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Sample records for abdominal pain bloody

  1. Pathology image of the month. Black esophagus detected at autopsy in a patient with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. DIAGNOSIS: Acute esophageal necrosis, ischemic and pseudomembranous colitis.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Christin; Thomas, Louise; McGoey, Robin R

    2014-01-01

    A 73-year-old African-American male was transported to the emergency department due to what emergency personnel described as "coffee ground emesis." He was pronounced dead shortly after arrival. An unlimited autopsy examination was conducted under authorization of the coroner's office. Medical record review revealed that the decedent had been discharged from the hospital just one day prior to his death following a three-day admission for abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and a 22-lb unintentional weight loss. Medical history documented hypertension, chronic obstructive lung disease, and a 57-pack-year smoking history. Alcohol abuse was also endorsed, but cessation of use was reported six months prior. During that admit, he was treated for volume-depletion, a urinary tract infection, and suspected infective colitis with antibiotics. Symptoms had resolved on hospital day three, and the patient was discharged home with a two-week course of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole and a follow-up colonoscopy appointment in one month. At the time of autopsy, the decedent was described as cachectic. Figure 1a shows the decedent's esophagus, opened longitudinally. Figure 1b shows the corresponding histology from the esophagus. Other findings documented at autopsy included ischemic bowel disease in the descending colon with patchy superimposed pseudomembranous colitis, emphysematous change, papillary renal cell carcinoma of the right kidney, microscopic prostatic adenocarcinoma, hepatic fibrosis, and intact hepatic hemangiomata. PMID:25311465

  2. Abdominal pain

    MedlinePLUS

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is ...

  3. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can I find more information and related topics? Functional Abdominal Pain (English, French or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN). Gastro Kids , a site for kids with ...

  4. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols

  5. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  6. [Pathophysiology of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Michele

    2011-08-01

    Abdominal pain can be induced by stimulation of visceral nociceptors. Activation of nociceptors usually requires previous sensitization by pathological events, such as inflammation, ischemia or acidosis. Although abdominal pain can obviously be caused by pathology of a visceral structure, clinicians frequently observe that such a pathology explains only part of the pain complaints. Occasionally, there is lack of objective signs of visceral lesions. There is clear evidence that pain states are associated with profound changes of the central processing of the sensory input. The main consequences of such alterations for patients are twofold: 1) a central sensitization, i.e. an increased excitability of the central nervous system; 2) an alteration of the endogenous pain modulation, which under normal conditions inhibits the processing of nociceptive signals in the central nervous system. Both phenomena lead to a spread of pain to other body regions and an amplification of the pain perception. The interactions between visceral pathology and alterations of the central pain processes represent an at least partial explanation for the discrepancy between objective signs of peripheral lesions and severity of the symptoms. Today, both central hypersensitivity and alteration in endogenous pain modulation can be measured in clinical practice. This information can be used to provide the patients with an explanatory model for their pain. Furthermore, first data suggest that alterations in central pain processing may represent negative prognostic factors. A better understanding of the individual pathophysiology may allow in the future the development of individual therapeutic strategies. PMID:21796591

  7. Pain and bloody ear discharge in a returning traveler.

    PubMed

    LaCourse, Sylvia M; Martinez, Raquel M; Spach, David H; Fang, Ferric C

    2015-03-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax, the New World screwworm, was a serious livestock pest in the southern United States until the 1960s, when it was successfully eradicated by the release of sterile male flies. It remains endemic in parts of the Caribbean and South America, and there is concern that climate change may extend its geographic distribution. Cochliomyia hominivorax is voracious and can cause extensive damage to soft tissue and bone. We describe the case of a 26-year-old traveler who presented with otalgia and bloody otorrhea after returning from a vacation in the Dominican Republic, where exposure to screwworm flies most likely occurred during a nap on the beach. The causative agent was recognized by its characteristic larval anatomy, which includes pigmented dorsal tracheal trunks and posterior spiracles with an open peritreme. PMID:25510727

  8. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePLUS

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  9. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain. PMID:26331201

  10. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... psychological state. The pain may interfere with school attendance, participation in sports and other extra-curricular activities. ... cause for abdominal pain is discovered during the evaluation, the physician will discuss specific management of conditions ...

  11. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problems: Mesenteric vascular insufficiency (blocked arteries or veins) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (swelling of the main artery in the belly) Inflammatory conditions in the mid- and lower abdomen: Enteritis (infections of the small bowel, Crohn's disease) ...

  12. Management of Postoperative Abdominal Wall Pain.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Howard T

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative incisional pain is expected after surgery. However, when a patient is complaining of pain months after surgery, this can be a source of frustration and confusion to the patient and the surgeon. Whether the pain is a result of myofascial pain, incisional hernia, or nerve injury, understanding potential sources of abdominal wall pain can simplify this diagnostic dilemma. This chapter will focus on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of postsurgical abdominal wall pain. PMID:26512441

  13. Abdominal Pain following Gastric Bypass: Suspects & Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Greenstein, Alexander J.; O’Rourke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Gastric bypass remains the mainstay of surgical therapy for obesity. Abdominal pain after gastric bypass is common, and accounts for up to half of all postoperative complaints and emergency room visits. This manuscript reviews the most important causes of abdominal pain specific to gastric bypass and discusses management considerations. Data Sources The current surgical literature was reviewed using PubMed, with a focus on abdominal pain after gastric bypass and the known pathologies that underlie its pathogenesis. Conclusions The differential diagnosis for abdominal pain after gastric bypass is large and includes benign and life-threatening entities. Its diverse causes require a broad evaluation that should be directed by history and clinical presentation. In the absence of a clear diagnosis, the threshold for surgical exploration in patients with abdominal pain after gastric bypass should be low. PMID:21333269

  14. Peripheral subcutaneous stimulation for intractable abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Barolat, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral subcutaneous stimulation has been utilized for a variety of painful conditions affecting the abdominal wall, including sequelae of hernia repair, painful surgical scars, ilio-inguinal neuritis. It has also occasionally been shown to be effective in patients with intractable abdominal visceral pain. Since this is a very recent modality, no large series or prospective studies exist. The results, however, are promising and certainly warrant further investigation. PMID:21422777

  15. Case of cytomegalovirus colitis in an immunocompetent patient: a rare cause of abdominal pain and diarrhea in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Harano, Yumi; Kotajima, Lisa; Arioka, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients after undergoing organ transplantation or chemotherapy. We report the case of a 60-year-old immunocompetent Japanese woman who presented with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. She was initially diagnosed as having ischemic colitis with pseudomembranous colitis on the basis of her symptoms, Clostridium difficile antigen positivity, and colonoscopic findings, which showed ulcer formation from the sigmoid colon to rectum. In spite of bowel rest and administration of metronidazole, her symptoms did not improve. On follow-up colonoscopy, ulcerations remained unchanged. Biopsy of the ulceration revealed CMV-infected cells leading to a diagnosis of CMV colitis. CMV colitis is a rare but possible differential diagnosis in immunocompetent patients. We recommend endoscopic biopsy in a case of refractory abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. PMID:25767404

  16. [Girls' abdominal pains and gynaecological emergencies].

    PubMed

    Le Hors-Albouze, Hlne; Boutin, Aurlie; Louis-Borrione, Claude; Jouve, Jean-Luc

    2011-05-01

    Among many causes of abdominal pain in children, gynaecological ones have to be systematically considered in even no pubescent girls. Diagnosis leans on physical and US examinations and has to screen first urgent causes before frequent ones. Rare but urgent are ovarian torsions either on a normal ovary or an underlying ovarian tumor, an earlier surgery may avoid oophorectomy. Hematocolpos linked to imperforate hymen is the most common obstructive congenital abnormality of the female genital tract and the diagnosis is easy with inspection of external genitalia. Ovarian tumors are infrequent and most often begnin but torsion, rupture or bleeding complications causes acute abdominal pains. Dysmenorrhea is the most common cause of abdominal pain in pubescent girls. In adolescents, genital tract infections and rare ectopic pregnancy have also to be mentioned. PMID:21698890

  17. Chronic Intussusception Caused by Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in a 6-Year-Old Girl Presenting with Abdominal Pain and Constipation for 2 Months

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The classical triad of abdominal pain, vomiting, and bloody stool is absent in chronic intussusception for more than 2 weeks. Here, we report a 6-year-old female with recurrent abdominal pain for 2 months. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed an ileocolic-type intussusception. The lesion accompanying the tight fibrous adhesion was treated by resection and ileocolic anastomosis. It was diagnosed as intussusception with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A high index of suspicion for abdominal pain in children should result in the correct diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:26839490

  18. Chronic Intussusception Caused by Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in a 6-Year-Old Girl Presenting with Abdominal Pain and Constipation for 2 Months.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-Hee; Han, Sang-Ah; Won, Kyu Yeoun

    2016-02-01

    The classical triad of abdominal pain, vomiting, and bloody stool is absent in chronic intussusception for more than 2 weeks. Here, we report a 6-year-old female with recurrent abdominal pain for 2 months. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed an ileocolic-type intussusception. The lesion accompanying the tight fibrous adhesion was treated by resection and ileocolic anastomosis. It was diagnosed as intussusception with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A high index of suspicion for abdominal pain in children should result in the correct diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:26839490

  19. Imaging for chronic abdominal pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mendelson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Summary Diagnostic imaging is often not indicated in chronic abdominal pain. In particular, undifferentiated abdominal pain is rarely an indication for a CT scan. CT scanning is overused even when imaging is required. Other modalities may be preferable. A normal CT scan does not rule out cancer. Alarm symptoms, including anaemia, blood in the stool, waking at night with gastrointestinal symptoms, and weight loss, should be investigated. The most appropriate modality depends on the symptoms. Clinical information on request forms for CT scans should be specific and include the suspected condition as this helps the radiologist to determine an appropriate imaging protocol. PMID:26648616

  20. The overlap of functional abdominal pain in pediatric Crohns disease

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Lori A.; Srinath, Arvind I.; Goyal, Alka; Bousvaros, Athos; Ducharme, Peter; Szigethy, Eva; Nurko, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with Crohns disease (CD) may report abdominal pain despite clinical remission, suggesting that functional abdominal pain (FAP) may be playing a role. Aim This study aims to explore the presence and impact of FAP in children with CD in remission. Methods Children, aged 917, with CD were enrolled. Demographic information, the Pediatric Crohns Disease Activity Index (PCDAI), and the Childrens Depression Inventory (CDI) were obtained. Disease remission was defined by physician global assessment, normal labs, and absence of 3 or more stools a day, nocturnal stooling, bloody diarrhea, concurrent steroid therapy, strictures, or disease flare within 6 months. FAP was defined as patients with abdominal pain and CD remission. Rates of depression (CDI >9) were compared. Results 139/307 children reported abdominal pain. Of this group, 18/139 (13%) met criteria for FAP. Despite clinical remission, 8/18 CD FAP patients were classified with active disease by PCDAI. CD FAP patients had a higher rate of depression than CD patients in remission with no abdominal pain (55.6% vs. 29.9%; p=0.03), similar to patients with abdominal pain from active CD (55.6% vs. 44.8%; p=0.62). Conclusions A proportion of children with CD in remission have FAP. These children are at significant risk for depression. Future studies are needed to determine whether depression contributes to functional pain development or if pain itself leads to depression. Especially given that functional pain may exaggerate disease activity, clinicians caring for children with CD and FAP should consider evaluating for depressive disorders before escalating therapy. PMID:23407043

  1. Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to the doctor for it. SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS : NASPGHAN • PO Box 6 • Flourtown, PA 19031 • 215-233-0808 • ... functional pain. Your doctor will also follow your child to see if any changes take place which ...

  2. Thoracic spondylodiscitis presenting as abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Luney, Matthew; Adiamah, Alfred; Pearson, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman presented to our hospital with weeks of worsening pain around her lower ribs. Preceding this, she was managed in primary care with anti-inflammatory drugs and physiotherapy for presumed costochondritis. Assessment in accident and emergency suggested a tender right upper quadrant with fever and neutrophilia. A surgical review of the patient was requested to assess for cholecystitis or delayed pancreatitis. On direct questioning, the patient's back pain was the predominating symptom with no neurological deficit. To assess for delayed pancreatitis, CT imaging was obtained, demonstrating unremarkable intra-abdominal organs. There was also the incidental finding of thickened prevertebral soft tissues anterior to T9 and T10 vertebrae, with vertebral endplate irregularity locally. Subsequent MRI demonstrated typical appearances of infective spondylodiscitis at this level. The patient made a good recovery with intravenous antimicrobials. This case highlights how vertebrodiscitis can present insidiously and unexpectedly, manifesting as abdominal pain. PMID:26818691

  3. Diagnostic yield of oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in children with abdominal pain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abdominal pain is the most common indication for OGD in children. However, existing studies examining the diagnostic outcomes of OGD in children with abdominal pain are limited. We conducted the current study to examine the diagnostic yield of OGD with biopsy in the evaluation of abdominal pain and ...

  4. Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP).

    PubMed

    Morton, Darren; Callister, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP), commonly referred to as 'stitch', is an ailment well known in many sporting activities. It is especially prevalent in activities that involve repetitive torso movement with the torso in an extended position, such as running and horse riding. Approximately 70% of runners report experiencing the pain in the past year and in a single running event approximately one in five participants can be expected to suffer the condition. ETAP is a localized pain that is most common in the lateral aspects of the mid abdomen along the costal border, although it may occur in any region of the abdomen. It may also be related to shoulder tip pain, which is the referred site from tissue innervated by the phrenic nerve. ETAP tends to be sharp or stabbing when severe, and cramping, aching, or pulling when less intense. The condition is exacerbated by the postprandial state, with hypertonic beverages being particularly provocative. ETAP is most common in the young but is unrelated to sex or body type. Well trained athletes are not immune from the condition, although they may experience it less frequently. Several theories have been presented to explain the mechanism responsible for the pain, including ischemia of the diaphragm; stress on the supportive visceral ligaments that attach the abdominal organs to the diaphragm; gastrointestinal ischemia or distension; cramping of the abdominal musculature; ischemic pain resulting from compression of the celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament; aggravation of the spinal nerves; and irritation of the parietal peritoneum. Of these theories, irritation of the parietal peritoneum best explains the features of ETAP; however, further investigations are required. Strategies for managing the pain are largely anecdotal, especially given that its etiology remains to be fully elucidated. Commonly purported prevention strategies include avoiding large volumes of food and beverages for at least 2 hours prior to exercise, especially hypertonic compounds; improving posture, especially in the thoracic region; and supporting the abdominal organs by improving core strength or wearing a supportive broad belt. Techniques for gaining relief from the pain during an episode are equivocal. This article presents a contemporary understanding of ETAP, which historically has received little research attention but over the past 15 years has been more carefully studied. PMID:25178498

  5. Eosinophilic Jejunitis Presenting as Intractable Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mungan, Zeynel; Attila, Tan; Kapran, Yersu; Tokatli, Ilyas Pinar; Unal, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical manifestations are related to the layer(s) and extent of the bowel involved. In this paper, we present a case of intractable abdominal pain caused by jejunal submucosal eosinophilic infiltration without mucosal involvement, diagnosed by deep endoscopic biopsies. The patient was successfully treated with steroids without need for surgery for diagnosis or therapy. PMID:25565932

  6. Urine - bloody

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surgery or an injury? Have you recently eaten foods that may cause a change in color, like beets, berries, or rhubarb? Tests that may be done include: Abdominal ultrasound Antinuclear antibody test for lupus Blood creatinine level ...

  7. [An unusual cause of severe abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Egger, M; Binder, M; Wewalka, F; Dieplinger, B; Kastler, M; Lenz, K

    2008-09-01

    A 33-year-old previously healthy man was admitted to the hospital with a 6-day history of diffuse abdominal pain and constipation. He was afebrile, looked unwell with a pale skin and displayed an elevated blood pressure. He had no peritoneal sign, and bowel sounds were normal. Blood tests were remarkable for a hematocrit of 26 % and mean cell volume of 83 fl, bilirubin levels were slightly elevated. Abdominal radiographs, abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography showed stool throughout the colon with a non-specific bowel gas pattern. Moreover, colonoscopy and gastroscopy provided no information on the underlying cause of the patient's severe pain. He was treated with fluids and spasmolytic drugs until the result of the urinary porphyrin level was received, which showed an elevated concentration of 1608 microg/d. Consequently, the plasma lead concentration was determined showing an elevated level of 92.3 microg/d. The examination of blood slides revealed erythrocytes with basophile stippling. On physical examination, a bluish discoloration could be seen along the gums. After starting the detoxication therapy with DMPS - 1800 mg p. o. for the first two days followed by 600 mg DMPS daily - the complaints disappeared. In spite of an extensive anamnestic exploration the source of the lead intoxication could not be found until now. PMID:18810673

  8. Transverse abdominal plane neurostimulation for chronic abdominal pain: a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mayank; Goodson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Management of chronic abdominal pain can be challenging. Sometimes patients fail to get adequate response from multiple medications and nerve blocks. We present a patient case report of chronic abdominal pain with a history of multiple surgeries managed successfully by neuromodulation of the transverse abdominis plane (TAP). The TAP block is a procedure in which local anesthetic is injected into the abdominal fascial plane that carries sensory nerves to the abdominal wall in order to block pain sensation. It has been shown to reduce postoperative pain and analgesic dependence after abdominal and gynecological surgeries. A 60-year-old woman presented to us for chronic abdominal pain for which medications provided little relief. She had an extensive history of abdominal surgeries and was also treated for lower back pain with surgery and less invasive procedures in the past. Under our care, she underwent 2 TAP blocks with almost complete resolution of her abdominal pain. Her pain, however, came back within a few of weeks of the procedures. Since our patient found pain relief from the TAP blocks, we proceeded with neurostimulation of the TAP for long-term pain relief. We placed a dorsal column stimulator 16 contact lead for lower back and leg pain and 8 contact leads placed in the TAP under ultrasound guidance. She has had multiple follow-ups since her TAP lead placement procedure with continued and near complete resolution of her abdominal pain. The TAP lead stimulation was helping her abdominal pain and the dorsal column lead stimulation was helping her back and leg pain. PMID:25247911

  9. Early Postoperative Pain After Keyless Abdominal Rope-Lifting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hsey?no?lu, rfettin; ?ek, Melek

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery is a novel, gasless, single-incision laparoscopic surgical technique. In this study we aimed to compare the postoperative pain from keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery with carbon dioxide laparoscopy performed for benign ovarian cysts. Methods: During a 20-month period, 77 women underwent surgery for a benign ovarian cyst. Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery and conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy techniques were used for the operations in 32 women and 45 women, respectively. The 2 operative techniques were compared with regard to demographic characteristics; preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data including early postoperative pain scores; and frequency of shoulder pain and analgesic requirements. Results: Data regarding demographic characteristics, preoperative findings, cyst diameters and rupture rates, intra-abdominal adhesions, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay did not differ between groups (P > .05). However, the mean operative and abdominal access times were significantly longer in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Visual analog scale pain scores at initially and at the second, fourth, and 24th hours of the postoperative period were significantly lower in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Similarly, keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery caused significantly less shoulder pain and additional analgesic use (P < .05). Conclusion: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery seems to cause less pain in the management of benign ovarian cysts in comparison with conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy. PMID:25848177

  10. Kikuchi-Fujimoto’s disease with abdominal pain due to intra-abdominal lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Ayako; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Sakatani, Takashi; Kajii, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    A 29-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with fever and abdominal pain. Abdominal echogram and CT revealed intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. Seven days after the onset, she developed cervical lymphadenitis. Kikuchi-Fujimoto’s disease (KFD) was diagnosed on cervical lymph node biopsy. Although KFD with intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy is rare, it should be considered in young adults with intra-abdominal lymphadenitis. Because KFD is a benign, self-limiting disease, we suggest the use of a minimally invasive method of diagnosis such as superficial lymph node biopsy. PMID:24667948

  11. Functional abdominal pain causing Scurvy, Pellagra, and Hypovitaminosis A.

    PubMed

    Ho, Edith Y; Mathy, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Severe vitamin deficiency disease is rarely seen in developed countries. We present an atypical case of a young man with scurvy, pellagra, and hypovitaminosis A, caused by longstanding functional abdominal pain that severely limited his ability to eat. PMID:24715978

  12. Recurrent abdominal pain in children: a clinical approach

    PubMed Central

    Quak, Seng Hock

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘recurrent abdominal pain’, or RAP, refers mainly to the duration of painful period and frequency of pain. The commonly accepted duration is at least three months in the preceding period, and over this three-month period, there are at least three episodes of pain that are severe enough to affect the daily activities of the affected patients. Over the years, with advances in medical technology and better understanding of the pathophysiology of abdominal pain, more and more organic causes have been identified. However, the most common cause of RAP in children is still functional in origin. PMID:25820843

  13. [A boy with abdominal pain, fever and liver abcesses].

    PubMed

    Noordmans, Jorrit; Reinhard, Rinze

    2014-01-01

    An 18-year-old male with right lower abdominal pain and elevated infection parameters is diagnosed with an abdominal abscess, multiple liver abscesses and a thrombus in his portal vein. This combination of findings leads to the diagnosis 'foie appendiculaire', a complicated form of appendicitis. PMID:24823853

  14. Pylephlebitis After Colonic Polypectomy Causing Fever and Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    May, Gary; Kortan, Paul; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.

    2015-01-01

    Pylephlebitis is a rare condition with a high mortality risk if not recognized and treated early. The most common symptoms include fever and abdominal pain, with the majority of cases manifesting with a polymicrobial bacteremia. We report an elderly woman with pylephlebitis presenting with fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting, likely secondary to a polypectomy 6 weeks prior. Abdominal CT revealed portal vein thrombus and blood cultures grew Streptococcus milleri and Haemophilus parainfluenza type V. Pylephlebitis should be considered when symptoms and signs of infection develop following endoscopic procedures, particularly in patients with an underlying hypercoaguable disease. PMID:26157944

  15. Support Vector Machine Diagnosis of Acute Abdominal Pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björnsdotter, Malin; Nalin, Kajsa; Hansson, Lars-Erik; Malmgren, Helge

    This study explores the feasibility of a decision-support system for patients seeking care for acute abdominal pain, and, specifically the diagnosis of acute diverticulitis. We used a linear support vector machine (SVM) to separate diverticulitis from all other reported cases of abdominal pain and from the important differential diagnosis non-specific abdominal pain (NSAP). On a database containing 3337 patients, the SVM obtained results comparable to those of the doctors in separating diverticulitis or NSAP from the remaining diseases. The distinction between diverticulitis and NSAP was, however, substantially improved by the SVM. For this patient group, the doctors achieved a sensitivity of 0.714 and a specificity of 0.963. When adjusted to the physicians' results, the SVM sensitivity/specificity was higher at 0.714/0.985 and 0.786/0.963 respectively. Age was found as the most important discriminative variable, closely followed by C-reactive protein level and lower left side pain.

  16. Dietary issues in recurrent abdominal pain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many children and adults suffer from belly pain that comes and goes. This article reviews the scientific evidence that in some people, the type of diet they eat can cause pain. In some children, not having enough fiber in the diet can cause belly pain. Adding specific types of fiber can improve the ...

  17. Functional abdominal pain, psychiatric illness, and life events.

    PubMed Central

    Creed, F; Craig, T; Farmer, R

    1988-01-01

    Patients undergoing appendicectomy, attending a gastroenterology clinic or admitted to hospital after self-poisoning have been examined using the same reliable measures to establish whether life events and psychiatric illness preceded abdominal pain. Life events involving threat were experienced more commonly by those with organic and functional abdominal illness, compared with community comparison subjects. The greatest difference was with severe events, especially those involving the break-up of close relationships, which preceded the development of functional abdominal pain as often as they occurred before self-poisoning, and significantly more frequently than before the onset of organic gastrointestinal illness. Abdominal pain of recent onset, for which no organic cause is found, is often preceded by environmental stress, whether it presents to the surgeon or the physician. Those presenting in the clinic were older than those undergoing appendicectomy and had experienced more long lasting interpersonal difficulties. Many had psychiatric illness, but for the remainder the stress might either have caused colonic pain directly or led to consultation for abdominal pains that had not previously presented to a gastroenterologist. PMID:3345935

  18. Idiopathic Bilateral Bloody Tearing

    PubMed Central

    Beyazy?ld?z, Emrullah; zdamar, Yasemin; Beyazy?ld?z, zlem; Yerli, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Bloody tear is a rare and distinct clinic phenomenon. We report a case presenting with the complaint of recurrent episodes of bilateral bloody tearing. A 16-year-old girl presented to our clinic with complaint of bloody tearing in both eyes for 3 months. Bloody tearing was not associated with her menses. A blood-stained discharge from the punctum was not observed during the compression of both nasolacrimal ducts. Nasolacrimal passage was not obstructed. Imaging studies such as dacryocystography and gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of nasolacrimal canal were normal. Intranasal endoscopic evaluation was normal. We collected samples from bloody tears two times and pathological examination was performed. Pathological analysis showed lots of squamous cells and no endometrial cells; dysplastic cells were found. Further evaluations for underlying causes were unremarkable. No abnormalities were found in ophthalmologic, radiologic, and pathologic investigations. This condition is likely a rare abnormality and the least recognized aetiology for the idiopathic phenomenon. PMID:25685572

  19. Idiopathic bilateral bloody tearing.

    PubMed

    Beyazy?ld?z, Emrullah; zdamar, Yasemin; Beyazy?ld?z, zlem; Yerli, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Bloody tear is a rare and distinct clinic phenomenon. We report a case presenting with the complaint of recurrent episodes of bilateral bloody tearing. A 16-year-old girl presented to our clinic with complaint of bloody tearing in both eyes for 3 months. Bloody tearing was not associated with her menses. A blood-stained discharge from the punctum was not observed during the compression of both nasolacrimal ducts. Nasolacrimal passage was not obstructed. Imaging studies such as dacryocystography and gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of nasolacrimal canal were normal. Intranasal endoscopic evaluation was normal. We collected samples from bloody tears two times and pathological examination was performed. Pathological analysis showed lots of squamous cells and no endometrial cells; dysplastic cells were found. Further evaluations for underlying causes were unremarkable. No abnormalities were found in ophthalmologic, radiologic, and pathologic investigations. This condition is likely a rare abnormality and the least recognized aetiology for the idiopathic phenomenon. PMID:25685572

  20. "Abdominal crunch"-induced rhabdomyolysis presenting as right upper quadrant pain.

