Sample records for abdominal aorta morphometric

  1. Effects of physical activity on blood pressure monitoring and morphometric parameters of the left ventricle and of the abdominal aorta in healthy elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Claudio; Lova, Raffaele Molino; Giannelli, Fabrizio; Papucci, Mario; Conti, Andrea A; Paternostro, Ferdinando; Contini, Massimo; Miniati, Benedetta; Gulisano, Massimo; Catini, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the effects of physical activity not only on morphometric left ventricular parameters, but also on the abdominal aorta diameter and on blood pressure, we enrolled 100 healthy subjects, 50 males and 50 females, aged between 63 and 91 years (mean 73.3 +/- s.d. 7.7), each divided into two subgroups, sedentary and non sedentary, come to our observation for a diagnostic screening. For each subject an Echography was performed, by using an Acuson 128XP10 apparatus, equipped with a 2 MHz phased array probe, both for the study of the heart and for the study of the abdominal aorta. Then, all the subjects underwent 24 hours blood pressure monitoring by using a P6 Delmar apparatus in order to get mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly related to physical activity (sedentary > non sedentary, P < 0.01), while systolic blood pressure was not; left ventricle and abdominal aorta diameters were both significantly related to sex (males > females, P < 0.001), but left ventricle diameter was significantly related to diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), while abdominal aorta diameter was significantly related to systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). Our data suggest that physical activity might be strongly recommended to control blood pressure. PMID:14974503

  2. Blunt trauma to the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Lock, J S; Huffman, A D; Johnson, R C

    1987-06-01

    This review of blunt trauma to the abdominal aorta is based on one case summary and 32 cases from the literature. Motor vehicle accidents caused about half of the reported cases. In 69% of the cases the diagnosis was made in the immediate or early period. Associated injuries were present in 71% of the cases. Most injuries occurred at the inferior mesenteric artery (33%) or the renal arteries (24%). Overall mortality was 27%. Lower extremity ischemia evident on physical examination may suggest the diagnosis. When blunt abdominal aortic injury is suspected without distal ischemia, aortography may be used to define or exclude the injury and further therapy. Only minimal intimal disruptions should be managed nonoperatively. PMID:3298665

  3. Histopathological reaction of the abdominal aorta wall to non-covered stents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rubio Bombonato; José Honório PALMA; José Augusto MARCONDES; Aury Nunes de MORAES; João Luiz da ROCHA; Márcio Rodrigo; Rodrigo Mezzalira; Enio Buffolo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the histopathological reaction of the abdominal aorta wall in pigs' renal arteries to the presence of non-covered stainless steel stents. Methods: The abdominal aorta of ten pigs (6 months old and weighing 86.6 kg on average) was histopathologically studied 100 days after the implant of stainless steel stents in the abdominal aorta, with one segment of the

  4. Effect of exercise on hemodynamic conditions in the abdominal aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Taylor; Thomas J. R. Hughes; Christopher K. Zarins; Calif Stanford

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The beneficial effect of exercise in the retardation of the progression of cardio- vascular disease is hypothesized to be caused, at least in part, by the elimination of adverse hemodynamic conditions, including flow recirculation and low wall shear stress. In vitro and in vivo investigations have provided qualitative and limited quantitative information on flow patterns in the abdominal aorta

  5. [Ultrasonic diagnosis in aneurysm of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Adolph, W; Dachselt, K

    1988-05-15

    The sonographic diagnostics of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta has obtained a high value on account of the high reliability and the rapid availability of the investigation in connection with the absolute safety of the method. Form, extension, calcification, haemodynamics, thrombosis and dissection of an aneurysm of the aorta can sonographically be demonstrated and measured by longitudinal and transversal sections. As non-invasive approach the ultrasound tomography in the order of the graduated diagnostic method stands before the computed tomography which is not always at once available and before the angiography which have their qualification in the case of a planned operative approach above all for the purpose of the exact topographic differentiation between suprarenal and infrarenal extension. PMID:3046158

  6. Finite Element Modeling of Three-Dimensional Pulsatile Flow in the Abdominal Aorta: Relevance to Atherosclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Taylor; Thomas J. R. Hughes; Christopher K. Zarins

    1998-01-01

    The infrarenal abdominal aorta is particularly prone to atherosclerotic plaque formation while the thoracic aorta is relatively resistant. Localized differences in hemodynamic conditions, including differences in velocity profiles, wall shear stress, and recirculation zones have been implicated in the differential localization of disease in the infrarenal aorta. A comprehensive computational framework was developed, utilizing a stabilized, time accurate, finite element

  7. An Abdominal Aorta Wall Extraction for Liver Cirrhosis Classification Using Ultrasonic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takaya; Fujita, Yusuke; Mitani, Yoshihiro; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Segawa, Makoto; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method to extract an abdominal aorta wall from an M-mode image. Furthermore, we propose the use of a Gaussian filter in order to improve image quality. The experimental results show that the Gaussian filter is effective in the abdominal aorta wall extraction.

  8. A stress-strain relation for a rat abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Demiray, H; Weizsäcker, H W; Pascale, K; Erbay, H A

    1988-01-01

    Assuming the arterial wall is homogeneous, incompressible, isotropic and elastic, a stress-strain relation has been presented for a rat's abdominal aorta. As an illustrating example, the problem of simultaneous inflation and the axial stretch of a cylindrical artery under physiological loading has been solved and then the material coefficients are determined by comparing theoretical results with the existing experiments. The result indicates that the maximum deviation between the theory and experiment for various pressure levels is 3.7% which seems to be a good approximation of theory to the experiments. The variation of circumferential stress and the incremental pressure modulus with inner pressure are also depicted in the work. PMID:3417689

  9. Anterior retroperitoneal rami: until now unnamed direct branches of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Turyna, R; Kachlik, D; Feyreisl, J; Stingl, J; Baca, V

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to gain a thorough knowledge of the topography and distribution of until now officially unnamed minute direct branches from abdominal aorta, stemming from its ventral and lateral aspects, supplying surrounding tissue, and to comprise it to the existing studies. The study was performed in fixed cadaverous material collected from India ink injections of abdominal aorta samples with large surrounding retroperitoneal tissue. The 25 samples were dissected under magnifying binocular glass, followed by graphic reconstruction; statistical analysis, and the study was preceded with detailed review of branches from abdominal aorta. For systematization of the segmental anatomy of the abdominal aorta and infrarenal segment of inferior vena cava, we defined three levels in this area. The retroperitoneal branches were most frequently situated simultaneously within all three predefined levels according to renal and inferior mesenteric arteries origin. There were 18% of retroperitoneal branches within Level 1, 39% within Level 2 and 43% within Level 3. They were branches not only from the abdominal aorta, but also from the testicular/ovarian artery, common iliac artery and in one case from the right accessory renal artery. Paired arrangement was recorded mainly cranially to the origin of inferior mesenteric artery, unpaired branches were more frequently found caudally. In conclusion, due to the terminological disunity of these arteries in the clinical literature and total absence in the anatomical literature, we propose to denominate them as anterior retroperitoneal branches of abdominal aorta (rami retroperitoneales anteriores aortae abdominalis). PMID:24634276

  10. Right intra lobar pulmonary sequestration with feeding artery arising from abdominal aorta: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fumimoto, Satoshi; Ochi, Kaoru; Ichihashi, Yoshio; Sato, Kiyoshi; Morita, Takuya; Hanaoka, Nobuharu; Katsumata, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is a rare congenital malformation. Right intra lobar PS with a feeding artery arising from the abdominal aorta is extremely rare. This case report describes a 30-year-old man with a history of mental deficiency and repeated pneumonia who was referred to our hospital for further work-up of PS. Three-dimensional enhanced computed tomography of the chest and aorta revealed right intra lobar PS with an aberrant systemic artery from the abdominal aorta. We resected the PS using lower lobectomy by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). The patient was discharged 10 days later without complications. PMID:26109198

  11. 3D Segmentation of Abdominal Aorta from CT-Scan and MR Images

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    3D Segmentation of Abdominal Aorta from CT-Scan and MR Images Anthony Adam Duquettea , Pierre of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) both from multi-slice MR and CT-scan examinations. It is a semi interface and aortic wall of AAAs. Our segmentation method works independently on MRI and CT-scan volumes

  12. Anterior cerebral artery aneurysm associated with multiple intracranial aneurysms and abdominal aorta aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yunghwan; Min, Hyung Ki

    2013-01-01

    We found multiple aneurysms in the intracranial arteries and abdominal aorta of an 87-year-old Korean female cadaver, whose cause of death was reported as "cholangiocarcinoma." An abdominal aortic aneurysm was observed in the infrarenal aorta, where the inferior mesenteric artery arose. The intracranial aneurysms were found in the A3 segment of the anterior cerebral artery and at the bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery. This case provides an example of the very rare association of peripheral intracranial aneurysms with an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Clinicians as well as anatomists should recognize the potential association between these two aneurysm types. PMID:24179699

  13. Impact of Age-Dependent Adventitia Inflammation on Structural Alteration of Abdominal Aorta in Hyperlipidemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Sumiharu; Tsuruda, Toshihiro; Hatakeyama, Kinta; Imamura, Takuroh; Asada, Yujiro; Kitamura, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Background The adventitia is suggested to contribute to vascular remodeling; however, the site-selective inflammatory responses in association with the development of atherosclerosis remain to be elucidated. Methods and Results Wild-type or apolipoprotein E knockout male C57BL/6J background mice were fed standard chow for 16, 32, and 52 weeks, and the morphology of the aortic arch, descending aorta, and abdominal aorta was compared. Atheromatous plaque formation progressed with age, particularly in the aortic arch and abdominal aorta but not in the descending aorta. In addition, we found that the numbers of macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and microvessels, assessed by anti-F4/80, CD3, and CD31 antibodies, were higher in the adventitia of the abdominal aorta at 52 weeks. These numbers were positively correlated with plaque formation, but negatively correlated with elastin content, resulting in the enlargement of the total vessel area. In aortic tissues, interleukin-6 levels increased in the atheromatous plaque with age, whereas the level of regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) increased with age, and compared with other sites, it was particularly distributed in inflammatory cells in the adventitia of the abdominal aorta. Conclusion This study suggests that adventitial inflammation contributes to the age-dependent structural alterations, and that the activation/inactivation of cytokines/chemokines is involved in the process. PMID:25153991

  14. Thoracic and abdominal aortas stiffen through unique extracellular matrix changes in intrauterine growth restricted fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Dodson, R Blair; Rozance, Paul J; Petrash, Carson C; Hunter, Kendall S; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2014-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a fetal complication of pregnancy epidemiologically linked to cardiovascular disease in the newborn later in life. However, the mechanism is poorly understood with very little research on the vascular structure and function during development in healthy and IUGR neonates. Previously, we found vascular remodeling and increased stiffness in the carotid and umbilical arteries, but here we examine the remodeling and biomechanics in the larger vessels more proximal to the heart. To study this question, thoracic and abdominal aortas were collected from a sheep model of placental insufficiency IUGR (PI-IUGR) due to exposure to elevated ambient temperatures. Aortas from control (n = 12) and PI-IUGR fetuses (n = 10) were analyzed for functional biomechanics and structural remodeling. PI-IUGR aortas had a significant increase in stiffness (P < 0.05), increased collagen content (P < 0.05), and decreased sulfated glycosaminoglycan content (P < 0.05). Our derived constitutive model from experimental data related increased stiffness to reorganization changes of increased alignment angle of collagen fibers and increased elastin (P < 0.05) in the thoracic aorta and increased concentration of collagen fibers in the abdominal aorta toward the circumferential direction verified through use of histological techniques. This fetal vascular remodeling in PI-IUGR may set the stage for possible altered growth and development and help to explain the pathophysiology of adult cardiovascular disease in previously IUGR individuals. PMID:24322609

  15. Adrenocortical function in patients with ruptured aneurysm of the abdominal aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Braams; H. P. F. Koppeschaar; H. D. W. M. van de Pavoordt; T. J. M. V. van Vroonhoven

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate adrenocortical function in patients with ruptured aneurysm of the abdominal aorta.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design: Prospective clinical investigation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting: Surgical intensive care unit in a university teaching hospital and intensive care unit in a general hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and participants: 54 patient with a documented rupture of the abdominal aorta.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Interventions: A short adrenocorti-cotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test was performed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements

  16. Multiple pseudoaneurysms of the aortic arch, right subclavian artery, and abdominal aorta in a patient with Behçet's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Okita; Motomi Ando; Kenji Minatoya; Soichiro Kitamura; Hiroshi Matsuo

    1998-01-01

    A 38-year-old man presented with 2 months' history of a hoarseness and aphthous stomatitis. Image diagnosis showed that he had saccular-type aneurysms of the aortic arch, right subclavian artery, and infrarenal abdominal aorta. Simultaneous total arch replacement, including reconstruction of the right subclavian artery and replacement of the infrarenal abdominal aorta, was performed. Pathologic specimen of each aneurysmal wall revealed

  17. Primary Self-Expandable Nitinol Stent Placement in Focal Lesions of Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta: Long Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Lastovickova, Jarmila, E-mail: jala@medicon.cz; Peregrin, Jan H. [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Czech Republic)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the technical and clinical success, safety and long term results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty/self-expandable nitinol stent placement of infrarenal abdominal aorta focal lesions. Materials and Methods. Eighteen patients underwent PTA of focal atherosclerotic occlusive disease of distal abdominal aorta. Two symptomatic occlusions and 16 stenoses in 10 male and 8 female patients (mean age 68.2 years) were treated with primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement. Results. Primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement was technically successful in all 18 procedures; clinical success was achieved in 100% of patients. No complications associated with the procedure occurred. During the 49.4 months of mean follow up (range 3-96, 4 months) all treated aortic segments remained patent. Conclusions. Endovascular treatment (primary self-expandable nitinol stent placement) of focal atherosclerotic lesions of distal abdominal aorta is a safe method with excellent primary technical and clinical success rates and favourable Long term results.

  18. An Animal-Specific FSI Model of the Abdominal Aorta in Anesthetized Mice.

    PubMed

    Trachet, Bram; Bols, Joris; Degroote, Joris; Verhegghe, Benedict; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Vierendeels, Jan; Segers, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Recent research has revealed that angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice can be related to medial ruptures occurring in the vicinity of abdominal side branches. Nevertheless a thorough understanding of the biomechanics near abdominal side branches in mice is lacking. In the current work we present a mouse-specific fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of the abdominal aorta in ApoE(-/-) mice that incorporates in vivo stresses. The aortic geometry was based on contrast-enhanced in vivo micro-CT images, while aortic flow boundary conditions and material model parameters were based on in vivo high-frequency ultrasound. Flow waveforms predicted by FSI simulations corresponded better to in vivo measurements than those from CFD simulations. Peak-systolic principal stresses at the inner and outer aortic wall were locally increased caudal to the celiac and left lateral to the celiac and mesenteric arteries. Interestingly, these were also the locations at which a tear in the tunica media had been observed in previous work on angiotensin II-infused mice. Our preliminary results therefore suggest that local biomechanics play an important role in the pathophysiology of branch-related ruptures in angiotensin-II infused mice. More elaborate follow-up research is needed to demonstrate the role of biomechanics and mechanobiology in a longitudinal setting. PMID:25824368

  19. Effects of hindlimb unweighting on the mechanical and structure properties of the rat abdominal aorta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, Anthony; Delp, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that hindlimb unweighting of rats, a model of microgravity, reduces evoked contractile tension of peripheral conduit arteries. It has been hypothesized that this diminished contractile tension is the result of alterations in the mechanical properties of these arteries (e.g., active and passive mechanics). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the reduced contractile force of the abdominal aorta from 2-wk hindlimb-unweighted (HU) rats results from a mechanical function deficit resulting from structural vascular alterations or material property changes. Aortas were isolated from control (C) and HU rats, and vasoconstrictor responses to norepinephrine (10(-9)-10(-4) M) and AVP (10(-9)-10(-5) M) were tested in vitro. In a second series of tests, the active and passive Cauchy stress-stretch relations were determined by incrementally increasing the uniaxial displacement of the aortic rings. Maximal Cauchy stress in response to norepinephrine and AVP were less in aortic rings from HU rats. The active Cauchy stress-stretch response indicated that, although maximum stress was lower in aortas from HU rats (C, 8.1 +/- 0.2 kPa; HU, 7.0 +/- 0.4 kPa), it was achieved at a similar hoop stretch. There were also no differences in the passive Cauchy stress-stretch response or the gross vascular morphology (e.g., medial cross-sectional area: C, 0.30 +/- 0.02 mm(2); HU, 0.32 +/- 0.01 mm(2)) between groups and no differences in resting or basal vascular tone at the displacement that elicits peak developed tension between groups (resting tension: C, 1.71 +/- 0.06 g; HU, 1.78 +/- 0.14 g). These results indicate that HU does not alter the functional mechanical properties of conduit arteries. However, the significantly lower active Cauchy stress of aortas from HU rats demonstrates a true contractile deficit in these arteries.

  20. Topiramate ameliorates abdominal aorta cross-clamping induced liver injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine C.; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Aydin, Ibrahim; Kirbas, Aynur; Yilmaz, Arif; Yuce, Suleyman; Gokce, Mehmet F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the liver occurs after a prolonged period of ischemia followed by restoration of hepatic blood perfusion. During the surgery of abdominal aorta, I/R injury causes damage to lower extremities and many organs, especially liver. The antioxidant and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) suppression effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported in several studies. We evaluated the potential protective effect of TPM on cellular damage in liver tissue during I/R injury. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, I/R, and I/R plus TPM (I/R + TPM) groups. Laparotomy without I/R injury was performed in the control group. After laparotomy, cross-ligation of infrarenal abdominal aorta was applied for 2 h in I/R groups that was followed by 2 h of reperfusion. TPM (100 mg/kg/day) was orally administrated to the animals in the I/R + TPM group for seven consecutive days before I/R procedure. Results: The I/R group's TNF-? and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were significantly higher than those of the control (P = 0.010; P = 0.002) and I/R + TPM groups (P = 0.010; P = 0.002, respectively). Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) levels of I/R group were higher than the control (P = 0.015) and I/R + TPM groups. I/R caused serious histopathological damage to liver tissue; however, TPM led to very low histopathological changes. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that TPM treatment prominently decreases the severity of liver I/R injury. TPM pretreatment may have preventive effects on liver injury via I/R during intra-abdominal surgery. PMID:25253365

  1. On constitutive descriptors of the biaxial mechanical behaviour of human abdominal aorta and aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Ferruzzi, J.; Vorp, D. A.; Humphrey, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) in older individuals can develop an aneurysm, which is of increasing concern in our ageing population. The structural integrity of the ageing aortic wall, and hence aneurysm, depends primarily on effective elastin and multiple families of oriented collagen fibres. In this paper, we show that a structurally motivated phenomenological ‘four-fibre family’ constitutive relation captures the biaxial mechanical behaviour of both the human AA, from ages less than 30 to over 60, and abdominal aortic aneurysms. Moreover, combining the statistical technique known as non-parametric bootstrap with a modal clustering method provides improved confidence intervals for estimated best-fit values of the eight associated constitutive parameters. It is suggested that this constitutive relation captures the well-known loss of structural integrity of elastic fibres owing to ageing and the development of abdominal aneurysms, and that it provides important insight needed to construct growth and remodelling models for aneurysms, which in turn promise to improve our ability to predict disease progression. PMID:20659928

  2. Analysis of axial prestretch in the abdominal aorta with reference to post mortem interval and degree of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Horny, Lukas; Adamek, Tomas; Kulvajtova, Marketa

    2014-05-01

    It is a well-known fact that the length of an artery in situ and the length of an excised artery differs. Retraction of blood vessels is usually observed. This prestretch plays an important role in arterial physiology. We have recently determined that the decrease of axial prestretch in the human abdominal aorta is so closely correlated with age that it is suitable for forensic applications (estimation of the age at time of death for cadavers of unknown identity). Since post mortem autolysis may affect the reliability of an estimate based on axial prestretch, the present study aims to detail analysis of the effect of post mortem time. The abdominal aorta is a prominent site of atherosclerotic changes (ATH), which may potentially affect longitudinal prestretch. Thus ATH was also involved in the analysis. Axial prestretch in the human abdominal aorta, post mortem interval (PMI), and the degree of ATH were documented in 365 regular autopsies. The data was first age adjusted to remove any supposed correlation with age. After the age adjustment of the sample, the correlation analysis showed no significant PMI effects on the prestretch in non-putrefied bodies. Analysis of the prestretch variance with respect to ATH suggested that ATH is not a suitable factor to explain the prestretch variability remaining after the age adjustment. It was concluded that, although atherosclerotic plaques may certainly change the biomechanics of arteries, they do not significantly affect the longitudinal prestretch in the human abdominal aorta. PMID:23676503

  3. Real-Time Intravascular Shear Stress in the Rabbit Abdominal Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Lisong; Yu, Hongyu; Dai, Wangde; Hale, Sharon L.; Kloner, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Fluid shear stress is intimately linked with the biological activities of vascular cells. A flexible microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensor was developed to assess spatial- and temporal-varying components of intravascular shear stress (ISS) in the abdominal aorta of adult New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. Real-time ISS (ISSreal-time) was analyzed in comparison with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for wall shear stress (WSS). Three-dimensional abdominal arterial geometry and mesh were created using the GAMBIT software. Simulation of arterial flow profiles was established by FLUENT. The Navier–Stokes equations were solved for non-Newtonian blood flow. The coaxial-wire-based MEMS sensor was deployed into the abdominal arteries of rabbits via a femoral artery cutdown. Based on the CFD analysis, the entrance length of the sensor on the coaxial wire (0.4 mm in diameter) was less than 10 mm. Three-dimensional fluoroscope and contrast dye allowed for visualization of the positions of the sensor and ratios of vessel to coaxial wire diameters. Doppler ultrasound provided the velocity profiles for the CFD boundary conditions. If the coaxial wire were positioned at the center of vessel, the CFD analysis revealed a mean ISS value of 31.1 with a systolic peak at 102.8 dyn · cm?2. The mean WSS was computed to be 10.1 dyn · cm?2 with a systolic peak at 33.2 dyn · cm?2, and the introduction of coaxial wire increased the mean WSS by 5.4 dyn · cm?2 and systolic peak by 18.0 dyn · cm?2. Experimentally, the mean ISS was 11.9 dyn · cm?2 with a systolic peak at 47.0 dyn · cm?2. The waveform of experimental ISS was similar to that of CFD solution with a 30.2% difference in mean and 8.9% in peak systolic shear stress. Despite the difference between CD and experimental results, the flexible coaxial-wire-based MEMS sensors provided a possibility to assess real-time ISS in the abdominal aorta of NZW rabbits. PMID:19527952

  4. Extra-anatomic Endovascular Repair of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with a Horseshoe Kidney Supplied by the Aneurysmal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge; Golpanian, Samuel; Yang, Jane K; Moreno, Enrique; Velazquez, Omaida C; Goldstein, Lee J; Chahwala, Veer

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by a horseshoe kidney (HSK, fused kidney) represents a unique challenge for repair. Renal arteries arising from the aneurysmal aorta can further complicate intervention. Reports exist describing the repair of these complex anatomies using fenestrated endografts, hybrid open repairs (debranching), and open aneurysmorrhaphy with preservation of renal circulation. We describe an extra-anatomic, fully endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a HSK partially supplied by a renal artery arising from the aneurysm. We successfully applied aortouni-iliac endografting, femorofemoral bypass, and retrograde renal artery perfusion via the contralateral femoral artery to exclude the abdominal aortic aneurysm and preserve circulation to the HSK. PMID:25770382

  5. Endovascular Repair of an Actively Hemorrhaging Stab Wound Injury to the Abdominal Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Qasim; Maleux, Geert, E-mail: geert.maleux@uz.kuleuven.ac.be; Heye, Sam [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology (Belgium); Fourneau, Inge [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Vascular Surgery (Belgium)

    2008-09-15

    Traumatic injury of the abdominal aorta is rare and potentially lethal (Yeh et al., J Vasc Surg 42(5):1007-1009, 2005; Chicos et al., Chirurgia (Bucur) 102(2):237-240, 2007) as it can result in major retroperitoneal hemorrhage, requiring an urgent open surgery. In case of concomitant bowel injury or other conditions of hostile abdomen, endovascular repair can be an alternative treatment. This case report deals with a 50-year-old man presenting at the emergency ward with three stab wounds: two in the abdomen and one in the chest. During explorative laparotomy, liver laceration and bowel perforation were repaired. One day later, abdominal CT-scan revealed an additional retroperitoneal hematoma associated with an aortic pseudoaneurysm, located anteriorly 3 cm above the aortic bifurcation. Because of the risk of graft infection, an endovascular repair of the aortic injury using a Gore excluder stent-graft was performed. Radiological and clinical follow-up revealed a gradual shrinkage of the pseudo-aneurysm and no sign of graft infection at two years' follow-up.

  6. A Case of Takayasu’s Arteritis with Total Occlusion of the Abdominal Aorta Treated Only with Oral Medication for More Than 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Jun; Seko, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Takayasu’s arteritis affects most commonly young women, often causing stenotic and occasionally dilated lesions of the medium-to-large-sized arteries with an acute inflammatory signs and symptoms. Here, we report a rare case of Takayasu’s arteritis with total occlusion of the abdominal aorta, which was successfully treated with medication alone and asymptomatic over 40 years. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed total occlusion of the abdominal aorta and stenosis of the right carotid artery. This is the first report of a very rare case of Takayasu’s arteritis, in which medical treatment only was successful against total occlusion of the abdominal aorta.

  7. Adalimumab ameliorates abdominal aorta cross clamping which induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Cure, Erkan; Cumhur Cure, Medine; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Aydin, Ibrahim; Kirbas, Aynur; Yilmaz, Arif; Yuce, Suleyman; Yücel, Ahmet Fikret

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of adalimumab (ADA) on cell damage in rat liver tissue during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of infrarenal abdominal aorta. Thirty male Wistar-albino rats were divided into three groups: control, I/R, and I/R+ADA, each group containing 10 animals. Laparotomy without I/R injury was performed in the control group animals. Laparotomy in the I/R group was followed by two hours of infrarenal abdominal aortic cross ligation and then two hours of reperfusion. ADA (50 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally as a single dose, to the I/R+ADA group, five days before I/R. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) (pg/mg protein) and nitric oxide (NO) (µmol/g protein) levels in the I/R group (430.8 ± 70.1, 8.0 ± 1.1, resp.) were significantly higher than those in the I/R+ADA group (338.0 ± 71.6, P = 0.006; 6.3 ± 1.2, P = 0.008) and the control group (345.5 ± 53.3, P = 0.008; 6.5 ± 1.5, P = 0.010, resp.). I/R causes severe histopathological injury to the liver tissue, but ADA leads to much less histopathological changes. ADA treatment significantly decreased the severity of liver I/R injury. ADA pretreatment may have protective effects on experimental liver injury. PMID:24551855

  8. Adalimumab Ameliorates Abdominal Aorta Cross Clamping Which Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cure, Erkan; Cumhur Cure, Medine; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Aydin, Ibrahim; Kirbas, Aynur; Yilmaz, Arif; Yuce, Suleyman; Yücel, Ahmet Fikret

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of adalimumab (ADA) on cell damage in rat liver tissue during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of infrarenal abdominal aorta. Thirty male Wistar-albino rats were divided into three groups: control, I/R, and I/R+ADA, each group containing 10 animals. Laparotomy without I/R injury was performed in the control group animals. Laparotomy in the I/R group was followed by two hours of infrarenal abdominal aortic cross ligation and then two hours of reperfusion. ADA (50?mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally as a single dose, to the I/R+ADA group, five days before I/R. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) (pg/mg protein) and nitric oxide (NO) (µmol/g protein) levels in the I/R group (430.8 ± 70.1, 8.0 ± 1.1, resp.) were significantly higher than those in the I/R+ADA group (338.0 ± 71.6, P = 0.006; 6.3 ± 1.2, P = 0.008) and the control group (345.5 ± 53.3, P = 0.008; 6.5 ± 1.5, P = 0.010, resp.). I/R causes severe histopathological injury to the liver tissue, but ADA leads to much less histopathological changes. ADA treatment significantly decreased the severity of liver I/R injury. ADA pretreatment may have protective effects on experimental liver injury. PMID:24551855

  9. In Vivo Quantification of Blood Flow and Wall Shear Stress in the Human Abdominal Aorta During Lower Limb Exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Taylor; Christopher P. Cheng; Leandro A. Espinosa; Beverly T. Tang; David Parker; Robert J. Herfkens

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques and a custom MR-compatible exercise bicycle were used to measure, in vivo, the effects of exercise on hemodynamic conditions in the abdominal aorta of eleven young, healthy subjects. Heart rate increased from 73±6.2 beats\\/min at rest to 110±8.8 beats\\/min during exercise (p p p p 2 at rest to 6.2±0.5 dyn\\/cm2 during exercise (p 2

  10. [Efficacy of emoxipine and mexidol in patients with chronic disorders of the digestive system and atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Dolgushina, A I

    2011-01-01

    The influence of emoxipine (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine hydrochloride) and mexidol (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine succinate) on the content of lipid peroxidation products in peripheral blood and the dynamics of clinical symptoms of gastrointestinal tract pathology has been studied in patients of middle and senile age with atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta. It is established that a two-week 3-hydroxypyridine derivatives leads to a decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation products. The administration of emoxipine led to the most pronounced control of pain. PMID:22379875

  11. Sigma1 receptor stimulation with fluvoxamine activates Akt–eNOS signaling in the thoracic aorta of ovariectomized rats with abdominal aortic banding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideaki Tagashira; Kohji Fukunaga

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the vasculoprotective effect of sigma-1 receptor stimulation with fluvoxamine on pressure overload hypertrophy-induced vascular injury in the thoracic aorta and defined mechanisms underlying that activity. Wistar rats underwent bilateral ovariectomy, and two weeks later were further treated with abdominal aortic stenosis. To confirm the vasculoprotective role of sigma-1 receptor signaling, we treated rats with

  12. The influence of atherosclerotic abdominal aorta on the shape of duplicated inferior vena cava: its potential clinical implications and vascular complications.

    PubMed

    Polguj, M; Majos, M; Topol, M; Majos, A; Stefa?czyk, L

    2014-11-01

    Duplication of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a congenital condition where there are 2 large vessels: right IVC (RIVC) and left IVC (LIVC) on both sides of the abdominal aorta. Here, we present 2 cases of duplicated inferior cava coexisting with rare morphology of left gonadal (ovarian/testicular) vein. Both were observed during multidetector 64-row computer tomography. In first case atherosclerotic, tortuous abdominal aorta models both inferior venae cavae. The shape of veins were more- (RIVC) and less-arcuate (LIVC). Two years ago, the patient had been diagnosed with pulmonary thromboembolism. In second case abdominal aortic aneurysm models both large veins. The RIVC has a highly right-arcuate shape, while the LIVC has a less left-arcade shape. Our observation would seem to be especially important, because the tortuous abdominal aorta changes the shape of both IVC, and may predispose them for thrombosis formation. The presented report precisely describes the topography and measurements of the vessels in the retroperitoneal area. The literature concerning this anomaly, potential clinical implications and vascular complications are reviewed and the possible practical aspects are discussed. A familiarity with the anatomy of the most common types of venous anomalies is crucial for all surgeons, urologists and oncologists to reduce the risk of severe haemorrhage during all abdominal procedures. PMID:25448915

  13. Vasorelaxant activities of Danhong injection and their differential effects on the rat abdominal aorta and mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Su, Xianming; Zhi, Xiaowen; Cui, Ting; Zheng, Qiaowei; Wang, Shixiang; Cao, Yongxiao; Cui, Changcong; Feng, Weiyi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found that Danhong injection (DHI), an extensively used herbal extract preparation in China, might be a powerful vasodilator. The aims of this study were to determine the vascular activity of DHI and its effects on arteries of different sizes. The results showed that DHI significantly inhibited rat-hindquarters and rabbit-ear vasoconstriction elicited by norepinephrine (NE) perfusion and markedly relaxed KCl-contracted and NE-contracted rat abdominal aortic and mesenteric artery rings. The endothelium made only a minor contribution to the vasorelaxant effect of DHI on artery segments. The vasorelaxant effect of DHI varied with the artery size, with larger arteries exhibiting a more sensitive and potent vasodilator response. DHI relaxed NE-induced vasoconstriction probably through inhibition of the intracellular Ca2+ release through the inositol triphosphate receptor system in the abdominal aorta and mesenteric artery, along with blockage of extracellular Ca2+ influx through the receptor-linked Ca2+ channels in the mesenteric artery. In addition, DHI completely relaxed KCl-induced contraction in both of the arteries, suggesting that inhibition of Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is involved in the vasorelaxant effect of DHI. This elucidation of the vascular effects of DHI and the underlying mechanisms could lead to improved clinical applications. PMID:25264751

  14. Dissection of the Abdominal Aorta in Blunt Trauma: Management by Percutaneous Stent Placement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helene Vernhet; Charles-Henri Marty-Ane; Alvian Lesnik; Regis Chircop; Olivier Serres-Cousine; Eric Picard; Henry Mary; Jean Paul Senac

    1997-01-01

    We implanted stents in three patients who had traumatic abdominal aortic dissections, complicated by right limb ischemia in one case. The circulating false channel extended to the left iliac artery in one case and to both iliac arteries in the last case. Diagnosis and radiological follow-up included ultrasound, computed tomography, and arteriography. Two patients were treated with Wallstents, one with

  15. [Detection of asymptomatic abdominal aorta in coronary disease patients having undergone coronarography].

    PubMed

    Hodara, M; Guérin, F; Bonithon-Kopp, C; Courbon, D; Richard, J L

    1995-01-01

    Detection of asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAAA) was studied in 780 patients whose coronary disease had been evolving for less than 2 years, who had undergone coronagraphy within the framework of the French ALAC Survey (Autres Localisations de l'Athérosclérose chez le Coronarien--other locations of atherosclerosis in coronary disease) and had an interpretable abdominal aortic echography. Clinical and echographic research detected 19 AAAA cases in 15 men and 4 women aged 53 to 77 years having at coronagraphy at least one stenosis > or = 70% on one of the 3 coronary trunks or > or = 50% on the commun trunk. Among the 577 coronary disease patients with at least one significant stenosis, the prevalence of AAAA was 3.3%. Seventeen aneurysms were missed at abdominal palpation. A subgroup of 458 patients aged 50 to 79 years had significant coronary stenosis without history of aortic surgery. There was no significant difference between the 19 AAAA cases and the 439 cases of coronary disease without aortic aneurysm, as regards risk factors, especially age, high blood pressure and tobacco consumption. On the other hand, the 19 AAAA cases had more diffused and more severe atherosclerotic lesions in the lower limbs and carotid arteries. Abdominal echography is essential for the detection of AAAA in patients with coronary disease. PMID:8586947

  16. Dissection of the Abdominal Aorta in Blunt Trauma: Management by Percutaneous Stent Placement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hélène Vernhet; Charles-Henri Marty-Ané; Alvian Lesnik; Régis Chircop; Olivier Serres-Cousiné; Eric Picard; Henry Mary; Jean Paul Senac

    1997-01-01

    We implanted stents in three patients who had traumatic abdominal aortic dissections, complicated by right limb ischemia\\u000a in one case. The circulating false channel extended to the left iliac artery in one case and to both iliac arteries in the\\u000a last case. Diagnosis and radiological follow-up included ultrasound, computed tomography, and arteriography. Two patients\\u000a were treated with Wallstents, one with

  17. Diagnostic Imaging of the Aortic Arch and ThoracoAbdominal Aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Simonetti; Giovanni Gandini; Gian Paolo Cornalba; Maria Carla Cassinis

    \\u000a Diagnostic imaging plays a key role in the accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of patients with thoraco-abdominal\\u000a aortic diseases. During the last years, advances in ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and trans-oesophageal\\u000a echocardiography have promoted new improvements in diagnosis. Multislice CT angiography (CTA) and MR angiography (MRA) have\\u000a worldwide replaced digital subtraction angiography in the preoperative assessment of

  18. [Hemodynamic and gasometric modifications during the anesthesia recovery period in patients undergoing ventilation after surgery of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Janvier, G; Winnock, S; Vallet, A; Dugrais, G; Stoiber, H; Mary, F; Dardel, E

    1989-01-01

    This study was carried out on 12 patients (mean age 61) in order to assess the oxygen consumption (VO2) in the post-operative stage of an elective surgical procedure (replacement of the abdominal aorta). Anesthesia was a combination of thiopentone, pancuronium bromide and high doses of droperidol and fentanyl. Patients were kept intubated and ventilated in the post-operative period. VO2 and other related metabolic parameters as well as hemodynamic parameters were measured every 45 minutes over a period of 5 hours. A VO2 increase (127%) related to the increase in body temperature was noted. Mean VO2 for all patients during the whole period was 170 +/- 13 ml.min-1.m-2 (range: 51-411 ml.min-1.m-2). Mean value of maximal VO2 was 240 +/- 21 ml.min-1.m-2 (range: 1471-411 ml.min-1.m-2). Large dose of droperidol are shown to limit VO2 increase. In patients with shivering, the maximal value of VO2 was found during shivering. The amount of droperidol administered during anesthesia was greater in patients without shivering. VO2 increase was due to a rise in tissular O2 extraction. Cardiac index was insufficiently increased (+ 9.4%) and a certain extent of myocardial inadaptability was suspected in relation with: high blood pressure, hypovolaemia and/or myocardial effect of anesthesia agents. PMID:2924187

  19. [Paraplegia and dissection of the abdominal aorta after closed trauma. Apropos of a case. Current review of the literature (1982-1993)].

    PubMed

    Solovei, G; Alame, A; Bardoux, J; Cart, P; Vix, J; Petit, J; Dion, J J; Ribere, R

    1994-05-01

    A case of dissection with thrombosis of the subrenal abdominal aorta after blunt trauma led to paraplegia and bilateral ischaemia of the lower limbs in addition to acute abdominal signs. A review of the recent literature (1982-1993) revealed 32 reported cases. The patients were predominantly male and most often victims of an automobile accident (18 cases) or crushing trauma (6 cases). The clinical picture associated diverse degrees of abdominal signs, ischaemia and sensorial-motor impairment of the lower limbs. The diagnosis was established immediately on D0 in only 18 cases, early on days 1 to 7 in 4 cases and was late (day 8 to day 30) in 5 cases or very late (beyond day 30) in 6 cases. The difficulty in immediate diagnosis was related to the absent or incomplete vascular symptomatology or the late onset of the first signs. When a lesion of the aorta was suspected, an arteriography, angioscanner or peroperative exploration led to diagnosis. Neurological signs were frequent (10 cases including 8 with paraplegia) and generally related to ischaemia of the peripheral nerves. They may lead to denate from the diagnosis of vascular lesions. Fractures of the intima (17 cases) was the most frequent aortic lesion which also involved fracture of the media in a number of cases. Dissection was associated in 7 cases and complete or partial thrombosis of the aorta in 7. False aneurysms observed in 6 cases are the usual pathological form in cases of late diagnosis. Nearly all of the lesions were subrenal. Damage to abdominal organs was frequently observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7989410

  20. Investigation of material modeling in fluid-structure interaction analysis of an idealized three-layered abdominal aorta: aneurysm initiation and fully developed aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Fatma Gulden; Kwon, Young W

    2015-03-01

    Different material models for an idealized three-layered abdominal aorta are compared using computational techniques to study aneurysm initiation and fully developed aneurysms. The computational model includes fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between the blood vessel and the blood. In order to model aneurysm initiation, the medial region was degenerated to mimic the medial loss occurring in the inception of an aneurysm. Various cases are considered in order to understand their effects on the initiation of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The layers of the blood vessel were modeled using either linear elastic materials or Mooney-Rivlin (otherwise known as hyperelastic) type materials. The degenerated medial region was also modeled in either linear elastic or hyperelastic-type materials and assumed to be in the shape of an arc with a thin width or a circular ring with different widths. The blood viscosity effect was also considered in the initiation mechanism. In addition, dynamic analysis of the blood vessel was performed without interaction with the blood flow by applying time-dependent pressure inside the lumen in a three-layered abdominal aorta. The stresses, strains, and displacements were compared for a healthy aorta, an initiated aneurysm and a fully developed aneurysm. The study shows that the material modeling of the vessel has a sizable effect on aneurysm initiation and fully developed aneurysms. Different material modeling of degeneration regions also affects the stress-strain response of aneurysm initiation. Additionally, the structural analysis without considering FSI (called noFSI) overestimates the peak von Mises stress by 52% at the interfaces of the layers. PMID:25624113

  1. [Curriculum vitae aortae].

    PubMed

    Solberg, S

    1998-12-10

    The Greek word aorta means lifter. The vessel was so termed because Aristotle, who first described it, assumed that the heart was lifted by/hanging in aorta. Leonardo da Vinci described the detailed anatomy of aorta. During the 17th century our present understanding of the aorta and the circulation of blood took form due to the descriptions given by William Harvey. The first known operation for abdominal aortic aneurysm was performed in London in 1817 by Sir Astley Cooper who ligated the infrarenal aorta above the aneurysm. Puncture with needles and application of electricity were later tried in order to induce thromboses in the aneurysm. In 1948 Albert Einstein was operated with wrapping of his abdominal aneurysm with cellophane. In 1955 he suffered rupture and died after having refused operation. In 1951 the first successful operation for abdominal aortic aneurysm was performed in Paris by Charles Dubost. With slight modifications, the same operative technique is used today. PMID:9914745

  2. Inhibition of intimal hyperplasia via local delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor cDNA nanoparticles in a rabbit model of restenosis induced by abdominal aorta balloon injury

    PubMed Central

    XIE, HONGZHI; YANG, JING; HAN, YECHEN; ZHU, XUEQING; FANG, QUAN

    2015-01-01

    In-stent restenosis (ISR) is one of the major factors affecting long-term outcomes of percutaneous coronary interventions. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been hypothesized to have a positive role in preventing ISR, however, this remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to assess whether nanoparticles can be used to deliver VEGF to injured arteries and whether this is beneficial in preventing restenosis. New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into a control group, an empty nanoparticles group and a VEGF nanoparticles group (n=6 in each group). Polylactic-polyglycolic acid VEGF nanoparticles were prepared using a phacoemulsification method. A rabbit model of restenosis was established following abdominal aorta balloon injury, and VEGF gene nanoparticles, empty nanoparticles or normal saline were delivered locally at the site of injury via a GENIE Catheter™ perfusion balloon. Intimal proliferation determination and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed at day 28 following arterial injury. Compared with the control and empty nanoparticle groups, the neointima area (0.49±0.09, 0.48±0.08 and 0.19±0.11 mm2, respectively; P<0.001) and proliferation index (0.32±0.03, 0.32±0.05 and 0.13±0.06, respectively; P<0.001) were significantly lower in the VEGF nanoparticles group. In addition, in the VEGF nanoparticles group, the immunoreactivity of ?-actin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were significantly lower (P?0.001), while the immunoreactivity of VEGF was higher (P=0.01). Therefore, the results revealed that local delivery of VEGF gene nanoparticles reduced intimal thickening and cell proliferation following abdominal aorta balloon injury in a rabbit model, demonstrating the efficacy of this therapy against restenosis. PMID:26170912

  3. Intimal sarcoma of the abdominal aorta and common iliac arteries presenting as epithelioid angiosarcoma of the skin: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Shogo; Hoshina, Katsuyuki; Oushik, Tets; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Fukayama, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Intimal sarcoma (IS) is the most common type of sarcoma of the aorta. IS tumor emboli can involve various organs, including the skin. However, a limited number of IS cases with an initial presentation of skin metastasis has been reported. Cutaneous metastasis as a form of epithelioid angiosarcoma (EAS) has not been well described. Herein, we present a 61-year-old Japanese man with an initial presentation of EAS of the skin, followed by multiple metastases to the skin as a form of EAS prior to detection of IS of the infrarenal aorta and common iliac arteries. In our case, the IS was CD31 and cytokeratin positive but did not express CD34 and factor VIII-related antigen. The EASs in our case exhibited diffuse CD31 expression, and focal factor VIII-related antigen and cytokeratin expression were observed throughout the tumor, including the neoplastic vascular structure; CD34 expression was not identifiable. IS metastasis to the skin has been documented as a form of angiosarcoma. However, IS metastasis has not been well described as a form of EAS. Our case could prove a morphological change from IS to EAS. Given the rarity of primary cutaneous EAS, it is recommended that primary sites other than the skin should be thoroughly investigated when EAS of the skin is encountered.

  4. Rupture of the abdominal aorta in a 13-year-old girl secondary to Behçet disease: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veysel Kutay; Cevat Yakut; Hasan Ekim

    2004-01-01

    Behçet disease is a multisystemic vasculitis of unknown origin. The vascular complications as a result of the disease are rare in the pediatric age group. We report a 13-year-old patient with vasculo–Behçet disease with a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm without a formerly known history of Behçet disease. Urgent aortoiliac bypass with a polytetrafluoroethylene graft was performed with success, and the

  5. Quantitative Estimates of the Variability of In Vivo Sonographic Measurements of the Mouse Aorta for Studies of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms and Related Arterial Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Uchechukwu K.; Perati, Prudhvidhar R.; Prins, Petra A.; Pham, Wellington; Liu, Zhouwen; Harrell, Frank E.; Linton, MacRae F.; Gore, John C.; Kon, Valentina; Fazio, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Burgeoning interest in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) has led to experimental strategies to elucidate the disease process and attain pharmacologic regression using the apolipoprotein E?/? (ApoE?/?) mouse model of angiotensin-induced AAAs and in vivo sonography. However, the variability of in vivo sonographic measurements of the mouse aorta has not been established. Thus, our purpose was to determine quantitative estimates of the variability of in vivo sonographic measurements of the mouse aorta as a guide for the design and assessment of studies focused on regression of AAAs and related arterial diseases. Methods We used Bland-Altman, locally weighted scatterplot-smoothing regression, and resampling (bootstrapping) methods for variability analyses of multiple in vivo short- and long-axis sonographic measurements of ApoE?/? mouse aortas. We measured distinct aortic sites in vivo at the baseline and after angiotensin-induced AAAs and ex vivo using digital calipers. Results We analyzed 236 data points from 10 male mice (14 weeks old; mean weight ± SD, 29.7 ± 1.6 g). Overall intramouse differences between short- and long-axis and in vivo and ex vivo measurements were 0.038 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.031–0.046) and 0.085 (95% CI, 0.062–0.109) mm, respectively. Intermouse differences in short-axis measurements were 0.047 (95% CI, 0.042–0.053), 0.049 (95% CI, 0.044–0.055), and 0.039 (95% CI, 0.036-0.042) mm for infrarenal, suprarenal, and thoracic measurements, respectively; differences in long-axis measurements were 0.054 (95% CI, 0.044–0.064), 0.029 (95% CI, 0.024–0.034), and 0.046 (95% CI, 0.037–0.054) mm. Bland-Altman and locally weighted scatterplot-smoothing analyses showed excellent agreement between measures with no variation in discrepancies vis-à-vis the target measurement. Conclusions These data establish previously undefined estimates of measurement variability relevant for in vivo sonographic studies of AAA regression in a commonly studied mouse model. PMID:21632991

  6. Antioxidant effects of methylprednisolone and hydrocortisone on the impairment of endothelium dependent relaxation induced by reactive oxygen species in rabbit abdominal aorta

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee Jong; Song, Hyun Hoo; Jeong, Mi Ae; Yeom, Jong Hoon; Kim, Dong Won

    2013-01-01

    Background The reperfusion following ischemia produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). We studied the influences of methylprednisolone (MPD) and hydrocortisone (CRT) on ROS effects using the endothelium of rabbit abdominal aorta. Methods Isolated rabbit aortic rings were suspended in an organ bath filled with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution. After precontraction with norepinephrine, changes in arterial tension were recorded following the cumulative administration of acetylcholine (ACh). The percentages of ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings before and after exposure to ROS, generated by electrolysis of K-H solution, were used as the control and experimental values, respectively. The aortic rings were pretreated with MPD or CRT at the same concentrations, and the effects of these agents were compared with the effects of ROS scavenger inhibitors: superoxide dismutase inhibitor, diethylthiocarbamate (DETCA), and the catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT). Results Both MPD and CRT maintained endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by ACh in a dose-related manner in spite of ROS attack. The restored ACh-induced relaxation of MPD and CRT group was not attenuated by pretreatment of 3AT and DETCA. Conclusions MPD and CRT preserve the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation against the attack of ROS, in a dose-related manner. Endothelial protection mechanisms of MPD and CRT may be not associated with hydrogen peroxide and superoxide scavenging. PMID:23372887

  7. Effect of ketorolac and diclofenac on the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by reactive oxygen species in rabbit abdominal aorta

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Yoon; Choi, Jin Hwa; Jeon, Woo Jae; Cheong, Mi Ae

    2010-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce lipid peroxidation and tissue damage in endothelium. We studied the influences of ketorolac and diclofenac on ROS effects using the endothelium of rabbit abdominal aorta. Methods Isolated rabbit aortic rings were suspended in an organ bath filled with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution bubbled with 5% CO2 and 95% O2 at 37.5?. After being stimulated to contract with phenylephrine (PE, 10-6 M), changes in arterial tension were recorded following the cumulative administration of acetylcholine (ACh, 3 × 10-8 to 10-6 M). The percentages of ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings before and after exposure to ROS, generated by electrolysis of K-H solution, were used as the control and experimental values, respectively. The aortic rings were pretreated with ketorolac or diclofenac at the same concentrations (10-5 M to 3 × 10-4 M), and the effects of these agents were compared with the effects of ROS scavengers: catalase, mannitol, sodium salicylate and deferoxamine and the catalase inhibitor, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3AT). Results Both ketorolac and diclofenac maintained endothlium-dependent relaxation induced by ACh in a dose-related manner inspite of ROS attack (P < 0.05 vs. control value). The 3AT pretreated ketorolac (3 × 10-3 M) group was decreased more significantly than un-pretreated ketorolac (P < 0.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that ketorlac and diclofenac preserve the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation against the attack of ROS, in a concentration-related manner. One of the endothelial protection mechanisms of ketorolac may be hydrogen peroxide scavenging. PMID:20877705

  8. Surgical Replacement of the Entire Aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LiZhong Sun; JunMing Zhu; RuiDong Qi

    \\u000a Simultaneous total aortic replacement that involves the aortic root, ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending thoracic aorta,\\u000a and abdominal aorta is the most complex surgical procedure in the field of aortic surgery. Due to involvement of multiple\\u000a vital organ systems, total replacement of the entire aorta is associated with substantial operative mortality and morbidity\\u000a rates. By rational protection of the vital

  9. STUDIES ON EXPERIMENTAL HYPERTENSION : IX. THE EFFECT ON BLOOD PRESSURE OF CONSTRICTION OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTA ABOVE AND BELOW THE SITE OF ORIGIN OF BOTH MAIN RENAL ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, H; Kahn, J R; Hanzal, R F

    1939-04-30

    Constriction of the aorta just above the origin of both main renal arteries invariably resulted in elevation of the carotid systolic and carotid mean pressure. The hypertension was not immediate, but developed in about the same time as after constriction of the main renal arteries (3). Constriction of the aorta just below the origin of both main renal arteries had no significant effect on the carotid systolic or carotid mean pressure. Since these results were first reported (1), Rytand (88, 89) has shown by an indirect method, namely, the demonstration of the development of cardiac hypertrophy, that hypertension in the upper part of the body can be produced in the rat by constriction of the aorta just above the origin of both main renal arteries. The immediate effect of constriction of the aorta either below or above the main renal arteries is a fall of blood pressure (femoral mean pressure) below the site of the clamp, the extent of the fall being directly dependent upon the degree of constriction of the aorta. Of particular interest is the eventual elevation of the femoral mean pressure above the normal in some animals with the aorta constricted or even occluded above the origin of the main renal arteries. This was most pronounced and persistent in those animals in which, in addition, the aorta below the origin of the renal arteries, and, in some animals, the main renal arteries, also were constricted. The most important factors which determined this elevation of blood pressure in the lower part of the body were probably increased flow of blood into the vascular bed below the clamp and peripheral vasoconstriction of renal and humoral origin, as in the case of the hypertension produced by constriction of the main renal arteries alone (2-86). Although elevation of the carotid systolic or carotid mean pressure occurred invariably within 24 to 48 hours after the constriction of the aorta above the site of origin of both main renal arteries, yet there was a tendency, after a variable period, for the elevated blood pressure to become lower or even to drop to the original level. Increased constriction, and finally occlusion of the aorta, above the origin of the main renal arteries, and even constriction or occlusion of the aorta below the renal arteries, in addition, failed to induce hypertension that persisted for a long time at a high level. In order to produce this effect, it was necessary to constrict the main renal arteries as well. The possible explanation of the failure of the hypertension to persist for a long time after constriction of the aorta alone, is that the initial ischemia of the kidneys disappeared due to the improvement of the blood flow through the kidneys as a result of (a) the increase of the natural accessory circulation to the kidneys; (b) the increased blood pressure above the site of the clamp and consequent increased flow of blood into the part of the aorta below the clamp; (c) increased pressure below the site of the clamp due, in great part, to peripheral vasoconstriction, and in part to the increased inflow of blood into the lower part of the body through the aorta and collateral channels. For the dog, this method is not necessary for the production of persistent hypertension. Constriction of the main renal arteries is easily performed and is effective for the production of generalized hypertension (2-11). However, constriction of the aorta in addition to constriction of the renal arteries results in greatly elevated persistent hypertension. Constriction of the aorta alone above the origin of the main renal arteries would be useful in the dog only for the production of relatively short periods of hypertension in the upper part of the body. For small animals it may be a more effective and useful method. In the dog, the only technical difficulty encountered was the erosion of the wall of the aorta by the clamp. This may not occur in small animals. In previous studies (2-11) that have dealt with the constriction of the main renal arteries, this accident rarely occurred. When the constriction of the

  10. "Lower Limbs Revascularization from Supraceliac and Thoracic Aorta".

