events primarily responsible for AAA formation remain uncertain. Caveolae are cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains that serve as a signalling platform to facilitate the temporal and spatial localization of signal transduction events, including those stimulated by AngII. Cav1 (caveolin 1)-enriched caveolae in vascular smooth muscle cells mediate ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17)-dependent EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) transactivation, which is linked to vascular remodelling induced by AngII. In the present study, we have tested our hypothesis that Cav1 plays a critical role for the development of AAA at least in part via its specific alteration of AngII signalling within caveolae. Cav1-/- mice and the control wild-type mice were co-infused with AngII and β-aminopropionitrile to induce AAA. We found that Cav1-/- mice with the co-infusion did not develop AAA compared with control mice in spite of hypertension. We found an increased expression of ADAM17 and enhanced phosphorylation of EGFR in AAA. These events were markedly attenuated in Cav1-/- aortas with the co-infusion. Furthermore, aortas from Cav1-/- mice with the co-infusion showed less endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses compared with aortas from control mice. Cav1 silencing in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells prevented AngII-induced ADAM17 induction and activation. In conclusion, Cav1 appears to play a critical role in the formation of AAA and associated endoplasmic reticulum/oxidative stress, presumably through the regulation of caveolae compartmentalized signals induced by AngII. PMID:24329494

  20. Caveolin-1 is critical for abdominal aortic aneurysm formation induced by angiotensin II and inhibition of lysyl oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Takayanagi, Takehiko; Crawford, Kevin J.; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Elliott, Katherine J.; Hashimoto, Tomoki; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Although angiotensin II (Ang II) and its receptor AT1 have been implicated in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation, the proximal signaling events primarily responsible for AAA formation remain uncertain. Caveolae are cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains that serve as a signaling platform to facilitate the temporal and spatial localization of signal transduction events including those stimulated by Ang II. Caveolin-1 (Cav1) enriched caveolae in vascular smooth muscle cells mediate ADAM17-dependent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation, which is linked to vascular remodeling induced by Ang II. Here, we have tested our hypothesis that Cav1 plays a critical role for development of AAA at least in part via its specific alteration of Ang II signaling within caveolae. Cav1−/− mice and the control wild-type mice were co-infused with Ang II and β-aminopropionitrile to induce AAA. We found that Cav1−/− mice with the co-infusion did not develop AAA compared to control mice in spite of hypertension. We found an increased expression of ADAM17 and enhanced phosphorylation of EGFR in AAA. These events were markedly attenuated in Cav1−/− aortae with the co-infusion. Furthermore, Cav1−/− mice aortae with the co-infusion showed less endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses compared to aortae from control mice. Cav1 silencing in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells prevented Ang II-induced ADAM17 induction and activation. In conclusion, Cav1 appears to play a critical role in the formation of AAA and associated endoplasmic reticulum/oxidative stress presumably through the regulation of caveolae compartmentalized signals induced by Ang II. PMID:24329494

  1. An uncommon cause of visceral arterial embolism in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Ulenaers, M; Buchel, O C; Van Olmen, A; Moons, V; D'Haens, G; Christiaens, P

    2010-01-01

    We report on 2 cases of visceral arterial embolism presenting with acute abdominal pain. In neither patient a cause could be established on initial clinical, laboratory, echographic or radiological investigation. Both patients were subsequently found to have a mural thrombus in the thoracic aorta, with visceral arterial embolism. Each underwent a successful operative thrombectomy. Both patients had a normal underlying aortic intima at inspection. The first patient was a young male with no known diseases. He regularly used cannabis and tested positive on admission, an association not yet reported with aortic mural thrombus. He was found to have a slightly reduced protein C. The second patient was a middle aged man with non-insulin dependent diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, arterial hypertension and hyperthyroidism. He was found to have an underlying adenocarcinoma of the lung and received chemotherapy. He died due to his cancer, 4 months after first presentation. PMID:20458852

  2. Simultaneous Surgical Treatment of Type B Dissection Complicated With Visceral Malperfusion and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Role of Aortic Fenestration

    PubMed Central

    Filippone, Gianfranco; Ferro, Gabriele; Duranti, Cristiana; La Barbera, Gaetano; Talarico, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Aortic dissection occurs in about 5% of patients with coexistent abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA); combined type B dissection complicated with visceral malperfusion and AAA is an uncommon aortic emergency and patients presenting with complications of thoracic aortic dissection have a dismal prognosis related to difficulties in treatment strategies. Despite tremendous improvement of endovascular techniques, surgical aortic fenestration represents a quick, safe, and effective procedure able to restore flow in an otherwise malperfused aorta. This procedure has to be kept in mind because subsets of patients cannot be treated conventionally due to either prohibitive risk of aortic replacement, anatomic contraindication, or limitations of percutaneous procedures. Herein we report a case of a patient presenting with type B aortic dissection complicated by visceral malperfusion and AAA which was successfully treated simultaneously by open AAA repair and surgical fenestration. We focus on the mechanism of malperfusion and on the role of surgical fenestration. PMID:26798685

  3. Metabolism of arachidonic acid in 1 yr old New Zealand white (NZW) and watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit aortas

    SciTech Connect

    Pfister, S.L.; Schmitz, J.M.; Willerson, J.T.; Campbell, W.B.

    1986-03-01

    This study was designed to characterize the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) in normal and atherosclerotic aortas. Segments of aortas were obtained from 1 yr old NZW rabbits, and WHHL rabbits, a genetic model of athero-sclerosis resembling familial hypercholesterolemia. Aortas were incubated at 37/sup 0/C for 15 min with /sup 14/C-AA (5 x 10/sup -5/M) during stimulation by A23187. The media was extracted using octadecylsilica columns and resolved into metabolites by reverse-phase HPLC. Prostaglandins (PGs) were identified by comigration of /sup 14/C-metabolites with standards. The monoxygenated metabolites of AA (HETEs) were resolved by normal-phase HPLC, and their structures confirmed by GC-MS. In extracts from NZW and WHHL aortas, approximately 14% and 6% of the total radioactivity was converted to PGs and HETEs, respectively. The major PG produced by NZW and WHHL aortas was 6-keto PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ with lesser amounts of PGE/sub 2/. Similarly, NZW and WHHL aortas produced primarily 12- and 15-HETE with lesser amounts of 11-, 9-, 8-, and 5-HETE. There were no qualitative differences between NZW and WHHL aortas in PG and HETE production. Therefore, despite extensive atherosclerosis in aortas of WHHL rabbits, the vessels maintain the ability to synthesize PGs and HETEs.