    PubMed

    Haas, D C; Bohnker, B K

    1999-02-01

    A young, active duty sailor presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. History, physical, and laboratory findings initially suggested cholecystitis or related disease. Further evaluation found myoglobinuria and a recently increased exercise program, leading to the diagnosis of exercise-induced right upper abdominal wall rhabdomyolysis. Although not a common cause of abdominal pain, this diagnosis should be considered in the patient with abdominal pain and a recently increased exercise program, particularly exercises of the abdominal wall such as "abdominal crunches." PMID:10050578

  1. Pneumonia presenting with lower right abdominal pain and migratory polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Armeni, Eleni; Mylona, Vasiliki; Karlis, George; Makrygiannis, Elias

    2012-01-01

    The clinical presentation of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults includes mainly symptoms from the respiratory system, whereas CAP is considered as a main cause of abdominal pain in pediatric patients. We present the case of a patient, who was admitted to our hospital due to abdominal pain that deteriorated progressively and radiated to the lumbar region. The clinical examination revealed decreased breath sounds at the right lung base after 72 h, while the chest X-ray showed pneumonia of the right lung base. The blood culture isolated Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the patient received penicillin according to the results of the antibiogram. In addition, the patient developed symptoms of migratory arthritis, which resolved after 48 h. CAP should be included in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in adult patients. Furthermore, the hematogenous spread of S. pneumoniae may be associated with the development of migratory arthritis. PMID:26057353

  2. Investigating vomiting and/or bloody diarrhoea in Campylobacter jejuni infection.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Iain A; O'brien, Sarah J; Frost, Jennifer A; Tam, Clarence; Tompkins, David; Neal, Keith R; Syed, Qutub; Farthing, Michael J G

    2006-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni infection frequently presents as acute enteritis with diarrhoea, malaise, fever and abdominal pain. Vomiting and bloody diarrhoea are reported less frequently. To investigate potential host, micro-organism or environmental factors that might explain the different clinical presentations, the features of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter jejuni cases presenting with vomiting and/or bloody diarrhoea were compared with cases who did not report either clinical manifestation. Single variable analysis and logistic regression were employed. Explanatory variables included food, water and environmental risks. Cases who reported vomiting and/or bloody diarrhoea tended to suffer a longer illness and were more likely to require hospital admission. Independent risks identified were being a child, female gender, consumption of poultry other than chicken, pre-packed sandwiches and sausages, and reported engineering work or problems with drinking-water supply. A dose-response relationship with vomiting and/or bloody diarrhoea and increasing daily consumption of unboiled tap water was observed also. Vomiting and/or bloody diarrhoea characterized the more severe end of the disease spectrum and might relate to host susceptibility and/or infective dose. The role of unboiled tap water as a potential source of C. jejuni infection in England and Wales requires further investigation. PMID:16687593

  3. A man from South Asia presenting with abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Shiratori, Beata; Usami, Osamu; Hattori, Toshio; Ashino, Yugo

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is challenging due to the non-specific clinical presentation and frequent failure to detect the pathogen. A young Bangladeshi man presented to the Emergency Outpatient department with constipation and burning abdominal pain that was localised primarily in the epigastrium. Although the infectious agent was not detected, findings of histological examination were helpful in guiding the treatment strategy. As a good clinical practice, it is important to consider abdominal TB as a possible diagnosis in such cases, particularly when a patient has previously been residing in a high TB burden country. Thus, appropriate diagnosis and early antituberculous therapy are essential for achieving a positive outcome. PMID:24554676

  4. Diet and functional abdominal pain in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    van Tilburg, Miranda A L; Felix, Christopher T

    2013-08-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a common complaint among children and adolescents. For many patients, symptoms exacerbate with eating. This review discusses findings concerning the role of diet in FAP. The foods that are discussed are divided into 2 major groups: food allergies or intolerances, which focus on milk, gluten, and fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols; and functional foods, which hone in on foods that reduce abdominal pain in adolescents such as fiber, peppermint oil, and probiotics. Lastly, we discuss the role of eating habits in FAP and how the physiology of eating may be the real culprit of symptoms associated with eating. PMID:23698023

  5. Nonobstetric abdominal pain and surgical emergencies in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Diegelmann, Laura

    2012-11-01

    The focus of this article is the evaluation and management of pregnant patients with nonobstetric abdominal pain and surgical emergencies. The anatomic and physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy can cause difficulties in interpreting patients' signs and symptoms in emergency departments. This article reviews some of the common causes of nonobstetric abdominal pain and surgical emergencies that present to emergency departments and discusses some of the literature surrounding the use of imaging modalities during pregnancy. After a review of these changes and their causes, imaging modalities that can be used for the assessment are discussed. PMID:23137401

  6. [13-Year old boy with abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Irene; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; van de Poll, Marcel C G

    2012-01-01

    A 13-year old boy presents with pain in the lower right abdomen, showing clinical signs of appendicitis. During McBurney' incision an appendix sana was seen. Histologic examination showed penetrating enterobiasis. This was treated with mebendazol. PMID:22551758

  7. Treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan F; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2014-08-01

    Functional abdominal pain in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a challenging problem for primary care physicians, gastroenterologists and pain specialists. We review the evidence for the current and future non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options targeting the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Cognitive interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy have demonstrated excellent results in IBS patients, but the limited availability and labor-intensive nature limit their routine use in daily practice. In patients who are refractory to first-line therapy, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are both effective to obtain symptomatic relief, but only TCAs have been shown to improve abdominal pain in meta-analyses. A diet low in fermentable carbohydrates and polyols (FODMAP) seems effective in subgroups of patients to reduce abdominal pain, bloating, and to improve the stool pattern. The evidence for fiber is limited and only isphagula may be somewhat beneficial. The efficacy of probiotics is difficult to interpret since several strains in different quantities have been used across studies. Antispasmodics, including peppermint oil, are still considered the first-line treatment for abdominal pain in IBS. Second-line therapies for diarrhea-predominant IBS include the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5HT3 antagonists alosetron and ramosetron, although the use of the former is restricted because of the rare risk of ischemic colitis. In laxative-resistant, constipation-predominant IBS, the chloride-secretion stimulating drugs lubiprostone and linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase C agonist that also has direct analgesic effects, reduce abdominal pain and improve the stool pattern. PMID:24845149

  8. Chronic abdominal pain caused by thoracic disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, D C; Martin, S P; Schoen, R E; Jho, H D

    1995-05-01

    A patient with 7 yr of severe disabling chronic epigastric abdominal pain attributed to chronic pancreatitis was seen in consultation before a 95% pancreatectomy for pain control. Previous attempts to identify and treat the pain lead to extensive radiographic, pharmacological, endoscopic, and surgical interventions, including a Roux-en-Y pancreaticojejunostomy. Pain control was poor despite implantation of a continuous intrathecal morphine infusion pump. A focused physical examination, however, raised the suspicion of thoracic disc disease, which was confirmed after myelogram with computed tomography. Disruption of the T7-T8 disc with protrusion into the vertebral canal and displacement of the spinal cord with an associated bone spur were identified. A microsurgical thoracic discectomy was performed. Immediately, the pain began resolving, and she was pain free and off her medications within several weeks. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a herniated thoracic disc presenting as the pain of chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis of thoracic disc syndrome requires a high index of suspicion and should be considered in patients with chronic abdominal pain. PMID:7733103

  9. Recurrent abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recurrent abdominal pain continues to be one of the most ubiquitous conditions faced by the healthcare team, and has a significant emotional and economic impact. We have moved from considering it a psychological condition to recognizing the physiological and environmental contributions, and consider...

  10. EGD IN CHILDREN WITH ABDOMINAL PAIN: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: We performed a systematic review to examine the diagnostic yield (endoscopic and histologic) of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for the evaluation of abdominal pain of unclear etiology in children. We also examined the effect of EGD on change in treatment, quality of life, change in abd...

  11. Recurrent Macroscopic Hematuria and Abdominal Pain: Questions and Answers

    PubMed Central

    NICKAVAR, Azar

    2015-01-01

    A 6.5 yr old girl was admitted with a category of clinical signs and symptoms including recurrent gross hematuria, abdominal pain, and fever. After different examinations including genetic analysis, the disease was diagnosed as Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). It is suggested to consider FMF as a rare cause of recurrent gross hematuria, which is responsive to colchicine treatment. PMID:26587479

  12. Assessment of Abdominal Pain in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Polly Gerber

    2003-01-01

    Pediatric abdominal pain can be a difficult condition to accurately assess for the nurse to determine whether the child's need is for teaching, treating, or transferring. This article describes the process as well as practical tips to be used by the nurse in the school setting. Distinguishing characteristics and findings, including key physical

  13. Children with acute abdominal pain. Taking a reasonable approach.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    Dealing with children with acute abdominal pain is often difficult for family physicians. This article attempts to set out a reasonable, step-progressive, and logical approach to this clinical situation. Emphasis is placed on the practical aspects of the situation and the need for the child to be involved in the examination. PMID:8324414

  14. Pregnant and severe acute abdominal pain: A surgical diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kosai, N R; Amin-Tai, H; Gendeh, H S; Salleh, S; Reynu, R; Taher, M M; Sutton, P A; Das, S

    2015-01-01

    Acute abdominal pain in pregnancy remains a surgical conundrum. A 25-year-old primigravid at 29 weeks gestation presented with a two-week history of epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting. She had a distended abdomen consistent with a full term gravid uterus; tender at the epigastric and right hypochondrium suggestive of small bowel obstruction or acute appendicitis. Abdominal ultrasound was inconclusive but abdominal Computed Tomography (CT) suggested small bowel volvulus. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a segmental jejunal volvulus and small bowel diverticulum contributing to the volvulus. A short segmental bowel resection was performed. Histopathology confirmed a Meckel's Diverticulum. The patient recovered well but underwent premature labour 10 days later. Small bowel obstruction secondary to Meckel's diverticulum is rare in pregnancy. In an acute gestational abdomen, clinical examination is key. Radiological imaging may be helpful, whilst surgical intervention is confirmatory and therapeutic in the event of an obstructive volvulus. PMID:26152617

  15. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage in evaluating acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Barbee, C L; Gilsdorf, R B

    1975-06-01

    A study was performed to determine the value of peritoneal lavage in the acute abdomen not related to trauma. Lavage was performed in 33 patients in the evaluation of abdominal pain of sufficient degree to warrant consideration for surgical intervention. Peritoneal lavage was truly positive or truly negative in 64% of the cases. It showed false negative results in 28% and false positive results in 8%. The lavage was most accurate in the evaluation of appendicitis, colonic disease, and intra abdominal bleeding. It was highly inaccurate in the evaluation of cholecystitis and peptic ulcer disease. It was concluded that the peritoneal lavage can be a useful adjunct in the evaluation of patients with abdominal pain and should be considered in difficult diagnostic problems but not routinely employed. PMID:1138636

  16. Abdominal pain in a young girl.

    PubMed Central

    Handa, R.; Chirukpalli, R.; Agarwal, S.; Mukhopadhyaya, S.; Gupta, R.; Sood, R.; Meena, H. S.; Wali, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital with peri-umbilical pain associated with obstipation and vomiting. Plain erect X-rays of the abdomen revealed multiple air fluid levels. A supine X-ray is shown in this figure. Images Figure PMID:8871468

  17. Characteristics of pain and stooling in children with recurrent abdominal pain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: To collect symptom data longitudinally from children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) and control (asymptomatic) children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Children with RAP (n = 77) and controls (n = 33) 7 to 10 years of age completed daily diaries for 2 weeks tracking pain frequency and severi...

  18. Cognitive Mediators of Treatment Outcomes in Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Romano, Joan M.; Labus, Jennifer; Walker, Lynn S.; Murphy, Tasha B.; Van Tilburg, Miranda; Feld, Lauren D.; Christie, Dennis L.; Whitehead, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cognitive-behavioral interventions improve outcomes for many pediatric health conditions, but little is known about which mechanisms mediate these outcomes. The goal of this study was to identify whether changes in targeted process variables from baseline to one week post-treatment mediate improvement in outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of a brief cognitive-behavioral intervention for idiopathic childhood abdominal pain. Methods Two-hundred children with persistent functional abdominal pain and their parents were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a 3-session social learning and cognitive-behavioral treatment (SLCBT) (N=100), or a 3-session educational intervention controlling for time and attention (N=100). Outcomes were assessed at 3, 6 and 12 month follow-ups. The intervention focused on altering parental responses to pain and on increasing adaptive cognitions and coping strategies related to pain in both parents and children. Results Multiple mediation analyses were applied to examine the extent to which the effects of the SLCBT condition on child GI symptom severity and pain as reported by children and their parents were mediated by changes in targeted cognitive process variables and parents’ solicitous responses to their child’s pain symptoms. Reductions in parents’ perceived threat regarding their child’s pain mediated reductions in both parent- and child-reported GI symptom severity and pain. Reductions in children’s catastrophic cognitions mediated reductions in child-reported GI symptom severity but no other outcomes. Reductions in parental solicitousness did not mediate outcomes. Discussion Results suggest that reductions in reports of children’s pain and GI symptoms following a social learning and cognitive-behavioral intervention were mediated at least in part by decreasing maladaptive parent and child cognitions. PMID:24469611

  19. Serial bedside emergency ultrasound in a case of pediatric blunt abdominal trauma with severe abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Pershad, J; Gilmore, B

    2000-10-01

    We present a case of a teenager with isolated left renal laceration with perirenal hematoma. The patient had presented with severe left upper quadrant (LUQ) pain following blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) sustained during a sledding accident. A screening bedside focused abdominal sonogram for trauma (FAST) rapidly excluded free fluid on two serial examinations, 30 minutes apart. It provided the pediatric emergency physician with a measure of diagnostic confidence that the patient could be safely transported to the CT suite for detailed delineation of his injury. Moreover, narcotic analgesia was liberally administered early in his illness course, without the fear of unmasking potential hypovolemia when it was known that he did not have gross intra-abdominal bleeding on his bedside ultrasound (US). It also provided a working diagnosis of the primary organ of injury. Our hospital, like many pediatric hospitals around the nation, does not have in-house 24-hour radiology support. We suggest that the use of the bedside US be extended to the stable pediatric patient in severe abdominal pain following BAT. It can serve as a valuable, rapid, noninvasive, bedside, easily repeated, fairly accurate triage tool to evaluate pediatric BAT with severe pain. PMID:11063373

  20. Plain abdominal radiography in acute abdominal pain--is it really necessary?

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Sadhishaan; Fiorentino, Mark; Sinha, Sankar

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study are to audit the ordering of abdominal radiographs (AXR) in the emergency department (ED) and evaluate the current practices, knowledge and attitudes of emergency physicians with regard to ordering AXRs in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. A retrospective study was undertaken at an ED of a tertiary hospital in Tasmania using clinical notes on patient presenting with acute abdominal pain who underwent an AXR. The study also included a short questionnaire, which assessed emergency physicians' knowledge of current imaging guidelines and clinical practice when ordering an AXR. During the study period, 108 patients satisfied the selection criteria, and the AXR was reported as normal in 76% (n?=?82; p value <0.05), non-specific in 12% (n?=?13; p value <0.05) and abnormal in 12% (n?=?13; p value <0.05) of patients. Of those patients, 25% (n?=?27) of the AXRs did not meet indications listed in the Diagnostic Imaging Pathways published by the Western Australia Department of Health and were found not to benefit patient care. Of the 19 doctors who completed the survey, only 16% (n?=?3) were aware of any clinical guidelines for imaging in this setting. Current guidelines should be followed when ordering imaging for patients with acute abdominal pain to minimise unnecessary patient radiation exposure, avoid delays in diagnosis and definitive patient management, reduce costs and therefore increase efficiency in ED. PMID:24880255

  1. Characteristics of Pain and Stooling in Children with Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Robert J.; Eakin, Michelle N.; Jarrett, Monica; Czyzewski, Danita I.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To collect symptom data longitudinally from children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) and Control (asymptomatic) children. Methods Children with RAP (n = 77) and Controls (n = 33) ages 710 yrs. completed daily diaries for two weeks tracking pain frequency and severity, how often the pain interfered with activities, and stooling pattern. Results RAP children reported a greater number of pain episodes and greater pain severity than Control children. Pain commonly was reported to be in the periumbilical area and occurred evenly across the day in both groups. However, the pain interfered with activity more often in the RAP group. There was a positive relation between pain and interference with activities. Both groups reported stool changes but there were no differences between groups in stool character (e.g., hard, mushy, etc.). For both groups the presence of watery stool was related positively to pain. Of children with RAP, 65% could be categorized as having irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) whereas 35% were classifiable as having functional abdominal pain (FAP) according to the pediatric Rome II criteria. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first longitudinal report of symptoms in children with RAP compared with Controls. These data demonstrate that there is considerable overlap between children with RAP and Control children on a number of items commonly obtained in the history (e.g., pain location, timing, and stooling pattern). A majority of children with RAP could be characterized as having IBS. The relationship between pain reports and interference with activities substantiates the need to deal specifically with the abdominal pain to decrease disability. The relationship between pain and watery stools requires further study. PMID:17255832

  2. Schistosomiasis as a Cause of Chronic Lower Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Tom J.

    1995-01-01

    Background: Chronic intestinal schistosomiasis is rare in the United Kingdom. The symptoms are nonspecific and may mimic several other gastrointestinal conditions. We present a case of chronic intestinal schistosomiasis in a West Indian woman presenting to a genitourinary clinic. Case: The patient presented with chronic lower abdominal pain and dysuria. A sexually transmitted disease (STD) screen was negative and midstream urine cultures were sterile. A rectal biopsy revealed a non-necrotizing granulomatous reaction around the ova of Schistosoma. Her symptoms resolved with anti-schistosomiasis therapy. Conclusion: This case illustrates that physicians should be aware of chronic schistosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdominal pain in women who have come from or visited areas where schistosomiasis is endemic. PMID:18475400

  3. Misdiagnosis of Abdominal Pain in Pregnancy: Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sunita; Gupta, Shweta; Begum, Jasmina; Ghose, Seetesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of acute pancreatitis in a pregnant woman who presented to our emergency department with complaints of severe abdominal pain, was misdiagnosed as scar dehiscence and underwent emergency repeat caesarean section at 33 wks for fetal distress. The preterm baby developed severe respiratory distress and succumbed on the second postnatal day. Persistent severe pain in the postoperative period in the mother prompted further evaluation which led to a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Conservative and supportive management was instituted leading to an eventual favourable maternal outcome. PMID:25738042

  4. [Features of colonic fixation in children with chronic abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Komissarov, I A; Komarov, K M; Umenushkin, A A; Kolesnikova, N G

    2003-01-01

    Complex examination (clinical, rentegenological, endorectal ultrasonography and colodynamic investigations) of 73 children with chronic pains in the abdomen has shown that the cause of the disease might be the impaired fixation of the colon. Four main variants of the abnormal position of the colon in the abdominal cavity are determined which manifested themselves as a combination of pain syndrome with constipation. They are: "moving" blind gut, right-sided colonoptosis, total colonoptosis and the Payr syndrome. Most frequently the abdominal pains as well as their combination with constipation were noted in children with the Payr syndrome. The treatment was started with conservative measures directed to cupping the pain syndrome and elimination of intestinal stasis. The conservative therapy was effective in 75% of cases. The indication for surgical correction of the wrong fixation of the colon were: pronounced pain syndrome not cupped by conservative methods and deterioration of the quality of life of the patient. Surgical correction of the impairment of fixation of the colon was fulfilled on 10 patients. Good immediate and long-term results were obtained in 8 of them. If the cause of constipation was intumescence of the internal sphincter of the anus, the first step of surgery was internal sphincterotomy after Lynn (7 patients). PMID:12708394

  5. Minority Patients in ER Less Likely to Get Painkillers for Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rights reserved. More Health News on: Health Disparities Pain Relievers Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Abdominal Pain Health Disparities Pain Relievers About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  6. Treatment of acute abdominal pain in the emergency room: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Falch, C; Vicente, D; Hberle, H; Kirschniak, A; Mller, S; Nissan, A; Brcher, B L D M

    2014-08-01

    Appropriate pain therapy prior to diagnosis in patients with acute abdominal pain remains controversial. Several recent studies have demonstrated that pain therapy does not negatively influence either the diagnosis or subsequent treatment of these patients; however, current practice patterns continue to favour withholding pain medication prior to diagnosis and surgical treatment decision. A systematic review of PubMed, Web-of-Science and The-Cochrane-Library from 1929 to 2011 was carried out using the key words of 'acute', 'abdomen', 'pain', 'emergency' as well as different pain drugs in use, revealed 84 papers. The results of the literature review were incorporated into six sections to describe management of acute abdominal pain: (1) Physiology of Pain; (2) Common Aetiologies of Abdominal Pain; (3) Pre-diagnostic Analgesia; (4) Pain Therapy for Acute Abdominal Pain; (5) Analgesia for Acute Abdominal Pain in Special Patient Populations; and (6) Ethical and Medico-legal Considerations in Current Analgesia Practices. A comprehensive algorithm for analgesia for acute abdominal pain in the general adult population was developed. A review of the literature of common aetiologies and management of acute abdominal pain in the general adult population and special patient populations seen in the emergency room revealed that intravenous administration of paracetamol, dipyrone or piritramide are currently the analgesics of choice in this clinical setting. Combinations of non-opioids and opioids should be administered in patients with moderate, severe or extreme pain, adjusting the treatment on the basis of repeated pain assessment, which improves overall pain management. PMID:24449533

  7. [Cultural and migration aspects in functional abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Buri, Caroline; Laederach, Kurt

    2011-08-01

    Compared to Europe's mean immigrant contingent of 7.3 to 8.6 % Switzerland holds the highest contingent of foreign population with 23.5 %. Therefore it is of utmost importance that physicians have a knowledge of the specific characteristics of immigrant patients. The influence of personality factors (experience, behavior) is not independent from the influence of culturally-related environmental factors (regional differences in diet, pollutants, meanings, etc.). In addition, different cultural groups rate their quality of life differently. Psychological reasons for recurrent abdominal pain are stress (life events), effects of self-medication (laxatives, cocaine) and sexual abuse but also rare infectious diseases are more common among immigrants (e.g. tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, etc.). Migration-specific characteristics are mainly to find in the semiotics of the symptoms: not every abdominal pain is real pain in the abdomen. Finally, it is crucial to make the distinction between organic, functional and psychological-related pain. This can, however, usually only be accomplished in the context of the entire situation of a patient and, depending on the situation, with the support of a colleague from the appropriate cultural group or an experienced interpreter. In this review we limit ourselves to the presentation of the working population of the migrants, because these represent the largest group of all migrants. The specific situation of asylum seekers will also be refrained to where appropriate. PMID:21796592

  8. An unusual cause of acute abdominal pain in dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Tariq; Latif, Hina; Shabbir, Bilquis

    2014-07-01

    Dengue fever is an acute febrile viral disease caused by the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito. It is a major health problem especially in tropical and subtropical areas including South East Asia and Pakistan. In the past few years, dengue fever has been endemic in Northern Punjab. Physicians managing dengue fever come across varied and uncommon complications of dengue fever. We report a case of dengue fever that developed severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain and induration after extreme retching and vomiting for 2 days. A rectus sheath hematoma was confirmed on noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Rectus sheath hematoma as a complication of dengue fever has rarely been reported before and never from this part of the world. Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon and often clinically misdiagnosed cause of abdominal pain. It is the result of bleeding into the rectus sheath from damage to the superior or inferior epigastric artery or their branches or from a direct tear of the rectus muscle. It can mimic almost any abdominal condition (See Fig.) (See Table). PMID:24560393

  9. Acute renal infarction: an unusual cause of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Javaid, Muhammad M; Butt, Mohammed A; Syed, Yadullah; Carr, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Acute renal infarction is an uncommon and under-diagnosed disease. Its clinical presentation is nonspecific and often mimics other more common disease entities. The diagnosis is usually missed or delayed, which frequently results in irreversible renal parenchyma damage. High index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis, as timely intervention may prevent loss of kidney function. We report a case of acute renal infarction following coronary angiography in a patient with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation who initially presented with acute abdominal pain mimicking appendicitis. PMID:19839842

  10. Diphyllobothrium latum infection in a child with recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Park, Hyun; Yu, Seung Taek

    2015-11-01

    Diphyllobothrium latum infection in humans is not common in Republic of Korea. We report a case of fish tapeworm infection in a 10-year-old boy after ingestion of raw perch about 8 months ago. The patient complained of recurrent abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. A tapeworm, 85 cm in length, without scolex and neck, was spontaneously discharged in the feces of the patient. The patient was treated with 15-mg/kg single dose praziquantel, and follow-up stool examination was negative after one month. There was no evidence of relapse during the next six months. PMID:26692882

  11. Diphyllobothrium latum infection in a child with recurrent abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Park, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Diphyllobothrium latum infection in humans is not common in Republic of Korea. We report a case of fish tapeworm infection in a 10-year-old boy after ingestion of raw perch about 8 months ago. The patient complained of recurrent abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. A tapeworm, 85 cm in length, without scolex and neck, was spontaneously discharged in the feces of the patient. The patient was treated with 15-mg/kg single dose praziquantel, and follow-up stool examination was negative after one month. There was no evidence of relapse during the next six months. PMID:26692882

  12. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC ABDOMINAL PAIN.

    PubMed

    Omran, Eman Kh; Mohammad, Asmaa N

    2015-08-01

    Information about intestinal parasites in Sohag (Upper Egypt) in patients with chronic abdominal pain is scarce. This study determined the intestinal parasites symptoms in 130 patients with chronic abdominal pain and cross-matched 20 healthy persons. Parasitic infection was confirmed by stool analysis.The most commonest clinical data with stool analysis was as following: 1-Entamoeba histolytica associated with nausea 20 (3 7.74%) followed by anorexia 19 (35.85%), 2-Entamoeba coli associated with diarrhea 3 (100%) followed by nausea 2 (66.67%) and vomiting 2 (66.67%), 3-Enetrobius vermicularis associated with nausea 2 (66.67%), diarrhea 2 (66.67%) followed by flatulence 1(33.33%), 4-Giardia lamblia associated with anorexia 3 (42.86%), vomiting 3 (42.86%) followed by diarrhea 2 (28.57%)., 6-Hymenolepis nana associated with anorexia 10 (40.00%) followed by flatulence 9 (36.00%), 7-Taenia saginata associated with dyspepsia 3 (60.00%) followed by flatulence 2 (40.00%), and 8-Ancylostoma duodenal associated with anorexia 2 (66.67%) and diarrhea 2 (66.67%). PMID:26485858

  13. [Chronic upper abdominal pain: Diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm].

    PubMed

    Keller, Jutta; Layer, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Between 20% and 40% of the population have chronic or recurrent upper abdominal pain, frequently in combination with other dyspeptic symptoms. In about 50% of patients, who visit a doctor because of these complaints, symptoms are caused by an organic disease, whereas the other patients suffer from functional disturbances. Currently, the Rome III-criteria are established for diagnosis of functional dyspepsia. They request epigastric pain burning, bothersome postprandial fullness and/or early satiety and absence of structural disease that is likely to explain the symptoms. These criteria need to have been fulfilled for the previous 3 months with symptom onset at least 6 months before diagnosis. For exclusion of organic disease performance of an upper endoscopy is required. Some experts also recommend to investigate routine laboratory parameters and to perform an abdominal ultrasound investigation. Only in young patients who present with typical and moderate symptoms and have no alarm symptoms, probatory therapy without previous technical investigations and, thus, without final establishment of the diagnosis, may be considered. If they do not respond adequately within 4 weeks, these patients also have to undergo further diagnostic testing. Therapeutic options for functional dyspepsia are limited. They include the clear explanation of the diagnosis, consideration of factors that trigger or ameliorate symptoms and application of drugs such as certain herbal remedies, acid suppressing drugs and/or prokinetics. PMID:25970409

  14. Predictors of Chronic Abdominal Pain Affecting the Well-Being of Children in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Spee, Leo A.A.; Leeuwen, Yvonne Lisman-van; Benninga, Marc A.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Abdominal pain is a frequent symptom among children but is rarely associated with organic disease. Although it may persist for years, no factors have been identified that predict its prognosis. Our aim was to determine whether patient characteristics at initial consultation can predict chronic abdominal pain severe enough to influence the child’s well-being at 1 year of follow-up. METHODS We conducted this prospective cohort study in primary care, including consecutive children aged 4 to 17 years seen for abdominal pain by their family physician. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify prognostic factors that predicted chronic abdominal pain 1 year later. Discriminative ability of identified predictors was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and explained variance. RESULTS The risk of having chronic abdominal pain at 1 year of follow-up was 37.1% in the cohort overall. Increasing age, waking up at night with pain, high levels of other somatic complaints, and chronic abdominal pain at baseline independently predicted chronic abdominal pain at 1 year. These predictors had a poor to moderate discriminative ability, however; the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was only 0.69, and the predictors collectively explained only 14.3% of variance in the development of chronic abdominal pain. The absolute risk ranged from 19.4% among children having none of the predictors to 65.5% among children having 3 or 4 predictors. CONCLUSIONS Chronic abdominal pain sufficient to affect well-being is common among children initially seen for abdominal pain by family physicians. Although the risk of this outcome increases with number of predictors, these predictors are of limited value in identifying children in whom pain will become chronic, suggesting that other, as yet unidentified factors play an important role. PMID:25755037

  15. Citalopram Treatment of Pediatric Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Comorbid Internalizing Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campo, John V.; Perel, James; Lucas, Amanda; Bridge, Jeff; Ehmann, Mary; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Brent, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the potential efficacy, tolerability, and safety of citalopram in the treatment of functional pediatric recurrent abdominal pain and comorbid internalizing disorders. Method: Twenty-five clinically referred children and adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain aged 7 to 18 years, inclusive, participated in a 12-week,

  16. Citalopram Treatment of Pediatric Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Comorbid Internalizing Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campo, John V.; Perel, James; Lucas, Amanda; Bridge, Jeff; Ehmann, Mary; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Brent, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the potential efficacy, tolerability, and safety of citalopram in the treatment of functional pediatric recurrent abdominal pain and comorbid internalizing disorders. Method: Twenty-five clinically referred children and adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain aged 7 to 18 years, inclusive, participated in a 12-week,…

  17. Abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion as clinical presentation of acute intermittent porphyria.

    PubMed

    Valle Feijo, M L; Bermdez Sanjurjo, J R; Gonzlez Vzquez, L; Rey Martnez, M; de la Fuente Aguado, J

    2015-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP)is a rare condition characterized by abdominal pain and a wide range of nonspecific symptoms. We report the case of a woman with abdominal pain and syndrome ofinappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) as clinical presentation of AIP. The diagnosis was achieved through the etiologic study of the SIADH. PMID:25796467

  18. Masturbation mimicking abdominal pain or seizures in young girls.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, D R; Morrison, A

    1990-05-01

    Five girls, 7 to 27 months of age, had masturbatory posturing that did not involve rubbing of the genitalia or copulatory movements. This activity was mistakenly attributed to abdominal pain or seizures, and prompted unnecessary diagnostic tests. The posturing began at 3 to 14 months and consisted of "leaning episodes" in which the suprapubic region was applied to a firm edge or the parent's knee in one patient, stiffening of the lower extremities in a standing or sitting position in the second patient, and stiffening of the lower extremities while lying on their sides or supine in three infant patients. The posturing was often accompanied by irregular breathing, facial flushing, and diaphoresis, and lasted less than a minute to hours at a time. Management consisted of convincing the parents of the harmless nature of the activity, which then lessened the reinforcing effect of their responses. The posturing subsided, in time, without medical or surgical treatment. PMID:2091618

  19. Atypical abdominal pain: post-traumatic transverse colon stricture.

    PubMed

    Rotar, Raluca; Uwechue, Raphael; Sasapu, Kishore Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A driver presented to the emergency department 1 day after an accident driving his excavator with abdominal pain and vomiting. He was admitted to the surgical ward 2 days later, after reattending. A CT scan revealed wall thickening and oedema in the transverse colon. This was supported by a subsequent CT virtual colonoscopy which raised the suspicion of neoplasia. A follow-up colonoscopy was not carried further than the transverse colon due to an indurated, tight stricture. Biopsies from that area showed ulceration and inflammatory changes non-specific for ischaemia, drug-induced changes or inflammatory bowel disease. As a consequence of the subocclusive symptoms and the possibility of a neoplastic diagnosis, a laparoscopic-assisted transverse colectomy was performed. The histology of the resected segment revealed post-traumatic inflammation and fibrosis with no evidence of neoplasia. PMID:23975915

  20. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum in pediatric functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Claudio; Comito, Donatella; Famiani, Annalisa; Calamar, Sabrina; Loddo, Italia