    PubMed

    Wistuba, Mariel Riedemann; Alonso-Pérez, Manuel; Al-Sibbai, Amer Zanabili; González-Gay, Mario; Alvarez Marcos, Francisco; Camblor, Lino A; Llaneza-Coto, José Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Revascularization of femoral arteries from descending thoracic or supraceliac aorta is an uncommon procedure, in part because of the popularization of the technically easier extra-anatomic bypasses. However, using those aortic levels as the source of the bypass inflow is a useful alternative in selected patients with aortoiliac disease, with excellent results. We report long-term results in 4 patients with revascularization from thoracic aorta and another 2 cases from aorta at supraceliac level. This technique should be considered as a good alternative in patients with adverse abdominal conditions or with a severely diseased infrarenal aorta due to heavy calcification. PMID:25771745

  11. Morphometric analysis of aortic media in patients with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Bauer; Miralem Pasic; Rudolf Meyer; Nadine Goetze; Ulrike Bauer; Henryk Siniawski; Roland Hetzer

    2002-01-01

    Background. Patients with bicuspid aortic valves tend to develop dilatation of the ascending aorta. The aim of this study was to analyze whether or not there is any histologic difference in the aortic media of patients with a bicuspid aortic valve or a tricuspid aortic valve.Methods. A morphometric analysis of the wall of the ascending aorta was performed in 107

  12. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... abdominal tissues and organs. [ Top ] What is the abdominal cavity? The abdominal cavity is the internal area of the body between ... develop abdominal adhesions. 1 Surgery in the lower abdomen and pelvis, including bowel and gynecological operations, carries ...

  13. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Complicated by Intestinal Malrotation

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Jin; Ishida, Masaru; Kodama, Akio; Mii, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal malrotation (IM) is an anomaly of fetal intestinal rotation that usually presents in the first month of life; it is rare for malrotaion to present in adulthood. Furthermore, the presentation of IM in conjunction with Abdominal aortic aneurysm is extremely rare and may require consideration with respect to the surgical approach and exposure of the abdominal aorta. We herein report a case of an abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by intestinal malrotation. PMID:25848429

  14. Abdominal angina: an unusual presentation of Takayasu’s arteritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S C Chaudhary; A Gupta; D Himanshu; S P Verma; R Khanna; D K Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Takayasu’s arteritis (TA) is an idiopathic large vessel vasculitis of young adults that affects the aorta and its major branches. The authors hereby present a case of TA that presented with abdominal aorta thrombosis. She was put on low-molecular weight heparin, antiplatelets, corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide along with haematinics and was referred to Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery for further management.

  15. Phylogenetic signals in morphometric data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman MacLeod

    Although many of the goals and concepts of qualitative morphological analysis and morphometrics are similar, systematists have largely rejected the use of morphometric methods in phylogenetic analysis on a variety of grounds. This review finds that (1) the concepts of a cladistic character and a morphometric vari- able are essentially identical, (2) morphometric methods can be instrumental in discovering and

  16. Isolation and excision of murine aorta; a versatile technique in the study of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Nathan; Thompson, Allie; Mann, Adrien; Blomkalns, Andra L

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a broad term describing disease of the heart and/or blood vessels. The main blood vessel supplying the body with oxygenated blood is the aorta. The aorta may become affected in diseases such as atherosclerosis and aneurysm. Researchers investigating these diseases would benefit from direct observation of the aorta to characterize disease progression as well as to evaluate efficacy of potential therapeutics. The goal of this protocol is to describe proper isolation and excision of the aorta to aid investigators researching cardiovascular disease. Isolation and excision of the aorta allows investigators to look at gross morphometric changes as wells as allowing them to preserve and stain the tissue to look at histologic changes if desired. The aorta may be used for molecular studies to evaluate protein and gene expression to discover targets of interest and mechanisms of action. This technique is superior to imaging modalities as they have inherent limitations in technology and cost. Additionally, primary isolated cells from a freshly isolated and excised aorta can allowing researchers to perform further in situ and in vitro assays. The isolation and excision of the aorta has the limitation of having to sacrifice the animal however, in this case the benefits outweigh the harm as it is the most versatile technique in the study of aortic disease. PMID:25490214

  17. Morphometrics In Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferenc, Kovats

    1980-07-01

    Studying the breathing movements of human trurick and abdomen during inspiration and expiration, we obtained spatiotemporal informations. With morphometric drawings, it has been possible to build sculptures which reveal an accurate scientific object as well a work of art.

  18. Morphological studies of cultured swine aorta media expiants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Rossi; J. Alroy; S. Röthenmund

    1972-01-01

    Summary  Expiants obtained from the media of swine abdominal aortas, free of intimai cells and of vasa vasis, were cultivated in a\\u000a semisynthetic medium for various periods of time, up to 50 days. Under these conditions it was observed that some smooth muscle\\u000a cells, apparently independently from their location, undergo dedifferentiation, become rich in organelles, migrate and possibly\\u000a multiply. These cells,

  19. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Patient with Renal Transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M. [Specialist Registrar, Ulster Hospital (United Kingdom); Arya, N. [Specialist Registrar, Belfast City Hospital (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nityaarya@aol.com; Lee, B.; Hannon, R.J. [Regional Vascular and Endovascular Unit, Belfast City Hospital (United Kingdom); Loan, W. [Consultant Radiologist, Belfast City Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Soong, C.V. [Regional Vascular and Endovascular Unit, Belfast City Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    Patients with functioning renal transplant who develop abdominal aortic aneurysm can safely be treated with endovascular repair. Endovascular repair of aneurysm avoids renal ischemia associated with cross-clamping of aorta.

  20. [Individual selection of immunocorrector in surgical treatment of obliterating atherosclerosis of the aorta and its branches].

    PubMed

    Stasenko, A A; Nikul'nikov, P I; Vla?kov, H H

    2014-07-01

    The method for individual selection of immunocorrector in surgical treatment of patients, suffering obliterating atherosclerosis of abdominal aorta and its branches, was proposed. There were examined 69 patients, suffering affection of abdominal aorta and its branches. Inhibition of phagocytic function of neutrophils was observed; on background of activation of the oxygen-dependent metabolism; decompensation of the phagocytic cells function, not depending from the disease stage present. Introduction of the proposed method for the immunocorrector selection secures rising of the diagnosis accuracy and the immunotherapy efficacy. PMID:25252411

  1. BIOMECHANICS OF ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM

    PubMed Central

    Vorp, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a condition whereby the terminal aorta permanently dilates to dangerous proportions, risking rupture. The biomechanics of AAA has been studied with great interest since aneurysm rupture is a mechanical failure of the degenerated aortic wall and is a significant cause of death in developed countries. In this review article, the importance of considering the biomechanics of AAA is discussed, and then the history and the state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed - including investigations into the biomechanical behavior of AAA tissues, modeling AAA wall stress and factors which influence it, and the potential clinical utility of these estimates in predicting AAA rupture. PMID:17254589

  2. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to change position for additional pictures. • A lower GI series is an x-ray exam that is ... ultrasound. However, abdominal x rays, a lower gastrointestinal (GI) series, and computerized tomography (CT) scans can diagnose ...

  3. Seat belt aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Mohinder; Randhawa; James O. Menzoian

    1990-01-01

    This review of 11 cases of seat-belt associated blunt abdominal aortic trauma, includes nine cases reported in the literature and two new cases. Lap-type seat belts were the cause of this injury in eight of the 11 patients (73%). Clinical presentation was acute in 73% of the cases, with symptoms of acute arterial insufficiency, or an acute abdomen or neurologic

  4. Clear Depiction of Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Orta Kilickesmez, Kadriye, E-mail: kadriye11@yahoo.co [Istanbul University Institute of Cardiology, Department of Cardiology (Turkey); Kilickesmez, Ozgur [Yeditepe University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    We report the case of an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm incidentally detected clearly with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) during the examination of a patient with myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia that later converted to acute myeloid leukemia. DW-MRI revealed a hyperintense halo surrounding the abdominal aorta with aneurysmatic dilatation, establishing the diagnosis.

  5. Abdominal arteries recognition in X-Ray using a structural Olivier Nempont, Raoul Florent

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Abdominal arteries recognition in X-Ray using a structural model Olivier Nempont, Raoul Florent. For instance, during an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), the recognition of abdominal arteries of arteries (aorta, renal arteries, iliac arteries) whose relative positions are quite stable. We propose

  6. Middle aortic syndrome: distal thoracic and abdominal coarctation, a disorder with multiple etiologies 1 1 No competing interests declared

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Connolly; Samuel E. Wilson; Peter L. Lawrence; Roy M. Fujitani

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Congenital coarctation of the thoracic aorta at the ligamentum arteriosum or the aortic arch is well recognized. But a much less common variety (0.5% to 2.0%) of aortic coarctation is located in the distal thoracic aorta, or abdominal aorta, or both and is often called “middle aortic syndrome” or “mid-aortic dysplastic syndrome.” These types of aortic coarctation are most often

  7. Original article Morphometric and alloenzymatic characterisation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Morphometric and alloenzymatic characterisation in the Albanian honeybee an electrophoretic analysis of four enzyme systems and dis- criminant analysis of 15 morphometric characters ligustica / Alba- nia / honeybee population / morphometric characterisation / alloenzymatic characterisation

  8. Original article Morphometric identification of Africanized

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Morphometric identification of Africanized and European honey bees using large bee / European honey bee / morphometric identification / multivariate discriminant analysis. The morphometric procedures of Daly and Balling (1978) have been used by sci- entists and regulators throughout

  9. Surgical treatment of infected thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Chiba; R Muraoka; A Ihaya; T Kimura; K Morioka; M Nara; H Niwa

    1996-01-01

    Twelve patients with infected aneurysms of the thoracic and abdominal aorta were evaluated. Aneurysmal location, aetiology, bacteriology and treatment modality were analysed to determine the relationship between these factors and outcome. Patients were divided into two groups based on the preoperative states of their infections. Group 1 patients (n = 7) underwent resection after resolution of their active infection. The

  10. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Minimally Invasive Treatments Snapshots Multimedia Multimedia Archive Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  11. Apparent adiposity assessed by standardised scoring systems and morphometric measurements in horses and ponies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca A. Carter; Raymond J. Geor; W. Burton Staniar; Tania A. Cubitt; Pat A. Harris

    2009-01-01

    This study described a scoring system for the assessment of apparent neck adiposity and evaluated morphometric measurements for assessment of neck and overall adiposity. Twenty-one barren Thoroughbred mares, 13 Arabian geldings and 75 Welsh, Dartmoor, or crossbred pony mares, were clinically examined and blood samples analysed for insulin, glucose, leptin, and triglycerides. Bodyweight (BW), height, length, girth and abdominal circumferences,

  12. Surgical Technique for Extent I, II, and III ThoracoAbdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph S. Coselli; Scott A. LeMaire

    \\u000a In contrast to Crawford extent IV thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repairs, which involve replacing only the abdominal\\u000a aorta, extent I, II, and III repairs involve replacing portions of both the thoracic and abdominal aortic segments. These\\u000a more extensive repairs remain a particular challenge to the surgeon because of the associated risks posed by distal ischemia,\\u000a including its most serious complications

  13. Morphometric Tools for Landmark Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookstein, Fred L.

    1997-06-01

    Morphometrics is the statistical study of biological shape and shape change. Its richest data are landmarks, points, such as the bridge of the nose, that have biological names as well as geometric locations. This book is the first systematic survey of morphometric methods for landmark data.

  14. Equine pericardial roll graft replacement of infected pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Hiroshi; Endo, Hidehito; Noma, Mio; Tsuchiya, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Akihiro; Takahashi, Yu; Inaba, Yusuke; Matsukura, Mitsuru; Sudo, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    The standard procedure for treating infected aortic aneurysms is to resect the infected aorta, debridement of the surrounding tissue, in situ graft replacement, and omentopexy. However, the question of which graft material is optimal is still a matter of controversy. We recently treated a patient with an infected ascending aortic aneurysm. Because of previous abdominal surgery, the omentum was unavailable. The ascending aorta was replaced in situ with equine pericardial roll grafts. The patient is alive and well 29 months after the operation. PMID:22697377

  15. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal wall surgery is surgery that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. It ... tummy tuck" to more complicated, extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which ...

  16. Fused Traditional and Geometric Morphometrics Demonstrate Pinniped Whisker Diversity

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Christopher D.

    Fused Traditional and Geometric Morphometrics Demonstrate Pinniped Whisker Diversity Carly C profile using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Traditional morphometric measurements (peak. Elliptic Fourier analysis (geometric morphometrics) was used to quantify the outlines of whole vibrissae

  17. Dissection of the aorta in Turner's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Price, W H; Wilson, J

    1983-01-01

    Three deaths from dissection of the aorta in a series of 157 adult women with Turner's syndrome are reported. These are greatly in excess of the numbers expected. None of the three patients had a coarctation of the aorta. One had aortic regurgitation but there was no reason to believe that the aorta in the other two patients had been subjected to unusual haemodynamic stresses. Cystic medial necrosis of the aorta was described in two patients on whom necropsies were carried out. It is concluded that there is probably a greatly increased risk of dissection of the aorta in Turner's syndrome even in the absence of any other abnormality of the aorta and aortic valve. Previously reported cases of aortic dissection in Turner's syndrome are discussed. PMID:6842536

  18. Original article Morphometric and pheromonal analyses

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Morphometric and pheromonal analyses of Apis mellifera L along a transect from. The combined morphometric and pheromonal variance spectra indicate regions of nat- ural hybridization along a Sahara-Pyrenees transect. honeybee / population genetics / morphometrics / pheromone / N Africa / Spain

  19. Original article Morphometric studies on the microtaxonomy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Morphometric studies on the microtaxonomy of the species Apis mellifera L D, and by performing a principal compo- nents analysis (PCA) on its morphometric characters, previous work resulted the subgroups of newly selected samples, and improving the basis of morphometric analysis is a constant chal

  20. JAMA Patient Page: Abdominal Hernia

    MedlinePLUS

    JAMA PATIENT PAGE Abdominal Hernia Common abdominal hernias Inguinal hernia Indirect inguinal hernia Direct inguinal hernia Intestinal loop Umbilical annulus Peritoneum Peritoneum Abdominal wall Intestinal ...

  1. Obstruction of the superior mesenteric artery due to emboli from the thoracic aorta in a patient with thromboangiitis obliterans.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Chiaki; Deguchi, Juno; Kitaoka, Tadashi; Suzuki, Jun; Abe, Keiko; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman presented at our hospital with acute abdominal pain 3 years after being diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO). Computed tomography revealed occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and multiple kidney infarction with thrombus floating in the thoracic aorta connected with the intercostal artery. Despite emergency embolectomy, further thromboembolism eventually required massive resection of the intestine with jejunostomy and colostomy and permanent intravenous hyper-alimentation therapy. Although TAO rarely involves the large artery, the aorta could be the source of embolization in patients with TAO. PMID:25298837

  2. Morphometric aspects of reflux nephropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud T El-Khatib; Gavin J Becker; Priscilla S Kincaid-Smith

    1987-01-01

    Morphometric aspects of reflux nephropathy. We have studied the relationships between renal size, glomerular hypertrophy and sclerosis and renal function in adults with reflux nephropathy. A digitizer was used to measure the renal surface areas in intravenous pyelogram films. This was then corrected for patient size by dividing by the area of the first three lumbar vertebrae. In renal biopsies,

  3. Mechanical Properties of Dilated Human Ascending Aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth J. Okamoto; Jessica E. Wagenseil; William R. DeLong; Sara J. Peterson; Nicholas T. Kouchoukos; Thoralf M. Sundt; III

    2002-01-01

    Dilation of the ascending aorta, associated with Marfan Syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve, or advanced age, may lead to aortic dissection and rupture. Mathematical models can be used to assess the relative importance of increased wall stresses and decreased strength in these mechanical failures. To obtain needed inputs for such models, mechanical properties of dilated human ascending aorta were measured in

  4. In Vivo Three-Dimensional Surface Geometry of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Sacks; David A. Vorp; M. L. Raghavan; Michael P. Federle; Marshall W. Webster

    1999-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a local, progressive dilation of the distal aorta that risks rupture until treated. Using the law of Laplace, in vivo assessment of AAA surface geometry could identify regions of high wall tensions as well as provide critical dimensional and shape data for customized endoluminal stent grafts. In this study, six patients with AAA underwent spiral

  5. In vivo determination of elastic properties of the human aorta based on 4D ultrasound data.

    PubMed

    Wittek, Andreas; Karatolios, Konstantinos; Bihari, Peter; Schmitz-Rixen, Thomas; Moosdorf, Rainer; Vogt, Sebastian; Blase, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Computational analysis of the biomechanics of the vascular system aims at a better understanding of its physiology and pathophysiology. To be of clinical use, however, these models and thus their predictions, have to be patient specific regarding geometry, boundary conditions and material. In this paper we present an approach to determine individual material properties of human aortae based on a new type of in vivo full field displacement data acquired by dimensional time resolved three dimensional ultrasound (4D-US) imaging. We developed a nested iterative Finite Element Updating method to solve two coupled inverse problems: The prestrains that are present in the imaged diastolic configuration of the aortic wall are determined. The solution of this problem is integrated in an iterative method to identify the nonlinear hyperelastic anisotropic material response of the aorta to physiologic deformation states. The method was applied to 4D-US data sets of the abdominal aorta of five healthy volunteers and verified by a numerical experiment. This non-invasive in vivo technique can be regarded as a first step to determine patient individual material properties of the human aorta. PMID:23668998

  6. Supplementary Appendix 1 Additional details of morphometric methods .............................................p. 2

    E-print Network

    Mahler, D. Luke

    1 Supplementary Appendix 1 Additional details of morphometric methods Phylomorphospace of Anolis skull shape....................................................p. 5 Morphometric Illustrator. Morphometric analyses conducted with and without these difficult specimens yielded similar

  7. Original article Multivariate morphometrics of the Indian honeybee

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Multivariate morphometrics of the Indian honeybee in the northwest Himalayan 94720, USA Summary — Multivariate statistical analyses of 55 morphometric characters were made of the regions. Apis cerana /Himalayas/ Himachal Pradesh/ Kashmir/ morphometrics INTRODUCTION The Eastern

  8. Abdominal Decompression in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ejike, J. Chiaka; Mathur, Mudit

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) increases the risk for mortality in critically ill children. It occurs in association with a wide variety of medical and surgical diagnoses. Management of ACS involves recognizing the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) by intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) monitoring, treating the underlying cause, and preventing progression to ACS by lowering IAP. When ACS is already present, supporting dysfunctional organs and decreasing IAP to prevent new organ involvement become an additional focus of therapy. Medical management strategies to achieve these goals should be employed but when medical management fails, timely abdominal decompression is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. A literature review was performed to understand the role and outcomes of abdominal decompression among children with ACS. Abdominal decompression appears to have a positive effect on patient survival. However, prospective randomized studies are needed to fully understand the indications and impact of these therapies on survival in children. PMID:22482041

  9. Human Aorta Is a Passive Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    Impedance pump is a simple valveless pumping mechanism that operates based on the principles of wave propagation and reflection. It has been shown in a zebrafish that a similar mechanism is responsible for the pumping action in the embryonic heart during early stages before valve formation. Recent studies suggest that the cardiovascular system is designed to take advantage of wave propagation and reflection phenomena in the arterial network. Our aim in this study was to examine if the human aorta is a passive pump working like an impedance pump. A hydraulic model with different compliant models of artificial aorta was used for series of in-vitro experiments. The hydraulic model includes a piston pump that generates the waves. Our result indicates that wave propagation and reflection can create pumping mechanism in a compliant aorta. Similar to an impedance pump, the net flow and the flow direction depends on the frequency of the waves, compliance of the aorta, and the piston stroke.

  10. Morphometric Comparisons of Upper Missouri River Sturgeons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Keenlyne; C. J. Henry; A. Tews; P. Clancey

    1994-01-01

    Morphometric comparisons were made among three isolated populations of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus and shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus from the upper Missouri River. Six measurements were made on 89 pallid and 204 shovelnose sturgeons. Means of several morphometric characteristics were statistically different between populations of both species. Pallid sturgeon means showed proportional trends relative to location on the river. Toward

  11. Abdominal trauma in war

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel P. Rignault

    1992-01-01

    In war, the percentage of casualties with abdominal wounds on battle-fields is near 20%. Roughly half of these casualties die almost immediately from bleeding. Wounding agents are most often either bullets or fragments from various detonating devices. Severity of pathology induced by these agents and prolonged lag time between injury and treatment constitute major differences between peace and war abdominal

  12. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-M. Sieh; Kent-Man Chu; John Wong

    2001-01-01

    Background: The effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure in various organ systems have been noted over the past century. The concept of abdominal compartment syndrome has gained more attention in both trauma and general surgery in the last decade. This article reviews the current understanding and management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. Methods: Relevant information was gathered from a

  13. Can proteomics yield insight into aging aorta?

    PubMed

    Fu, Zongming; Wang, Mingyi; Everett, Allen; Lakatta, Edward; Van Eyk, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    The aging aorta exhibits structural and physiological changes that are reflected in the proteome of its component cells types. The advance in proteomic technologies has made it possible to analyze the quantity of proteins associated with the natural history of aortic aging. These alterations reflect the molecular and cellular mechanisms of aging and could provide an opportunity to predict vascular health. This paper focuses on whether discoveries stemming from the application of proteomic approaches of the intact aging aorta or vascular smooth muscle cells can provide useful insights. Although there have been limited studies to date, a number of interesting proteins have been identified that are closely associated with aging in the rat aorta. Such proteins, including milk fat globule-EGF factor 8, matrix metalloproteinase type-2, and vitronectin, could be used as indicators of vascular health, or even explored as therapeutic targets for aging-related vascular diseases. PMID:23788441

  14. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CAT scan - abdomen ... An abdominal CT scan makes detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly (abdomen) very quickly. This test may be used to ...

  15. Segmental abdominal zoster paresis.

    PubMed

    Jandolo, B; Biolcati, G; Montanari, U; Pietrangeli, A; Fazio, M

    1987-01-01

    A case of uncommon feature of herpes zoster, a segmental abdominal paresis, is described. The importance of searching a motor defect in the thoracoabdominal segments and the utility of the electromyographic examination are stressed. PMID:2961042

  16. Normal Abdominal CT

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shaffer, Kitt

    Set of normal abdominal CT images with various important anatomic structures outlined, for cine viewing to gain a 3D view of the structure and its relationship to adjacent organs.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: Normal

  17. Abdominal x-ray

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Diagnose a pain in the abdomen or unexplained nausea Identify suspected problems in the urinary system, such as a kidney stone Identify blockage in the intestine Locate ...

  18. Abdominal wall competence in transverse abdominal island flap operations.

    PubMed

    Hartrampf, C R

    1984-02-01

    This study critically evaluates the abdominal wall in 82 patients following breast and chest wall reconstruction using the transverse abdominal island flap operation. Experience with these patients led to an awareness of the important muscle and ligamentous structures in the anterior abdominal wall. An operative procedure is presented for selective harvesting of the transverse abdominal island flap in a manner that preserves viability of the flap and at the same time reestablishes abdominal competence. PMID:6230981

  19. A stepwise aortic clamp procedure to treat porcelain aorta associated with aortic valve stenosis and hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Isoda, Susumu; Osako, Motohiko; Kimura, Tamizo; Nishimura, Kenji; Yamanaka, Nozomu; Nakamura, Shingo; Maehara, Tadaaki

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was referred for an aortic-valve surgery because of severe aortic stenosis. Thirty years ago, he had undergone a mitral valve commissurotomy and after 9 years, the valve had been replaced by a mechanical valve. He had been undergoing hemodialysis for the past 8 years. A computed tomographic (CT) scan of the chest and abdomen showed a dense circumferential calcification in the wall of the entire thoracic and abdominal aorta, pulmonary artery, and left and right atrium. A conventional aortic-valve replacement was performed. To avoid an embolic event, a "stepwise aortic clamp" procedure was attempted and involved the following: (1) brief circulatory arrest and aortotomy during moderate hypothermia; (2) balloon occlusion at the ascending aorta during low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB); (3) endoarterectomy by using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator to enable aortic cross-clamping; and (4) a cross-clamp reinforced with felt and full-flow CPB. The patient recovered without any thromboembolic events. Using this procedure to treat a porcelain aorta seemed to reduce the time limit and reduced the risk of brain injury during cardiac surgery. PMID:23801177

  20. Racial Differences in Thoracic Aorta Atherosclerosis Among Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vishal Gupta; Navin C. Nanda; Dilek Yesilbursa; Wen Ying Huang; Vijaya Gupta; Qing Li; Camilo R. Gomez

    Background and Purpose—Atherosclerosis of the thoracic aorta is an independent risk factor for stroke. There is little information on the impact of race in the prevalence of thoracic aorta atherosclerotic plaques among ischemic stroke patients. This study was an attempt to objectively assess the prevalence, thickness, and burden of thoracic aorta atherosclerotic plaques in a large population of ischemic stroke

  1. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in comparison to open surgical repair. An abdominal aortic aneurysm [AAA] is the enlargement and weakening of the aorta (major blood artery) that may rupture and result in stroke and death. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair [EVAR] is a procedure for repairing abdominal aortic aneurysms from within the blood vessel without open surgery. In this procedure, an aneurysm is excluded from blood circulation by an endograft (a device) delivered to the site of the aneurysm via a catheter inserted into an artery in the groin. The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this technology. The review included 44 eligible articles out of 489 citations identified through a systematic literature search. Most of the research evidence is based on non-randomized comparative studies and case series. In the short-term, EVAR appears to be safe and comparable to open surgical repair in terms of survival. It is associated with less severe hemodynamic changes, less blood transfusion and shorter stay in the intensive care and hospital. However, there is concern about a high incidence of endoleak, requiring secondary interventions, and in some cases, conversion to open surgical repair. Current evidence does not support the use of EVAR in all patients. EVAR might benefit individuals who are not fit for surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and whose risk of rupture of the aneurysm outweighs the risk of death from EVAR. The long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVAR cannot be determined at this time. Further evaluation of this technology is required. OBJECTIVE The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) in comparison to open surgical repair (OSR). BACKGROUND Clinical Need An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized, abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm or 50% of the aortic diameter at the diaphragm. (1) A true AAA involves all 3 layers of the vessel wall. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. (61) Heller et al. (44) analyzed information from a national hospital database in the United States. They found no significant change in the incidence rate of elective AAA repair or ruptured AAA presented to the nation’s hospitals. The investigators concluded that technologic and treatment advances over the past 19 years have not affected the outcomes of patients with AAAs, and the ability to identify and to treat patients with AAAs has not improved. Classification of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms At least 90% of the AAAs are affected by atherosclerosis, and most of these aneurysms are below the level of the renal arteries.(1) An abdominal aortic aneurysm may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. An AAA may be classified according to their sizes:(7) Small aneurysms: less than 5 cm in diameter. Medium aneurysms: 5-7cm. Large aneurysms: more than 7 cm in diameter. Small aneurysms account for approximately 50% of all clinically recognized aneurysms.(7) Aortic aneurysms may be classified according to their gross appearance as follows (1): Fusiform aneurysms affect the entire circumference of a vessel, resulting in a diffusely dilated lesion Saccular aneurysms involve only a portion of the circumference, resulting in an outpouching (protrusion) in the vessel wall. Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 1% and 5.4%. (61) The prevalence is related to age and vascular risk factors. It is more common in men and in those with a positive family history. In Canada, Abdominal aortic aneurysms are the 10th leading cause of death in men 6

  2. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantify Collagen and Elastin in an In Vitro Model of Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Cheheltani, Rabee; McGoverin, Cushla M.; Rao, Jayashree; Vorp, David A.; Kiani, Mohammad F.; Pleshko, N.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key component and regulator of many biological tissues including aorta. Several aortic pathologies are associated with significant changes in the composition of the matrix, especially in the content, quality and type of aortic structural proteins, collagen and elastin. The purpose of this study was to develop an infrared spectroscopic methodology that is comparable to biochemical assays to quantify collagen and elastin in aorta. Enzymatically degraded porcine aorta samples were used as a model of ECM degradation in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). After enzymatic treatment, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the aortic tissue were acquired by an infrared fiber optic probe (IFOP) and FTIR imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS). Collagen and elastin content were quantified biochemically and partial least squares (PLS) models were developed to predict collagen and elastin content in aorta based on FTIR spectra. PLS models developed from FT-IRIS spectra were able to predict elastin and collagen content of the samples with strong correlations (RMSE of validation = 8.4% and 11.1% of the range respectively), and IFOP spectra were successfully used to predict elastin content (RMSE = 11.3% of the range). The PLS regression coefficients from the FT-IRIS models were used to map collagen and elastin in tissue sections of degraded porcine aortic tissue as well as a human AAA biopsy tissue, creating a similar map of each component compared to histology. These results support further application of FTIR spectroscopic techniques for evaluation of AAA tissues. PMID:24761431

  3. Diagnosing Aorta Stiffness by Temporal Analysis of Echocardiographic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsi; Yen, Tsu-Chiang; Lee, Doyal

    2005-03-01

    In the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, information about the intracardiac system function and blood flow can be obtained by echocardiography due to its high spatial resolution capability. However, seldom message is known about the aorta stiffness. This work investigated a method to quantitatively analyze the aorta stiffness. The aorta was modeled as a periodic-force-driven damping oscillator, in which the aorta stiffness was the damping factor. From the analysis of echocardiographic images, the delay time of the maximal aorta distention relative to the R-peak of the electrocardiographic trace was measured to reveal the aorta stiffness. A study based on 10 samples suggested that a delay time greater than 0.17 sec could be a criterion to diagnose that the aorta is quite stiff. This method could also clearly discern some abnormal cardiac performance. A large-scale study with this method should be conducted in the future.

  4. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Fortner, George; Johansen, Kaj

    1984-01-01

    Aneurysms are common in our increasingly elderly population, and are a major threat to life and limb. Until the advent of vascular reconstructive techniques, aneurysm patients were subject to an overwhelming risk of death from exsanguination. The first successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm using an interposed arterial homograft was reported by Dubost in 1952. A milestone in the evolution of vascular surgery, this event and subsequent diagnostic, operative and prosthetic graft refinements have permitted patients with an unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to enjoy a better prognosis than patients with almost any other form of major systemic illness. Images PMID:6702193

  5. Apparent adiposity assessed by standardised scoring systems and morphometric measurements in horses and ponies.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rebecca A; Geor, Raymond J; Burton Staniar, W; Cubitt, Tania A; Harris, Pat A

    2009-02-01

    This study described a scoring system for the assessment of apparent neck adiposity and evaluated morphometric measurements for assessment of neck and overall adiposity. Twenty-one barren Thoroughbred mares, 13 Arabian geldings and 75 Welsh, Dartmoor, or crossbred pony mares, were clinically examined and blood samples analysed for insulin, glucose, leptin, and triglycerides. Bodyweight (BW), height, length, girth and abdominal circumferences, neck length, neck crest height and neck circumference were measured, and body condition scores (BCS) and cresty neck scores (CNS) were rated. Girth:height ratio had the strongest associations with BCS (r(s)=0.64, P<0.001 in horses; r(s)=0.83, P<0.001 in ponies) and blood variables, such as leptin (r(s)=0.39, P=0.024 in horses; r(s)=0.68, P<0.001 in ponies). Crest height and neck circumference:height ratio had the strongest association with CNS (r(s)>0.50, P<0.01) and blood variables, such as insulin (r(s)0.40, P<0.05). Cresty neck score was useful in the assessment of neck crest adiposity and had physiological relevance, as demonstrated by associations with blood variables. Girth:height was the most suitable morphometric for assessment of overall adiposity, and either crest height or neck circumference:height was a suitable morphometric for assessment of apparent neck adiposity. PMID:18440844

  6. Computer-assisted diagnosis in CT angiography of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebich, Martin; Tomiak, Myrosia M.; Engelmann, Roger M.; McGill, James; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop methods for automatic 3D-segmentation and automatic quantification of vascular structures in CT angiographic studies, e.g., abdominal aortic aneurysms. Methods for segmentation were developed based on thresholding, maximum gradient, and second derivative techniques. All parameters for the segmentation are generated automatically, i.e. no user interaction is necessary for this process. Median filtering of all images is initially performed to reduce the image noise. The algorithm then automatically identifies the starting point inside the aorta for the volume growing. The segmentation of the vascular tree is achieved in two steps. First, only the aorta and small parts of branch vessels are segmented by using strong restrictions in the parameters for threshold and gradient. A description of the aorta is generated by fitting the detected outer border of the aorta with an ellipse. This description includes centerline, direction, contour, eccentricity, and area. In the second step, segmentation parameters are changed automatically for segmentation of branch vessels. A shaded surface display of the segmented structures is then generated. The segmentation of the aorta appears accurate, is fast, and the 3D display can be manipulated in real time. The quantitative description of the aorta is reliable giving reproducible information. Total CPU time for the segmentation and description is less than five minutes on a standard workstation. Time-consuming manual segmentation and parameterization of vascular structures are obviated, with 3D visualization and quantitative results available in minutes instead of hours. This technique for segmentation and description of the aorta and renal arteries shows the feasibility of computer assisted diagnosis in CT angiographic studies without user interaction. Besides the description, a rapid 3D view of the vessels is generated, often needed by the physician and normally only achievable by time consuming manual segmentation.

  7. Thoracic Aorta to Femoral Artery Bypass Allows Secondary Kidney Transplantation in Case of Major Iliac Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Monnot, Antoine; Lebras, Marie Lainay; Rouer, Martin; Plissonnier, Didier

    2015-07-01

    Iliac artery major calcifications can compromise kidney graft. First-performed prosthetic arterial bypass from the thoracic aorta to the femoral artery allows secondary kidney transplantation. Four patients were submitted to this procedure. No patient died during the postoperative period or the follow-up. The median time to receive a kidney graft after the arterial surgery was 24 months (4-52). The normalization of the sera creatinine level was 6.4 days (2-15). The median follow-up was 38 months (7-79). In our experience, using lateral side clamping of the descendant thoracic aorta during the proximal implantation of the arterial graft avoids bleeding and visceral abdominal ischemia. The secondary performed kidney graft is safe on a very available arterial conduit. PMID:25958119

  8. Semantically Steered Visual Analysis of Highly Detailed Morphometric Shape Spaces

    E-print Network

    Eckmiller, Rolf

    Semantically Steered Visual Analysis of Highly Detailed Morphometric Shape Spaces Max Hermann-rigid registration method. Index Terms: Computer Graphics [I.3.8]: Applications. 1 INTRODUCTION Morphometrics is "the

  9. [Segmental arteriosclerotic occlusion of the infrarenal aorta].

    PubMed

    Bätz, W; Grönniger, J; Klose, K J

    1986-02-01

    Atherosclerosis involving the terminal aorta usually is a diffuse process that commonly includes the iliac and femoral arteries. Less frequently, the lesions are limited to the infrarenal aortic segment with normal distal vessels. Patients with isolated occlusion or stenosis of the infrarenal aorta tend to be younger, more often female and have slower progression of atherosclerotic lesions. There is a causative relationship of this well-localized form of atherosclerosis to the use of oral contraceptives and heavy smoking. In 90% of the cases, surgery of these lesions is limited to endarterectomy. End results are satisfactory in a majority of the patients. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty produces satisfactory early results for concentric stenosis, although long-term results have not yet been established. PMID:3516599

  10. [Stent graft of the thoracic aorta].

    PubMed

    Nienaber, C A; Akin, I; Kische, S; Ince, H; Chatterjee, T

    2013-05-01

    Considering the demographic changes in our society and the proliferation of imaging-based improved diagnostics, both acute and chronic aortic diseases attract increasing attention and require dedicated care. Cardiac as well as vascular surgery used to represent the gold standards for therapeutic management of pathologies of the ascending aorta and the arch; however, the technological evolution of endoluminal strategies has had a serious impact on the treatment of the descending aorta, the aortic arch in combination with vascular debranching or bypass, and in selected cases even on managing pathologies of the ascending aorta. Although several case series and meta-analyses of published observations hint towards superiority of endografting in comparison to open surgical repair, the affected usually multimorbid patients with highly complex aortic disease should be subjected to an individual evaluation by a team of cardiologists, cardiac and vascular surgeons as well as imaging specialists; a dedicated individualized treatment concept in highly experienced centers of excellence is likely to provide the best results for such challenging patients. PMID:23588784

  11. Novelty and ``Homology-free'' Morphometrics: What's in a Name?

    E-print Network

    Klingenberg, Christian Peter

    COMMENTARY Novelty and ``Homology-free'' Morphometrics: What's in a Name? Christian Peter Science+Business Media, LLC 2008 The field of morphometrics has developed fast over the last two decades. After a ``revolution'' that established a new ``synthesis'' in morphometric methodology about 15 years

  12. Morphometric Grayscale Texture Analysis using Foot Patterns Dan Ashlock

    E-print Network

    Doty, David

    Morphometric Grayscale Texture Analysis using Foot Patterns Dan Ashlock Iowa State University data for stan- dard quantitative morphometric analysis. With this approach we were able of shape varia- tion within and among groups, and the modern field of morphometrics began [1

  13. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND MORPHOMETRICS OF SOUTH DAKOTA TURTLES

    E-print Network

    GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND MORPHOMETRICS OF SOUTH DAKOTA TURTLES BY SARAH J. BANDAS A thesis AND MORPHOMETRICS OF SOUTH DAKOTA TURTLES This thesis is approved as a creditable and independent investigation GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND MORPHOMETRICS OF SOUTH DAKOTA TURTLES Sarah J. Bandas 2003 Relatively little

  14. Original article Morphometric analysis of honey bees from an area

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Morphometric analysis of honey bees from an area of racial hybridization; A morphometric analysis of some bee populations from Friuli (northeastern Italy) was carried out employing 15; Comparini and Biasiolo, 1991). Biochemical and morphometric tech- niques were employed to study samples

  15. The Shape of Human Evolution: A Geometric Morphometrics Perspective

    E-print Network

    Baab, Karen L.

    The Shape of Human Evolution: A Geometric Morphometrics Perspective KAREN L. BAAB, KIERAN P the complex geometry of some anatomical structures. The advent of landmark-based geo- metric morphometric used to represent them (Box 1). In contrast to tradi- tional morphometric data, landmark data preserve

  16. Original article Morphometric analysis of 2 southern African races

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Morphometric analysis of 2 southern African races of honeybee RM Crewe HR Hepburn and the hybrid zone between them. The data obtained from the morphometric analysis are in good agreement morphometric analysis of Afri- #12;can races of honeybees and indicated that it was Apis mellifera scutellata

  17. Morphometrics of Six Turtle Species from South Dakota

    E-print Network

    213 Morphometrics of Six Turtle Species from South Dakota SARAH J. BANDAS1 and KENNETH F. HIGGINS, morphometric measurements were recorded for 755 turtles representing six species in South Dakota. Turtles were captured in a wide variety of wetland habitats across the entire state. With few exceptions, morphometric

  18. Prospectus: The Future of Morphometrics Richard E. Strauss

    E-print Network

    Strauss, Richard E.

    Chapter 16 Prospectus: The Future of Morphometrics Richard E. Strauss Idea and Aims The field of morphometrics has transitioned relatively smoothly through several different phases, from D'Arcy Thompson applications, such as the use of morphometrics to study the effects of quantitative trait loci (Klingenberg et

  19. Reevaluation of honeybee (Apis mellifera) microtaxonomy: a geometric morphometric approach

    E-print Network

    Reevaluation of honeybee (Apis mellifera) microtaxonomy: a geometric morphometric approach rfan, the microtaxonomy of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) subspecies was reevaluated based on a geometric morphometric method. Wing images of honeybee subspecies, obtained from the Morphometric Bee Data Bank in Oberursel

  20. Graphical-Model-based Morphometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Herskovits, Edward H

    2005-10-01

    We propose a novel method for voxel-based morphometry (VBM), which we call Graphical-Model-based Morphometric Analysis (GAMMA), to identify morphological abnormalities automatically, and to find complex probabilistic associations among voxels in magnetic-resonance images and clinical variables. GAMMA is a fully automatic, nonparametric morphometric-analysis algorithm, with high sensitivity and specificity. It uses a Bayesian network to represent the associations among voxels and the function variable, and uses a contextual-clustering method based on a Markov random field to find clusters in which all voxels have similar associations with the function variable. We use loopy belief propagation to infer the unobserved label field and belief map. As opposed to voxel-based morphometric methods based on general linear models, GAMMA is capable of identifying nonlinear associations among the function variable and voxels. Compared with our previous approach, a Bayesian morphometry algorithm, GAMMA has greater sensitivity, specificity, and computational efficiency. PMID:16229411

  1. Implications of interface conventions for morphometric thermodynamics

    E-print Network

    Andreas Reindl; Markus Bier; S. Dietrich

    2015-02-06

    Several model fluids in contact with planar, spherical, and cylindrical walls are investigated for small number densities within density functional theory. The dependence of the solid-fluid interfacial tension on the curvature of spherical and cylindrical walls is examined and compared with the corresponding expression derived within the framework of morphometric thermodynamics. Particular attention is paid to the implications of the choice of the interface location, which underlies the definition of the interfacial tension. We find that morphometric thermodynamics is never exact for the considered systems and that its quality as an approximation depends sensitively on the choice of the interface location.

  2. Implications of interface conventions for morphometric thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Reindl, Andreas; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S

    2015-02-01

    Several model fluids in contact with planar, spherical, and cylindrical walls are investigated for small number densities within density functional theory. The dependence of the solid-fluid interfacial tension on the curvature of spherical and cylindrical walls is examined and compared with the corresponding expression derived within the framework of morphometric thermodynamics. Particular attention is paid to the implications of the choice of the interface location, which underlies the definition of the interfacial tension. We find that morphometric thermodynamics is never exact for the considered systems and that its quality as an approximation depends sensitively on the choice of the interface location. PMID:25768517

  3. Role of transesophageal echocardiography in dissection of the aorta and evaluation of degenerative aortic disease.

    PubMed

    Erbel, R

    1993-08-01

    The combination of different ultrasound techniques such as transthoracic, suprasternal, subcostal, and TEE has a high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of aortic dissection. Limitations of this combined ultrasound technique are related to the visualization of the ascending part of the aortic arch, which, because of the interposition of the trachea, cannot be visualized completely. The beginning or end of a dissection in this part of the aorta may be misinterpreted. However, false-negative results are rare. False-positive results due to artifacts resulting from reverberations in an ectatic ascending aorta must be taken into account. The most important diagnostic goals in acute or chronic aortic dissection are (1) confirmation of the diagnosis by visualization of the intimal membrane; (2) the differentiation of true and false lumen, depending on visualization of spontaneous echocardiographic contrast, thrombus formation, slow or reduced reversed flow, systolic diameter reduction, and signs of entry jet into the false lumen; (3) detection of intimal tear, demonstrating communication by 2-D or color Doppler echocardiography; (4) determination of the extent of dissection with classification according to DeBakey types I, II, and III, or Stanford types A and B, with differentiation between communicating or noncommunicating dissection and antegrade or retrograde dissection limited to the descending aorta or expanding into the ascending aorta; (5) detection of wall motion abnormalities as a sign of preexisting coronary artery disease or myocardial ischemia due to ostium occlusion by an intimal flap, coronary artery rupture, or collapse of the true lumen during diastole; (6) detection and grading of aortic insufficiency; (7) detection of side branch involvement by suprasternal, subcostal, and abdominal sonography (which will provide information about the choice of the site for cannulation or catheterization of the femoral artery); and (8) detection of pericardial or pleural effusion and mediastinal hematoma as signs of an emergency situation (i.e., suspending rupture). Based on ultrasound diagnostic information, operation can be performed in all acute situations in patients with type A dissection without further investigation. The ability to act decisively in this setting is particularly important in patients with signs suggesting a dire prognosis (i.e., pericardial or pleural effusion or mediastinal hematoma). For follow-up studies, the combination of echocardiography with MR tomography is recommended. With TEE, entry tears can be detected with a higher sensitivity than with MR tomography. This capability may be important for the patient's prognosis. MR tomography, on the other hand, has a better spatial resolution showing the entire aorta, particularly the ascending aortic arch. PMID:8402774

  4. Radiology of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    David, V

    1999-01-01

    Radiology plays an integral role in the evaluation of patients with significant abdominal pain. The cross-sectional modalities (computed tomography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging) are widely used, but there is sometimes confusion about how to use each test appropriately. We review how each test is done, consider the strengths and weaknesses of each modality, and discuss how to use them in an intelligent, cost-effective manner. PMID:10795217

  5. Effects of simulated microgravity on vasoconstrictor and mechanical properties of the rat abdominal aorta 

    E-print Network

    Papadopoulos, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    In humans and rats, microgravity induces adaptations within the cardiovascular system that appear to include modifications in peripheral vascular reactivity. Rodent hindlimb unweighting (HU) has been used to model putative adaptations that occur...

  6. Osteoporosis of Lumbar Vertebrae and Calcification of Abdominal Aorta in Women Living in Durban

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Dent; H. E. Engelbrecht; R. C. Godfrey

    1968-01-01

    To try to establish whether mechanical stress and muscular activity in earlier life influence the incidence and severity of spinal osteoporosis in old age lateral x-ray films of the lumbar vertebrae were obtained from three matched groups, each of 100 women 50 to 90 years old. Group A was of rural Bantu accustomed to carrying heavy loads on their heads.

  7. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, IA; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. Case report. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Conclusion. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated. PMID:25914739

  8. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  9. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THE STRIPED BASS

    E-print Network

    management or utilization practices and as guides for administrative or legislative action. It is issued. July 1957 #12;ABSTRACT Morphometric characters were found to be good indicators for separating, prepelvic distance, body depth, and caudal -peduncle depth were the characters used. The data were analyzed

  10. Morphometric patterns among diving beetles (Coleoptera: Noteridae,

    E-print Network

    Ribera, Ignacio

    Morphometric patterns among diving beetles (Coleoptera: Noteridae, Hygrobiidae, and Dytiscidae) I Hydradephaga, with an emphasis on Dytiscidae, was performed with nearly 1600 adult specimens belonging to the families Noteridae (2 species), Hygrobiidae (1 species), and Dytiscidae (74 species). The data were studied

  11. Morphometric and genetic identification of eggs of

    E-print Network

    Morphometric and genetic identification of eggs of spring-spawning sciaenids in lower ChesapeakeDNA was used to identify morphologi- cally similar eggs ofspring spawn- ing sciaenids in lower Chesapeake Bay seasonal egg produc- tion and population biomass of black drum, Pogonias cromis. Rearing experiments

  12. Biometrics, biomathematics and the morphometric synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred L. Bookstein

    1996-01-01

    At the core of contemporary morphometrics—the quantitative study of biological shape variation—is a synthesis of two originally divergent methodological styles. One contributory tradition is the multivariate analysis of covariance matrices originally developed as biometrics and now dominant across a broad expanse of applied statistics. This approach, couched solely in the linear geometry of covariance structures, ignores biomathematical aspects of the

  13. Diseases of the Aorta in Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Aline; Thompson, Paul D

    2015-07-01

    Sudden cardiovascular deaths in athletes are rare and only a fraction are due to aortic events. There has been concern that the hemodynamic load during exercise may lead to aortic dilation, but aortic dimensions in endurance and strength-trained athletes are only slightly larger than those in sedentary comparison subjects. The presence of a bicuspid aortic valve without significant valvular dysfunction and normal aortic dimensions should not influence eligibility to practice sport. Patients with genetic syndromes associated with aortopathy generally should be restricted from vigorous sports participation. This article reviews the diagnosis and management of diseases of the aorta in athletes. PMID:26100422

  14. Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly G562 Geometric Morphometrics

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    Morphometrics Step by step in R A basic geometric morphometric analysis #12;Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly G562 Geometric Morphometrics R packages to install geomorph Geometric morphometrics package by Adams and Otárola-Castillo shapes Geometric morphometrics package by Ian

  15. Balloon-expandable stent repair of severe coarctation of aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Suárez de Lezo; Manuel Pan; Miguel Romero; Alfonso Medina; José Segura; Djordje Pavlovic; Carlos Martinez; Ignacio Tejero; Juan Perez Navero; Francisco Torres; Mercedes Lafuente; Enrique Hernández; Francisco Melián; Manuel Concha

    1995-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that stents implanted at the aorta become incorporated within the aortic wall and can be further expanded in growing animals. This study evaluates the feasibility and immediate results of balloon-expandable stent implantation in 10 patients with severe coarctation of aorta. The ages of the patients ranged from 1 month to 43 years; 1 was an infant,

  16. Predictive Surgical Simulation of Aorta Reconstruction in Cardiac Surgery

    E-print Network

    Leow, Wee Kheng

    Predictive Surgical Simulation of Aorta Reconstruction in Cardiac Surgery Hao LI a,1 , Wee Kheng. This paper proposes a method for performing predictive simulation of complex cardiac surgery. It computes the feasibility of the approach. Keywords. Predictive surgical simulation, cardiac surgery, aorta reconstruction

  17. Abdominal Superficial Subcutaneous Fat

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Rachel; Shelef, Ilan; Rudich, Assaf; Gepner, Yftach; Shemesh, Elad; Chassidim, Yoash; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Henkin, Yaakov; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Ben Avraham, Sivan; Witkow, Shula; Liberty, Idit F.; Tangi-Rosental, Osnat; Sarusi, Benjamin; Stampfer, Meir J.; Shai, Iris

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Unlike visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the association between subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and obesity-related morbidity is controversial. In patients with type 2 diabetes, we assessed whether this variability can be explained by a putative favorable, distinct association between abdominal superficial SAT (SSAT) (absolute amount or its proportion) and cardiometabolic parameters. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 73 patients with diabetes (mean age 58 years, 83% were men) and cross-sectionally analyzed fat distribution at S1-L5, L5-L4, and L3-L2 levels. Patients completed food frequency questionnaires, and subgroups had 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and 24-h ambulatory electrocardiography. RESULTS Women had higher %SSAT (37 vs. 23% in men; P < 0.001) despite a similar mean waist circumference. Fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.046) and HbA1c (P = 0.006) were both lower with increased tertile of absolute SSAT. In regression models adjusted for age, waist circumference, and classes of medical treatments used in this patient population, increased %SSAT was significantly associated with decreased HbA1c (? = ?0.317; P = 0.013), decreased daytime ambulatory blood pressure (? = ?0.426; P = 0.008), and increased HDL cholesterol (? = 0.257; P = 0.042). In contrast, increased percent of deep SAT (DSAT) was associated with increased HbA1c (? = 0.266; P = 0.040) and poorer heart rate variability parameters (P = 0.030). Although total fat and energy intake were not correlated with fat tissue distribution, increased intake of trans fat tended to be associated with total SAT (r = 0.228; P = 0.05) and DSAT (r = 0.20; P = 0.093), but not with SSAT. CONCLUSIONS Abdominal SAT is composed of two subdepots that associate differently with cardiometabolic parameters. Higher absolute and relative distribution of fat in abdominal SSAT may signify beneficial cardiometabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:22344612

  18. Intra-abdominal Infections.

    PubMed

    Shirah, Gina R; O'Neill, Patrick J

    2014-12-01

    Intra-abdominal infections are multifactorial, but all require prompt identification, diagnosis, and treatment. Resuscitation, early antibiotic administration, and source control are crucial. Antibiotic administration should initially be broad spectrum and target the most likely pathogens. When cultures are available, antibiotics should be narrowed and limited in duration. The method of source control depends on the anatomic site, site accessibility, and the patient's clinical condition. Patient-specific factors (advanced age and chronic medical conditions) as well as disease-specific factors (health care-associated infections and inability to obtain source control) combine to affect patient morbidity and mortality. PMID:25440126

  19. Doxycycline inhibition of aneurysmal degeneration in an elastase-induced rat model of abdominal aortic aneurysm: Preservation of aortic elastin associated with suppressed production of 92 kD gelatinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Drazen Petrinec; Shixiong Liao; Dennis R. Holmes; Jeffrey M. Reilly; William C. Parks; Robert W. Thompson

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Increased local production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is a potential mechanism underlying structural protein degradation in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). With an elastase-induced rodent model of AAA, we determined whether pharmacologic treatment with an MMP-inhibiting tetracycline might limit the development of experimental AAA in vivo.Methods: Forty-eight Wistar rats underwent a 2-hour perfusion of the abdominal aorta with 50 U

  20. Improving the Efficiency of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress Computations

    PubMed Central

    Zelaya, Jaime E.; Goenezen, Sevan; Dargon, Phong T.; Azarbal, Amir-Farzin; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a pathological dilation of the abdominal aorta, which carries a high mortality rate if ruptured. The most commonly used surrogate marker of rupture risk is the maximal transverse diameter of the aneurysm. More recent studies suggest that wall stress from models of patient-specific aneurysm geometries extracted, for instance, from computed tomography images may be a more accurate predictor of rupture risk and an important factor in AAA size progression. However, quantification of wall stress is typically computationally intensive and time-consuming, mainly due to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the abdominal aortic aneurysm walls. These difficulties have limited the potential of computational models in clinical practice. To facilitate computation of wall stresses, we propose to use a linear approach that ensures equilibrium of wall stresses in the aneurysms. This proposed linear model approach is easy to implement and eliminates the burden of nonlinear computations. To assess the accuracy of our proposed approach to compute wall stresses, results from idealized and patient-specific model simulations were compared to those obtained using conventional approaches and to those of a hypothetical, reference abdominal aortic aneurysm model. For the reference model, wall mechanical properties and the initial unloaded and unstressed configuration were assumed to be known, and the resulting wall stresses were used as reference for comparison. Our proposed linear approach accurately approximates wall stresses for varying model geometries and wall material properties. Our findings suggest that the proposed linear approach could be used as an effective, efficient, easy-to-use clinical tool to estimate patient-specific wall stresses. PMID:25007052

  1. Integrated landmark and outline-based morphometric methods efficiently distinguish species of Euglossa

    E-print Network

    Integrated landmark and outline-based morphometric methods efficiently distinguish species Abstract ­ Morphometric methods permit identification of insect species and are an aid for taxonomy this methodology. euglossine bees / species identification / morphometrics / wings / quantitative traits 1

  2. Geometric morphometric analyses of silica-scale variation in four Mallomonas species (Synurophyceae, Stramenopiles)

    E-print Network

    Geometric morphometric analyses of silica-scale variation in four Mallomonas species (Synurophyceae. The tools of geometric morphometrics (GM) were used to examine morphological variation of silica statistics, the classification experiments were done in a pairwise manner. Geometric morphometric based

  3. Investigation of a Block Matching Algorithm for Determining Spatial Constraints in Morphometric Analysis

    E-print Network

    Miga, Michael I.