  4. Establishment of ultrasound as a diagnostic aid in the referral of patients with abdominal pain in an emergency department – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Liv la Cour; Bækgaard, Emilie Stokholm; Istre, Per Grosen; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Larsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ultrasonography is a noninvasive, cheap, and fast way of assessing abdominal pain in an emergency department. Many physicians working in emergency departments do not have pre-existing ultrasound experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of first-year internship doctors to perform a reliable ultrasound examination on patients with abdominal pain in an emergency setting. Materials and methods This study took place in an emergency department in Denmark. Following a 1-day ultrasound introduction course, three doctors without prior ultrasound experience scanned 45 patients during a 2-month period. The applicability of the examinations was evaluated by subsequent control examination: computed tomography, operation, or ultrasound by a trained radiologist or gynecologist or, in cases where the patient was immediately discharged, by ultrasound image evaluation. Results In 14 out of 21 patients with a control examination, there was diagnostic agreement between the project ultrasound examination and the control. Image evaluation of all patients showed useful images of the gallbladder, kidneys, liver, abdominal aorta, and urinary bladder, but no useful images for either the pancreas or colon. Conclusion With only little formal training, it is possible for first-year internship doctors to correctly visualize some abdominal organs with ultrasonography. However, a longer study time frame, including more patients, and an ultrasound course specifically designed for the purpose of use in an emergency department, is needed to enhance the results. PMID:27147884

  5. Imaging vessel wall biology to predict outcome in abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Golestani, Reza; Razavian, Mahmoud; Nie, Lei; Zhang, Jiasheng; Jung, Jae-Joon; Ye, Yunpeng; de Roo, Michelle; Hilgerink, Koen; Liu, Chi; Robinson, Simon P.; Sadeghi, Mehran M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture risk is currently determined based on size and symptoms. This approach does not address the rupture risk associated with small aneurysms. Given the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in AAA weakening and rupture, we investigated the potential of MMP-targeted imaging for detection of aneurysm biology and prediction of outcome in a mouse model of AAA with spontaneous rupture. Methods and Results Fifteen week-old mice (n=66) were infused with angiotensin II for four weeks to induce AAA. Saline-infused mice (n=16) served as control. The surviving animals underwent in vivo MMP-targeted microSPECT/CT imaging, using RP805, a 99mTc-labeled MMP-specific tracer, followed by ex vivo planar imaging, morphometry and gene expression analysis. RP805 uptake in suprarenal aorta on microSPECT images was significantly higher in animals with AAA, as compared with angiotensin II-infused animals without AAA or control animals. CD68 expression and MMP activity were increased in AAA and significant correlations were noted between RP805 uptake and CD68 expression or MMP activity, but not aortic diameter. A group of angiotensin II-infused animals (n=24) were imaged at 1 week and were followed for an additional three weeks. RP805 uptake in suprarenal aorta at 1 week was significantly higher in mice that later developed rupture/AAA. Furthermore, tracer uptake at 1 week correlated with aortic diameter at 4 weeks. Conclusions MMP-targeted imaging reflects vessel wall inflammation and can predict future aortic expansion or rupture in murine AAA. If confirmed in humans, this may provide a new paradigm for AAA risk stratification. PMID:25550400

  6. Quantification of the migration and deformation of abdominal aortic aneurysm stent grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattes, Julian; Steingruber, Iris; Netzer, Michael; Fritscher, Karl; Kopf, Helmut; Jaschke, Werner; Schubert, Rainer

    2006-03-01

    The endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is a minimal invasive therapy which has been established during the past 15 years. A stent-graft is placed inside the aorta in order to cover the weakened regions of its wall. During a time interval of one or more years the stent-graft can migrate and deform with the risk of the occlusion of one of its limbs or of the rupture of the aneurysm. In this work we developed several strategies to quantify the migration and deformation in order to assess the risk coming with these movements and especially to characterize appearing complications by them. We calculated the rigid movement of the stent-graft and the aorta relative to the spinal canal. For this purpose, firstly, we rigidly registered the spinal canals, extracted for the different points in time, in order to establish a fixed reference system. All objects have been segmented first and surface points have been determined before applying a rigid and non-rigid point set registration algorithm. The change in the residual error after registration of the stent-graft with an increasing number of degrees of freedom indicates the amount of change in the stent-graft's morphology. We investigated a sample of 9. Two cases could be clearly distinguished by the quantified parameters: a high global migration and a strong reduction of the residual error after non-rigid registration. In both cases, strong complications have been detected by the examination of clinical experts but only by means of the images acquired one year later.

  7. Cell-Activation by Shear Stresses in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Sparks, Steven; Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2003-11-01

    Increasing experimental evidence indicates that low and oscillatory shear stresses promote proliferative, thrombotic, adhesive and inflammatory-mediated degenerative conditions throughout the wall of the aorta. These degenerative conditions have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of AAAs, a permanent, localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta. The purpose of this study is to measure both the magnitude and the duration of the shear stresses acting on both the arterial walls and on the blood cells inside AAAs, and to characterize their changes as the AAA enlarges. We conducted a parametric in-vitro study of the pulsatile blood flow in elastic models of AAAs while systematically varying the blood flow parameters, and the geometry of the aneurysm's bulging. The instantaneous flow characteristic inside the AAA was measured using DPIV at a sampling rate of 15 Hertz. A "cell-activation parameter" defined as the integral of the product of the magnitude of the shear stress and the time during which the stress acts was computed along each of the blood cell pathlines. The Lagrangian tracking of the blood cells shows that a large majority of them are subjected first to very high level of shear-induced "cell-activation" while later on they are entrained in regions of stasis where their residence time can increase up to several cardiac cycles. This cell-activation followed by the entrainment in low shear regions creates the optimal cell-adhesive and inflammatory-mediated degenerative conditions that are postulated to play an important role in the etiology and progressive enlargement of AAAs.