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) diet supplement in pediatric chronic abdominal pain (CAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: A randomized, double-blind pilot study was performed in sixty children (8-16 years) with functional bowel disorders, such as CAP or IBS, diagnosed according to Rome III criteria. All patients underwent ultrasound, blood and stool examinations to rule out any organic disease. Patients were allocated to receive PHGG at dosage of 5 g/d (n = 30) or placebo (fruit-juice n = 30) for 4 wk. The evaluation of the efficacy of fiber supplement included IBS symptom severity score (Birmingham IBS Questionnaire), severity of abdominal pain (Wong-Baker Face Pain Rating Score) and bowel habit (Bristol Stool Scale). Symptom scores were completed at 2, 4, and 8 wk. The change from baseline in the symptom severity scale at the end of treatment and at 4 wk follow-up after treatment was the primary endpoint. The secondary endpoint was to evaluate compliance to supplementation with the PHGG in the pediatric population. Differences within groups during the treatment period and follow-up were evaluated by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: The results of the study were assessed considering some variables, such as frequency and intensity of symptoms with modifications of the bowel habit. Both groups were balanced for baseline characteristics and all patients completed the study. Group A (PHGG group) presented a higher level of efficacy compared to group B (control group), (43% vs 5%, P = 0.025) in reducing clinical symptoms with modification of Birmingham IBS score (median 0 1 vs 4 1, P = 0.025), in intensity of CAP assessed with the Wong-Baker Face Pain Rating Score and in normalization of bowel habit evaluated with the Bristol Stool Scale (40% vs 13.3%, P = 0.025). In IBS subgroups, statistical analysis shown a tendency toward normalization of bowel movements, but there was no difference in the prevalence of improvement in two bowel habit subsets. PHGG was therefore better tolerated without any adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Although the cause of pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders is not known, the results show that complementary therapy with PHGG may have beneficial effects on symptom control. PMID:23345946

  1. Child pain catastrophizing mediates the relationship between parent responses to pain and disability in youth with functional abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Barnett, Kimberly; Peugh, James; Sil, Soumitri; Goldschneider, Kenneth; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Functional abdominal pain (FAP) in youth is associated with substantial impairment in functioning and prior research has shown that overprotective parent responses can heighten impairment. Little is known about how a range of parental behaviors in response to their childs pain (overprotection, minimizing and/or encouragement) interact with child coping characteristics (e.g., catastrophizing) to influence functioning in youth with FAP. In this study, it was hypothesized that the relationship between parenting factors and child disability would be mediated by childrens level of maladaptive coping (i.e., pain catastrophizing). Methods Seventy-five patients with FAP presenting to a pediatric pain clinic and their caregivers participated. Youth completed measures of pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and disability (Functional Disability Inventory). Caregivers completed measures of parent pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and parent responses to child pain behaviors (Adult Responses to Child Symptoms: protection, minimizing, and encouragement/monitoring subscales). Results Increased functional disability was significantly related to higher child pain intensity, increased child and parent pain catastrophizing, and higher levels of encouragement/monitoring and protection. Parent minimization was not related to disability. Child pain catastrophizing fully mediated the relationship between parent encouragement/monitoring and disability and partially mediated the relationship between parent protectiveness and disability. Conclusions The impact of parenting behaviors in response to FAP on child disability is determined in part by the childs coping style. Findings highlight a more nuanced understanding of the parent-child interaction in determining pain-related disability levels, which should be taken into consideration in assessing and treating youth with FAP. PMID:25121521

  2. An unusual cause of acute abdominal pain A case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Wunnava, Rao V; Hunt, Trevor M

    2006-01-01

    Background In 1983, Graham Hughes described a condition of Antiphospholipid Syndrome in which there was a danger of thrombosis. The condition is readily detectable by blood tests and, once diagnosed; the risk of further thrombosis can be significantly reduced by anticoagulation treatments. Affected groups of patients can be distinguished by a specific blood test the detection of antiphospholipid antibody (Ref-1). Patients with Hughes syndrome have hypercoaguable state with a markedly increased risk of both arterial and venous thrombosis and there is temporal persistence of antibody positivity. Case presentation A 44-year-old woman was admitted under the acute surgical "take" with left sided abdominal pain radiating to her back. She had a history of borderline thyrotoxicosis in the early 1990s. She was on etonogestrel-releasing implants for contraception and there was no history of previous deep venous thrombosis. She was very tender, locally, over the left side of the abdomen. Investigations showed haemoglobin of 13.2 g/dl, white cell count of 19.9 10*9/L, and platelets 214 10*9/L with neutrophilia. Amylase and renal function tests were found to be normal. Liver function tests were deranged with Gamma GT 244 u/l (twice normal). An abdominal Ultrasound Scan suggested a possible splenic infarction, which was confirmed by a CT scan of her abdomen. Tests were carried out to investigate the possibility of a post thrombotic state. Coagulation risk factors for thrombosis were within the normal limits; Protein S 67 %(60140), Protein C 103 % (72146), Antithrombin 3 110 %(80120) and Activated P C Resistance was 1.9(2.04.3). The Hams test was negative but the Anticardiolipin antibody test was positive. IgM level was 52 (normal is up to 10) and IgG was 18.8 (normal is up to 10). She also had border line APC Sensitivity 1.9 (2 to 4.3). Kaolin time 49 sec (70120) Ktmix 64 sec (70120), thyroid function test revealed TSH 0.32 mu/L, fT4 20.2 pmol/L (1025). Subsequent determination of Anticardiolipin antibody was negative. Her symptoms were settled with the use of simple analgesia and she was discharged home with long-term anticoagulation medication. The INR target for long-term anticoagulation was aimed at >3. Conclusion This case presented to us as an acute abdominal pain. Subsequent investigations revealed the presence of splenic infarction. Coagulation risk factors for thrombosis proved negative. Haematological investigations revealed the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies at the first instance but subsequent determinations were negative. Hence, it mimicked Hughes syndrome initially but the criteria for temporal persistence of anticardiolipin antibody was not fulfilled. Unusual surgical presentation of a thrombotic abnormality as abdominal pain due to splenic infarction. PMID:16603067

  3. Anaemia and abdominal pain due to occupational lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fonte, Rodolfo; Agosti, Antonio; Scafa, Fabrizio; Candura, Stefano M

    2007-02-01

    We describe a 47-year-old patient with chronic anaemia with basophilic stippling of erythrocytes, recurrent abdominal colics, discoloration of gums, sensitive polyneuropathy to the four limbs, hyperuricaemia, hepatosteatosis with raised transaminases, and a long ignored history of lead exposure in a battery recycling plant. The diagnosis of poisoning was confirmed by high lead levels in the blood and urine, decreased erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), raised erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZP), and elevated urinary excretion of porphyrins. Chelation with EDTA resulted in increased urinary lead excretion, gradual improvement of the clinical picture, and progressive normalization of lead biomarkers. The case highlights the importance of occupational anamnesis for the diagnosis of lead poisoning, an uncommon condition which may mimic a variety of internal and surgical diseases. Since antiquity, lead has been extensively mined, produced, and utilized in a variety of industrial settings, such as metallurgy, construction, production of plastics, ceramics, paints and pigments. Lead and its compounds are systemic toxicants, and a wide range of adverse health effects (including haematological, gastrointestinal, neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular, renal, endocrine, and reproductive disorders) has been observed in exposed workers. The general population (particularly children) may also be exposed to toxic lead levels due to air, soil, food and water contamination. Thanks to the improvement of workplace hygienic conditions, the pathological picture of occupational lead poisoning (plumbism, saturnism) has gradually become less serious, at least in the most industrialized countries, and has progressively changed into aspecific, subclinical manifestations. We describe here an unusual case (nowadays) of anaemia and recurrent abdominal pain due to lead poisoning from battery recycling. PMID:17405745

  4. Prevalence, characteristics, and management of childhood functional abdominal pain in general practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To (i) describe the proportion of children presenting with abdominal pain diagnosed by the GP as functional abdominal pain (GPFAP); (ii) evaluate the association between patient and disease characteristics and GPFAP; (iii) describe diagnostic management by the GP in children presenting with abdominal pain, and (iv) evaluate whether children with GPFAP fulfill diagnostic criteria for functional abdominal pain (FAP) as described in current literature: chronic abdominal pain (CAP) and the Rome III criteria (PRC-III) for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting General practices in the Netherlands. Subjects 305 children aged 417 years consulting for abdominal pain. Main outcome measures GPFAP, CAP, FGIDs. Results 89.2% of children were diagnosed with GPFAP. Headaches and bloating were positively associated with GPFAP whereas fever and > 3 red flag symptoms were inversely associated. Additional diagnostic tests were performed in 26.8% of children. Less than 50% of all children with GPFAP fulfilled criteria for CAP and FGIDs; in 47.9% of patients the duration of symptoms at presentation was less than three months. Conclusions In almost 90% of children included in this study the GP suspected no organic cause for the abdominal pain. GPs diagnose FAP in children without alarm symptoms and order diagnostic testing in one out of four children presenting with abdominal pain. No difference was found in GPs management between children with a diagnosis of GPFAP and other diagnoses. Only about half of the children with a GP diagnosis of FAP fulfilled time-criteria of FAP as defined in the literature. PMID:24106821

  5. Predictors of Abdominal Pain in Depressed Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Arvind I.; Goyal, Alka; Zimmerman, Lori A.; Newara, Melissa C.; Kirshner, Margaret A.; McCarthy, F. Nicole; Keljo, David; Binion, David; Bousvaros, Athos; DeMaso, David R.; Youk, Ada; Szigethy, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have high rates of abdominal pain. The study aims were to (1) Evaluate biological and psychological correlates of abdominal pain in depressed youth with IBD, (2) Determine predictors of abdominal pain in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods 765 patients ages 9–17 with IBD seen over 3 years at two sites were screened for depression. Depressed youth completed comprehensive assessments for abdominal pain, psychological (depression and anxiety), and biological (IBD-related, through disease activity indices and laboratory values) realms. Results 217 patients with IBD (161 CD, 56 UC) were depressed. 163 (120 CD, 43 UC) patients had complete API scores. In CD, abdominal pain was associated with depression (r=0.33; p<0.001), diarrhea (r=0.34; p=0.001), ESR (r=0.22; p=0.02), low albumin (r=0.24; p=.01), weight loss (r=0.33; p=0.001), and abdominal tenderness (r=0.38, p=0.002). A multivariate model with these significant correlates represented 32% of the variance in pain. Only depression (p=0.03), weight loss (p=0.04), and abdominal tenderness (p=0.01) predicted pain for CD patients. In UC, pain was associated with depression (r=0.46; p=0.002) and nocturnal stools (r=.32; p=.046). In the multivariate model with these significant correlates 23% of the variance was explained, and only depression (p=0.02) predicted pain. Conclusions The psychological state of pediatric patients with IBD may increase the sensitivity to abdominal pain. Thus, screening for and treating comorbid depression may prevent excessive medical testing and unnecessary escalation of IBD medications. PMID:24983975

  6. Predicting Persistence of Functional Abdominal Pain from Childhood into Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Sara; Shelby, Grace; Anderson, Julia; Acra, Sari; Polk, D. Brent; Saville, Benjamin R.; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Pediatric functional abdominal pain has been linked to functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) in adulthood, but little is known about patient characteristics in childhood that increase risk for FGID in young adulthood. We investigated the contribution of GI symptoms, extra-intestinal somatic symptoms, and depressive symptoms in pediatric patients with functional abdominal pain and whether these predicted FGIDs later in life. Methods In a longitudinal study, consecutive new pediatric patients, diagnosed with functional abdominal pain in a subspecialty clinic, completed a comprehensive baseline evaluation of the severity of their physical and emotional symptoms. They were contacted 515 years later and evaluated, based on Rome III symptom criteria, for abdominal pain-related FGIDs, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia, functional abdominal pain syndrome, and abdominal migraine. Controlling for age, sex, baseline severity of abdominal pain, and time to follow-up evaluation, multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of baseline GI, extra-intestinal somatic, and depressive symptoms in childhood with FGID in adolescence and young adulthood. Results Of 392 patients interviewed an average of 9.2 years after initial evaluation, 41% (n=162) met symptom criteria for FGID; most met the criteria for IBS. Extra-intestinal somatic and depressive symptoms at the initial pediatric evaluation were significant predictors of FGID later in life, after controlling for initial levels of GI symptoms. Age, sex, and abdominal pain severity at initial presentation were not significant predictors of FGID later in life. Conclusions In pediatric patients with functional abdominal pain, assessment of extra-intestinal and depressive symptoms may be useful in identifying those at risk for FGID in adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:24732284

  7. Severe Abdominal Pain as the First Manifestation of Rabies

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Jamshid; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Shahcheraghi, Seyed Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Rabies is an acute fatal viral disease that is generally transmitted from animals to humans following wild and domestic animal bites. The rabies virus enters the body from the area where the individual is bitten, and then the virus moves towards the brain and involves the nerves. Case Presentation: During the years 2001-2011, there have been 73 reported rabies cases. About 50,000 reported human deaths are annually due to rabies. The actual number of human deaths due to rabies in Asia especially India, Pakistan and Bangladesh are more than these numbers, since there is no advanced surveillance system for disease control to determine the actual number of infected and fatal human cases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) reports, more than 10 million people who are bitten by animals are annually treated by prophylactic treatment regimens for rabies, worldwide. Conclusions: This paper reports on a case of human rabies with the first disease manifestation (severe abdominal pain). The patient reported extensive biting on his left leg by a dog. He had a slight fever of 38.1C. It has been recommended that a careful history should be taken from patients for diagnosis of rabies disease. A complete history should be taken from patients for diagnosis of disease, because rabies could be wrong with various diseases with atypical symptoms. because various diseases with atypical symptoms or long incubation periods can visit. PMID:25485053

  8. Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children

    PubMed Central

    McOmber, Mark E.; Shulman, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of Review Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) continues to be one of the most ubiquitous conditions faced by the healthcare team and has a significant emotional and economic impact. We have moved from considering it a psychological condition to recognizing the physiological and environmental contributions and considering the condition in the framework of a biopsychosocial model where biology, psychology, and social environment interact. Here, we review current studies addressing etiologies, diagnostic techniques, and treatment options for RAP in children. Recent Findings Studies continue to highlight the role of visceral hypersensitivity in RAP. However, the psychological state of the child and the parent (most often the mother) in terms of their anxiety, somatization, and coping skills can modulate the expression of symptoms. Diagnosis still is made by history and physical examination. Newer treatment options include relaxation and distraction therapies as well as medications. The role of probiotics in children remains to be defined. Summary The approach to the child with RAP must include the recognition of the physiological contributions and this information must be relayed to the child and parents. Acknowledgement also must be paid to the role of psychological state in the parent as well as in the child in modulating the severity of symptoms. PMID:17885479

  9. The diagnostic value of symptoms and signs in childhood abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Williams, N M; Johnstone, J M; Everson, N W

    1998-12-01

    The assessment and diagnosis of abdominal pain in childhood continues to be a clinical challenge. We audited the presenting symptoms and signs in a consecutive series of 447 children presenting to a paediatric surgical unit in an attempt to quantify the value of particular symptoms and signs in differentiating acute appendicitis (AA) from non-specific abdominal pain (NSAP). The onset of pain in the centre of the abdomen and radiation of pain was not sufficient to differentiate between NSAP and AA. Progression of pain, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and diarrhoea were significantly more common in children with AA (P < 0.01). Similarly, facial flushing, tachycardia (pulse > 100 beats/min), guarding and rebound tenderness were significantly more common in children with AA (P < 0.001). Knowledge of this quantitative data could help clinicians adjust the weighting given to the presence of a particular symptom or sign in children with acute abdominal pain. PMID:9990785

  10. Toothpick Perforation of the Intestines Presenting as Recurrent Abdominal Pain: Possible Roles of Abdominal Ultrasound and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Sealock, Robert J.; Sabounchi, Saman; Graham, David Y.

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a middle-aged man admitted for five months of unexplained left lower quadrant pain. He had been hospitalized on two prior occasions and treated with broad spectrum antibiotics. His clinical presentation was suggestive peritoneal irritation with severe, focal pain on abdominal palpation. Computed tomography scans showed non-specific inflammation in the left lower abdomen with adjacent small bowel wall thickening. Upper endoscopy and colonoscopy were unremarkable on prior admission. Given the severity and focality of the patients recurrent abdominal pain he underwent laparoscopy and was found to have a wooden toothpick perforation of the small bowel thirty centimeters from the ileocecal valve requiring partial small bowel resection. The patient did well post-operatively. On retrospective questioning he may have eaten a cabbage roll or bacon wrapped shrimp pierced with a toothpick weeks before the onset of symptoms. Toothpick perforation should be a consideration in edentulous persons with focal, severe abdominal pain and trans-abdominal ultrasound or MRI may be a better choice for detecting wooden foreign objects. PMID:23885181

  11. Congenital left paraduodenal hernia causing chronic abdominal pain and abdominal catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Felsted, Amy E; Masand, Prakash M; Mothner, Brent A; Nuchtern, Jed G; Rodriguez, J Ruben; Vasudevan, Sanjeev A

    2015-04-01

    Paraduodenal hernias are the most common type of congenital internal hernia. Because of its overall rare incidence, this entity is often overlooked during initial assessment of the patient. Lack of specific diagnostic criteria also makes diagnosis exceedingly difficult, and the resulting diagnostic delays can lead to tragic outcomes for patients. Despite these perceived barriers to timely diagnosis, there may be specific radiographic findings that, when combined with the appropriate constellation of clinical symptoms, would aid in diagnosis. This patient first presented at 8 years of age with vague symptoms of postprandial emesis, chronic abdominal pain, nausea, and syncope. Over the span of 6 years he was evaluated 2 to 3 times a year with similar complaints, all of which quickly resolved spontaneously. He underwent multiple laboratory, imaging, and endoscopic studies, which were nondiagnostic. It was not until he developed signs of a high-grade obstruction and extremis that he was found to have a large left paraduodenal hernia that had volvulized around the superior mesenteric axis. This resulted in the loss of the entire superior mesenteric axis distribution of the small and large intestine and necrosis of the duodenum. In cases of chronic intermittent obstruction without clear etiology, careful attention and consideration should be given to the constellation of symptoms, imaging studies, and potential use of diagnostic laparoscopy. Increased vigilance by primary care and consulting physicians is necessary to detect this rare but readily correctable condition. PMID:25802350

  12. First report of Dientamoeba fragilis infection explaining acute non-specific abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Vassalou, E; Vassalos, C M; Spanakos, G; Fotopoulos, A; Dounias, G; Kalofolias, P; Vrioni, G; Tsakris, A

    2016-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is now considered a potentially emerging gastrointestinal pathogen in both developing and developed countries. We first report an autochthonous case of D. fragilis infection in Greece. A 49-year-old female with acute non-specific abdominal pain required emergency surgical admission for active observation and repeated assessment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of acute unexplained abdominal pain finally attributed to D. fragilis infection using microscopic and molecular methods. PMID:26776132

  13. Epidemiology of Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Korterink, Judith J.; Diederen, Kay; Benninga, Marc A.; Tabbers, Merit M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to review the literature regarding epidemiology of functional abdominal pain disorders in children and to assess its geographic, gender and age distribution including associated risk factors of developing functional abdominal pain. Methods The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychInfo databases were systematically searched up to February 2014. Study selection criteria included: (1) studies of birth cohort, school based or general population samples (2) containing data concerning epidemiology, prevalence or incidence (3) of children aged 4-18 years (4) suffering from functional abdominal pain. Quality of studies was rated by a self-made assessment tool. A random-effect meta-analysis model was used to estimate the prevalence of functional abdominal pain in childhood. Results A total of 58 articles, including 196,472 children were included. Worldwide pooled prevalence for functional abdominal pain disorders was 13.5% (95% CI 11.8-15.3), of which irritable bowel syndrome was reported most frequently (8.8%, 95% CI 6.2-11.9). The prevalence across studies ranged widely from 1.6% to 41.2%. Higher pooled prevalence rates were reported in South America (16.8%) and Asia (16.5%) compared to Europe (10.5%). And a higher pooled prevalence was reported when using the Rome III criteria (16.4%, 95% CI 13.5-19.4). Functional abdominal pain disorders are shown to occur significantly more in girls (15.9% vs. 11.5%, pooled OR 1.5) and is associated with the presence of anxiety and depressive disorders, stress and traumatic life events. Conclusion Functional abdominal pain disorders are a common problem worldwide with irritable bowel syndrome as most encountered abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. Female gender, psychological disorders, stress and traumatic life events affect prevalence. PMID:25992621

  14. Biliary dyskinesia: a potentially unrecognized cause of abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Brendan T; Narasimhan, Nathan P; Golladay, Eustace S; Hirschl, Ronald B

    2004-08-01

    Biliary dyskinesia is defined as symptomatic biliary colic without cholelithiasis, and is diagnosed during cholescintigraphy by assessing gallbladder emptying with cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulation. Unfortunately, gallbladder emptying is not routinely assessed during cholescintigraphy in pediatric patients. The purpose of this review is to assess the effectiveness of cholecystectomy in patients with chronic abdominal pain and delayed gallbladder emptying and to assess whether these findings correlate with the histologic evidence of chronic cholecystitis. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients ( n=16) at our institution from October 1997 to August 2001 who underwent quantitative cholescintigraphy with CCK stimulation that demonstrated delayed gallbladder emptying (< 35% at 60 min) and who subsequently underwent cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in 16 patients with chronic abdominal pain. All 16 patients had delayed gallbladder emptying (mean ejection fraction: 15+/-8%, range: 3-32%). The mean age was 12+/-2 years (range: 8-17 years). Presenting symptoms included abdominal pain (86%), fatty food intolerance (27%), emesis (13%), and diarrhea (13%). Mean duration of abdominal pain before operation was 11+/-19 months (range: 2 weeks-6 years). One patient's symptoms persisted postoperatively, but abdominal pain resolved in all other patients. Histologic evidence of chronic cholecystitis was demonstrated in 86% of surgical specimens. Five patients underwent concurrent appendectomy, and all had normal appendiceal histology. Our experience suggests that children with chronic abdominal pain and delayed gallbladder emptying on CCK-stimulated cholescintigraphy are likely to benefit from cholecystectomy and to have histologic evidence of chronic cholecystitis. PMID:15322841

  15. Increased gastrointestinal permeability and gut inflammation in children with functional abdominal pain and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine gastrointestinal (GI) permeability and fecal calprotectin concentration in children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome (FAP/IBS) versus control subjects and ascertain potential relationships with pain symptoms and stooling, GI permeability a...

  16. Treatment of Abdominal Segmental Hernia, Constipation, and Pain Following Herpes Zoster with Paravertebral Block.

    PubMed

    Kim, Saeyoung; Jeon, Younghoon

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) most commonly occurs in elderly patients and involves sensory neurons resulting in pain and sensory changes. Clinically significant motor deficits and visceral neuropathies are thought to be relatively rare. A 72-year-old man presented with abdominal segmental hernia, constipation, and pain following HZ in the left T9-10 dermatome. Sixteen days before presentation, he had developed a painful herpetic rash in the left upper abdominal quadrant. Approximately 10 days after the onset of the rash, constipation occurred and was managed with daily oral medication with bisacodyl 5 mg. In addition, 14 days after the onset of HZ, the patient noticed a protrusion of the left upper abdominal wall. Abdominal x-ray, ultrasound of the abdomen, and electrolyte analysis showed no abnormalities. General physical examination revealed a reducible bulge in his left upper quadrant and superficial abdominal reflexes were diminished in the affected region. Electromyographic testing revealed denervational changes limited to the left thoracic paraspinal muscles and supraumbilical muscles, corresponding to the affected dermatomes. He was prescribed with 500 mg of famciclovir 3 times a day for 7 days, and pregabalin 75 mg twice a day and acetaminophen 650 mg 3 times a day for 14 days. However, his pain was rated at an intensity of 5 on the numerical analogue scale from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). A paravertebral block was performed at T9-10 with a mixture of 0.5% lidocaine 3 mL and triamcinolone 40 mg. One day after the procedure, the abdominal pain disappeared. In addition, 5 days after the intervention, the abdominal protrusion and constipation were resolved. He currently remains symptom free at a 6 month follow-up. PMID:26431148

  17. Small bowel diverticulitis with severe anemia and abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    De Minicis, Samuele; Antonini, Filippo; Belfiori, Valerio; Lo Cascio, Massimiliano; Marraccini, Barbara; Piergallini, Simona; Mosca, Piergiorgio; Macarri, Giampiero

    2015-01-01

    The current case report is related to a male patient with diabetes, obesity [body mass index (BMI) 33], hypertension and recurrence of anemia associated to melena and deep asthenia. M.P., a 60-year-old obese individual, was referred to our department by the primary care unit (PCU) of our hospital for severe anemia (Hemoglobin 6.5 g/dL) associated to episodes of melena and abdominal pain. In the past 5 mo the patient referred to the local hospital 3 times for episodes of melena (hemoglobin levels showed anemia 9.8 g/dL) but the main gastroenterological exams were completely negative (colonoscopy and gastroscopy). The PCU of our Hospital, after stabilization of the main parameters and blood transfusion for the low levels of hemoglobin, referred the patient to gastroenterologists: the patient was subjected to both colonoscopy and gastroscopy that were negative. Due to the condition of acute severe hemorrhage the patient, during the first 3 h from the access to the PCU, was subjected to arteriography that did not reveal any hemorrhagic foci or vascular alterations. The video capsule for the study of the small bowel showed the presence of blood beginning from the third portion of duodenum but deep gastroscopy did not reveal it. The patient was then subjected to double balloon endoscopy that revealed a severe diverticulosis of the small bowel with blood from the diverticula. The entero-tomografia computerizzata confirmed the diagnosis and revealed an extension of the diverticula for almost the entire small bowel (no diverticula in the colon). The patient was subjected to wide spectrum antibiotic therapy with resolution of the symptoms and stabilization of hemoglobin levels. The surgeon suggests no indication to surgery for the wide area involved from the disease and potential high risk of complication due to the high BMI. At home, the patient started a monthly therapy with rifaximin and probiotics associated to mesalazine. At present, after 12 mo from the last episode of hemorrhage, the patient is in good clinical condition, reduced his body weight of about 7 kg and the hemoglobin levels appear in slow progressive increase (last measurement 13.2 g/dL). PMID:25984521

  18. Increased wind-up to heat pain in women with a childhood history of functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Bruehl, Stephen; Walker, Lynn S

    2011-04-01

    Idiopathic or functional abdominal pain (FAP) is common in school-age children and typically reflects a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID). FGIDs in adults have been distinguished by enhanced responses of the central nervous system to pain stimuli, known as central sensitization. This study investigated whether adolescents and young adults with a history of pediatric FAP (n=144), compared with well control subjects (n=78), showed enhanced central sensitization demonstrated by greater temporal summation (wind-up) to brief, repetitive heat pulses. We also assessed the role of gender and trait anxiety in wind-up to heat pain. Women with a history of FAP showed greater wind-up to heat pain than men with a history of FAP (P<.05) and well control subjects of both genders (P<.05). Results were similar for FAP participants whose abdominal pain was ongoing at follow-up and those whose pain had resolved. Although anxiety was significantly higher in the FAP group compared with control subjects (P<.01) and in women compared with men (P<.05), anxiety did not explain the increased wind-up observed in women with a childhood history of FAP. Results suggest that women with a pediatric history of FAP may have a long-term vulnerability to pain associated with enhanced central nervous system responses to pain stimuli. Young women with a childhood history of functional abdominal pain may have a long-term vulnerability to pain that is associated with enhanced responses of the central nervous system to pain stimuli. PMID:21282006

  19. Clinical profile of non-traumatic acute abdominal pain presenting to an adult emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Chanana, Lakshay; Jegaraj, Moses A. K.; Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Yadav, Bijesh; Abilash, Kundavaram

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abdominal pain is one of the most common reasons for presenting to the emergency depatment (ED) and the etiology is varied. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a large ED of a tertiary care center in India. All patients older than 15 years and presenting with non-traumatic abdominal pain to the ED from May 2012 to October 2012 were recruited and the demographic characteristics, diagnosis and outcome were analyzed. Results: The study cohort included 264 patients over a 6 month period. More than half (55.6%) were aged between 15 and 40 years. There was a male predominance (56.8%). Majority of the patients (76.9%) presented with abdominal pain of less than 72 hour duration. The pain was sudden in onset in 54.9% of patients. Dull type was the most common character of pain (36%) followed by colicky type (22.3%). The most common site of pain was the lower abdomen (45.8%). Upper abdominal pain was seen in 26.9% and the pain was generalized in 27.3% of patients. The common causes were uretericcolic (16.3%), urinary tract infection (12.5%), acute pancreatitis (11%), acute appendicitis (10.6%) and acute gastritis (8%). More than half (51.9%) discharged from ED and 37% of cases were managed by the emergency physicians. Surgical intervention was required in 25.8% of patients. The mortality rate was 2.3%. Conclusions: Abdominal pain is a common ED symptom and clinicians must consider multiple diagnoses, especially those that require immediate intervention to limit morbidity and mortality. PMID:26288785

  20. Menarche? A Case of Abdominal Pain and Vaginal Bleeding in a Preadolescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Riney, Lauren C; Reed, Jennifer L; Kruger, Laura L; Brody, Alan J; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2015-11-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints in the pediatric ED. Because of the broad range of potential diagnoses, it can pose challenges in diagnosis and therapy in the preadolescent girl. An 11-year-old previously healthy girl presented to our pediatric ED with fever, decreased appetite, vaginal bleeding, and abdominal pain. Initial evaluation yielded elevated creatinine levels, leukocytosis with bandemia, elevated inflammatory markers, and urine concerning for a urinary tract infection. She began receiving antibiotics for presumed pyelonephritis and was admitted to the hospital. After worsening respiratory status and continued abdominal pain, a computed tomography scan was obtained and a pelvic foreign body and abscess were identified. Adolescent gynecology was consulted for examination under anesthesia for abscess drainage and foreign body removal. A foreign body in the vagina or uterus can present as vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, dysuria, or hematuria. Because symptoms can be diverse, an intravaginal or uterine foreign body should be considered in the preteen female patient presenting to the ED with abdominal pain. PMID:26169928