    Investigation of a Block Matching Algorithm for Determining Spatial Constraints in Morphometric provide useful constraints for morphometric analysis methods used to measure neurodegenerative disease Recently, techniques of morphometric analysis have been applied to brain image volumes for the purpose

  4. Morphometric Analysis of Hippocampal Shape in Mild Cognitive Impairment: An Imaging Genetics Study

    E-print Network

    Chung, Moo K.

    Morphometric Analysis of Hippocampal Shape in Mild Cognitive Impairment: An Imaging Genetics Study MCI and Alzheimer's disease. I. INTRODUCTION Statistical morphometric analysis is used in biomedical imaging to study various structures of interest, and aims to identify morphometric abnormalities

  5. Geometric morphometrics of carapace of Macrobrachium australe (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) from Reunion Island

    E-print Network

    Debat, Vincent

    Geometric morphometrics of carapace of Macrobrachium australe (Crustacea: Palaemonidae) from Keywords: phenotypic plasticity, crustaceans, amphidr- omy, morphometrics, shape, carapace Accepted, V. 2012. Geometric morphometrics of carapace of Macrobrachium australe (Crustacea: Palaemonidae

  6. This paper summarizes our analyses of geographic variation in morphological and morphometric characters

    E-print Network

    and morphometric characters in the broad-footed mole (Scapanus latimanus). Based on significant morphometric because he found overlap in both morphometric and qualitative characters (e.g., the reduction of premolars

  7. Geometric morphometrics and qualitative patterns in the morphological variation of five species of Micrasterias (Zygnemophyceae, Viridiplantae)

    E-print Network

    Geometric morphometrics and qualitative patterns in the morphological variation of five species morphometrics and qualitative patterns of morphologi- cal variation in five species of Micrasterias (Zygnematophyceae, Viridiplantae). ­ Preslia 79: 401­417. Geometric morphometric analyses were conducted on cultured

  8. SPECIES STATUS IN QUESTION: A MORPHOMETRIC AND MOLECULAR COMPARISON OF CYRTOGRAPSUS AFFINIS AND C. ALTIMANUS

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    SPECIES STATUS IN QUESTION: A MORPHOMETRIC AND MOLECULAR COMPARISON OF CYRTOGRAPSUS AFFINIS AND C habitats. However, morphometric comparisons suggest the existence of a continuous gradient rather than discrete differences between specimens of C. affinis and C. altimanus. Morphometric differences were

  9. Geometric Morphometrics of Rodent Sperm Head Shape

    PubMed Central

    Varea Sánchez, María; Bastir, Markus; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa, particularly those of rodent species, are extremely complex cells and differ greatly in form and dimensions. Thus, characterization of sperm size and, particularly, sperm shape represents a major challenge. No consensus exists on a method to objectively assess size and shape of spermatozoa. In this study we apply the principles of geometric morphometrics to analyze rodent sperm head morphology and compare them with two traditional morphometry methods, that is, measurements of linear dimensions and dimensions-derived parameters calculated using formulae employed in sperm morphometry assessments. Our results show that geometric morphometrics clearly identifies shape differences among rodent spermatozoa. It is also capable of discriminating between size and shape and to analyze these two variables separately. Thus, it provides an accurate method to assess sperm head shape. Furthermore, it can identify which sperm morphology traits differ between species, such as the protrusion or retraction of the base of the head, the orientation and relative position of the site of flagellum insertion, the degree of curvature of the hook, and other distinct anatomical features and appendices. We envisage that the use of geometric morphometrics may have a major impact on future studies focused on the characterization of sperm head formation, diversity of sperm head shape among species (and underlying evolutionary forces), the effects of reprotoxicants on changes in cell shape, and phenotyping of genetically-modified individuals. PMID:24312234

  10. Ultrasound-Enhanced Thrombolytic Effect of Tissue Plasminogen Activator–Loaded Echogenic Liposomes in an In Vivo Rabbit Aorta Thrombus Model—Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Susan T.; Moody, Melanie; Smulevitz, Beverly; Kim, Hyunggun; Kee, Patrick; Huang, Shaoling; Holland, Christy K.; McPherson, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Ultrasound enhances thrombolysis when combined with a thrombolytic and a contrast agent. This study aimed to evaluate the thrombolytic effect of our tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)–loaded echogenic liposomes (ELIP) in an in vivo clot model, with and without ultrasound treatment. Methods and Results The femoral arteries of New Zealand White rabbits (n=4 per group) were cannulated. The abdominal aortas were denuded, and thrombi were created using a solution of sodium ricinoleate plus thrombin. Rabbits were then randomly selected to receive tPA-loaded ELIP (200 ?g of tPA/5 mg of lipid) or empty ELIP with or without pulsed (color) Doppler ultrasound (5.7 MHz) for 2 minutes. Thrombus was imaged and echogenicity analyzed before and after ELIP injection. Blood flow velocities were measured at baseline, after clot formation, and serially after treatment up to 15 minutes. tPA-loaded ELIP highlighted thrombus in the abdominal aorta more effectively than empty ELIP (P<0.05). Ultrasound enhanced the thrombolytic effect of tPA-loaded ELIP, resulting in earlier and more complete recanalization rates (P<0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrates effective highlighting of clots and thrombolytic effect of tPA-loaded ELIP in an in vivo rabbit aorta clot model. Doppler ultrasound treatment enhances this thrombolytic effect, resulting in earlier and more complete recanalization rates. PMID:21441137

  11. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad U Butt; Nikolaos Zacharias; George C Velmahos

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe

  12. Trans-Iliac Rat Aorta Stenting: A Novel High Throughput Preclinical Stent Model for Restenosis and Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Oyamada, Shizu; Ma, Xiaodong; Wu, Tim; Robich, Michael P.; Wu, Hao; Wang, Xingwei; Buchholz, Bryan; McCarthy, Stephen; Bianchi, Cesario F.; Sellke, Frank W.; Laham, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently, preclinical stent development requires elaborate large animal models which are time consuming and expensive. We herein report a high throughput rat aorta stenting model which could provide a rapid and low-cost platform for preclinical stent development. Methods A total of 86 metal stents (316L stainless steel 13mm, VasoTech, Inc.) coated with poly (D, L-lactide -co-glycolide) / amorphous calcium phosphate (PLGA/ACP) copolymer were pre-mounted on 1.5mm × 15mm balloon catheters and were implanted into aspirin treated Sprague-Dawley rats (500-700g) initially using either direct placement in the abdominal aorta (Group A, n = 7) or a trans-iliac approach (cut-down, Group B, n = 79). The surviving rats were sacrificed at 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 12 weeks post implantation and the stented arteries were analyzed histopathologically Results Four rats died in group A and nine rats died in group B within 48 hours post stent implantation (mortality: 57% vs. 11%, P<0.05). All animals that died had stent thrombosis/paralysis with visible thrombus on necropsy. Histologically, neointimal growth peaked at approximately 4 weeks post implantation. Conclusion This result suggests that human-sized stents can be successfully implanted into the rat aorta via iliac artery insertion with a significantly higher survival rate than trans-aorta implantation. The model system allows rapid (4-12 weeks) assessment of stent biocompatibility with mortality/paralysis used as an indicator of stent thrombosis. PMID:21195423

  13. [The abdominal drop flap].

    PubMed

    Bodin, F; Liverneaux, P; Seigle-Murandi, F; Facca, S; Bruant-Rodier, C; Dissaux, C; Chaput, B

    2015-08-01

    The skin between the mastectomy scar and the future infra-mammary fold may be managed in different ways in delayed breast reconstruction using a DIEP (deep inferior epigastric perforator). Conserving this skin and positioning the flap skin paddle in the middle of the breast usually highlights skin color disparity because of two visible transition zones. Resection of the entire skin under the scar may be more aesthetic but limits direct closure possibility in case of flap failure. In order to benefit from both aesthetic result and safe surgical method, we propose the abdominal drop flap. The inferior thoracic skin flap is detached from the thoracic wall beyond the future infra-mammary fold, preserved and pushed under the breast. PMID:25896871

  14. Snorkel/chimney and fenestrated endografts for complex abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Ullery, B W; Lee, J T; Dalman, R L

    2015-10-01

    Complex endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) involves extension of the proximal aortic seal zone with preservation of branch vessel patency, thereby expanding the applicability of endografting from the infrarenal to the suprarenal aorta. Snorkel/chimney (Sn-EVAR) and fenestrated EVAR (f-EVAR) serve as the two most commonly utilized advanced endovascular techniques to combat hostile proximal neck anatomy. The purpose of this article is to describe the principles and evolution of these advanced endovascular strategies, technical considerations, and results of sn- and f-EVAR in the management of challenging neck anatomy in abdominal aortic aneurysm disease. PMID:25800354

  15. Structural Modeling and Analysis of Structures in Aorta Images 

    E-print Network

    Xu, Hai

    2012-10-19

    Morphology change analysis of aorta images acquired from biological experiments plays a critical role in exploring the relationship between lamina thickness (LT), interlamellar distance (ILD) and fragmentation (furcation points) with respect...

  16. POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Ascending aorta backward flow parameters

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Laboratoire d'imagerie Fonctionnelle, INSERM, Paris, France. Published: 30 January 2013 doi:10.1186/1532-429X-15-S1-P230 Cite this article as: Bensalah et al.: Ascending aorta backward flow parameters estimated

  17. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  18. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

    2014-11-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  19. Original article Morphometrical control of pure race breeding

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Morphometrical control of pure race breeding in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L) D and seven samples of an A m carnica-breeding line from Hessen with the pure races A m mellifera and A m car-genes. The morphometrical control of pure race breeding turned out to be useful. The 'land bee' was at least in the studied

  20. Spectral morphometric characterization of breast carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Barshack, I; Kopolovic, J; Malik, Z; Rothmann, C

    1999-01-01

    The spectral morphometric characteristics of standard haematoxylin and eosin breast carcinoma specimens were evaluated by light microscopy combined with a spectral imaging system. Light intensity at each wavelength in the range of 450–800 nm was recorded for 104 pixels from each field and represented as transmitted light spectra. A library of six characteristic spectra served to scan the cells and reconstruct new images depicting the nuclear area occupied by each spectrum. Fifteen cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma and six cases of lobular carcinoma were examined; nine of the infiltrating ductal carcinoma and three of the lobular carcinoma showed an in situ component. The spectral morphometric analysis revealed a correlation between specific patterns of spectra and different groups of breast carcinoma cells. The most consistent result was that lobular carcinoma cells of in situ and infiltrating components from all patients showed a similar spectral pattern, whereas ductal carcinoma cells displayed spectral variety. Comparison of the in situ and the infiltrating ductal solid, cribriform and comedo carcinoma cells from the same patient revealed a strong similarity of the spectral elements and their relative distribution in the nucleus. The spectrum designated as number 5 in the library incorporated more than 40% of the nuclear area in 74.08% of the infiltrating lobular cells and in 13.64% of the infiltrating ductal carcinoma cells (P < 0.001). Spectrum number 2 appeared in all infiltrating ductal cells examined and in none of the lobular cells. These results indicate that spectrum number 5 is related to infiltrating lobular carcinoma, whereas spectrum number 2 is characteristic for infiltrating ductal carcinoma cells. Spectral similarity mapping of central necrotic regions of comedo type in situ carcinoma revealed nuclear fragmentation into defined segments composed of highly condensed chromatin. We conclude that the spectral morphometric features found for lobular and ductal cell populations may serve future automated histological diagnostics. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10188915

  1. Medial calcification (whitlockite) in the aorta.

    PubMed

    Reid, J D; Andersen, M E

    1993-07-01

    Calcified deposits in the tunica media of the human aorta have been studied in 128 cases by light microscopy and by electron microscopy and analytical methods in selected samples. Although dissolved and not visible in routine histology with alum hematoxylin stains, such calcification can be clearly seen after methylene blue staining in the form of unstained refractile particles of 1-2 microns size. These are found between the elastic laminae chiefly in the inner two-thirds of the media and appear at about age 20. By X-ray diffraction supported by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, they have been identified as whitlockite (Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2. Statistical analysis shows a significant increase in numbers with age and significant differences in severity related to county of origin but no differences between sexes or races and no correlation with deaths related to cardiovascular diseases. Among various substructures of the aortic wall, no unique crystal precursor was identified. Possible etiologic factors and clinicopathologic significance are considered. PMID:8379966

  2. The pathophysiologic basis of abdominal aortic aneurysm progression: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Jan Hn

    2015-07-01

    An aneurysm of the abdominal aorta is a common pathology and a major cause of sudden death in the elderly. Currently, abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) can only be treated by surgery and an effective medical therapy is urgently missing. The pathophysiology of AAAs is complex and is believed to be best described as a comprehensive inflammatory response with an accompanying proteolytic imbalance; the latter being held responsible for the progressive weakening of the aortic wall. Remarkably, while interference in inflammatory and/or proteolytic cascades proves highly effective in preclinical studies, emerging clinical studies consistently fail to show a benefit. In fact, some anti-inflammatory interventions appear to adversely influence the disease process. Altogether, recent clinical observations not only challenge the prevailing concepts of AAA progression, but also raise doubt on the translatability of findings from rodent models for growing AAA. PMID:26028299

  3. Increased cardiovascular risk without generalized arterial dilating diathesis in persons who do not have abdominal aortic aneurysm but who are first-degree relatives of abdominal aortic aneurysm patients.

    PubMed

    Basso, Rachel De; Sandgren, Thomas; Ahlgren, Åsa Rydén; Länne, Toste

    2015-06-01

    There is a strong genetic predisposition towards abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), but it is unknown whether persons without AAA but with first-degree relatives who are AAA patients have a generalized dilating diathesis, defect arterial wall mechanics, or increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to investigate arterial diameters and wall mechanics at multiple arterial sites in these subjects and compare them with controls without a family history of AAA. This study included 118 first-degree relatives of patients with AAA and 66 controls (age: 40-80 years). The abdominal aorta, common carotid artery, common femoral artery, and popliteal artery were investigated by echo-tracking ultrasound. The relatives had no arterial dilatation, but they did tend to have smaller diameters than controls. Relatives had a higher heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure than controls. The distensibility coefficient and the compliance coefficient were decreased in all arteries in male relatives, adjusted for age and smoking; these coefficients were normalized after adjustment for mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Female relatives had a lower compliance coefficient in the abdominal aorta, adjusted for age and smoking. After adjustment for mean arterial pressure and heart rate, the difference disappeared. No general arterial dilatation in relatives without AAA was found, supporting the hypothesis that the dilating diathesis is linked to the aneurysmal manifestation in the abdominal aorta. Although the threat of aneurysmal dilatation and rupture seems to be lacking in these subjects, heart rate, blood pressure, and arterial wall stiffness were all increased, which may indicate a higher risk of developing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:25882720

  4. Abdominal Radical Trachelectomy

    PubMed Central

    C?pîlna, Mihai Emil; Ioanid, Nicolae; Scripcariu, Viorel; Gavrilescu, Madalina Mihaela; Szabo, Bela

    2014-01-01

    Objective Abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART) is one of the fertility-sparing procedures in women with early-stage cervical cancer. The published results of ART, in comparison with vaginal radical trachelectomy, so far are limited. Materials and Methods This retrospective study comprises all cases of female patients referred to ART with early-stage cervical cancer from 2 gynecologic oncology centers in Romania. Results A total of 29 women were referred for ART, but subsequently, fertility could not be preserved in 3 of them. Eleven women had stage IA2 disease (42.3%), 14 (53.8%) women had stage IB1 disease, and 1 (3.8%) woman had stage IB2 disease. Histologic subtypes were 15 (57.6%) squamous, 8 (30.7%) adenocarcinoma, and 3 (11.5%) adenosquamous. There were no major intraoperative complications in both hospitals. Early postoperative complications were mainly related to the type C parametrectomy—bladder dysfunction for more than 7 days (8 [30.7%] women) and prolonged constipation (6 [23.0%] women). Other complications consisted in symptomatic lymphocele in 2 (7.6%) patients, which were drained. Median follow-up time was 20 months (range, 4–43 months). Up to the present time, there has been 1 (3.8%) recurrence in our series. Most patients did not experience late postoperative complications. Three (11.5%) women are amenorrheic, and 1 (3.8%) woman developed a cervical stenosis. Of the 23 women who have normal menstruation and maintained their fertility, a total of 7 (30.4%) women have attempted pregnancy, and 3 (42.8%) of them achieved pregnancy spontaneously. These pregnancies ended in 2 first trimester miscarriages and 1 live birth at term by cesarean delivery. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that ART preserves fertility and maintains excellent oncological outcomes with low complication rates. PMID:24445820

  5. Abdominal Aortic Diameter and the Risk for Asymptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Amer, Moatasem Salah; Omar, Omar Hussien; Reda, Randa Abdel Wahab; Rahman, Tomader Taha Abdel; Rasheedy, Doha

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is common among older people because it often results from atherosclerosis, which becomes more common with age. The disease is particularly common among people who have diabetes. Little information is available on the relation between abdominal aortic diameter and PAD in elderly patients with diabetes. This article studies the relationships between abdominal aortic diameter, PAD, and the cardiovascular risk factors in asymptomatic elderly patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus. A case-control study was conducted on 90 participants aged 60 years and older divided into 60 cases (30 males and 30 females) and 30 age-matched healthy controls (15 males and 15 females). The relationships between the size of the abdominal aorta and ankle-brachial index (ABI), plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were examined. Approximately, 15% of patients with diabetes had asymptomatic PAD. The patients with diabetes with PAD were of older age (70.4?±?3.6 vs. 63.4?±?3.9 years; p?=?0.000), had larger abdominal aortic diameter (22.4?±?3.08 vs. 18.7?±?2?mm; p?=?0.000), and higher CRP levels (8.3?±?1.1 vs. 5.8?±?2.2 mg/L; p?=?0.002), while other variables revealed no significant difference. Abdominal aortic diameter correlated well with ABI measured by Doppler method in diabetic patients (r?=??-?0.471, p?=?0.000). Older age and larger abdominal aorta are independent risk factors for asymptomatic PAD in the elderly with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26060382

  6. Mesoesophagus and other fascial structures of the abdominal and lower thoracic esophagus: a histological study using human embryos and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Si Eun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Bae, Sang In; Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2014-12-01

    A term "mesoesophagus" has been often used by surgeons, but the morphology was not described well. To better understand the structures attaching the human abdominal and lower thoracic esophagus to the body wall, we examined serial or semiserial sections from 10 embryos and 9 fetuses. The esophagus was initially embedded in a large posterior mesenchymal tissue, which included the vertebral column and aorta. Below the tracheal bifurcation at the fifth week, the esophagus formed a mesentery-like structure, which we call the "mesoesophagus," that was sculpted by the enlarging lungs and pleural cavity. The pneumatoenteric recess of the pleuroperitoneal canal was observed in the lowest part of the mesoesophagus. At the seventh week, the mesoesophagus was divided into the upper long and lower short parts by the diaphragm. Near the esophageal hiatus, the pleural cavity provided 1 or 2 recesses in the upper side, while the fetal adrenal gland in the left side was attached to the lower side of the mesoesophagus. At the 10th and 18th week, the mesoesophagus remained along the lower thoracic esophagus, but the abdominal esophagus attached to the diaphragm instead of to the left adrenal. The mesoesophagus did not contain any blood vessels from the aorta and to the azygos vein. The posterior attachment of the abdominal esophagus seemed to develop to the major part of the phrenoesophageal membrane with modification from the increased mass of the left fetal adrenal. After postnatal degeneration of the fetal adrenal, the abdominal esophagus might again obtain a mesentery. Consequently, the mesoesophagus seemed to correspond to a small area containing the pulmonary ligament and aorta in adults. PMID:25548720

  7. Method for extracting the aorta from 3D CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2007-03-01

    Bronchoscopic biopsy of the central-chest lymph nodes is vital in the staging of lung cancer. Three-dimensional multi-detector CT (MDCT) images provide vivid anatomical detail for planning bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, many lymph nodes are situated close to the aorta, and an inadvertent needle biopsy could puncture the aorta, causing serious harm. As an eventual aid for more complete planning of lymph-node biopsy, it is important to define the aorta. This paper proposes a method for extracting the aorta from a 3D MDCT chest image. The method has two main phases: (1) Off-line Model Construction, which provides a set of training cases for fitting new images, and (2) On-Line Aorta Construction, which is used for new incoming 3D MDCT images. Off-Line Model Construction is done once using several representative human MDCT images and consists of the following steps: construct a likelihood image, select control points of the medial axis of the aortic arch, and recompute the control points to obtain a constant-interval medial-axis model. On-Line Aorta Construction consists of the following operations: construct a likelihood image, perform global fitting of the precomputed models to the current case's likelihood image to find the best fitting model, perform local fitting to adjust the medial axis to local data variations, and employ a region recovery method to arrive at the complete constructed 3D aorta. The region recovery method consists of two steps: model-based and region-growing steps. This region growing method can recover regions outside the model coverage and non-circular tube structures. In our experiments, we used three models and achieved satisfactory results on twelve of thirteen test cases.

  8. A Propensity Score-Matching Analysis of Transthoracic Echocardiography and Abdominal Ultrasonography for the Detection of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Takao; Ishida, Seiko; Miyamoto, Shoichi; Iura, Tamae; Ban, Yoko; Fujikawa, Jun; Nakane, Eisaku; Izumi, Toshiaki; Haruna, Tetsuya; Ueyama, Koji; Nohara, Ryuji; Inoko, Moriaki

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We previously reported that the prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) was higher in patients undergoing scheduled transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) than in patients undergoing abdominal ultrasonography (AUS); however, intergroup patient backgrounds differed significantly in that report. PURPOSE We tested the hypothesis that TTE could detect AAA as effectively as AUS. DESIGN A propensity score-matching analysis of a cross-sectional study was adopted as the design for this study. METHODS We enrolled 7,619 and 15,433 patients scheduled to undergo TTE with additional evaluation of abdominal aorta at the end of the routine study and AUS, respectively, from 2009 to 2010 in our hospital, as reported. A propensity score for profiles of patients who underwent TTE or AUS was developed to adjust for potential confounding bias. Consequently, 4,388 patients in each group were matched for analyses. RESULTS In propensity-matched patients, AAA was detected in 59 patients of the TTE group and in 48 patients of the AUS group; the prevalence of AAA detection did not differ significantly between TTE and AUS groups (P = 0.331). Positive associations were observed between AAA detection and male sex (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 3.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.05–5.15; P < 0.001), older age (adjusted OR: 1.029; 95% CI: 1.01–1.04; P < 0.001), and the presence of ischemic heart disease (adjusted OR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.04–3.03; P = 0.033) and hypertension (adjusted OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.38–3.37; P = 001). CONCLUSION TTE detected AAA with comparable efficacy as AUS in propensity-matched groups who underwent scheduled TTE and AUS. PMID:25861228

  9. A new technique for intra-abdominal arteries revascularization via extra-anatomic bypass from the brachiocephalic artery with a videoscopic retrosternal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Javerliat, Isabelle; Pichon, Audrey; Glorion, Matthieu; Coscas, Raphaël; Goëau-Brissonnière, Olivier; Coggia, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Extra-anatomic revascularizations of intra-abdominal or lower limbs arteries, or both, are indicated (1) when the aorta is unsuitable for anatomic bypasses, (2) in patients unfit for aortic surgery, (3) for graft infections, and (4) for visceral debranching during hybrid treatment of a thoracoabdominal aneurysm. We describe a new extra-anatomic bypass from the brachiocephalic artery with video-guided retrosternal tunneling. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of this technique. PMID:25936654

  10. Fault-bounded mountains and morphometric properties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sue Swanson

    This exercise is based on the information presented in following article: Bull, W.B., 1984, Tectonic Geomorphology: Journal of Geological Education 32, pp.310-324. To prepare for the classroom exercise, the instructor briefly presents the concept that measurable landform properties can reflect the intensity of tectonic activity. We discuss that certain landforms and settings are particularly useful in these types of analyses, for example, fault-bounded mountains and piedmonts. The class goes through a quick review of dip-slip faults, fault scarps, and triangular facets, and the Tobin Range is introduced as a typical example of a fault-bounded mountain range. We then ask the question, what are the useful characteristics of these settings in terms of inferring tectonic activity? To address the question, students work in groups of 2 or 3. Each group is given a set of topographic maps chosen from the following (the region can also be printed from CDs of digital, seamless topo.s, but the quad. names are provided for reference): 7.5 minute quad.s: Home Station Ranch , Jersey Summit , Kennedy Canyon, Mount Tobin , Needle Peak 15-minute quad.s: Mt. Tobin, Buffalo Springs, Cain Mountain On each map set, two lengths along the fault scarps are marked. One is marked in red and one in purple. Each student group has a map set of a slightly different region, but all map sets have a red fault scarp and a purple fault scarp marked. The red fault scarps in all of the sets are those that have experienced more recent displacement. Each group is asked to do the following: 1. List physical characteristics of each of the two fault-bounded mountains/piedmonts that are marked on your quad.s with different colors. 2. Decide among yourselves which fault-bounded mountains/piedmont has experienced more recent displacement. 3. Suggest morphometric properties that could be used to differentiate between the more recent and less recent displacement, and explain why each of your properties makes sense. Morphometric properties must be measurable from the topographic maps. After about 10 minutes, the class reconvenes and we go through the first two questions as a class. Then, each group presents at least one morphometric property and explains their reasoning. Once we have a list of properties that the class agrees on, the instructor presents and the class discusses the properties that Bull (1984) used in his research of the Tobin Range region, such as sinuosity, the ratio between the valley floor width and the total valley height, the development of triangular facets. Designed for a geomorphology course Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills

  11. Abdominal muscle training in sport.

    PubMed Central

    Norris, C M

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates several abdominal exercises, and highlights factors which are important for their safe prescription and effective use. The function of the abdominal muscles and hip flexors is considered, and the importance of the infra-umbilical portion of the rectus abdominis is emphasized. The effects of flexion on the lumbar spine are outlined. The trunk curl, sit-up, and straight leg raise are analysed, together with modifications of these exercises. The effect of foot fixation and hip flexion during the performance of the sit-up is discussed. The sit-up performed with foot fixation, and the bilateral straight leg raise can compound hip muscle imbalance, and both hyperextend and hyperflex the lumbar spine and are therefore not recommended. The importance of muscular control of pelvic tilt is considered with reference to muscle imbalance around the pelvis. It is recommended that a musculoskeletal assessment should be performed before prescribing abdominal exercises. Exercise therapy to re-educate control of pelvic tilt is described. Intra-abdominal pressure, and the effects of abdominal exercise on this mechanism, and lumbar stabilization are examined. The importance of training specificity is stressed. PMID:8457806

  12. Elastic fibers and collagen distribution in human aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira-Damiani, G.; Ferro, D. P.; Adam, R. L.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Pelegati, V.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, K.

    2011-03-01

    Elastic and collagen fibers are essential components of the aorta, the remodeling of these structures is accompanied with aging in various diseases and life-threatening events. While the elastic fibers confer resilience to major blood vessels collagen confers resistance to the same. Elastic fibers are easily visualized in the fluorescent light when stained with hematoxylin eosin. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) is a non linear signal that occurs only in molecules without inversion symmetry and is particularly strong in the collagen fibers arranged in triple helices. The aim of this paper is to describe the distribution of collagen in the thickness of the thoracic aorta, and to demonstrate the distribution of between elastic fibers. The images were acquired in a multifoton microscopy and both signals, Two-phtoton excitaded fluorescence (TPEF) and SHG, were excited by a Ti:Sapphire laser. We used a band pass filter to filter the SHG signal from the TPEF signal. The thickness of the aorta varies 2-3 mm, and the image was composed of the juxtaposition of images of 220 x 220 microns. We acquired images of a histological slide of the thoracic aorta stained with picrosirius red (specific for collagen) at a wavelength of 670nm SHG subsequently acquired images with the same region and observed that the images are overlapping. Therefore, the following images were acquired by confocal microscopy (fluorescence of eosin for visualization of elastic fibers) and for collagen SHG. After reconstruction of the images, we observed the distribution of collagen along the aorta.

  13. Catalase overexpression in aortic smooth muscle prevents pathological mechanical changes underlying abdominal aortic aneurysm formation

    PubMed Central

    Maiellaro-Rafferty, Kathryn; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Wan, William; Gleason, Rudolph L.

    2011-01-01

    The causality of the associations between cellular and mechanical mechanisms of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation has not been completely defined. Because reactive oxygen species are established mediators of AAA growth and remodeling, our objective was to investigate oxidative stress-induced alterations in aortic biomechanics and microstructure during subclinical AAA development. We investigated the mechanisms of AAA in an angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion model of AAA in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE?/?) mice that overexpress catalase in vascular smooth muscle cells (apoE?/?xTgSMC-Cat). At baseline, aortas from apoE?/?xTgSMC-Cat exhibited increased stiffness and the microstructure was characterized by 50% more collagen content and less elastin fragmentation. ANG II treatment for 7 days in apoE?/? mice altered the transmural distribution of suprarenal aortic circumferential strain (quantified by opening angle, which increased from 130 ± 1° at baseline to 198 ± 8° after 7 days of ANG II treatment) without obvious changes in the aortic microstructure. No differences in aortic mechanical behavior or suprarenal opening angle were observed in apoE?/?xTgSMC-Cat after 7 days of ANG II treatment. These data suggest that at the earliest stages of AAA development H2O2 is functionally important and is involved in the control of local variations in remodeling across the vessel wall. They further suggest that reduced elastin integrity at baseline may predispose the abdominal aorta to aneurysmal mechanical remodeling. PMID:21551275

  14. Considerations in Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Justin M.; Broyles, Justin M.; Baumann, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of complex defects of the central abdomen is both challenging and technically demanding for plastic surgeons. Advancements in the use of pedicle and free tissue transfer along with the use of bioprosthetic and synthetic meshes have provided for novel approaches to these complex defects. Accordingly, detailed knowledge of abdominal wall and lower extremity anatomy in combination with insight into the design, implementation, and limitations of various flaps is essential to solve these complex clinical problems. Although these defects can be attributed to a myriad of etiologic factors, the objectives in abdominal wall reconstruction are consistent and include the restoration of abdominal wall integrity, protection of intraabdominal viscera, and the prevention of herniation. In this article, it is our goal to review pertinent anatomy, pre- and postoperative care regimens, and the various local, regional, and distant flaps that can be utilized in the reconstruction of these complex clinical cases of the central abdomen. PMID:23372451

  15. Lap Pak for Abdominal Retraction

    PubMed Central

    Sivarajan, Ganesh; Chang, Sam S; Fergany, Amr; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Steinberg, Gary D; Lepor, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Retraction of the bowels during abdominal surgery is generally facilitated by the use of a combination of various retractors along with surgical towels or sponges. The use of surgical towels and sponges may lead to retained foreign bodies or adhesions. In addition, these towels and sponges often require manipulation during long surgical procedures. The ideal way to avoid these problems in abdominal surgery is to develop a technique for retraction of the abdominal contents that eliminates the requirement for these foreign bodies. This article presents the results of a small trial for Lap Pak (Seguro Surgical, Columbia, MD), a disposable radio-opaque device that is made of silicone and retracts the bowels in a cephalad orientation without the need for towels or sponges. PMID:23526186

  16. Helical CT angiography of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G D

    1997-04-01

    Five years after its introduction (11,36), spiral or helical CTA is being embraced as an important noninvasive tool for imaging the thoracic aorta and its branches. The high degree of accessibility and ease with which the studies are performed make it a viable alternative to aortography in the acute setting. Once the examiner is familiar with the principles of CTA, the acquisition phase of the examination can be completed in as little as 15 minutes, but it is critical that a thorough understanding of these principles guide the radiologist to maximize information gained by the technique. Several important challenges remain for CTA. First, the proliferation of image-processing workstations and software is improving our ability to exploit these CT data by allowing us to visualize them in novel ways (37) and create alternative renderings with greater ease and speed. Before relying on these alternative visualization techniques, their accuracy and pitfalls, and the incremental gain they achieve over interpretation of the primary transverse sections must be fully established. This requires that carefully designed studies with multiple blinded and independent reviewers isolate interpretative variations based on rendering technique alone, and not a combination of rendering and acquisition techniques where variables readily are confounded (38). Second, more investigators must step forward with results of the clinical utility of CTA to triage patients appropriately and direct medical and surgical therapy. Although well designed prospective comparisons of imaging examinations and measurement of patient outcomes are challenging to implement, they are critical to the rational selection of appropriate diagnostic tests. This is particularly true for the application of helical CTA to imaging of the posttraumatic aortic and aortic dissection. Finally, helical CT technology is far from static. Every year, new advances in engineering bring better image quality, improved resolution, and faster scan times. As medical imagers, we must not become complacent, but rather constantly challenge ourselves to consider how we might further improve on our use of CT equipment to maximize the collection of information relevant to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:9179826

  17. Pericardiectomy causing abdominal hernia incarceration.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Taufiek Konrad; Maurice, Musoni; Munyana, Jackline; Robinson, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    A 26-year-old Rwandan male presented with constrictive pericarditis, massive ascites and a giant umbilical hernia that had been asymptomatic for over a decade. Successful pericardiectomy was complicated by prompt incarceration of the abdominal hernia. This unexpected complication was caused by rapid resolution of the ascites due to autodiuresis and subsequent collapse of the hernial orifice. Patients with constrictive pericarditis and massive ascites who are evaluated for pericardiectomy should be carefully examined for the presence of abdominal hernias. If any such hernias are found, perioperative hernia repair should be considered and postoperative diuresis should be undertaken under close observation. PMID:21930673

  18. Recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Buch, Niyaz A; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq; Ahmed, S Zubair; Ali, Syed Wazid; Charoo, B A; Hassan, Masood Ul

    2002-09-01

    Eighty five children with recurrent abdominal pain(RAP) were studied. Organic cause was noticed in 70 cases and non-organic in 15 cases. Giardiasis was the commonest organic cause in 57 (67.0 percent), either alone or with other parasitic infestations. Other organic causes include gallstones (4.7 percent), urinary infections (4.7 percent), esophagitis/gastritis (3.5 percent) and abdominal tuberculosis (2.3 percent). Single parent, school phobia, sibling rivalry, RAP in other family members and nocturnal enuresis are significant factors associated with nonorganic causes PMID:12368527

  19. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

    1998-01-01

    A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  20. Abdominal imaging in child abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Raissaki; Corinne Veyrac; Eleonore Blondiaux; Christiana Hadjigeorgi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction  Abdominal injuries in abused children are less common than musculoskeletal and craniocerebral injuries; however they carry\\u000a high mortality and morbidity rates. In every case of trauma, regardless of aetiology, radiologists are responsible for the\\u000a documentation and evaluation of injuries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Injuries  Any abdominal injury pattern maybe observed following physical abuse and none is specific for abuse. However, a high index\\u000a of suspicion

  1. Wall Shear Stress in Aorta with Coarctation and Post-Stenotic Dilatation - Scale Resolved Simulation of Pulsatile Blood Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardhagen, Roland; Karlsson, Matts

    2012-11-01

    Large eddy simulations of pulsating blood flow in an idealized model of a human aorta with a coarctation and a post-stenotic dilatation were conducted before and after treatment of the stenosis using Ansys Fluent. The aim was to study wall shear stress (WSS), which influences the function of endothelial cells, and turbulence, which may play a role in thrombus formation. Phase average values of WSS before the treatment revealed high shear in the stenosis at peak systole, as expected, but also at the end of the dilatation. In the dilatation backflow causes a negative peak. Diastolic WSS is characterized by low amplitude oscillations, which promotes atherogenesis. Also noticeable is the asymmetric pattern between the inner and outer sides of the vessel caused by the arch upstream of the stenosis. Thus, large spatial, temporal, and probably asymmetric WSS gradients in the already diseased region suggest increased risk for further endothelial dysfunction. This reflects a complex, partly turbulent, flow pattern that may disturb the blood flow in the abdominal aorta. After treatment of the stenosis, but not the dilatation, fluctuations of velocity and WSS were still found, thus harmful flow conditions still exist.

  2. MORPHOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN ENGLISH SOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present an application of the powerful thin plate spline method of morphometric analysis to demonstrate its utility for detecting environmental stress in an estuarine flatfish. Juvenile English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) were captured from Yaquina Bay, Oregon, photographed w...

  3. A Behavioral Analysis of Clovis Point Morphology Using Geometric Morphometrics 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Heather Lynn

    2012-02-14

    and discard. As an analytical tool, this study utilizes the geometric morphometric method to retain the geometry of each artifact throughout analysis by focusing on spatial covariation among landmarks uniformly found on each tool. This thesis investigates...

  4. Pseudoaneurysm of the descending aorta complicating an untreated aortic coarctation.

    PubMed

    Prifti, Edvin; Kuci, Saimir; Krakulli, Klodian; Nuellari, Edmond

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old man was referred for severe aortic coarctation. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography confirmed the aortic coarctation diagnosis and showed an aortic pseudoaneurysm arising from the anterior and left surface of the descending aorta, communicating with the aortic lumen with a small neck. Under cardiopulmonary bypass through the femoral vessels, the patient underwent closure of the pseudoaneurysm neck using a synthetic patch and interposition of a prosthetic graft between the left subclavian artery and the descending aorta below the pseudoaneurysm. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:25555985

  5. Techniques of imaging of the aorta and its first order branches by endoscopic ultrasound (with videos)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Malay; Rai, Praveer; Mehta, Varun; Rameshbabu, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a useful modality for imaging of the blood vessels of the mediastinum and abdomen. The aorta acts as an important home base during EUS imaging. The aorta and its branches are accessible by standard angiographic methods, but endosonography also provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the aorta and its branches. This article describes the techniques of imaging of different part of the aorta by EUS. PMID:26020043

  6. A rare combination of vascular anomalies: Hypoplastic aortic arch, coarctation of the aorta and poststenotic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Bayar, Nermin; Arslan, ?akir; Üreyen, Ça??n Mustafa; Küçükseymen, Selçuk; Erol, Bekir

    2015-04-01

    Coarctation of the aorta is the fifth most common congenital cardiac anomaly encountered in adults. It is important for prognosis to diagnose and treat this anomaly early. An aneurysm might develop due to tunica media abnormalities in patients with coarctation of the aorta. We hereby present an adult case with a very rare combination of vascular anomalies including ascending aorta aneurysm, hypoplastic aortic arch, coarctation of the aorta and poststenotic aneurysm. PMID:25905999

  7. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Després; Isabelle Lemieux

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease

  8. Abdominal Tuberculosis: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Manoj; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Kumar, Ashutosh; Dutta, Shyamoli

    2015-01-01

    Background Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is the sixth most common form of extra-pulmonary site of infection after lymphatic, genitourinary, bone and joint, miliary and meningeal TB with a rising incidence in recent years. TB can affect any part of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract including anus, peritoneum and hepato-biliary system. The clinical manifestations of abdominal tuberculosis are non-specific and mimic various GI disorders and cause delay in diagnosis and management. Aim To evaluate the various clinical, radiological and microbiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis and to define the role of histopathological examination in establishing the diagnosis in resource poor settings and to analyze the compliance and response to anti-tubercular treatment. Materials and Methods A five year retrospective study (January 2010 to December 2014) was done in a tertiary teaching hospital in Northern India and all the cases diagnosed as abdominal tuberculosis during the study period, were included. The relevant clinical informations, laboratory results, microbiological and radiological investigations were recorded. Histopathological examination of all the resected / excised specimens was done and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining to detect the tubercular bacilli and Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain to rule out fungal infection was done in all the cases. Results Out of 48 cases with abdominal tuberculosis, the average age of presentation was 27.4 years with a slight male predominance (Male:Female=1.4:1). Abdominal pain (100%) was the most common presenting symptom followed by anorexia (98%), fever (88%) and intestinal obstruction (88%). The ileum was the most common site of involvement. All the 45 resected / excised tissue specimens (34 cases of intestinal resection and 11 cases of intesinal, omental and lymph nodes biopsies) showed epithelioid granulomas along with necrosis (in 38 cases) and Langhans giant cells (in 42 cases). Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) positivity was seen in 5 tissue specimens only. All patients were put on anti-tubercular treatment and majority showed good response to therapy. Conclusion Abdominal tuberculosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with vague GI symptoms. Study of histopathological findings can aid in the diagnosis in the settings where advanced molecular methods of diagnosis are not available, leading to early diagnosis and management.

  9. Abdominal pregnancy: Methods of hemorrhage control

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Shipra; Khan, Tamkin; Srivastava, Kumkumrani

    2015-01-01

    Summary Abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare form of ectopic pregnancy, mostly occurring secondarily after tubal rupture or abortion with secondary implantation anywhere in the peritoneal cavity. Massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage is a life threatening complication associated with secondary abdominal pregnancy. Various methods and techniques have been reported in the literature for controlling hemorrhage. Here, we report a case of massive intraperitoneal haemorrhage following placental removal controlled by abdominal packing and review the literature for diagnostic and management challenges. PMID:25984430

  10. Influence of Tribulus terrestris extract on lipid profile and endothelial structure in developing atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of rabbits on a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, M Altug; Yaymaci, Bengi; Sati, Leyla; Cayli, Sevil; Acar, Goksemin; Altug, Tuncay; Demir, Ramazan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pleotropic effects of an extract of a traditional herb, Tribulus terrestris (TT), on the lipid profile and vascular endothelium of the abdominal aorta in New Zealand rabbits fed a cholesterol-rich diet. Eighteen rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (n=6 for each). One experimental group (EG-I) was given a cholesterol-rich diet, a second experimental group (EG-II) was treated with TT following a cholesterol-rich diet, and a control group (CG) was fed a standard diet. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and then at weeks 4 and 12 to determine total serum cholesterol (TC), high density lipid-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipid-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels. Tissues were collected from the abdominal aorta for immunohistochemistry and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In EG-II, the serum lipid profile was significantly lower than that of EG-I at week 12 with a reduction of TC: 65%; LDL-C: 66%; HDL-C: 64%; TG: 55%. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that endothelial damage was more prominent in EG-I compared to EG-II. The ruptured endothelial linings and damaged cellular surfaces increased in EG-I compared to EG-II. Our data indicate that dietary intake of TT can significantly lower serum lipid profiles, decrease endothelial cellular surface damage and rupture and may partially repair the endothelial dysfunction resulting from hyperlipidemia. PMID:19269683

  11. Reliability of MRI-derived cortical and subcortical morphometric measures: Effects of pulse sequence, voxel geometry, and parallel imaging

    E-print Network

    Corkin, Suzanne

    Reliability of MRI-derived cortical and subcortical morphometric measures: Effects of pulse of downstream morphometric measures has not been extensively studied. We examined how MRI methods could have a considerable impact on the reproducibility of morphometric measures. In addition

  12. Vaginal mesh erosion after abdominal sacral colpopexy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony G. Visco; Alison C. Weidner; Matthew D. Barber; Evan R. Myers; Geoffrey W. Cundiff; Richard C. Bump; W. Allen Addison

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Our goal was to compare the prevalence of vaginal mesh erosion between abdominal sacral colpopexy and various sacral colpoperineopexy procedures. Study Design: We undertook a retrospective analysis of all sacral colpopexies and colpoperineopexies performed between March 1, 1992, and February 28, 1999. The patients were divided into the following 4 groups: abdominal sacral colpopexy, abdominal sacral colpoperineopexy, and 2

  13. Pharmacological Inhibitor of Notch Signaling Stabilizes the Progression of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jeeyun; Koenig, Sara N.; Kuivaniemi, Helena S.; Garg, Vidu; Hans, Chetan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) involves a sustained influx of proinflammatory macrophages, which exacerbate tissue injury by releasing cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases. Previously, we showed that Notch deficiency reduces the development of AAA in the angiotensin II–induced mouse model by preventing infiltration of macrophages. Here, we examined whether Notch inhibition in this mouse model prevents progression of small AAA and whether these effects are associated with altered macrophage differentiation. Methods and Results Treatment with pharmacological Notch inhibitor (DAPT [N?(N?[3,5?difluorophenacetyl]?L?alanyl)?S?phenylglycine t?butyl ester]) at day 3 or 8 of angiotensin II infusion arrested the progression of AAA in Apoe?/? mice, as demonstrated by a decreased luminal diameter and aortic width. The abdominal aortas of Apoe?/? mice treated with DAPT showed decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases and presence of elastin precursors including tropoelastin and hyaluronic acid. Marginal adventitial thickening observed in the aorta of DAPT?treated Apoe?/? mice was not associated with increased macrophage content, as observed in the mice treated with angiotensin II alone. Instead, DAPT?treated abdominal aortas showed increased expression of Cd206?positive M2 macrophages and decreased expression of Il12?positive M1 macrophages. Notch1 deficiency promoted M2 differentiation of macrophages by upregulating transforming growth factor ?2 in bone marrow–derived macrophages at basal levels and in response to IL4. Protein expression of transforming growth factor ?2 and its downstream effector pSmad2 also increased in DAPT?treated Apoe?/? mice, indicating a potential link between Notch and transforming growth factor ?2 signaling in the M2 differentiation of macrophages. Conclusions Pharmacological inhibitor of Notch signaling prevents the progression of AAA by macrophage differentiation–dependent mechanisms. The study also provides insights for novel therapeutic strategies to prevent the progression of small AAA. PMID:25349182

  14. The Photoactivated Relaxation of Smooth Muscle of Rabbit Aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Furchgott; S. J. EHRREICH; E. GREENBLATT

    1961-01-01

    n B S T R n C T Smooth muscle of strips of rabbit aorta, placed in a state of ac- tive tonic contraction by addition of a stimulating drug, relaxes during exposure to light. The relaxation is reversible. The extent of relaxation produced by a standard exposure depends on the preexposure level of active contraction but not on the

  15. Cerebral ischaemia after repair of coarctation of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Gogou, Maria; Keivanidou, Anastasia; Giannopoulos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    A 9-year-old boy, with a history of repair of severe coarctation of the aorta through balloon angioplasty 2 weeks ago, presented in the emergency paediatric department with symptoms consistent with transient cerebral ischaemia. MRI revealed an area of cerebral infarction in the right frontal lobe. Causes of cerebral ischaemia after aortic coarctation repair are briefly discussed. PMID:24909116

  16. Xanthorrhizol induces endothelium-independent relaxation of rat thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Campos, M G; Oropeza, M V; Villanueva, T; Aguilar, M I; Delgado, G; Ponce, H A

    2000-06-01

    Xanthorrhizol, a bisabolene isolated from the medicinal plant Iostephane heterophylla, was assayed on rat thoracic aorta rings to elucidate its effect and likely mechanism of action, by measuring changes of isometric tension. Xanthorrhizol (1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 microg/mL) significantly inhibited precontractions induced by KCI-; (60mM), noradrenaline (10(-6) M) or CaCl2 (1.0 mM). Increasing concentrations of external calcium antagonized the inhibitory effect on KCl-induced contractions. The vasorelaxing effect of xanthorrhizol was not affected by indomethacin (10 microM) or L-NAME (100 microM) in intact rat thoracic aorta rings precontracted by noradrenaline, which suggested that the effect was not mediated through either endothelium-derived prostacyclin (PGI2) or nitric oxide release from endothelial cells. Endothelium removal did not affect the relaxation induced by xanthorrhizol on rat thoracic aorta rings, discarding the participation of any substance released by the endothelium. Xanthorrhizol inhibitory effect was greater on KCI- and CaCl2-induced contractions than on those induced by noradrenaline. Xanthorrhizol inhibitory effect in rat thoracic aorta is likely explained for interference with calcium availability by inhibiting calcium influx through both voltage- and receptor-operated channels. PMID:10983876

  17. Production and localization of 92-kilodalton gelatinase in abdominal aortic aneurysms. An elastolytic metalloproteinase expressed by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, R W; Holmes, D R; Mertens, R A; Liao, S; Botney, M D; Mecham, R P; Welgus, H G; Parks, W C

    1995-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are characterized by disruption and degradation of the elastic media, yet the elastolytic proteinases involved and their cellular sources are undefined. We examined if 92-kD gelatinase, an elastolytic matrix metalloproteinase, participates in the pathobiology of AAA. Gelatin zymography of conditioned medium from normal, atheroocclusive disease (AOD), or AAA tissues in organ culture showed that all tissues produced 72-kD gelatinase. AOD and AAA cultures also secreted 92-kD gelatinase, but significantly more enzyme was released from AAA tissues. ELISA confirmed that AAA tissues released approximately 2-fold more 92-kD gelatinase than AOD tissue and approximately 10-fold more than normal aorta. Phorbol ester induced a 5.3-fold increase in 92-kD gelatinase secretion by normal aorta and AOD and an 11.5-fold increase by AAA. By immunohistochemistry, 92-kD gelatinase was not detected in normal aorta and was only occasionally seen within the neointimal lesions of AOD tissue. In all AAA specimens, however, 92-kD gelatinase was readily localized to numerous macrophages in the media and at the adventitial-medial junction. The expression of 92-kD gelatinase mRNA by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages was confirmed by in situ hybridization. These results demonstrate that diseased aortic tissues secrete greater amounts of gelatinolytic activity than normal aorta primarily due to increased production of 92-kD gelatinase. In addition, the localization of 92-kD gelatinase to macrophages in the damaged wall of aneurysmal aortas suggests that chronic release of this elastolytic metalloproteinase contributes to extracellular matrix degradation in AAA. Images PMID:7615801

  18. Production and localization of 92-kilodalton gelatinase in abdominal aortic aneurysms. An elastolytic metalloproteinase expressed by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R W; Holmes, D R; Mertens, R A; Liao, S; Botney, M D; Mecham, R P; Welgus, H G; Parks, W C

    1995-07-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are characterized by disruption and degradation of the elastic media, yet the elastolytic proteinases involved and their cellular sources are undefined. We examined if 92-kD gelatinase, an elastolytic matrix metalloproteinase, participates in the pathobiology of AAA. Gelatin zymography of conditioned medium from normal, atheroocclusive disease (AOD), or AAA tissues in organ culture showed that all tissues produced 72-kD gelatinase. AOD and AAA cultures also secreted 92-kD gelatinase, but significantly more enzyme was released from AAA tissues. ELISA confirmed that AAA tissues released approximately 2-fold more 92-kD gelatinase than AOD tissue and approximately 10-fold more than normal aorta. Phorbol ester induced a 5.3-fold increase in 92-kD gelatinase secretion by normal aorta and AOD and an 11.5-fold increase by AAA. By immunohistochemistry, 92-kD gelatinase was not detected in normal aorta and was only occasionally seen within the neointimal lesions of AOD tissue. In all AAA specimens, however, 92-kD gelatinase was readily localized to numerous macrophages in the media and at the adventitial-medial junction. The expression of 92-kD gelatinase mRNA by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages was confirmed by in situ hybridization. These results demonstrate that diseased aortic tissues secrete greater amounts of gelatinolytic activity than normal aorta primarily due to increased production of 92-kD gelatinase. In addition, the localization of 92-kD gelatinase to macrophages in the damaged wall of aneurysmal aortas suggests that chronic release of this elastolytic metalloproteinase contributes to extracellular matrix degradation in AAA. PMID:7615801

  19. Chronic rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm with vertebral erosion: an uncommon but important cause of back pain.