  8. Functional Morphometric Analysis of the Furcula in Mesozoic Birds

    PubMed Central

    Close, Roger A.; Rayfield, Emily J.

    2012-01-01

    The furcula displays enormous morphological and structural diversity. Acting as an important origin for flight muscles involved in the downstroke, the form of this element has been shown to vary with flight mode. This study seeks to clarify the strength of this form-function relationship through the use of eigenshape morphometric analysis coupled with recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs), including phylogenetic Flexible Discriminant Analysis (pFDA). Additionally, the morphospace derived from the furculae of extant birds is used to shed light on possible flight adaptations of Mesozoic fossil taxa. While broad conclusions of earlier work are supported (U-shaped furculae are associated with soaring, strong anteroposterior curvature with wing-propelled diving), correlations between form and function do not appear to be so clear-cut, likely due to the significantly larger dataset and wider spectrum of flight modes sampled here. Interclavicular angle is an even more powerful discriminator of flight mode than curvature, and is positively correlated with body size. With the exception of the close relatives of modern birds, the ornithuromorphs, Mesozoic taxa tend to occupy unique regions of morphospace, and thus may have either evolved unfamiliar flight styles or have arrived at similar styles through divergent musculoskeletal configurations. PMID:22666324

  9. Morphometric analysis of Andhale watershed, Taluka Mulshi, District Pune, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umrikar, Bhavana N.

    2016-03-01

    The morphometric analysis coupled with remote sensing and geographical information system techniques evaluates various valuable parameters for the watershed development plan of drought-prone Andhale watershed of Pune district, Maharashtra. The upper part of the watershed shows parallel-sub parallel and rectilinear drainage patterns indicative of structural control, whereas the lower part shows dendritic drainage pattern revealing the homogeneity in texture and lack of structural control. The elongated shape of this basin is indicated by values of form factor, circulatory ratio and elongation ratio. The mean bifurcation ratio is observed to be 4.65 indicating the watershed is less affected by structural disturbances, and drainage pattern is not much influenced by geological structures. The hypsometric integral obtained for Andhale watershed is 0.316 indicating maturity stage of the basin. The longitudinal profile depicts steep gradient at the origin but it gradually flattens out as the river erodes its base level. The high values of drainage density, stream frequency, infiltration number and drainage texture indicate that the study area is underlain by impermeable rocks responsible for high runoff. Thus, the results of this analysis would be useful in determining the effect of catchment characteristics such as size, shape, slope of the catchment on runoff vis-a-vis the scope for water harvesting.

  10. Achilles tendinosis – a morphometrical study in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rafael Duarte; Glazebrook, Mark Anthony; Campos, Vinicius Castro; Vasconcelos, Anilton Cesar

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the morphopathogenesis of Achilles tendinosis, using a rat model and presenting quantitative analysis of time-dependent histological changes. Thirty Wistar rats were used, randomly split in experimental and control groups. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to a treadmill running scheme. Five animals of each group were euthanized at four, eight and sixteen weeks. Achilles tendons were collected and processed routinely for histopath sections. Slides were stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin, Picrosirius Red, Alcian Blue, AgNOR, TUNEL and evaluated morphometrically. Cellular density decreased slightly along the time and was higher in the experimental group than in controls at fourth, eighth and sixteenth weeks. Fiber microtearing, percentual of reticular fibers and glycosaminoglycans content increased along the time and were higher in experimental group than in controls at all-time intervals. AgNOR labeling here interpreted as a marker of transcription activity was higher in the experimental groups than in controls at all-time intervals. Apoptotic cells were more frequent and diffusely distributed in tendinosis samples than in control groups. These results suggest that as mechanical overload is becoming chronic, cellular turnover and matrix deposition increases leading to tendinosis. The combination of staining techniques and morphometry used here to describe the evolution of lesions occurring in a rat model system has proved to be suited for the study of induced Achilles tendinosis. PMID:22076169

  11. Sexual dimorphism in tooth morphometrics: An evaluation of the parameters

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Abhishek; Kamath, Venkatesh V.; Satelur, Krishnanand; Rajkumar, Komali; Sundaram, Lavanya

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Sexual dimorphism refers to the variations in tooth size and shape between the sexes. The consistency of these variations is valuable in the identification of the sex of an individual in times of mass disaster when whole body parts get destroyed or are unavailable. There exist differences in the expression of these variables across races and regions. This study aims to tabulate and identify the variations in tooth measurements using standarized reference points in an attempt to establish parameters of sexual dimorphism. Materials and Methods: 100 individuals (50 of each sex) in the age group 19-23 years were assessed for standard morphometric parameters of the maxillary central incisor, canine, premolar and molar. Odontometric measurements of established parameters were recorded from impression casts of the maxillary jaws. The mesiodistal width (MDW), the bucco-ligual width (BLW), the crown length (CL) and the cervical angle (CA) were charted among the teeth. The consistency of the variations was statistically analyzed and a logistic regression table was prepared to identify the sex of the individual from the tooth measurements. Results and Conclusions: The BLW, MDW and CL reflected significant variations among all the teeth to be effective in establishing sexual dimorphism. CA as a parameter was inadequate across all the teeth. The permanent maxillary canine was the most important tooth to be reflective of the gender and statistically significant to be utilized for gender determination. PMID:27051219

  12. Morphometric variability in the Chagas' disease vector Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Harry, M

    1994-06-01

    Morphometric variability was studied in six domestic Venezuelan populations of the blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus Stal 1897 (Reduviidae, Triatominae) and in a sylvatic population identified as R. robustus Larrousse 1927. Evidence is here provided by both uni- and multifactorial analyses of extensive variation of morphological traits between the R. prolixus populations studied. Regardless the geographic or climatic environmental factor tested, none can be retained in a selective model accounting for the morphological variability observed. Moreover, the results failed to support any correlation between the morphological Mahalanobis' distances and geographical distances. The genetic relationships between these populations inferred from the present data, are more consistent with some demic structure, resulting from random genetic drift by founder effects, than with any alternative population genetic model. It is noteworthy that the range of variation of these morphological traits in R. prolixus includes the putative R. robustus population. Therefore, the species-specific status of R. robustus, at the very least the local Trujillo population studied, is questioned. In addition, a preliminary multifactorial analysis bearing on the three other Rhodnius relatives, R. pictipes Stal 1872, R. nasutus Stal 1859 and R. neglectus Lent 1954, confirmed the marked morphological differentiation of R. pictipes from all other species and showed a clear morphological differentiation of R. nasutus and R. neglectus both from one another and from R. prolixus. PMID:8080655