  1. Attachment and Adjustment in Adolescents and Young Adults with a History of Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Kelsey T.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Walker, Lynn S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study tested predictions of the Attachment-Diathesis Model (ADM) of Chronic Pain in a cross-sectional sample of adolescents and young adults with a history of childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP). ADM posits that attachment anxiety is a diathesis for poor adjustment (physical health, mental health, and functioning) in the context of chronic pain, and that pain self-efficacy, pain threat appraisal, and passive coping mediate this effect. Methods Participants (N = 261) were recruited from a database of consecutive new patients evaluated for abdominal pain at a pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Participants mean age at the follow-up assessment was 21 years. Structural equation modeling was used to test the fit of our conceptual model to the data. Results Model fit was good (CFI = .971, TLI = .940, RMSEA = 0.067). Attachment anxiety significantly predicted poorer health in both the mental and physical domains. Model fit was consistent with our hypothesis that pain self-efficacy mediates the effect of attachment anxiety on passive coping, and that passive coping, in turn, mediates the effect of pain self-efficacy and pain threat appraisal on mental and physical health. Discussion Among individuals with a childhood history of FAP, those with anxious attachment may be at higher risk for poor physical and mental health. Pain beliefs and coping may mediate the relation between anxious attachment and health outcomes and may serve as effective targets for intervention in chronic pain. PMID:24751542

  2. Evaluating the Patient with Left Lower Quadrant Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Bodmer, Nicholas A; Thakrar, Kiran H

    2015-11-01

    Left lower quadrant pain is a frequent indication for imaging in the emergency department. Most causes of pain originate from the colon, including diverticulitis, colitis, fecal impaction, and epiploic appendagitis. Left-sided urolithiasis and spontaneous hemorrhage in the retroperitoneum or rectus sheath are additional causes of pain. Computed tomography is the preferred imaging modality in the emergent setting for all of these pathologic conditions. Gynecologic, testicular, and neoplastic pathology may also cause left lower quadrant pain but are not discussed in this article. PMID:26526432

  3. Characterizing abdominal pain in IBS: guidance for study inclusion criteria, outcome measurement and clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, B. M. R.; Bolus, R.; Harris, L. A.; Lucak, S.; Chey, W. D.; Sayuk, G.; Esrailian, E.; Lembo, A.; Karsan, H.; Tillisch, K.; Talley, J.; Chang, L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Although irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multisymptom disorder, abdominal pain drives illness severity more than other symptoms. Despite consensus that IBS trials should measure pain to define study entry and determine efficacy, the optimal method of measuring pain remains uncertain. Aim To determine whether combining information from multiple pain dimensions may capture the IBS illness experience more effectively than the approach of measuring `pain predominance' or pain intensity alone. Methods Irritable bowel syndrome patients rated dimensions of pain, including intensity, frequency, constancy, predominance, predictability, duration, speed of onset and relationship to bowel movements. We evaluated the impact of each dimension on illness severity using multivariable regression techniques. Results Among the pain dimensions, intensity, frequency, constancy and predictability were strongly and independently associated with illness severity; the other dimensions had weaker associations. The clinical definition of `pain predominance', in which patients define pain as their most bothersome symptom, was insufficient to categorize patients by illness severity. Conclusions Irritable bowel disease pain is multifaceted; some pain dimensions drive illness more than others. IBS trials should measure various pain dimensions, including intensity, constancy, frequency and predictability; this may improve upon the customary use of measuring pain as a unidimensional symptom in IBS. PMID:20807217

  4. An oblique muscle hematoma as a rare cause of severe abdominal pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Abdominal wall hematomas are an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain and are often misdiagnosed. They are more common in elderly individuals, particularly in those under anticoagulant therapy. Most abdominal wall hematomas occur in the rectus sheath, and hematomas within the oblique muscle are very rare and are poorly described in the literature. Here we report the case of an oblique muscle hematoma in a middle-aged patient who was not under anticoagulant therapy. Case presentation A 42-year-old Japanese man presented with a painful, enlarging, lateral abdominal wall mass, which appeared after playing baseball. Abdominal computed tomography and ultrasonography showed a large soft tissue mass located in the patients left internal oblique muscle. A diagnosis of a lateral oblique muscle hematoma was made and the patient was treated conservatively. Conclusion Physicians should consider an oblique muscle hematoma during the initial differential diagnosis of pain in the lateral abdominal wall even in the absence of anticoagulant therapy or trauma. PMID:23327472

  5. Abdominal pain and faeculent vomiting in a 64-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Winters, Leigha; Krell, Robert W; Machado-Aranda, David

    2016-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman with a previous right colectomy presented with severe epigastric abdominal pain and nausea of several weeks' duration, which then escalated to projectile faeculent emesis. During her clinical course, she remained afebrile with normal vital signs. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension, moderate tenderness in the bilateral upper quadrants and provoked voluntary abdominal wall guarding. Haematology and laboratory chemistries were only notable for a mild (14.6 K/μL) leucocytosis. Acute abdominal plain radiological series revealed dilated small bowel loops and possible pneumoperitoneum. Abdominal CT demonstrated a mechanical small bowel obstruction and no extraluminal air. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, revealing an obstructing enterolith related to actively inflamed jejunal diverticulitis (complicated JD). This case report aims to describe the non-specific presentation of a poorly understood disease entity that presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the medical community. PMID:26729826

  6. Abdominal aortic aneurysm causing lumbar vertebral erosion in Behet's disease presenting by low back pain.

    PubMed

    rc, Merve; Kele?, Duygu; Peker, Elif; ak?c?, Mehmet; Shimbori, Naota; Erden, ?lhan; Yaz?c?o?lu, Levent; Sonel Tur, Birkan

    2015-02-01

    Behet's disease (BD) is a chronic multi-system disorder commonly seen in Mediterranean, middle east and far eastern populations. In this report, we describe a case of a 55-year-old male with Behet's disease who presented with a low back pain and sciatica. Imaging studies showed that he had a destruction of the third lumbar vertebra because of abdominal aortic aneurysm-related Behet's disease. Aortic aneurysms with vertebral body erosion have been rarely reported, but this vascular complication is a life-threatening clinical picture. Therefore, among the causes of chronic lumbar pain in a BD patient, abdominal aortic aneurysm should be remembered. PMID:24957970

  7. Exertional abdominal pain as a symptom of secondary pulmonary hypertension in mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Najafian, J; Toghianifar, N; Khosravi, A

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare presentation of mitral stenosis (MS). MS is a common valvular disease, the first manifestation of which is usually easy fatigability and exertional dyspnea. As the disease progresses in severity, other signs and symptoms appear, such as orthopnea, hemoptysis, and peripheral edema. This is the first report of a case of mitral stenosis presenting with exertional abdominal pain as the first manifestation. This case report describes the clinical characteristics of a 55-year-old woman with mitral stenosis and severe pulmonary hypertension, whose first symptom was exertional abdominal pain. PMID:23377483

  8. Abdominal pain and diarrhea caused by splenic arteriovenous fistula: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinxin; Wang, Mingjun; Zhang, Jun; Qi, Yubo

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain and diarrhea were the most common symptoms in clinics, which could be caused by various diseases such as acute gastroenteritis, intestinal cancer and so on. Here, we report an unusual case of splenic arteriovenous fistula (SAVF) with splenectomy history. Our patient was initially presented with the symptoms of abdominal pain and diarrhea. The diagnosis of SAVF was identified by computed tomography angiography and Dopplers ultrasonic examination. The patient with SAVF was successfully cured by surgical ligation and recovered uneventfully postoperatively. PMID:26550409

  9. Efficacy of a Brief Relaxation Training Intervention for Pediatric Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Katrina M.; Meadows, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    This study is a preliminary investigation of the efficacy of a brief intervention for recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) via a multiple baseline across subjects design. The intervention consisted of a single 1-hour session including psychoeducation and coaching of breathing retraining; the length, duration, and content of the intervention were…

  10. Efficacy of a Brief Relaxation Training Intervention for Pediatric Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Katrina M.; Meadows, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    This study is a preliminary investigation of the efficacy of a brief intervention for recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) via a multiple baseline across subjects design. The intervention consisted of a single 1-hour session including psychoeducation and coaching of breathing retraining; the length, duration, and content of the intervention were

  11. Intestinal lymphangiectasia without protein loss in a child with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Van der Meer, S B; Forget, P P; Willebrand, D

    1990-02-01

    A 7-year-old white girl presented with recurrent abdominal pain because of gastroesophageal reflux. At endoscopy, we found intestinal lymphangiectasia in the duodenal biopsy. There were no physical signs, nor any laboratory evidence of enteric protein loss. PMID:2303978

  12. Protein S deficiency present in a pregnant woman with dyspnea, abdominal pains, restlessness, agitation and hypofibrinogenemia

    PubMed Central

    Umazume, Takeshi; Morikawa, Mamoru; Yamada, Takahiro; Akaishi, Rina; Koyama, Takahiro; Minakami, Hisanori

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Hypofibrinogenemia is rare in pulmonary thromboembolism. A pregnant woman with dyspnea, abdominal pain, restlessness, agitation and protein S deficiency exhibited normal blood oxygenation and high D-dimer (370?g/mL) and undetectable fibrinogen levels in the blood. The pathogenesis responsible for present findings may have some features similar to amniotic fluid embolism. PMID:25914811

  13. Assessment and Treatment of Recurrent Abdominal Pain: Guidelines for the School Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Colleen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Notes that somatic complaints without clear organic origin are also primary indicators for both anxiety and depression in childhood and adolescence. Review of literature provides school psychologists with basic information regarding prevalence, assessment, and treatment of one of most common types of somatic complaints: recurrent abdominal pain.

  14. Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation at Jiaji points reduce abdominal pain after colonoscopy: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanqing; Wu, Weilan; Yao, Yusheng; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Qiuyan; Qiu, Liangcheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) at Jiaji acupuncture points has therapeutic potential for relieving viscera pain and opioid-related side effects. This prospective, randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of TEAS on abdominal pain after colonoscopy. Methods: Consecutive outpatients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II underwent selective colonoscopy were randomly assigned into two groups for either TEAS or sham pretreatment. The primary outcomes were the incidence of abdominal pain after colonoscopy. The secondary outcomes included the incidence of abdominal distension, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), duration of PACU stay, and patient’s satisfaction and acceptance. Results: Among the 229 patients analyzed, fewer occurrence of post-procedural abdominal pain (11.4% vs 25.2%, P = 0.007) and distension (1.8% vs 7.8%, P = 0.032) were observed in TEAS group, when compared with the sham group. The duration of PACU stay was significant shortened in TEAS group (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, patients’ satisfaction score to medical service was higher (P < 0.001), and their acceptance to colonoscopy was improved (P = 0.011). Conclusion: Pretreatment with TEAS can reduce post-procedural discomfort, provide more efficient medical resources utilization, and improved patient’s satisfaction and colonoscopy acceptance. PMID:26131193

  15. Recurrent abdominal pain and lactose maldigestion in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    DiPalma, A M; DiPalma, J A

    1997-01-01

    Recurrent abdominal pain of childhood affects 10 to 15% of school-aged children and leads to disability and learning difficulties. Lactose maldigestion may be a causative or contributory factor that when identified may lead to improvement. Thus, formal diagnostic testing using breath hydrogen lactose challenge methods is encouraged. This review focuses on this important condition and management options. PMID:9384061

  16. [When should a patient with abdominal pain be referred to the emergency ward?].

    PubMed

    de Saussure, Wassila Oulhaci; Andereggen, Elisabeth; Sarasin, Franois

    2010-08-25

    When should a patient with abdominal pain be referred to the emergency ward? The following goals must be achieved upon managing patients with acute abdominal pain: 1) identify vital emergency situations; 2) detect surgical conditions that require emergency referral without further diagnostic procedures; 3) in "non surgical acute abdomen patients" perform appropriate diagnostic procedures, or in selected cases delay tests and reevaluate the patient after an observation period, after which a referral decision is made. Clues from the history and physical examination are critical to perform this evaluation. A good knowledge of the most frequent acute abdominal conditions, and identifying potential severity criteria allow an appropriate management and decision about emergency referral. PMID:20873434

  17. Low yield of routine duodenal biopsies for evaluation of abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Sterling M; Kwong, Wilson T; Kalmaz, Denise; Savides, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the yield of biopsying normal duodenal mucosa for investigation of abdominal pain. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with duodenal biopsies of normal appearing duodenal mucosa for an indication that included abdominal pain. All the patients in this study were identified from an electronic endoscopy database at a single academic medical center and had an EGD with duodenal biopsies performed over a 4-year period. New diagnoses that were made as a direct result of duodenal biopsies were identified. All duodenal pathology reports and endoscopy records were reviewed for indications to perform the examination as well as the findings; all the medical records were reviewed. Exclusion criteria included age less than 18 years, duodenal mass, nodule, or polyp, endoscopic duodenitis, duodenal scalloping, known celiac disease, positive celiac serology, Crohns disease, or history of bone marrow transplant. Information was collected in a de-identified database with pertinent demographic information including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and descriptive statistics were performed. RESULTS: About 300 patients underwent EGD with biopsies of benign appearing or normal appearing duodenal mucosa. The mean age of patients was 44.1 16.8 years; 189 of 300 (63%) were female. A mean of 4.3 duodenal biopsies were performed in each patient. In the subgroup of patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss the mean age was 43.4 16.3 years. Duodenal biopsies performed for an indication that included abdominal pain resulting in 4 new diagnoses (3 celiac disease and 1 giardiasis) for an overall yield of 1.3%. 183 patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss (out of the total 300 patients) underwent duodenal biopsy of duodenal mucosa resulting in three new diagnoses (two cases of celiac disease and one giardiasis) for a yield of 1.6%. Duodenal biopsies of 19 HIV patients presenting for evaluation of abdominal pain did not reveal any new diagnoses. Information pertaining to new diagnoses is provided. CONCLUSION: Routine biopsy of normal appearing duodena in patients with abdominal pain should be reserved for those with a high pre-test probability given its low diagnostic yield. PMID:26139995

  18. Present state and future challenges in pediatric abdominal pain therapeutics research: Looking beyond the forest

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Craig A; Schurman, Jennifer V; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    At the present time, it is nearly impossible to treat pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders associated with pain in an evidence based fashion. This is due to the overall lack of controlled studies and, even more importantly, the complexity of the contributors to disease phenotype which are not controlled or accounted for in most therapeutic trials. In this manuscript, we review the challenges of defining entry criteria, controlling for the large number of biopsychosocial factors which may effect outcomes, and understanding pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors when designing therapeutic trials for abdominal pain in children. We also review the current state of pediatric abdominal pain therapeutics and discuss trial design considerations as we move forward. PMID:26558142

  19. Pain relief after transversus abdominis plane block for abdominal surgery in children: a service evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Bergmans, Elonka; Jacobs, Alet; Desai, Rachel; Masters, Oliver W; Thies, Karl C

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a prospective service evaluation of the quality of pain control after preoperative transverse abdominis plane (TAP) block in 100 children undergoing abdominal surgery. Data were collected on type of procedure, age, weight, level of the block, local anesthetic used, additional analgesia, and hourly pain scores. Of the 100 patients, 87 were included in the evaluation, 77% of who were less than 1 year old. Adequate pain relief was achieved in 93% of all patients. Almost half (47%) of our patients did not require intravenous (IV) opioids in the postoperative period and 27% did not need any IV opioids at all. Our results confirm the good quality of perioperative analgesia achieved with a TAP block as part of a multimodal approach in children undergoing abdominal surgery. Depending on the patient’s age and the type of procedure, a TAP block may eliminate the need for IV opioids. PMID:25897261

  20. An 86-year-old man with acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Paul M E L; Posthouwer, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    An 86-year-old man presented with severe pain in the upper abdomen along with fever. On physical examination, we found an arterial blood pressure of 84/43 mm Hg, a heart rate of 80 bpm and a temperature of 38.3°C. The abdomen was painful and peristalsis was absent. Empiric antibiotic therapy for sepsis was started with amoxicillin/clavulanate and gentamicin. CT scan of the abdomen revealed an emphysematous cholecystitis. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystostomy was applied. Bile cultures revealed Clostridium perfringens. Emphysematous cholecystitis is a life-threatening form of acute cholecystitis that occurs as a consequence of ischaemic injury to the gallbladder, followed by translocation of gas-forming bacteria (ie, C. perfringens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Streptococci). The mortality associated with emphysematous cholecystitis is higher than in non-emphysematous cholecystitis (15% vs 4%). Therefore, early diagnosis with radiological imaging is of vital importance. PMID:26869625

  1. Schistosomiasis: an unusual cause of right lower quadrant abdominal pain.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, B. A.; Gopalan, V.; Freeman, H.; Levowitz, B.

    1997-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, although unusual in North America, is a common disease worldwide. Symptoms vary depending on the species involved. Immigrants from endemic regions are the commonly affected patients found in North America. In most cases, schistosomiasis does not present with right lower quadrant pain. Even in endemic regions, this form of presentation is uncommon. In the United States, most cases of right lower quadrant pain often will be treated as appendicitis. Questions remain unanswered as to whether the schistosomes cause appendicitis or are found incidentally in these cases. Stool and urine specimens may be helpful in making a diagnosis. Most cases require operative intervention to rule out appendicitis and to obtain tissue for histopathologic diagnosis. Praziquantel is effective in eradicating infestations. PMID:9220695

  2. Twelve Month Follow-up of Cognitive Behavioral Therapyfor Children with Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Walker, Lynn S.; Romano, Joan M.; Christie, Dennis L.; Youssef, Nader; DuPen, Melissa M.; Ballard, Sheri A.; Labus, Jennifer; Welsh, Ericka; Feld, Lauren D.; Whitehead, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a brief intervention for children with functional abdominal pain and their parents' responses to their child's pain resulted in improved coping 12 months later. Design Prospective, randomized, longitudinal study. Setting Families were recruited during a 4-year period in Seattle, WA and Morristown, NJ. Participants 200 children with persistent functional abdominal pain and their parents. Interventions A 3-session social learning and cognitive behavioral therapy intervention or an education and support intervention. Main outcome measures Child symptoms and pain coping responses were monitored using standard instruments, as was parental response to child pain behavior. Data were collected at baseline and after treatment (1 week and 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment). This article reports the 12-month data. Results Relative to children in the education and support group, children in the social learning and cognitive behavioral therapy group reported greater baseline to 12-month follow-up decreases in gastrointestinal symptom severity (estimated mean difference = -0.36, CI = -0.63, -0.01) and greater improvements in pain coping responses (estimated mean difference = 0.61, CI = 0.26, 1.02). Relative to parents in the education and support group, parents in the social learning and cognitive behavioral therapy group reported greater baseline to 12-month decreases in solicitous responses to their child's symptoms (estimated mean difference = -0.22, CI = -0.42, -0.03) and greater decreases in maladaptive beliefs regarding their child's pain (estimated mean difference = -0.36, CI = -0.59, -0.13). Conclusions Results suggest long-term efficacy of a brief intervention to reduce parental solicitousness and increasing coping skills. This strategy may be a viable alternative for children with functional abdominal pain. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier #NCT00494260 PMID:23277304

  3. Glucomannan for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders in children: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Andrea; Dziechciarz, Piotr; Szajewska, Hania

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy of glucomannan (GNN) as the sole treatment for abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Patients were recruited among children referred to the Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Warsaw. Included in the study were children aged 7-17 years with abdominal pain-related FGIDs classified according to the Rome III diagnostic criteria. The children were randomly assigned to receive GNN, a polysaccharide of 1,4-D-glucose and D-mannose, a soluble fiber from the Japanese Konjac plant, at a dosage of 2.52 g/d (1 sachet of 1.26 g 2 times a day), or a comparable placebo (maltodextrin) at the same dosage. The content of each sachet was dissolved in approximately 125 mL of fluid and was consumed twice daily for 4 wk. RESULTS: Of the 89 eligible children, 84 (94%) completed the study. No pain and treatment success (defined as no pain or a decrease ? 2/6 points on the FACES Pain Scale Revised) were similar in the GNN (n = 41) and placebo (n = 43) groups [no pain (12/41 vs 6/43, respectively; RR = 2.1, 95%CI: 0.87-5.07) as well as treatment success (23/41 vs 20/43; RR = 1.2, 95%CI: 0.79-1.83)]. No significant differences between the groups were observed in the secondary outcomes, such as abdominal cramps, abdominal bloating/gassiness, episodes of nausea or vomiting, or a changed in stool consistency. GNN demonstrated no significant influence on the number of children requiring rescue therapy, school absenteeism, or daily activities. CONCLUSION: In our setting, GNN, as dosed in this study, was no more effective than the placebo in achieving therapeutic success in the management of FGIDs in children. PMID:23716985

  4. Paraspinal and Extensive Epidural Abscess: The Great Masqueraders of Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Andrew; Aung, Thu Thu; Shankar, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Paraspinal and epidural abscesses are rare conditions often diagnosed later in the disease process that can have significant morbidity and mortality. Predisposing risk factors include diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus, intravenous drug abuse, and previous history of spinal surgery or injection. They can threaten the spinal cord by compressive effect, leading to sensory motor deficits and ultimately paralysis and death. Diagnosis may be a challenge due to the delayed presentation of nonspecific back pain or radicular pain such as chest pain or abdominal pain. We present a rare case on a patient with periumbilical pain, constipation, and urinary retention who was ultimately diagnosed with a paraspinal abscess extending into the epidural space from T1 to S2. He underwent decompressive laminectomy with incision and drainage of the abscesses. The patient made an excellent recovery postoperatively, and repeat magnetic resonance imaging at six weeks showed resolution of the abscess. PMID:26770847

  5. Acute Abdominal Pain after Intercourse: Adrenal Hemorrhage as the First Sign of Metastatic Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Clifford D.

    2014-01-01

    Although the adrenal glands are a common site of cancer metastases, they are often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on CT scan or autopsy. Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage associated with metastatic lung cancer is an exceedingly rare phenomenon, and diagnosis can be difficult due to its nonspecific symptoms and ability to mimic other intra-abdominal pathologies. We report a case of a 65-year-old man with a history of right upper lobectomy seven months earlier for stage IB non-small cell lung cancer who presented with acute abdominal pain after intercourse. CT scan revealed a new right adrenal mass with surrounding hemorrhage, and subsequent FDG-PET scan confirmed new metabolic adrenal metastases. The patient's presentation of abdominal pain and adrenal hemorrhage immediately after sexual intercourse suggests that exertion, straining, or increased intra-abdominal pressure might be risk factors for precipitation of hemorrhage in patients with adrenal metastases. Management includes pain control and supportive treatment in mild cases, with arterial embolization or adrenalectomy being reserved for cases of severe hemorrhage. PMID:25126096

  6. Jejunal Choristoma: A Very Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain in Children

    PubMed Central

    Olajide, T. A.; Agodirin, S. O.; Ojewola, R. W.; Akanbi, O. O.; Solaja, T. O.; Odesanya, Johnson Oluremi; Ariyibi, O. O.

    2014-01-01

    Choristoma is development of a normal tissue in an aberrant location. This report describes jejunal salivary choristoma (JSC) causing recurring episodes of abdominal discomfort in a 5-year-old girl. Exploratory laporatomy revealed a pale yellow subserosal jejunal lesion. Wedge resection of the lesion and repair of the bowel were performed. The child did well postoperatively and has since that time been free of pain at follow-up. Histopathological examination of the resected lesion revealed salivary gland choriostoma. Literature review (PUBMED search engine) revealed no previous report of this rare clinicopathologic entity. We conclude that choriostoma should be considered a possible differential when evaluating abdominal complaint in children. PMID:24511408

  7. Jejunal choristoma: a very rare cause of abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Olajide, T A; Agodirin, S O; Ojewola, R W; Akanbi, O O; Solaja, T O; Odesanya, Johnson Oluremi; Ariyibi, O O

    2014-01-01

    Choristoma is development of a normal tissue in an aberrant location. This report describes jejunal salivary choristoma (JSC) causing recurring episodes of abdominal discomfort in a 5-year-old girl. Exploratory laporatomy revealed a pale yellow subserosal jejunal lesion. Wedge resection of the lesion and repair of the bowel were performed. The child did well postoperatively and has since that time been free of pain at follow-up. Histopathological examination of the resected lesion revealed salivary gland choriostoma. Literature review (PUBMED search engine) revealed no previous report of this rare clinicopathologic entity. We conclude that choriostoma should be considered a possible differential when evaluating abdominal complaint in children. PMID:24511408

  8. Ultrasound in newborns and children suffering from non-traumatic acute abdominal pain: imaging with clinical and surgical correlation.

    PubMed

    di Giacomo, Vincenza; Trinci, Margherita; van der Byl, Giulia; Catania, Vincenzo Davide; Calisti, Alessandro; Miele, Vittorio

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review ultrasonographic appearance of the most common causes of non-traumatic acute abdominal pain in pediatric patients and to understand the applications and limitations of this technique giving a practical approach showing different clinical cases. A pictorial review of cases was made presenting the most common causes of neonatal and pediatric non-traumatic acute abdominal pain; sonographic features are discussed. Ultrasound in conjunction with Color Doppler imaging is a valuable tool in the evaluation of neonatal and pediatric non-traumatic acute abdominal pain; causes of acute abdomen in children could vary depending on the ages of the children. PMID:26550064

  9. Uncommon Causes of Acute Abdominal Pain – A Pictorial Essay

    PubMed Central

    Hariharan, Mahesh; Balasubramaniam, Rajan; Shetty, Sharath Kumar; Yadavalli, Shanthala; Ahetasham, Mohammed; Devarapalli, Sravya

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdomen is one of the most common clinical conditions requiring a radiological investigation. Ultrasound is the primary modality of choice which can diagnose some of the common causes of acute abdomen. However, sometimes the underlying cause for the pain is far more complicated than expected mandating a high degree of suspicion to suggest further investigation with contrast enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we have compiled a comprehensive series of selected cases to highlight the conditions which can be easily overlooked unless carefully sought for. This article also emphasizes the importance of multimodality approach to arrive at the final diagnosis with an increased overall diagnostic accuracy which in turn improves patient management and prognosis. PMID:27014500

  10. Sacral neuromodulation as a treatment for neuropathic clitoral pain after abdominal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Marcelissen, Tom; Van Kerrebroeck, Philip; de Wachter, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with chronic pelvic pain, although it is not an FDA-approved indication. We present a case of a 51-year-old patient that presented with symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction and clitoral pain after an abdominal hysterectomy. Electrophysiological evaluation suggested a pudendal nerve lesion. After failure of conservative treatment, she was offered SNM as a treatment for her voiding symptoms. During test stimulation, she experienced only moderate improvement in voiding symptoms, but a striking improvement in pain symptoms. She underwent a two-stage implantation of a neurostimulator with a successful outcome after 6 months' follow-up. The results of this report suggest that SNM may be effective in patients with neuropathic pelvic pain. PMID:20386879

  11. Subcostal transversus abdominis plane phenol injection for abdominal wall cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Garces, Carlos Eduardo; Asenjo, Juan Francisco; Gomez, Carlos Mario; Jaramillo, Santiago; Acosta, Nathalia; Ramirez, Lizeth Jazmin; Lopera, Luz Maria; Vargas, Juan Felipe

    2014-03-01

    A subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) phenol injection was performed on a patient with refractory cancer pain due a metastatic involvement of the abdominal wall. A diagnostic block with local anesthetic was performed under ultrasound guidance (USG), resulting in a decrease of 80% and 100% in dynamic and static visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, respectively, for 20 hours. A phenol injection was then performed under USG. The patient reported 70% and 100% reduction in the dynamic and static VAS for pain and had a 50% decrease in the opioid requirement that was maintained for 2 months. TAP blocks offer an interesting tool for either diagnosis or therapeutic purpose in chronic pain management. USG provides an optimal approach to soft-tissue lesions where fluoroscopy techniques are not useful. PMID:23560547

  12. A 33-year-old Haitian immigrant with 7 months of abdominal pain and progressive distension

    PubMed Central

    Farhadian, Shelli; Shenoi, Sheela V; Villanueva, Merceditas S

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY We report a case of a 33-year-old previously healthy Haitian immigrant with a 7-month history of abdominal pain, fever and ascites. He had a history of positive tuberculin skin test but never underwent treatment for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. Initial examination showed abdominal distension. Abdominal CT scan showed mild ascites, abnormal soft tissue in the greater omentum and small bowel mesentery, retroperitoneal adenopathy, peritoneal thickening and dilated loops of small bowel. Paracentesis and thoracentesis were initially non-diagnostic. HIV testing was negative. The differential diagnosis included lymphoma and TB peritonitis. The omental mass was biopsied under ultrasound guidance, and histopathology revealed non-necrotising granulomas. Sputum cultures and omental biopsy cultures subsequently grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and a diagnosis was made of pulmonary TB with TB peritonitis. The patient responded well to the initiation of anti-TB treatment. PMID:25008341

  13. Duodenal duplication manifested by abdominal pain and bowl obstruction in an adolescent: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Fan, Ying; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Song, Yanglin

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal duplication (DD) is a rare congenital anomaly reported mainly in infancy and childhood, but seldom in adolescent and adults. Symptoms, such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or dyspepsia may present depending on the location and type of the lesion. DD can result in several complications, including pancreatitis, bowl obstruction, gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation and jaundice. Surgery is still the optimal method for treatment, although endoscopic fenestration has been described recently. Here, we report a case of a DD on the second portion of the duodenum in a 17-year-old adolescent complaining of transient epigastric pain and vomiting after meal. We suspected the diagnosis of DD by abdominal computerized tomography and endoscopic ultrasonography. We treated her by subtotal excision and internal derivation. Eventually, we confirmed our diagnosis with histopathological result.