    PubMed

    Singla, Veenu; Virmani, Vivek; Modi, Manish; Kalra, Naveen; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2014-11-01

    Chronic contained rupture of the aorta is a rare condition that may present with varied patient symptomatology. We present a case of contained rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm causing vertebral erosion in an elderly male patient who had chronic backache and presented to the emergency services with a recently developed throbbing epigastric mass. Early use of computed tomography enabled prompt diagnosis and the condition was managed by endovascular stenting. The clinical and imaging findings of this potentially fatal condition are described, awareness of which is important to the physicians, orthopedicians, surgeons, and radiologists. PMID:25017777

  20. A novel measurement technique for the design of fenestrated stent grafts: Comparison with three-dimensional aorta models

    PubMed Central

    You, Ji Hoon; Kang, Sung-Gwon; Kim, Bong Man

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stent graft placement is an acceptable treatment option for aortic disease, particularly for abdominal aortic aneurysm. At present, the use of stent grafts is expanding beyond current indications for use. Fenestrated stent grafts are used in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms whose aortic anatomy is unsuitable for repair using standard devices. The success of fenestrated stent graft placement is largely dependent on planning, including obtaining measurements and designing the stent. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a measurement technique that may be used for the design of fenestrated stent grafts to repair endovascular aneurysms, and to compare these measurements, obtained using archived two-dimensional patient data, with measurements obtained using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer-assisted design model. METHODS: Fenestrated stent grafts were designed and fabricated based on computed tomographic angiography images. 3-D models were constructed using modelling software and rapid prototyping technology incorporated with fused deposition modelling. The stent grafts were trunk-type, with four holes for the visceral branches (celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery, right renal artery and left renal artery). Computed tomography scans of 10 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were reviewed. Axial, multiplanar reconstruction and curved multiplanar reconstruction images were used to measure 11 parameters. Sizing of the fenestrated aortic stent grafts was performed independently by an experienced interventional radiologist, and the results were compared with the same measurements calculated using the 3-D aorta model (generated using Materialise Interactive Medical Image Control System software [Materialise NV, Belgium]). Data were reported as the mean of the measurements. Measurements were evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis and concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs). RESULTS: A total of 10 fenestrated stent grafts were fabricated. The proximal landing section above the celiac axis (one point of the wall being defined as the standard point) was 3 cm, and the distal flared section was 3 cm below the lowest renal artery. Ten computer-assisted design aorta models were successfully constructed. Measurements of the aortic diameter showed high agreement between those obtained using the archived patient computer system stent graft and those obtained using the 3-D aorta model. The CCC for variability was 0.9974. The distance from the standard point to the branch vessels also demonstrated good agreement. The CCC for variability was 0.9999. DISCUSSION: A direct measurement technique using a standard point was simple to perform and was easily applied to the fabrication process. Preparation time will likely be shortened and the versatility of stent grafts will be improved using this method. It will be possible to produce standardized fenestrated stent grafts once patients’ measurements are recorded and analyzed. CONCLUSION: A fenestrated stent graft design technique using measurements of distance from a standard point generally showed a high level of agreement with a 3-D aorta model. PMID:24294038

  1. Is cerebrospinal fluid drainage of benefit to neuroprotection in patients undergoing surgery on the descending thoracic aorta or thoracoabdominal aorta?

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Haris; O'Neill, Bridie; Mahmood, Sarah; Waterworth, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was ‘Is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage of benefit in patients undergoing surgery on the descending thoracic aorta or thoracoabdominal aorta?’ Altogether 1177 papers were found using the reported search, of which 17 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Ten of 13 studies demonstrate significant neurological protection from CSF drainage (±additional adjuncts), with two further papers showing no significant difference between patients who had or had not had CSF drainage and one study unable to provide any conclusions. For patients having surgery on the thoracic aorta or thoracoabdominal aorta CSF drainage, maintaining pressures <10 mmHg (P < 0.03), in conjunction with other neuroprotective strategies, minimizes the risk of neurological sequelae when compared with patients treated with similar adjuncts but without CSF drainage. The majority of studies used additional neuroprotective strategies, including cooling and reattachment of the intercostal arteries as adjuncts to CSF drainage. Logistic regression curves demonstrated that the longer the ischaemia time, the greater the benefit from CSF drainage (P < 0.04). Four papers observed complications of CSF drainage, of which the main complications were: catheter occlusion or dislodgement, headache, meningitis and subdural haematoma. Overall, CSF drainage does offer a neuroprotective benefit; preventing paraplegia if CSF pressures are maintained <10 mmHg. PMID:22761120

  2. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: pathophysiology and definitions

    PubMed Central

    Cheatham, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    "Intra-abdominal hypertension", the presence of elevated intra-abdominal pressure, and "abdominal compartment syndrome", the development of pressure-induced organ-dysfunction and failure, have been increasingly recognized over the past decade as causes of significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill surgical and medical patients. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure can cause significant impairment of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and central nervous system function. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. A thorough understanding of the pathophysiologic implications of elevated intra-abdominal pressure is fundamental to 1) recognizing the presence of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, 2) effectively resuscitating patients afflicted by these potentially life-threatening diseases, and 3) preventing the development of intra-abdominal pressure-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. The currently accepted consensus definitions surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome are presented. PMID:19254364

  3. Constitutive modelling of abdominal organs.

    PubMed

    Miller, K

    2000-03-01

    Abdominal organs are very susceptible to trauma. In order to protect them properly against car crash and other impact consequences, we need to be able to simulate the abdominal organ deformation. Such simulation should account for proper stress-strain relation as well as stress dependence on strain rate. As the step in this direction, this paper presents three-dimensional, non-linear, viscoelastic constitutive models for liver and kidney tissue. The models have been constructed basing on in vivo experiments conducted in Highway Safety Research Institute and the Medical Centre of The University of Michigan (Melvin et al., 1973). The proposed models are valid for compressive nominal strains up to 35% and fast (impact) strain rates between 0.2 and 22.5 s(-1). Similar models can find applications in computer and robot assisted surgery, e.g. the realistic simulation of surgical procedures (including virtual reality) and non-rigid registration. PMID:10673121

  4. Abdominal MR: liver and pancreas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bartolozzi; R. Lencioni; F. Donati; D. Cioni

    1999-01-01

    .   Following the introduction of rapid, high-quality scan techniques and the development of new, tissue-specific contrast agents,\\u000a the applications of MRI for abdominal imaging are experiencing unprecedented growth. This article examines the current status\\u000a of liver and pancreatic MRI, highlighting technical and methodological approach, use of contrast agents, and main clinical\\u000a applications. The MRI technique appears to be the ideal

  5. 3D image analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, Marko; Loncaric, Sven; Sorantin, Erich

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we propose a technique for 3-D segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) from computed tomography angiography (CTA) images. Output data (3-D model) form the proposed method can be used for measurement of aortic shape and dimensions. Knowledge of aortic shape and size is very important in planning of minimally invasive procedure that is for selection of appropriate stent graft device for treatment of AAA. The technique is based on a 3-D deformable model and utilizes the level-set algorithm for implementation of the method. The method performs 3-D segmentation of CTA images and extracts a 3-D model of aortic wall. Once the 3-D model of aortic wall is available it is easy to perform all required measurements for appropriate stent graft selection. The method proposed in this paper uses the level-set algorithm for deformable models, instead of the classical snake algorithm. The main advantage of the level set algorithm is that it enables easy segmentation of complex structures, surpassing most of the drawbacks of the classical approach. We have extended the deformable model to incorporate the a priori knowledge about the shape of the AAA. This helps direct the evolution of the deformable model to correctly segment the aorta. The algorithm has been implemented in IDL and C languages. Experiments have been performed using real patient CTA images and have shown good results.

  6. Morphometric analysis of Martian valley network basins using a circularity function

    E-print Network

    Howard, Alan D.

    Morphometric analysis of Martian valley network basins using a circularity function Wei Luo a duricrust layer. Citation: Luo, W., and A. D. Howard (2005), Morphometric analysis of Martian valley network

  7. Playas and Lunettes on the Southern High Plains: Morphometric and Spatial Relationships

    E-print Network

    Holliday, Vance T.

    Playas and Lunettes on the Southern High Plains: Morphometric and Spatial Relationships Ty J. Sabin://www.jstor.org Thu Aug 23 17:44:37 2007 #12;Playas and Lunettes on the Southern High Plains: Morphometric

  8. Laparoscopy in penetrating abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Uranues, Selman; Popa, Dorin Eugen; Diaconescu, Bogdan; Schrittwieser, Rudolph

    2015-06-01

    If morbidity and mortality are to be reduced in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma, first priority goes to prompt and accurate determination of peritoneal penetration and identification of the need for surgery. In this setting, laparoscopy may have an important impact on the rate of negative or non-therapeutic laparotomies. We analyzed indications and patient selection criteria for laparoscopy in penetrating trauma along with outcomes. The analysis focused on identification of peritoneal penetration and injuries to the diaphragm, small intestine, and mesentery. Results from the early phase of laparoscopy were compared with those from recent decades with more advanced laparoscopic equipment and instruments and more experienced surgeons. A systematic review of the role of laparoscopy in penetrating abdominal trauma shows a sensitivity ranging from 66.7 to 100 %, specificity from 33.3 to 100 % and accuracy from 50 to 100 %. Publications from the 1990s found trauma laparoscopy to be inadequate for detecting intestinal injuries and so to lead to missed injuries. Twenty-three of the 50 studies including the most recent ones report sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 100 %. Laparoscopy is more cost effective than negative laparotomy. Laparoscopy can be performed safely and effectively on stable patients with penetrating abdominal trauma. The most important advantages are reduction of morbidity, accuracy in detecting diaphragmatic and intestinal injuries, and elimination of prolonged hospitalization for observation, so reducing the length of stay and increasing cost effectiveness. PMID:25446491

  9. Abdominal symptoms among sewage workers.

    PubMed

    Friis, L; Agréus, L; Edling, C

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal symptoms and the abdominal medical history among sewage workers. 142 male sewage workers and 137 male referents in 11 Swedish municipalities were addressed with a questionnaire about abdominal symptoms, medical history, occupational history and life style factors. The sewage workers suffered less from nausea [adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) = 0.18, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.04-0.84] than the referents. There was no significant difference in the three months prevalence of diarrhoea (adjOR = 1.7, 95% Cl = 0.79-3.4), dyspepsia (adjOR = 0.85, 95% Cl = 0.49-1.5) or irritable bowel syndrome (adjOR = 1.4, 95% Cl = 0.53-3.5). The sewage workers were affected more often by peptic ulcers during their present jobs than the referents, although the increased risk was not significant (adjOR = 1.4, 95% Cl = 0.31-6.1). The odds ratios were adjusted for age, use of tobacco products and alcohol consumption. The conclusion of this study was that sewage workers are less affected by nausea than comparable referents. PMID:9800423

  10. On growth measurements of abdominal aortic aneurysms using maximally inscribed spheres.

    PubMed

    Gharahi, H; Zambrano, B A; Lim, C; Choi, J; Lee, W; Baek, S

    2015-07-01

    The maximum diameter, total volume of the abdominal aorta, and its growth rate are usually regarded as key factors for making a decision on the therapeutic operation time for an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patient. There is, however, a debate on what is the best standard method to measure the diameter. Currently, two dominant methods for measuring the maximum diameter are used. One is measured on the planes perpendicular to the aneurism's central line (orthogonal diameter) and the other one is measured on the axial planes (axial diameter). In this paper, another method called 'inscribed-spherical diameter' is proposed to measure the diameter. The main idea is to find the diameter of the largest sphere that fits within the aorta. An algorithm is employed to establish a centerline for the AAA geometries obtained from a set of longitudinal scans obtained from South Korea. This centerline, besides being the base of the inscribed spherical method, is used for the determination of orthogonal and axial diameter. The growth rate parameters are calculated in different diameters and the total volume and the correlations between them are studied. Furthermore, an exponential growth pattern is sought for the maximum diameters over time to examine a nonlinear growth pattern of AAA expansion both globally and locally. The results present the similarities and discrepancies of these three methods. We report the shortcomings and the advantages of each method and its performance in the quantification of expansion rates. While the orthogonal diameter measurement has an ability of capturing a realistic diameter, it fluctuated. On the other hand, the inscribed sphere diameter method tends to underestimate the diameter measurement but the growth rate can be bounded in a narrow region for aiding prediction capability. Moreover, expansion rate parameters derived from this measurement exhibit good correlation with each other and with growth rate of volume. In conclusion, although the orthogonal method remains the main method of measuring the diameter of an abdominal aorta, employing the idea of maximally inscribed spheres provides both a tool for generation of the centerline, and an additional parameter for quantification of aneurysmal growth rates. PMID:26004506

  11. Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly G562 Geometric Morphometrics

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    Morphometrics Rychlik, L., G. Ramalhinho, and P. D. Polly. 2006. J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 44: 339-351. An introduction Geometric morphometrics P. David Polly Department of Geology, Indiana (Biology and Anthropology Morphometrics Photo credit Course website http://www.indiana.edu/~g562/PBDB2013/ #12;Department of Geological

  12. Effect of Two Models of Intrauterine Growth Restriction on Alveolarization in Rat Lungs: Morphometric and Gene

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : Morphometric and Gene Expression Analysis Elodie Zana-Taieb1,2,3,9 *, Laura Butruille4 , Marie-Laure Franco-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or its diluent on the last four days of gestation. Morphometric parameters on Alveolarization in Rat Lungs: Morphometric and Gene Expression Analysis. PLoS ONE 8(11): e78326. doi:10

  13. POPULATION BIOLOGY/GENETICS Genetic and Morphometric Evidence for Population Isolation of

    E-print Network

    POPULATION BIOLOGY/GENETICS Genetic and Morphometric Evidence for Population Isolation of Glossina frequencies at four microsatellite loci, and morphometric features based on 11 wing landmarks, were compared morphometrics, wings, Guinea Human African trypanosomosis (HAT, or sleeping sickness) is showing some signs

  14. Noninvasive Estimation of Body Composition in Small Mammals: A Comparison of Conductive and Morphometric Techniques

    E-print Network

    Steury, Todd D.

    and Morphometric Techniques Aaron J. Wirsing* Todd D. Steury Dennis L. Murray Department of Fish and Wildlife), to predict body composition with that of morphometric methods in three small mammal species: red squirrels immobilization in the field, and morphometric measurements were taken postmortem. Information provided by BIA

  15. Thme 5 : Diversit, Disparit, Systmatique Landmark based geometric morphometrics analysis of wing shape as a tool

    E-print Network

    Rasmont, Pierre

    Thème 5 : Diversité, Disparité, Systématique Landmark based geometric morphometrics analysis) secretions] and geometric morphometrics (performed on wing shape) have been undertaken to define the specific these species were recognised by their CLG secretion. Geometric morphometrics analysis was based on 18 2D

  16. The geometric morphometric study of Central European species of the genus Micrasterias (Zygnematophyceae, Viridiplantae)

    E-print Network

    The geometric morphometric study of Central European species of the genus Micrasterias@natur.cuni.cz Neustupa J. & Sastný J. (2006): The geometric morphometric study of Central European species of the genus species of the genus Micrasterias were analysed using landmark-based geometric morphometrics. The analysis

  17. The Coomasaharn char, a morphometrically highly specialised form of Salvelinus alpinus

    E-print Network

    McCarthy, T.K.

    The Coomasaharn char, a morphometrically highly specialised form of Salvelinus alpinus in Ireland are investigated by means of geometric morphometric analyses. Study area Char were obtained from three Irish lakes, the char population of the lake was surveyed by gill netting. The morphometrics of the head region

  18. A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF SILVER HAKE SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT>FISHERIES Na368

    E-print Network

    368 A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF SILVER HAKE SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT>FISHERIES Na368 UNITED STATES. McKernan, Director A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF SILVER HAKE by John T. Conover, Raymond L. Fritz Conclusions · 13 Literature cited 13 111 #12;#12;A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF SILVER HAKE by John T. Conover

  19. A MERISTIC AND MORPHOMETRIC COMPARISON OF THE HAKES, UROPHYCIS CHUSS AND U. TENUIS

    E-print Network

    A MERISTIC AND MORPHOMETRIC COMPARISON OF THE HAKES, UROPHYCIS CHUSS AND U. TENUIS (PISCES, GADIDAE for several meristic and morphometric characters. The ranges of the number of lateral line scales are distinct and Nova Scotia appear to be morphometrically different from those from the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The genus

  20. Geometric morphometrics of corolla shape: dissecting components of symmetric and asymmetric variation in Erysimum

    E-print Network

    Klingenberg, Christian Peter

    Methods Geometric morphometrics of corolla shape: dissecting components of symmetric and asymmetric morphometrics, Procrustes fit, symmetry. Summary Symmetry isan important feature of floral structure, and floral symmetries are diverse and often complex. We use a new morphometric approach for analysing shapes

  1. Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly G562 Geometric Morphometrics

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    Morphometrics Quantitative evolution of morphology #12;Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly G562 Geometric Morphometrics Properties of Brownian motion evolution of a single | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly G562 Geometric Morphometrics Brownian motion function for 2

  2. Chondrocranial Development in Larval Rana sylvatica (Anura: Ranidae): Morphometric Analysis of Cranial

    E-print Network

    Larson, Peter

    Chondrocranial Development in Larval Rana sylvatica (Anura: Ranidae): Morphometric Analysis and most linear morphometric analyses. Re- duced major axis regressions of 11 linear chondrocranial and are concordant with linear morphometric re- sults. Thus, the anuran chondrocranium is not a static structure

  3. MODELING METRIC DISTANCES OF DENDRITE SPINES OF MICE BASED ON MORPHOMETRIC MEASURES

    E-print Network

    Hurdal, Monica K.

    MODELING METRIC DISTANCES OF DENDRITE SPINES OF MICE BASED ON MORPHOMETRIC MEASURES E. Ceyhan1* , R of mice based on various morphometric (shape and size related) measures, condition, and type of the spines numerical morphomet- ric measures to obtain uncorrelated morphometric features, since PCA provides

  4. MORPHOMETRIC VARIATION OF PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH, SEBASTES ALUTUS, OFF WESTERN NORTH AMERICA

    E-print Network

    MORPHOMETRIC VARIATION OF PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH, SEBASTES ALUTUS, OFF WESTERN NORTH AMERICA JAY C evidenced in the eastern part.ofthe species range. Also. significant morphometric variation may. Manuscript accepted June 1987. FISHERY BULLETIN: VOL. 85. NO.4. 1987. Fisheries Service gathered morphometric

  5. Morphometric variability in Clarkus papillatus (Bastian, 1865)Jairajpuri, 1970in relation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Morphometric variability in Clarkus papillatus (Bastian, 1865)Jairajpuri, 1970in relation to humus the nematodes are living. Two morphometric characters (body and tail lengths) cari be used to distinguish morphometric characters have been discussed. RÉSUMÉ Variabilité morphométrique de Clarkus papillatus (Bastian

  6. Morphometrics and the role of the phenotype in studies of the evolution of developmental mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Klingenberg, Christian Peter

    Morphometrics and the role of the phenotype in studies of the evolution of developmental mechanisms. Morphometrics permits the rigorous quantitative analysis of variation in organismal size and shape, and is increasingly being used in developmental contexts. The new methods of morphometrics combine a geometric concept

  7. A geometric morphometric appraisal of beak shape in Darwin's D. J. FOSTER,*1

    E-print Network

    Hendry, Andrew

    A geometric morphometric appraisal of beak shape in Darwin's finches D. J. FOSTER,*1 J. PODOS & A- cation of geometric morphometrics, which examines associations among an entire set of landmark points (Rohlf & Marcus, 1993; Marcus et al., 1996; Zelditch et al., 2004). Geometric morphometrics thus define

  8. On morphometric measurement of oxygen diffusing capacity in middle ear gas exchange

    E-print Network

    Federspiel, William J.

    On morphometric measurement of oxygen diffusing capacity in middle ear gas exchange Stephen Chad, and William J. Federspiel. On morphometric measurement of oxy- gen diffusing capacity in middle ear gas shown that a morphometric model that incorporates more fundamental physio- chemical and anatomic

  9. Department of Geological Sciences | Indiana University (c) 2012, P. David Polly G562 Geometric Morphometrics

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    Morphometrics Rychlik, L., G. Ramalhinho, and P. D. Polly. 2006. J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res. 44: 339-351. PBDB Summer Course, 2013 Geometric morphometrics P. David Polly Department of Geology, Indiana (Biology Morphometrics David Polly 2006 - now: Departments Geology, Biology and Anthropology, Indiana University 1996

  10. [20] summarized the data then available on morphometric variation in A. cerana. He

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    [20] summarized the data then available on morphometric variation in A. cerana. He recognized four et al. [19] summarized studies showing that morphometric varia- tion exists among Chinese populations of A. cerana. Damus [2] and Damus and Otis [3] carried out a morphometric analysis of cavity

  11. Syst. Zool., 35(2):195-203, 1986 ASSESSMENT OF MORPHOMETRIC VARIATION IN

    E-print Network

    Willig, Michael

    Syst. Zool., 35(2):195-203, 1986 ASSESSMENT OF MORPHOMETRIC VARIATION IN NATURAL POPULATIONS not been evaluated empirically in the bio- logical literature. We analyzed morphometric data for 27 species assessment of other analyses because their presence may morphometric variation among and with- confound

  12. MagnetoHemoDynamics in the aorta and electrocardiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Vincent; Drochon, Agnès; Fokapu, Odette; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    This paper addresses a complex multi-physical phenomenon involving cardiac electrophysiology and hemodynamics. The purpose is to model and simulate a phenomenon that has been observed in magnetic resonance imaging machines: in the presence of a strong magnetic field, the T-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG) gets bigger, which may perturb ECG-gated imaging. This is due to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect occurring in the aorta. We reproduce this experimental observation through computer simulations on a realistic anatomy, and with a three-compartment model: inductionless MHD equations in the aorta, bi-domain equations in the heart and electrical diffusion in the rest of the body. These compartments are strongly coupled and solved using finite elements. Several benchmark tests are proposed to assess the numerical solutions and the validity of some modeling assumptions. Then, ECGs are simulated for a wide range of magnetic field intensities (from 0 to 20 T).

  13. Mode of action of thrombin in the rabbit aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Godin, D.; Rioux, F.; Marceau, F.; Drapeau, G.

    1995-01-01

    1. Thrombin is a vasoactive protease that elicits the contraction of the rabbit aorta by activating a G-protein coupled receptor through cleavage of its N-terminal extracellular domain. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the newly exposed N-terminus, following thrombin cleavage, have been shown to reproduce some of the activities of thrombin in the rabbit aorta. 2. Intracellular pathways involved in the contractile response of the rabbit aorta to thrombin and synthetic peptides were examined by use of a series of inhibitors. A similar method was applied to characterize the mitogenic effect of thrombin on cultured smooth muscle cells (SMCs) derived from the same tissue. 3. Results from this study indicate that the contractile response of the rabbit aorta to thrombin is dependent on the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and independent of extracellular calcium. The contractile response to thrombin can be fully reproduced by peptide agonists related to the N-terminal receptor sequence. However, subtle differences seem to exist between the mechanism of the contractile effect of thrombin and of the synthetic peptides, as both PKC activation and extracellular calcium were found to participate in the contractile effect of the synthetic peptides. 4. In cultured SMCs, both thrombin and the synthetic peptides increased inositol phosphate turnover; however, only thrombin elicited a mitogenic effect, which occurs at thrombin concentrations well below those needed to increase inositol phosphate turnover significantly. Activation of a tyrosine kinase pathway is involved in the mitogenic effect of thrombin on aortic SMCs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7582518

  14. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Somendra; Vyas, Kailash C

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall hernias are rare injuries despite the high incidence of blunt abdominal traumas. The mechanism of this injury includes a sudden increase in intra-abdominal pressure and extensive shear forces applied to the abdominal wall. We report a case of traumatic hernia of the anterior abdominal wall in a 42-year-old woman presented with blunt injury of the upper abdomen. She was attacked by a bull. She had a clinically evident abdominal fascial disruption with intact skin and was hemodynamically stable. The presence of localized pain, bruising and a reducible swelling or a cough impulse suggested the diagnosis. An emergency mesh repair of the defect was performed, and she recovered well. PMID:25972694

  15. [Continuous inhalation administration of surfactant-BL for control of adult respiratory distress syndrome after reconstruction of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, Iu L; Rozenberg, O A; Khubulava, G G; Osovskikh, V V; Bautin, A E; Se?liev, A A; Sazonov, A B; Krivtsov, V A; Khlebov, V F

    1999-01-01

    A 62-year-old patient with Leriche's syndrome and critical ischemia of the low extremities has undergone the surgery of aortofemoral grafting. A patient has developed the severe ARDS on the second day of reperfusion (bilateral diffuse infiltrates, PO2/FiO2 < 100, lung injury score was 3). Different ways of administration of bovine surfactant (SURFACTANT BL, Russia) were used during the treatment. Total application time was 84 hours, total dose was 4000 mg (50 mg/kg). Considerable improvement of lung function occurred after start of the continuous inhalation of surfactant with a constant rate of 63 mg/h. Two hours after this step PO2/FiO2 reached 400 mm Hg and remained stable 12 hours more, up to the end of surfactant administration. The patient was soon successfully extubated and discharged on the 25th day after surgery. It is supposed that in spite of a small total dose of bovine surfactant the success was achieved due to an early start of the surfactant replacement, continuous inhalation and its definite rate. PMID:10481892

  16. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Sartelli

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric

  17. [Dirofilaria in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Révész, Erzsébet; Markovics, Gabriella; Darabos, Zoltán; Tóth, Ildikó; Fok, Eva

    2008-10-01

    Number of cases of filariasis have been recently reported in the Hungarian medical literature, most of them caused by Dirofilaria repens . Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted filarioid worm in the subcutaneous tissue of dogs and cats. Human infection manifests as either subcutaneous nodules or lung parenchymal disease, which may even be asymptomatic. The authors report a human Dirofilaria repens infection of the abdominal cavity in a 61-year-old man,who underwent laparotomy for acute abdomen. Intraoperatively, local peritonitis was detected caused by a white nemathhelminth, measured 8 cm in size. Histocytology confirmed that the infection was caused by Dirofilaria repens. PMID:19028661

  18. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Norwood, M G A; Lloyd, G M; Bown, M J; Fishwick, G; London, N J; Sayers, R D

    2007-01-01

    The operative mortality following conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair has not fallen significantly over the past two decades. Since its inception in 1991, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has provided an alternative to open AAA repair and perhaps an opportunity to improve operative mortality. Two recent large randomised trials have demonstrated the short and medium term benefit of EVAR over open AAA repair, although data on the long term efficacy of the technique are still lacking. This review aimed at providing an overview of EVAR and a discussion of the potential benefits and current limitations of the technique. PMID:17267674

  19. The ?-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid, Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Attenuates Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Development via Suppression of Tissue Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jack H.; Eguchi, Kosei; Matsumoto, Sahohime; Fujiu, Katsuhito; Komuro, Issei; Nagai, Ryozo; Manabe, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent vascular disease that can progressively enlarge and rupture with a high rate of mortality. Inflammation and active remodeling of the aortic wall have been suggested to be critical in its pathogenesis. Meanwhile, ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are known to reduce cardiovascular events, but its role in AAA management remains unclear. Here, we show that EPA can attenuate murine CaCl2-induced AAA formation. Aortas from BALB/c mice fed an EPA-diet appeared less inflamed, were significantly smaller in diameter compared to those from control-diet-fed mice, and had relative preservation of aortic elastic lamina. Interestingly, CT imaging also revealed markedly reduced calcification of the aortas after EPA treatment. Mechanistically, MMP2, MMP9, and TNFSF11 levels in the aortas were reduced after EPA treatment. Consistent with this finding, RAW264.7 macrophages treated with EPA showed attenuated Mmp9 levels after TNF-? simulation. These results demonstrate a novel role of EPA in attenuating AAA formation via the suppression of critical remodeling pathways in the pathogenesis of AAAs, and raise the possibility of using EPA for AAA prevention in the clinical setting. PMID:24798452

  20. Comparison of the strain field of abdominal aortic aneurysm measured by magnetic resonance imaging and stereovision: a feasibility study for prediction of the risk of rupture of aortic abdominal aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufei; Joannic, David; Delassus, Patrick; Lalande, Alain; Juillion, Patrick; Fontaine, Jean-François

    2015-04-13

    The prediction of the risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex problem. Currently the criteria to predict rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms are aneurysm diameter and growth rates. It is generally believed that study of the wall strain distribution could be helpful to find a better decision criterion for surgery of aortic aneurysms before their rupture. The wall strain distribution depends on many biological and biomechanical factors such as elastic properties of the aorta, turbulent blood flow, anatomy of the aorta, presence of thrombus or not and so on. Recently, numerical simulations to estimate rupture-potential have received many attentions. However, none of the medical imaging tools for screening and monitoring of AAAs were studied in terms of mechanical behavior and experimentally to demonstrate their capability to measure relevant variables. The aim of this study was to develop a metrological approach for deployment testing of the ability of techniques for measuring local in-vitro deformations based on comparison of stereovision and MRI. In this paper, we present the implementation approach and results of the study based on cylindrical phantoms with or without AAA representing, respectively, healthy and unhealthy artery. Through this study, an experimental device was developed for the behavior study of AAA during a cardiac cycle. The results show that the stereovision techniques used in laboratory is well suited and is qualitatively and quantitatively equivalent with MRI measurements. PMID:25661521

  1. Abdominal atlas mapping in CT and MR volume images using a normalized abdominal coordinate system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongkai Wang; Jing Bai; Yongxin Zhou; Yonghong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a normalized abdominal coordinate system is defined for abdominal atlas mapping in CT and MR volume images. This coordinate system is independent of both the abdomen size and the respiratory motion. A real-time atlas mapping algorithm based on this coordinate system is also proposed. The purpose of this algorithm is to provide initial positions for abdominal organ

  2. Temporary abdominal closure followed by definitive abdominal wall reconstruction of the open abdomen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R. Howdieshell; Charles D. Proctor; Erez Sternberg; Jorge I. Cué; J. Sheppard Mondy; Michael L. Hawkins

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundInability to close the abdominal wall after laparotomy for trauma may occur as a result of visceral edema, retroperitoneal hematoma, use of packing, and traumatic loss of tissue. Often life-saving, decompressive laparotomy and temporary abdominal closure require later restoration of anatomic continuity of the abdominal wall.

  3. Abdominal arteries recognition in x-ray using a structural model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nempont, Olivier; Florent, Raoul

    2010-03-01

    The automatic recognition of vascular trees is a challenging task, required for roadmapping or advanced visualization. For instance, during an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), the recognition of abdominal arteries in angiograms can be used to select the appropriate stent graft. This choice is based on a reduced set of arteries (aorta, renal arteries, iliac arteries) whose relative positions are quite stable. We propose in this article a recognition process based on a structural model. The centerlines of the target vessels are represented by a set of control points whose relative positions are constrained. To find their position in an angiogram, we enhance the target vessels and extract a set of possible positions for each control point. Then, a constraint propagation algorithm based on the model prunes those sets of candidates, removing inconsistent ones. We present preliminary results on 5 cases, illustrating the potential of this approach and especially its ability to handle the high variability of the target vessels.

  4. A large un-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm causing pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Sajjad, Jahangir; Ahmed, Abubakr; Coveney, Andrew; Fulton, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    A 79 years old woman presented in a peripheral hospital with dyspnea, right-sided pleuritic chest pain and cough for 3 days. On examination, she was tachycardiac and tachypneic. She had reduced air entry bilaterally on auscultation. Computed tomography-pulmonary angiogram, performed in peripheral Hospital, confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, and she was commenced on warfarin. Ultrasonography showed no evidence of deep venous thrombosis in legs; however, ultrasound of the abdomen revealed an aortic aneurysm. She was hemodynamically stable on transfer to vascular surgery department, and her complete clinical examination revealed a pulsatile mass in the central abdomen. Computed tomography angiogram of aorta showed 8.7-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm. Venogram performed during inferior vena cava (IVC) filter insertion showed that IVC was displaced and compressed due to this large aortic aneurysm, causing thromboembolism. An open repair of the aneurysm was performed with uneventful recovery. PMID:26205717

  5. Expression and localization of macrophage elastase (matrix metalloproteinase-12) in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Curci, J A; Liao, S; Huffman, M D; Shapiro, S D; Thompson, R W

    1998-01-01

    Elastolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), a disorder characterized by chronic aortic wall inflammation and destruction of medial elastin. The purpose of this study was to determine if human macrophage elastase (HME; MMP-12) might participate in this disease. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, HME mRNA was consistently demonstrated in AAA and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (AOD) tissues (six of six), but in only one of six normal aortas. Immunoreactive proteins corresponding to proHME and two products of extracellular processing were present in seven of seven AAA tissue extracts. Total HME recovered from AAA tissue was sevenfold greater than normal aorta (P < 0.001), and the extracted enzyme exhibited activity in vitro. Production of HME was demonstrated in the media of AAA tissues by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, but HME was not detected within the media of normal or AOD specimens. Importantly, immunoreactive HME was specifically localized to residual elastin fragments within the media of AAA tissue, particularly areas adjacent to nondilated normal aorta. In vitro, the fraction of MMP-12 sequestered by insoluble elastin was two- to fivefold greater than other elastases found in AAA tissue. Therefore, HME is prominently expressed by aneurysm-infiltrating macrophages within the degenerating aortic media of AAA, where it is also bound to residual elastic fiber fragments. Because elastin represents a critical component of aortic wall structure and a matrix substrate for metalloelastases, HME may have a direct and singular role in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms. PMID:9835614

  6. Morphometric analysis of Leydig cells in the normal rat testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROSHI MORI; A. KENT CHRISTENSEN

    1980-01-01

    Leydig cells are thought to be the source of most, if not all, the testosterone produced by the testis . The goal of this study was to obtain quantitative infor- mation about rat Leydig cells and their organelles that might be correlated with pertinent physiological and biochemicaldata available either now or in the future . Morphometric analysis of Leydig cells

  7. Morphometric studies of the neuropathological changes in choreatic diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H LANGE; G THORNER; A HOPF; K SCHRODER

    1976-01-01

    SUMMARY The striatum, pallidum and subthalamic nucleus were studied by combined morphometric methods in serial sections of 13 brains of normal adults and of 15 patients with choreatic diseases . In addition the volume of the hemispheres and of the cortex were measured . All data obtained were corrected by the shrinkage factor to represent fresh brain values . In

  8. Morphometric Controls and Basin Response in The Cascade Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fes De Scally; Olav Slaymaker; Ian Owens

    2001-01-01

    Morphometric variables associated with 36 debris torrent, 78 snow avalanche, 45 composite debris torrent and snow avalanche and 14 streamflow basins in the Cascade Mountains of southwestern British Columbia, Canada are examined. The re- sults show significant statistical differences in top and bottom el- evations, relief, channel length and gradient, basin area, fan gra- dient and area, and basin ruggedness

  9. Geometric morphometrics: Ten years of progress following the ‘revolution’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean C. Adams; F. James Rohlf; Dennis E. Slice

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of shape is a fundamental part of much biological research. As the field of statistics developed, so have the sophistication of the analysis of these types of data. This lead to multivariate morphometrics in which suites of measurements were analyzed together using canonical variates analysis, principal components analysis, and related methods. In the 1980s, a fundamental change began

  10. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING GUIDELINES: VARIABILITY IN MORPHOMETRIC ASSESSMENTS OF NEUROPATHOLOGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for neuropathological and morphometric assessments of rat pups on postnatal day (PND) 11 and at study termination (after PND 60). In recent discussions about conducting these studies on pesti...

  11. Morphometric study of cardiac muscle: the problem of tissue shrinkage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Gerdes; J. Kriseman; S. P. Bishop

    1982-01-01

    Comparison of data from morphometric studies dealing with the heart is complicated by the fact that little information dealing with cell size changes during tissue processing is available. To investigate these changes, isolated cardiac myocytes were adhered to glass cover slips of Sykes Moore chambers and photographed after each step of processing for transmission electron microscopy. Six different experiments with

  12. Pulse wave imaging in normal, hypertensive and aneurysmal human aortas in vivo: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Li, Ronny X; Luo, Jianwen; Balaram, Sandhya K; Chaudhry, Farooq A; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2013-07-01

    Arterial stiffness is a well-established biomarker for cardiovascular risk, especially in the case of hypertension. The progressive stages of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) have also been associated with varying arterial stiffness. Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is a noninvasive, ultrasound imaging-based technique that uses the pulse wave-induced arterial wall motion to map the propagation of the pulse wave and measure the regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) as an index of arterial stiffness. In this study, the clinical feasibility of PWI was evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and aneurysmal human aortas. Radiofrequency-based speckle tracking was used to estimate the pulse wave-induced displacements in the abdominal aortic walls of normal (N = 15, mean age 32.5 ± 10.2 years), hypertensive (N = 13, mean age 60.8 ± 15.8 years), and aneurysmal (N = 5, mean age 71.6 ± 11.8 years) human subjects. Linear regression of the spatio-temporal variation of the displacement waveform in the anterior aortic wall over a single cardiac cycle yielded the slope as the PWV and the coefficient of determination r(2) as an approximate measure of the pulse wave propagation uniformity. The aortic PWV measurements in all normal, hypertensive, and AAA subjects were 6.03 ± 1.68, 6.69 ± 2.80, and 10.54 ± 6.52 m s(-1), respectively. There was no significant difference (p = 0.15) between the PWVs of the normal and hypertensive subjects while the PWVs of the AAA subjects were significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to those of the other two groups. Also, the average r(2) in the AAA subjects was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than that in the normal and hypertensive subjects. These preliminary results suggest that the regional PWV and the pulse wave propagation uniformity (r(2)) obtained using PWI, in addition to the PWI images and spatio-temporal maps that provide qualitative visualization of the pulse wave, may potentially provide valuable information for the clinical characterization of aneurysms and other vascular pathologies that regionally alter the arterial wall mechanics. PMID:23770991

  13. An Evolving Understanding of the Genetic Causes of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Disease.

    PubMed

    Miner, Grace H; Costa, Kevin D; Hanss, Basil G; Marin, Michael L

    2015-05-01

    Aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (AAA) are relatively common - affecting as many as 8% of men and 1% of women over the age of 65. AAAs are characterized by a 50% increase in the diameter of the aneurysmal aorta compared with the normal vessel. Degeneration of structural components of the aortic wall is believed to be central in the pathogenesis of AAAs. The exact mechanism of degeneration is not well characterized, although degradation of elastin and collagen has been clearly shown. At least six genetic variants have been associated with AAA in genome-wide association studies: CDKN2BAS1, DAB2IP, LDLR, LRP1, SORT1, and IL6R. These variants reach genome-wide significance; however, they have not been replicated in multiple cohorts, nor have they been clearly shown to be disease causative. AAA is a challenging disease for investigation because it is most often asymptomatic and generally has a late disease onset, making it difficult to diagnose. Determination of the genetic mechanism behind aneurysm formation, progression, and rupture crosses disciplines requiring input from multiple fields of study, larger patient cohorts, and the evolving modalities of genetic testing. PMID:26055010

  14. CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Monill; J. Pernas; E. Montserrat; C. Pérez; J. Clavero; A. Martinez-Noguera; R. Guerrero; S. Torrubia

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms. We reviewed CT imaging findings in 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age 62 years) with plasma cell neoplasms and abdominal involvement. Helical CT of the entire abdomen and pelvis was performed following intravenous administration of contrast material. Images were analyzed in consensus

  15. Comparative effects of verapamil and sodium nitroprusside on contraction and 45Ca uptake in the smooth muscle of rabbit aorta, rat aorta and guinea-pig taenia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Karaki, H.; Nakagawa, H.; Urakawa, N.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of verapamil and sodium nitroprusside on muscle tension and 45Ca uptake activated in different ways were compared in rabbit aorta, rat aorta and guinea-pig taenia coli. In rabbit aorta, K-induced contraction was specifically inhibited by verapamil and noradrenaline-induced contraction by sodium nitroprusside. In rat aorta, both K-induced and noradrenaline-induced contractions were inhibited by verapamil or by sodium nitroprusside also. In taenia, both K- and histamine-induced sustained contractions were inhibited by verapamil but not by sodium nitroprusside. The effect of verapamil was competitively antagonized by external Ca, while that of sodium nitroprusside was not. High K, noradrenaline and histamine increased the rate of 45Ca uptake in aortae and taenia. In rabbit aorta the increment in response to high K was specifically inhibited by verapamil and the increment induced by noradrenaline was specifically inhibited by sodium nitroprusside. In rat aorta, increments induced by both high K and noradrenaline were inhibited by verapamil and by sodium nitroprusside. In taenia, the increments induced by high K and by histamine were inhibited by verapamil but not by sodium nitroprusside. These results suggest different characteristics of Ca entry systems in these smooth muscles. In rabbit aorta, there seem to be two Ca channels, one of which is activated by high K and inhibited by verapamil, while the other is activated by noradrenaline and inhibited by sodium nitroprusside. In rat aorta, both K- and noradrenaline-activated Ca pathways are sensitive to both verapamil and sodium nitroprusside whereas, in taenia, both K- and histamine-activated Ca pathways are sensitive only to verapamil. PMID:6322897

  16. Pulmonary complications of abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Panitch, Howard B

    2015-01-01

    The abdominal wall is an integral component of the chest wall. Defects in the ventral abdominal wall alter respiratory mechanics and can impair diaphragm function. Congenital abdominal wall defects also are associated with abnormalities in lung growth and development that lead to pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and alterations in thoracic cage formation. Although infants with ventral abdominal wall defects can experience life-threatening pulmonary complications, older children typically experience a more benign respiratory course. Studies of lung and chest wall function in older children and adolescents with congenital abdominal wall defects are few; such investigations could provide strategies for improved respiratory performance, avoidance of respiratory morbidity, and enhanced exercise ability for these children. PMID:25458796

  17. Recognising and assessing blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Anthony; Whiting, Dean

    2015-03-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma is common following major traumatic injury but may not be recognised quickly enough and is therefore a cause of preventable death in trauma patients. Emergency department nurses have a major role to play in reducing the incidence of unrecognised abdominal trauma by enhancing their knowledge and skills. They can do this by attending trauma-related courses, taking on more expanded roles, carrying out full and comprehensive physical assessments, and ensuring that members of the multidisciplinary team use the wide range of diagnostic adjuncts available to them. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the abdominal cavity, explains abdominal trauma, gives an overview of advanced abdominal assessment techniques and diagnostic adjuncts, and reviews some management strategies for uncontrolled haemorrhage that have been adopted in the UK. PMID:25746888

  18. Prophylactic cholecystectomy during abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Cabarrou, P; Portier, G; Chalret Du Rieu, M

    2013-09-01

    The presence of asymptomatic gallstones is no longer an indication for elective prophylactic cholecystectomy (PC) according to the recommendations of the 1991 French Consensus Conference on cholelithiasis. However, there may be potential benefits of performing prophylactic cholecystectomy during certain abdominal procedures for non-biliary disease; this remains a subject of debate. This debate has become livelier with the recent increase in bariatric surgery. Gastrectomy for cancer, small bowel resection, colonic resection, and splenectomy for hereditary spherocytosis as well as all bariatric surgical interventions can all alter the physiology of gallstone disease raising the question of the value of PC, but the specific morbidity of cholecystectomy must be kept in mind. The purpose of this study was to report epidemiological and pathophysiological data and the results from literature reports in order to assess the value of concomitant prophylactic cholecystectomy during various common surgical situations. PMID:23916848

  19. Pathology Case Study: Abdominal Distention

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rao, Uma N. M.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 60-year-old woman who presented with a history of marked abdominal distention lasted for several months with associated progressive fatigue, progressive weight loss and fever. Visitors are given patient history along with gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in soft tissue pathology.

  20. Accumulation of 3H-Adrenaline by Rabbit Aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Abrahamsen; Ove A. Nedergaard

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation of (–)-3H-adrenaline (3H-A) by rabbit isolated aorta was studied. In all experiments, monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase were inhibited by treatment with pargyline and 3’,4’-dihydroxy-2-methyl-propiophenone (U-0521), respectively. The relationship between the accumulation of 3H derived from 3H-A (10–8 M) and the duration of incubation (0–3 h) was linear. The 3H-accumulation after 3 h incubation was 22.5 ml·g-1. In reserpine-treated

  1. Decreased vascular smooth muscle cell density in medial degeneration of human abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    López-Candales, A.; Holmes, D. R.; Liao, S.; Scott, M. J.; Wickline, S. A.; Thompson, R. W.

    1997-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by structural deterioration of the aortic wall leading to progressive aortic dilatation and eventual rupture. The histopathological changes in AAAs are particularly evident within the elastic media, which is normally dominated by vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). To determine whether a decrease in vascular SMCs contributes to medial degeneration, we measured SMC density in 21 normal and pathological human abdominal aortic tissue specimens using immunohistochemistry for alpha-SMC actin and direct cell counts (medial SMCs per high-power field (HPF)). Medial SMC density was not significantly different between normal aorta (n = 5; 199.5 +/- 14.9 SMCs/HPF) and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (n = 6; 176.4 +/- 13.9 SMCs/HPF), but it was reduced by 74% in AAA (n = 10; 50.9 +/- 6.1 SMCs/HPF; P < 0.01 versus normal aorta). Light and electron microscopy revealed no evidence of overt cellular necrosis, but SMCs in AAAs exhibited ultrastructural changes consistent with apoptosis. Using in situ end-labeling (ISEL) of fragmented DNA to detect apoptotic cells, up to 30% of aortic wall cells were ISEL positive in AAAs. By double-labeling techniques, many of these cells were alpha-actin-positive SMCs distributed throughout the degenerative media. In contrast, ISEL-positive cells were observed only within the intimal plaque in atherosclerotic occlusive disease. The amount of p53 protein detected by immunoblotting was increased nearly fourfold in AAA compared with normal aorta and atherosclerotic occlusive disease (P < 0.01), and immunoreactive p53 was localized to lymphocytes and residual SMCs in the aneurysm wall. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays a substantial amount of p53 mRNA expression was observed in AAAs. These results demonstrate that medial SMC density is significantly decreased in human AAA tissues associated with evidence of SMC apoptosis and increased production of p53, a potential mediator of cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death. Given the role that SMCs normally play in maintaining medial architecture and in arterial wall matrix remodeling, the induction of SMC apoptosis likely makes an important contribution to the evolution of aneurysm degeneration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9060837

  2. Morphometric assessment of uplifting coral reef sequences, Sumba Island, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nexer, Maëlle; Authemayou, Christine; Schildgen, Taylor; Hantoro, Wayhoe; Molliex, Stephane; Delcaillau, Bernard; Pedoja, Kevin; Husson, Laurent; Regard, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Rates and patterns of vertical ground motions constitute a basic framework for understanding the kinematics of the deforming lithosphere. Calibrating morphometric indices with landscape maturity and tectonic deformation requires comparisons with regions of known uplift history. The ability to derive uplift histories from marine or reefal terrace analysis in coastal zones therefore makes such settings ideal for testing morpho-tectonic analysis techniques. To explore the relationships between uplift rates and landscape morphology, we studied a 300-km-long coastal stretch affected by slow to moderate uplift rates, varying laterally from ?0.02 to ?0.6 mm/yr. We exploited the systematic spatial variation in rock uplift rates recorded in well-dated sequences of coral reef terraces of Sumba Island to assess the manner and degree to which the eight morphometric indices selected for this study can be correlated with tectonic forcing. The uniform equatorial climate and lithology (most of the bedrock is composed of Quaternary reefal limestones) across the study area allow us to evaluate which morphometric indices best reflect the spatial variations in Pleistocene coastal uplift rates. Morphometric indices extracted from digital elevation models include residual relief, incision, stream length index, ksn, hypsometric integral, drainage area, mean relief, and shape factor. We calculated and extracted these indices at three scales: across the whole island, from grouped sequences of coral reef terraces undergoing comparable uplift rates and individual catchments draining mainly the coral reef zones located in the northern part of Sumba Island. We find that SL, hypsometric integral, mean relief and shape factor of catchments positively correlate with uplift rates, whereas incision, residual relief, and ksn do not. Interestingly enough, we find that only the areas that are uplifting at a rate faster than 0.3 mm/yr can yield the extreme values for these indices, implying in turn that these extreme values are powerful indicators of fast uplifting areas. However, the relationship is not bivalent, as we find that any uplift rate can be associated with low values of the same indices. For all indices, the transient conditions of the drainage influence the correlation with Pleistocene mean uplift rates, illustrating the necessity to extract morphometric indices taking into account the choice of catchment scale. This analysis identifies the morphometric indices that are most useful for tectonic analysis in areas of unknown uplift, allowing for an easy identification of short spatial variations of uplift rate and detection areas of relatively fast uplift rates in unstudied coastal zones. Our results suggest that this procedure may be applied to identify rapidly uplifting areas along any given coastal area that includes a sequence of reefal or marine terraces.

  3. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  4. Expression and significance of ?-SMA and PCNA in the vascular adventitia of balloon-injured rat aorta

    PubMed Central

    WU, XIANGJUN; LU, QINGHUA

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the vascular adventitia of balloon-injured rat aortas in the second and sixth postoperative weeks. A total of 32 rats were divided into a control group and a balloon-injured group. The rats underwent vascular morphometric analysis and adventitial cell counting, as well as immunohistochemical staining of ?-SMA and PCNA in postoperative weeks 2 and 6 for observation of the expression of each immune parameter in the vascular adventitia and calculation of the number of PCNA-positive nuclei and the PCNA labeling index (PCNALI) in the vascular adventitia. The area and thickness of the adventitia, the number of nuclei and the PCNALI of the vascular adventitia were significantly increased in the injured group compared with the control group (P<0.05), while the external elastic lamina area (EELA), internal elastic lamina area (IELA) and lumen area (LA) were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the second week. The area and thickness of the adventitia, the number of nuclei and the PCNALI of the vascular adventitia were significantly increased in the injured group compared with the control group (P<0.05), while the EELA, IELA and LA were significantly reduced (P<0.05) in the sixth week, and were significantly lower than those in the injured group in the second week (P<0.05). The positive expression levels of ?-SMA and PCNA in the vascular adventitia were significantly reduced compared with those in the second week after injury. The vascular adventitial cells underwent proliferation and phenotypic switching and participated in vascular remodeling and vascular restenosis following balloon-induced injury. The vascular contractile remodeling in the injured group was more evident in the sixth week than in the second week, followed by a more aggravated vascular stenosis. Consequently, the vascular remodeling was one of the causes of vascular restenosis. PMID:23837052

  5. Immediate and follow-up findings after stent treatment for severe coarctation of aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Suárez de Lezo; Manuel Pan; Miguel Romero; Alfonso Medina; José Segura; Mercedes Lafuente; Djordje Pavlovic; Enrique Hernández; Francisco Melián; José Espada

    1999-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that stents implanted at the aorta become incorporated within the aortic wall and can be further expanded in growing animals. Few clinical studies have shown that the stent repair of severe coarctation of aorta provides excellent initial results, and little is known on the follow-up of these patients. We assessed the immediate and follow-up results obtained

  6. Obstruction of the Aorta and Left Pulmonary Artery After Gianturco Coil Occlusion of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, H.-Cg [Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics (China); Ko, Sheung-Fat [Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Department of Radiology (China); Wu, Yu-Tsun; Huang, Chien-Fu; Chien, Shao-Ju; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Liang, Chi-Di [Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics (China)], E-mail: cdliang@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2005-01-15

    We report an unusual case of simultaneous obstruction of the left pulmonary artery and descending thoracic aorta after Gianturco coil occlusion in a 15-month-old boy. The diagnosis was made by echocardiography and cardiac angiography. At surgery, thrombi coating on the protruded parts of the Gianturco coil in the pulmonary artery and aorta were found.