  13. Morphometric Analysis of Cranial Shape in Fossil and Recent Euprimates

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, C. Verity; Goswami, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of morphology allows for identification of subtle evolutionary patterns or convergences in anatomy that can aid ecological reconstructions of extinct taxa. This study explores diversity and convergence in cranial morphology across living and fossil primates using geometric morphometrics. 33 3D landmarks were gathered from 34 genera of euprimates (382 specimens), including the Eocene adapiforms Adapis and Leptadapis and Quaternary lemurs Archaeolemur, Palaeopropithecus, and Megaladapis. Landmark data was treated with Procrustes superimposition to remove all nonshape differences and then subjected to principal components analysis and linear discriminant function analysis. Haplorhines and strepsirrhines were well separated in morphospace along the major components of variation, largely reflecting differences in relative skull length and width and facial depth. Most adapiforms fell within or close to strepsirrhine space, while Quaternary lemurs deviated from extant strepsirrhines, either exploring new regions of morphospace or converging on haplorhines. Fossil taxa significantly increased the area of morphospace occupied by strepsirrhines. However, recent haplorhines showed significantly greater cranial disparity than strepsirrhines, even with the inclusion of the unusual Quaternary lemurs, demonstrating that differences in primate cranial disparity are likely real and not simply an artefact of recent megafaunal extinctions. PMID:22611497

  14. Morphometric Analysis of Recent Landslides in Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, N. F.; Araújo, J.; Silva, L. M.; Dourado, F.

    2012-12-01

    Landslides are the main processes controlling landscape evolution in many areas of southeastern Brazil. In January 2011, a catastrophic event took place in the Serra do Mar in Rio de Janeiro state, triggered by intense summer rainstorms and killing more than one thousand people. Although shallow translational landslides were the most frequent type, rotational landslides, rock falls and debris flows also took place. In some areas, debris flows were more than 7 km long dissecting the steep soil mantled hillslopes and the bare rocky surfaces developed over gneiss and granite bedrock. The main focus of this study is to investigate the topographic features that controlled the spatial distribution of landslides during the 2011 event. To address this question, some morphometric indexes were derived from a 5-m grid DEM of the D'Antas creek basin, located in the city of Nova Friburgo. The results obtained were compared with the landslide scar map from this event and suggest that there is a strong topographic control on the spatial distribution of landslides in this area.

  15. Morphometric techniques for orientation analysis of karst in northern Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, D.T.; Beck, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    Morphometric techniques for the analysis of karst landscape orientation data based on swallet catchment areas can be highly inadequate. The long axes of catchment areas may not coincide with structural control, especially in regions having very low relief. Better structural correlation was observed using multiply linear trend measurements of closed depressions rather than drainage basins. Trend analysis was performed on four areas, approximately 25 km/sup 2/ each, forming a sequence from the Suwannee River to the Cody Escarpment in northern Florida. This area is a karst plain, mantled by 12 to 25 meters of unconsolidated sands and clays. Structural control was examined by tabulating the azimuths of distinct linear trends as determined from depression shape based on 1:24,000 topographic maps. The topography was characterized by 1872 individual swallet catchment areas or 1457 closed depressions. The common geomorphic technique of analyzing orientation data in 10/sup 0/ increments beginning with O/sup 0/ may yield incorrect peak width and placement. To correctly detect all significant orientation peaks all possible combinations of peak width and placement must be tested. Fifty-five different plots were reviewed and tested for each area.

  16. Morphometric Changes of the Corpus Callosum in Congenital Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D. Louis; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Sartori, Giuseppe; Pietrini, Pietro; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender. There was no overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus callosum are in line with the well-described cross-modal functional and structural neuroplastic changes in congenital blindness. PMID:25255324

  17. Morphometric analysis of the Rio Apaporis Caiman (Reptilia, Crocodylia, Alligatoridae).

    PubMed

    Escobedo-Galván, Armando H; Velasco, Julián A; González-Maya, José F; Resetar, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis has been considered by several authors as an extreme of morphological variation within the Caiman crocodilus complex. Here, we evaluate its position in the Caiman crocodilus complex morphospace using morphological traits from head shape. We examined the holotype and seventeen paratypes of Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis Medem 1955 deposited at the Field Museum of Natural History. We performed multivariate morphometric analyses: principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA), based on 21 cranial traits of of C. c. apaporiensis, C. yacare and the C. crocodilus complex (C. c. chiapasius, C. c. fuscus andC. c. crocodilus). We find a notable separation of C.c. apaporiensis from C. yacare and C. crocodilus complex in the morphospace. We suggest that geographic isolation might have driven this morphological separation from the C. crocodilus complex, but further analysis are necessary to confirm whether these differences are related with genetic differentiation within the complex. In addition, we suggest that environmental heterogeneity might drive the evolution of independent lineages within the C. crocodilus complex. PMID:26701577

  18. Dietary wheaten bran in baboons: long-term effect on the morphology of the digestive tract and aorta, and on tissue mineral concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Kriek, N. P.; Sly, M. R.; du Bruyn, D. B.; de Klerk, W. A.; Renan, M. J.; Van Schalkwyk, D. J.; Van Rensburg, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    Two groups of 13 young baboons, each consisting of 8 males and 8 females, were fed on either high- or low-bran diets (based on wheat of either high or low extraction rate) for a period of 26 months. All animals grew well and remained in good condition throughout. Male (but not female) baboons on the high-bran diet had lower (p less than 0.05) concentrations of zinc in serum and bone, despite a low phytate: zinc molar ratio and a high intake of zinc. Particle-induced X-ray emission analysis showed there to be lower concentrations of calcium, copper, zinc, sulphur, potassium and nickel in the livers of baboons on the high-bran diet (P less than 0.005). Baboons on the low-bran diet passed smaller quantities of softer faeces, they had fewer nodules of lymphoid tissue in the distal portion of the colon (P less than 0.05), and within mucosal microherniations of their ileo-caecal valves the epithelial cells showed a greater tendency to squamous transformation (P less than 0.05). Mucosal microherniations of the ileo-caecal valves tended to be more frequent and larger in size (P less than 0.05) in animals of the low-bran group. Morphometrical studies did not reveal any differences in the general structural development of the digestive tract. The high-bran diet had no effect on serum cholesterol concentrations, nor on the incidence or severity of atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6284191

  19. [Abdominal splenosis: an often underdiagnosed entity].