  14. Functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Eric; Nurko, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are both associated with recurrent abdominal pain and are among the most commonly diagnosed medical problems in pediatrics. The majority of patients with mild complaints improve with reassurance and time. For a distinct subset of patients with more severe and disabling illness, finding effective treatment for these disorders remains a challenge. Based on the biopsychosocial model of functional disease, the Rome III criteria have helped frame FAP and IBS in terms of being a positive diagnosis and not a diagnosis of exclusion. However, the lack of a single, proven intervention highlights the complex interplay of pathologic mechanisms likely involved in the development of childhood FAP and IBS and the need for a multidisciplinary, integrated approach. This article discusses the epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical approach and therapeutic options for the management of FAP and IBS in children and adolescents. PMID:21731470

  15. Sufentanil Sublingual Tablet System for the Management of Postoperative Pain Following Open Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ringold, Forrest G.; Minkowitz, Harold S.; Gan, Tong Joo; Aqua, Keith A.; Chiang, Yu-kun; Evashenk, Mark A.; Palmer, Pamela P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of a sufentanil sublingual tablet system (SSTS) for the management of postoperative pain following open abdominal surgery. Methods At 13 hospital sites in the United States, patients following surgery with pain intensity of greater than 4 on an 11-point numerical rating scale were randomized to receive SSTS dispensing a 15-?g sufentanil tablet sublingually with a 20-minute lockout or an identical system dispensing a placebo tablet sublingually. Pain intensity scores were recorded at baseline and for up to 72 hours after starting study drug. The primary end point was time-weighted summed pain intensity difference (SPID) over 48 hours. Secondary end points included SPID and total pain relief (TOTPAR) for up to 72 hours and patient and health care provider global assessments of the method of pain control. Results Summed pain intensity difference over 48 hours was significantly higher in the SSTS group than in the placebo group (least squares mean [SEM], 105.60 [10.14] vs 55.58 [13.11]; P = 0.001). Mean SPID and TOTPAR scores were significantly higher in the SSTS group at all time points from 1 hour (SPID) or 2 hours (TOTPAR) until 72 hours (P < 0.05). In the SSTS group, patient global assessment and health care provider global assessment ratings of good or excellent were greater than placebo at all time points (P < 0.01). Safety parameters, including adverse events and vital signs, were similar for SSTS and placebo. Conclusions These results suggest that SSTS is effective and safe for the management of postoperative pain in patients following open abdominal surgery. PMID:25318408

  16. An Unusual Cause of Abdominal Pain: Three Lead Pellets within the Appendix Vermiformis

    PubMed Central

    Muderris, Vecdi; Yagmurkaya, Orhan; Yalkin, Omer; Celebi, Fehmi

    2015-01-01

    Most ingested foreign bodies usually pass out in the feces uneventfully. Complications such as intestinal perforation and bleeding usually occur with sharp, thin, stiff, long, and pointed objects. This case describes the management of three lead pellets within the appendix vermiformis. A 45-year-old male visited our clinic complaining of a 4-month history of abdominal pain. The patient inquiry revealed that he had eaten hunted rabbit meat on numerous occasions and had unintentionally ingested three lead pellets. Plain abdominal films and a barium enema showed foreign bodies in the right lower abdominal quadrant. Since the lead pellets were thought to have migrated extraluminally, they were removed through laparotomy under fluoroscopic guidance. An appendectomy was performed. Pathologically, three lead pellets were embedded in the appendix, which showed signs of intramucosal inflammation. Foreign bodies causing appendicitis are rare. However, if stiff or pointed objects enter the appendicular lumen, there is a high risk of appendicitis, perforation, or abdominal pain. An appendectomy was required to remove the ingested lead pellets in the appendix. PMID:26106500

  17. Lead Poisoning From a Ceramic Jug Presenting as Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Ugarte-Torres, Alejandra; Groshaus, Horacio; Rioux, Kevin; Yarema, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Lead poisoning may present with non-specific symptoms that may result in unnecessary investigations. We report a case of acute lead poisoning in a previously healthy 28-year-old man who presented with recurrent abdominal pain, jaundice, constipation, and weight loss. An extensive diagnostic work-up was completed with inconclusive results. A detailed history revealed an unusual source of lead exposure. Chelation therapy resulted in substantial clinical and biochemical improvement. PMID:26958573

  18. IVC Filter Perforation through the Duodenum Found after Years of Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jehangir, Asad; Rettew, Andrew; Shaikh, Bilal; Bennett, Kyle; Jehangir, Qasim; Qureshi, Anam; Arshad, Sharjeel; Spiegel, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 67 Final Diagnosis: IVC filter perforation through duodenum Symptoms: Abdominal pain Medication: Clinical Procedure: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: The number of IVC filter-related complications has increased with their growing utilization; however, IVC filter perforation of the duodenum is rare. It can manifest with nonspecific abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, cava-duodenal fistula, or small bowel obstruction. Case Report: A 67-year-old female presented with several years of right upper quadrant abdominal pain which was exacerbated by movement and food intake. She had a history of hepatic steatosis, cholecystectomy, and multiple DVTs with inferior vena cava filter placement. Physical exam was unremarkable. Laboratory tests demonstrated elevated alkaline phosphatase and transaminases. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a thin metallic foreign body embedded in the duodenal wall and protruding into the duodenal lumen with surrounding erythema and edema, but no active hemorrhage. Further evaluation with non-contrast CT scan revealed that one of the prongs of her IVC filter had perforated through the vena cava wall into the adjacent duodenum. Exploratory laparotomy was required for removal of the IVC filter and repair of the vena cava and duodenum. Her post-operative course was uneventful. Conclusions: In patients with history of IVC filter placement with non-specific abdominal pain, a high clinical suspicion of IVC filter perforation of the duodenum should be raised, as diagnosis may be challenging. CT scan and EGD are valuable in the diagnosis. Excellent outcomes have been reported with open surgical filter removal. Low retrieval rates of IVC filters have led to increased complications; hence, early removal should be undertaken as clinically indicated. PMID:25979859

  19. Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid, ameliorates acute inflammatory and nociceptive symptoms in gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shi Hyoung; Park, Jae Gwang; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yang, Sungjae; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Jun Ho; Ha, Van Thai; Kim, Han Gyung; Yi, Young-Su; Kim, Ji Hye; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Sung, Nak Yoon; Lee, Mi-nam; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol (KF) is the most abundant polyphenol in tea, fruits, vegetables, and beans. However, little is known about its in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy and mechanisms of action. To study these, several acute mouse inflammatory and nociceptive models, including gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain were employed. Kaempferol was shown to attenuate the expansion of inflammatory lesions seen in ethanol (EtOH)/HCl- and aspirin-induced gastritis, LPS/caerulein (CA) triggered pancreatitis, and acetic acid-induced writhing. PMID:25917334

  20. [Diagnosis of postpartum abdominal pain: about a rare case of portal vein thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Adrados, C; Trastour, C; Havet, J; Chassang, M; Bongain, A

    2015-01-01

    We report the management of patient with acute abdominal pain in the immediate post-partum caesarean section performed in the context of preeclampsia. Acute portal vein thrombosis is diagnosed, in a patient with no personal or family history of venous thrombosis. Blood tests showed a protein C and S deficiencies. Portal vein thrombosis is an extremely rare occurrence in pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:25242438

  1. A randomized controlled trial to compare pregabalin with gabapentin for postoperative pain in abdominal hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Anju; Gupta, Monika; Hooda, Sarla; Singla, Dinesh; Wadhera, Raman

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pregabalin is a potent ligand for alpha-2-delta subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels in the central nervous system, which exhibits potent anticonvulsant, analgesic and anxiolytic activity. The pharmacological activity of pregabalin is similar to that of gabapentin and shows possible advantages. Although it shows analgesic efficacy against neuropathic pain, very limited evidence supports its postoperative analgesic efficacy. We investigated its analgesic efficacy in patients experiencing acute pain after abdominal hysterectomy and compared it with gabapentin and placebo. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 90 women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy who were anaesthetized in a standardized fashion. Patients received 300 mg pregabalin, 900 mg gabapentin or placebo, 12 hours prior to surgery. Postoperative analgesia was administered at visual analogue scale (VAS) ?3. The primary outcome was analgesic consumption over 24 hours and patients were followed for pain scores, time to rescue analgesia and side effects as secondary outcomes. Results: The diclofenac consumption was statistically significant between pregabalin and control groups, and gabapentin and control groups; however, pregabalin and gabapentin groups were comparable. Moreover, the consumption of tramadol was statistically significant among all the groups. Patients in pregabalin and gabapentin groups had lower pain scores in the initial hour of recovery. However, pain scores were subsequently similar in all the groups. Time to first request for analgesia was longer in pregabalin group followed by gabapentin and control groups. Conclusion: A single dose of 300 mg pregabalin given 12 hours prior to surgery is superior to 900 mg gabapentin and placebo after abdominal hysterectomy. Both the drugs are better than placebo. PMID:21957402

  2. Unusual case of acute appendicitis with left upper quadrant abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Tawk, Charbel M.; Zgheib, Rana R.; Mehanna, Seba

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute appendicitis is one of the most frequent causes of surgical abdominal pain presenting to the Emergency Department. The diagnosis is confirmed by a set of clinical signs, blood tests and imaging. The typical presentation consists of periumbilical pain radiating to the right lower quadrant with peritoneal reaction on palpation (Mac Burney). PRESENTATION OF CASE In this article, we report a case of acute appendicitis presenting with a left upper quadrant pain due to intestinal malrotation and we describe the radiologic findings on computed tomography. DISCUSSION With an Alvarado score of 4 and a nonconclusive abdominal U/S, the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was a long shot. Persistence of pain and increasing inflammatory parameters in her blood exams pushed the medical team to further investigate and a CT scan revealed intestinal malrotation with acute appendicitis. CONCLUSION An examining physician should not be mislead by the atypical presentation of acute appendicitis and should bear in mind the diagnosis to avoid serious complications. PMID:22677782

  3. A 44-year-old man with abdominal pain, lung nodules, and hemoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Mariam; Kamangar, Nader

    2015-05-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with a 1-day history of sudden-onset abdominal pain. The pain was characterized as severe, diffuse, sharp, and nonradiating. Associated symptoms included nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and subjective fevers. He was originally from El Salvador, but had not traveled in > 10 years. Review of systems was positive for 2 weeks of dry cough with associated mild, bilateral, pleuritic chest pain and subjective weight loss. His medical history was notable for gout and end-stage renal disease secondary to chronic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use, for which he attended hemodialysis sessions three times weekly. Surgical history consisted of a currently nonfunctioning left upper extremity fistula, a longstanding right internal jugular PermCath IV access for chronic hemodialysis that had been removed 2 weeks prior to presentation, and a left brachiocephalic fistula. He did not smoke, consume alcohol, or have a history of illicit drug use. PMID:25940261

  4. A Case of Chronic Abdominal Neuropathic Pain and Burning after Female Genital Cutting.

    PubMed

    Hadid, Vicky; Dahan, Michael Haim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Female genital cutting is prevalent in the Middle Eastern and African countries. This ritual entails not only immediate complications such as infection, pain, and haemorrhage, but also chronic ones including dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia. However, there is limited data on neuropathic pain secondary to female genital mutilation when searching the literature. Case. This case discusses a 38-year-old female with a history of infibulation who presented with a chronic burning abdominal and anterior vulvar pain including the related investigations and treatment. Discussion. This case brings to light the additional delayed complication of this ritual: sensory neuropathy. Our goal is to educate health professionals to be aware of these complications and to appropriately investigate and treat them in order to find a solution to relieve the patients' symptoms. PMID:26137334

  5. A Case of Chronic Abdominal Neuropathic Pain and Burning after Female Genital Cutting

    PubMed Central

    Hadid, Vicky; Dahan, Michael Haim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Female genital cutting is prevalent in the Middle Eastern and African countries. This ritual entails not only immediate complications such as infection, pain, and haemorrhage, but also chronic ones including dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia. However, there is limited data on neuropathic pain secondary to female genital mutilation when searching the literature. Case. This case discusses a 38-year-old female with a history of infibulation who presented with a chronic burning abdominal and anterior vulvar pain including the related investigations and treatment. Discussion. This case brings to light the additional delayed complication of this ritual: sensory neuropathy. Our goal is to educate health professionals to be aware of these complications and to appropriately investigate and treat them in order to find a solution to relieve the patients' symptoms. PMID:26137334

  6. Effects of clonidine preemptive analgesia on acute postoperative pain in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Persec, Jasminka; Persec, Zoran; Bukovi?, Damir; Husedzinovi?, Ino; Bukovi?, Nevia; Paveli?, Ljubomir

    2007-12-01

    Preemptive analgesia refers to blockade of afferent nerve fibers before a painful stimulus, which prevents or reduces subsequent pain even beyond the effect of the block. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of clonidine used before and at the end of operation on pain control in abdominal surgery. A total of 77 patients admitted for colorectal surgery were randomly classified into three groups: epidural clonidine before operation, epidural clonidine at the end of operation, and control group. After the operation on patient demand, analgesia with boluses of epidural morphine was instituted. The parameters of postoperative pain level using VAS score (visual analog scale), sedation and analgesics consumption were determined as outcome measures at 1, 2, 6, and 24 h of the operation. Clonidine administered before operation provided lowest pain scores at 6 and 24 h (p < 0.05). Clonidine administered at the end of operation had low pain scores at 1 and 2 h, with a significant pain breakthrough thereafter (6.93 +/- 1.66 at 6 h and 4.04 +/- 2.39 at 24 h) compared with the group administered clonidine before operation (3.60 +/- 2.94 and 3.71 +/- 1.82). Clonidine administered before operation provided less sedation (p < 0.05) and a significantly lower use of analgesics (p < 0.05). Blockade of nociceptive stimulus using the centrally acting alpha2-adrenergic agonist clonidine before the onset of pain stimulus resulted in reduced pain levels, sedation and analgesic requirement. PMID:18217461

  7. Choledochal Cyst Mimicking Gallbladder with Stones in a Six-Year-Old with Right-sided Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Subramony, Rachna; Kittisarapong, Nat; Barata, Isabel; Nelson, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Choledochal cysts are rare but serious bile duct abnormalities are found in young children, usually during the first year of life.1 They require urgent surgical intervention due to the risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma.2 Clinicians should consider this diagnosis and perform a point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) when a child presents to the emergency department (ED) with findings of jaundice, abdominal pain, and the presence of an abdominal mass. We present the case of a six-year-old child presenting only with abdominal pain upon arrival to our ED and was ultimately diagnosed by POCUS to have a choledochal cyst. PMID:26265970

  8. Novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of chronic abdominal visceral pain.

    PubMed

    Patrizi, Franca; Freedman, Steven D; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Fregni, Felipe

    2006-01-01

    Chronic abdominal visceral pain (CAVP) has a significant clinical impact and represents one of the most frequent and debilitating disorders in the general population. It also leads to a significant economic burden due to workdays lost, reduced productivity, and long-term use of medications with their associated side effects. Despite the availability of several therapeutic options, the management of patients with CAVP is often inadequate, resulting in frustration for both patients and physicians. This may in part be explained by the lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying chronic pain; in contrast with acute pain in which the pathophysiology is relatively well known and has several satisfactory therapeutic options. Recently, the development of tools for brain investigation, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, has provided new insights on the pathophysiology of chronic pain. These new data have shown that plastic changes in the central and peripheral nervous system might play an important role in the maintenance of chronic pain. Therefore, approaches aimed at the modulation of the nervous system, rather than the ones interfering with the inflammatory pathways, may be more effective for chronic pain treatment. We propose that noninvasive central nervous system stimulation, with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), might be a novel therapeutic option for CAVP. This paper will present an overview of the pathophysiology and the available therapies for CAVP, focusing on the recent advances in the treatment of this pathology. PMID:16633700

  9. Antinociceptive effects of novel melatonin receptor agonists in mouse models of abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunqiu; Fichna, Jakub; Laudon, Moshe; Storr, Martin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the antinociceptive action of the novel melatonin receptor (MT) agonists, Neu-P11 and Neu-P12 in animal models of visceral pain. METHODS: Visceral pain was induced by intracolonic (ic) application of mustard oil or capsaicin solution or by intraperitoneal (ip) administration of acetic acid. Neu-P11, Neu-P12, or melatonin were given ip or orally and their effects on pain-induced behavioral responses were evaluated. To identify the receptors involved, the non-selective MT1/MT2 receptor antagonist luzindole, the MT2 receptor antagonist 4-P-PDOT, or the ?-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were injected ip or intracerebroventricularly (icv) prior to the induction of pain. RESULTS: Orally and ip administered melatonin, Neu-P11, and Neu-P12 reduced pain responses in a dose-dependent manner. Neu-P12 was more effective and displayed longer duration of action compared to melatonin. The antinociceptive effects of Neu-P11 or Neu-P12 were antagonized by ip or icv. administered naloxone. Intracerebroventricularly, but not ip administration of luzindole or 4-P-PDOT blocked the antinociceptive actions of Neu-P11 or Neu-P12. CONCLUSION: Neu-P12 produced the most potent and long-lasting antinociceptive effect. Further development of Neu-P12 for future treatment of abdominal pain seems promising. PMID:24574803

  10. INCREASED GASTROINTESTINAL PERMEABILITY AND GUT INFLAMMATION IN CHILDREN WITH FUNCTIONAL ABDOMINAL PAIN AND IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Robert J.; Eakin, Michelle N.; Czyzewski, Danita I.; Jarrett, Monica; Ou, Ching-Nan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine GI permeability and fecal calprotectin concentration in children 7–10 years of age with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome (FAP/IBS) vs Controls and ascertain potential relationships with pain symptoms and stooling. Study design GI permeability and fecal calprotectin concentration were measured. Children kept a two-week diary of pain episodes and stooling pattern. Results Proximal GI permeability was greater in the FAP/IBS group (n = 93) compared with controls (n = 52) (0.59 ± 0.50 vs. 0.36 ± 0.26, respectively; mean ± SD; P < 0.001) as was colonic permeability (1.01 ± 0.67 vs. 0.81 ± 0.43, respectively; P < 0.05). Gastric and small intestinal permeability were similar. Fecal calprotectin concentration was greater in children with FAP/IBS compared with control children (65.5 ± 75.4 µg/g stool vs. 43.2 ± 39.4, respectively; P < 0.01). Fecal calprotectin concentration correlated with pain interference with activities (P = 0.01, r2 = 0.36). There was no correlation between GI permeability and pain related symptoms. Neither permeability nor fecal calprotectin correlated with stool form. Conclusions Children with FAP/IBS have evidence of increased GI permeability and low grade GI inflammation with the latter relating to the degree to which pain interferes with activities. PMID:18538790

  11. A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Lactobacillus reuteri for Chronic Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhari, Kambiz; Vahedi, Zahra; Kamali Aghdam, Mojtaba; Noemi Diaz, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is one of the most common diseases, and large percentages of children suffer from it. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus reuteri in treatment of children with functional abdominal pain. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Children aged 4 to 16 years with chronic functional abdominal pain (based on Rome III criteria) were enrolled in the study. They were randomly divided into two groups, one receiving probiotic and the other placebo. Results: Forty children received probiotic and forty others placebo. There were no significant differences in age, weight, sex, location of pain, associated symptoms, frequency and intensity of pain between the groups. The severity and frequency of abdominal pain in the first month compared to baseline was significantly less and at the end of the second month, there was no significant difference between both groups compared to the end of the first month. Conclusions: This study showed that the severity of pain was significantly reduced in both groups. There was no significant difference in pain scores between them. The effect of probiotic and placebo can probably be attributed to psychological effect of the drugs. PMID:26635937

  12. Individual and Additive Effects of Mothers and Fathers Chronic Pain on Health Outcomes in Young Adults With a Childhood History of Functional Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Amanda L.; Bruehl, Stephen; Smith, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective?To evaluate effects of mothers and fathers chronic pain on health outcomes in adult sons and daughters with a childhood history of functional abdominal pain (FAP).?Method?Adults (n = 319; Mean age = 22.09 years) with a childhood history of FAP reported parental history of chronic pain and their own current health (chronic pain, somatic symptoms, disability, use of medication and health care, illness-related job loss).?Results?Positive histories of maternal and paternal chronic pain were each associated with poorer health in sons and daughters, regardless of child or parent gender. Having 2 parents with chronic pain was associated with significantly poorer health than having 1 or neither parent with chronic pain.?Conclusions?Chronic pain in both mothers and fathers is associated with poor health and elevated health service use in young adults with a childhood history of FAP. Having both parents with chronic pain increases risk for adverse outcomes. PMID:23335355

  13. Abdominal Pain

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  14. Strongyloides stercoralis is a cause of abdominal pain, diarrhea and urticaria in rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We document clinical manifestations of 21 patients heavily infected with S. stercoralis (more than 250 larvae in a single Baermann test) from a community in rural Cambodia, both before and three weeks after ivermectin (200 ?g/kg BW, single oral dose) treatment. Findings Out of 21 patients, 20 (95.2%), 18 (85.7%) and 14 (66.7%) reported frequent abdominal pain, diarrhea and periods of sensation of itching, respectively, during the previous six months; epigastric (11, 55.0%) and peri-umbilical (13, 65.0%) pains were most frequent. Five patients (23.8%) reported having experienced urticaria the week preceding the examination. One patient suffered from extended urticaria. Three weeks after treatment, most symptoms had been almost entirely resolved. Conclusions In rural communities of Cambodia, strongyloidiasis with high parasite load is endemic. It is associated with substantial symptoms and clinical signs, particularly abdominal pain, diarrhea and urticaria. Access to adequate diagnosis and treatment is a pressing issue that needs attention. PMID:23688049

  15. A complex case of abdominal pain in a patient with pelviureteric junction obstruction.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Przemys?aw; Golabek, Tomasz; Obarzanowski, Mateusz; Ch?osta, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Pelviureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction is a condition frequently encountered in both adult and pediatric patients. Congenital abnormalities and crossing lower-pole renal vessels are the most common underlying pathologies in both men and women. This report presents a case of a young woman who was complaining of intermittent abdominal pain in whom right-sided hydronephrosis was diagnosed. The patient was scheduled for a laparoscopic right-sided Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty. During the procedure a partly extraperitoneal appendix, with extensive adhesions to the posterior abdominal wall abutting on the ureter just below the obstructed PUJ, was identified. The patient underwent dismembered laparoscopic Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty with concurrent appendectomy for likely dual pathologies being responsible for her symptoms. PMID:25097699

  16. Health Outcomes in US Children with Abdominal Pain at Major Emergency Departments Associated with Race and Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Louise; Haberland, Corinna; Thurm, Cary; Bhattacharya, Jay; Park, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Over 9.6 million ED visits occur annually for abdominal pain in the US, but little is known about the medical outcomes of these patients based on demographics. We aimed to identify disparities in outcomes among children presenting to the ED with abdominal pain linked to race and SES. Methods Data from 4.2 million pediatric encounters of abdominal pain were analyzed from 43 tertiary US childrens hospitals, including 2.0 million encounters in the emergency department during 2004-2011. Abdominal pain was categorized as functional or organic abdominal pain. Appendicitis (with and without perforation) was used as a surrogate for abdominal pain requiring emergent care. Multivariate analysis estimated likelihood of hospitalizations, radiologic imaging, ICU admissions, appendicitis, appendicitis with perforation, and time to surgery and hospital discharge. Results Black and low income children had increased odds of perforated appendicitis (aOR, 1.42, 95% CI, 1.32- 1.53; aOR, 1.20, 95% CI 1.14 1.25). Blacks had increased odds of an ICU admission (aOR, 1.92, 95% CI 1.53 - 2.42) and longer lengths of stay (aHR, 0.91, 95% CI 0.86 0.96) than Whites. Minorities and low income also had lower rates of imaging for their appendicitis, including CT scans. The combined effect of race and income on perforated appendicitis, hospitalization, and time to surgery was greater than either separately. Conclusions Based on race and SES, disparity of health outcomes exists in the acute ED setting among children presenting with abdominal pain, with differences in appendicitis with perforation, length of stay, and time until surgery. PMID:26267816

  17. Spinal cord stimulation for intractable chronic upper abdominal pain: a case report of the first patient in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahrouqi, Haitham; Munro, Zea; Acland, Richard H; MacFarlane, Martin R

    2012-12-14

    We present the first patient in New Zealand to undergo Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) for intractable upper abdominal pain. The patient was a 53-year-old man with a 20-year history of debilitating upper abdominal pain associated with chronic pancreatitis secondary to pancreatic divisum. Prior to the SCS, he was prescribed 680 mg of morphine sulphate equi-analgesia a day. Despite the intense analgesia, he still suffered monthly attacks of upper abdominal pain requiring hospitalisation. Nine months after implanting a Spinal Cord Stimulator, the monthly attacks ceased, his background pain was effectively controlled and the need for opioids decreased to 510 mg of morphine sulphate equi-analgesia a day. PMID:23321890

  18. Abdominal pain patient referrals to emergency surgical service: appropriateness of diagnosis and attitudes of general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Kozomara, Davorin; Gali?, Gordan; Brekalo, Zdrinko; Kvesi?, Ante; Jonovska, Suzana

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluate the need for general practitioners referrals and self referrals of acute abdominal pain patients to emergency surgical service, the appropriateness of GP referral diagnosis and their attitudes dealing with abdominal pain. In three months period all acute abdominal pain patient referrals to our hospital emergency surgical service were audited. Data on final diagnosis, surgical treatment, admission to hospital and surgery performance were recorded. Self referral or GP referral, referring GP diagnosis, referral letters indicating presenting complaint or history, axillar and rectal temperature measurement, laboratory checking and abdominal radiography checking by GP were recorded as well. Also, GPs examination details as palpation, auscultation and digit-rectal checking were recorded. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PV) for referring diagnosis. Self referrals and GP referrals differences were evaluated. During the study 318 patients were admitted. A total of 163 (51.25%) referrals were deemed inappropriate; 102 (52.6% of GP referrals) and 61 (49.2% of self referred) (p < 0.05). There were no differences in general treatment, hospital admission and operative treatment in self referred and GP referred groups (p < 0.05 for all three categories). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for most frequent GP referral diagnoses were: abdominal colic/abdomen in observation 0.78; 0.66; 0.74; 0.70; acute appendicitis 0.37; 0.92; 0.44; 0.90; acute abdomen/peritonitis 0.30; 0.97; 0.54; 0.92; constipation 0.95; 0.98; 0.85; 0.99; and ileus 0.83; 0.97; 0.50; 0.99. Data on GP including clinical examination, patient history and running basic diagnostics were poor. Our results suggest that a general agreement within the profession about what constitutes a necessary hospital referral is necessary. GP consultation quality must be improved by booking more time per patient and by giving more medical/technical attention to patients. PMID:20102075

  19. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation-which symptom is more indispensable to have a colonoscopy?