  7. 45,X Turner syndrome with normal ovarial function and multiple malformations of the aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Apostolopoulos; M. K. Kyriakidis; S. A. Kitsiou; A. D. Galla-Voumvouraki; A. N. Tsezou; P. K. Toutouzas

    1994-01-01

    We present a case of a female patient with monosomy of X chromosome in peripheral lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts, normal ovarian function and associated multiple congenital abnormalities of the aorta: bicuspid aortic valve, dilatation of the ascending aorta and multiple cystic structures of the aortic wall, complicated by endarteritis. We review the literature on fertile women with 45,X karyotype and

  8. Automated segmentation of thoracic aorta in non-contrast CT images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uday Kurkure; Olga C. Avila-montes; Ioannis A. Kakadiaris

    2008-01-01

    Aortic calcification has been shown to be related to cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we present a novel method for localization and segmentation of thoracic aorta in non- contrast CT images using dynamic programming concepts to detect and quantify aortic calcium. The localization and segmentation of the aorta are formulated as optimal path detection problems, which are solved using dynamic

  9. Elastin aging and lipid oxidation products in human aorta.

    PubMed

    Zarkovic, Kamelija; Larroque-Cardoso, Pauline; Pucelle, Mélanie; Salvayre, Robert; Waeg, Georg; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Zarkovic, Neven

    2015-01-01

    Vascular aging is associated with structural and functional modifications of the arteries, and by an increase in arterial wall thickening in the intima and the media, mainly resulting from structural modifications of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Among the factors known to accumulate with aging, advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs) are a hallmark of oxidative stress-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. Aldehydes generated from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), (4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, acrolein), form adducts on cellular proteins, leading to a progressive protein dysfunction with consequences in the pathophysiology of vascular aging. The contribution of these aldehydes to ECM modification is not known. This study was carried out to investigate whether aldehyde-adducts are detected in the intima and media in human aorta, whether their level is increased in vascular aging, and whether elastin fibers are a target of aldehyde-adduct formation. Immunohistological and confocal immunofluorescence studies indicate that 4-HNE-histidine-adducts accumulate in an age-related manner in the intima, media and adventitia layers of human aortas, and are mainly expressed in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, even if the structure of elastin fiber is strongly altered in the aged vessels, our results show that elastin is not or very poorly modified by 4-HNE. These data indicate a complex role for lipid peroxidation and in particular for 4-HNE in elastin homeostasis, in the vascular wall remodeling during aging and atherosclerosis development. PMID:25553420

  10. Elastin aging and lipid oxidation products in human aorta

    PubMed Central

    Zarkovic, Kamelija; Larroque-Cardoso, Pauline; Pucelle, Mélanie; Salvayre, Robert; Waeg, Georg; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Zarkovic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    Vascular aging is associated with structural and functional modifications of the arteries, and by an increase in arterial wall thickening in the intima and the media, mainly resulting from structural modifications of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Among the factors known to accumulate with aging, advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs) are a hallmark of oxidative stress-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis. Aldehydes generated from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), (4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, acrolein), form adducts on cellular proteins, leading to a progressive protein dysfunction with consequences in the pathophysiology of vascular aging. The contribution of these aldehydes to ECM modification is not known. This study was carried out to investigate whether aldehyde-adducts are detected in the intima and media in human aorta, whether their level is increased in vascular aging, and whether elastin fibers are a target of aldehyde-adduct formation. Immunohistological and confocal immunofluorescence studies indicate that 4-HNE-histidine-adducts accumulate in an age-related manner in the intima, media and adventitia layers of human aortas, and are mainly expressed in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, even if the structure of elastin fiber is strongly altered in the aged vessels, our results show that elastin is not or very poorly modified by 4-HNE. These data indicate a complex role for lipid peroxidation and in particular for 4-HNE in elastin homeostasis, in the vascular wall remodeling during aging and atherosclerosis development. PMID:25553420

  11. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture. PMID:24298780

  12. MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Klingenberg, Christian Peter

    2011-03-01

    Increasingly, data on shape are analysed in combination with molecular genetic or ecological information, so that tools for geometric morphometric analysis are required. Morphometric studies most often use the arrangements of morphological landmarks as the data source and extract shape information from them by Procrustes superimposition. The MorphoJ software combines this approach with a wide range of methods for shape analysis in different biological contexts. The program offers an integrated and user-friendly environment for standard multivariate analyses such as principal components, discriminant analysis and multivariate regression as well as specialized applications including phylogenetics, quantitative genetics and analyses of modularity in shape data. MorphoJ is written in Java and versions for the Windows, Macintosh and Unix/Linux platforms are freely available from http://www.flywings.org.uk/MorphoJ_page.htm. PMID:21429143

  13. Hemidesmosome Heterogeneity in Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa Revealed by Morphometric Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Tidman; Robin A. J. Eady

    1986-01-01

    In order to examine the claim for a numerical and structural abnormality of the hemidesmosomes in junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), a morphometric analysis of unseparated dermal-epidermal junction was undertaken in 11 subjects with JEB. Of these, 5 died in infancy with “lethal” disease, 3 were children still alive at 1–6 years with “indeterminate” disease, and 3 were females aged 20–60

  14. A geometric morphometric assessment of the optic cup in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Paul G; Cardini, Andrea; Sigal, Ian A; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Chua, Brian E; Hewitt, Alex W; Mackey, David A

    2010-09-01

    The morphologic appearance of the optic disc is of interest in glaucoma. In contrast to descriptive classification systems that are currently used, a quantitative approach to the analysis of optic disc morphology is required. Our goal was to determine the optimal method for quantifying optic cup shape by comparing traditional (ovality, form-factor and neuroretinal rim (NRR) width ratio) and geometric morphometric approaches. Left optic disc stereophotographs of 160 (80 normal and 80 glaucomatous (stratified by severity)) subjects were examined. The optic cup margins were stereoscopically delineated with a custom tracing system and saved as a series of discrete points. The geometric morphometric methods of elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA) and sliding semi-landmark analysis (SSLA) were used to eliminate variation unrelated to shape (e.g. size) and yield a series of shape variables. Differences in optic cup shape between normal and glaucoma groups were investigated. Discriminant functions were computed and the sensitivity and specificity of each technique determined. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for all methods and evaluated in their potential to discriminate between normal and glaucomatous eyes based on the shape variables. All geometric morphometric methods revealed differences between normal and glaucomatous eyes in optic cup shape, in addition to the traditional parameters of ovality, form-factor and NRR width ratio (p<0.0005). SSLA (minimum bending energy criterion--18 points) had the best sensitivity (83%) and area under the curve (AUC) (0.91). EFA (72 points) performed similarly well (74%, 0.89) as did the set of traditional shape-based variables (76%, 0.86). This study demonstrated that a geometric morphometric approach for discriminating between normal and glaucomatous eyes in optic cup shape is superior to that provided by traditional single parameter shape measures. Such analytical techniques could be incorporated into future automated optic disc screening modalities. PMID:20599965

  15. The Effects of Anisotropy on the Stress Analyses of Patient-Specific Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Vande Geest, Jonathan P.; Schmidt, David E.; Sacks, Michael S.; Vorp, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The local dilation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta, termed an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), is often times asymptomatic and may eventually result in rupture —an event associated with a significant mortality rate. The estimation of in-vivo stresses within AAAs has been proposed as a useful tool to predict the likelihood of rupture. For the current work, a previously-derived anisotropic relation for the AAA wall was implemented into patient-specific finite element simulations of AAA. There were 35 AAAs simulated in the current work which were broken up into three groups: elective repairs (n = 21), non-ruptured repairs (n = 5), and ruptured repairs (n = 9). Peak stresses and strains were compared using the anisotropic and isotropic constitutive relations. There were significant increases in peak stress when using the anisotropic relationship (p<0.001), even in the absence of the ILT (p = 0.014). Rutpured AAAs resulted in elevated peak stresses as compared to non-ruptured AAAs when using both the isotropic and anisotropic simulations, however these comparisons did not reach significance (pani = 0.55, piso = 0.73). While neither the isotropic or anisotropic simulations were able to significantly discriminate ruptured vs. non-ruptured AAAs, the lower p-value when using the anisotropic model suggests including it into patient-specific AAAs may help better identify AAAs at high risk. PMID:18398680

  16. Chronic Contained Rupture of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: From Diagnosis to Endovascular Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto, E-mail: marcello.chiocchi@fastwebnet.it; Chiocchi, Marcello; Maresca, Luciano; Pipitone, Vincenzo; Messina, Massimo; Simonetti, Giovanni [University of Rome 'Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Therapy (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    A male patient, 69 years old, presented with fever, leucocytosis, and persistent low back pain; he also had an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), as previously diagnosed by Doppler UltraSound (US), and was admitted to our hospital. On multislice computed tomography (msCT), a large abdominal mass having no definite border and involving the aorta and both of the psoas muscles was seen. This mass involved the forth-lumbar vertebra with lysis, thus simulating AAA rupture into a paraspinal collection; it was initially considered a paraspinal abscess. After magnetic resonance imaging examination and culture of the fluid aspirated from the mass, no infective organisms were found; therefore, a diagnosisof chronically contained AAA rupture was made, and an aortic endoprosthesis was subsequently implanted. The patient was discharged with decreased lumbar pain. At 12-month follow-up, no evidence of leakage was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of endoprosthesis implantation in a patient, who was a poor candidate for surgical intervention due to renal failure, leucocytosis and high fever, having a chronically contained AAA ruptured simulatingspodilodiscitis abscess. Appropriate diagnosis and therapy resolved potentially crippling pathology and avoided surgical graft-related complications.

  17. Therapeutic Prospect of Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells for the Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Parvizi, Mojtaba; Harmsen, Martin C

    2015-07-01

    Aneurysm refers to the dilation of the vessel wall for more than 50%. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) refers to the dilation and weakening of all three layers of the abdominal aorta, which mostly occur infrarenally. The population aged above 50 years is at risk of AAA development, while a familiar history doubles the risk. Progression of AAA can cause immanent rupture of the vascular wall and has a high mortality and morbidity risk. They are additional risk factors for AAA development such as gender, smoking, and dyslipidemia. In general, pathological features of AAA include inflammation, degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and smooth muscle cell apoptosis. The main pathophysiology of AAA development is still unknown. Besides available treatment modalities for large AAA, which associate with a high mortality risk, effective, alternative, and safer treatments are required, preferably already at an early stage of AAA. For the last decades, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine showed promising potential therapeutic effects for various (cardiovascular) diseases, including AAA. Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSC) are a candidate source of stem cells for regenerative medicine. ADSC are isolated from adipose tissue with low risk and are easily cultured and expanded while maintaining their multipotency. In addition, due to their differentiation capacity and trophic factor production, ADSC serve an important role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine modalities. In this review, we will highlight the main pathobiology of AAA and introduce ADSC as a new promising therapeutic source for small AAA. PMID:25706330

  18. Morphometric and geometric characterization of normal faults on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, David A.; Spagnuolo, Mauro G.; Silvestro, Simone

    2014-09-01

    Using three different approaches (fault plane fitting, 3D crater rim palinspatic restorations and fault scarps morphometric analysis) we investigate the geometry and degradation history of Martian normal faults in two distinct areas. The three independent methods produce similar results, indicating that the average dip angle of the normal faults on these two locations is probably below the value that is usually assumed for Mars (?60°). Our best estimate for this average dip angle is 46.8±9.8°, which is a value comparable with the mean dip angle inferred on Earth for seismically active normal faults. This lower average dip angle implies that all the rift strain estimates performed until now might be underestimated. From the comparative analysis of the two faulted regions (Phlegethon Catena and Claritas Fossae), we show that local and regional dip variabilities may exist on Mars. This reinforces the idea that the amount of extension associated with Martian rifts must be reconsidered. We also demonstrate the advantages of performing a comparative morphometric analysis of fault scarps. This approach enables the reconstruction of the faults scarps degradation history and can be used to evaluate how environmental conditions changed through time. After modeling the degradation of the fault scarps at the two sites we conclude that the observed morphometric variations are mainly due to the different faulting ages in an environment characterized by low scarp degradation rates (4×10-3 m/kyr) over the last 3 Ga.

  19. The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The Abdominal gene is a member of the single homeotic complex of the beetle, Tribolium castaneum. An integrated developmental genetic and molecular analysis shows that Abdominal is homologous to the abdominal-A gene of the bithorax complex of Drosophila. abdominal-A mutant embryos display strong homeotic transformations of the anterior abdomen (parasegments 7-9) to PS6, whereas developmental commitments in the posterior abdomen depend primarily on Abdominal-B. In beetle embryos lacking Abdominal function, parasegments throughout the abdomen are transformed to PS6. This observation demonstrates the general functional significance of parasegmental expression among insects and shows that the control of determinative decisions in the posterior abdomen by homeotic selector genes has undergone considerable evolutionary modification.

  20. Induction of calcification in rabbit aortas by high cholesterol diets: roles of calcifiable vesicles in dystrophic calcification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard H. T Hsu; Nancy C Camacho; Ossama Tawfik; Francis Sun

    2002-01-01

    Atherosclerotic calcification may weaken the aorta wall and thereby lead to rupture of the vessel. The mechanism whereby aortas undergo calcification remains unclear. Previous reports in this laboratory showed that, after 2 months of cholesterol-supplemental feeding, an increase in calcifiability of membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit aortas precedes substantial arterial calcification. Further, the mineral was deposited by isolated calcifiable vesicles

  1. Endoluminal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ghouri, Maaz; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2010-01-01

    Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is an attractive alternative to open surgical repair. Distal endograft migration and type 1 endoleak are recognized to be the 2 main complications of EVAR. First-generation endografts had a stronger propensity for distal migration, modular component separation, thrombosis, and loss of structural integrity. Substantial progress has been made in recent years with 2nd- and 3rd-generation devices to prevent these complications. Some of the most common predictors of endograft failure are angulated and short infrarenal necks, large-diameter necks, and thrombus in the aneurysmal sac. The purpose of this study is to describe and review our experience in using innovative techniques and a newer generation of endografts to prevent distal migration and type 1 endoleak in patients with challenging infrarenal neck anatomy. The use of these innovative EVAR techniques and the new generation of endografts in patients with challenging infrarenal neck anatomy has yielded encouraging procedural and intermediate-term results. PMID:20200623

  2. ABDOMINAL INCISIONS IN GENERAL SURGERY: A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    There is this wrong notion that the only standard abdominal incision is the midline incision. Cases have been seen in which an abdominal incision extends from the xyphoid process to the symphysis pubis just to remove a perforated appendix! It is also not unusual to see a groin incision together with a lower abdominal incision for an obstructed inguinal hernia repair that “slipped” back into the abdominal cavity during preparation for surgery. Even though the trend nowadays in surgery is to opt for laparoscopic and mini-incision surgery, the basic rule in surgery is to have an incision that will be comfortable for the surgeon and provide adequate access to the area of pathology. PMID:25161434

  3. Mapping the Longitudinal Wall Stiffness Heterogeneities within Intact Canine Aortas using Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shahmirzadi, Danial; Narayanan, Prathyush; Li, Ronny X.; Qaqish, William W.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2014-01-01

    The aortic stiffness has been found to be a useful independent indicator of several cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and aneurysms. Existing methods to estimate the aortic stiffness are either invasive, e.g. catheterization, or yield average global measurements which could be inaccurate, e.g., tonometry. Alternatively, the aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) has been shown to be a reliable marker for estimating the wall stiffness based on the Moens–Korteweg (M–K) formulation. Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) is a relatively new, ultrasound-based imaging method for noninvasive and regional estimation of PWV. The present study aims at showing the application of PWI in obtaining localized wall mechanical properties by making PWV measurements on several adjacent locations along the ascending thoracic to the suprarenal abdominal aortic trunk in its intact vessel form. The PWV estimates were used to calculate the regional wall modulus based on the M-K relationship and were compared against conventional mechanical testing. The findings indicated that for the anisotropic aortic wall, the PWI estimates of the modulus are smaller than the circumferential modulus by an average of ?32.22% and larger than the longitudinal modulus by an average of 25.83%. Ongoing work is focused on the in vivo applications of PWI in normal and pathological aortas with future implications in the clinical applications of the technique. PMID:23764176

  4. Abdominal Hernias Complicating Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. O’Connor; Russell J. Rigby; Ian R. Hardie; Darryl R. Wall; Russell W. Strong; Peter W. H. Woodruff; James J. B. Petrie

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five percent of all CAPD patients reviewed in this study developed abdominal hernias. Eleven hernias (32.4%) occurred at the catheter insertion site, 17.6% were inguinal, 26.5% were epigastric and umbilical and 23.5 % occurred at the site of previous abdominal incisions. The risk of developing a hernia was significantly greater in patients over 40 years of age, women of parity

  5. Abdominal Pathology in Patients With Diabetes Ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Pant, Nicole; Kadaria, Dipen; Murillo, Luis C; Yataco, Jose C; Headley, Arthur S; Freire, Amado X

    2012-01-20

    INTRODUCTION: The objective is to describe the incidence and nature of significant abdominal pathologies in patients with diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) and abdominal pain. METHODS: Retrospective chart review (N = 86) of patients with DKA from January 1, 2005, to January 31, 2010, was performed. Data included demographics, comorbidities, compliance, chief complaints and physical findings, blood count, metabolic profile, lactic acid, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), amylase, lipase, anion gap, arterial gases, imaging and final diagnosis. Continuous variables were described as mean ± standard deviation and compared with the Student's t test. Categorical variables were expressed as percentages (%) and compared with the Mantel-Haenszel ? test. Univariate analysis was conducted among patients with and without significant abdominal pain and also with and without significant abdominal pathology. Two lipase strata were created at 400 U. Multivariate model to identify limits (confidence interval) of the estimated risk imposed by the predictor found significant in univariate analysis. A P value of ?0.05 was considered significant. Stat View 5.0 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In patients with abdominal pain, 17% had significant abdominal pathology mainly acute pancreatitis (AP). Serum amylase and lipase level were found to be an indicator of significant underlying pathology (both P values ?0.001). The logistic model created showed that patients with lipase level ?400 U have a 7% increased risk of having AP with confidence interval of 0.01 to 0.6. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DKA and abdominal pain with lipase >400 U have an increased risk of significant underlying abdominal pathology (AP). PMID:22270401

  6. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug resistant infections such as immunodeficiency and prolonged antibacterial exposure. Therapy should focus on the obtainment of adequate source control and adequate use of antimicrobial therapy dictated by individual patient risk factors. Other critical issues remain debated and more controversies are still open mainly because of the limited number of randomized controlled trials. PMID:20302628

  7. [Continuous dissection of the posterior mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes using a laparoscopic transhiatal approach for esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Konishi, Hirotaka; Morimura, Ryo; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Komatsu, Shuhei; Kuriu, Yoshiaki; Ikoma, Hisashi; Kubota, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Okamoto, Kazuma; Sakakura, Chouhei; Otsuji, Eigo

    2014-11-01

    We began performing laparoscopic transhiatal esophagectomies in patients with esophageal cancer in 2009. By June 2014, 172 patients had undergone this procedure. The main advantage of this method was that the dissection of the posterior mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes(LNs)could be performed continuously under a magnified videoscopic view. An abdominal wall sealing device was placed in the upper abdomen, and 4 ports were inserted. The esophageal hiatus was opened, and carbon dioxide was introduced into the mediastinum. The posterior plane of the pericardium was separated and extended, and the anterior side of each posterior mediastinal LN was separated. The thoracic aorta's adventitia was exposed, and the posterior sides of the LNs were then separated. While lifting the LNs like a membrane, they were resected along the border of the left mediastinal pleura. Subsequently, dissection of the posterior mediastinal LNs was extended towards the caudal side from the crural diaphragm to the celiac artery. Thus, the LNs along the celiac and left gastric artery were dissected en bloc from the left side. Our surgical procedure allowed good views during surgery, and the continuous dissection of the posterior mediastinal and abdominal LNs was performed safely. PMID:25731400

  8. A Comparison of Risk Factors for Calcified Atherosclerotic Plaque in the Coronary, Carotid, and Abdominal Aortic Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Bowden, Donald W.

    2012-01-01

    The extent of shared risk factors for calcified atherosclerotic plaque (CAP) of the coronary, carotid, and abdominal aortic arteries is unknown. CAP was measured by computed tomography in 1,125 individuals in families affected with diabetes. Statistical methods adjusted for the lack of independence between observations. CAP scores were standardized, and tests of interaction were conducted to compare risk factor relations across vascular beds. The average age of the cohort was 61 years, and 84% had diabetes. The correlation in CAP scores across vascular beds ranged from 0.59 to 0.72. Age, albumin/creatinine ratio, hemoglobin A1c, diabetes, hypertension, and lipid-lowering therapy were correlated with quantity of CAP in all vascular beds (all p < 0.05); no differences in the strength of these relations were noted. In contrast, other significant correlates differed in the strength of their relations with CAP. The risk factor pack-years of smoking was most strongly correlated with CAP in the abdominal aorta (p < 0.005). Male gender, previous myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization were most strongly correlated with CAP in the coronary arteries (p < 0.0001). In summary, CAPs of the coronary, carotid, and abdominal aortic arteries generally share common risk factors, even though several of these factors have a greater impact on CAP in one vascular bed than another. PMID:17493948

  9. Geometric morphometrics offer insight on the intersexual differences in allometric coefficients of bite force in the northern map turtle (Graptemys geographica)

    E-print Network

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    Geometric morphometrics offer insight on the intersexual differences in allometric coefficients morphology by performing geometric morphometric analyses on landmarked skull radiographs. We used painted

  10. Ultrasound measurement of abdominal muscles activity during abdominal hollowing and bracing in women with and without stress urinary incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Massoud Arab; Mahshid Chehrehrazi

    2011-01-01

    Synergistic co-activation of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) has been reported in the literature. Considering that PFM dysfunction is present in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), altered abdominal muscle activation may also occur in incontinent women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the abdominal muscle activity during abdominal hollowing and bracing maneuver in women with

  11. Descending Thoracic Aorta Remodeling after Multilayer Stent Release.

    PubMed

    Bozzani, Antonio; Arici, Vittorio; Bonalumi, Giovanni; Argenteri, Angelo

    2015-07-01

    The multilayer flow modulator (MFM) is a device whose real effectiveness in the treatment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms is not clear yet. A 68-year-old man with a 18-mm blister-like aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta underwent endovascular exclusion, complicated by the thrombosis of a previous aortobi-iliac prosthesis, treated with embolectomy and femorofemoral bypass. Therefore, an MFM placement was planned. The postoperative course was uneventful and the 6-month computed tomography scan showed a complete thrombosis and remodeling of the aneurysm. The MFM stent could be an alternative treatment for saccular thoracic aortic aneurysm in high-risk patients but should not be used indiscriminately when other modalities of aortic repair are not feasible. Longer follow-up is mandatory to prove the efficacy of this technology. PMID:25765638

  12. Ayahuasca Alters Structural Parameters of the Rat Aorta.

    PubMed

    Pitol, Dimitrius L; Siéssere, Selma; Dos Santos, Rafael G; Rosa, Maria L N M; Hallak, Jaime E C; Scalize, Priscilla H; Pereira, Bruno F; Iyomasa, Melina M; Semprini, Marisa; Riba, Jordi; Regalo, Simone C H

    2015-07-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic brew traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian indigenous groups for therapeutic purposes. It is prepared by the decoction of Banisteriopsis caapi with the leaves of Psychotria viridis. Banisteriopsis caapi contains ?-carbolines that are inhibitors of monoamine oxidase and P. viris is rich in dimethyltryptamine, a 5-HT1A/2A/2C agonist. Acute ayahuasca administration produces moderate cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers, but information regarding long-term use is lacking. This study investigated the effects of ayahuasca (2-4 mL/kg) in the rat aorta after acute and chronic (14 days) administration. Ayahuasca caused flattening and stretching of vascular smooth muscle cells and changes in the arrangement and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. Chronic treatment with the higher dose significantly increased media thickness and the ratio of media thickness to lumen diameter. More research is needed on the cardiovascular function of long-term ayahuasca consumers. PMID:25714595

  13. Laparotomy for blunt abdominal trauma in a civilian trauma service.

    PubMed

    Howes, N; Walker, T; Allorto, N L; Oosthuizen, G V; Clarke, D L

    2012-05-01

    This report looks at the group of patients who required a laparotomy for blunt torso trauma at a busy metropolitan trauma service in South Africa. Methods. A prospective trauma registry is maintained by the surgical services of the Pietermaritzburg metropolitan complex. This registry is interrogated retrospectively. All patients who required admission for blunt torso trauma over the period September 2006 - September 2007 were included for review. Proformas documenting mechanism of injury, age, vital signs, blood gas, delay in presentation, length of hospital stay, intensive care unit stay and operative details were completed. Results. A total of 926 patients were treated for blunt trauma by the Pietermaritzburg metropolitan services during the period under consideration. A cohort of 65 (8%) required a laparotomy for blunt trauma during this period. There were 17 females in this group. The mechanisms of injury were motor vehicle accident (MVA) (27), pedestrian vehicle accident (PVA) (21), assault (5), fall from a height (3), bicycle accident (6), quad bike accident (1) and tractor-related accident (2). The following isolated injuries were discovered at laparotomy: liver (9), spleen (5), diaphragm (1), duodenum (2), small bowel (8), mesentery (8) bladder (10), gallbladder (1), stomach (2), colon/rectum (2) and retrohepatic vena cava (1). The following combined injuries were discovered: liver and diaphragm (2), spleen and pancreas (1), spleen and liver (2), spleen, aorta and diaphragm (1), spleen and bladder (1) and small bowel and bladder (2). Eighteen patients in the series (26%) required relaparotomy. In 10 patients temporary abdominal containment was needed. The mortality rate was 26% (18 patients). There were 6 deaths from massive bleeding, all within 6 hours of operation, and 3 deaths from renal failure; the remaining 9 patients died of multiple organ failure. There were 8 negative laparotomies (7%). In the negative laparotomy group false-positive computed tomography (CT) scan findings were a problem in 3 cases, in 1 case hypotension and a fractured pelvis on admission prompted laparotomy, and in the other cases clinical findings prompted laparotomy. All patients who underwent negative laparotomy survived. There were 10 pelvic fractures, 5 lower limb fractures, 2 spinal injuries, 4 femur fractures and 2 upper limb fractures. CT scans were done in 25 patients. In 20 patients the systolic blood pressure on presentation was <90 mmHg and in 41 the pulse rate was >110 beats/min. In 16 patients there was a base excess of <-4 on presentation. Conclusion. Laparotomy is needed in less than 10% of patients who sustain blunt abdominal trauma. Solid visceral injury requiring laparotomy presents with haemodynamic instability. Hollow visceral injury has a more insidious presentation and is associated with a delay in diagnosis. CT scan is the most widely used investigation in blunt abdominal trauma. It is both sensitive and specific for solid visceral injury, but its accuracy for the diagnosis of hollow visceral injury is less well defined. Clinical suspicion must be high, and hollow visceral injury needs to be actively excluded. PMID:22622098

  14. Effect of Excessive Potassium Iodide on Rat Aorta Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lin, Xinying; Bian, Jianchao; Meng, Huicui; Liu, Dan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of excess iodine on rat aorta endothelial cells and the potential underlying mechanisms. Rat aorta endothelial cells were cultured with iodide ion (3506, 4076, 4647, 5218, 5789, 6360, 6931, and 7512 mg/L) for 48 h. Morphological changes of cells were observed with microscope after Wright-Giemsa staining and acridine orange staining. Cell proliferation was determined with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and cell apoptosis was assessed with flow cytometry. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and protein carbonyl in culture medium were determined with colorimetric method. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that excess iodine induced abnormal morphologic changes of cells, inhibited cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis rate. Iodine also reduced the activity of SOD, GSH-Px, and concentrations of GSH and increased the concentrations of MDA and protein carbonyl in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, excess iodine decreased the activity of eNOS and increased the activity of iNOS and the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in culture medium. Our results suggested that excess iodine exposure increased oxidative stress, caused damage of vascular endothelial cells, and altered the expression of adhesion factors and the activity of NOS. These changes may explain the mechanisms underlying excess iodine-induced vascular injury. PMID:25690517

  15. Proteomics Characterization of Extracellular Space Components in the Human Aorta*

    PubMed Central

    Didangelos, Athanasios; Yin, Xiaoke; Mandal, Kaushik; Baumert, Mark; Jahangiri, Marjan; Mayr, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    The vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for the structural integrity of the vessel wall and also serves as a substrate for the binding and retention of secreted products of vascular cells as well as molecules coming from the circulation. Although proteomics has been previously applied to vascular tissues, few studies have specifically targeted the vascular ECM and its associated proteins. Thus, its detailed composition remains to be characterized. In this study, we describe a methodology for the extraction of extracellular proteins from human aortas and their identification by proteomics. The approach is based on (a) effective decellularization to enrich for scarce extracellular proteins, (b) successful solubilization and deglycosylation of ECM proteins, and (c) relative estimation of protein abundance using spectral counting. Our three-step extraction approach resulted in the identification of 103 extracellular proteins of which one-third have never been reported in the proteomics literature of vascular tissues. In particular, three glycoproteins (podocan, sclerostin, and agrin) were identified for the first time in human aortas at the protein level. We also identified extracellular adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1, the cartilage glycoprotein asporin, and a previously hypothetical protein, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) spondin. Moreover, our methodology allowed us to screen for proteolysis in the aortic samples based on the identification of proteolytic enzymes and their corresponding degradation products. For instance, we were able to detect matrix metalloproteinase-9 by mass spectrometry and relate its presence to degradation of fibronectin in a clinical specimen. We expect this proteomics methodology to further our understanding of the composition of the vascular extracellular environment, shed light on ECM remodeling and degradation, and provide insights into important pathological processes, such as plaque rupture, aneurysm formation, and restenosis. PMID:20551380

  16. Syst. Zool., 36(4):398-400, 1987 Univariate Analyses of Morphometric Variation Do Not Emulate the

    E-print Network

    Willig, Michael

    Syst. Zool., 36(4):398-400, 1987 Univariate Analyses of Morphometric Variation Do Not Emulate) compared the empirical results of univar- iate (ANOVA) and multivariate (MANO- VA) analyses of morphometric

  17. Fishbone penetration of the thoracic esophagus with prolonged asymptomatic impaction within the aorta.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sheung-Fat; Lu, Hung-I; Ng, Shu-Hang; Kung, Chia-Te

    2013-02-01

    A 54-year-old man with fishbone penetration of the thoracic esophagus and mediastinal hematoma was successfully managed with conservative treatment. Six-month follow-up computed tomography (CT) revealed migration of the fishbone into the aorta; however, the patient was asymptomatic and refused surgery. Six years later, CT showed persistent impaction of the fishbone within the aorta, but the patient was healthy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of serial CT documentation of fishbone penetration of the esophagus with migration into and prolonged asymptomatic impaction within the aorta. PMID:23127981

  18. Asymptomatic mycotic aneurysm of ascending aorta after heart transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Behzadnia, N; Ahmadi, Z H; Mandegar, M H; Salehi, F; Sharif-Kashani, B; Pourabdollah, M; Ansari-Aval, Z; Kianfar, A-A; Mirhosseini, S M; Eiji, M

    2015-01-01

    Mycotic pseudoaneurysm and aneurysm of the ascending aorta is a very rare and potentially fatal complication of heart transplantation. It usually presents with fever, chest pain, dyspnea, or constitutional symptoms. Most reports in the literature are about mycotic pseudoaneurysm, but mycotic aneurysm is rarer. Herein we report a 39-year-old man in who had an asymptomatic mycotic aneurysm of the ascending aorta developed late (1 year) after orthotopic heart transplantation. There was no history of previous mediastinitis or any other important infection. He underwent an uneventful replacement of the ascending aorta. PMID:25645806

  19. A multicenter randomized comparison of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy and abdominal hysterectomy in abdominal hysterectomy candidates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L Summitt; Thomas G Stovall; John F Steege; Gary H Lipscomb

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To compare intraoperative and postoperative outcomes between laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy and abdominal hysterectomy among patients who are not eligible for vaginal hysterectomy.Methods: Study subjects were randomly assigned to undergo laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy or standard abdominal hysterectomy. Intraoperative and postoperative management was similar for each group. Surgical characteristics, complications, length of hospital stay, charges, and convalescence were analyzed.Results:

  20. INFLUENCE OF NUTRITIONAL STRESS AND THE AGE OF ADULTS ON THE MORPHOMETRICS OF HONEY BEES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of nutritional stress, and the post-emergence age of adult worker honey bees, on the morphometric determinations of morphometric analysis : samples of very young bees (less than 1 min post emergence) were more variable with average worker cell diameters of 4.8- 4.9 mm versus 5.2-5.3 mm for European bees (RINDERERet al., 1982

  1. Morphometric measurement selection: an invertebrate case study based on weevils from subAntarctic Marion Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Janse van Rensburg; C. T. Chimimba; A. D. Bastos; S. L. Chown

    2003-01-01

    A character-selection procedure initially applied in vertebrates (viverrid carnivores and murid rodents), but with a potential, more general application, was used to select appropriate characters for a morphometric investigation of weevils on Marion Island. An initial set of 23 linear measurements, adopted from a previous morphometric study, was subjected to cluster and ordination procedures to summarize patterns of correlations between

  2. Phycologia (2007) Volume 46 (2), 123130 Published 1 March 2007 A geometric morphometric study of the variation in scales of

    E-print Network

    2007-01-01

    123 Phycologia (2007) Volume 46 (2), 123­130 Published 1 March 2007 A geometric morphometric study, 128 01, Czech Republic J. NEUSTUPA AND Y. NEMCOVA´ . 2007. A geometric morphometric study considered identical so far. KEY WORDS: Geometric morphometrics, Mallomonas, Relative warps analysis

  3. Morphometric and molecular analyses confirm two distinct species of Calliarthron (Corallinales, Rhodophyta), a genus endemic to the northeast Pacific

    E-print Network

    Martone, Patrick T.

    Morphometric and molecular analyses confirm two distinct species of Calliarthron (Corallinales. Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada GABRIELSON P.W., MILLER K.A. AND MARTONE P.T. 2011. Morphometric and molecular and C. setchelliae. A morphometric analysis shows that three measured characters reliably distinguish C

  4. MODICOS: Morphometric and Distance Computation Software oriented for evolutionary A. Carvajal-Rodrguez (phD) and M. Gandarela Rodrguez

    E-print Network

    Carvajal-Rodríguez, Antonio

    MODICOS: Morphometric and Distance Computation Software oriented for evolutionary studies. A and shape are among such quantitative traits. The use of geometric morphometric techniques allow to distinguish shape and size in a precise and formal way. Hence, geometric morphometric distinguish between

  5. Ann. soc. entomol. Fr. (n.s.), 2007, 43 (1) : 95-102 Landmark based geometric morphometric analysis

    E-print Network

    Rasmont, Pierre

    morphometric analysis of wing shape in Sibiricobombus Vogt (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus Latreille) Summary. B of the subgenera Melanobombus and Mendacibombus. Different geometric morphometric methods based on wings landmark Analysis, Geometric Morphometrics. A. Murat Aytekin (1) , Michaël Terzo (2) , Pierre Rasmont (2) & Nee

  6. Quantitative analysis of epithelial morphogenesis in Drosophila oogenesis: New insights based on morphometric analysis and mechanical modeling

    E-print Network

    Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    on morphometric analysis and mechanical modeling K.S. Kolahi a,1 , P.F. White a,1 , D.M. Shreter a,1 , A morphogenesis Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis Mechanics Morphometric analysis Computational modeling morphometric analysis of these poorly understood events in order to establish the parameters of and delimit

  7. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Ba?ara, I??l; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  8. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Ba?ara, I??l; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%-70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  9. An uncommon cause of visceral arterial embolism in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Ulenaers, M; Buchel, O C; Van Olmen, A; Moons, V; D'Haens, G; Christiaens, P

    2010-01-01

    We report on 2 cases of visceral arterial embolism presenting with acute abdominal pain. In neither patient a cause could be established on initial clinical, laboratory, echographic or radiological investigation. Both patients were subsequently found to have a mural thrombus in the thoracic aorta, with visceral arterial embolism. Each underwent a successful operative thrombectomy. Both patients had a normal underlying aortic intima at inspection. The first patient was a young male with no known diseases. He regularly used cannabis and tested positive on admission, an association not yet reported with aortic mural thrombus. He was found to have a slightly reduced protein C. The second patient was a middle aged man with non-insulin dependent diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, arterial hypertension and hyperthyroidism. He was found to have an underlying adenocarcinoma of the lung and received chemotherapy. He died due to his cancer, 4 months after first presentation. PMID:20458852

  10. Giant coronary cameral fistula with coarctation of aorta in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Awasthy, Neeraj; Sharma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    A coronary cameral fistula (CCF) involves a sizable communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber. We present a case of giant coronary cameral fistula associated with coarctation of aorta in a 13 days old neonate. PMID:26085776

  11. Giant coronary cameral fistula with coarctation of aorta in a neonate

    PubMed Central

    Awasthy, Neeraj; Sharma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    A coronary cameral fistula (CCF) involves a sizable communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber. We present a case of giant coronary cameral fistula associated with coarctation of aorta in a 13 days old neonate.

  12. Bioprosthetic Mesh in Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Donald P.; Butler, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesh materials have undergone a considerable evolution over the last several decades. There has been enhancement of biomechanical properties, improvement in manufacturing processes, and development of antiadhesive laminate synthetic meshes. The evolution of bioprosthetic mesh materials has markedly changed our indications and methods for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. The authors review the optimal properties of bioprosthetic mesh materials, their evolution over time, and their indications for use. The techniques to optimize outcomes are described using bioprosthetic mesh for complex abdominal wall reconstruction. Bioprosthetic mesh materials clearly have certain advantages over other implantable mesh materials in select indications. Appropriate patient selection and surgical technique are critical to the successful use of bioprosthetic materials for abdominal wall repair. PMID:23372454

  13. Flap Coverage of Anterior Abdominal Wall Defects

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Justin M.; Broyles, Justin M.; Baumann, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of complex defects of the anterior abdomen is both challenging and technically demanding for reconstructive surgeons. Advancements in the use of pedicle and free tissue transfer along with the use of bioprosthetic and synthetic meshes have provided for novel approaches to these complex defects. Accordingly, detailed knowledge of abdominal wall and lower extremity anatomy in combination with insight into the design, implementation, and limitations of various flaps is essential to solve these complex clinical problems. Although these defects can be attributed to a myriad of etiologic factors, the objectives in abdominal wall reconstruction are consistent and include the restoration of abdominal wall integrity, protection of intraabdominal viscera, and the prevention of herniation. In this article, the authors review pertinent anatomy and the various local, regional, and distant flaps that can be utilized in the reconstruction of these complex clinical cases of the anterior abdomen. PMID:23372457

  14. Caveolin-1 is critical for abdominal aortic aneurysm formation induced by angiotensin II and inhibition of lysyl oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Takayanagi, Takehiko; Crawford, Kevin J.; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Elliott, Katherine J.; Hashimoto, Tomoki; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Although angiotensin II (Ang II) and its receptor AT1 have been implicated in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation, the proximal signaling events primarily responsible for AAA formation remain uncertain. Caveolae are cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains that serve as a signaling platform to facilitate the temporal and spatial localization of signal transduction events including those stimulated by Ang II. Caveolin-1 (Cav1) enriched caveolae in vascular smooth muscle cells mediate ADAM17-dependent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation, which is linked to vascular remodeling induced by Ang II. Here, we have tested our hypothesis that Cav1 plays a critical role for development of AAA at least in part via its specific alteration of Ang II signaling within caveolae. Cav1?/? mice and the control wild-type mice were co-infused with Ang II and ?-aminopropionitrile to induce AAA. We found that Cav1?/? mice with the co-infusion did not develop AAA compared to control mice in spite of hypertension. We found an increased expression of ADAM17 and enhanced phosphorylation of EGFR in AAA. These events were markedly attenuated in Cav1?/? aortae with the co-infusion. Furthermore, Cav1?/? mice aortae with the co-infusion showed less endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses compared to aortae from control mice. Cav1 silencing in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells prevented Ang II-induced ADAM17 induction and activation. In conclusion, Cav1 appears to play a critical role in the formation of AAA and associated endoplasmic reticulum/oxidative stress presumably through the regulation of caveolae compartmentalized signals induced by Ang II. PMID:24329494

  15. Quantitative expression and localization of cysteine and aspartic proteases in human abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Lohoefer, Fabian; Reeps, Christian; Lipp, Christina; Rudelius, Martina; Haertl, Felix; Matevossian, Edouard; Zernecke, Alma; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Pelisek, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine and aspartic proteases possess high elastolytic activity and might contribute to the degradation of the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) wall. The aim of this study was to analyze, in detail, the proteases (cathepsins B, D, K, L and S, and inhibitor cystatin C) found in human AAA and healthy aortic tissue samples. The vessel walls from AAA patients (n=36) and nonaneurysmal aortae (n=10) were retrieved using conventional surgical repair and autopsy methods. Serum samples from the same AAA patients and 10 healthy volunteers were also collected. Quantitative expression analyses were performed at the mRNA level using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT–PCR). Furthermore, analyses at the protein level included western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses. Cellular sources of cysteine/aspartic proteases and cystatin C were identified by immunohistochemistry (IHC). All cysteine/aspartic proteases and cystatin C were detected in the AAA and control samples. Using quantitative RT–PCR, a significant increase in expression was observed for cathepsins B (P=0.021) and L (P=0.018), compared with the controls. Cathepsin B and cystatin C were also detected in the serum of AAA patients. Using IHC, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and macrophages were positive for all of the tested cathepsins, as well as cystatin C; in addition, the lymphocytes were mainly positive for cathepsin B, followed by cathepsins D and S. All cysteine/aspartic proteases analyzed in our study were detected in the AAA and healthy aorta. The highest expression was found in macrophages and SMCs. Consequently, cysteine/aspartic proteases might play a substantial role in AAA. PMID:24833013

  16. Quantification of the migration and deformation of abdominal aortic aneurysm stent grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattes, Julian; Steingruber, Iris; Netzer, Michael; Fritscher, Karl; Kopf, Helmut; Jaschke, Werner; Schubert, Rainer

    2006-03-01

    The endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is a minimal invasive therapy which has been established during the past 15 years. A stent-graft is placed inside the aorta in order to cover the weakened regions of its wall. During a time interval of one or more years the stent-graft can migrate and deform with the risk of the occlusion of one of its limbs or of the rupture of the aneurysm. In this work we developed several strategies to quantify the migration and deformation in order to assess the risk coming with these movements and especially to characterize appearing complications by them. We calculated the rigid movement of the stent-graft and the aorta relative to the spinal canal. For this purpose, firstly, we rigidly registered the spinal canals, extracted for the different points in time, in order to establish a fixed reference system. All objects have been segmented first and surface points have been determined before applying a rigid and non-rigid point set registration algorithm. The change in the residual error after registration of the stent-graft with an increasing number of degrees of freedom indicates the amount of change in the stent-graft's morphology. We investigated a sample of 9. Two cases could be clearly distinguished by the quantified parameters: a high global migration and a strong reduction of the residual error after non-rigid registration. In both cases, strong complications have been detected by the examination of clinical experts but only by means of the images acquired one year later.

  17. Combined myocardial revascularization and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Hinkamp, T J; Pifarre, R; Bakhos, M; Blakeman, B

    1991-03-01

    Myocardial infarction remains the leading cause of early and late deaths after abdominal aortic reconstruction in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. Our approach for the past 4 years has been combined myocardial revascularization with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in patients with good left ventricle performance. From July 1984 through June 1989, 128 patients underwent abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Seventeen patients underwent combined abdominal aortic reconstruction with coronary artery bypass grafting. One patient died (5.9%). The remaining patients are all well at current follow-up. Our experience shows that patients with coronary artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm may have both lesions safely repaired as a single operative procedure. PMID:1998428

  18. Antegrade selective cerebral perfusion in operations on the proximal thoracic aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl M Dossche; Marc A. A. M Schepens; Wim J Morshuis; Filip E Muysoms; Johanna J Langemeijer; Freddy E. E Vermeulen

    1999-01-01

    Background. To determine the factors that influence hospital death and neurologic complications after surgery on the thoracic aorta using circulatory arrest and antegrade selective cerebral perfusion.Methods. From May 1989 through April 1997, 106 patients underwent surgery on the thoracic aorta using circulatory arrest and antegrade selective cerebral perfusion. Mean age was 64.0 ± 11.5 years. Unilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion was

  19. Single-clamp technique for aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta: report of 132 consecutive casesq

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denton A. Cooley; Alessandro Golino; O. H. Frazier

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of a single-clamp technique in preventing spinal cord ischemia during repair of aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta. Patients and methods: From January 1989 to May 1999, 132 consecutive patients (91 men and 41 women, aged 31-86 years), with aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta underwent repair using a single-clamp technique and temporary partial distal

  20. Single-clamp technique for aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta: report of 132 consecutive cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denton A Cooley; Alessandro Golino; O. H Frazier

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of a single-clamp technique in preventing spinal cord ischemia during repair of aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta. Patients and methods: From January 1989 to May 1999, 132 consecutive patients (91 men and 41 women, aged 31–86 years), with aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta underwent repair using a single-clamp technique and temporary partial distal

  1. Inhibition of Notch1 Signaling Reduces Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Mice by Attenuating Macrophage-Mediated Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hans, Chetan P.; Koenig, Sara N.; Huang, Nianyuan; Cheng, Jeeyun; Beceiro, Susana; Guggilam, Anuradha; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Partida-Sánchez, Santiago; Garg, Vidu

    2014-01-01

    Objective Activation of inflammatory pathways plays a critical role in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Notch1 signaling is a significant regulator of the inflammatory response; however, its role in AAA is unknown. Methods and Results In an angiotensin II (AngII)-induced mouse model of AAA, activation of Notch1 signaling was observed in the aortic aneurysmal tissue of Apoe?/? mice and a similar activation of Notch1 was observed in aneurysms of humans undergoing AAA repair. Notch1 haploinsufficiency significantly reduced the incidence of AAA in Apoe?/? mice in response to AngII. Reconstitution of bone marrow-derived cells from Notch1+/?; Apoe?/? mice (donor) in lethally irradiated Apoe?/? mice (recipient) decreased occurrence of aneurysm. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Notch1 haploinsufficiency prevented the influx of inflammatory macrophages at the aneurysmal site by causing defects in macrophage migration and proliferation. Additionally, there was an overall reduction in the inflammatory burden in the aorta of the Notch1+/?;Apoe?/? mice as compared to the Apoe?/? mice. Lastly, pharmacologic inhibition of Notch1 signaling also prevented AAA formation and progression in Apoe?/? mice. Conclusion Our data suggest that decreased levels of Notch1 protect against the formation of AAA by preventing macrophage recruitment and attenuating the inflammatory response in the aorta. PMID:23087364

  2. Longitudinal and Circumferential Strain of the Proximal Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Vanessa; Mitchell, William A.; Sigurðsson, Sigurður; Westenberg, Jos J. M.; Gotal, John D.; Torjesen, Alyssa A.; Aspelund, Thor; Launer, Lenore J.; de Roos, Albert; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B.; Mitchell, Gary F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of mechanical properties of the proximal aorta is a requisite first step for elucidating the pathophysiology of isolated systolic hypertension. During systole, substantial proximal aortic axial displacement produces longitudinal strain, which we hypothesize causes variable underestimation of ascending aortic circumferential strain compared to values in the longitudinally constrained descending aorta. Methods and Results To assess effects of longitudinal strain, we performed magnetic resonance imaging in 375 participants (72 to 94 years old, 204 women) in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility?Reykjavik Study and measured aortic circumferential and longitudinal strain. Circumferential ascending aortic area strain uncorrected for longitudinal strain was comparable in women and men (mean [95% CI], 8.3 [7.8, 8.9] versus 7.9 [7.4, 8.5]%, respectively, P=0.3). However, longitudinal strain was greater in women (8.5±2.5 versus 7.0±2.5%, P<0.001), resulting in greater longitudinally corrected circumferential ascending aortic strain (14.4 [13.6, 15.2] versus 13.0 [12.4, 13.7]%, P=0.010). Observed circumferential descending aortic strain, which did not require correction (women: 14.0 [13.2, 14.8], men: 12.4 [11.6, 13.2]%, P=0.005), was larger than uncorrected (P<0.001), but comparable to longitudinally corrected (P=0.12) circumferential ascending aortic strain. Carotid?femoral pulse wave velocity did not correlate with uncorrected ascending aortic strain (R=?0.04, P=0.5), but was inversely related to longitudinally corrected ascending and observed descending aortic strain (R=?0.15, P=0.004; R=?0.36, P<0.001, respectively). Longitudinal strain was also inversely related to carotid?femoral pulse wave velocity and other risk factors for higher aortic stiffness including treated hypertension. Conclusions Longitudinal strain creates substantial and variable errors in circumferential ascending aortic area strain measurements, particularly in women, and should be considered to avoid misclassification of ascending aortic stiffness. PMID:25523153

  3. Giant cystic abdominal masses in children.

    PubMed

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L; Thomas, Kristen B; Harned, Roger K; Wu, Sarah R; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Strain, John D

    2005-12-01

    In this pictorial essay the common and uncommon causes of large cystic and cyst-like abdominal masses in children are reviewed. We discuss and illustrate the following: mesenchymal hamartoma, choledochal cyst, hydrops of the gallbladder, congenital splenic cyst, pancreatic pseudocyst, pancreatic cystadenoma, hydronephrosis, multicystic dysplastic kidney, multilocular cystic nephroma, adrenal hemorrhage, mesenteric and omental cysts, gastrointestinal duplication cyst, meconium pseudocyst, ovarian cysts and cystic neoplasms, hematocolpos, urachal cysts, appendiceal abscess, abdominal and sacrococcygeal teratoma, and CSF pseudocyst. We also describe imaging features and clues to the diagnosis. PMID:16151789

  4. Recurrent abdominal pain: a psychogenic disorder?

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, P J; Goodman, J T; Firestone, P; Shipman, R; Peters, S

    1983-01-01

    A controlled study of 30 children with recurrent abdominal pain and 30 pain free children failed to show any statistically significant differences between the groups on a variety of psychological variables thought to be associated with psychogenicity. A psychogenic basis has often been assumed as the cause in diagnosis of recurrent abdominal pain when clinical examination and laboratory tests show no organic or medical reason. We emphasise that establishing a psychogenic cause is only indicated where there is positive evidence for psychological factors such as family or school stress, extreme personality characteristics, or modelling of family pain behaviour. PMID:6651325

  5. Polychlorinated Biphenyl 77 Augments Angiotensin II-Induced Atherosclerosis and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Male Apolipoprotein E Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Arsenescu, Violeta; Arsenescu, Razvan; Parulkar, Madhura; Karounos, Michael; Zhang, Xuan; Cassis, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) to hyperlipidemic mice augments atherosclerosis and causes formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Each of these AngII-induced vascular pathologies exhibit pronounced inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated that coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote inflammation in endothelial cells and adipocytes, two cell types implicated in AngII-induced vascular pathologies. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that administration of PCB77 to male apolipoprotein E (ApoE) -/- mice promotes AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. Male ApoE-/- mice were administered vehicle or PCB77 (49 mg/kg, i.p.) during week 1 and 4 (2 divided doses/week) of AngII infusion. Body weights and total serum cholesterol concentrations were not influenced by administration of PCB77. Systolic blood pressure was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (156 ± 6 vs 137 ± 5 mmHg, respectively). The percentage of aortic arch covered by atherosclerotic lesions was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (2.0 ± 0.4 vs 0.9 ± 0.1 %, respectively). Lumen diameters of abdominal aortas determined by in vivo ultrasound and external diameters of excised suprarenal aortas were increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle. In addition, AAA incidence increased from 47 to 85% in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77. Adipose tissue in close proximity to AAAs from mice administered PCB77 exhibited increased mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines and elevated expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen, angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1aR)). These results demonstrate that PCB77 augments AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. PMID:21925196

  6. Vanadyl sulfate protects against streptozotocin-induced morphological and biochemical changes in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Akgün-Dar, Kadriye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Yanardag, Refiye; Tunali, Sevim

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of vanadyl sulfate on aorta tissue of normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were made diabetic by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) and vanadyl sulfate (100 mg/kg) that was given every day for 60 days by gavage technique to rats. Under the light and transmission electron microscopes, hypertrophy of the vessel wall, focal disruption in the elastic lamellae, an increase in thickness of total aortic wall, tunica intima, subendothelial space and adventitial layer, and a disorganization in smooth muscular cells of the tunica media were observed in diabetic animals. The aorta lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were significantly increased and the aorta glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly reduced in STZ diabetic rats. In diabetic rats administered vanadyl sulfate for 60 days, aorta LPO levels significantly decreased and the aorta GSH level significantly increased. In conclusion, in vivo treatment with vanadyl sulfate of diabetic rats prevented the morphological and biochemical changes observed in thoracic aorta of diabetic animals. PMID:16892454

  7. Comprehensive approach for clamping severely calcified ascending aorta using computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Hiroyuki; Mitsuno, Masataka; Ryomoto, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    A severely calcified ascending aorta is generally considered unclampable. Many surgeons have developed procedures to avoid manipulation such as cross-clamping on such calcified aorta. However, these alternatives are sometimes complicated and require a more invasive procedure than the conventional method. We assessed our comprehensive strategy for clamping of a severely calcified aorta using preoperative computed tomography (CT). We found that the extent of calcification just below the innominate artery was significantly less than that at the usual ascending aorta clamp site. After confirming that the extent of calcification just below the innominate artery was <75% of the entire circumference by preoperative CT, ascending aorta was clamped with a soft cross-clamp placed on the ascending aorta with particular care to orientate the clamp parallel to the calcification. All operations were completed under usual cardiopulmonary bypass with mild hypothermia. All patients survived surgery and no patients had a postoperative neurological complication. Our results provide important information for the management of these high-risk patients, with a comprehensive approach used to choose the appropriate option for an optimal outcome. PMID:19861326

  8. Geometric morphometrics and geological shape-classification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, N.

    2002-11-01

    Many areas of geological inquiry involve the description and/or comparison of shapes. While various morphometric tools have long been available to facilitate these types of comparisons, by far the most common approach to such form-classification has been via the creation of a semiquantitative scale of morphological exemplars, type specimens, etc. to which unknown structures, objects, or specimens can be compared. Such form-scales are ubiquitous—either in terms of text-based descriptions or illustration sets—throughout the geological literature. However, students, and even experienced geologists, often have difficulty using such scales and achieving consistent results. Investigations of three such scales drawn from the fields of sedimentology, paleontology, and geomorphology using the analytical tools of geometric morphometrics suggests that one reason for this difficulty is that the exemplars drawn from sets of real objects (1) often exhibit shape differences other than those under nominal consideration or (2) are used to represents object classes whose boundaries are insufficiently documented or described. Herein, strategies are developed that employ the ordination and modeling capabilities of eigenshape analysis to correct these deficiencies and devise sets of new, more representative, and easier to use shape-classification systems. By employing these approaches, augmented where necessary with formal statistical analyses, geologists can improve the sophistication, accuracy, and reproducibility of their morphological inferences. In doing this, they will also improve the reliability of their hypotheses tests.