    PubMed

    Vercher-Conejero, J L; Bello-Arqués, P; Pelegrí-Martínez, L; Hervás-Benito, I; Loaiza-Góngora, J L; Falgas-Lacueva, M; Ruiz-Llorca, C; Pérez-Velasco, R; Mateo-Navarro, A

    2011-01-01

    Splenosis is defined as the heterotopic autotransplantation of splenic tissue because of a ruptured spleen due to trauma or surgery. It is a benign and incidental finding, although imaging tests may sometimes orient toward malignancy simulating renal tumors, abdominal lymphomas, endometriosis, among other. We report the case of a 42-year old male in whom a MRI was performed after a study due to abdominal pain. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were observed in the abdomen, suggestive of lymphoproliferative disease. As an important background, splenectomy was carried out due to abdominal trauma at age 9. After several studies, it was decided to perform a (99m)Tc-labeled heat-damaged red blood cell scintigraphy that showed multiple pathological deposits distributed throughout the abdomen, and even the pelvis, being consistent with splenosis. PMID:20570413

  20. Intraabdominal Challenges Affecting Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Moffett, Jennifer Movassaghi; Gedalia, Uri; Xue, Amy Shengnan; Heller, Lior

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal wall defects may arise from trauma, infection, and prior abdominal surgeries, such as tumor resections. Although ideally reconstruction should be accomplished as soon as possible to restore the integrity and function of the abdominal wall, it is not always a viable option. A successful reconstruction must take into consideration the local environment of the defect, as well as the global condition of the patient. Therefore, it is imperative that a multidisciplinary team be involved to optimize the patient's care, particularly when a defect is complicated by a wound infection, an abscess, a fistula, or a neoplasm. Our goal in this article is to explore the challenges evoked by each of these special situations, and review the necessary steps for successful management. PMID:23372452

  1. Primary intra-abdominal synovial sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yzu-Jen; Wen, Shi-Chi; Chien, Shang-Tao; Sheu, Jin-Wen; Hsuea, Chao-Wen; Feng, Nan-Hsiung

    2006-10-01

    We report a case of primary intra-abdominal synovial sarcoma of the omentum in a 66-year-old man hospitalized for intermittent abdominal fullness for 1-2 months and tenesmus for 2 weeks. The patient had a palpable mass that was solid, hard and with well-defined thickness within his abdomen. A huge heterogeneous mass lesion over the middle abdomen that started from S2, S3 of the liver to the transverse colon was shown on abdominal computed tomography. The major cell types of the tissue mass were confirmed to be spindle and epithelial cells, which was consistent with biphasic synovial sarcoma according to pathologic and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:17098675

  2. Minimal Invasive Treatment of Abdominal Multiorgan Echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Tomuş, Claudiu; Zaharie, Florin; Mocan, Lucian; Bartoş, Dana; Zaharie, Roxana; Iancu, Cornel; Nadim, Al Hajjar

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a severe zoonosis, exerting a high economic and social impact through its numerous complications, leading to disabilities, even death. Because of technical developments, especially the increasing experience of surgeons, laparoscopic surgery has been extended so that it can be successfully applied to abdominal hydatid cysts. We present the case of a 16-year-old patient who came to our clinic for upper abdominal pain. The abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed 2 cyst-like tumors, with hydatid features: one affecting the eighth liver segment and the other located at the upper pole of the spleen. We performed the surgical intervention using a laparoscopic approach, with an uneventful postoperative follow-up and the patient was discharged home on postoperative day 4. The postoperative images at 6 and 12 months showed a decrease in size of the remnant cystic cavities. PMID:23438278

  3. Modified Multivisceral Transplant After Acute Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Nikeghbalian, Saman; Alaa Eldin, Ahmed; Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Kazemi, Kourosh; Shamsaeefar, Alireza; Gholami, Siavash; Malekhosseini, Seyed Ali

    2016-04-01

    A 50-year-old man sustained blunt abdominal trauma in a motor vehicle accident. He underwent exploratory laparotomy on the day of trauma, and severe bleeding from the base of the small bowel mesentery was controlled by mass ligation and through-and-through suturing. After transfer to our center, repeat exploratory laparotomy showed ischemic small intestine, ischemic right colon, and severe pancreatic trauma. The severely injured organs were excised including the entire small bowel, pancreas, spleen, stomach, and right hemicolon. The next day, a modified multivisceral transplant was performed including stomach, pancreaticoduodenal complex, and small bowel transplant. Postoperative complications included an intra-abdominal collection that was drained percutaneously with ultrasonographic guidance and severe rejection that was treated with anti-thymocyte globulin. In summary, for select patients who have severe abdominal trauma may be treated with acute multivisceral transplant. PMID:24918875

  4. [Blunt abdominal trauma caused by child abuse].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, R; Heiss, W H; Rauh, W

    1987-10-01

    We report about 3 boys under 4 years of age with abdominal blunt trauma following child abuse admitted to our clinic with different diagnoses. Common were fresh or older haematomas, burn wounds, for which the parents had no plausible explanation. The children had no skeletal or intracranial lesions, but they developed abdominal pain, which became worse in the absence of the parents. X-ray and the clinical course lead us to laparatomy. In all cases we found lesions of the intestines, especially near the duodenojejunal flexure, hepatoduodenal ligament, root of the mesentery, mesocolon and retroperitoneum, in one case a pancrease rupture. All these lesions were caused by child abuse. We want to point out the problem in the diagnosis of battered child syndrome, especially of the abdominal blunt trauma. PMID:3683408

  5. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal cysts in children].