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jia; Yuan, Zhe; Zhang, Shujun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Doctors perform colonoscopies when presented with various symptoms, including unexplained weight loss, rectal bleeding, changes in bowel habits, however many other symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea and constipation may be more popular in outpatient department. As a result, we want to evaluate the three symptoms which is more need to have a colonoscopy. Abdominal pain, diarrhea and constipation are the main reasons for patients to visit the outpatient department of gastroenterology. And the colonoscopy is regularly recommended for outpatients with the above symptoms in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of colonoscopy on the diagnosis of each single symptom of the three above and answer the question of my title-which symptom is more indispensable to have a colonoscopy? Methods: Colonoscopic findings of 580 outpatients with a single of these three common lower gastrointestinal symptoms were systematically analyzed in retrospect. Results: In this study, no significant difference was found in the positive rate of colon polyps, cancer and ulcerative colitis among these three groups divided by symptoms. The incidence of colon polyps, cancer and colitis for the chronic abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea and constipation group are 20.8%, 57.1%, 42.9% respectively. The incidence of colon polyps and cancer increases with age. Among the age groups 13-39 years old, 40-59 years and > 60 years, the incidence is 7.9%, 13.6%, 22.4% respectively. There is no significant difference in the incidence of colon polyps and colon cancer in our groups of symptoms. Conclusion: The results show the prevailing opinion that the indications of colonoscopy just refer to symptom and physical sign nowadays in China is inappropriate and it is best to take a full consideration of patient’s age, auxiliary examinations, family diseases history and other factors. PMID:25755799

  20. Intermittent abdominal pain in a 6-year-old child: the psycho-social-cultural evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Brian; Troha, Crosby; Gueldner, Barbara A

    2009-10-01

    The dramatic surge in diversity in the western world requires a commitment by pediatric providers to understand unique psychosocial presentations of distress, as well as to have an understanding of normative cultural values and health-seeking behaviors. We report a case of apparent recurrent abdominal pain that evolved into a unique culturally salient presentation of obsessive compulsive disorder in a 6-year-old young girl. Access to integrated mental health professionals assisted in the identification of this disorder, if not success in referral and treatment. PMID:19521239

  1. New Insights in Abdominal Pain in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH): A MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    De Cobelli, Francesco; Pezzetti, Giulio; Margari, Sergio; Esposito, Antonio; Giganti, Francesco; Agostini, Giulia; Del Maschio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Abdominal pain in PNH has never been investigated by in-vivo imaging studies. With MRI, we aimed to assess mesenteric vessels flow and small bowel wall perfusion to investigate the ischemic origin of abdominal pain. Materials and Methods Six PNH patients with (AP) and six without (NOP) abdominal pain underwent MRI. In a blinded fashion, mean flow (MF, quantity of blood moving through a vessel within a second, in mL·s-1) and stroke volume (SV, volume of blood pumped out at each heart contraction, in mL) of Superior Mesenteric Vein (SMV) and Artery (SMA), areas under the curve at 60 (AUC60) and 90 seconds (AUC90) and Ktrans were assessed by two operators. Results Mean total perfusion and flow parameters were lower in AP than in NOP group. AUC60: 84.81 ± 11.75 vs. 131.73 ± 18.89 (P < 0.001); AUC90: 102.33 ± 14.16 vs. 152.58 ± 22.70 (P < 0.001); Ktrans: 0.0346 min-1 ± 0.0019 vs. 0.0521 ± 0.0015 (P = 0.093 duodenum, 0.009 jejunum/ileum). SMV: MF 4.67 ml/s ± 0.85 vs. 8.32 ± 2.14 (P = 0.002); SV 3.85 ml ± 0.76 vs. 6.55 ± 1.57 (P = 0.02). SMA: MF 6.95 ± 2.61 vs. 11.2 ± 2.32 (P = 0.07); SV 6.52 ± 2.19 vs. 8.78 ± 1.63 (P = 0.07). We found a significant correlation between MF and SV of SMV and AUC60 (MF:ρ = 0.88, P < 0.001; SV: ρ = 0.644, P = 0.024), AUC90 (MF: ρ = 0.874, P < 0.001; SV:ρ = 0.774, P = 0.003) and Ktrans (MF:ρ = 0.734, P = 0.007; SV:ρ = 0.581, P = 0.047). Conclusions Perfusion and flow MRI findings suggest that the impairment of small bowel blood supply is significantly associated with abdominal pain in PNH. PMID:25897796

  2. Exercise related transient abdominal pain: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP) is more commonly known to athletes as a runners stitch. Many athletes also report shoulder tip pain (STP) associated with the ETAP. Although widely known, ETAP remains under analyzed and under reported in the medical literature. Often thought of as benign and self-limiting, ETAP has been shown to be very detrimental to the performance of many athletes from novice to elite. This case report of an elite triathlete with ETAP and subsequent review of literature, outlines the various theories about the etiology of ETAP, the epidemiology associated with it, some differentials to consider, and how chiropractic care may benefit those suffering from ETAP. PMID:20037690

  3. Importance of Addressing Anxiety in Youth With Functional Abdominal Pain: Suggested Guidelines for Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Natoshia R.; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Mezoff, Adam G.; Farrell, Michael K.; Cohen, Mitchell B.; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2015-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a common pediatric disorder associated with impairment in functioning that may persist for the long term. Anxiety is common in youth with FAP, and may be an important factor in predicting youth who are at greatest risk for increased impairment because of pain symptoms. In this article, we examine the relation between anxiety and impairment in youth with FAP. Furthermore, we explore various biopsychosocial factors (eg, neurobiological substrates, coping strategies, social factors) that may be implicated in the relation among FAP, anxiety, and increased impairment. Finally, we propose physician guidelines for screening and treatment of youth with FAP and co-occurring anxiety. Youth with FAP and co-occurring anxiety may benefit from cognitive-behavioral therapy in the context of multidisciplinary care. PMID:23412539

  4. Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome in Morbidly Obese Patients Following Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Eidy, Mohammad; Pazouki, Abdolreza; Raygan, Fahimeh; Ariyazand, Yazdan; Pishgahroudsari, Mohadeseh; Jesmi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBP) is one of the most common bariatric surgeries, which is being performed using various techniques like gastrojejunostomy by hand swen, linear or circular stapler. Abdominal pain is a common complaint following laparoscopic gastric bypass procedure (LGBP), which has different aetiologies, such as overeating, adhesion, internal herniation, bile reflux and many more. In this study LGBP was performed in an ante-colic ante-gastric pattern in a double loop manner and the prevalence and distribution of pain in morbidly obese patients undergoing LGBP was assessed. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and frequency of post LGBP pain in morbidly obese patients. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 190 morbidly obese patients referred to Hazrat Rasoul Hospital in Tehran. After LGBP, pain was measured in the following intervals: 24 hours, one week and one month after the operation. Before the operation onset, 2 mg Keflin and 5000 IU subcutaneous heparin were administered as prophylaxis. LGBP was performed using five ports including: one 11 mm port was placed 15-20 cm far from the xiphoid, one 12-mm port in mid-clavicular line at the level of camera port, one 5-mm port in subcostal area in ante-axillary region in the left, another 5-mm port in the right mid-clavicular area and a 5-mm port in sub-xyphoid. All operations were done by the same team. Staple was used for all anastomoses and hand sewn technique to close the staple insertion site. The mesenteric defect was left open and no effort was made to repair it. Results: The results of this study showed that 99.94 % of the patients had complains of pain in the first 24 hours of post operation, about 60% after one week and 29.5 % still had pain after one month. In addition, left upper quadrant (LUQ) was found to be the most prevalent site for the pain in 53.7% of the patients in the first 24 hours, 59.6% after one week and 16.8% after one month (except for obscure pain) with a significance of < 0.05. Conclusions: In this study, the authors analyzed the location and disturbance level of pain after LGBP, which could serve as a cornerstone for further researches. The authors suggest that long-term follow-up (for more than a year after operation) should be considered in future studies and also the relationship between the drainage site and pain should be investigated. PMID:25032167

  5. Bilateral Simultaneous Femoral Neck Fracture Mimicking Abdominal Pain in a Cerebral Palsy Patient

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, P.; Buttaro, M.; Comba, F.; Zanotti, E.; Ali, P.; Piccaluga, F.

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures are unusual lesions, generally associated with an underlying condition which causes impaired bone mineralization, triggered by an increased bone stress. We present a 24-year-old cerebral palsy patient, who was previously evaluated in another institution due to inability to walk, interpreted as abdominal pain. No alteration in blood analysis or abdominal X-rays was found. As no response to treatment was observed, a new abdominal X-ray was taken, which incidentally depicted bilateral medial femoral neck fracture. He was referred to our practice after a resection arthroplasty was offered in another institution. After admission, bilateral one-stage THA was performed. Several reports emphasize bone disease as a major precipitating factor, and there is an increased incidence of hip fractures in chronic epilepsy, renal osteodystrophy, and chronic steroid use. Femoral head resection has been proven to be effective in immobilized patients, whereas this was not a reasonable option in this patient who presented walking ability. Despite the treatment election, primary care physicians should be aware of and alert to the possibility of fractures in patients with neurological disorders and calcium metabolism alterations. Late diagnosis of orthopedic injuries in this type of patients may lead to permanent disability. PMID:25506016

  6. Acute right lower abdominal pain in women of reproductive age: Clinical clues

    PubMed Central

    Hatipoglu, Sinan; Hatipoglu, Filiz; Abdullayev, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study possible gynecological organ pathologies in the differential diagnosis of acute right lower abdominal pain in patients of reproductive age. METHODS: Following Clinical Trials Ethical Committee approval, the retrospective data consisting of physical examination and laboratory findings in 290 patients with sudden onset right lower abdominal pain who used the emergency surgery service between April 2009 and September 2013, and underwent surgery and general anesthesia with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis were collated. RESULTS: Total data on 290 patients were obtained. Two hundred and twenty-four (77.2%) patients had acute appendicitis, whereas 29 (10%) had perforated appendicitis and 37 (12.8%) had gynecological organ pathologies. Of the latter, 21 (7.2%) had ovarian cyst rupture, 12 (4.2%) had corpus hemorrhagicum cyst rupture and 4 (1.4%) had adnexal torsion. Defense, Rovsings sign, increased body temperature and increased leukocyte count were found to be statistically significant in the differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis and gynecological organ pathologies. CONCLUSION: Gynecological pathologies in women of reproductive age are misleading in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. PMID:24744594

  7. Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block for postoperative pain management: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Jan; Wickerts, Liselott; Forsberg, Sune; Ledin, Gustaf

    2015-01-01

    Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block has a long history and there is currently extensive clinical experience around TAP blocks. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the present evidence on the effects of TAP block and to provide suggestions for further studies. There are several approaches to performing abdominal wall blocks, with the rapid implementation of ultrasound-guided technique facilitating a major difference in TAP block performance. During surgery, an abdominal wall block may also be applied by the surgeon from inside the abdominal cavity. Today, there are more than 11 meta-analyses providing a compiled evidence base around the effects of TAP block. These analyses include different procedures, different techniques of TAP block administration and, importantly, they compare the TAP block with a variety of alternative analgesic regimes. The effects of TAP block during laparoscopic cholecystectomy seem to be equivalent to local infiltration analgesia and also seem to be beneficial during laparoscopic colon resection. The effects of TAP are more pronounced when it is provided prior to surgery and these effects are local anaesthesia dose-dependent. TAP block seems an interesting alternative in patients with, for example, severe obesity where epidural or spinal anaesthesia/analgesia is technically difficult and/or poses a risk. There is an obvious need for further high-quality studies comparing TAP block prior to surgery with local infiltration analgesia, single-shot spinal analgesia, and epidural analgesia. These studies should be procedure-specific and the effects should be evaluated, both regarding short-term pain and analgesic requirement and also including the effects on postoperative nausea and vomiting, recovery of bowel function, ambulation, discharge, and protracted recovery outcomes (assessed by e.g., postoperative quality of recovery scale). PMID:26918134

  8. Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block for postoperative pain management: a review.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Jan; Wickerts, Liselott; Forsberg, Sune; Ledin, Gustaf

    2015-01-01

    Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block has a long history and there is currently extensive clinical experience around TAP blocks. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the present evidence on the effects of TAP block and to provide suggestions for further studies. There are several approaches to performing abdominal wall blocks, with the rapid implementation of ultrasound-guided technique facilitating a major difference in TAP block performance. During surgery, an abdominal wall block may also be applied by the surgeon from inside the abdominal cavity. Today, there are more than 11 meta-analyses providing a compiled evidence base around the effects of TAP block. These analyses include different procedures, different techniques of TAP block administration and, importantly, they compare the TAP block with a variety of alternative analgesic regimes. The effects of TAP block during laparoscopic cholecystectomy seem to be equivalent to local infiltration analgesia and also seem to be beneficial during laparoscopic colon resection. The effects of TAP are more pronounced when it is provided prior to surgery and these effects are local anaesthesia dose-dependent. TAP block seems an interesting alternative in patients with, for example, severe obesity where epidural or spinal anaesthesia/analgesia is technically difficult and/or poses a risk. There is an obvious need for further high-quality studies comparing TAP block prior to surgery with local infiltration analgesia, single-shot spinal analgesia, and epidural analgesia. These studies should be procedure-specific and the effects should be evaluated, both regarding short-term pain and analgesic requirement and also including the effects on postoperative nausea and vomiting, recovery of bowel function, ambulation, discharge, and protracted recovery outcomes (assessed by e.g., postoperative quality of recovery scale). PMID:26918134

  9. Abdominal Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Deborah; Weilitz, Pamela Becker

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints by patients, and assessment of abdominal pain and associated symptoms can be challenging for home healthcare providers. Reasons for abdominal pain are related to inflammation, organ distention, and ischemia. The history and physical examination are important to narrow the source of acute or chronic problems, identify immediate interventions, and when necessary, facilitate emergency department care. PMID:26925941

  10. Sixteen-year-old Female With Acute Abdominal Pain: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kara

    2015-12-01

    A 16-y-old girl presented with abdominal pain in the lower right quadrant, ranging in intensity from 2 to 10 on a visual analog scale (VAS) that prevented her from attending school. The pain was not associated with reflux, a fever, or blood in her stools. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) had been previously diagnosed, but treatment with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) was not successful. The patient's medical history was significant for allergies to fruit; trees, including birch; weeds; and pollen. She had also suffered an anaphylactic reaction to a raw apple. The treatment approach commonly used for EE is suppression of inflammation with steroid therapy with short-term removal of offending foods. However, an attempt to reduce allergic bias and inflammation and treat intestinal permeability is not a part of the standard approach and may explain the high rate of relapse with the condition. Treatment included an elimination diet paired with a supplement regimen designed to reduce inflammation, support healing of the gut and reduce type 2 helper T (Th2) bias of her allergic response. As a result of treatment, the patient's severe pain episodes abated and she was thereafter able to resume attendance at school. PMID:26807068

  11. Mebeverine for Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saneian, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of an antispasmodic, mebeverine, in the treatment of childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP). Children with FAP (n = 115, aged 618 years) received mebeverine (135?mg, twice daily) or placebo for 4 weeks. Response was defined as ?2 point reduction in the 6-point pain scale or no pain. Physician-rated global severity was also evaluated. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks. Eighty-seven patients completed the trial (44 with mebeverine). Per-protocol and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were conducted. Treatment response rate in the mebeverine and placebo groups based on per-protocol [ITT] analysis was 54.5% [40.6%] and 39.5% [30.3%] at week 4 (P = 0.117 [0.469]) and 72.7% [54.2%] and 53.4% [41.0] at week 12, respectively (P = 0.0503 [0.416]). There was no significant difference between the two groups in change of the physician-rated global severity score after 4 weeks (P = 0.723) or after 12 weeks (P = 0.870) in per-protocol analysis; the same results were obtained in ITT analysis. Mebeverine seems to be effective in the treatment of childhood FAP, but our study was not able to show its statistically significant effect over placebo. Further trials with larger sample of patients are warranted. PMID:25089264

  12. Mebeverine for pediatric functional abdominal pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pourmoghaddas, Zahra; Saneian, Hossein; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Gholamrezaei, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of an antispasmodic, mebeverine, in the treatment of childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP). Children with FAP (n = 115, aged 6-18 years) received mebeverine (135 mg, twice daily) or placebo for 4 weeks. Response was defined as ? 2 point reduction in the 6-point pain scale or "no pain." Physician-rated global severity was also evaluated. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks. Eighty-seven patients completed the trial (44 with mebeverine). Per-protocol and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were conducted. Treatment response rate in the mebeverine and placebo groups based on per-protocol [ITT] analysis was 54.5% [40.6%] and 39.5% [30.3%] at week 4 (P = 0.117 [0.469]) and 72.7% [54.2%] and 53.4% [41.0] at week 12, respectively (P = 0.0503 [0.416]). There was no significant difference between the two groups in change of the physician-rated global severity score after 4 weeks (P = 0.723) or after 12 weeks (P = 0.870) in per-protocol analysis; the same results were obtained in ITT analysis. Mebeverine seems to be effective in the treatment of childhood FAP, but our study was not able to show its statistically significant effect over placebo. Further trials with larger sample of patients are warranted. PMID:25089264

  13. Severe Abdominal Pain Caused by Lead Toxicity without Response to Oral Chelators: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Vossoughinia, Hassan; Pourakbar, Ali; Esfandiari, Samaneh; Sharifianrazavi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old woman was referred to the Emergency Surgery Department with severe abdominal pain, icterus, and anemia. The patient’s clinical and paraclinical findings in addition to her occupational and social history, convinced us to assay blood lead level (BLL), which was 41/5 μg/dL. Therefore toxicology consult was performed to treat lead toxicity. Recheck of the BLL showed the level as 53/7 μg/dL. So oral chelator with succimer was started. Despite consumption of oral chelator, there was no response and the pain continued. Because our repeated evaluations were negative, we decided to re-treat lead poisoning by intravenous and intramuscular chelators. Dimercaprol (BAL) + calcium EDTA was started, and after 5 days, the pain relieved dramatically and the patient was discharged. We recommend more liberal lead poisoning therapy in symptomatic patients, and also suggest parenteral chelator therapy, which is more potent, instead of oral chelators in patients with severe symptoms. PMID:26933485

  14. EUS compared with endoscopy plus transabdominal US in the initial diagnostic evaluation of patients with upper abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kenneth J.; Erickson, Richard A.; Chak, Amitabh; Lightdale, Charles; Chen, Yang K.; Binmoeller, Kenneth F.; Albers, Gregory C.; Chen, Wen-Pin; McLaren, Christine E.; Sivak, Michael V.; Lee, John G.; Isenberg, Gerard A.; Wong, Richard C. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary upper endoscopy (EGD) and transabdominal US (TUS) are often performed in patients with upper abdominal pain. Objective Primary: Determine whether the combination of EGD and EUS was equivalent to EGD plus TUS in the diagnostic evaluation of upper abdominal pain. Secondary: Compare EUS versus TUS in detecting abdominal lesions, and compare EGD by using an oblique-viewing echoendoscope versus the standard, forward-viewing endoscope in detecting mucosal lesions. Design Prospective, paired design. Setting Six academic endoscopy centers. Patients This study involved patients with upper abdominal pain referred for endoscopy. Intervention All patients had EGD, EUS, and TUS. The EGD was done using both an oblique-viewing echoendoscope and the standard, forward-viewing endoscope (randomized order) by two separate endoscopists in a blinded fashion, followed by EUS. TUS was performed within 4 weeks of EGD/EUS, also in a blinded fashion. Follow-up: telephone interviews and chart reviews. Main Outcome Measurements Diagnose possible etiology of upper abdominal pain and detect clinically significant lesions. Results A diagnosis of the etiology of upper abdominal pain was made in 66 of 172 patients (38%). The diagnostic rate was 42 of 66 patients (64%) for EGD plus EUS versus 41 of 66 patients (62%) for EGD plus TUS, which was statistically equivalent (McNemar test; P = .27). One hundred ninety-eight lesions were diagnosed with either EUS or TUS. EUS was superior to TUS for visualizing the pancreas (P < .0001) and for diagnosing chronic pancreatitis (P = .03). Two biliary stones were detected only by EUS. Two hundred fifty-one mucosal lesions were similarly diagnosed with EGD with either the standard, forward-viewing endoscope or the oblique-viewing echoendoscope (kappa = 0.48 [95% CI, .43-.54]). EGD with the standard, forward-viewing endoscope was preferred for biopsies. Limitations No cost analysis. Conclusion The combination of EGD with EUS is equivalent to EGD plus TUS for diagnosing a potential etiology of upper abdominal pain. EUS is superior to TUS for detecting chronic pancreatitis. EGD combined with EUS should be considered in the first-line diagnostic evaluation of patients with upper abdominal pain. PMID:20650452

  15. Caesarean Section: Could Different Transverse Abdominal Incision Techniques Influence Postpartum Pain and Subsequent Quality of Life? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Andrisani, Alessandra; Noventa, Marco; Di Gangi, Stefania; Quaranta, Michela; Cosmi, Erich; DAntona, Donato; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Ambrosini, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The choice of the type of abdominal incision performed in caesarean delivery is made chiefly on the basis of the individual surgeons experience and preference. A general consensus on the most appropriate surgical technique has not yet been reached. The aim of this systematic review of the literature is to compare the two most commonly used transverse abdominal incisions for caesarean delivery, the Pfannenstiel incision and the modified Joel-Cohen incision, in terms of acute and chronic post-surgical pain and their subsequent influence in terms of quality of life. Electronic database searches formed the basis of the literature search and the following databases were searched in the time frame between January 1997 and December 2013: MEDLINE, EMBASE Sciencedirect and the Cochrane Library. Key search terms included: acute pain, chronic pain, Pfannenstiel incision, Misgav-Ladach, Joel Cohen incision, in combination with Caesarean Section, abdominal incision, numbness, neuropathic pain and nerve entrapment. Data on 4771 patients who underwent caesarean section (CS) was collected with regards to the relation between surgical techniques and postoperative outcomes defined as acute or chronic pain and future pregnancy desire. The Misgav-Ladach incision was associated with a significant advantage in terms of reduction of post-surgical acute and chronic pain. It was indicated as the optimal technique in view of its characteristic of reducing lower pelvic discomfort and pain, thus improving quality of life and future fertility desire. Further studies which are not subject to important bias like pre-existing chronic pain, non-standardized analgesia administration, variable length of skin incision and previous abdominal surgery are required. PMID:25646621

  16. Pain symptoms and stooling patterns do not drive diagnostic costs for children with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in primary or tertiary care

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the cost of medical evaluation for children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome brought to a pediatric gastroenterologist versus children who remained in the care of their pediatrician, (2) compare symptom characteristics for th...

  17. Management of functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Eric; Nurko, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are among the most commonly diagnosed medical problems in pediatrics. Symptom-based Rome III criteria for FAP and IBS have been validated and help the clinician in making a positive diagnosis. The majority of patients with mild complaints improve with reassurance and time. For a distinct subset of patients with more severe and disabling illness, finding effective treatment for these disorders remains a challenge. Over the years, a wide range of therapies have been proposed and studied. The lack of a single, proven intervention highlights the complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors probably involved in the development of childhood FAP and IBS, and the need for a multidisciplinary, integrated approach. This article reviews the current literature on the efficacy of pharmacologic, dietary and psychosocial interventions for FAP and IBS in children and adolescents. PMID:20528117

  18. A case of recurrent abdominal pain with fever and urticarial eruption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Geun; Lim, Yun Jeong; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Jae Hak; Lee, Jun Kyu; Koh, Moon Soo; Lee, Jin Ho; Huh, Hee Jin; Lee, Seung Ho

    2014-07-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and serosal, synovial, or cutaneous inflammation, caused by a dysfunction of pyrin as a result of mutation within the MEFV gene. It occurs mainly among Mediterranean and Middle Eastern populations, including Jews, Arabs, and Turks. However, FMF cases have been reported outside the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries in recent years. Although FMF has been relatively rare in Korea until now, proper recognition of FMF might lead to more frequent diagnoses of FMF. We experienced an interesting case, a 31-year-old Korean man who presented with recurrent abdominal pain with fever and urticarial eruption for 10 years. DNA analysis showed complex mutations (p.Leu110Pro, p.Glu148Gln) in the MEFV gene. To date, three cases have been reported, and this case of FMF with skin conditions is the first case in Korea. PMID:25073670

  19. Management of functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Eric; Nurko, Samuel

    2010-06-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are among the most commonly diagnosed medical problems in pediatrics. Symptom-based Rome III criteria for FAP and IBS have been validated and help the clinician in making a positive diagnosis. The majority of patients with mild complaints improve with reassurance and time. For a distinct subset of patients with more severe and disabling illness, finding effective treatment for these disorders remains a challenge. Over the years, a wide range of therapies have been proposed and studied. The lack of a single, proven intervention highlights the complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors probably involved in the development of childhood FAP and IBS, and the need for a multidisciplinary, integrated approach. This article reviews the current literature on the efficacy of pharmacologic, dietary and psychosocial interventions for FAP and IBS in children and adolescents. PMID:20528117

  20. [Emergency ultrasound in patients with abdominal pain - where should we "look"].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Tanja; Heinz, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound is without doubt the imaging technique of choice in patients with acute abdominal pain. Point-of-care ultrasound examinations can help to reduce the number of possible differential diagnoses by exclusion or - as a best case scenario - show us directly the correct diagnosis. Hence patients can benefit from a very early appropriate therapeutic approach. This article illustrates where and how we should "look". After focusing on basic technical settings, typical pathological sonomorphologic changes in patients with some of the most important illnesses are characterized (e. g. acute appendicitis, acute cholecystitis, acute diverticulitis, acute pancreatitis and urinary tract occlusion). Ultrasound beginners are the target group of this survey. PMID:26488100

  1. Understanding and treatment of chronic abdominal pain in pediatric primary care.

    PubMed

    Schurman, Jennifer Verrill; Kessler, Emily D; Friesen, Craig A

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the practices used by primary care pediatricians to assess and treat chronic abdominal pain (CAP), as an initial step in guiding clinical practice guideline (CPG) development. A survey was mailed to a random sample of office-based pediatrician members (primary care pediatricians [PCPs]) of the American Medical Association. PCPs (n = 470) provided information about the typical presentation of CAP, assessment/treatment approaches used in their own practice, their definition of a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID), and their familiarity with the Rome Criteria for diagnosing FGIDs. Substantial variability among PCPs was noted across all these areas. Results suggest that perceptions and practices of pediatric CAP vary widely among PCPs; no single standard of care emerged to guide development of a CPG for this population. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of specific strategies currently in use to identify potential opportunities for improving assessment and treatment of CAP in pediatric primary care. PMID:25079069

  2. Trajectories of Symptoms and Impairment for Pediatric Patients with Functional Abdominal Pain: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Shelagh; Lambert, E. Warren; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This prospective study characterizes trajectories of symptoms and impairment in pediatric patients with abdominal pain not associated with identifiable organic disease. Method: The Children's Somatization Inventory and the Functional Disability Inventory were administered four times over 5 years to 132 patients (6-18 years old) seen in

  3. Early Parental and Child Predictors of Recurrent Abdominal Pain at School Age: Results of a Large Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramchandani, Paul G.; Stein, Alan; Hotopf, Matthew; Wiles, Nicola J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether parental psychological and physical factors and child factors measured in the first year of life were associated with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children at age 6 3/4 years. Method: A longitudinal cohort study (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children), followed 8,272 children from pregnancy to age 6

  4. Not Just Another Appendicitis! A Case Report of Acute Abdominal Pain Caused by Splenic Rupture Secondary to Isolated Splenic Peliosis

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Samrina; Choong, Andrew MTL; Tadrous, Paul J; Bhutiani, Rajinder P

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a 31-year-old man admitted with acute abdominal pain who was subsequently found to have a ruptured spleen. A splenectomy was performed as an emergency and he was discharged from hospital 4 days later. Histological analysis revealed isolated splenic peliosis as the underlying condition predisposing to his splenic rupture. PMID:19909606

  5. Carbohydrate digestion in congenital sucrase isomaltase deficient and recurrent abdominal pain children assesed by 13C- starch breath test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starches contribute about half of the food energy needs to the weaned child's diet. Malabsorption of sucrose is associated with abdominal pain, bloating and diarrhea. A genetic disorder called Congenital Sucrase-Isomaltase Deficiency (CSID) is suspected when these symptoms follow sugar ingestion and...