  9. Effect of abdominal and pelvic floor tasks on muscle activity, abdominal pressure and bladder neck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baerbel Junginger; Kaven Baessler; Ruth Sapsford; Paul W. Hodges

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis  Although the bladder neck is elevated during a pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction, it descends during straining. This study\\u000a aimed to investigate the relationship between bladder neck displacement, electromyography (EMG) activity of the pelvic floor\\u000a and abdominal muscles and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during different pelvic floor and abdominal contractions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Nine women without PFM dysfunction performed maximal, gentle and

  10. Effect of coarctation of the aorta and bicuspid aortic valve on flow dynamics and turbulence in the aorta using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Gaillard, Emmanuel; Maftoon, Nima; Di Labbio, Giuseppe; Cloutier, Guy; Kadem, Lyes

    2014-03-01

    Blood flow in the aorta has been of particular interest from both fluid dynamics and physiology perspectives. Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a congenital heart disease corresponding to a severe narrowing in the aortic arch. Up to 85 % of patients with COA have a pathological aortic valve, leading to a narrowing at the valve level. The aim of the present work was to advance the state of understanding of flow through a COA to investigate how narrowing in the aorta (COA) affects the characteristics of the velocity field and, in particular, turbulence development. For this purpose, particle image velocimetry measurements were conducted at physiological flow and pressure conditions, with three different aorta configurations: (1) normal case: normal aorta + normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + normal aortic valve and (3) complex COA: COA (with 75 % reduction in aortic cross-sectional area) + pathological aortic valve. Viscous shear stress (VSS), representing the physical shear stress, Reynolds shear stress (RSS), representing the turbulent shear stress, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), representing the intensity of fluctuations in the fluid flow environment, were calculated for all cases. Results show that, compared with a healthy aorta, the instantaneous velocity streamlines and vortices were deeply changed in the presence of the COA. The normal aorta did not display any regions of elevated VSS, RSS and TKE at any moment of the cardiac cycle. The magnitudes of these parameters were elevated for both isolated COA and complex COA, with their maximum values mainly being located inside the eccentric jet downstream of the COA. However, the presence of a pathologic aortic valve, in complex COA, amplifies VSS (e.g., average absolute peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 36 N/m2; isolated COA = 19 N/m2), RSS (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 84.6 N/m2; isolated COA = 44 N/m2) and TKE (e.g., average peak value in the entire aorta for a total flow of 5 L/min: complex COA: = 215 N/m2; isolated COA = 100 N/m2). This demonstrates that the pathological aortic valve strongly interacts with the COA. Findings of this study indicate that the presence of both a COA and a pathological aortic valve significantly alters hemodynamics in the aorta and thus might contribute to the progression of the disease in this region. This study can partially explain the complications associated in patients with COA, in the presence of a pathological aortic valve and the consequent adverse outcome post-surgery.

  11. Patient-specific finite element analysis of ascending aorta aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caitlin; Sun, Wei; Elefteriades, John

    2015-05-15

    Catastrophic ascending aorta aneurysm (AsAA) dissection and rupture can be prevented by elective surgical repair, but identifying individuals at risk remains a challenge. Typically the decision to operate is based primarily on the overall aneurysm size, which may not be a reliable indicator of risk. In this study, AsAA inflation and rupture was simulated in 27 patient-specific finite element models constructed from clinical CT imaging data and tissue mechanical testing data from matching patients. These patients included n = 8 with concomitant bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), n = 10 with bovine aortic arch (BAA), and n = 10 with neither BAV nor BAA. AsAA rupture risk was found to increase with elevated systolic wall stress and tissue stiffness. The aortic size index was sufficient for identifying the patients with the lowest risk of rupture, but unsuitable for delineating between patients at moderate and high risk. There was no correlation between BAV or BAA and AsAA rupture risk; however, the AsAA morphology was different among these patients. These results support the use of mechanical parameters such as vessel wall stress and tissue stiffness for AsAA presurgical evaluation. PMID:25770248

  12. [Atheromatosis of the thoracic aorta and risk of stroke].

    PubMed

    Casella, Gianni; Greco, Cristiano; Perugini, Enrica; Pallotti, Maria Giovanna; Pavesi, Pier Camillo; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe

    2006-05-01

    Atrial fibrillation and severe carotid artery stenosis are the most common causes of stroke. However, several patients recognize unusual cause for their cerebral ischemia. At the beginning of the last decade after the introduction of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and other imaging techniques, atheromatosis of the thoracic aorta has been recognized as an important source of stroke or systemic embolism. Formerly in the pre-TEE era, this entity was included into cryptogenic strokes. Notably, aortic atheromas are found in about one quarter of patients presenting with embolic events and their grading by TEE correlates with the risk of future embolism, especially if mobile lesions or superimposed thrombi are present. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of aortic atheroma is mostly established when an embolic event has already occurred. The aim of this paper is to review the current evidence for aortic atheroma as an important independent risk factor for stroke, and to discuss the potential therapeutic options. Unfortunately, randomized studies addressing the treatment of patients with severe aortic atheroma are not yet completed. Furthermore, although warfarin and statins look promising in several retrospective series, their results are by most controversial so far. In conclusion, although the diagnostic criteria and the negative prognostic significance of aortic atheroma are almost defined, its therapeutic options are far to be clear. Therefore, clinical trials addressing this relevant pathologic condition are urgently needed. PMID:16752514

  13. Transforming growth factor-? signaling in hypertensive remodeling of porcine aorta

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Natasa; Bridenbaugh, Eric A.; Neiger, Jessemy D.; Hu, Jin-Jia; Vannucci, Marina; Mo, Qianxing; Trzeciakowski, Jerome; Miller, Matthew W.; Fossum, Theresa W.; Humphrey, Jay D.

    2009-01-01

    A porcine aortic coarctation model was used to examine regulation of gene expression in early hypertensive vascular remodeling. Aortic segments were collected proximal (high pressure) and distal (low pressure) to the coarctation after 2 wk of sustained hypertension (mean arterial pressure > 150 mmHg). Porcine 10K oligoarrays used for gene expression profiling of the two regions of aorta revealed downregulation of cytoskeletal and upregulation of extracellular region genes relative to the whole genome. A genomic database search for transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) control elements showed that 19% of the genes that changed expression due to hypertension contained putative TGF-? control elements. Real-time RT-PCR and microarray analysis showed no change in expression of TGF-?1, TGF-?2, TGF-?3, or bone morphogenetic proteins-2 and -4, yet immunohistochemical staining for phosphorylated SMAD2, an indicator of TGF-? signaling, and for phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8, an indicator of signaling through the bone morphogenetic proteins, showed the highest percentage of positively stained cells in the proximal aortic segments of occluded animals. For TGF-? signaling, this increase was significantly different than for sham-operated controls. Western blot analysis showed no difference in total TGF-?1 protein levels with respect to treatment or aortic segment. Immunohistochemistry showed that the protein levels of latency-associated peptide was decreased in proximal segments of occluded animals. Collectively, these results suggest that activation of TGF-?, but not altered expression, may be a major mechanism regulating early hypertensive vascular remodeling. PMID:19717726

  14. Morphology of ventricular septal defect associated with coarctation of aorta.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R H; Lenox, C C; Zuberbuhler, J R

    1983-08-01

    It is now well established that the morphology of the ventricular septal defect associated with interrupted aortic arch is such as to compromise blood flow to the ascending aorta. Though there is some evidence that a similar mechanism may be operative in coarctation with ventricular septal defect, we are unaware of any necropsy study of this hypothesis. We therefore studied 25 hearts from the Heart Museum of Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh with coarctation and ventricular septal defect. Four had a malalignment defect with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction such as is seen in cases with interruption. Twenty of the remaining cases had a particular form of perimembranous defect with aortic overriding. The defects were partially closed by tricuspid valve tissue, the left ventricular outflow tract being further narrowed by various anatomical lesions. In addition, mitral valve malformations were present in 14 cases. The anatomy of the group as a whole suggests a possible reduction of aortic blood flow during fetal development. The clinical implications of these findings remain to be evaluated. PMID:6882605

  15. Antioxidant activity of nebivolol in the rat aorta.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Annemieke A; Mathy, Marie-Jeanne; van Zwieten, Pieter A; Peters, Stephan L M

    2004-01-01

    The beta-blocker nebivolol is a racemic mixture of D- and L- enantiomers that displays negative inotropic as well as direct vasorelaxant activity. In addition, it has been proposed that nebivolol exerts endothelium-protective effects caused by its antioxidant properties. In the present study we investigated the effect of D-, L-, and d/l-nebivolol on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced endothelial damage and compared it with carvedilol and metoprolol. Isolated rat aortic rings were exposed to ROS by electrolysis of the organ bath medium. Before and after electrolysis, endothelial function was measured by preconstricting the vessels with phenylephrine followed by the addition of methacholine. Carvedilol and nebivolol protected against ROS-induced endothelial damage, whereas metoprolol did not. The protective effect of nebivolol proved not to be stereoselective. Furthermore, we attempted to determine whether nebivolol acts a scavenger itself or whether another mechanism is involved. By means of HPLC measurements it was shown that nebivolol concentrations were decreased after exposure to electrolysis-induced ROS, thus indicating that nebivolol is degraded by its reaction with ROS. Functional experiments, in the rat aorta, demonstrated that exposure of nebivolol to ROS also affects its vasodilator activity. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that nebivolol alleviates ROS-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. This protective effect is very likely the result of a direct ROS-scavenging action by the nebivolol molecule itself. PMID:14668581

  16. Regulation of glycoprotein biosynthesis in atherosclerotic rabbit aortas

    SciTech Connect

    Kantrow, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    Aortic tissue explants from control and high-cholesterol fed rabbits were incubated with 3-H-mannose or 14-C-leucine and the synthesis of immunoprecipitable fibronectin (IMF) was studied. The synthesis of key intermediates involved in glycosylation of proteins was also followed. IMF from the incubation media of atherosclerotic aorta showed an increase in leucine incorporation (81%), but only a 30% increase in mannose incorporation was noted. Studies in the synthesis of key intermediates such as dolichol, dolichol-diphosphate mannose and dolichol-diphosphate oligosaccharides suggest that the enzymic transfer of oligosaccharides to protein could be rate limiting or that processing of these oligosaccharides could possibly be altered in atherosclerosis. These results show that there is an increased synthesis of fibronectin differing in composition in atherosclerosis. Variations in composition of fibronectin may alter binding capacity with fibrin and extracellular matrix components. As a consequence, the uptake of these complexes by cells may be altered and promotes foam cell formation during atherogenesis.

  17. Blunt traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta: an epidemiological perspective.

    PubMed

    Hill, D A; Duflou, J; Delaney, L M

    1996-04-01

    A study was conducted from 1 July 1991 to 30 June 1994 to determine the incidence of blunt traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta (RTA) in a defined area of inner-metropolitan Sydney. The study group consisted of 30 subjects with RTA following falls, rail or road accidents, who were taken by ambulance to the regional trauma centre or directly to forensic pathology. The incidence of RTA in the resident population of 330,000 was in the range 20-30/10(6)/year. There was one survivor in the series, with 24 scene deaths and five deaths en route to hospital. Road accidents were responsible for 57% of incidents. RTA was found in 36% of the fatalities that occurred as a result of car and motorbike accidents. This was 5 times more common than that observed in pedestrian deaths (P < 0.005). Twenty-seven subjects (90%) had at least one co-existent critical or lethal injury. Outcome may be improved by increasing awareness of the high prevalence of RTA in shocked car- and motor-bike-accident victims and stressing the importance of rapid transport of such cases to an appropriate hospital. PMID:8632395

  18. ABDOMINAL OBESITY, MUSCLE COMPOSITION, AND INSULIN RESISTANCE IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed to...

  19. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket...

  20. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket...

  1. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket...

  2. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket...

  3. 21 CFR 884.5225 - Abdominal decompression chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike device used to reduce pressure on the pregnant patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominal pain during pregnancy or labor. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket...

  4. Giant cystic abdominal masses in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra L. Wootton-Gorges; Kristen B. Thomas; Roger K. Harned; Sarah R. Wu; Rebecca Stein-Wexler; John D. Strain

    2005-01-01

    In this pictorial essay the common and uncommon causes of large cystic and cyst-like abdominal masses in children are reviewed. We discuss and illustrate the following: mesenchymal hamartoma, choledochal cyst, hydrops of the gallbladder, congenital splenic cyst, pancreatic pseudocyst, pancreatic cystadenoma, hydronephrosis, multicystic dysplastic kidney, multilocular cystic nephroma, adrenal hemorrhage, mesenteric and omental cysts, gastrointestinal duplication cyst, meconium pseudocyst, ovarian

  5. Intra-abdominal extralobar pulmonary sequestration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Antón-Pacheco; J. Cuadros; I. Cano; A. Gomez; F. Echavarri

    1995-01-01

    A left-upper-quadrant abdominal mass was identified in a routine ultrasound (US) examination in the 16th week of gestation. The sonographic features were those of a homogeneous, hyperechogenic lesion situated between the diaphragm and the left kidney. Other radiologic examinations (CT, MRI) confirmed the mass, but a presumptive diagnosis could not be made. The lesion was excised and histologic examination demonstrated

  6. Abdominoplasty repair for abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J Douglas; de la Torre, Jorge I; Gardner, Paul M; Grant, John H; Fix, R Jobe; Vásconez, Luis O

    2003-07-01

    The objectives of abdominal hernial repair are to reconstruct the structural integrity of the abdominal wall while minimizing morbidity. Current techniques include primary closure, staged repair, and the use of prosthetic materials. Techniques for abdominoplasty include the use of the transverse lower abdominal incision and the resection of excess skin. By incorporating these aspects into hernial repairs, the procedures are made safer and the results are improved. The medical records were reviewed of 123 consecutive patients who underwent hernial repair. Seventy-six of these patients underwent a total of 82 herniorrhaphies using an abdominoplasty approach. This included using a transverse lower abdominal incision with or without extending it into an inverted-T incision. The hernial defect was then identified and isolated. Repair was obtained with primary fascial closure and plication, primary fascial approximation and reinforcement with absorbable Vicryl mesh, or placement of permanent mesh with or without fascial approximation. Overall, 8 of 82 hernias recurred. Most complications were minor and could be managed with local wound care only. Major complications included one enterocutaneous fistula, one occurrence of skin flap necrosis requiring operative debridement and skin grafting, and one delayed permanent mesh extrusion 2 years after repair. The abdominoplasty approach isolates the incision from the hernial defect and repair. This technique is safe with a low risk of complications and a low rate of recurrence. It is particularly helpful in obese patients, in patients with multiple hernias, and in those patients with recurrent hernias. PMID:12838119

  7. Segmentation of male abdominal fat using MRI

    E-print Network

    for the automatic and robust segmentation of adipose tissue in the abdominal region of human men. The segmentation is done into 3 classes: subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue and other tissue. The MRI of adipose tissue into the subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue classes is done using

  8. Damage control in trauma and abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Waibel, Brett H; Rotondo, Michael F

    2010-09-01

    Damage control surgery, initially formalized <20 yrs ago, was developed to overcome the poor outcomes in exsanguinating abdominal trauma with traditional surgical approaches. The core concepts for damage control of hemorrhage and contamination control with abbreviated laparotomy followed by resuscitation before definitive repair, although simple in nature, have led to an alteration in which emergent surgery is handled among a multitude of problems, including abdominal sepsis and battlefield surgery. With the aggressive resuscitation associated with damage control surgery, understanding of abdominal compartment syndrome has expanded. It is probably through avoiding this clinical entity that the greatest improvement in surgical outcomes for various emergent surgical problems has occurred in the past two decades. However, with its success, new problems have emerged, including increases in enterocutaneous fistulas and open abdomens. But as with any crisis, innovative strategies are being developed. New approaches to control of the open abdomen and reconstruction of the abdominal wall are being developed from negative pressure dressing therapies to acellular allograft meshes. With further understanding of new resuscitative strategies, the need for damage control surgery may decline, along with its concomitant complications, at the same time retaining the success that damage control surgery has brought to the critically ill trauma and general surgery patient in the past few years. PMID:20724875

  9. Advanced abdominal pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tungshevinsirikul, R; Charutragulchai, P; Khunpradit, S; Herabutya, Y

    1990-02-01

    A 37-year-old, gravida 5 with 41 weeks of gestation was admitted because of slight vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, and absence of fetal movements for a few days. Previously she had been admitted to a provincial hospital with sudden severe abdominal pain and fainting at the second month of her pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy was suspected. She was discharged the following morning, after all signs and symptoms had completely disappeared without any special investigation. On her last admission all clinical examinations were normal but fetal heart sound was absent. The cervix was closed and uneffaced. Abdominal X-ray showed signs of fetal death. Sonography confirmed a dead fetus in utero but with placenta previa totalis. A laparotomy was performed. A macerated female fetus, weighting 3,800 g was found in the amniotic sac lying in the abdominal cavity. The placenta was attached to the dorsal surface of her abdomen close to the large intestine and the omentum; the entire placenta was untouched and left in the peritoneal cavity. There were no postoperative complications. She recovered well and was discharged after 7 days. PMID:2351905

  10. [Ultrasonic aspects of abdominal abscesses and hematomas].

    PubMed

    Weill, F; Eisenscher, A; Bourgoin, A; Aucant, D; Camelot, G

    1976-12-01

    Abdominal ultrasonography often enables to display the fluid collection of an abcess or haematoma. This type of diagnostic procedure is most useful in a post-operative period. The intestinal gases which stop the ultrasonic beam may be responsible for diagnostic failures. Positive results, which are the most frequent, are never the less precious to assess and decide a treatment policy. PMID:1026726

  11. Duplex surveillance of abdominal aortic stent grafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie L. Johnson; Ronald L. Dalman

    2001-01-01

    Aortic stent grafting is gaining acceptance rapidly as a durable and effective alternative to open surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Unlike follow-up after open surgical procedures, postplacement surveillance protocols are necessary to ensure long-term freedom from device failure or aneurysm rupture. Surveillance protocols incorporating duplex scanning are effective and may reduce overall postplacement expenses. Specific device or patient anatomic

  12. Medical Management of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Timothy Baxter; Michael C. Terrin; Ronald L. Dalman

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common condition that may be lethal when it is unrecognized. Current guidelines suggest repair as the aneurysm diameter reaches 5.0 to 5.5 cm. Most aortic aneurysms are detected incidentally when imaging is done for other purposes or through screening programs. Ninety percent of these aneurysms are below the threshold for intervention at the time of

  13. Abdominal symptoms: do they disappear after cholecystectomy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Y. Berger; T. C. olde Hartman; A. M. Bohnen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of cholecystectomy in patients with gallstones on preoperative abdominal symptoms. Methods: A systematic search was made of the Medline database in combination with reference checking. Articles were excluded if patients aged Results: The pooled relief rate for “biliary pain” was high 92% (95% confidence interval 86 to 96%). Symptom relief rates were consistently higher in

  14. Early Feeding After a Total Abdominal Hysterectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Flesher; Brenda Wagner; Lyn Jones

    Background: Oral fluids and food are traditionally introduced slowly after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH). This descriptive study examined the effect and tolerance of early oral intake following this surgery. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 164 patients who had been on a clinical pathway following TAH. Comparisons in initiation of fluids and foods, and gastrointestinal effects were made

  15. Previous Multiple Abdominal Surgeries: A Valid Contraindication to Abdominal Free Flap Breast Reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    Di Candia, Michele; Asfoor, Ahmed Al; Jessop, Zita M.; Kumiponjera, Devor; Hsieh, Frank; Malata, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Presented in part at the following Academic Meetings: 57th Meeting of the Italian Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, September 24-27, 2008, Naples, Italy.45th Congress of the European Society for Surgical Research (ESSR), June 9-12, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Summer Scientific Meeting, June 30-July 2, 2010, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK. Background: Patients with previous multiple abdominal surgeries are often denied abdominal free flap breast reconstruction because of concerns about flap viability and abdominal wall integrity. We therefore studied their flap and donor site outcomes and compared them to patients with no previous abdominal surgery to find out whether this is a valid contraindication to the use of abdominal tissue. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with multiple previous abdominal operations who underwent abdominal free flap breast reconstruction by a single surgeon (C.M.M., 2000-2009) were identified and retrospectively compared with a cohort of similar patients without previous abdominal surgery (sequential allocation control group, n = 20). Results: The index and control groups were comparable in age, body mass index, comorbidities, previous chemotherapy, and RT exposure. The index patients had a mean age of 54 years (r, 42-63) and an average body mass index of 27.5 kg/m2 (r, 22-38). The main previous surgeries were Caesarean sections (19), hysterectomies (8), and cholecystectomies (6). They underwent immediate (n = 9) or delayed (n = 11) reconstructions either unilaterally (n = 18) or bilaterally (n = 2) and comprising 9 muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis muscle and 13 deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps. All flaps were successful, and there were no significant differences in flap and donor site outcomes between the 2 groups after an average follow up of 26 months (r, 10-36). Conclusion: Multiple previous abdominal surgeries did not predispose to increased flap or donor site morbidity. On the basis of our experience, we have proposed some recommendations for successful abdominal free flap breast reconstruction in patients with previous multiple scars. Careful preoperative planning and the use of some intraoperative adaptations can allow abdominal free flap breast reconstruction to be reliably undertaken in such patients. PMID:22848775

  16. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; My?liwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Miros?aw

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents. PMID:25088309

  17. Responses of intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal muscle activity during dynamic trunk loading in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Cresswell

    1993-01-01

    Summary  The purpose of this study was to determine and compare interactions between the abdominal musculature and intea-abdominal pressure (IAP) during controlled dynamic and static trunk muscle loading. Myoelectric activity was recorded in six subjects from the rectus abdominis, obliquus externus, obliquus internus, transversus abdominis and erector spinae muscles using surface and intea-muscular fine-wire electrodes. The IAP was recorded intea-gastrically. Trunk

  18. Pitfalls in prenatal diagnosis of unusual congenital abdominal wall defects.

    PubMed

    Schnur, Jessica; Dolgin, Stephen; Vohra, Nidhi; Soffer, Samuel; Glick, Richard

    2008-02-01

    We report three cases of unusual skin covered abdominal wall defects not accurately diagnosed by prenatal sonography. An associated omphalocele was recognized in two but misinterpreted as a giant omphalocele in one. Suspicious sonographic features--an enlarged abdominal circumference, irregular laxity of the abdominal--may be clarified by MRI. PMID:18240083

  19. 2013 WSES guidelines for management of intra-abdominal infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. The 2013 update of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for the management of intra-abdominal infections contains evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with intra-abdominal infections. PMID:23294512

  20. Abdominal Ultrasonography as Related to Problems of the Chest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Beckh; K. Kirchpfening

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal sonography represents one of the basic imaging procedures in diagnosing internal diseases. Thanks to bedside equipment examinations can be done in critically ill patients easily and quickly. Abdominal organs such as liver or spleen serve as acoustic windows for imaging of chest diseases. The diaphragm, the pleura and the lower parts of the lung are visible from the abdominal

  1. Ultrasound in abdominal trauma John S. Rose, MD

    E-print Network

    Ultrasound in abdominal trauma John S. Rose, MD Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, 2315 Stockton Blvd., PSSB 2100, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA Ultrasound in the evaluation of abdominal trauma has evolved over the past 30 years. The use of ultrasound for abdominal trauma

  2. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Association with Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in the Endovascular Era: Vigilance Remains Critical

    PubMed Central

    Bozeman, Matthew C.; Ross, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are common complications of ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (rAAAs) and other abdominal vascular catastrophes even in the age of endovascular therapy. Morbidity and mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) are significant. Recognition and management of IAH are key critical care measures which may decrease morbidity and improve survival in these vascular patients. Two strategies have been utilized: expectant management with prompt decompressive laparotomy upon diagnosis of threshold levels of IAH versus prophylactic, delayed abdominal closure based upon clinical parameters at the time of initial repair. Competent management of the abdominal wound with preservation of abdominal domain is also an important component of the care of these patients. In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events. PMID:22454763

  3. The effect of polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation on cholesterol concentrations in plasma, aorta, liver, and spleen of the guinea pig 

    E-print Network

    Corrigan, Sheila Marie

    1986-01-01

    . No significant differences were found in MDA concentrations in plasma or aorta (p&0. 05). In the second investigation animals receiving the lecithin- containing diet without vitamin C had significantly higher levels of plasma MDA (p&0. 0001) and aorta... AND METHODS Animals. Diets Experimental Design. Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Analytical Procedures. Diet analysis: Lipid content and MDA determination. 10 10 12 13 13 Plasma MDA. 15 Aorta MDA. 16 Cholesterol determination: Plasma and tissue...

  4. Extraanatomical coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with severely atherosclerotic (Porcelain) aorta

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cannulation, cross clamping, or partial clamping of the aorta during a proximal anastomosis may cause embolic complications in patients with severely atherosclerotic (porcelain) aortas. These patients carry high morbidity and mortality risks due to intraoperative atheroembolism. Methods Between June 2008 and May 2010, 972 open heart surgery operations were performed in our department. In this group there were 41 patients who had severe atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta (porcelain aorta), and 9 of these underwent an extraanatomical coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). These 9 patients were retrospectively analyzed and their demographic data, patient risk factors, and preferred surgical methods were reviewed. Results Seven patients underwent two-vessel CABG, while 2 underwent three-vessel CABG. Off-pump surgery was performed for 7 patients. CABG was performed with beating heart technique under cardiopulmonary bypass via femoral artery and right atrial cannulation without cross clamping in 2 of the patients. Postoperative course was uneventful in all patients. Mean length of stay in the intensive care unit was 2.11?±?0.78?days. Mean hospitalization was 7.22?±?0.97?days. Mean follow-up was 11.33?±?3.67?months, and no cerebrovascular events were observed during this period. Postoperative evaluation of the grafts by multislice computed tomography revealed sufficient patency in all patients. Conclusions Innominate artery is an alternative inflow source for the untouchable ascending aorta caused by severe atherosclerotic disease (porcelain aorta). In this group of patients, the risk of systemic embolisation and perioperative neurologic complications can be minimized by avoiding manipulation of the ascending aorta and using the innominate artery. PMID:23587129

  5. The frozen elephant trunk: an interesting hybrid endovascular-surgical technique to treat complex pathologies of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Schoenhoff, Florian S; Schmidli, Juerg; Eckstein, Friedrich S; Berdat, Pascal A; Immer, Franz F; Carrel, Thierry P

    2007-03-01

    The treatment of complex aortic pathologies involving the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta remains a challenging issue in aortic surgery. The frozen elephant trunk procedure effectively combines surgical and interventional technologies in the treatment of extensive aortic aneurysms and dissections. We present two patients with complex aortic lesions involving all three segments of the thoracic aorta. The device used in our series is the new E-vita open hybrid prosthesis consisting of a proximal woven polyester tube and a distal self-expandable nitinol stent graft, which can be delivered antegrade into the descending aorta. PMID:17321346

  6. AGE-DEPENDENT ASCENDING AORTA MECHANICS ASSESSED THROUGH MULTIPHASE CT

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Caitlin; Sun, Wei; Primiano, Charles; McKay, Raymond; Elefteriades, John

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of the age- and gender-specific in vivo mechanical characteristics of the ascending aorta (AA) will allow for identification of abnormalities aside from changes brought on by aging alone. Multiphase clinical CT scans of 45 male patients between the ages of 30 and 79 years were analyzed to assess age-dependent in vivo AA characteristics. The three-dimensional AA geometry for each patient was reconstructed from the CT scans for 9–10 phases throughout the cardiac cycle. The AA circumference was measured during each phase and was used to determine the corresponding diameter, circumferential strain, and wall tension at each phase. The pressure-strain modulus was also determined for each patient. The mean diastolic AA diameter was significantly smaller among young (42.6±5.2 years) at 29.9±2.8 mm than old patients (69.0±5.2 years) at 33.2±3.2 mm. The circumferential AA strain from end-diastole to peak-systole decreased from 0.092±0.03 in young to 0.056±0.03 in old patients. The pressure-strain modulus increased two-fold from 68.4±30.5 kPa in young to 162.0±93.5 kPa in old patients, and the systolic AA wall tension increased from 268.5±31.3 kPa in young to 304.9±49.2 kPa in old patients. The AA dilates and stiffens with aging which increases the vessel wall tension, likely predisposing aneurysm and dissection. PMID:23817767

  7. Kinetics of relaxation responses to vasorelaxants in isolated rabbit aorta.

    PubMed

    Wiener, H L; Murray, J M; Thalody, G P; Maayani, S

    1992-09-22

    Transient responses of isolated tissues to drugs are best studied by application of non-steady-state protocols in which the data collected are analyzed using kinetic models. The time dependence of the relaxation response of the adventitia- and endothelium-denuded rabbit aorta to four vasorelaxants (nitroglycerin, sodium nitroprusside, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine and isoproterenol) was analyzed by an exploratory kinetic model. A rapid relaxation (t1/2 = 1-3 min) was elicited by all vasorelaxants. An apparent desensitization or fade of the relaxation response to nitroglycerin or isoproterenol was visualized as the partial regaining of tissue tone (t1/2 = 2-3 min). The relaxation responses to sodium nitroprusside or 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine were stable for at least 60 min and did not exhibit an apparent regaining of tension. Tissues rendered desensitized by either isoproterenol or nitroglycerin responded fully to sodium nitroprusside or 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine. The rate constant for relaxation was vasorelaxant concentration-dependent and saturable for all vasorelaxants. For isoproterenol, nitroglycerin, and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine the rate constant for relaxation was inversely proportional to the contractile stimulus, as was the magnitude of relaxation for all vasorelaxants. Although the magnitude and rate constant of the fade was not concentration-dependent for isoproterenol, it was inversely proportional to the nitroglycerin concentration. The rate constant of the fade was proportional to the contractile stimulus for isoproterenol and nitroglycerin, and the magnitude of the fade was proportional to the contractile stimulus for nitroglycerin. We propose that kinetic studies of responses in isolated vasculature supersede studies performed under steady-state conditions, for they extend our knowledge of the manner by which the steady-state is achieved and allow for a quantitative analysis of the time-dependent changes which should assist in elucidating the biochemical basis of the observed physiological response. PMID:1425987

  8. Rat Heterotopic Abdominal Heart/Single-lung Transplantation in a Volume-loaded Configuration.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Mark J; Wang, Yingjin; Boyd, John H

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we describe a novel technique for heterotopic abdominal heart-lung transplantation (HAHLT) in rats. The configuration of the transplant graft involves anastomosis of donor inferior vena cava (IVC) to recipient IVC, and donor ascending aorta (Ao) to recipient abdominal Ao. The right upper and middle lung lobes are preserved and function as conduits for blood flow from right heart to left heart. There are several advantages to using this technique, and it lends itself to a broad range of applications. Because the graft is transplanted in a configuration that allows for dyamic volume-loading, cardiac function may be directly assessed in vivo. The use of pressure-volume conductance catheters permits characterization of load-dependent and load-independent hemodynamic parameters. The graft may be converted to a loaded configuration by applying a clamp to the recipient's infra-hepatic IVC. We describe modified surgical techniques for both donor and recipient operations, and an ideal myocardial protection strategy. Depending on the experimental aim, this model may be adapted for use in both acute and chronic studies of graft function, immunologic status, and variable ventricular loading conditions. The conducting airways to the transplanted lung are preserved, and allow for acute lung re-ventilation. This facilitates analysis of the effects of the mixed venous and arterial blood providing coronary perfusion to the graft. A limitation of this model is its technical complexity. There is a significant learning curve for new operators, who should ideally be mentored in the technique. A surgical training background is advantageous for those wishing to apply this model. Despite its complexity, we aim to present the model in a clear and easily applicable format. Because of the physiologic similarity of this model to orthotopic transplantation, and its broad range of study applications, the effort invested in learning the technique is likely to be worthwhile. PMID:26068372

  9. Free fluid on abdominal computed tomography without solid organ injury after blunt abdominal injury does not mandate celiotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H Livingston; Robert F Lavery; Marian R Passannante; Joan H Skurnick; Stephen Baker; Timothy C Fabian; Donald E Fry; Mark A Malangoni

    2001-01-01

    Background: Mandatory celiotomy has been proposed for all patients with unexplained free fluid on abdominal computed tomography (CT) scanning after blunt abdominal injury. This recommendation has been based upon retrospective data and concerns over the potential morbidity from the late diagnosis of blunt intestinal injury. This study examined the rate of intestinal injury in patients with free fluid on abdominal

  10. Morphometric evaluation of keratocystic odontogenic tumor before and after marsupialization.

    PubMed

    Telles, Déborah Campos; Castro, Wagner Henriques; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Souto, Giovanna Ribeiro; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the morphometric evaluation of the epithelial lining and fibrous capsule in histological specimens of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs) before and after marsupialization. Histological sections from six KOTs that had undergone marsupialization followed by enucleation were photographed. The thickness and features of the capsule and of the epithelial lining of the tumor were evaluated upon marsupialization and upon subsequent enucleation using Axion Vision software. The histological specimens taken upon marsupialization presented an epithelial lining that is typical of KOTs. After marsupialization, the enucleated specimens had a modified epithelial lining and a fibrous capsule that both presented a greater median thickness (p = 0.0277 and p = 0.0212, respectively), morphological changes, and significant enlargement. These modifications can facilitate full surgical treatment and may well be related to a low KOT recurrence rate. PMID:24346047

  11. Lunar intrusive domes: Morphometric analysis and laccolith modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhler, Christian; Lena, Raffaello; Geologic Lunar Research (GLR) Group

    2009-12-01

    This study examines a set of lunar domes with very low flank slopes which differ in several respects from the frequently occurring lunar effusive domes. Some of these domes are exceptionally large, and most of them are associated with faults or linear rilles of presumably tensional origin. Accordingly, they might be interpreted as surface manifestations of laccolithic intrusions formed by flexure-induced vertical uplift of the lunar crust (or, alternatively, as low effusive edifices due to lava mantling of highland terrain, or kipukas, or structural features). All of them are situated near the borders of mare regions or in regions characterised by extensive effusive volcanic activity. Clementine multispectral UVVIS imagery indicates that they do not preferentially occur in specific types of mare basalt. Our determination of their morphometric properties, involving a combined photoclinometry and shape from shading technique applied to telescopic CCD images acquired at oblique illumination, reveals large dome diameters between 10 and more than 30 km, flank slopes below 0.9°, and volumes ranging from 0.5 to 50 km 3. We establish three morphometric classes. The first class, In1, comprises large domes with diameters above 25 km and flank slopes of 0.2°-0.6°, class In2 is made up by smaller and slightly steeper domes with diameters of 10-15 km and flank slopes between 0.4° and 0.9°, and domes of class In3 have diameters of 13-20 km and flank slopes below 0.3°. While the morphometric properties of several candidate intrusive domes overlap with those of some classes of effusive domes, we show that a possible distinction criterion are the characteristic elongated outlines of the candidate intrusive domes. We examine how they differ from typical effusive domes of classes 5 and 6 defined by Head and Gifford [Head, J.W., Gifford, A., 1980. Lunar mare domes: classification and modes of origin. Moon Planets 22, 235-257], and show that they are likely no highland kipukas due to the absence of spectral contrast to their surrounding. These considerations serve as a motivation for an analysis of the candidate intrusive domes in terms of the laccolith model by Kerr and Pollard [Kerr, A.D., Pollard, D.D., 1998. Toward more realistic formulations for the analysis of laccoliths. J. Struct. Geol. 20(12), 1783-1793], to estimate the geophysical parameters, especially the intrusion depth and the magma pressure, which would result from the observed morphometric properties. Accordingly, domes of class In1 are characterised by intrusion depths of 2.3-3.5 km and magma pressures between 18 and 29 MPa. For the smaller and steeper domes of class In2 the magma intruded to shallow depths between 0.4 and 1.0 km while the inferred magma pressures range from 3 to 8 MPa. Class In3 domes are similar to those of class In1 with intrusion depths of 1.8-2.7 km and magma pressures of 15-23 MPa. As an extraordinary feature, we describe in some detail the concentric crater Archytas G associated with the intrusive dome Ar1 and discuss possible modes of origin. In comparison to the candidate intrusive domes, terrestrial laccoliths tend to be smaller, but it remains unclear if this observation is merely a selection effect due to the limited resolution of our telescopic CCD images. An elongated outline is common to many terrestrial laccoliths and the putative lunar laccoliths, while the thickness values measured for terrestrial laccoliths are typically higher than those inferred for lunar laccoliths, but the typical intrusion depths are comparable.

  12. Postmortem acinar autolysis in rat sublingual gland: a morphometric study

    PubMed Central

    NERY, Leticia Rodrigues; MOREIRA, Carla Ruffeil; CESTARI, Tania Mary; TAGA, Rumio; DAMANTE, José Humberto

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze and to quantify morphological acinar postmortem changes in rat sublingual glands (SLG). Material and Methods Fifty rats were divided into two groups of 25 animals each. Group I was used for morphological and morphometric evaluations and group II for the determination of gland density and processed gland volume. Acinar autolytic changes were studied at 0 (control group), 3, 6, 12 and 24 h postmortem periods. The morphometric analysis of the volume density (Vv) and total volume (VT) of intact (ia) and autolyzed (aa) acini was performed under light microscopy using a Zeiss II integration grid with 100 symmetrically distributed points. Results Morphologically, temporal progressive nuclear alterations and gradual loss of the structural architecture of acinar cells were found. Regarding quantitative results, both the Vvaa and the Vvia showed statistically significant differences among all postmortem periods (p<0.05). Vvaa increased from 0.42% at 0 h to 75.84% at 24 h postmortem and Vvia decreased from 71.16% to 0% over the same period. For VTaa and VTia, no statistically significant differences occurred between 12-24 h and 0-3 h (p>0.05), respectively. Vtaa increased from 0.18 mm3 at 0 h to 38.17 mm3 at 12 h, while Vtia showed a decrease from 33.47 mm3 to 0 mm3 between 3-24 h postmortem. Data concerning VTaa were adjusted by twovariable linear regression, obtaining the equation: y=-3.54 + 3.38x (r2=0.90). The VTaa growth rate calculated by this equation was 3.38 mm3/h between 0-12 h. Conclusion Acinar autolysis on rat SLG demonstrated the most significant signs during the first 6 h postmortem and was widely spread through the gland at 12 h. PMID:21085809

  13. Outline-based morphometrics, an overlooked method in arthropod studies?

    PubMed

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kaba, D; Solano, P; Dupraz, M; McCoy, K D; Jaramillo-O, N

    2014-12-01

    Modern methods allow a geometric representation of forms, separating size and shape. In entomology, as well as in many other fields involving arthropod studies, shape variation has proved useful for species identification and population characterization. In medical entomology, it has been applied to very specific questions such as population structure, reinfestation of insecticide-treated areas and cryptic species recognition. For shape comparisons, great importance is given to the quality of landmarks in terms of comparability. Two conceptually and statistically separate approaches are: (i) landmark-based morphometrics, based on the relative position of a few anatomical "true" or "traditional" landmarks, and (ii) outline-based morphometrics, which captures the contour of forms through a sequence of close "pseudo-landmarks". Most of the studies on insects of medical, veterinary or economic importance make use of the landmark approach. The present survey makes a case for the outline method, here based on elliptic Fourier analysis. The collection of pseudo-landmarks may require the manual digitization of many points and, for this reason, might appear less attractive. It, however, has the ability to compare homologous organs or structures having no landmarks at all. This strength offers the possibility to study a wider range of anatomical structures and thus, a larger range of arthropods. We present a few examples highlighting its interest for separating close or cryptic species, or characterizing conspecific geographic populations, in a series of different vector organisms. In this simple application, i.e. the recognition of close or cryptic forms, the outline approach provided similar scores as those obtained by the landmark-based approach. PMID:25111609

  14. Planform Morphology of Tide-Dominated Rivers: Satellite Morphometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolinsky, M. A.; Metz, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Coastal environments house a diversity of channel forms, from delta distributaries to salt marsh networks to tidal inlets. While morphometric studies of purely fluvial and purely tidal channels abound in geomorphology, tide-influenced rivers have been relatively ignored. We use satellite imagery to quantify planform morphology in tide-dominated rivers with a funnel shape, where channel width rapidly decreases inland of the channel mouth. Our dataset consists of 17 rivers with varying tidal range (2.5-15 m), river discharge (0.24-145 km3/yr), sediment supply (0.04-140 Mt/yr), and size (mouth width 0.5-80 km), and includes both estuaries (e.g. Severn, UK) and deltas (e.g. Fly, PNG). We adapt established image processing and computational geometry algorithms to automatically map channels and compute morphometrics. In estuaries we measure channel width, while in deltas we measure container width, which ignores in-channel bars and islands. Prior work suggests estuary width decays exponentially inland. Our data confirms this is a good first order model for both channel width (estuaries) and container width (deltas) in tide-dominated rivers (R2 > 85%). Moreover, we find systematic relationships between exponential parameters and environmental forcing variables. Funnel width is well predicted by upstream river discharge (R2 = 65%), while funnel flare (percentage decay of width per unit distance) is predicted by downstream tidal range (R2 = 32%). We also find several systematic deviations from the exponential model. First, many systems have a lip, where width initially increases inland before decaying. Second, most systems show an excess flare near the funnel apex. Lastly, while the exponential model predicts shape well for all rivers in our dataset, the RMS error increases with the density of islands, suggesting second order differences in the bulk funnel morphology of estuaries and tide-dominated deltas.

  15. Composition of proteoglycans in the aortas of copper-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnamurthy, B.; Ruiz, H.; Dalferes, E.R. Jr.; Klevay, L.M. (Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans (USA)); Berenson, G. (Department of Agriculture, Grand Forks, ND (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Copper deficiency adversely affects the extracellular matrix of the arterial wall, leading to cardiovascular lesions. To study the lesions resulting from copper deficiency, the composition of proteoglycans from aortas of copper-deficient rats was compared with proteoglycans of aortas from copper-supplemented rats. Copper deficiency in rats was verified by copper levels in adrenal glands (mean {plus minus} SE, 0.37 {plus minus} 0.07 vs 1.03 {plus minus} 0.17 {mu}g/g wet wt in supplemented rats). Total uronate in the aortas from copper-deficient rats was 25% greater than in aortas from copper-supplemented rats, and the proteoglycans from copper-deficient rat aortas were of greater molecular size. Among the glycosaminoglycans the concentration ({mu}g/mg tissue) of isomeric chondroitin sulfates, particularly dermatan sulfate, was greater in copper-deficient animals than in copper-supplemented animals. These observations are similar to earlier findings in experimental atherosclerosis and to a response of cardiovascular connective tissue to injury.

  16. Polydimethylsiloxane embedded mouse aorta ex vivo perfusion model: proof-of-concept study focusing on atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueya; Wolf, Marc P.; Keel, Rahel Bänziger; Lehner, Roman; Hunziker, Patrick R.

    2012-07-01

    Existing mouse artery ex vivo perfusion models have utilized arteries such as carotid, uterine, and mesenteric arteries, but not the aorta. However, the aorta is the principal vessel analyzed for atherosclerosis studies in vivo. We have devised a mouse aorta ex vivo perfusion model that can bridge this gap. Aortas from apoE(-/-) mice are embedded in a transparent, gas-permeable, and elastic polymer matrix [polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)] and artificially perfused with cell culture medium under cell culture conditions. After 24 h of artificial ex vivo perfusion, no evidence of cellular apoptosis is detected. Utilizing a standard confocal microscope, it is possible to image specific receptor targeting of cells in atherosclerotic plaques during 24 h. Imaging motion artifacts are minimal due to the polymer matrix embedding. Re-embedding of the aorta enables tissue sectioning and immuno-histochemical analysis. The ex vivo data are validated by comparison with in vivo experiments. This model can save animal lives via production of multiple endpoints in a single experiment, is easy to apply, and enables straightforward comparability with pre-existing atherosclerosis in vivo data. It is suited to investigate atherosclerotic disease in particular and vascular biology in general.

  17. Blood Vessel Matrix Seeded with Cells: A Better Alternative for Abdominal Wall Reconstruction—A Long-Term Study

    PubMed Central

    Jundzi??, Arkadiusz; Nazarewski, ?ukasz; Kotela, Andrzej; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Skopi?ska-Wisniewska, Joanna; ?ukasiewicz, Aleksander; Nazarewski, S?awomir; Kotela, Ireneusz; Pokrywczy?ska, Marta; Marsza?ek, Andrzej; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to present abdominal wall reconstruction using a porcine vascular graft seeded with MSC (mesenchymal stem cells) on rat model. Material and Methods. Abdominal wall defect was prepared in 21 Wistar rats. Acellular porcine-vascular grafts taken from aorta and prepared with Triton X were used. 14 aortic grafts were implanted in place, of which 7 grafts were seeded with rat MSC cells (Group I), and 7 were acellular grafts (Group II). As a control, 7 standard polypropylene meshes were used for defect augmentation (Group III). The assessment method was performed by HE and CD31 staining after 6 months. The mechanical properties have been investigated by Zwick&Roell Z0.5. Results. The strongest angiogenesis and lowest inflammatory response were observed in Group I. Average capillaries density was 2.75, 0.75, and 1.53 and inflammatory effect was 0.29, 1.39, and 2.72 for Groups I, II, and III, respectively. The means of mechanical properties were 12.74 ± 1.48, 7.27 ± 1.56, and 14.4 ± 3.7?N/cm in Groups I and II and control, respectively. Conclusions. Cell-seeded grafts have better mechanical properties than acellular grafts but worse than polypropylene mesh. Cells improved mechanical and physiological properties of decellularized natural scaffolds. PMID:25705696

  18. Quantification of Particle Residence Time in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Ga-Young; Les, Andrea S.; Tenforde, Adam S.; Shadden, Shawn C.; Spilker, Ryan L.; Yeung, Janice J.; Cheng, Christopher P.; Herfkens, Robert J.; Dalman, Ronald L.; Taylor, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Hemodynamic conditions are hypothesized to affect the initiation, growth, and rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), a vascular disease characterized by progressive wall degradation and enlargement of the abdominal aorta. This study aims to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to quantify flow stagnation and recirculation in eight AAAs by computing particle residence time (PRT). Specifically, we used gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography to obtain images of the vessel lumens, which were used to generate subject-specific models. We also used phase-contrast MRI to measure blood flow at supraceliac and infrarenal locations to prescribe physiologic boundary conditions. CFD was used to simulate pulsatile flow, and PRT, particle residence index, and particle half-life of PRT in the aneurysms were computed. We observed significant regional differences of PRT in the aneurysms with localized patterns that differed depending on aneurysm geometry and infrarenal flow. A bulbous aneurysm with the lowest mean infrarenal flow demonstrated the slowest particle clearance. In addition, improvements in particle clearance were observed with increase of mean infrarenal flow. We postulate that augmentation of mean infrarenal flow during exercise may reduce chronic flow stasis that may influence mural thrombus burden, degradation of the vessel wall, and aneurysm growth. PMID:21103933

  19. Curcumin Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm by Inhibition of Inflammatory Response and ERK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hao, QingQing; Chen, Xu; Wang, XiaoYu; Yang, ChuanHua

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Curcumin has long been used to treat age-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In this study, we explored the effects of curcumin on the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods. ApoE?/? mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: AngII group, AngII + curcumin (AngII + Cur) group (100?mg/kg/d), and the control group. Miniosmotic pumps were implanted subcutaneously in ApoE?/? mice to deliver AngII for 28 days. After 4-week treatment, abdominal aortas with AAA were obtained for H&E staining, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Results. The results showed that curcumin treatment significantly decreased the occurrence of AAA. The levels of macrophage infiltration, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factors-? (TNF-?) were significantly lower in AngII + Cur group than those in AngII group (all P < 0.01). The level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly higher in AngII + Cur group than those in AngII group (P < 0.01). The ERK1/2 phosphorylation in AngII + Cur group was significantly lower than that in AngII group (P < 0.01). Conclusions. These results suggested that curcumin can inhibit the AngII-induced AAA in ApoE?/? mice, whose mechanisms include the curcumin anti-inflammation, antioxidative stress, and downregulation of ERK signaling pathway. PMID:25431606

  20. Reconstruction option of abdominal wounds with large tissue defects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal wall defects result from trauma, abdominal wall tumors, necrotizing infections or complications of previous abdominal surgeries. Apart from cosmetics, abdominal wall defects have strong negative functional impact on the patients. Many different techniques exist for abdominal wall repair. Most problematic and troublesome are defects, where major part of abdominal wall had to be resected and tissue for transfer or reconstruction is absent. Case presentation Authors of the article present operative technique, in which reconstruction of abdominal wall was managed by composite polypropylene mesh with absorbable collagen film, creation of granulation tissue with use of NPWT (negative pressure wound therapy), and subsequent split skin grafting. Three patients with massive abdominal wall defect were successfully managed and abdominal wall reconstruction was performed by mentioned technique. Functional and cosmetic effect is acceptable and patients have good postoperative quality of life. Conclusions Patients with giant abdominal defects can benefit from described technique. It serves as the only option, with which abdominal wall is fully reconstructed without need for the secondary intervention. PMID:25103782

  1. Morphometric and Meristic Differences among Bluehead Suckers, Flannelmouth Suckers, White Suckers, and Their Hybrids

    E-print Network

    Parchman, Thomas L.