    PubMed

    Józsa, Gergő; Mohay, Gabriella; Pintér, András; Vástyán, Attila

    2015-09-13

    19 children were diagnosed with abdominal cysts of different origin in the Surgical Unit of the Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Pécs, Hungary between 2010 and 2013. The authors discuss the details of representative cases of a parovarial cyst, an intestinal duplication, and an omental cyst with emphasis on the clinical symptoms, diagnostic tools, and surgical interventions. The authors conclude that abdominal cysts often cause mild symptoms only, and they are discovered accidentally by ultrasound imaging performed for other reasons. In some cases, the cyst can cause severe complaints or even acute abdomen requiring emergency surgery. Laporoscopy may be a valuable method both in diagnosis and surgical therapy. Abdominal CT or MRI are not required in the majority of the patients. PMID:26552027

  6. Bioprosthetic Mesh in Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesh materials have undergone a considerable evolution over the last several decades. There has been enhancement of biomechanical properties, improvement in manufacturing processes, and development of antiadhesive laminate synthetic meshes. The evolution of bioprosthetic mesh materials has markedly changed our indications and methods for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. The authors review the optimal properties of bioprosthetic mesh materials, their evolution over time, and their indications for use. The techniques to optimize outcomes are described using bioprosthetic mesh for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. Bioprosthetic mesh materials clearly have certain advantages over other implantable mesh materials in select indications. Appropriate patient selection and surgical technique are critical to the successful use of bioprosthetic materials for abdominal wall repair. PMID:23372454

  7. Abdominal Sarcoidosis May Mimic Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Gorkem, Umit; Gungor, Tayfun; Bas, Yılmaz; Togrul, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. It shows a great variety of clinical presentation, organ involvement, and disease progression. Lungs and lymphoid system are the most common sites involved with a frequency of 90% and 30%, respectively. Extrapulmonary involvement of sarcoidosis is reported in 30% of patients and abdomen is the most frequent site. Furthermore, peritoneal involvement is extremely rare in sarcoidosis. The case presented here described peritoneal manifestations of sarcoidosis without involvement of lungs. A 78-year-old woman possessing signs of malignancy on blood test and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging underwent laparatomy with a suspicion of ovarian malignancy. The macroscopic interpretation during surgery was peritoneal carcinomatosis. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, peritoneal biopsies, total omentectomy, and appendectomy were performed. Final histopathological result revealed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Clinicians must keep in mind that peritoneal sarcoidosis can mimic intra-abdominal malignancies. PMID:26558122

  8. Antioxidant effect of muscle relaxants (vecuronium, rocuronium) on the rabbit abdominal aortic endothelial damage induced by reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji Seon; Cho, Eun Sun; Kim, Dong Won; Jeong, Mi Ae

    2013-01-01

    Background Muscle relaxants induce vascular smooth muscle relaxation by inducing synthesis of the prostaglandins that influence vasomotor tone. However, the effects of muscle relaxants on endothelial cells and tissues following injury by reactive oxygen species (ROS) are unclear. We tested the effects of the muscle relaxants vecuronium and rocuronium on impaired acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation following induction of ROS in rabbit aorta in vitro. Methods Isolated rabbit abdominal aortic ring segments were pretreated with vecuronium or rocuronium at 10-4, 3 × 10-4, 10-3 or 3 × 10-3 M, with or without inhibitors of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (diethyldithiocarbamate; DETCA, 0.8 mM) or catalase (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole; 3AT, 50 mM). All groups of aortic rings were then exposed to ROS generated by electrolysis in the organ bath medium (Krebs-Henseleit solution). The effects of vecuronium and rocuronium on ROS-induced impairment of relaxation induced by ACh (10-6 M) were assessed. Results Aortic rings treated with vecuronium or rocuronium at 10-4, 3 × 10-4, 10-3 or 3 × 10-3 M preserved the capacity for ACh-induced endothelial relaxation following ROS exposure in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with DETCA partially inhibited the protective effects of vecuronium and rocuronium on ACh-induced relaxation (P < 0.001), but pretreatment with 3AT had no effect. Conclusions Muscle relaxants protected the endothelium in isolated rabbit abdominal aorta from free-radical injury in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that vecuronium and rocuronium may act as superoxide anion scavengers. PMID:24427462

  9. Protective effect of soybeans as protein source in the diet against cadmium-aorta redox and morphological alteration

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez Díaz, Matías F.F.; Acosta, Mariano; Mohamed, Fabián H.; Ferramola, Mariana L.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gimenez, María S.

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the effects of cadmium exposition on thoracic aorta redox status and morphology, and the putative protective effect of soybeans in the diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into 6 groups: 3 fed with a diet containing casein and 3 containing soybeans, as protein source. Within each protein group, one was given tap water (control) and the other two tap water containing 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, respectively, for two months. In rats fed with casein diet, 15 ppm of Cd induced an increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and of the catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, which were even higher with 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+}, in aorta. Also, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} exposure increased superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) activity; CAT, GPX, SOD, Nrf2 and metallothioneine II mRNA expressions and CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein levels, compared with control. Aorta endothelial and cytoplasmic alterations were observed. However, with the soybeans diet, 15 and 100 ppm of Cd{sup 2+} did not modify TBARS levels; CAT, GPX and Nrf2 mRNA expressions; CAT, GPx and NOX-2 protein; and the aorta morphology, compared with control. The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes and protects against morphological alterations induced, in a dose-dependent way, by Cd in aorta. - Highlights: • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} in drinking water induces oxidative stress in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} increases Nrf2, MT II and NOX2 expressions in aorta. • Under casein diet, 100 ppm Cd{sup 2+} induces morphological changes in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates the redox changes induced by Cd in rat aorta. • The soybean diet attenuates morphological alterations induced by Cd in rat aorta.