  6. Soft Tissue Mobilization to Resolve Chronic Pain and Dysfunction Associated With Postoperative Abdominal and Pelvic Adhesions: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yui Y; Smith, Ryan W; Koppenhaver, Shane

    2015-12-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Common complications from abdominal and pelvic surgery include adhesions and chronic pain. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis is sometimes used to reduce adhesions and related pain. Physical therapy interventions, such as soft tissue mobilization (STM), may be used for this condition; however, evidence to support its effectiveness is lacking. Case Description A 28-year-old woman with a history of 5 abdominal/pelvic surgeries presented with right-sided lower abdominal and anterior hip pain, which had been present since she had undergone a laparoscopic appendectomy with a right ovarian cystectomy surgery 1 year earlier. As an active-duty member in the US Navy, due to pain and weakness, she was unable to perform required curl-ups for her fitness test. Though she had been previously treated both surgically with laparoscopic adhesiolysis and nonsurgically with physical therapy consisting of stretching and strengthening exercises, her pain and function did not improve. She was again evaluated and treated with physical therapy and, based on the examination findings, STM was used to address her pain and dysfunction, which were thought to be related to intra-abdominal adhesions. Outcomes Following 5 sessions of physical therapy over a 3-week period that included STM and therapeutic exercises, followed by 5 additional sessions over a 4-week period that focused on therapeutic exercises, the patient reported substantially decreased pain, improved function, and a full return to previous level of activity, including unrestricted physical training in a military setting. Discussion The outcomes for this patient suggest that STM may be effective as a conservative treatment option for pain and dysfunction related to intra-abdominal adhesions from abdominal/pelvic surgery. Studies with a higher level of evidence, including potential comparison between STM and traditional laparoscopic adhesiolysis, are needed to further determine benefits of nonsurgical care for this condition. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(12):1006-1016. Epub 15 Oct 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5766. PMID:26471853

  7. Abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders based on Rome III criteria in a pediatric gastroenterology clinic

    PubMed Central

    Talachian, Elham; Bidari, Ali; Zahmatkesh, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) entail several distinct conditions that collectively account for a sizeable proportion of patients complaining of abdominal pain. Physicians awareness is fundamental to avoid unnecessary evaluations and to alleviate stress-related problems. This study aimed to assess the relative frequencies of FGIDs and related categories in a selected Iranian population. Methods: We conducted this cross-sectional study in a gastroenterology clinic of a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Iran. Children and adolescents between the age of 4 and 18 years referred to the clinic from October 2011 to February 2013 were enrolled if they were diagnosed with FGID according to the Rome III criteria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, pain location, duration and frequency, associated symptoms, and pertinent family history. We used descriptive analyses to show mean (SD) and relative frequencies of categories of FGIDs. Results: We diagnosed 183 (114 female) with FGIDs out of 1307 children and adolescents who were visited in the clinic. There was history of psychiatric disorders in 42 (22.9%) participants, and migraine headaches and gastrointestinal disorders were at least in one of the parents in 21 (11.5%) and 64 (34.9%) participants, respectively. We defined 84 (46%) patients under Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) category, 38 (21%) under Abdominal Migraine, 26 (14%) under Functional Abdominal Pain, 21 (11%) under Functional Dyspepsia, and 7 (4%) under Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome. Seven children (4%) had no defining feature for FGID categories and therefore labeled as unclassified. Conclusion: FGID was a prevalent diagnosis among children and adolescents with abdominal pain. IBS was the largest category. Only a minority were unclassifiable under the Rome III criteria, indicating improved differentiation characteristics of Rome III criteria compared to the Rome II version. PMID:26793638

  8. Synbiotic containing Bacillus coagulans and fructo-oligosaccharides for functional abdominal pain in children

    PubMed Central

    Saneian, Hossein; Pourmoghaddas, Zahra; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Gholamrezaei, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated the effectiveness of a synbiotic in the treatment of childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP). Background: Probiotics are effective in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders in adult patients, but there is lack of information in children. Patients and methods: Children with FAP, based on the Rome III criteria (n = 115, aged 6-18 years), were randomized to receive either synbiotic (Bacillus coagulans, Unique IS-2, 150 million spore plus FOS, 100 mg) twice daily or placebo for four weeks. Treatment response was defined as ≥ 2-point reduction in the 6-point self-rated pain scale or “no pain”. Physician-rated global severity and improvement were also evaluated. Patients were followed for a total of 12 weeks. Results: Eighty-eight patients completed the trial (45 with synbiotic). Response rate was higher with synbiotic than placebo after medication (60% vs. 39.5%, P = 0.044), but was not different between the two groups at week 12 (64.4% vs. 53.4%, P = 0.204). Difference between the two groups regarding the physician-rated global severity over the study period was not statistically significant (z = -1.87, P = 0.062). There was no significant difference between the two groups in physician-rated global improvement (week 4, P = 0.437; week 12, P = 0.111). Receiving synbiotic (OR 2.608, 95% CI: 1.01-6.68) and baseline pain score (OR 2.21, 95% CI: 1.19-4.10) were predictors of treatment response after medication. Conclusion: The synbiotic containing Bacillus coagulans and FOS seems to be effective in the treatment of childhood FAP. Further trials are recommended in this regard. PMID:25584177

  9. Comparison between Transdermal Buprenorphine and Transdermal Fentanyl for Postoperative Pain Relief after Major Abdominal Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Zia; Gautam, Shefali; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Opioid is generally regarded as an important part of multimodal, perioperative analgesia, especially for moderate to severe pain. Amongst the various modes of delivery transdermal route has several potential benefits over oral and parentral administration. These include noninvasive dosing, better absorption and lack of first-pass metabolism. A transdermal drug delivery system provides steady and continuous drug delivery resulting in steady plasma concentration. Bolus dosing of systemic analgesic results in supra and sub therapeutic plasma resulting in toxic and sub analgesic plasma drug concentration. It also improves patient compliance. Materials and Methods Sixty patients undergoing major abdominal surgery under GA were randomly divided in two groups (n=30). Group A received buprenorphine 10 mcg/h TDS and group B received 25 mcg/h fentanyl TDS, 6 hours prior to surgery. Patients were followed for three days for postoperative pain relief and adverse effects. Results Baseline and demographic variables are comparable in both groups. The mean level of VAS was significantly lower in group B as compared to group A at Day 1, 2 and 3. The mean level of sedation score was significantly lower in Group B than Group A. Haemodynamic variables in both groups (SBP, DBP and HR), shows comparable values in both groups and no significant difference was observed. Five out of 30 (16.7%) patients in group A required single dose of rescue analgesic while 0 out of 30 patients (0.00%) in group B required rescue analgesic. This difference in rescue analgesic requirement in not quiet statistically significant (p-value 0.0522). Twenty percent patient in fentanyl group and 16.7% patients in buprenorphine group experienced some adverse effects. Nausea and vomiting were main side effects of the drugs. The incidence of nausea and vomiting were 6.7% and 10% in buprenorphine and fentanyl group respectively. Conclusion Fentanyl and buprenorphine TDS were effective and safe in controlling postoperative pain. Fentanyl is better than buprenorphine in this respect. PMID:26816973

  10. Discriminative Accuracy of Novel and Traditional Biomarkers in Children with Suspected Appendicitis Adjusted for Duration of Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kharbanda, Anupam B.; Cosme, Yohaimi; Liu, Khin; Spitalnik, Steven L.; Dayan, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To assess the accuracy of novel and traditional biomarkers in patients with suspected appendicitis as a function of duration of symptoms. Methods This was a prospective cohort study, conducted in a tertiary care emergency department (ED). The authors enrolled children 3 to 18 years old with acute abdominal pain of less than 96 hours, and measured serum levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), C - reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC), and absolute neutrophil count (ANC). Final diagnosis was determined by histopathology or telephone follow-up. Trends in biomarker levels were examined based on duration of abdominal pain. The accuracy of biomarkers was assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Optimal cut-points and test performance characteristics were calculated for each biomarker. Results Of 280 patients enrolled, the median age was 11.3 years (IQR 8.6 to 14.8), 57% were male, and 33% had appendicitis. Median IL-6, median CRP, mean WBC, and mean ANC differed significantly (p < 0.001) between patients with non-perforated appendicitis and those without appendicitis; median IL-8 levels did not differ between groups. In non-perforated appendicitis, median IL-6, WBC, and ANC levels were maximal at less than 24 hrs of pain, while CRP peaked between 24 and 48 hours. In perforated appendicitis, median IL-8 levels were highest by 24 hours, WBC and IL-6 by 24 to 48 hours, and CRP after 48 hours of pain. The WBC appeared to be the most useful marker to predict appendicitis in those with fewer than 24 or more than 48 hours of pain, while CRP was the most useful in those with 24 to 48 hours of pain. Conclusions In this population, the serum levels and accuracy of novel and traditional biomarkers varies in relation to duration of abdominal pain. IL-6 shows promise as a novel biomarker to identify children with appendicitis. PMID:21676053

  11. PAin SoluTions In the Emergency Setting (PASTIES)patient controlled analgesia versus routine care in emergency department patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain: randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, Mark; Creanor, Siobhan; Squire, Rosalyn; Hayward, Chris; Ewings, Paul; Barton, Andy; Pritchard, Colin; Eyre, Victoria; Cocking, Laura; Benger, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether patient controlled analgesia (PCA) is better than routine care in providing effective analgesia for patients presenting to emergency departments with moderate to severe non-traumatic abdominal pain. Design Pragmatic, multicentre, parallel group, randomised controlled trial Setting Five English hospitals. Participants 200 adults (66% (n=130) female), aged 18 to 75 years, who presented to the emergency department requiring intravenous opioid analgesia for the treatment of moderate to severe non-traumatic abdominal pain and were expected to be admitted to hospital for at least 12 hours. Interventions Patient controlled analgesia or nurse titrated analgesia (treatment as usual). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was total pain experienced over the 12 hour study period, derived by standardised area under the curve (scaled from 0 to 100) of each participants hourly pain scores, captured using a visual analogue scale. Pre-specified secondary outcomes included total morphine use, percentage of study period in moderate or severe pain, percentage of study period asleep, length of hospital stay, and satisfaction with pain management. Results 196 participants were included in the primary analyses (99 allocated to PCA and 97 to treatment as usual). Mean total pain experienced was 35.3 (SD 25.8) in the PCA group compared with 47.3 (24.7) in the treatment as usual group. The adjusted between group difference was 6.3 (95% confidence interval 0.7 to 11.9). Participants in the PCA group received significantly more morphine (mean 36.1 (SD 22.4) v 23.6 (13.1) mg; mean difference 12.3 (95% confidence interval 7.2 to 17.4) mg), spent less of the study period in moderate or severe pain (32.6% v 46.9%; mean difference 14.5% (5.6% to 23.5%)), and were more likely to be perfectly or very satisfied with the management of their pain (83% (73/88) v 66% (57/87); adjusted odds ratio 2.56 (1.25 to 5.23)) in comparison with participants in the treatment as usual group. Conclusions Significant reductions in pain can be achieved by PCA compared with treatment as usual in patients presenting to the emergency department with non-traumatic abdominal pain. Trial registration European Clinical Trials Database EudraCT2011-000194-31; Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN25343280. PMID:26094712

  12. Reduction of chronic abdominal pain in patients with inflammatory bowel disease through transcranial direct current stimulation: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Volz, Magdalena S; Farmer, Annabelle; Siegmund, Britta

    2016-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is frequently associated with chronic abdominal pain (CAP). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been proven to reduce chronic pain. This study aimed to investigate the effects of tDCS in patients with CAP due to IBD. This randomized, sham-controlled, double blind, parallel-designed study included 20 patients with either Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis with CAP (?3/10 on the visual analog scale (VAS) in 3/6 months). Anodal or sham tDCS was applied over the primary motor cortex for 5 consecutive days (2 mA, 20 minutes). Assessments included VAS, pressure pain threshold, inflammatory markers, and questionnaires on quality of life, functional and disease specific symptoms (Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Severity Scoring System [IBS-SSS]), disease activity, and pain catastrophizing. Follow-up data were collected 1 week after the end of the stimulation. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance and t tests. There was a significant reduction of abdominal pain in the anodal tDCS group compared with sham tDCS. This effect was evident in changes in VAS and pressure pain threshold on the left and right sides of the abdomen. In addition, 1 week after stimulation, pain reduction remained significantly decreased in the right side of the abdomen. There was also a significant reduction in scores on pain catastrophizing and on IBS-SSS when comparing both groups. Inflammatory markers and disease activity did not differ significantly between groups throughout the experiment. Transcranial direct current stimulation proved to be an effective and clinically relevant therapeutic strategy for CAP in IBD. The analgesic effects observed are unrelated to inflammation and disease activity, which emphasizes central pain mechanisms in CAP. PMID:26469395

  13. [When to think about Crohn's disease when facing with chronic abdominal pain in children and adolescents?].

    PubMed

    Goulet, Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) together with ulcerative colitis (UC) and indeterminate colitis (IC) are the so called inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Epidemiological data show an increased incidence of both UC and CD and, especially in North America and in Europe, an increased prevalence of CD. European data show that northern countries present higher rates of IBD than southern ones. It is estimated that 15%-20% of CD patients experience onset of their symptoms under 20 years of age. An increasing number of children enter disease before 8 years of age. The pathogenesis of CD has became more documented involving both the immune system and changes in intestinal microbiota. Chronic abdominal pain associated with failure to thrive and inflammatory syndrome with or without intestinal transit disorders suggest CD. Onset of a anoperineal disease is also suggestive of CD and is a severity sign. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, physical examination, radiological studies, endoscopy, and histology. CD is defined by evidence of a discontinuous chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract with or without granulomas and supported by clinical, biochemical, and radiological evidence. Treatment aims to reducing inflammation and restauring growth. Enteral feeding has become a key issue in allowing to avoid steroids. Immunosuppressive treatment based on azathioprine is increasingly used for maintaining remission. Anti-TNF treatment is a rescue therapy in case of refractory, frequently relapsing disease especially those with ano-perineal disease. PMID:21698892

  14. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of renal pelvis presenting with iterative hematuria and abdominal pain: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WU, SHUIQING; XU, RAN; ZHAO, HUASHENG; ZHU, XUAN; ZHANG, LEI; ZHAO, XIAOKUN

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare type of mesenchymal tumor, which may affect various organs. The preferential site for IMT in the genitourinary system is the urinary bladder, while the presence of IMT in the kidney, and particularly in the renal pelvis, is rare. In the present report, the case of a 43-year-old man who was admitted to the Department of Urology of The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (Changsha, China) in July 2012, with complaints of iterative gross hematuria and abdominal pain unresponsive to antibiotics is described. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated a slightly enhanced mass in the left renal pelvis of 1.5 cm in diameter. On request of the patient, a left nephrectomy was then performed, based on a suspected diagnosis of renal pelvic carcinoma. However, analysis of the intraoperative fast-frozen section exhibited proliferation of compact spindle cells, suggesting IMT. Therefore, further ureterectomy was avoided, and the patient remained in healthy condition thereafter.

  15. Frequent Abdominal Pain in Childhood and Youth: A Systematic Review of Psychophysiological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Mller, Judith; Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane; Schlarb, Angelika Anita

    2014-01-01

    Background. Frequent abdominal pain (AP) in children and adolescents is often designated as functional gastrointestinal disorder. In contrast to research on psychological and social influences on the experience of AP in this population, psychophysiological features such as function of the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, or the endocrine system have rarely been studied. Methods. We conducted a systematic literature search for peer-reviewed journal articles referring to children with AP between 4 and 18 years. Studies on experimental baseline characteristics or reactivity of psychophysiological outcome parameters (autonomous nervous system, central nervous system, and endocrine parameters) were included. Key Results. Twelve of 18 included studies found psychophysiological differences between children with AP and healthy ones. These studies indicate a possible autonomic dysregulation and hypersensitivity of the central nervous system in children with AP following stimulation with stress or other intense stimuli. Mainly conflicting results were found regarding baseline comparisons of autonomic and endocrine parameters. Conclusions and Inferences. Frequent AP in children may be associated with an altered psychophysiological reaction on intense stimuli. It has to be considered that the current literature on psychophysiological characteristics of childhood AP is small and heterogeneous. In particular, multiparameter studies using validated experimental paradigms are lacking. PMID:24744777

  16. Splenic infarction A rare cause of acute abdominal pain following gastric surgery: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Pinar; Kaya, Cemal; Isil, Gurhan; Bozkurt, Emre; Mihmanli, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The dissection of splenic hilar lymph nodes in gastric cancer surgery is indispensable for treating gastric cancers located in the proximal third of the stomach. Splenic vascular injury is a matter of debate resulting on time or delayed splenectomy. We aimed to share our experience and plausible mechanisms causing this complication in two case reports. Case presentations Two male patients with gastric cancer were diagnosed with acute splenic infarction following gastric surgery in the early postoperative period. Both underwent emergent exploratory laparotomy. Splenectomy was performed due to splenic infarction. Discussion Because we observed this rare complication in recent patients whose surgery was performed using vessel-sealing device for splenic hilar dissection, we suggested that extensive mobilization of the surrounding tissues of splenic vascular structures hilum using the vessel sealer could be the reason. Conclusion In case of acute abdominal pain radiating to left shoulder, splenic complications should be taken into consideration in gastric cancer patients performed radical gastrectomy. Meticulous dissection of splenic hilar lymph nodes should be carried out to avoid any splenic vascular injury. PMID:25818369

  17. Spontaneous superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dissection: an unusual cause of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Watring, Nicole J; Smith, Corbett M; Stokes, Gordon K; Counselman, Francis L

    2010-11-01

    A 44-year-old woman presented to our Emergency Department with a 4-day history of severe, sharp left upper quadrant abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting. She had been seen 3 days prior at another Emergency Department, and had a negative work-up including a normal non-contrast computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen/pelvis for possible kidney stone. Vital signs were: temperature 36.3°C (97.3°F), pulse 100 beats/min, respiratory rate 18 breaths/min, and blood pressure 141/80 mm Hg. Physical examination was remarkable for marked tenderness in the left upper and middle quadrants and voluntary guarding. Bowel sounds were normal. Although laboratory studies were normal, a CT scan of the abdomen/pelvis with intravenous contrast suggested a superior mesenteric artery dissection. This was confirmed with arteriography. The clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management of superior mesenteric artery dissection are reviewed. PMID:18180132

  18. HRV biofeedback for pediatric irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain: a clinical replication series.

    PubMed

    Stern, Mark J; Guiles, Robert A F; Gevirtz, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and Functional Abdominal Pain (FAP) are among the most commonly reported Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Both have been associated with varying autonomic dysregulation. Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback (HRVB) has recently begun to show efficacy in the treatment of both IBS and FAP. The purpose of this multiple clinical replication series was to analyze the clinical outcomes of utilizing HRVB in a clinical setting. Archival data of twenty-seven consecutive pediatric outpatients diagnosed with IBS or FAP who received HRVB were analyzed. Clinical outcomes were self-report and categorized as full or remission with patient satisfaction, or no improvement. Qualitative reports of patient experiences were also noted. Full remission was achieved by 69.2% and partial remission was achieved by 30.8% of IBS patients. Full remission was achieved by 63.6% and partial remission was achieved by 36.4% of FAP patients. No patients in either group did not improve to a level of patient satisfaction or >50%. Patient's commonly reported feeling validated in their discomfort as a result of psychophysiological education. Results suggest that HRVB is a promising intervention for pediatric outpatients with IBS or FAP. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to accurately determine clinical efficacy of HRVB in the treatment of IBS and FAP. PMID:25274501

  19. Chronic abdominal pain secondary to mesh erosion into cecum following incisional hernia repair: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Divyangkumar; Marcin, Szember; Xin, Zhang; Asha, Bale; Kaswala, Dharmesh; Zamir, Brelvi

    2011-01-01

    Incisional hernias following abdominal operations are a common complication. Mesh is frequently employed to repair these hernias. Given the popularity of minimally invasive surgery utilizing polypropylene mesh for incisional hernia repair, related complications such postoperative hematoma and seroma, foreign body reaction, organ injury, infection, mesh rejection, and fistula are being noted. Mesh migration is an infrequent occurrence, and is rarely reported in the literature. Those that are usually involve the urinary bladder. In particular, review of literature shows no reports of cases of mesh migration into the cecum several years after an open type incisional hernia repair. We present a case of delayed transmural mesh migration from the abdominal wall into the cecum presenting as chronic abdominal pain. PMID:24713759

  20. Chronic Abdominal Pain Secondary to Mesh Erosion Into Ceacum Following Incisional Hernia Repair: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Fahad; Zaeem, Misbah

    2014-01-01

    Incisional hernias following abdominal operations are a common complication. Mesh is frequently employed in repair of these hernias. Mesh migration is an infrequent occurrence. We present the case of transmural mesh migration from the abdominal wall into the ceacum presenting as chronic abdominal pain. Given the popularity of minimally invasive surgery utilizing polypropylene mesh for incisional hernia repair, related complications such as postoperative hematoma and seroma, foreign body reaction, organ injury, infection, mesh rejection and fistula are increasingly being noted. Most of the mesh migrations reported in the literature involve the urinary bladder. We present a case of delayed mesh migration into the ceacum. Mesh migration is a rare and peculiar complication that is rarely reported in the literature. A review of the literature shows that there are no other cases of mesh migration into ceacum several years after open type incisional hernia repair. PMID:24578759

  1. Quality of life and health care consultation in 13 to 18year olds with abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases (AP-FGD) are commonly seen in the paediatric age group. It has significant impact on daily activities of affected children. Main objective of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with AP-FGD. Method This was a cross sectional survey conducted in children aged 1318 years, in four randomly selected schools in Western province of Sri Lanka. Data was collected using a previously validated, self-administered questionnaire. It had questions on symptoms, HRQoL and health care consultation. AP-FGD were diagnosed using Rome III criteria. Results A total of 1850 questionnaires were included in the analysis [males 1000 (54.1%), mean age 14.4years and SD 1.3years]. Of them, 305 (16.5%) had AP-FGD [irritable bowel syndrome?=?91(4.9%), functional dyspepsia?=?11 (0.6%), abdominal migraine?=?37 (1.9%) and functional abdominal pain?=?180 (9.7%)]. Lower HRQoL scores for physical (83.6 vs. 91.4 in controls), social (85.0 vs. 92.7), emotional (73.6 vs. 82.7) and school (75.0 vs. 82.5) functioning domains, and lower overall scores (79.6 vs. 88.0) were seen in children with AP-FGD (p?abdominal pain (r?=??0.24, p?abdominal bloating and vomiting (p?

  2. Family history of irritable bowel syndrome is the major determinant of persistent abdominal complaints in young adults with a history of pediatric recurrent abdominal pain

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Fabio; Zuin, Giovanna; Giacomo, Stefania Di; Molteni, Paola; Casini, Valentina; Fontana, Massimo; Porro, Gabriele Bianchi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the late outcome of teen-agers with a previous history of recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: A group of 67 children with RAP referred to the department from January 1986 to December 1995 was followed up between 5 and 13 years after the initial diagnosis by means of a structured telephone interview. We hypothesized that those patients with persistent adult IBS-like symptoms would be significantly more likely to report a family history of IBS in comparison with adults with no persistent abdominal complaint. RESULTS: Out of the 52 trackable subjects, 15 were found to present IBS-like symptoms at follow-up (29%) whereas the majority (37 subjects) did not. Subjects with IBS-like symptoms were almost three times more likely to present at least one sibling with similar symptoms compared to subjects not complaining (40.0% vs 16.0%), respectively (P < 0.05 at Student t test). Subjects with IBS-like symptoms also reported a higher prevalence of extra-intestinal symptoms, such as back pain, fibromyalgia, headache, fatigue and sleep disturbances. CONCLUSION: The study confirms previous obser-vations indicating that pediatric RAP can predict later development of IBS. The latter appears to be greatly influenced by intrafamilial aggregation of symptoms, possibly through the learning of a specific illness behavior. PMID:16804973

  3. Comparing the diagnostic performance of MRI versus CT in the evaluation of acute nontraumatic abdominal pain during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baron, Keren Tuvia; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Robinson, Christopher; Sanelli, Pina C

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to document the utilization of MRI compared with CT in pregnant patients presenting with acute nontraumatic abdominal pain at our institution and to compare the diagnostic performance of the two modalities. A retrospective review identified all pregnant patients at our institution who had MRI or CT exams of the abdomen and/or pelvis for acute nontraumatic abdominal pain over a 3-year period from January 2008 through December 2010. The imaging diagnoses were compared with pathologic data or operative findings as the primary reference standard or with clinical follow-up and laboratory data as the secondary reference standard. Patients without surgically proven diagnoses were followed clinically until delivery, when possible. Ninety-four pregnant patients were included in this study: 61 MRI exams were performed in 57 patients, 44 CT exams were performed in 43 patients (including six patients who had both), and 72 patients (77 %) had ultrasound prior to cross-sectional imaging, with the appendix specifically assessed in 25 patients but visualized in only two of them. Of 61 MRI exams, 24 were considered positive for imaging diagnoses, 33 were negative, and 4 were equivocal. Of 44 CT exams, 24 were positive and 20 were negative. The test characteristics for MRI and CT in the diagnosis of acute abdominal pain were as follows: sensitivity 91 and 88 %, specificity 85 and 90 %, positive predictive value 81 and 91 %, negative predictive value 94 and 8 5 %, and diagnostic accuracy 88 and 88 %, respectively. Differences were not statistically significant (p value?=?1). The majority of MRIs (34/61?=?56 %) were read by emergency radiologists. MRI and CT performed equally well in the evaluation of acute nontraumatic abdominal pain during pregnancy. Given its lack of ionizing radiation, MRI may be preferable. Given that the majority of MRIs were read by radiologists specializing in emergency imaging, this is a technique that emergency radiologists should be comfortable interpreting. PMID:22886287

  4. Inverse relationship of interleukin-6 and mast cells in children with inflammatory and non-inflammatory abdominal pain phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Wendy A; Shankar, Ravi; Taylor, Tara J; Del Valle-Pinero, Arseima Y; Kleiner, David E; Kim, Kevin H; Youssef, Nader N

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate interleukin-6 (IL-6), mast cells, enterochromaffin cells, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and substance P in the gastrointestinal mucosa of children with abdominal pain. METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastrointestinal biopsy blocks from patients (n = 48) with non-inflammatory bowel disease (irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain) and inflammatory bowel disease were sectioned and stained for IL-6, mast cells, enterochromaffin cells, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and substance P. All children had chronic abdominal pain as part of their presenting symptoms. Biopsy phenotype was confirmed by a pathologist, blinded to patient information. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and independent sample t tests were used to compare differences between the inflammatory and non-inflammatory groups. RESULTS: The cohort (n = 48), mean age 11.9 years (SD = 2.9), 54.2% females, 90% Caucasian, was comprised of a non-inflammatory (n = 26) and an inflammatory (n = 22) phenotype. There was a significant negative correlation between substance P expression and mast cell count (P = 0.05, r = -0.373). Substance P was found to be expressed more often in female patient biopsies and more intensely in the upper gastrointestinal mucosa as compared to the lower mucosa. There were significantly increased gastrointestinal mucosal immunoreactivity to IL-6 (P = 0.004) in the inflammatory phenotype compared to non-inflammatory. Additionally, we found significantly increased mast cells (P = 0.049) in the mucosa of the non-inflammatory phenotype compared to the inflammatory group. This difference was particularly noted in the lower colon biopsies. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study yield preliminary evidence in identifying biomarkers of undiagnosed abdominal pain in children and may suggest candidate genes for future evaluation. PMID:23516176

  5. Cases in Space Medicine: Right Lower Quadrant Abdominal Pain in a Female Crewmember on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Scheuring, Richard; Jones, Jeffery

    2007-01-01

    A case study of a medical emergency aboard the International Space Station is reviewed. The case involves a female crewmember who is experiencing acute abdominal pain. The interplay of the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) and the NASA Flight Surgeon is given. Possible diagnoses, and advised medical actions are reviewed. Along the case study questions are posed to the reader, and at the end answers are given.

  6. The role of mean platelet volume in patients with non-specific abdominal pain in an emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Adil; Yavasoglu, Irfan; Ok, Ismail Murat; Bircan, Metin; Avcil, Mucahit; Kadikoylu, Gurhan; Bolaman, Zahit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Platelets play an important role in inflammation. Mean platelet volume (MPV) may be a useful parameter for inflammatory conditions, in differentiating between non-specific abdominal pain (NSAP) and conditions requiring surgery, or early diagnosis of abdominal pain as a serious problem for emergency services. Aim To investigate the role of MPV on NSAP admittance to the emergency department. Material and methods The study consisted of 330 patients (186 female and 144 male, with mean age 49 20 years) with NSAP and 249 patients with abdominal pain (144 female and 105 male, with mean age 49 19 years) applied to our emergency service and enrolled to our study. Medical history, physical examination, complete blood count (CBC), and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Haematological parameters were measured by Beckman Coulter LH 780 instrument. Data were compared using Student's t test, and p < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results The MPV were significantly lower in patients with NSAP than in others (p = 0.025). There was no significant difference between both sexes with regard to MPV (p > 0.05). Moreover, the other haematological parameters (haemoglobin, platelet, or WBC counts) were not statistically different between both groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions The MPV may be a useful, simple, and inexpensive parameter to diagnose or differentiate between NSAP and other conditions. PMID:26516381

  7. Pain Symptoms and Stooling Patterns Do Not Drive Diagnostic Costs for Children With Functional Abdominal Pain and Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Primary or Tertiary Care

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Mariella M.; Weidler, Erica M.; Czyzewski, Danita I.; Shulman, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the cost of medical evaluation for children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome brought to a pediatric gastroenterologist versus children who remained in the care of their pediatrician, (2) compare symptom characteristics for the children in primary versus tertiary care, and (3) examine if symptom characteristics predicted the cost of medical evaluation. METHODS Eighty-nine children aged 7 to 10 years with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome seen by a gastroenterologist (n = 46) or seen only by a pediatrician (n = 43) completed daily pain and stool diaries for 2 weeks. Mothers provided retrospective reports of their children’s symptoms in the previous year. Cost of medical evaluation was calculated via chart review of diagnostic tests and application of prices as if the patients were self-pay. RESULTS Child-reported diary data reflected no significant group differences with respect to pain, interference with activities, or stool characteristics. In contrast, mothers of children evaluated by a gastroenterologist viewed their children as having higher maximum pain intensity in the previous year. Excluding endoscopy costs, cost of medical evaluation was fivefold higher for children evaluated by a gastroenterologist, with higher cost across blood work, stool studies, breath testing, and diagnostic imaging. Symptom characteristics did not predict cost of care for either group. CONCLUSIONS Despite the lack of difference in symptom characteristics between children in primary and tertiary care, a notable differential in cost of evaluation exists in accordance with level of care. Symptom characteristics do not seem to drive diagnostic evaluation in either primary or tertiary care. Given the lack of differences in child-reported symptoms and the maternal perspective that children evaluated by a gastroenterologist had more severe pain, we speculate that parent perception of child symptoms may be a primary factor in seeking tertiary care. PMID:19254999

  8. A Rare Cause of Postoperative Abdominal Pain in a Spinal Fusion Patient.

    PubMed

    Horn, Pamela L; Beeb, Allan C; King, Denis R

    2015-09-01

    We present the case of a 12-year-old girl who underwent an uncomplicated posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation for scoliosis and who later developed nausea, emesis, and abdominal pain. We discuss the epidemiology, prevalence, anatomic findings, symptoms, diagnostic tests, and clinical management, including nonsurgical and surgical therapies, of superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS), a rare condition. Over a 2-week period, the patient developed an uncommon type of bowel obstruction likely related to her initial thin body habitus, correction of her deformity, and weight loss after surgery. The patient returned to the operating room for placement of a Stamm gastrostomy feeding tube with insertion of a transgastric-jejunal (G-J) feeding tube. The patient had the G-J feeding tube in place for approximately 6 weeks to augment her enteral nutrition. As she gained weight, her duodenal emptying improved, and she gradually transitioned to normal oral intake. She has done well since the G-J feeding tube was removed. Posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a relatively common procedure, and SMAS is a rare condition. However, in the case of an asthenic adolescent with postoperative weight loss, intestinal obstruction can develop. When planning operative spinal correction in scoliosis patients who have a low body mass index at the time of surgery and who have increased thoracic stiffness, be alert for signs and symptoms of SMAS. This rare complication can develop, and timely diagnosis and medical management will decrease morbidity and shorten the length of time needed for nutritional rehabilitation. PMID:26372764

  9. Organophosphate poisoning presenting with muscular weakness and abdominal pain- a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Organophosphate (OP) poisoning is the most common cause (27.64%) and has the highest death rate (13.88%) of poisoning in Bangladesh. It leads to three main syndromes notably acute cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, and delayed polyneuropathy. It rarely causes cardiac arrhythmia, pancreatitis and hepatic dysfunction. We present the case of a middle-aged Asian woman suffering from organophosphate poisoning with dual complications. Case presentation A middle aged Asian woman with depression was brought to emergency attention after drinking of 60 milliliter of organophosphate insecticide in a suicidal attempt. She had vomiting, excessive retching, diarrhoea, miosis, hypersalivation and bilateral crepitation on chest during admission. After immediate resuscitation, atropinization was done and it required total of 36 milligram. The patient also received pralidoxime. While on maintenance, features of toxicity re-appeared and she again required atropine in bolus dose. On the fifth day of management she complained of generalized weakness, inability to control her neck and to sit or stand without support. But there was no respiratory muscle involvement and all deep tendon reflexes were normal. On the same day the patient also developed severe upper abdominal pain along with nausea and vomiting. Investigations revealed neutrophilic leucocytosis (30,000/cubic millimeter; 86%) with high serum lipase (770 Unit/Liter) and alanine transaminase (379 Unit/Liter) and low serum potassium (3.0 millimol/Liter). On the basis of above mentioned features organophosphate induced intermediate syndrome and pancreatitis was diagnosed. The patient recovered completely with appropriate management. Conclusion Organophosphate poisonings causes up to 25% mortality worldwide. A major contributing factor for that are different complications. Awareness of these complications can reduce both mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of complications and timely therapeutic measures can improve prognosis. PMID:24618147

  10. Spontaneous splenic rupture and Anisakis appendicitis presenting as abdominal pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Anisakidosis, human infection with nematodes of the family Anisakidae, is caused most commonly by Anisakis simplex. Acquired by the consumption of raw or undercooked marine fish or squid, anisakidosis occurs where such dietary customs are practiced, including Japan, the coastal regions of Europe and the United States. Rupture of the spleen is a relatively common complication of trauma and many systemic disorders affecting the reticuloendothelial system, including infections and neoplasias. A rare subtype of rupture occurring spontaneously and arising from a normal spleen has been recognized as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Herein we discuss the case of a woman who presented to our institution with appendicitis secondary to Anisakis and spontaneous spleen rupture. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with hemorrhagic shock and abdominal pain and was subsequently found to have spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. She underwent open surgical resection of the splenic rupture and the appendicitis without any significant postoperative complications. Histopathologic examination revealed appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex and splenic rupture of undetermined etiology. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first of a woman with the diagnosis of spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. Digestive anisakiasis may present as an acute abdomen. Emergency physicians should know and consider this diagnosis in patients with ileitis or colitis, especially if an antecedent of raw or undercooked fish ingestion is present. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen is an extremely rare event. Increased awareness of this condition will enhance early diagnosis and effective treatment. Further research is required to identify the possible risk factors associated with spontaneous rupture of the spleen. PMID:22524971

  11. Groin pain

    MedlinePLUS

    Pain - groin; Lower abdominal pain; Genital pain; Perineal pain ... Common causes of groin pain include: Pulled muscle, tendon, or ligaments in the leg. This problem often occurs in people who play sports such as ...