    Morphometric and Meristic Differences among Bluehead Suckers, Flannelmouth Suckers, White Suckers catostomids in the Colorado River basin. In Wyoming, hybridization with nonnative white suckers Catostomus commersonii is a particular concern in the conservation of native bluehead suckers C. discobolus

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF FRESHWATER RUNOFF ON BIOMASS, MORPHOMETRICS, AND PRODUCTION OF THALASSIA TESTUDINUM. (R827453)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts to restore more natural freshwater flows in South Florida will impact Biscayne Bay. In order to evaluate possible effects of decreased freshwater discharge on the seagrass Thalassia testudinum , we determined the biomass, density, morphometrics (width, length, nu...

  3. Anterior Abdominal Wall Haemangioma with Inguinal Extension

    PubMed Central

    Dubhashi, Siddharth P; Choudhary, Kaushal

    2014-01-01

    Haemangioma are common benign vascular tumour but Intramuscular haemangiomas are rare tumours comprising less than 1% of all. The most frequent sites are extremities, head and neck whereas abdominal wall is a quiet rare location. Ultrasonography is an appropriate initial diagnostic modality and MRI is the investigation of choice. A rare case presented to us as Intramuscular haemangioma of anterior abdominal wall with inguinal extension. Ultrasonography with Doppler study and MRI was suggestive of same finding. Intraoperatively patient had huge haemangioma involving external oblique, internal oblique and transverse abdominus muscle. Wide local excision with meshplasty was done as part of muscle had to be removed. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of Intramuscular Haemangioma. PMID:25584266

  4. A rare nonincisional lateral abdominal wall hernia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Ju

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented a rare lateral abdominal wall hernia. Three month before admission to Chungbuk National University Hospital, she found a large protruding mass measuring 8 cm in diameter in the midaxillary line just below the costal margin upon heavy coughing. She had no history of abdominal trauma, infection, or operation previously. The mass was easily reduced manually or by position change to left lateral decubitus. CT scan showed a defect of the right transversus abdominis muscle and internal oblique muscle at the right flank with omental herniation. Its location is different from that of spigelian hernia or lumbar hernia. The peritoneal lining of the hernia sac was smooth and there was no evidence of inflammation or adhesion. The hernia was successfully repaired laparoscopically using Parietex composite mesh with an intraperitoneal onlay mesh technique. The patient was discharged uneventfully and did not show any evidence of recurrence at follow-up visits. PMID:25692123

  5. [Normal abdominal ultrasound anatomy. Examination procedure].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Joven, I; Segura Grau, A; Rodríguez Lorenzo, A; Segura Cabral, J M

    2014-01-01

    To carry out an abdominal ultrasound examination with the highest degree of accuracy and thoroughness, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the anatomy and the normal measurements of the different organs. In this way, we can determine their normal condition and identify the pathology and its location more easily. It is very important to adopt a correct examination procedure, systematically sweeping the scan in the same direction and not leaving any organ unexamined. We suggest a procedure consisting of longitudinal, cross-sectional and oblique scans to view all the abdominal organs, starting the examination in the epigastric region, scanning first the right upper quadrant, then the left upper quadrant, both iliac fossa, and lastly the hypogastric region. PMID:24746380

  6. [Septic shock following abdominal operations (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Krieg, H; Grönniger, J; Loth, R

    1977-02-25

    Septic or toxic shock is a life threatening complication after abdominal operations. The etiologic analysis of our 102 patients showed the following conditions: 1. diseases, which have already preoperatively a high incidence of septic complications, 2. sepsis developing after primary aseptic diseases, 3. septis without any etiologic connection to the primary disease or operation. An initial standarised intensive therapy must start before any irreversible organ damage may occur. First aim of all surgical measures is the eradication of the source of infection. Early relaparotomy is the only possibility for correction of intraoperativ technical defects. Only by longstanding combination of intensive personal and technical support prognosis of septic shock after abdominal operations can be improved. PMID:836527

  7. Morphometric sex determination of young Ospreys Pandion haliaetus using discriminant analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Muriel; Eva Casado; Daniel Schmidt; Cecilia P. Calabuig; Miguel Ferrer

    2010-01-01

    Capsule Discriminant functions based on morphometric variables provide a reliable method for sex identification of free?living and hacked young Ospreys.Aims To describe an easy, accurate and low?cost method for sex determination of fully grown nestling and fledgling Ospreys Pandion haliaetus based on morphometric measurements.Methods Four different measurements were taken in 114 birds (40–73 days old) and a DNA analysis, using

  8. Morphology and morphometrics of hematological cells from eastern sarus crane, Grus antigone sharpii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N.-A. Narkkong; Worapol Aengwanich; A. Tanomthong

    2011-01-01

    The population of the eastern sarus crane (Grus antigone sharpii) has been greatly reduced both in distribution and number, and documents presenting the blood cell characteristics and morphometric\\u000a data of blood cells in this kind of bird are limited. The objective of this study was to examine the morphometric and morphological\\u000a aspects of the blood cells of the eastern sarus

  9. [Fever, nosebleeding and myalgic abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Leopold, M; Siepmann, T

    2008-02-20

    A 38 year old patient presented with fever, myalgic abdominal pain, nose bleeding and acute renal failure since five days. A combination of thrombocytopenia, proteinuria, elevated CrP and creatinin is common in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) due to Hantavirus infection. The benigne form is called Nephropathia epidemica. Dialysis is infrequently required by patients with the Puumala virus. Other infection (e.g. malaria, leptospirosis, yellow fever) and systemic diseases (e.g. collagenosis or vasculitis) are considered. PMID:18548800

  10. Laparoscopy in Non-Trauma Abdominal Emergencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua R. Karas; Roberto Bergamaschi

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   The role for laparoscopy has evolved throughout the years and more evidence has become available to support its use in abdominal\\u000a emergencies. Although the literature has expanded and more randomized controlled trials are available, skepticism persists\\u000a concerning the use of laparoscopy in emergency situations. We attempt to provide the readers with a concise review and highlight\\u000a the most relevant

  11. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Situs Inversus Totalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takayoshi Kato; Hisato Takagi; Seishiro Sekino; Hideaki Manabe; Yukihiro Matsuno; Takuya Umemoto

    2006-01-01

    Situs inversus totalis refers to a mirror-image reversal of the normal position of the internal organs. The recognition of\\u000a concomitant anomalies, such as in the cardiac, venous, gastrointestinal, and urinary systems, is extremely important because\\u000a these anomalies may disturb the surgical procedure for the concurrent disease in situs inversus totalis. The authors describe\\u000a a case of successfully repaired abdominal aortic

  12. Cameraless Peritoneal Entry in Abdominal Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, William H.; Tully, Griffeth; Rajguru, Amit; Burnett, Dan R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Despite significant advances in laparoscopic instrumentation and techniques, injury to intraabdominal structures remains a potentially serious complication of peritoneal access. Consensus on the best method to obtain peritoneal access is lacking. A safe technique that does not rely on direct visualization of the abdominal layers could shorten the learning curve for surgeons and potentially be adopted by other physicians for a variety of nonsurgical indications for peritoneal entry. Methods: A prospective series of 99 consecutive patients who underwent upper-abdominal laparoscopic surgery performed by a single surgeon between January 2009 and June 2010 was reviewed. The method used to obtain peritoneal access was the fluid-based peritoneal entry indication technique (C-PET) with the EndoTIP trocar. Results: Successful abdominal entry using C-PET was achieved in 90 (90.9%) of the patients; no trocar-related injuries or other injuries associated with peritoneal access occurred. The mean time from incision to confirmed peritoneal access was 21.4 s (range, 12 to 65). Of the 9 cases in which C-PET did not successfully gain entry, 6 occurred during the first 20 surgeries and only 3 in the final 79. Conclusions: C-PET is simple, safe, timely, and effective for gaining peritoneal access during laparoscopic abdominal surgeries. In this series, C-PET produced no complications and proved effective across a wide variety of patients, including the obese and those who had had previous surgery. Furthermore, C-PET does not require visual recognition of anatomic layers and potentially could easily be taught to nonsurgeon physicians who perform peritoneal access. PMID:23484564

  13. Data and image processing for abdominal imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bidaut

    2000-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques allow information from within the human body to be obtained by using noninvasive or minimally invasive\\u000a means. This article is intended as a summary of the tools used for processing and displaying such datasets, with a focus on\\u000a abdominal imaging. Although these tools and their applications are permanently evolving, their use for clinic and research\\u000a is already

  14. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma after remote abdominal radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilks, B.; Hegedus, C.; Freeman, H.; Fratkin, L.; Churg, A.

    1988-05-15

    Peritoneal mesothelioma in a 61-year-old man, occurred 26 years after abdominal radiotherapy for a testicular seminoma. The patient had no history of asbestos exposure. After asbestos, radiation is the second most frequent defined cause of mesothelioma in North America, but the number of well-documented cases is small; this case represents only the fifth example of peritoneal mesothelioma after therapeutic irradiation of the abdomen. 16 references.

  15. Abdominal aortic aneurysm presenting as meralgia paraesthetica.

    PubMed Central

    Brett, A; Hodgetts, T

    1997-01-01

    A case of abdominal aortic aneurysm is reported in a patient with long standing low back pain, presenting as meralgia paraesthetica and an increase in the severity of back pain. The case highlights the need for objective assessment of new symptoms arising in a chronic condition, and for a systematic approach to the assessment of radiographs performed in the accident and emergency department. Images p50-a PMID:9147718

  16. Structure, Mechanics, and Histology of Intraluminal Thrombi in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jianhua; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2015-07-01

    It has been recognized that the intraluminal thrombus (ILT) is a biologically active material contributing in the progression and rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). To advance our understanding of the potential role of ILT in the natural history of AAAs, the structural, mechanical, and histological characteristics of ILTs have been studied with great interest over the past decade. Given that the ILT is evolving and changing its composition during AAA progression, attention has been paid to exploring the chemomechanical effects of ILT on the underlying wall properties. Various biomechanical and chemomechanical data, and related models have provided advanced insights into AAA pathogenesis which have served as a basis for clinical diagnosis. The goal of this review is to describe and summarize recent advances in the research of ILT found in the aorta in terms of structure, mechanics, and histology on a patient-specific basis. We point to some possible future studies which hopefully stimulate multidisciplinary research to address open problems. PMID:25986953

  17. Automatic vessel extraction and abdominal aortic stent planning in multislice CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyan, Krishna; Smith, Dava; Varma, Jay; Chandra, Shalabh

    2002-05-01

    The abdominal aorta is the most common site for an aneurysm, which may lead to hemorrhage and death, to develop. The aim of this study was to develop a semi-automated method to de-lineate the vessels and detect the center-line of these vessels to make measurements necessary for stent design from multi-detector computed tomograms. We developed a robust method of tracking the aortic vessel tree with branches from a user selected seed point along the vessel path using scale space approaches, central transformation measures, vessel direction findings, iterative corrections and a priori information in determining the vessel branches. Fifteen patients were scanned with contrast on Mx8000 CT scanner (Philips Medical Systems), with a 3.2 mm thickness, 1.5 mm slice spacing, and a stack of 512x512x320 volume data sets were reconstructed. The algorithm required an initial user input to locate the vessel seen in axial CT slice. Next, the automated image processing took approximately two minutes to compute the centerline and borders of the aortic vessel tree. The results between the manually and automatically generated vessel diameters were compared and statistics were computed. We observed our algorithm was consistent (less than 0.01 S.D) and similar (less than 0.1 S.D) to manual results.

  18. Immunohistochemical Analysis of the Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity Pathway in Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hinterseher, Irene; Schworer, Charles M.; Lillvis, John H.; Stahl, Elizabeth; Erdman, Robert; Gatalica, Zoran; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Our previous analysis using genome-wide microarray expression data revealed extreme overrepresentation of immune related genes belonging the Natural Killer (NK) Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity pathway (hsa04650) in human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We followed up the microarray studies by immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies against nine members of the NK pathway (VAV1, VAV3, PLCG1, PLCG2, HCST, TYROBP, PTK2B, TNFA, and GZMB) and aortic tissue samples from AAA repair operations (n = 6) and control aortae (n = 8) from age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched donors from autopsies. The results confirmed the microarray results. Two different members of the NK pathway, HCST and GRZB, which act at different steps in the NK-pathway, were actively transcribed and translated into proteins in the same cells in the AAA tissue demonstrated by double staining. Furthermore, double staining with antibodies against CD68 or CD8 together with HCST, TYROBP, PTK2B or PLCG2 revealed that CD68 and CD8 positive cells expressed proteins of the NK-pathway but were not the only inflammatory cells involved in the NK-pathway in the AAA tissue. The results provide strong evidence that the NK Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity Pathway is activated in human AAA and valuable insight for future studies to dissect the pathogenesis of human AAA. PMID:25993291

  19. Disruption of TGF-? signaling in smooth muscle cell prevents elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fu; Chambon, Pierre; Offermanns, Stefan; Tellides, George; Kong, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling has been significantly implicated in the pathogenesis of aneurysm, prominently the initiation and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) is the principal resident cell in aortic wall and is essential for its structure and function. However, the role of TGF-? pathway in SMC for the formation of AAA remains unknown. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of TGF-? pathway in SMC for AAA pathogenesis, by using a genetical smooth muscle-specific (SM-specific) TGF-? type II receptor (Tgfbr2) disruption animal model. Mice deficient in the expression of Tgfbr2 (MyhCre.Tgfbr2(f/f) and MyhCre.Tgfbr2(WT/f)) and their corresponding wild-type background mice (MyhCre.Tgfbr2(WT/WT)) underwent AAA induction by infrarenal peri-adventitial application of elastase. Fourteen days after elastase treatment, the aortas were analyzed and indicated that disruption of 1 or 2 alleles of Tgfbr2 in SMC provided markedly step-wise protection from AAA formation. And elastin degradation, medial SMC loss, macrophage infiltration, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expression were all significantly reduced in Tgfbr2 deletion mice. Our study demonstrated, for the first time, that the TGF-? signaling pathway in SMC plays a critical role in AAA and disruption can prevent the aneurysm formation. PMID:25450370

  20. Protease inhibitor 15, a candidate gene for abdominal aortic internal elastic lamina ruptures in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Falak, Samreen; Schafer, Sebastian; Baud, Amelie; Hummel, Oliver; Schulz, Herbert; Gauguier, Dominique; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The inbred Brown Norway (BN) rat develops spontaneous ruptures of the internal elastic lamina (RIEL) of the abdominal aorta (AA) and iliac arteries. Prior studies with crosses of the BN/Orl RJ (susceptible) and LOU/M (resistant) showed the presence of a significant QTL on chromosome 5 and the production of congenic rats proved the involvement of this locus. In this study, we further dissected the above-mentioned QTL by creating a new panel of LOU.BN(chr5) congenic and subcongenic lines and reduced the locus to 5.2 Mb. Then we studied 1,002 heterogeneous stock (HS) rats, whose phenotyping revealed a low prevalence and high variability for RIEL. High-resolution mapping in the HS panel detected the major locus on chromosome 5 (log P > 35) and refined it to 1.4 Mb. Subsequently, RNA-seq analysis on AA of BN, congenics, and LOU revealed expression differences for only protease inhibitor 15 (Pi15) gene and a putative long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) within the linkage region. The high abundance of lincRNA with respect to reduced Pi15 expression, in conjunction with exertion of longitudinal strain, may be related to RIEL, indicating the potential importance of proteases in biological processes related to defective aortic internal elastic lamina structure. Similar mechanisms may be involved in aneurysm initiation in the human AA. PMID:24790086

  1. Anastomotic tensile strength following in situ replacement of an infected abdominal aortic graft.

    PubMed

    Vetsch, R; Bandyk, D F; Schmitt, D D; Bergamini, T M; Storey, J D; Towne, J B

    1989-04-01

    The tensile strength and histologic features of anastomotic bonding were studied prior to and following in situ replacement of aortic vascular prostheses infected by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Sterile (n = 6) and infected (n = 19) Dacron grafts were used to replace the abdominal aorta of 25 dogs. After five weeks, grafts were explanted, and peak tensile force (measured in kilograms) required for anastomotic disruption was measured using a linear gain tensiometer. Anastomotic tensile strength (mean +/- SEM) of infected grafts (5.4 +/- 0.5 kg) was decreased when compared with that of sterile, control grafts (9.0 +/- 0.9 kg). The decreased anastomotic tensile strength of infected grafts was the result of an inflammatory aortitis adjacent to the suture line. Only grafts infected with the study strain of bacteria demonstrated signs of infection. In 19 dogs, the graft infection was treated by graft excision, antibiotic administration, and in situ graft replacement (Dacron or polytetrafluoroethylene prostheses). After five weeks and 12 weeks, anastomotic tensile strength of polytetrafluoroethylene (10.6 +/- 0.6 kg) and Dacron (10.8 +/- 0.5 kg) replacement grafts was similar to that of uninfected control grafts. In situ replacement of vascular prostheses infected by S epidermidis can result in graft healing with normal anastomotic bonding. PMID:2522764

  2. Extracellular Matrix Composition and Remodeling in Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: A Proteomics Approach*

    PubMed Central

    Didangelos, Athanasios; Yin, Xiaoke; Mandal, Kaushik; Saje, Angelika; Smith, Alberto; Xu, Qingbo; Jahangiri, Marjan; Mayr, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are characterized by pathological remodeling of the aortic extracellular matrix (ECM). However, besides the well-characterized elastolysis and collagenolysis little is known about changes in other ECM proteins. Previous proteomics studies on AAA focused on cellular changes without emphasis on the ECM. In the present study, ECM proteins and their degradation products were selectively extracted from aneurysmal and control aortas using a solubility-based subfractionation methodology and analyzed by gel-liquid chromatography-tandem MS and label-free quantitation. The proteomics analysis revealed novel changes in the ECM of AAA, including increased expression as well as degradation of collagen XII, thrombospondin 2, aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein, periostin, fibronectin and tenascin. Proteomics also confirmed the accumulation of macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12). Incubation of control aortic tissue with recombinant MMP-12 resulted in the extensive fragmentation of these glycoproteins, most of which are novel substrates of MMP-12. In conclusion, our proteomics methodology allowed the first detailed analysis of the ECM in AAA and identified markers of pathological ECM remodeling related to MMP-12 activity. PMID:21593211

  3. A Literature Review of the Numerical Analysis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Treated with Endovascular Stent Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Roy, David; Kauffmann, Claude; Delorme, Sébastien; Lerouge, Sophie; Cloutier, Guy; Soulez, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the basic principles and relevant advances in the computational modeling of abdominal aortic aneurysms and endovascular aneurysm repair, providing the community with up-to-date state of the art in terms of numerical analysis and biomechanics. Frameworks describing the mechanical behavior of the aortic wall already exist. However, intraluminal thrombus nonhomogeneous structure and porosity still need to be well characterized. Also, although the morphology and mechanical properties of calcifications have been investigated, their effects on wall stresses remain controversial. Computational fluid dynamics usually assumes a rigid artery wall, whereas fluid-structure interaction accounts for artery compliance but is still challenging since arteries and blood have similar densities. We discuss alternatives to fluid-structure interaction based on dynamic medical images that address patient-specific hemodynamics and geometries. We describe initial stresses, elastic boundary conditions, and statistical strength for rupture risk assessment. Special emphasis is accorded to workflow development, from the conversion of medical images into finite element models, to the simulation of catheter-aorta interactions and stent-graft deployment. Our purpose is also to elaborate the key ingredients leading to virtual stenting and endovascular repair planning that could improve the procedure and stent-grafts. PMID:22997538

  4. Pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms: microRNAs, proteases, genetic associations.

    PubMed

    Maegdefessel, Lars; Dalman, Ronald L; Tsao, Philip S

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease is a common, morbid, and highly lethal pathology. Extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of AAAs. Although surgery is highly effective in preventing death by rupture for larger AAAs, no guidance or preventive therapy is currently available for the >90% of patients whose aneurysms are below the surgical threshold. Predictive animal models of AAA as well as human pathological samples have revealed a complex circuit of AAA formation and progression. The proteolytic destruction of matrix components of the aorta by different proteases has been extensively studied over many years. Recently, a novel class of small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, was identified as "fine-tuners" of the translational output of target genes; they act by promoting mRNA degradation. Their therapeutic potential in limiting AAA development appears very intriguing. Further, current studies assessing genetic and heritable associations for AAA disease have provided great insight into its pathogenesis, potentially enabling us to better clinically manage affected patients. PMID:24274177

  5. Migration of a retained temporary epicardial pacing wire into an abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Mukaihara, Kosuke; Yotsumoto, Goichi; Matsumoto, Kazuhisa; Imoto, Yutaka

    2015-07-01

    A 69-year old male was referred to our hospital for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and a giant tumour of the left kidney. He underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) prior to aneurysmectomy and nephrectomy. Temporary epicardial pacing wires (TEPWs) were placed on the right atrium and right ventricle. The bipolar ventricular wire was removed and the unipolar atrial wire was cut flush with the skin surface on postoperative day 5. CT 7 days after the OPCAB procedure revealed a retained TEPW sutured to the right atrial wall. One month later, the patient underwent a repair of the AAA and left nephrectomy. We found that a TEPW had migrated inside the AAA intraoperatively. The retained TEPW was thus no longer observed on postoperative CT. Migration of the atrial pacing wire through the aortic lumen was suspected, although the detailed mechanism is unknown. This is the first reported case of a migrated temporary pacing wire into the aorta under noninfectious conditions. PMID:25173602

  6. The management of aortoduodenal fistula by in situ replacement of the infected abdominal aortic graft.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, W E; Cooley, D A; Duncan, J M; Hallman, G L; Ott, D A; Reul, G J

    1987-01-01

    Conventional surgical wisdom dictates the complete removal of infected abdominal aortic graft, oversewing of the aorta, and restoration of lower limb bloodflow by extra-anatomic bypass grafting. Dissatisfied with this approach because of the high incidence of local complications, mortality, and loss of limb, 20 patients with secondary aortoduodenal fistula had duodenal repair, excision of the old graft, and placement of a new graft in the same location. A similar technique was used in three patients with erosion of an aortic graft into the jejunum. Length of follow-up averaged 5.2 years, and was more than 1 year in each instance. Of the eighteen patients who survived the repair, three have had early recurrent rupture or false aneurysm of the proximal aortic anastomosis, with consequent death in two, but fifteen patients (83%) have had no further related problem. There was no loss of limb. Use of greater omentum as a protective barrier seemed helpful. Optimal antibiotic usage, and the idea that varying degrees of graft infection require different approaches, require further definition. In conclusion, in situ graft replacement is the correct operative strategy in this challenging group of patients. PMID:3592815

  7. Elective abdominal hysterectomy in Nigerian Jehovah's Witnesses.

    PubMed

    Oladapo, O T

    2004-09-01

    In a retrospective study at a university hospital, the perioperative morbidity associated with elective total abdominal hysterectomy in 23 Jehovah's Witnesses was compared with that of 46 non-Witness controls. The mean operative blood loss was significantly less, the procedure was lengthier and the average postoperative hospital stay was longer in the study than in the control group. Febrile morbidity was insignificantly more frequent among the study group (OR: 2.05, CI: 0.61-6.88) and there was no significant difference between the overall morbidity experienced by patients in both groups (study: 43.5% versus control: 39.1%; P = 0.73). The perioperative morbidity associated with elective abdominal hysterectomy in patients unwilling to accept blood transfusion does not justify the denial of this important gynaecological surgery when indicated. Gynaecologists in poor resource settings should consciously aim at providing 'bloodless' care for all their patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy as this may translate to reduced blood loss and decreased need for blood transfusion. PMID:16147614

  8. Abdominal tuberculosis--a disease revived.

    PubMed Central

    Addison, N. V.

    1983-01-01

    Abdominal tuberculosis was common in the United Kingdom in the 18th and 19th centuries and in the first half of the 20th century. During the 1950's the recognition of Crohn's disease, the use of streptomycin and other drugs, and the pasteurisation of milk led to the virtual disappearance of abdominal tuberculosis in the western world. During the last two decades a new type, mycobacterium tuberculosis hominis, has appeared mainly in the immigrant population, especially in those from the Indian subcontinent. A retrospective review of 68 patients with abdominal tuberculosis is presented. The pathology, diagnosis and management of these cases is discussed, together with the differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease. It is suggested that the immigrant brings the disease into the United Kingdom in his mesenteric glands and that the disease is reactivated or 'revived' at some later date due to some modification of the immune process. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6338801

  9. [Surgical management of blunt abdominal trauma].

    PubMed

    Wu, C L; Chou, M C

    1993-09-01

    From 1986 to 1990, 175 patients with blunt abdominal trauma were hospitalized and operated on in Kuang Tien General Hospital. Included were 140 males and 35 females with a mean age of 33 years (range: 2 to 82). The mean duration of the follow-up was 42 months. We classified the severity of the injured organs with the organ injury scale which was published by the Organ Injury Scaling (O.I.S.) Committee of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (A. A. S. T.) in 1989 and 1990. Among the patients, 12 cases were treated with splenorrhaphy. Eighty-two cases underwent splenectomy. Four cases underwent partial resection of the liver. Three cases required repair of the inferior vena cava. Seventeen cases were treated with partial resection of the small intestine and anastomosis. Seven cases underwent colostomy. Three cases were treated with distal pancreatectomy. Nineteen cases underwent nephrectomy. One case was treated with partial nephrectomy. The mortality rate was 6.3%, and the morbidity rate 20.6%. The most frequent postoperative complications related to blunt abdominal trauma in the patients who survived the initial operation were wound infection (8.0%), small bowel obstruction (4.0%), pulmonary infection (2.3%), intra-abdominal abscesses (2.3%), pancreatitis (1.7%), pancreatic fistula (1.7%), and pseudocyst (0.6%). PMID:8271328

  10. Beat Pressure and Comparing it with Ascending Aorta Pressure in Normal and Abnormal Conditions

    E-print Network

    Ghasemalizadeh, Omid; Firoozabadi, Bahar; Sajadi, Behrang; Zolfonoon, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Lumped method (Electrical analogy) is a quick and easy way to model human cardiovascular system. In this paper Lumped method is used for simulating a complete model. It describes a 36-vessel model and cardiac system of human body with details that could show hydrodynamic parameters of cardiovascular system. Also this paper includes modeling of pulmonary, atrium, left and right ventricles with their equivalent circuits. Exact modeling of right and left ventricles pressure with division of ascending aorta into 27 segments increases the accuracy of our simulation. In this paper we show that a calculated pressure for aorta from our complex circuit is near to measured pressure by using advanced medical instruments. Also it is shown that pressure graph from brachial is so near to aortic pressure because of this its pressure signal is usable instead of aortic pressure. Furthermore, obstruction in ascending aorta, brachial and its effects has been showed in different figures.

  11. [Surgical Repair of Coarctation of the Aorta in an Adult;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Hara, Masanori; Kawasaki, Muneyasu; Tokuhiro, Keiichi; Niitsu, Katsushi; Katayanagi, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Yoshinori

    2015-06-01

    We present a case of 30-year-old man with successful bypass grafting for coarctation of the aorta. Hypertension was identified during a health examination. Blood pressure difference between the upper and lower limbs was about 60 mmHg. Computed tomography( CT) revealed stenosis of the distal aortic arch and development of collateral arteries. The pressure gradient across the coarctation by catheterization was 56 mmHg. After left thoracotomy through the 4th intercostal space, a bypass graft using a 14-mm woven Dacron graft was placed between the left subclavian artery and descending aorta without the use of extracorporeal circulation. Postoperative course was satisfactory, with minimal pressure difference between the upper and lower extremities. The patient was discharged 16 days postoperatively. As of 7 years later, he remains asymptomatic, and CT has revealed no marked changes of the aorta or bypass graft. PMID:26066879

  12. Ovariectomy Increases the Participation of Hyperpolarizing Mechanisms in the Relaxation of Rat Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Sagredo, Ana; del Campo, Lara; Martorell, Aina; Navarro, Rocío; Martín, María C.; Blanco-Rivero, Javier; Ferrer, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the downstream NO release pathway and the contribution of different vasodilator mediators in the acetylcholine-induced response in rat aorta 5-months after the loss of ovarian function. Aortic segments from ovariectomized and control female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to measure: the levels of superoxide anion, the superoxide dismutases (SODs) activity, the cGMP formation, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) activity and the involvement of NO, cGMP, hydrogen peroxide and hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the ACh-induced relaxation. The results showed that ovariectomy did not alter ACh-induced relaxation; incubation with L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor, decreased the ACh-induced response to a lesser extent in aorta from ovariectomized than from control rats, while ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, decreased that response to a similar extent; the blockade of hyperpolarizing mechanisms, by precontracting arteries with KCl, decreased the ACh-induced response to a greater extent in aortas from ovariectomized than those from control rats; catalase, that decomposes hydrogen peroxide, decreased the ACh-induced response only in aorta from ovariectomized rats. In addition, ovariectomy increased superoxide anion levels and SODs activity, decreased cGMP formation and increased PKG activity. Despite the increased superoxide anion and decreased cGMP in aorta from ovariectomized rats, ACh-induced relaxation is maintained by the existence of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in which hydrogen peroxide participates. The greater contribution of hydrogen peroxide in ACh-induced relaxation is due to increased SOD activity, in an attempt to compensate for increased superoxide anion formation. Increased PKG activity could represent a redundant mechanism to ensure vasodilator function in the aorta of ovariectomized rats. PMID:24058477

  13. Experimental investigation of the influence of the aortic stiffness on hemodynamics in the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Gülan, Utku; Lüthi, Beat; Holzner, Markus; Liberzon, Alex; Tsinober, Arkady; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) pulsatile aortic flow in a human ascending aorta is studied to investigate the effect of the aortic stiffness on the flow field and turbulent fluctuating velocities in the ascending aorta. A nonintrusive optical measurement technique, 3-D particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV), has been applied to anatomically accurate phantoms under clinically realistic conditions. A compliant silicon phantom was used to mimic the healthy aorta, and a rigid model was used to imitate the pathological case that appears in aortas for example as a result of aging. The realistic models are transparent which allows optical access to the investigation domain, and the index of refraction was matched to avoid optical distortions. Our results revealed that the aortic stiffness leads to an increase in systolic velocity and a decrease in the Windkessel effect, which is associated with the diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, we found that the turbulent kinetic energy is about an order of magnitude higher for the rigid aorta, that is, an increase in aortic stiffness increases the magnitude of turbulent fluctuating velocities. The spatial distribution of the flow velocity showed that the flow is more organized and coherent spiraling patterns develop for the compliant aorta which helps to dampen the influence of disturbed flow. Finally, we observed higher Lagrangian acceleration and hence higher instantaneous forces acting on blood particles in the stiff case which implies that aging and hence arterial stiffening provokes distinctive alterations in blood flow, and these alterations may cause pathological symptoms in the cardiovascular system. PMID:24833608

  14. Surgical Treatment of a Floating Thrombus of the Ascending Aorta Causing Repeated Arterial Embolisms.

    PubMed

    Labsaili, Hicham; Bouaggad, Amal; Alami, Aroussi Aziz; Rama, Akhtar; Leprince, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    Floating thrombus of the ascending aorta is a rare and often ignored cause of peripheral embolic events. We report the observation of a patient presenting recurrent peripheral embolic demonstrations: acute ischemia of the right lower limb complicated of a thigh amputation and transient cerebrovascular accident. The assessment by angioscanner highlighted a 40-mm thrombus of the ascending aorta. The thrombus was removed surgically. This diagnosis should not be ignored in the assessment of an embolic pathology with the risk of severe functional after-effects caused by an important diagnostic delay. PMID:25771744

  15. A morbid coexistence: thrombosed descending thoracic aorta aneurysm and aortic insufficiency with aortic diastolic reverse flow

    PubMed Central

    Boyaci, Nurefsan; Yildiz, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman presented with difficulty in speech and weakness on right arm and leg. Her medical history was remarkable only for uncontrolled hypertension for a long period. Dysarthria, right central facial paralysis, right hemiparesis and hypoactive deep tendon reflexes were noticed on neurological examination. Moderate degree aortic insufficiency with aortic diastolic reverse flow was detected on transthoracic echocardiography. Thrombosed aortic aneurysm on descending thoracic aorta, and an acute hemorrhagic infarction in the distribution of the left middle cerebral artery were depicted on thorax, and brain computed tomography scans, respectively. Cerebrovascular event was medically managed and whereas conservative management was offered for thrombosed descending thoracic aorta aneurysm. PMID:25392831

  16. Retrograde embolism from the descending thoracic aorta causing stroke: An underappreciated clinical condition

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Lovely; Niroula, Rabin; Phadke, Jayant; Spodick, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of retrograde aortic blood flow is a complex and underreported clinical phenomenon. Complex plaques of the aortic arch are considered high-risk sources of cerebral emboli.1 Aortic plaques situated in the descending thoracic aorta are however often overlooked and in fact can be more frequent potential sources of cerebral embolism through the mechanism of retrograde aortic blood flow. We present the case of an elderly Caucasian female who experienced recurrent posterior circulation embolic strokes where the only possible underlying etiology was found to be an atheroma in the descending thoracic aorta, possibly showering retrograde emboli. PMID:23809389

  17. Characterization of aneurysmal aortas by biochemical, thermal, and dielectric techniques.

    PubMed

    Samouillan, Valerie; Dandurand, Jany; Lacabanne, Colette; Stella, Andrea; Gargiulo, Mauro; Degani, Annamaria; Gandaglia, Alessandro; Spina, Michel

    2010-11-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are characterized by structural alterations of the aortic wall resulting from the degradation of elastic fibres and an increase of collagen/elastin ratio. In this study we investigated the chain dynamics of AAA tissues by two techniques generally used for the characterization of polymers, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermally stimulated currents (TSC), and we correlated the obtained data with biochemical analyses. The thermal denaturation of collagen observed by DSC allowed us to evaluate the thermal stability of the triple helix domain: notable modifications were evidenced between collagen from control tissue and collagen from AAA, particularly concerning the thermal denaturation. The dielectric analysis of pathologic aortic walls by TSC revealed a relevant change of collagen mobility in AAA, with the occurrence of a specific mode of relaxation between -60 and -40°C. Biochemical, thermal, and dielectric results are compatible with increase of new collagen deposition and/or impairment of the collagen phase stability in the extracellular matrix of AAAs. PMID:20725971

  18. Histologic abnormalities of the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease: Clinical relevance to the ross procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauro de Sa; Yaron Moshkovitz; Jagdish Butany; Tirone E. David

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Bicuspid aortic valve disease is often associated with dilation of the aortic root and ascending aorta. This study examines the histologic features of the ascending aorta and main pulmonary artery of patients with and without aortic valve disease. Methods: Samples from ascending aorta and main pulmonary artery were obtained at the time of the operation from 20 patients with

  19. Functional Abdominal Pain: "Get" the Function, Loose the Pain.

    PubMed

    Draeger-Muenke, Reinhild

    2015-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain is a mind-body, psychosocial, and self-reinforcing experience with significant consequences for the sufferer and the surrounding support network. The occurrence of unpredictable symptoms and their severity add an element of dread and feeling out-of-control to daily life and often reduce overall functioning in a downward spiral. Two clinical presentations of functional abdominal pain are offered in this article (composites to protect confidentiality) dealing with abdominal pain syndrome and abdominal migraines. The treatment demonstrates the use of hypnotic principles for self-regulation, exploration, and meaning-making. Hypnosis treatment is conducted in combination with mindfulness-based interventions and Traditional Chinese Medicine's (TCM) teachings regarding abdominal health and illness. The clinical examples illustrate medical findings that suggest children with early life stress and an early onset of gastrointestinal somatization may not simply outgrow their functional abdominal pain but may suffer into adulthood. PMID:26046716

  20. Homocysteine and metalloprotease-3 and ? 9 in patients with ascending Aorta Aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos Tsarouhas; Christina Tsitsimpikou; Stavros Apostolakis; Alexander Haliassos; Maria Tzardi; Matthiew Panagiotou; Aristides Tsatsakis; Demetrios A. Spandidos

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionMatrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity is increased in ascending and abdominal aortic aneurysms. Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hc) levels have been reported in patients with abdominal aneurysms. However, there are no published reports correlating, Hc and MMP levels in patients with ascending aortic aneurysms (AAAs).

  1. Early reconstruction of the abdominal wall in giant omphalocele.

    PubMed

    Zama, Mario; Gallo, Simona; Santecchia, Luigino; Bertozzi, Ettore; Zaccara, Antonio; Trucchi, Alessandro; Nahom, Antonella; Bagolan, Pietro; De Stefano, Cosmoferruccio

    2004-12-01

    Omphalocele is the most common congenital defect of the abdominal wall. Mortality rate is between 20 and 70% and early closure of the abdominal wall, within 10 days of life, is vital to the successful outcome of the surgical treatment. The authors describe the use of two bipedicled flaps of abdominal skin to correct the defect of the midline as soon as the reduction of all viscera has been accomplished. PMID:15544772

  2. Abdominal Wall Schwannoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, A.; Hamadto, M.; Azzabi, M.; Elfagieh, M.

    2013-01-01

    A 29-year-old female had presented to surgical outpatient's department complaining of lump in the anterior abdominal wall. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid degenerated tumor in the anterior abdominal wall. It was surgically excised, and histopathology confirmed it to be “ancient” schwannoma. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of an abdominal wall ancient schwannoma in the medical literature. PMID:23841008

  3. Abdominal wall schwannoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A; Hamadto, M; Azzabi, M; Elfagieh, M

    2013-01-01

    A 29-year-old female had presented to surgical outpatient's department complaining of lump in the anterior abdominal wall. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid degenerated tumor in the anterior abdominal wall. It was surgically excised, and histopathology confirmed it to be "ancient" schwannoma. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of an abdominal wall ancient schwannoma in the medical literature. PMID:23841008

  4. Pathology Case Study: Postoperative Abdominal Discomfort

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kulich, Scott

    This is a clinical microbiology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 22 year old male is experiencing postoperative abdominal discomfort. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology and related medicine.

  5. An easily overlooked cause of abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Kyle; Rettew, Andrew; Shaikh, Bilal; Supplee, Suzanne; Alweis, Richard

    2014-01-01

    A 63 year old female presented to the emergency department with a several month history of intermittent right upper quadrant abdominal pain, early satiety with loss of appetite, and an unintentional weight loss of 8. She underwent a battery of tests that returned negative and subsequently sent for Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the abdomen revealing luminal stenosis of the proximal 1 cm of the celiac axis estimating 90% occlusion and a patent SMA and IMA with, typical for median arcuate ligament syndrome. The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options are discussed. PMID:25432644

  6. Morphometric techniques for orientation analysis of karst in northern Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, D.T.; Beck, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    Morphometric techniques for the analysis of karst landscape orientation data based on swallet catchment areas can be highly inadequate. The long axes of catchment areas may not coincide with structural control, especially in regions having very low relief. Better structural correlation was observed using multiply linear trend measurements of closed depressions rather than drainage basins. Trend analysis was performed on four areas, approximately 25 km/sup 2/ each, forming a sequence from the Suwannee River to the Cody Escarpment in northern Florida. This area is a karst plain, mantled by 12 to 25 meters of unconsolidated sands and clays. Structural control was examined by tabulating the azimuths of distinct linear trends as determined from depression shape based on 1:24,000 topographic maps. The topography was characterized by 1872 individual swallet catchment areas or 1457 closed depressions. The common geomorphic technique of analyzing orientation data in 10/sup 0/ increments beginning with O/sup 0/ may yield incorrect peak width and placement. To correctly detect all significant orientation peaks all possible combinations of peak width and placement must be tested. Fifty-five different plots were reviewed and tested for each area.

  7. Achilles tendinosis – a morphometrical study in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rafael Duarte; Glazebrook, Mark Anthony; Campos, Vinicius Castro; Vasconcelos, Anilton Cesar

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the morphopathogenesis of Achilles tendinosis, using a rat model and presenting quantitative analysis of time-dependent histological changes. Thirty Wistar rats were used, randomly split in experimental and control groups. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to a treadmill running scheme. Five animals of each group were euthanized at four, eight and sixteen weeks. Achilles tendons were collected and processed routinely for histopath sections. Slides were stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin, Picrosirius Red, Alcian Blue, AgNOR, TUNEL and evaluated morphometrically. Cellular density decreased slightly along the time and was higher in the experimental group than in controls at fourth, eighth and sixteenth weeks. Fiber microtearing, percentual of reticular fibers and glycosaminoglycans content increased along the time and were higher in experimental group than in controls at all-time intervals. AgNOR labeling here interpreted as a marker of transcription activity was higher in the experimental groups than in controls at all-time intervals. Apoptotic cells were more frequent and diffusely distributed in tendinosis samples than in control groups. These results suggest that as mechanical overload is becoming chronic, cellular turnover and matrix deposition increases leading to tendinosis. The combination of staining techniques and morphometry used here to describe the evolution of lesions occurring in a rat model system has proved to be suited for the study of induced Achilles tendinosis. PMID:22076169

  8. Morphometric Correlation of Impulsivity in Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sang Soo; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Aminian, Kelly; Ray, Nicola; Segura, Barbara; Obeso, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is a complex behaviour composed of different domains encompassing behavioural disinhibition, risky decision-making and delay discounting abnormalities. To investigate regional brain correlates between levels of individual impulsivity and grey matter volume, we performed voxel-based morphometric correlation analysis in 34 young, healthy subjects using impulsivity scores measured with Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11 and computerized Kirby’s delay discounting task. The VBM analysis showed that impulsivity appears to be reliant on a network of cortical (medial prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and subcortical (ventral striatum) structures emphasizing the importance of brain networks associated with reward related decision-making in daily life as morphological biomarkers for impulsivity in a normal healthy population. While our results in healthy volunteers may not directly extend to pathological conditions, they provide an insight into the mechanisms of impulsive behaviour in patients with abnormalities in prefrontal/frontal-striatal connections, such as in drug abuse, pathological gambling, ADHD and Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23274773

  9. Morphometric study of cardiac muscle: the problem of tissue shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, A M; Kriseman, J; Bishop, S P

    1982-03-01

    Comparison of data from morphometric studies dealing with the heart is complicated by the fact that little information dealing with cell size changes during tissue processing is available. To investigate these changes, isolated cardiac myocytes were adhered to glass cover slips of Sykes Moore chambers and photographed after each step of processing for transmission electron microscopy. Six different experiments with a minimum of 10 cells each were followed through the entire procedure after fixation with isoosmolar glutaraldehyde. Cellular dimension changes were determined by tracing individual isolated myocytes after each step of the procedure with a sonic digitizer. Significant cell volume changes occurred after osmium (16 per cent swelling), postosmium wash (10 per cent swelling), and uranyl acetate (25 per cent shrinkage). Hypertonic aldehyde solutions resulted in cellular shrinkage during fixation not found with isotonic solutions. Changes in cell cross-sectional area rather than length were largely responsible for altered cell volumes during any given phase of processing. The results indicate that, although cell volume changes occur during processing, final cell dimensions of embedded cells were not different from unfixed cells. In whole tissue blocks, inclusion of propylene oxide in the procedure resulted in tissue shrinkage which was not observed in isolated myocytes, suggesting that different tissue components react in a variable manner to propylene oxide. After each of the other steps in processing, tissue blocks reacted in a similar manner to the isolated myocytes. PMID:6801394

  10. Morphometric study of cardiac muscle: the problem of tissue shrinkage

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, A.M.; Kriseman, J.; Bishop, S.P.

    1982-03-01

    Comparison of data from morphometric studies dealing with the heart is complicated by the fact that little information dealing with cell size changes during tissue processing is available. To investigate these changes, isolated cardiac myocytes were adhered to glass cover slips of Sykes Moore chambers and photographed after each step of processing for transmission electron microscopy. Six different experiments with a minimum of 10 cells each were followed through the entire procedure after fixation with isoosmolar glutaraldehyde. Cellular dimension changes were determined by tracing individual isolated myocytes after each step of the procedure with a sonic digitizer. Significant cell volume changes occurred after osmium (16 per cent swelling), postosmium wash (10 per cent swelling), and uranyl acetate (25 per cent shrinkage). Hypertonic aldehyde solutions resulted in cellular shrinkage during fixation not found with isotonic solutions. Changes in cell cross-sectional area rather than length were largely responsible for altered cell volumes during any given phase of processing. The results indicate that, although cell volume changes occur during processing, final cell dimensions of embedded cells were not different from unfixed cells. In whole tissue blocks, inclusion of propylene oxide in the procedure resulted in tissue shrinkage which was not observed in isolated myocytes, suggesting that different tissue components react in a variable manner to propylene oxide. After each of the other steps in processing, tissue blocks reacted in a similar manner to the isolated myocytes.

  11. Cost and Reimbursement for Three Fibroid Treatments: Abdominal Hysterectomy, Abdominal Myomectomy, and Uterine Fibroid Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Jay, E-mail: jaygoldbergmd@yahoo.com; Bussard, Anne [Jefferson Medical College, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (United States); McNeil, Jean [Jefferson Medical College, Department of Finance (United States); Diamond, James [Jefferson Medical College, Department of Family Medicine (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. To compare costs and reimbursements for three different treatments for uterine fibroids. Methods. Costs and reimbursements were collected and analyzed from the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital decision support database from 540 women who underwent abdominal hysterectomy (n 299), abdominal myomectomy (n = 105), or uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) (n = 136) for uterine fibroids during 2000-2002. We used the chi-square test and ANOVA, followed by Fisher's Least Significant Difference test, for statistical analysis. Results. The mean total hospital cost (US$) for UFE was $2,707, which was significantly less than for hysterectomy ($5,707) or myomectomy ($5,676) (p < 0.05). The mean hospital net income (hospital net reimbursement minus total hospital cost) for UFE was $57, which was significantly greater than for hysterectomy (-$572) or myomectomy (-$715) (p < 0.05). The mean professional (physician) reimbursements for UFE, hysterectomy, and myomectomy were $1,306, $979, and $1,078, respectively. Conclusion. UFE has lower hospital costs and greater hospital net income than abdominal hysterectomy or abdominal myomectomy for treating uterine fibroids. UFE may be more financially advantageous than hysterectomy or myomectomy for the insurer, hospital, and health care system. Costs and reimbursements may vary amongst different hospitals and regions.

  12. Traumatic Rupture of Thoracic Aorta in Real-World Motor Vehicle Crashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Bertrand; Sophie Cuny; Philippe Petit; Xavier Trosseille; Yves Page; Hervé Guillemot; Pascal Drazetic

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Traumatic rupture of thoracic aorta (TRA) was reported in the literature to be a major cause of death in motor vehicle crashes. This study aims at evaluating the most relevant risk factors of TRA. It also aims at analyzing the types of TRA as a function of car crash conditions and rib cage fractures.Methods. In-depth crash data collected from

  13. Flagellum-mediated adhesion of Trypanosoma congolense to bovine aorta endothelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Hemphill; Carole A. Ross

    1995-01-01

    We studied the interaction betweenTrypanosoma congolense and bovine aorta endothelial (BAE) cell monolayers. Our findings suggest that trypanosomes adhere predominantly to the flattened, peripheral cell surface domains as well as to filamentous endothelial outgrowths that are present during in vitro cultivation in non-confluent monolayers. Adhesion is mediated exclusively by the flagellum in a distinct geometrical order with respect to the

  14. [Effect of aortic clamping on hemodynamics at reconstruction of the thoracoabdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Bokeriia, L A; Lishchuk, V A; Spiridonov, A A; Tutov, E G; Gazizova, D Sh; Arakelian, V S; Sazykina, L V; Nasyrov, E M; Ovchinnikov, R S

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experience with monitoring and computerized follow up of the hemodynamic status in 60 patients at and right after reconstruction of the thoracoabdominal aorta. In addition to the routine control, measurements were made of the pressure in the large vessels and cavities of the heart, duration of each heart contraction and CI. The following parameters were computed automatically: the status of the ventricles for each heart contraction, resistance of the greater end pulmonary circulation, elasticity of the arterial, venous, pulmonary arterial and pulmonary venous reservoirs, also for each cardiac cycle. At the generally accepted monitoring the hemodynamic responses to the surgeon's manipulations on the aorta appear smoothed or are not visualized at all. The control of each heart contraction reveals the responses to application of the clamp and its removal from the aorta, with their hemodynamic significance being not questionable. Aortic clamping and clamp removal from the aorta are associated with the generalized response of the regulatory systems of the body. The slow and thoroughly controlled aortic clamping and graded, controlled blood flow restoration due to clamp removal as well as the use of sodium nitroprusside (trimetafan or isofluran are preferable) allow to avoid an abrupt stroke load of the left ventricle of the heart and, respectively, the generalized response of the regulatory systems of the body. PMID:15163999

  15. Procyanidins in crataegus extract evoke endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in rat aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soon Hoe Kim; Keon Wook Kang; Kye Won Kim; Nak Doo Kim

    2000-01-01

    The extract of Crataegus, a mixture of flavonoids and procyanidins extracted from hawthorn, Crataegus oxyacantha, L. and C. monogyna Jacq., relaxed vascular tone or increased production of cyclic GMP in the rat aorta, but flavonoid components of Crataegus extract, hyperoside, rutin and vitexin, did not affect the vascular tone. The aim of the present study was to characterize the endothelium-dependent

  16. Heart and aorta morphology of the deep-diving hooded seal (Cystophora cristata)

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jennifer M.

    Heart and aorta morphology of the deep-diving hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) Charles M. Drabek and Jennifer M. Burns Abstract: An investigation of the heart morphology of 8 male and 15 female hooded seals that reported for most seals. Hooded seals of all ages have large hearts (0.64% of the body mass) and the right

  17. Distal thoracic aorta hemodynamics during exercise with continuous flow left ventricular assist system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin'ichiro Kihara; Kenji Yamazaki; Kenneth N. Litwak; Philip Litwak; Marina V. Kameneva; Takehide Akimoto; Bartley P. Griffith; Robert L. Kormos

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Continuous flow left ventricular assist systems (LVAS) are being discussed as a destination therapy. LVAS patients will have expanded activity of daily life, including exercise. In this study, we analyzed the effects of exercise on blood flow in the distal thoracic aorta of LVAD implanted animals. Methods: Five calves with a continuous flow LVAS exercised on treadmill at two

  18. AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF CALCIFIED LESIONS IN THE DESCENDING AORTA USING CONTRAST ENHANCED CT SCANS R enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) scans. This CT scan is generally followed by a contrast enhanced of calcified lesions on CTA scans. Calcium lesion detection is straightforward on a CT scan, however performing

  19. Identification of mesenchymal stem cells in aorta-gonad-mesonephros and yolk sac of human embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Yan Wang; Yu Lan; Wen-Yan He; Lei Zhang; Hui-Yu Yao; Chun-Mei Hou; Ying Tong; Yuan-Lin Liu; Guan Yang; Xiao-Dan Liu; Xiao Yang; Bing Liu; Ning Mao

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are mul- tipotent stem cells that can generate vari- ous microenvironment components in bone marrow, ensuring a precise control over self-renewal and multilineage differ- entiation of hematopoietic stem cells. Nev- ertheless, their spatiotemporal correla- tion with embryonic hematopoiesis remains rudimentary, particularly in relation to the human being. Here, we reported that human aorta- gonad-mesonephros (AGM) resided

  20. Nitric Oxide Transport in Normal Human Thoracic Aorta: Effects of Hemodynamics and Nitric Oxide Scavengers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Zhenze; Zhao, Ping; Fan, Zhanming; Sun, Anqiang; Zhan, Fan; Fan, Yubo; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of nitric oxide (NO) in the homeostasis of the vasculature, little quantitative information exists concerning NO transport and distribution in medium and large-sized arteries where atherosclerosis and aneurysm occur and hemodynamics is complex. We hypothesized that local hemodynamics in arteries may govern NO transport and affect the distribution of NO in the arteries, hence playing an important role in the localization of vascular diseases. To substantiate this hypothesis, we presented a lumen/wall model of the human aorta based on its MRI images to simulate the production, transport and consumption of NO in the arterial lumen and within the aortic wall. The results demonstrated that the distribution of NO in the aorta was quite uneven with remarkably reduced NO bioavailability in regions of disturbed flow, and local hemodynamics could affect NO distribution mainly via flow dependent NO production rate of endothelium. In addition, erythrocytes in the blood could moderately modulate NO concentration in the aorta, especially at the endothelial surface. However, the reaction of NO within the wall could only slightly affect NO concentration on the luminal surface, but strongly reduce NO concentration within the aortic wall. A strong positive correlation was revealed between wall shear stress and NO concentration, which was affected by local hemodynamics and NO reaction rate. In conclusion, the distribution of NO in the aorta may be determined by local hemodynamics and modulated differently by NO scavengers in the lumen and within the wall. PMID:25405341

  1. Isolation of calcifiable vesicles from aortas of rabbits fed with high cholesterol diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard H. T. Hsu; Nancy P. Camacho; Francis Sun; Ossama Tawfik; H. Aono

    2000-01-01

    Advanced arterial wall calcification in atherosclerosis imposes a serious rupturing effect on the aorta. However, the mechanism of dystrophic calcification linked to hyperlipidemia, that causes atherosclerosis remains unknown. Emerging morphological and biochemical evidence reveals that calcifiable vesicles may have a role in plaque calcification. To determine whether a high cholesterol diet can induce arterial calcification and produce or activate calcifiable

  2. Effects of parsley ( Petroselinum crispum ) on the aorta and heart of Stz induced diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Göksel Sener; Özlem Saçan; Refiye Yanardag; Gül Ayanoglu-Dülger

    2003-01-01

    Parsley is one of the medicinal herbs used by diabetics in Turkey. It has been reported to reduce blood glucose levels. In this study the effects of feeding parsley on diabetes-induced free radical mediated injury in rat aorta and heart tissues were investigated. Swiss albino rats were divided into six groups: Control, diabetic, parsley, diabetic + parsley, glibornurid, and diabetic

  3. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamadou Sarr; Saliou Ngom; Modou O Kane; Alassane Wele; Doudou Diop; Bocar Sarr; Lamine Gueye; Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina; Aminata S Diallo

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. METHODS: Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The

  4. Morphological and smooth muscle cell phenotypic changes in fetal rabbit aorta during early development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Cayatte; M. Ashraf; M. T. R. Subbiah

    1989-01-01

    Summary Previous studies from our laboratory noted a) high aortic cholesterol esterification activity in the fetal rabbit, and b) increased susceptibility of fetal aortic explants to smooth muscle cell proliferation in culture, two features commonly associated with atherogenesis. This prompted us to examine in detail morphological development of fetal aorta and its relationship to fetal plasma cholesterol levels. Our studies

  5. Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings*

    PubMed Central

    Vermelho, Marli Batista Fernandes; Correia, Ademir Silva; Michailowsky, Tânia Cibele de Almeida; Suzart, Elizete Kazumi Kuniyoshi; Ibanês, Aline Santos; Almeida, Lanamar Aparecida; Khoury, Zarifa; Barba, Mário Flores

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results Abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion Computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:25987748

  6. Abdominal Drainage Following Appendectomy and Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Stone, H. Harlan; Hooper, C. Ann; Millikan, William J.