  10. Bupivacaine-induced Vasodilation Is Mediated by Decreased Calcium Sensitization in Isolated Endothelium-denuded Rat Aortas Precontracted with Phenylephrine

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Seong Ho; Bae, Sung Il; Kwon, Seong Chun; Park, Jung Chul; Kim, Woo Chan; Park, Kyeong Eon; Shin, Il Woo; Lee, Heon Keun; Chung, Young Kyun; Choi, Mun Jeoung

    2014-01-01

    Background A toxic dose of bupivacaine produces vasodilation in isolated aortas. The goal of this in vitro study was to investigate the cellular mechanism associated with bupivacaine-induced vasodilation in isolated endotheliumdenuded rat aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. Methods Isolated endothelium-denuded rat aortas were suspended for isometric tension recordings. The effects of nifedipine, verapamil, iberiotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, barium chloride, and glibenclamide on bupivacaine concentration-response curves were assessed in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. The effect of phenylephrine and KCl used for precontraction on bupivacaine-induced concentration-response curves was assessed. The effects of verapamil on phenylephrine concentration-response curves were assessed. The effects of bupivacaine on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and tension in aortas precontracted with phenylephrine were measured simultaneously with the acetoxymethyl ester of a fura-2-loaded aortic strip. Results Pretreatment with potassium channel inhibitors had no effect on bupivacaine-induced relaxation in the endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine, whereas verapamil or nifedipine attenuated bupivacaine-induced relaxation. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced relaxation was enhanced in the 100 mM KCl-induced precontracted aortas compared with the phenylephrine-induced precontracted aortas. Verapamil attenuated the phenylephrine-induced contraction. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced relaxation was higher than that of the bupivacaine-induced [Ca2+]i decrease in the aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that toxic-dose bupivacaine-induced vasodilation appears to be mediated by decreased calcium sensitization in endothelium-denuded aortas precontracted with phenylephrine. In addition, potassium channel inhibitors had no effect on bupivacaine-induced relaxation. Toxic-dose bupivacaine- induced vasodilation may be partially associated with the inhibitory effect of voltage-operated calcium channels. PMID:25031808

  11. CT diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, A.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Moore, A.V. Jr.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1984-08-01

    Abdominal computed tomography was performed in six patients with suspected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm but in whom an alternate clinical diagnosis was seriously considered. In each patient, a large aortic aneurysm was demonstrated in association with a retroperitoneal accumulation of high-density blood. The retroperitoneal blood was primarily confined to the extracapsular perinephric space. In four of the six patients, a focal area of the aortic wall was indistinct on the side of the retroperitoneal hemorrhage at the presumed site of rupture. Five of the six patients underwent emergency surgery, which confirmed the site of aneurysm, presence of rupture and the location of fresh retroperitoneal blood.

  12. Imaging for chronic abdominal pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mendelson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Summary Diagnostic imaging is often not indicated in chronic abdominal pain. In particular, undifferentiated abdominal pain is rarely an indication for a CT scan. CT scanning is overused even when imaging is required. Other modalities may be preferable. A normal CT scan does not rule out cancer. Alarm symptoms, including anaemia, blood in the stool, waking at night with gastrointestinal symptoms, and weight loss, should be investigated. The most appropriate modality depends on the symptoms. Clinical information on request forms for CT scans should be specific and include the suspected condition as this helps the radiologist to determine an appropriate imaging protocol. PMID:26648616

  13. Plain abdominal radiography in acute abdominal pain; past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Gans, Sarah L; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that a diagnosis based solely on a patient’s medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests is not reliable enough, despite the fact that these aspects are essential parts of the workup of a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. Traditionally, imaging workup starts with abdominal radiography. However, numerous studies have demonstrated low sensitivity and accuracy for plain abdominal radiography in the evaluation of acute abdominal pain as well as various specific diseases such as perforated viscus, bowel obstruction, ingested foreign body, and ureteral stones. Computed tomography, and in particular computed tomography after negative ultrasonography, provides a better workup than plain abdominal radiography alone. The benefits of computed tomography lie in decision-making for management, planning of a surgical strategy, and possibly even avoidance of negative laparotomies. Based on abundant available evidence, major advances in diagnostic imaging, and changes in the management of certain diseases, we can conclude that there is no place for plain abdominal radiography in the workup of adult patients with acute abdominal pain presenting in the emergency department in current practice. PMID:22807640

  14. In vitro effect of cholesterol on calcifying activity of vesicles isolated from rabbit aortas.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Howard H T

    2003-07-30

    It has been shown that vesicles play a key role in the onset mechanism of aortic calcification related to cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. This study using a rabbit model was conducted to determine whether cholesterol exerts a direct effect on vesicle's calcifiability. Inclusion of cholesterol in calcifying media stimulated ATP-initiated deposition of calcium in a dose-dependent manner by vesicles isolated from normal aortas using crude collagenase digestion. By contrast, cholesterol did not significantly affect ATP-promoted calcification if vesicles were isolated from atherosclerotic aortas. To determine whether high cholesterol levels in atherosclerotic vesicle preparations may have already maximized calcifying activity and therefore account for lack of the vesicle's response to the sterol, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to compare the cholesterol contents in control and atherosclerotic vesicles. The spectral patterns revealed higher levels of cholesterol in vesicle preparations from atherosclerotic aortas than those from normal aortas. Removal of extra-vesicular cholesterol micelles from atherosclerotic vesicles by a relatively low centrifugal force sensitized the vesicles to cholesterol stimulation causing a 2-fold increase in calcifying activity. Of various oxidized forms of cholesterol tested, 7-keto and 6-keto cholesterol enhanced the activity by 2-fold. Altogether, these observations suggest that cholesterol and especially its oxidized forms may induce aortic calcification by directly enhancing the vesicle's ability to calcify. PMID:12878324

  15. Epiaortic fat pad area: A novel index for the dimensions of the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Toufan, Mehrnoush; Pourafkari, Leili; Boudagh, Shabnam; Nader, Nader D

    2016-06-01

    We sought to investigate the possible association between the area of the epiaortic fat pad (EAFP) and dimensions of the ascending aorta. A total of 193 individuals underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) prospectively. The area of the EAFP was traced anterior to the aortic root and correlated with the diameter of the aorta. The mean area of the EAFP was 5.16 ± 2.28 cm(2) Absolute and indexed dimensions of the ascending aorta had a significant correlation with the area of the EAFP (p <0.001 for all). In a multivariate linear regression model, age >65 (p <0.001), body mass index >30 kg/m(2) (p = 0.02) and a history of hyperlipidemia (p = 0.003) were identified as independent predictors of the area for EAFP. In conclusion, both the absolute and indexed diameters of the ascending aorta at the different segments that directly come into contact with the EAFP linearly correlate with the area of the EAFP measured by TTE. PMID:27013643

  16. High level cross of the esophagus with the descending aorta in scoliosis: CT study

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Koji; Kikuno, Motoyuki; Hyodoh, Hideki

    1996-05-01

    The esophagus occasionally crosses the descending aorta at an unusually high level (3-5 cm inferior to the carina) in right-sided scoliosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mechanism of this finding. We prospectively evaluated thoracic CT scans in 30 patients with right-sided scoliosis. We assessed the alterations in the positions of the esophagus and the descending aorta by the thoracic deformity. The descending aorta followed the scoliotic curve of the spine in 26 (87%) patients. The esophagus followed the scoliotic curve of the spine in 14 (47%) patients and did not in 16 (53%). The anteroposterior diameter of the thorax in the former group was significantly smaller than that in the latter (p < 0.01). High level cross of both structures was identified in 14 (47%) patients, and all of them belonged to the group in which the esophagus did not follow the scoliotic curve of the spine. The unusual high level cross of the esophagus with the descending aorta occasionally seen in scoliosis is due to a difference in the positional alterations of the two structures resulting from the scoliosis. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  17. MRI of chronic posttraumatic false aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. [Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, E.H.; Webb, W.R.; Verrier, E.D.; Broaddus, C.; Gamsu, G.; Amparo, E.; Higgins, C.B.

    1984-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ideally suited to evaluation of the thoracic aorta because of its ability to demonstrate mediastinal vessels, depict blood flow, and produce direct sagittal images. The authors present a case in which MRI was used for diagnosis and postoperative follow-up in a patient with a posttraumatic aortic false aneurysm.

  18. Analysis of thoracic aorta hemodynamics using 3D particle tracking velocimetry and computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Diego; Gülan, Utku; Di Stefano, Antonietta; Ponzini, Raffaele; Lüthi, Beat; Holzner, Markus; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2014-09-22

    Parallel to the massive use of image-based computational hemodynamics to study the complex flow establishing in the human aorta, the need for suitable experimental techniques and ad hoc cases for the validation and benchmarking of numerical codes has grown more and more. Here we present a study where the 3D pulsatile flow in an anatomically realistic phantom of human ascending aorta is investigated both experimentally and computationally. The experimental study uses 3D particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to characterize the flow field in vitro, while finite volume method is applied to numerically solve the governing equations of motion in the same domain, under the same conditions. Our findings show that there is an excellent agreement between computational and measured flow fields during the forward flow phase, while the agreement is poorer during the reverse flow phase. In conclusion, here we demonstrate that 3D PTV is very suitable for a detailed study of complex unsteady flows as in aorta and for validating computational models of aortic hemodynamics. In a future step, it will be possible to take advantage from the ability of 3D PTV to evaluate velocity fluctuations and, for this reason, to gain further knowledge on the process of transition to turbulence occurring in the thoracic aorta. PMID:25017300

  19. Thymic artery: uncommon origin from proximal aortic arch or distal ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Raj, Benedict; Pillay, Minnie

    2015-01-01

    Internal thoracic and inferior thyroid arteries mainly supply the thymus. However, very few studies have been reported on the arterial variations of the thymus. The first author, a cardiac surgeon, happened upon a thymic artery arising from either proximal aortic arch or distal ascending aorta in a few cases during routine cardiac surgery in infants and neonates. Hence a study on the prevalence of the variant thymic artery during open heart surgery was contemplated, as knowledge of its presence could avoid its injury during surgical and diagnostic procedures of the region. The prevalence of the variant thymic artery was observed during 100 consecutive cardiac surgeries in infants and neonates. In addition to two branches from internal thoracic and inferior thyroid arteries, a thymic artery originating from the distal ascending aorta or proximal arch was found in 15 (15%) out of 100 patients who underwent open heart surgery for the correction of congenital heart defects. The artery took origin from the anterior surface of aorta, a little to the left. These were small arteries, single in origin, which started at right angles from the aorta and pierced the pericardium at its reflection, from visceral to parietal, to reach the posterior surface of the thymus where they divided into two branches, one for each lobe. Since this variant artery was present in 15% cases, being aware of its presence can help prevent troublesome bleeding during surgical thymectomy, and more importantly, during surgical and diagnostic interventions in the mediastinum. PMID:27086417

  20. Vasorelaxing effect in rat thoracic aorta caused by laurotetanine isolated from Litsea cubeba Persoon.

    PubMed

    Chen, W Y; Ko, F N; Wu, Y C; Lu, S T; Teng, C M

    1994-05-01

    The pharmacological effects of laurotetanine on rat isolated thoracic aorta were examined. The contraction of aortic rings caused by high potassium (60 mM) and cumulative concentrations of calcium (0.03-3 mM) was inhibited by 3-50 microM laurotetanine in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 19.8 +/- 3.6 microM (n = 6) in a 1 mM Ca2+ medium. The phenylephrine (3 microM)-induced contraction was also inhibited by laurotetranine. Its effect was more marked on the tonic contraction than on the phasic contraction and was not easily washed-out. On addition of laurotetanine during the tonic contraction, relaxation could also be observed. This relaxing effect was not antagonized by indomethacin (20 microM) and was still seen in denuded aorta or in the presence of nifedipine (1 microM). The caffeine (20 mM)-induced contraction was not affected by laurotetanine. cAMP and cGMP levels of aorta were not changed by laurotetanine. It is concluded that laurotetanine relaxed the rat thoracic aorta mainly by suppressing the Ca2+ influx through both voltage- and receptor-operated calcium channels. PMID:8083812