    1978-01-01

    Consecutive patients undergoing emergency appendectomy (283) or urgent cholecystectomy (51) were prospectively studied for the development of post-operative incisional or peritoneal sepsis. Severity of the original peritoneal infection was carefully recorded, while use of a Penrose dam to drain the peritoneum was randomized according to pre-assigned hospital number. Both aerobic and anaerobic cultures were taken from the abdomen at the time of operation as well as from all postoperative infectious foci. Results demonstrated no essential differences in incidence of wound and peritoneal infection following appendectomy for simple or suppurative appendicitis (187) or following cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (51). However, with gangrenous or perforative appendicitis (94), incisional and intra-abdominal infection rates were 43% and 45%, respectively, when a drain was used; yet only 29 and 13%, respectively, without a drain. These latter differences were significant (p < 0.001). In addition, intra-abdominal abscesses were three times as likely to drain through the incision than along any tract provided by the rubber conduit. Cultures revealed that hospital pathogens accounted for a greater proportion of wound and peritoneal sepsis after cholecystectomy and appendectomy for simple or suppurative appendicitis if a drain had been inserted than if managed otherwise. By contrast, a mixed bacterial flora was responsible for most infections following appendectomy for gangrenous or perforated appendicitis, irrespective as to use of a drain. PMID:646499

  7. Extensive Abdominal Surgery After Caustic Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Cattan, Pierre; Munoz-Bongrand, Nicolas; Berney, Thierry; Halimi, Bruno; Sarfati, Emile; Celerier, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Objective To report the authors’ experience in extensive abdominal surgery after caustic ingestion, and to clarify its indications. Summary Background Data After caustic ingestion, extension of corrosive injuries beyond the esophagus and stomach to the duodenum, jejunum, or adjacent abdominal organs is an uncommon but severe complication. The limit to which resection of the damaged organs can be reasonably performed is not clearly defined. Methods From 1988 to 1997, nine patients underwent esophagogastrectomy extended to the colon (n = 2), the small bowel (n = 2), the duodenopancreas (n = 4), the tail of the pancreas (n = 1), or the spleen (n = 1). Outcome was evaluated in terms of complications, death, and function after esophageal reconstruction. Results Five patients required reintervention in the postoperative period for extension of the caustic lesions. There were two postoperative deaths. Seven patients had secondary esophageal reconstruction 4 to 8 months (median 6 months) after initial resection. Three additional patients died 8, 24, and 32 months after the initial resection. Three survivors eat normally, and one has unexplained dysphagia. Conclusions An aggressive surgical approach allows successful initial treatment of extended caustic injuries. Early surgical treatment is essential to improve the prognosis in these patients. PMID:10749612

  8. Lymphangiogenesis and Angiogenesis in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Masaki; Sasaki, Takeshi; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Sakabe, Junichi; Ogawa, Mikako; Baba, Satoshi; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoto; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Sato, Kohji; Konno, Hiroyuki; Unno, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized to be inflammation-associated degeneration of vascular wall. Neovascularization is regularly found in human AAA and considered to play critical roles in the development and rupture of AAA. However, little is known about lymphangiogenesis in AAA. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in AAA. Abdominal aortic tissue was harvested either from autopsy (control group) and during open-repair surgery for AAA (AAA group). Adventitial lymphatic vasa vasorum was observed in both groups, but seemed to be no significant morphological changes in AAA. Immunohistochemical studies identified infiltration of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE) ?1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9-positive macrophages and podoplanin and Prox-1-positive microvessels in the intima/media in AAA wall, where hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)-1? was expressed. VEGF-C and MMP-9 were not expressed in macrophages infiltrating in the adventitia. Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography revealed lymph stasis in intima/medial in AAA. Fluorescence microscopy of the collected samples also confirmed the accumulation of lymph in the intima/media but not in adventitia. These results demonstrate that infiltration of macrophages in intima/media is associated with lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in AAA. Lymph-drainage appeared to be insufficient in the AAA wall. PMID:24651519

  9. Atlas based automatic identification of abdominal organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yongxin; Bai, Jing

    2005-04-01

    Due to intensity inhomogeneities, partial volume effects, as well as organ shape variations, automatic segmentation of abdominal organs has always been a high challenging task. To conquer these difficulties, we employ a pre-labeled atlas (VIP-Man) to supplement anatomical knowledge to the segmentation process. First, an atlas-subject registration is carried out to establish the proper correspondence between the atlas and the subject. The registration consists of two steps. In the global registration step, a similarity transformation is found to eliminate the stature differences. In the organ registration step, organs of interest are registered respectively to achieve better alignments. Second, we utilize the fuzzy connectedness framework to segment abdominal organs of interest from the subject image. Under the guidance of the registered atlas, the seeds and intensity parameters of organs are specified in an auto-adaptive way. Further more, the anatomical knowledge contained in the atlas is blended into the frame work, to make the segmentation result more reliable. To remove possible jags on boundary, a level set smooth method which implements fuzzy connectedness as external speed forces, is utilized on the segmentation result. Our purpose is to accomplish the segmentation task like how anatomy experts do. So far, this approach has been applied to segment organs, including liver, spleen and kidneys, in the female MRI T1 data set from the VHP. All organs of interest are identified correctly, and delineated with considerable precision.

  10. [Surgical treatment of patients for abdominal sepsis].

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    Results of surgical treatment of 201 patients, suffering abdominal sepsis (AS), which have occurred after operations on abdominal organs, were analyzed. Expediency of application of modern scales for the patients state severity estimation, prognostic sign-posts and dynamic of the pathological process course in every patient was substantiated. Existing systems of prognostication (APACHE II, SOFA, MODS) are applied restrictedly for diagnosis of infection in patients, what demands relaparotomy performance in presence of clinical signs of intraabdominal infection, which persists. For prognostication of the treatment result and determination of indications for relaparotomy conduction in patients, suffering severe AS and infectious-toxic shock (ITSH), the most informative is application of the Manheim's index of peritonitis together with analysis of clinico-laboratory indices for formation of groups of patients in risk, to whom reoperation is indicated. Advantages of relaparotomy "on demand" conduction were proved in comparison with "programmed" relaparotomy during the staged surgical treatment of patients, suffering severe AS and ITSH. Complex surgical treatment with substantiation of indications and choice of adequate method of intervention secures improvement of the treatment results in these severely ill patients. PMID:25507013

  11. [Surgical treatment of patients for abdominal sepsis].

    PubMed

    Kryvoruchko, I A; Usenko, O Iu; Andreieshchev, S A

    2014-08-01

    Results of surgical treatment of 201 patients, suffering abdominal sepsis (AS), which have occurred after operations on abdominal organs, were analyzed. Expediency of application of modern scales for the patients state severity estimation, prognostic sign-posts and dynamic of the pathological process course in every patient was substantiated. Existing systems of prognostication (APACHE II, SOFA, MODS) are applied restrictedly for diagnosis of infection in patients, what demands relaparotomy performance in presence of clinical signs of intraabdominal infection, which persists. For prognostication of the treatment result and determination of indications for relaparotomy conduction in patients, suffering severe AS and infectious-toxic shock (ITSH), the most informative is application of the Manheim's index of peritonitis together with analysis of clinico-laboratory indices for formation of groups of patients in risk, to whom reoperation is indicated. Advantages of relaparotomy "on demand" conduction were proved in comparison with "programmed" relaparotomy during the staged surgical treatment of patients, suffering severe AS and ITSH. Complex surgical treatment with substantiation of indications and choice of adequate method of intervention secures improvement of the treatment results in these severely ill patients. PMID:25417285

  12. Dexmedetomidine-induced contraction involves phosphorylation of caldesmon by JNK in endothelium-denuded rat aortas.

    PubMed

    Baik, Jiseok; Ok, Seong-Ho; Cho, Hyunhoo; Yu, Jongsun; Kim, Woochan; Nam, In-Koo; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Lee, Heon-Keun; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Caldesmon, an inhibitory actin binding protein, binds to actin and inhibits actin-myosin interactions, whereas caldesmon phosphorylation reverses the inhibitory effect of caldesmon on actin-myosin interactions, potentially leading to enhanced contraction. The goal of this study was to investigate the cellular signaling pathway responsible for caldesmon phosphorylation, which is involved in the regulation of the contraction induced by dexmedetomidine (DMT), an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist, in endothelium-denuded rat aortas. SP600125 (a c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase [JNK] inhibitor) dose-response curves were generated in aortas that were pre-contracted with DMT or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator. Dose-response curves to the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine were generated in rat aortas pre-contracted with DMT. The effects of SP600125 and rauwolscine (an alpha-2 adrenoceptor inhibitor) on DMT-induced caldesmon phosphorylation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were investigated by western blot analysis. PDBu-induced caldesmon and DMT-induced PKC phosphorylation in rat aortic VSMCs was investigated by western blot analysis. The effects of GF109203X (a PKC inhibitor) on DMT- or PDBu-induced JNK phosphorylation in VSMCs were assessed. SP600125 resulted in the relaxation of aortas that were pre-contracted with DMT or PDBu, whereas rauwolscine attenuated DMT-induced contraction. Chelerythrine resulted in the vasodilation of aortas pre-contracted with DMT. SP600125 and rauwolscine inhibited DMT-induced caldesmon phosphorylation. Additionally, PDBu induced caldesmon phosphorylation, and GF109203X attenuated the JNK phosphorylation induced by DMT or PDBu. DMT induced PKC phosphorylation in rat aortic VSMCs. These results suggest that alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated, DMT-induced contraction involves caldesmon phosphorylation that is mediated by JNK phosphorylation by PKC. PMID:25332685

  13. Bat Species Comparisons Based on External Morphology: A Test of Traditional versus Geometric Morphometric Approaches.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, Daniela A; Benítez, Hugo A; Borissov, Ivailo M; Fruciano, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species - in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) - based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern. PMID:25965335

  14. Bat Species Comparisons Based on External Morphology: A Test of Traditional versus Geometric Morphometric Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Schmieder, Daniela A.; Benítez, Hugo A.; Borissov, Ivailo M.; Fruciano, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species – in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) – based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern. PMID:25965335

  15. An extensive DeBakey type IIIb aortic dissection with massive right pleural effusion presenting as abdominal pain and acute anemia: particular case report

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hui-Chun; Wang, Zhen-Qing; Hao, Yuan-Yuan; An, Feng-Ping; Hu, Yu-Chuan; Deng, Rui-Bing; Yu, Peng; Cui, Guang-Bin; Li, He

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 79-year-old male presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain and mild breathlessness, and complicated acute progressive anemia with haemoglobin which declined from 120 g/L to 70 g/L within five days. An urgent computed tomography angiography showed acute thoracic aortic dissection, DeBakey type IIIb, a dissecting aneurysm in the proximal descending thoracic aorta starting immediately after the origin of the left subclavian artery and extending distally below the renal arteries with evidence of rupture into the right pleural cavity for massive pleural effusion. Plasma D-dimer, brain natriuretic peptide and C reactive protein level were elevated. Our case showed that D-dimer can be used as a ‘rule-out’ test in patients with suspected aortic dissection. A raised BNP may exert a protective role through anti-inflammatory endothelial actions in the systemic circulation. PMID:26089858

  16. Single-Stage Repair of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm through a Median Sternotomy in a Patient with Pseudocoarctation of the Aorta and Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Hironobu; Mukai, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    Pseudocoarctation of the aorta is a rare anomaly and considered a benign condition. Pseudocoarctation of the aorta has been associated with aneurysm formation in the thoracic aorta, which may cause sudden rupture or dissection. Thus, the presence of an aneurysm in combination with pseudocoarctation of the aorta is thought to be an indication for surgery. We present a case of pseudocoarctation of the aorta associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm and severe aortic valve stenosis with a bicuspid aortic valve. In our case, single-stage repair was performed through a median sternotomy using our “pleural-window approach.” PMID:26131037

  17. Increased Expression and Activation of Absent in Melanoma 2 Inflammasome Components in Lymphocytic Infiltrates of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Dihlmann, Susanne; Erhart, Philipp; Mehrabi, Arianeb; Nickkholgh, Arash; Lasitschka, Felix; Böckler, Dittmar; Hakimi, Maani

    2014-01-01

    Chronic vascular inflammation is a key hallmark in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Recent investigations have suggested that the inflammasome, a cytosolic multiprotein complex that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns, plays a role in atherosclerosis. However, its role in AAA inflammation has not yet been investigated. This pilot study analyzed inflammasome activation and its intramural localization in 24 biopsy samples from 11 patients with asymptomatic AAA versus 12 aortic samples from apparently healthy controls. Using a histological inflammation scale, we identified grade 2/3 inflammatory changes with lymphoid aggregates/tertiary lymphoid organs in 21 out of 24 AAA samples, whereas only 7 of the 12 control samples exhibited local grade 1 inflammatory changes. Strong expression levels of “apoptosis-associated speck-like protein with a caspase recruitment domain” (ASC), caspase-1, caspase-5 and “absent in melanoma 2” (AIM2) were detected by immunohistochemistry in both sporadic infiltrating lymphoid cells and lymphoid aggregates located in the outer media and adventitia of AAA samples. In contrast, inflammasome-positive cells were restricted to cholesterol plaque–associated areas and to single infiltrating cells in control aortas. Analysis of gene expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed significantly increased median mRNA levels of the inflammasome core components PYCARD (ASC), CASP1 (Caspase-1) and IL1B (IL-1?) in AAA tissue compared with normal aorta. Moreover, significantly increased median amounts of AIM2 protein and mature caspase-5 (p20) were found in samples associated with high rupture risk compared with paired low rupture risk samples of the same AAA patient. We conclude from our data that AAA-associated lymphoid cells are capable of inflammasome signaling, suggesting that inflammasome activation is involved in the chronic inflammatory process driving AAA progression. PMID:24618883

  18. Morphometric Characterization and Classification of Alluvial Fans in Eastern Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuschner, Annette; Mattern, Frank; van Gasselt, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Morphologic characteristics of alluvial fans are a product of fluvial erosion, transportation and deposition. Consequently, fans have been described and defined on the basis of their shape, their composition, conditions and processes under which they from, their so-called "controlling factors", and their geomorphic and tectonic settings. The aim of our study is to reconstruct the morphologic evolution and to relate it to past and present climate conditions. In order to achieve this, we first characterize alluvial fans based on their climatic settings and conditions and classify them accordingly using satellite image data and digital elevation models. For mapping of different alluvial fan bodies multispectral images of the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) with a scale of 15-30 m/px were utilized. For the detection of morphometric parameters as input data for subsequent hydrological studies digital terrain model data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the ASTER GDEM with a scale of 90 m/px and 30m, respectively, were used. Using these datasets morphological characteristics, such as sizes of drainage basins, transport areas and areas of deposition derived from spatial semi-automatic analysis, have been computed. The area of Muscat at the Oman Mountains has been selected as a study area because of its size, accessibility and climate conditions and it is considered well-suited for studying the development of alluvial fans and their controlling factors. The Oman Mountains are well-known for the world's largest intact and best exposed obducted ophiolite complex, the Semail Ophiolite. They are today subjected to a mild desert climate (Bwh), in?uenced by the Indian Ocean but they have experienced extensive pluvial periods in the geologic past. Formation of alluvial fans was, therefore, likely triggered by the interplay of increased sediment production caused by high rainfalls with enhanced erosion of hillslopes and transport rates during pluvial periods. Typical morphometric parameters controlled by hydrological conditions are sizes of catchment areas, the morphometry of associated rivers and slope angles as well as sizes of alluvial fans. In order to distinguish the catchment areas, semi-automatized spatial analyses based on DEM data were carried out within a commercial GIS environment. Our analyses generally verify that there is a positive correlation between, e.g., fan areas and sizes of catchment areas as well as between fan areas and lengths of valley lines of associated rivers. Furthermore, our analyses show a negative correlation between average fan slopes and sizes of catchment areas. The observations are in good agreement with previous analyses from other areas we conducted. The applied methodology has shown to be adequate to be compared to and combined with future field investigations. Flow events are dominant in fan evolution, but the way in which alluvial fan systems responded to fluvial environmental conditions differs between systems under different climate conditions. We compared our results with data from other places located in different climate zones around the world. This allows us to constrain boundary conditions and their potential influence on shapes in a more efficient way.

  19. A combined spectrophotometric and morphometric study of the lunar mare dome fields near Cauchy, Arago, Hortensius, and Milichius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Wöhler; Raffaello Lena; Paolo Lazzarotti; Jim Phillips; Michael Wirths; Zac Pujic

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examine the spectral and morphometric properties of the four important lunar mare dome fields near Cauchy, Arago, Hortensius, and Milichius. We utilize Clementine UV–vis multispectral data to examine the soil composition of the mare domes while employing telescopic CCD imagery to compute digital elevation maps in order to determine their morphometric properties, especially flank slope, height,

  20. Hemodynamic Effects of the Orientation of a Bi-leaflet Mechanical Heart Valve Implanted in an Anatomic Aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Borazjani; T. Le; F. Sotiropoulos

    \\u000a We perform high-resolution fluid\\/structure interaction simulations of a bi-leaflet mechanical heart valve implanted in an\\u000a anatomic aorta with different orientations. The anatomic aorta geometry is obtained from MRI of an actual patient and is discretized\\u000a with a body-fitted curvilinear mesh. The valve’s leaflets and housing are placed as immersed boundaries in the aorta grid.\\u000a A physiologic plug inflow waveform with

  1. Distinguishing Morphotypes of Foraminifera Orbulina Universa Using Shell Morphometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, B. J.; Thunell, R.

    2014-12-01

    Several recent genetic studies have revealed that many morphologically defined planktonic foraminiferal species contain multiple distinct cryptic or pseudocryptic genetic variants. In some cases, such as with the genetic variants of Globigerinoides ruber, past taxonomic "lumping" may be easily revised within the framework of the morphospecies concept. However, some planktonic foraminiferal cryptic species are not easily differentiated from one another based on identifiable morphological differences, as is the case with Orbulina universa cryptic species (Morard et al., 2009). Based on recent findings, it is believed that several of these O. universa cryptic species differ in their habitat preferences (Darling et al., 1999,2000; de Vargas et al., 1999, 2001), and the lumping of these cryptic species could possibly account for a significant amount of the noise observed in various paleoclimate records derived from this species (Kucera and Darling, 2002). The current study uses foraminiferal morphometrics (area density, Marshall et al., 2013, thickness and weight-diameter realtionships) to identify distinct groupings of individual Orbulina universa specimens collected from sediment trap samples in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela. The study reveals three distinct groups of individuals, varying in their test thicknesses and pore space distribution, which likely correspond to the previously identified cryptic species of O. universa. We find significant differences in the isotopic compositions of these groupings - suggesting that the identified morphotypes differ in their habitat preferences. These morphotypes also exhibit different relationships with the measured hydrographic parameters and their relative distribution can be linked to changes in upwelling and non-upwelling hydrographic regimes. We agree with the results of previous studies that suggest different cryptic species should not be treated as ecophenotypic variants and need to be distinguished from one another during proxy development and application.

  2. Morphometric study of human myocardium in acquired valvular diseases.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, E; Halinen, M O; Romppanen, T; Kosma, V M; Collan, Y

    1989-12-01

    To study the effect of various valvular heart diseases on the quantitative histology of myocardium, 38 human hearts with valvular lesions were examined (11 aortic stenoses, nine mitral stenoses, nine mitral incompetence and nine combined aortic and mitral valve lesions). The control group consisted of ten hearts without any valvular lesions. With morphometrical methods the volume fractions of myocardial components (myocardial fibres, interstitial space and diffuse connective tissue), the numerical density of arterioles and the mean fibre diameter were estimated. Myocardial fibrosis was more severe in hearts with valvular lesions than in the controls (5.4% vs 3.3%, P less than 0.01), but did not correlate with the anatomical severity of the valvular lesions. The most severe myocardial fibrosis was found in hearts with mitral incompetence (6.7%). Fibre hypertrophy was most severe in hearts with aortic stenosis and in hearts with mitral incompetence (22 microns and 23 microns, respectively). In hearts with severe valvular lesions the mean fibre diameter was 23 microns and in hearts with mild to moderate lesions 19 microns (P less than 0.01). Good correlation was observed between the mean fibre diameter and the weight of the left ventricle (r = 0.81, P less than 0.01). The volume fractions of connective tissue and interstitial space were significantly higher and the volume fraction of myocardial fibres was correspondingly lower in the subendocardium than in the subepicardium in hearts with either pressure overload (aortic stenosis) or volume overload (mitral incompetence). In conclusion, myocardial fibrosis occurs in patients with various valvular lesions, but the severity of the fibrosis does not correlate with the anatomical severity of valvular lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2532531

  3. Strain differences in morphometrical characteristics of rat kidneys.

    PubMed

    Murata, Nanae; Yabuki, Akira; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Nishinakagawa, Hayao; Suzuki, Shusaku

    2006-11-01

    To clarify the strain differences in the morphology of the rat kidneys, we investigated the morphometrical characteristics of the kidneys of Slc:Wistar, Slc:SD, and F344/NSlc rats. The diameter of the renal corpuscles in female F344/N rats is smaller than that in female Wistar rats. Although sex differences (males>females) were shown in SD and F344/N rats, no effects of castration were detected in any of the groups. Strain-dependent differences in the percentage of renal corpuscles with a cuboidal parietal layer were found in both male and female groups. The highest percentage of them was noted in male Wistar rats. Effects of castration were observed in female Wistar and male F344/N rats, and the values after castration were significantly higher than those in the intact animals. As for the number of proximal convoluted tubular nuclei, no strain differences were detected in either the male or female groups. Although a sex difference was found in SD rats (female>male), no effects of castration were detected in any of the groups. In female F344/N rats, numerous numbers of PAS-positive granules, which were observed in the proximal convoluted and straight tubular epithelia, were noted. Orchiectomy induced an increase of these granules in male SD and F344/N rats, but ovariectomy showed no effects on them in any strains. This is the first study to clarify the strain differences in the morphological characteristics of the kidneys in ordinary rat strains. PMID:17146176

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Spindle Morphometrics across Metazoans.

    PubMed

    Crowder, Marina E; Strzelecka, Magdalena; Wilbur, Jeremy D; Good, Matthew C; von Dassow, George; Heald, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Cell division in all eukaryotes depends on function of the spindle, a microtubule-based structure that segregates chromosomes to generate daughter cells in mitosis or haploid gametes in meiosis. Spindle size adapts to changes in cell size and shape, which vary dramatically across species and within a multicellular organism, but the nature of scaling events and their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Cell size variations are most pronounced in early animal development, as egg diameters range from tens of microns up to millimeters across animal phyla, and decrease several orders of magnitude during rapid reductive divisions. During early embryogenesis in the model organisms X. laevis and C. elegans, the spindle scales with cell size [1, 2], a phenomenon regulated by molecules that modulate microtubule dynamics [3-6], as well as by limiting cytoplasmic volume [7, 8]. However, it is not known to what extent spindle scaling is conserved across organisms and among different cell types. Here we show that in a range of metazoan phyla, mitotic spindle length decreased with cell size across an ?30-fold difference in zygote size. Maximum spindle length varied, but linear spindle scaling occurred similarly in all species once embryonic cell diameter reduced to 140 ?m. In contrast, we find that the female meiotic spindle does not scale as closely to egg size, adopting a more uniform size across species that most likely reflects its specialized function. Our analysis reveals that spindle morphometrics change abruptly, within one cell cycle, at the transition from meiosis to mitosis in most animals. PMID:26004761

  5. To be cited as: Borsa P, Hsiao DR, Carpenter KE, Chen W-J (2013) Cranial morphometrics and mitochondrial DNA sequences distinguish

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2013-01-01

    1 To be cited as: Borsa P, Hsiao DR, Carpenter KE, Chen W-J (2013) Cranial morphometrics), an emblematic fish of Indo-West Pacific coral reefs. C R Biol 336, 505-514. Cranial morphometrics;2 ABSTRACT Range-wide morphometric variability (cranial measurements) and genetic variability (nucleotide

  6. Evaluation of chemical preparation on insect wing shape for geometric morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Camila; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2013-11-01

    Geometric morphometrics is an approach that has been increasingly applied in studies with insects. A limiting factor of this technique is that some mosquitoes have wings with dark spots or many scales, which jeopardizes the visualization of landmarks for morphometric analysis. Recently, in some studies, chemically treatment (staining) of the wings was used to improve the viewing of landmarks. In this study, we evaluated whether this method causes deformation of the wing veins and tested whether it facilitates the visualization of the most problematic landmarks. In addition, we tested whether mechanical removal of the scales was sufficient for this purpose. The results showed that the physical and chemical treatments are equally effective in improving visualization of the landmarks. The chemical method did not cause deformation of the wing. Thus, some of these treatments should be performed before beginning geometric morphometric analysis to avoid erroneous landmark digitizing. PMID:24019438

  7. Layer- and direction-specific material properties, extreme extensibility and ultimate material strength of human abdominal aorta and aneurysm: a uniaxial extension study

    E-print Network

    Teng, Zhongzhao; Feng, Jiaxuan; Zhang, Yongxue; Huang, Yuan; Sutcliffe, Michael P. F.; Brown, Adam J.; Jing, Zaiping; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Lu, Qingsheng

    2015-04-24

    of extreme extensibility and ultimate material strength of the tissue are important if rupture is to be modelled. Tissue pieces from 11 abdomen aortic aneurysm (AAA) from patients scheduled for elective surgery and from 8 normal aortic artery (NAA) from...

  8. Sacrospinous vault suspension and abdominal colposacropexy: Success rates and complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hardiman; Drutz

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare success rates and complications of sacrospinous vault suspension and abdominal colposacropexy. STUDY DESIGN: A case series is presented of 130 attempted sacrospinous vault suspensions with the Miya hook and 80 cases of abdominal colposacropexy, done in conjunction with other procedures. Patients were assessed 6 weeks and 6 and 12 months after surgery and yearly

  9. Diagnosis of Bowel Injuries fromBlunt Abdominal Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dubravka Vidmar; Alojz Pleskovic; Martin Tonin

    2003-01-01

    Background: Patients with bowel injuries resulting from blunt abdominal trauma show no reliable clinical or radiologic signs on initial examination. The mechanism of injury is the only element of some diagnostic value. Intestinal injury may be evaluated by ultrasonography (US), plain abdominal radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and diagnostic laparoscopy. This paper is a retrospective study of diagnostic procedures used in

  10. Clinical presentation of abdominal tuberculosis in HIV seronegative adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cengiz Bolukbas; Fusun F Bolukbas; Tulin Kendir; Remzi A Dalay; Nihat Akbayir; Mehmet H Sokmen; Ali T Ince; Mithat Guran; Erkan Ceylan; Guray Kilic; Oya Ovunc

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The accurate diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis usually takes a long time and requires a high index of suspicion in clinic practice. Eighty-eight immune-competent patients with abdominal tuberculosis were grouped according to symptoms at presentation and followed prospectively in order to investigate the effect of symptomatic presentation on clinical diagnosis and prognosis. METHODS: Based upon the clinical presentation, the patients

  11. The use of analgesics in patients with acute abdominal pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank LoVecchio; Neill Oster; Kai Sturmann; Lewis S. Nelson; Scott Flashner; Ralph Finger

    1997-01-01

    Analgesics in patients with acute abdominal pain are often withheld for fear that they may change physical examination findings and thus may be unsafe. We conducted a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled trial to investigate changes in physical examination following the administration of placebo, 5 mg, or 10 mg of morphine to 49 patients with acute abdominal pain. One patient was withdrawn

  12. Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Samuel T.W.; Leung, Siu Lan; Tang, Chung Ngai

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion is extremely rare. We present a case of ingested fish bone complicated with self-sealing small bowel perforation and abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis. Following principles of necrotising fasciitis, a high index of suspicion led to early diagnosis and early treatment. The patient enjoyed a good recovery. PMID:26163558

  13. Endovascular Repair of a Blunt Abdominal Aortic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tobler, William D.; Tan, Tze-Woei; Farber, Alik

    2012-01-01

    Blunt abdominal aortic injury is an uncommon traumatic finding. In the past, treatment options have traditionally consisted of open operative repair; however, the development of endovascular surgery has created new interventional possibilities. This case is presented to demonstrate the applications of endovascular abdominal aortic repair for a blunt traumatic injury. PMID:23730142

  14. Endometriosis in a scarless abdominal wall with underlying umbilical hernia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ramsanahie; S. K. Giri; S. Velusamy; G. T. Nessim

    2000-01-01

    Introductionis a gynaecological entity in women of child bearing age which may present with symptoms and signs of general surgical conditions. Abdominal wall involvement usually occurs in a scar, and rarely in the intact rectus abdominis muscle. I We report a case where the endometriosis occurred in the umbilicus of a scarless abdominal wall associated with an umbilical hernia. Case

  15. Simulation of ultrasonic pulse propagation through the abdominal wall

    E-print Network

    Mast, T. Douglas

    artifacts seen in abdominal imaging via ray tracing through arrangements of homogeneous structures, each, New York 14627 Victor W. Sparrow Graduate Program in Acoustics, The Pennsylvania State University by the abdominal wall. © 1997 Acoustical Society of America. S0001-4966 97 00308-1 PACS numbers: 43.80.Cs, 43.20.Fn

  16. Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion.

    PubMed

    Lo, Samuel T W; Leung, Siu Lan; Tang, Chung Ngai

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis secondary to fish bone ingestion is extremely rare. We present a case of ingested fish bone complicated with self-sealing small bowel perforation and abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis. Following principles of necrotising fasciitis, a high index of suspicion led to early diagnosis and early treatment. The patient enjoyed a good recovery. PMID:26163558

  17. Familial Abdominal and Intestinal Lipomatosis Presenting with Upper GI Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Yilmaz; Altinsoy, Hasan Baki; Yildirim, Nezahat; Alatas, Ozkan; Kanat, Burhan Hakan; Sahin, Abdurrahman

    2015-01-01

    Although lipomas are encapsulated benign tumors, systemic lipomatosis defines infiltrative nonencapsulated tumors resembling normal adipose tissue. Abdominal lipomatosis and intestinal lipomatosis are different clinicopathological entities with similar clinical symptoms. We describe here a case presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding from eroded submucosal lipoma at duodenum secondary to intestinal lipomatosis and abdominal lipomatosis. PMID:26146574

  18. [Abdominal gunshot wounds. Ballistic data and practical management].

    PubMed

    Vicq, P; Jourdan, P; Chapuis, O; Baranger, B

    1996-01-01

    The mortality from abdominal gunshot wounds remains high, either in civilian or military cases. The severity factors of these wounds include bullet calibre and energy transfer of the missile. This paper studies some of the ballistics features of abdominal gunshot wounds. Practical guidelines are inferred concerning diagnosis and treatment of these wounds. PMID:9033829

  19. An abdominal wall jig for surgical craft workshops.

    PubMed

    Hill, J; Kiff, E S

    1990-11-01

    An improved jig simulating the abdominal wall and peritoneal cavity is described. It can be used to teach the techniques of abdominal wound closure and stoma formation. It has proved to be a valuable addition to our anastomosis workshops. PMID:2146917

  20. Functional Abdominal Pain in Childhood: From Etiology to Maladaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilva Elena Schulte; Franz Petermann; Meinolf Noeker

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To review the extant literature on functional abdominal pain in childhood through the lens of the developmental psychopathology perspective and to systematize research results by means of a two-stage pathway model in which the emergence of functional abdominal pain and its potential transition into a somatoform adjustment disorder is outlined. Methods: Using electronic searches for published studies and previous

  1. Dose-Effects of Aorta-Infused Clenbuterol on Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Binbin; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Lianhua; Huang, Shiwei; Li, Shitong; Yao, Junyan

    2013-01-01

    Background The ?2 adrenergic receptor (?2AR) plays an important role in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in various organs. Recently, a selective ?2AR agonist clenbuterol was suggested to protect against cerebral I/R injury. This study was designed to investigate changes of ?2ARs after spinal cord I/R injury and dose-effects of aorta-infused clenbuterol on spinal cord I/R injury in rabbits. Methods Spinal cord ischemia was induced in New Zealand white rabbits by infrarenal abdominal aortic occlusion with a balloon catheter for 30 minutes except the sham group. During occlusion, nothing (I/R group), normal saline (NS group) or clenbuterol at different doses of 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 mg/kg (C0.005, C0.01, C0.05, C0.1, C0.5, and C1 groups) was infused into the occluded aortic segments. The hemodynamic data, blood glucose and serum electrolytes were measured during experimental period. Neurological function was assessed according to the modified Tarlov scales until 48 hours after reperfusion. After that, the lumbar spinal cord was harvested for ?2AR immunohistochemistry and histopathologic evaluation in the anterior horns. Results The ?2AR expression in the anterior horns of the spinal cord was significantly higher in the I/R group than in the sham group. Tarlov scores and the number of viable ?-motor neurons were higher in C0.01-C0.5 groups than in the NS group, C0.005 and C1 groups and were highest in the C0.1 group. Hypotension and hyperglycemia were found in the C1 group. Conclusion ?2ARs in the anterior horn were upregulated after spinal cord I/R injury. Aortic-infused clenbuterol (0.01–0.5 mg/kg) can attenuate spinal cord I/R injury dose-dependently during the ischemic period. The Optimal dosage was 0.1 mg/kg. Activation of ?2AR could be a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of spinal cord I/R injury. PMID:24391890

  2. Giant Abdominal Wall Hernia in a Patient with Cryptogenic Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Anahita; Ali Asgari, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are common problems found in patients with cirrhosis because of persistently high intra-abdominal pressure. When abdominal hernias are neglected in such patients, they may become larger and could result in cosmetic problems and pressure effects that are also difficult to treat. We found a voluminous mass in the anterior abdominal wall of a 40-year-old patient with cirrhosis. The patient was operated on for acute cholecystitis 12 years earlier. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an epigastric hernia presenting as a grossly distended hernia sac filled with serous fluid and intestinal loops. The patient was not operated on and was discharged with sodium-restricted diet and diuretics PMID:25093066

  3. Thoraco- abdominal impalement injury: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impalement injury is an uncommon presentation in the emergency department (ED), and penetrating thoraco-abdominal injuries demand immediate life-saving measures and prompt care. Massive penetrating trauma by impalement in a pediatric case represents a particularly challenging presentation for emergency providers in non-trauma center settings. Case presentation We report a case of 10 year old male who presented in our ED with an alleged history of fall from an approximately 15 foot tall coconut tree, landing over an upright bamboo stake approximately 50 centimeter long, resulting in a trans-abdomino, trans-thoracic injury. In addition to prompt resuscitation and hospital transfer, assessment of damage to vital structures in conjunction with surgical specialty consultation was an immediate goal. Conclusion This article describes a case study of an impalement injury, relevant review of the available literature, and highlights the peculiar strategies required in the setting of a resource limited ED. PMID:24592862

  4. Psychosocial stress and abdominal pain in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Children and adolescents may express psychiatric symptoms via somatic complaints. Likewise, children with chronic somatic illnesses are likely to experience psychiatric sequelae. We report three cases of adolescents who were admitted to general paediatrics services for abdominal pain and/or nausea and vomiting with a negative medical workup. In each case, a clear psychosocial stressor was evident. It is possible that somatic symptoms without clear medical causes may reflect psychosocial stress, but it is difficult to discern whether the psychosocial issues preceded the somatic complaints or were a result of them. Making an accurate diagnosis is difficult, and broaching such a subject with patients and their families is a delicate matter. More research is needed to determine appropriate screening tools for identifying cases where psychosocial stress may play a relevant role in symptom presentation, as well as potential treatment modalities for such cases. PMID:22477924

  5. Traumatic appendicitis in minor blunt abdominal injury.

    PubMed

    Paschos, Konstantinos A; Boulas, Konstantinos; Liapis, Apostolos; Georgiou, Eleftheria; Vrakas, Xenos

    2012-06-01

    Trauma has been reported as a cause of appendicitis on several cases in the literature. The present study reports the relationship between blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) of injury severity score less than 4 and appendicitis. A 17-year-old girl developed appendicitis after a minor BAT. An ecchymosis at the right lower quadrant misled the diagnosis, which was made 1 day later. Laparotomy revealed an inflamed appendix, a few enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, contusion, as well as punctuated bleeding sites of the caecum. Moreover, based on a brief literature review, the different pathophysiological mechanisms and the difficulties of diagnosis of this entity are discussed. It is suggested that appendicitis should be considered as a possibility in the setting of right lower quadrant pain following minor BAT, when there is clinical suspicion of an inflammatory process within the right iliac fossa. PMID:22672177

  6. Pathology Case Study: Large Anterior Abdominal Mass

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pushkar, Irina

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology which describes a 72 year old woman who presents with a three day history of constipation and a five year history of a large anterior abdominal mass in the right lower quadrant. Visitors are provided with patient history, admission data, hospital treatment course, and gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in surgical pathology.

  7. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  8. Surgical outcome of abdominal sacrocolpopexy with synthetic mesh versus abdominal sacrocolpopexy with cadaveric fascia lata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Thomas Gregory; Lesley N. Otto; John O. Bergstrom; Amanda L. Clark

    2005-01-01

    Nineteen women who had an abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC) with synthetic mesh and 18 women who had an ASC with freeze-dried, irradiated cadaveric fascia lata returned for blinded pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ) examinations. The mean relative vaginal descent (delta) from perfect total vaginal length in the mesh group was 1.1 (0.3) cm, and the delta in the fascia group was

  9. Ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular mass, and conduit artery function late after successful repair of coarctation of the aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcello de Divitiis; Carlo Pilla; Mia Kattenhorn; Ann Donald; Mariutzka Zadinello; Sharon Wallace; Andrew Redington; John Deanfield

    2003-01-01

    ObjectivesWe sought to evaluate the determinants of hypertension during daily life and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in patients with successfully repaired coarctation of the aorta (CoA), as well as their relationship to abnormalities of arterial function.

  10. Fluid-structure interaction in abdominal aortic aneurysms: effects of asymmetry and wall thickness

    PubMed Central

    Scotti, Christine M; Shkolnik, Alexander D; Muluk, Satish C; Finol, Ender A

    2005-01-01

    Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent disease which is of significant concern because of the morbidity associated with the continuing expansion of the abdominal aorta and its ultimate rupture. The transient interaction between blood flow and the wall contributes to wall stress which, if it exceeds the failure strength of the dilated arterial wall, will lead to aneurysm rupture. Utilizing a computational approach, the biomechanical environment of virtual AAAs can be evaluated to study the affects of asymmetry and wall thickness on this stress, two parameters that contribute to increased risk of aneurysm rupture. Methods Ten virtual aneurysm models were created with five different asymmetry parameters ranging from ? = 0.2 to 1.0 and either a uniform or variable wall thickness to study the flow and wall dynamics by means of fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analyses. The AAA wall was designed to have a (i) uniform 1.5 mm thickness or (ii) variable thickness ranging from 0.5 – 1.5 mm extruded normally from the boundary surface of the lumen. These models were meshed with linear hexahedral elements, imported into a commercial finite element code and analyzed under transient flow conditions. The method proposed was then compared with traditional computational solid stress techniques on the basis of peak wall stress predictions and cost of computational effort. Results The results provide quantitative predictions of flow patterns and wall mechanics as well as the effects of aneurysm asymmetry and wall thickness heterogeneity on the estimation of peak wall stress. These parameters affect the magnitude and distribution of Von Mises stresses; varying wall thickness increases the maximum Von Mises stress by 4 times its uniform thickness counterpart. A pre-peak systole retrograde flow was observed in the AAA sac for all models, which is due to the elastic energy stored in the compliant arterial wall and the expansion force of the artery during systole. Conclusion Both wall thickness and geometry asymmetry affect the stress exhibited by a virtual AAA. Our results suggest that an asymmetric AAA with regional variations in wall thickness would be exposed to higher mechanical stresses and an increased risk of rupture than a more fusiform AAA with uniform wall thickness. Therefore, it is important to accurately reproduce vessel geometry and wall thickness in computational predictions of AAA biomechanics. PMID:16271141

  11. Novices may be trained to screen for abdominal aortic aneurysms using ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Highly trained vascular sonographers make up a significant cost of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) ultrasound screening. However, they are over-trained for this very limited task. Others have reported that health workers (e.g. emergency room staff and nurses) with far less training may be able to perform these scans. The national AAA screening programme in the UK uses staff with limited training. Whether individuals without a health professional qualification could be trained to perform the scan accurately to improve cost-effectiveness is not known. We aimed to investigate whether a short, well-supervised course in ultrasonography could train novices to detect AAA for screening purposes. Methods Three novices were trained by an experienced sonographer for 15 days to perform abdominal aortic ultrasound examinations and detect AAA using a portable ultrasound system. The examination included four anterior-posterior aortic measurements: a maximal diameter in the coronal plane and three diameters of the suprarenal, mid and distal infrarenal aorta in the transverse plane. The novices independently scanned 215 subjects following training; experienced sonographers repeated the measurements on the same subject in the same session. Using Bland-Altman plots and CUSUM analysis, the novices’ and experienced sonographers’ accuracy and efficiency measurements were compared. Factors influencing performance were recorded. Results The novices measured the maximal coronal aortic diameter accurately, to within 0.46-0.52 cm of the true diameter; 85-97% of their coronal measurements were within 0.5 cm of the assessors; kappa statistic and Bland-Altman plots show a high agreement with the assessor’s measurements. However, the novices’ measurements of the three diameters in the transverse plane were outside clinically acceptable limits. Assuming a referral policy for a second scan for scans recorded as 'difficult’, only one novice missed a 3.13 cm aneurysm. A CUSUM quality improvement analysis demonstrated substantial improvements in the scanning efficiency of the novices with continued scanning experience. Conclusion This study showed that novices could be trained to screen for AAA over 15 days. However, the need for continuing quality improvement is critical, especially in more technically demanding cases. Measuring the maximal infrarenal diameter instead of specific segmental diameters may be more appropriate for AAA screening using novices. PMID:24261878

  12. Higher Glutathione Peroxidase Expression in Thoracic Aorta as a Protective Factor against Oxidative Stress and Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mao-Shin Lin; Hsiu-Ching Hsu; Lung-Chun Lin; Hung-Yuan Li; Bai-Chin Lee; Yuan-Teh Lee; Ming-Fong Chen

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims: Atherosclerosis develops in different locations of the vasculature with different degree, which may result from different antioxidant\\/prooxidant status. This study investigated the effect of high-fat, high-cholesterol chows, with or without vitamin E supplement (450 mg\\/kg diet), on lipid peroxide levels, glutathione peroxidase expression, and atheroma formation in ascending aorta, pulmonary arteries and thoracic aorta. Methods: Sixty-four rabbits

  13. New parameters to represent the position of the aorta relative to the spine for pedicle screw placement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsushi TakeshitaToru; Toru Maruyama; Takashi Ono; Satoshi Ogihara; Hirotaka Chikuda; Naoki Shoda; Yusuke Nakao; Ko Matsudaira; Atsushi Seichi; Kozo Nakamura

    2010-01-01

    Parameters of the position of the aorta in previous reports were determined for anterior surgery. This study evaluated the\\u000a relative position of the aorta to the spine by new parameters, which could enhance the safety of pedicle screw placement.\\u000a Three parameters were defined in a new Cartesian coordinate system. We selected an entry point of a left pedicle screw as

  14. Therapeutic effect of green tea extract on oxidative stress in aorta and heart of streptozotocin diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pon Velayutham Anandh Babu; Kuruvimalai Ekambaram Sabitha; Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamaladevi

    2006-01-01

    Hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress has been proposed as a cause of many complications of diabetes including cardiac dysfunction. The present study depicts the therapeutic effect of green tea extract on oxidative stress in aorta as well as heart of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Six weeks after diabetes induction, green tea was administered orally for 4 weeks [300mg(kgbodyweight)?1day?1]. In aorta and heart

  15. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in pancreatitis, paediatrics, and trauma.

    PubMed

    De Waele, Jan J; Ejike, Janeth C; Leppäniemi, Ari; De Keulenaer, Bart L; De Laet, Inneke; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Roberts, Derek J; Kimball, Edward; Ivatury, Rao; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is an important contributor to early organ dysfunction among patients with trauma and sepsis. However, the impact of increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) among pediatric, pregnant, non-septic medical patients, and those with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), obesity, and burns has been studied less extensively. The aim of this review is to outline the pathophysiologic implications and treatment options for IAH and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) for the above patient populations. We searched MEDLINE and PubMed to identify relevant studies. There is an increasing awareness of IAH in general medicine. The incidence of IAH and, to a lesser extent, ACS is high among patients with SAP. IAH should always be suspected and IAP measured routinely. In children, normal IAP in mechanically ventilated patients is approximately 7 ± 3 mm Hg. As an IAP of 10-15 mm Hg has been associated with organ damage in children, an IAP greater than 10 mm Hg should be considered IAH in these patients. Moreover, as ACS may occur in children at an IAP lower than 20 mm Hg, any elevation in IAP higher than 10 mm Hg associated with new organ dysfunction should be considered ACS in children until proven otherwise. Monitor IAP trends and be aware that specific interventions may need to be instituted at lower IAP than the current ACS definitions accommodate. Finally, IAH and ACS can occur both in abdominal trauma and extra-abdominal trauma patients. Early mechanical hemorrhage control and the avoidance of excessive fluid resuscitation are key elements in preventing IAH in trauma patients. IAH and ACS have been associated with many conditions beyond the general ICU patient. In adults and in children, the focus should be on the early recognition of IAH and the prevention of ACS. Patients at risk for IAH should be identified early during their treatment (with a low threshold to initiate IAP monitoring). Appropriate actions should be taken when IAP increases above 20 mm Hg, especially in patients developing difficulty with ventilation. Although on-operative measures should be instituted first, one should not hesitate to resort to surgical decompression if they fail. PMID:25973660

  16. Radiographic evidence of atherosclerosis of the descending aorta in a grey-cheeked parakeet (Brotogeris pyrrhopterus).

    PubMed

    Mans, Christoph; Brown, Cynthia J

    2007-03-01

    A 16-year-old male grey-cheeked parakeet (Brotogeris pyrrhopterus) was presented for dyspnea and decreased activity. The bird's diet was primarily table food, with a large proportion of animal products. Radiographs revealed a linear mineralized structure in the plane of the aorta and an enlarged hepatocardiac silhouette. Left atrial and left ventricular enlargement and a left ventricular systolic dysfunction were diagnosed by echocardiography. The bird's condition progressively declined, and it died 5 days after presentation. A postmortem examination revealed marked atherosclerosis of the aorta, great vessels of the heart, and coronary arteries with myocardial degeneration, pulmonary congestion, and ascites. Little is known about the risk factors of atherosclerosis in psittacine birds, and dietary influence, if any, is not understood. PMID:18069172

  17. A case of fetal diagnosis of noncompaction cardiomyopathy and coarctation of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Katherine; Giacobbe, Lauren; Aguilera, Marijo; Ramin, Kirk; Sivanandam, Shanthi

    2014-05-01

    Background?Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) cardiomyopathy is a rare form of cardiomyopathy. It is difficult to diagnose prenatally and therefore not well described in the fetal population. There have been a few reports in the literature detailing isolated cases of fetal and neonatal LVNC cardiomyopathy. Case Report?We present a case of LVNC cardiomyopathy and coarctation of the aorta detected prenatally at 29?+?6 weeks of gestation with survival in infancy. This is the first case report in the literature describing the fetal diagnosis of noncompaction cardiomyopathy and associated coarctation of the aorta; a rare combination. Conclusion? With a high index of suspicion, the antenatal diagnosis of noncompaction cardiomyopathy may improve neonatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:25032060

  18. A Case of Fetal Diagnosis of Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy and Coarctation of the Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Katherine; Giacobbe, Lauren; Aguilera, Marijo; Ramin, Kirk; Sivanandam, Shanthi

    2014-01-01

    Background?Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) cardiomyopathy is a rare form of cardiomyopathy. It is difficult to diagnose prenatally and therefore not well described in the fetal population. There have been a few reports in the literature detailing isolated cases of fetal and neonatal LVNC cardiomyopathy. Case Report?We present a case of LVNC cardiomyopathy and coarctation of the aorta detected prenatally at 29?+?6 weeks of gestation with survival in infancy. This is the first case report in the literature describing the fetal diagnosis of noncompaction cardiomyopathy and associated coarctation of the aorta; a rare combination. Conclusion? With a high index of suspicion, the antenatal diagnosis of noncompaction cardiomyopathy may improve neonatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:25032060

  19. Alternative Aortic Access: Translumbar, Transapical, Subclavian, Conduit, and Transvenous Access to the Aorta.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Jonathan D; McWilliams, Justin P; Moriarty, John M

    2015-06-01

    Large-caliber access to the arterial system is more frequently required in the age of thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair, endovascular aneurysm repair, and transaortic valve implantation. Frequently either anatomical or vessel size constraints preclude use of common access points such as the common femoral, radial, and brachial arteries. Alternative approaches include percutaneous access at alternate sites (subclavian, axillary, and carotid), open surgical access to the heart (left ventricular apex), open surgical access to large-caliber vessels (ascending aorta, subclavian, and axillary arteries, retroperitoneal access to the iliac artery or distal aorta), and novel percutaneous approaches (transvenous). Such approaches require additional skill sets, equipment, and, frequently, multidisciplinary teams to ensure safety and success. The techniques and approaches outlined in this article may allow expansion of endovascular treatments to greater patient populations and disease states than previously thought feasible. PMID:26070621

  20. Experience with the surgical treatment of coarctation of the aorta in India.

    PubMed Central

    Perianayagam, W J; Muralidharan, S; Jairaj, P S; Krishnaswamy, S; Sukumar, I P; Cherian, G; Mansfield, R; John, S

    1980-01-01

    Between 1961 and 1977, 51 patients underwent operations for coarctation of the aorta. The average age of presentation of these cases was higher than in other series. Only three were asymptomatic, a finding which is not seen in reports from the West. Operative procedures included resection and graft interposition, resection and end-to-end anastomosis, and bypass grafting. However, the technique of patch angioplasty, routinely performed in the last three years of this review, seemed by far the most satisfactory procedure. The overall operative mortality was 9.8%. Hypertension did not regress in some cases in spite of a successful operation. Recoarctation was not seen in this series. Associated defects influenced results adversely. The overall results of operation for coarctation of the aorta have been very satisfactory and comparable with those in other recorded series. PMID:7268673