  12. Incidental detection of ascariasis worms on USG in a protein energy malnourished (PEM) child with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Pokhraj Prakashchandra; Doshi, Rajkumar Prakashbhai; Mehta, Chetan; Vadera, Khyati P

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old child presented with dull aching periumbilical abdominal pain for 15 days. The child was not gaining weight despite a good appetite. Physical examination of the child revealed grade-I protein energy malnourishment (PEM) according to IAP (Indian Academic of Paediatrics) classification. The rest of the systemic examination was normal. Routine blood investigation revealed anaemia with eosinophilia. Abdominal ultrasonography did not show any abnormality with curvilinear transducer (3.5-5 MHz), however, linear ultrasound transducer (7.5-12 MHz) with harmonic tissue imaging showed worms in the lumen of the small intestine with curling movement on real time scanning. Stool examination for the eggs of ascariasis was positive. The patient was treated with antihelminthic drugs. Dietary modification for the PEM was advised. After 3 months of treatment, the patient improved and stool examination for Ascaris was negative on follow-up. PMID:25766437

  13. Abdominal pain in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: a review of putative psychological, neural and neuro-immune mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2011-03-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common symptom of great clinical significance in several areas of medicine. In many cases no organic cause can be established resulting in the classification as functional gastrointestinal disorder. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is the most common of these conditions and is considered an important public health problem because it can be disabling and constitutes a major social and economic burden given the lack of effective treatments. IBS aetiology is most likely multi-factorial involving biological, psychological and social factors. Visceral hyperalgesia (or hypersensitivity) and visceral hypervigilance, which could be mediated by peripheral, spinal, and/or central pathways, constitute key concepts in current research on pathophysiological mechanisms of visceral hyperalgesia. The role of central nervous system mechanisms along the "brain-gut axis" is increasingly appreciated, owing to accumulating evidence from brain imaging studies that neural processing of visceral stimuli is altered in IBS together with long-standing knowledge regarding the contribution of stress and negative emotions to symptom frequency and severity. At the same time, there is also growing evidence suggesting that peripheral immune mechanisms and disturbed neuro-immune communication could play a role in the pathophysiology of visceral hyperalgesia. This review presents recent advances in research on the pathophysiology of visceral hyperalgesia in IBS, with a focus on the role of stress and anxiety in central and peripheral response to visceral pain stimuli. Together, these findings support that in addition to lower pain thresholds displayed by a significant proportion of patients, the evaluation of pain appears to be altered in IBS. This may be attributable to affective disturbances, negative emotions in anticipation of or during visceral stimulation, and altered pain-related expectations and learning processes. Disturbed "top-down" emotional and cognitive pain modulation in IBS is reflected by functional and possibly structural brain changes involving prefrontal as well as cingulate regions. At the same time, there is growing evidence linking peripheral and mucosal immune changes and abdominal pain in IBS, supporting disturbed peripheral pain signalling. Findings in post-infectious IBS emphasize the interaction between centrally-mediated psychosocial risk factors and local inflammation in predicting long-term IBS symptoms. Investigating afferent immune-to-brain communication in visceral hyperalgesia as a component of the sickness response constitutes a promising future research goal. PMID:21094682

  14. Gastrointestinal Autonomic Nerve Tumor of the Colon: A Rare Cause of Persistent Abdominal Pain in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Teruzzi, Elisabetta; Garofalo, Salvatore; Morra, Isabella; Lemini, Riccardo; Schleef, Jrgen

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumor (GANT) is extremely rare and considered a variant of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). GANT originates from the intestinal autonomic nervous system mostly of small intestine or the stomach. We report a colonic GANT diagnosed in a 5-year-old child who presented with abdominal pain and fever for a long period. Colonic resection and end to end anastomosis proved curative without the need of chemo-radiotherapy. Given the rarity of the tumor, the patient is on our long term follow-up. PMID:26816681

  15. Bilateral Continuous Quadratus Lumborum Block for Acute Postoperative Abdominal Pain as a Rescue After Opioid-Induced Respiratory Depression.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Mohamed; Esa, Wael Ali Sakr; Maheshwari, Kamal; Elsharkawy, Hesham; Soliman, Loran Mounir

    2015-10-01

    We present a case of acute postoperative abdominal pain after proctosigmoidectomy and colorectal anastomosis that was treated by bilateral continuous quadratus lumborum block. The block was performed in the lateral position under ultrasound guidance with a 15-mL bolus of 0.5% bupivacaine injected anterior to the quadratus lumborum muscle followed by bilateral catheter placement. Each catheter received a continuous infusion of 0.1% bupivacaine at 8?mL/h and an on-demand bolus 5?mL every 30 minutes. Sensory level was confirmed by insensitivity to cold from T7 through T12. The block was devoid of hemodynamic side effects or motor weakness. This case demonstrates that bilateral continuous quadratus lumborum catheters can provide extended postoperative pain control. PMID:26402020

  16. Comparison of the Effects of pH-Dependent Peppermint Oil and Synbiotic Lactol (Bacillus coagulans + Fructooligosaccharides) on Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Asgarshirazi, Masoumeh; Shariat, Mamak; Dalili, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Still there is no consensus on the best treatment for abdominal pain-related functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a synbiotic Lactol (Bacillus coagulans + fructooligosaccharide (FOS)), peppermint oil (Colpermin) and placebo (folic acid) on abdominal pain-related FGIDs except for abdominal migraine. Patients and Methods: This placebo-controlled study was conducted on 120 children aged 4 - 13 years to compare the efficacy of pH-dependent peppermint oil (Colpermin) versus synbiotic Lactol (Bacillus coagulans + fructooligosaccharids (FOS)) in decreasing duration, severity and frequency of functional abdominal pain. The patients were randomly allocated into three equal groups (n = 40 in each group) and each group received Colpermin or Lactol or placebo. Results: Eighty-eight out of 120 enrolled patients completed a one-month protocol and analyses were performed on 88 patients’ data. Analyses showed that improvement in pain duration, frequency and severity in the Colpermin group was better than the placebo group (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Moreover, pain duration and frequency were decreased in the Lactol group more than the placebo (P = 0.012 and P = 0.0001, respectively), but changes in pain severity were not significant (P = 0.373). Colpermin was superior to Lactol in decreasing pain duration and severity (P = 0.040 and P = 0.013, respectively). No known side effects or intolerance were seen with Colpermin or Lactol. Conclusions: The pH-dependent peppermint oil capsule and Lactol tablet (Bacillus coagulans+ FOS) as synbiotics seem to be superior to placebo in decreasing the severity, duration and frequency of pain in abdominal pain-related functional GI disorders. PMID:26023339

  17. The impact of abdominal pain on global measures in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation, before and after treatment with linaclotide: a pooled analysis of two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials

    PubMed Central

    Chang, L; Lembo, A J; Lavins, B J; Shiff, S J; Hao, X; Chickering, J G; Jia, X D; Currie, M G; Kurtz, C B; Johnston, J M

    2014-01-01

    Background Few clinical trials in chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) patients have evaluated abdominal symptom severity and whether CIC patients with abdominal symptoms respond similarly to patients with limited abdominal symptoms. Aims To examine abdominal symptom severity and relationships between symptoms and global measures at baseline; compare linaclotide's effect on symptoms in subpopulations with more or less abdominal pain; and assess relationships between symptom improvement and global measures in these two subpopulations. Methods In two phase 3 trials, patients meeting modified Rome II CIC criteria were assigned to linaclotide 145 μg, 290 μg, or placebo once daily. Patients rated abdominal and bowel symptoms daily during 2-week pre-treatment and 12-week treatment periods. Linaclotide's effect on symptoms and global measures [constipation severity, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), treatment satisfaction] and their inter-relationships were assessed in post hoc analyses of abdominal pain subpopulations. Results Of 1271 CIC patients, 23%, 32%, and 43% reported moderate-to-severe abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating, respectively, during baseline. In more-severe abdominal pain patients, abdominal symptoms were more strongly correlated than bowel symptoms with global measures, but in less-severe abdominal pain patients, abdominal and bowel symptoms were similarly correlated with global measures, at baseline and post-treatment. Linaclotide significantly improved all symptoms and global measures in both subpopulations. Conclusions When abdominal pain is present in CIC, abdominal and not bowel symptoms may drive patient assessments of constipation severity, HRQOL, and treatment satisfaction. Linaclotide (145 μg and 290 μg) is an effective treatment for both abdominal and bowel symptoms, even in CIC patients with more severe abdominal pain at baseline. (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00765882, NCT00730015). PMID:25312449

  18. Novel presentation of a cricket ball-related intra-abdominal injury: genitofemoral nerve referred pain.

    PubMed

    Philipoff, Adam C; Rowcroft, Alistair; Weber, Dieter G

    2015-01-01

    Serious intra-abdominal injuries are very uncommon in cricket; traumatic cricket injuries are traditionally musculoskeletal, soft tissue or maxillofacial in origin. The cause of such cricket injuries can be broadly divided into collision type injuries (a result of direct contact with the ball or bat, another player, the ground or boundary) or overuse injuries (due to running, throwing, batting, bowling, repetitive movements and overexertion). This case report describes a rare cause of small bowel perforation and suspected genitofemoral nerve injury secondary to the direct impact of a cricket ball, and includes a brief review of blunt abdominal injuries resulting in isolated small bowel perforations. PMID:26323973

  19. Subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome based on abdominal pain/discomfort severity and bowel pattern

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has traditionally been classified by stooling pattern (e.g., diarrhea-predominant). However, other patterns of symptoms have long been recognized, e.g., pain severity. Our objective was to examine the utility of subtyping women with IBS based on pain/discomfort severit...

  20. Autonomic nervous system function in young children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported to have alterations in autonomic nervous system function as measured by vagal activity via heart rate variability. Whether the same is true for children is unknown. We compared young children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal...

  1. Abdominal pain and swelling as an initial presentation of spinal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Elgendy, Akram Y; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Elgendy, Islam Y

    2014-01-01

    Spinal tuberculosis (Pott's disease) is one of the common extra-pulmonary presentations of tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis commonly presents with back pain, fever and night sweats. In this report, we present a case of spinal tuberculosis complicated by bilateral large psoas abscesses. The patient presented with bilateral flank pain and swellings rather than the classic presentation of back pain. The aim of this report is to draw the attention of physicians to this uncommon presentation of spinal tuberculosis, as an early recognition of such condition may expedite diagnosis and treatment, thereby preventing future complications of the disease. PMID:24554681

  2. Helicobacter pylori

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hematemesis (bloody vomit or vomit that looks like coffee grounds) or melena (stool that's black, bloody, or ... abdominal pain vomit that's bloody or looks like coffee grounds stool that's bloody, black, or looks like ...

  3. Association of Campylobacter upsaliensis with Persistent Bloody Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Brianne A.; Hale, DeVon C.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter upsaliensis is a zoonotic, emerging pathogen that is not readily recovered in traditional stool culture. This case represents the first report of persistent bloody diarrhea with C. upsaliensis that was confirmed by filtration culture, PCR, and sequencing. PMID:22915607

  4. Haemoptysis and left upper quadrant abdominal pain: an unusual presentation of partial thoracic migration of an adjustable gastric band's tube

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Csar; Milheiro, Antnio; Manso, Antnio Canaveira; Castro Sousa, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic gastric banding is considered the safest bariatric procedure, holding satisfactory long-term weight loss results, low rates of early complications and negligible mortality. Long-term follow-up are showing a high prevalence of late complications. We describe the case of a 40-year-old female patient, with a medical history of laparoscopic gastric banding, admitted in the emergency department complaining of haemoptysis, left upper quadrant abdominal pain and a slight tachycardia. After an exhaustive clinical evaluation with laboratorial and radiological assessments, diagnosis of partial thoracic migration of the band's tube was established. Despite the unusual clinical setting, this case emphasises the necessity of awareness for the potential long-term complications of gastric banding either from primary or secondary care providers. PMID:23420734

  5. Just another abdominal pain? Psoas abscess-like metastasis in large cell lung cancer with adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Bernardino, Vera; Val-Flores, Luis Silva; Dias, João Lopes; Bento, Luís

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 69-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and previous pulmonary tuberculosis, who presented to the emergency department with abdominal and low back pain, anorexia and weight loss, rapidly evolving into shock. An initial CT scan revealed pulmonary condensation with associated cavitation and an iliopsoas mass suggestive of a psoas abscess. He was admitted in an intensive care unit unit; after a careful examination and laboratory assessment, the aetiology was yet undisclosed. MRI showed multiple retroperitoneal lymphadenopathies, bulky nodular adrenal lesions and bilateral iliac lytic lesions. Hypocortisolism was detected and treated with steroids. A CT-guided biopsy to the psoas mass and lytic lesions identified infiltration of non-small lung carcinoma. The patient died within days. Psoas metastases and adrenal insufficiency as initial manifestations of malignancy are rare and can be misdiagnosed, particularly in the absence of a known primary tumour. PMID:26063108

  6. An uncommon cause of visceral arterial embolism in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Ulenaers, M; Buchel, O C; Van Olmen, A; Moons, V; D'Haens, G; Christiaens, P

    2010-01-01

    We report on 2 cases of visceral arterial embolism presenting with acute abdominal pain. In neither patient a cause could be established on initial clinical, laboratory, echographic or radiological investigation. Both patients were subsequently found to have a mural thrombus in the thoracic aorta, with visceral arterial embolism. Each underwent a successful operative thrombectomy. Both patients had a normal underlying aortic intima at inspection. The first patient was a young male with no known diseases. He regularly used cannabis and tested positive on admission, an association not yet reported with aortic mural thrombus. He was found to have a slightly reduced protein C. The second patient was a middle aged man with non-insulin dependent diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, arterial hypertension and hyperthyroidism. He was found to have an underlying adenocarcinoma of the lung and received chemotherapy. He died due to his cancer, 4 months after first presentation. PMID:20458852

  7. Associations between low back pain, urinary incontinence, and abdominal muscle recruitment as assessed via ultrasonography in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Vnia F.; Amorim, Juleimar S. C.; Pereira, Aline M.; Ferreira, Paulo H.; Pereira, Leani S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) and urinary incontinence (UI) are highly prevalent among elderly individuals. In young adults, changes in trunk muscle recruitment, as assessed via ultrasound imaging, may be associated with lumbar spine stability. Objective: To assess the associations between LBP, UI, and the pattern of transversus abdominis (TrA), internal (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscle recruitment in the elderly as evaluated by ultrasound imaging. Method: Fifty-four elderly individuals (mean age: 725.2 years) who complained of LBP and/or UI as assessed by the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form, and ultrasound imaging were included in the study. The statistical analysis comprised a multiple linear regression model, and a p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The regression models for the TrA, IO, and EO muscle thickness levels explained 2.0% (R2=0.02; F=0.47; p=0.628), 10.6% (R2=0.106; F=3.03; p=0.057), and 10.1% (R2=0.101; F=2.70; p=0.077) of the variability, respectively. None of the regression models developed for the abdominal muscles exhibited statistical significance. A significant and negative association (p=0.018; ?=-0.0343) was observed only between UI and IO recruitment. Conclusion: These results suggest that age-related factors may have interfered with the findings of the study, thus emphasizing the need to perform ultrasound imaging-based studies to measure abdominal muscle recruitment in the elderly. PMID:25714438

  8. Discriminative Validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Parent Rating Scales in Children with Recurrent Abdominal Pain and Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Paul M.; Schoff, Kristin M.; Glutting, Joseph J.; Abelkop, A. Shayne

    2003-01-01

    Examined discriminative validity of the Parent Rating Scale (PRS) of the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992, Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services). Two groups were compared: a cohort with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) (n = 49) and children from the BASC-PRS standardization sample (n = 49) matched on

  9. Young children with functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) followed in pediatric gastroenterology (PED-GI) vs primary pediatric care (PED): Differences in outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests that children with recurrent abdominal pain without alarm signs be managed in pediatric rather than specialty care. However, many of these children are seen in tertiary care. In a longitudinal examination of physical and psychological symptoms, we hypothes...

  10. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... renal disease Infertility Liver disease Needle biopsy Osteoporosis Pediatrics Pelvic pain ... Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  11. Lemmel's syndrome, an unusual cause of abdominal pain and jaundice by impacted intradiverticular enterolith: case report.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyo Sung; Hyun, Jong Jin; Kim, Seung Young; Jung, Sung Woo; Koo, Ja Seol; Yim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Sang Woo

    2014-06-01

    Duodenal diverticula are detected in up to 27% of patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal tract evaluation with periampullary diverticula (PAD) being the most common type. Although PAD usually do not cause symptoms, it can serve as a source of obstructive jaundice even when choledocholithiasis or tumor is not present. This duodenal diverticulum obstructive jaundice syndrome is called Lemmel's syndrome. An 81-yr-old woman came to the emergency room with obstructive jaundice and cholangitis. Abdominal CT scan revealed stony opacity on distal CBD with CBD dilatation. ERCP was performed to remove the stone. However, the stone was not located in the CBD but rather inside the PAD. After removal of the enterolith within the PAD, all her symptoms resolved. Recognition of this condition is important since misdiagnosis could lead to mismanagement and therapeutic delay. Lemmel's syndrome should always be included as one of the differential diagnosis of obstructive jaundice when PAD are present. PMID:24932093

  12. Abdominal cocoon

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Christian B S; Diggory, Robert T; Samee, Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction secondary to cocoon formation is not common. We report a case of a patient who had presented with abdominal pain and distension accompanied by vomiting. Investigations, laparotomy and histology together revealed primary peritoneal carcinoma as the cause of the patient's symptoms. PMID:24682136

  13. Bilateral Bloody Otorrhagia After Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Jones, William Scott; Klafta, Jerome M

    2015-09-15

    Bloody otorrhagia in the perioperative period is an uncommon event. We present a case of bilateral bloody otorrhagia after uncomplicated robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy in a 66-year-old man. Anesthetic management was unremarkable. No symptoms were noted by the patient. Postoperative otolaryngology evaluation revealed bilateral ear canal hematomas with intact tympanic membranes. The patient was discharged with Ciprodex ear drops on postoperative day 1. One-month otolaryngology follow-up revealed no long-term sequelae. Although the etiology is unclear, there seems to be a trend in the literature toward occurrence with laparoscopy in the Trendelenburg position. PMID:26361383

  14. Multivariate morphological brain signatures predict patients with chronic abdominal pain from healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Labus, Jennifer S; Van Horn, John D; Gupta, Arpana; Alaverdyan, Mher; Torgerson, Carinna; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Irimia, Andrei; Hong, Jui-Yang; Naliboff, Bruce; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A

    2015-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common chronic visceral pain disorder. The pathophysiology of IBS is incompletely understood; however, evidence strongly suggests dysregulation of the brain-gut axis. The aim of this study was to apply multivariate pattern analysis to identify an IBS-related morphometric brain signature that could serve as a central biological marker and provide new mechanistic insights into the pathophysiology of IBS. Parcellation of 165 cortical and subcortical regions was performed using FreeSurfer and the Destrieux and Harvard-Oxford atlases. Volume, mean curvature, surface area, and cortical thickness were calculated for each region. Sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis was applied to develop a diagnostic model using a training set of 160 females (80 healthy controls and 80 patients with IBS). Predictive accuracy was assessed in an age-matched holdout test set of 52 females (26 healthy controls and 26 patients with IBS). A 2-component classification algorithm comprising the morphometry of (1) primary somatosensory and motor regions and (2) multimodal network regions explained 36% of the variance. Overall predictive accuracy of the classification algorithm was 70%. Small effect size associations were observed between the somatosensory and motor signature and nongastrointestinal somatic symptoms. The findings demonstrate that the predictive accuracy of a classification algorithm based solely on regional brain morphometry is not sufficient, but they do provide support for the utility of multivariate pattern analysis for identifying meaningful neurobiological markers in IBS. PMID:25906347

  15. Large twisted ovarian fibroma associated with Meigs’ syndrome, abdominal pain and severe anemia treated by laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Meigs' syndrome is a rare but well-known syndrome defined as the triad of benign solid ovarian tumor, ascites, and pleural effusion. Meigs' syndrome always requires surgical treatment. However, the optimal approach for its management has not been sufficiently investigated. Case presentation We report a patient with a large twisted ovarian fibroma associated with Meigs’ syndrome, abdominal pain and severe hemolytic anemia that was treated by laparoscopic surgery. This case highlights the difficulties that may be encountered in the management of patients with Meigs’ syndrome, including potential misdiagnosis of the tumor as a malignant ovarian neoplasm that may influence the medical and surgical approach and the adverse impact that Meigs’ syndrome can have on the patient’s condition, especially if it is associated with acute pain and severe anemia. Considering the patient’s serious clinical condition and assuming that she had Meigs' syndrome with a twisted large ovarian mass and possible hemolytic anemia, we first concentrated on effective medical management of our patient and chose the most appropriate surgical treatment after laparoscopic examination. The main aim of our initial approach was preoperative management of the anemia. Blood transfusions and glucocorticoid therapy resulted in stabilization of the hemoglobin level and normalization of the bilirubin levels, which confirmed the appropriateness of this approach. Laparoscopic surgery 4 days after admission enabled definitive diagnosis of the tumor, confirmed torsion and removed the bulky ovarian fibroma, resulting in timely resolution of symptoms, short hospitalization, relatively low morbidity and a rapid return to her social and professional life. Conclusions This case highlights the difficulties that may be encountered in the management of patients with Meigs' syndrome, including potential misdiagnosis of the tumor as a malignant ovarian neoplasm that may influence the medical and surgical approach, and the adverse impact that Meigs' syndrome can have on the patient's condition, especially if it is associated with acute pain and severe anemia. The present case suggests that laparoscopic surgery for potentially large malignant tumors is feasible and safe, but requires an appropriate medical and gynecological oncology expertise. PMID:24962423

  16. Sex-Related Differences of Cortical Thickness in Patients with Chronic Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhiguo; Dinov, Ivo D.; Labus, Jennifer; Shi, Yonggang; Zamanyan, Alen; Gupta, Arpana; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Hong, Jui-Yang; Tillisch, Kirsten; Toga, Arthur W.; Mayer, Emeran A.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Regional reductions in gray matter (GM) have been reported in several chronic somatic and visceral pain conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic pancreatitis. Reported GM reductions include insular and anterior cingulate cortices, even though subregions are generally not specified. The majority of published studies suffer from limited sample size, heterogeneity of populations, and lack of analyses for sex differences. We aimed to characterize regional changes in cortical thickness (CT) in a large number of well phenotyped IBS patients, taking into account the role of sex related differences. Methods Cortical GM thickness was determined in 266 subjects (90 IBS [70 predominantly premenopausal female] and 176 healthy controls (HC) [155 predominantly premenopausal female]) using the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging (LONI) Pipeline. A combined region of interest (ROI) and whole brain approach was used to detect any sub-regional and vertex-level differences after removing effects of age and total GM volume. Correlation analyses were performed on behavioral data. Results While IBS as a group did not show significant differences in CT compared to HCs, sex related differences were observed both within the IBS and the HC groups. When female IBS patients were compared to female HCs, whole brain analysis showed significant CT increase in somatosensory and primary motor cortex, as well as CT decrease in bilateral subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). The ROI analysis showed significant regional CT decrease in bilateral subregions of insular cortex, while CT decrease in cingulate was limited to left sgACC, accounting for the effect of age and GM volume. Several measures of IBS symptom severity showed significant correlation with CT changes in female IBS patients. Conclusions Significant, sex related differences in CT are present in both HCs and in IBS patients. The biphasic neuroplastic changes in female IBS patients are related to symptom severity. PMID:24040118

  17. Bloody semen, severe hypertension and a worried man

    PubMed Central

    Ambakederemo, Tamaraemumoemi Emmanuella; Dodiyi-Manuel, Sotonye Tamunobelema; Ebuenyi, Ikenna Desmond

    2015-01-01

    Haematospermia is often associated with severe uncontrolled hypertension. The bloody semen is often very worrisome for the patient and his sexual partner(s). In addition to anti-hypertensive, counselling and lifestyle modification are essential for management of the condition. PMID:26175817

  18. Adhesions to Mesh after Ventral Hernia Mesh Repair Are Detected by MRI but Are Not a Cause of Long Term Chronic Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Langbach, Odd; Holmedal, Stein Harald; Grandal, Ole Jacob; Rkke, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the present study was to perform MRI in patients after ventral hernia mesh repair, in order to evaluate MRI's ability to detect intra-abdominal adhesions. Materials and Methods. Single-center long term follow-up study of 155 patients operated for ventral hernia with laparoscopic (LVHR) or open mesh repair (OVHR), including analyzing medical records, clinical investigation with patient-reported pain (VAS-scale), and MRI. MRI was performed in 124 patients: 114 patients (74%) after follow-up, and 10 patients referred for late complaints after ventral mesh repair. To verify the MRI-diagnosis of adhesions, laparoscopy was performed after MRI in a cohort of 20 patients. Results. MRI detected adhesions between bowel and abdominal wall/mesh in 60% of the patients and mesh shrinkage in 20-50%. Adhesions were demonstrated to all types of meshes after both LVHR and OVHR with a sensitivity of 70%, specificity of 75%, positive predictive value of 78%, and negative predictive value of 67%. Independent predictors for formation of adhesions were mesh area as determined by MRI and Charlson index. The presence of adhesions was not associated with more pain. Conclusion. MRI can detect adhesions between bowel and abdominal wall in a fair reliable way. Adhesions are formed both after open and laparoscopic hernia mesh repair and are not associated with chronic pain. PMID:26819601

  19. Adhesions to Mesh after Ventral Hernia Mesh Repair Are Detected by MRI but Are Not a Cause of Long Term Chronic Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Langbach, Odd; Holmedal, Stein Harald; Grandal, Ole Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the present study was to perform MRI in patients after ventral hernia mesh repair, in order to evaluate MRI's ability to detect intra-abdominal adhesions. Materials and Methods. Single-center long term follow-up study of 155 patients operated for ventral hernia with laparoscopic (LVHR) or open mesh repair (OVHR), including analyzing medical records, clinical investigation with patient-reported pain (VAS-scale), and MRI. MRI was performed in 124 patients: 114 patients (74%) after follow-up, and 10 patients referred for late complaints after ventral mesh repair. To verify the MRI-diagnosis of adhesions, laparoscopy was performed after MRI in a cohort of 20 patients. Results. MRI detected adhesions between bowel and abdominal wall/mesh in 60% of the patients and mesh shrinkage in 20–50%. Adhesions were demonstrated to all types of meshes after both LVHR and OVHR with a sensitivity of 70%, specificity of 75%, positive predictive value of 78%, and negative predictive value of 67%. Independent predictors for formation of adhesions were mesh area as determined by MRI and Charlson index. The presence of adhesions was not associated with more pain. Conclusion. MRI can detect adhesions between bowel and abdominal wall in a fair reliable way. Adhesions are formed both after open and laparoscopic hernia mesh repair and are not associated with chronic pain. PMID:26819601

  20. Effect of head and limb orientation on trunk muscle activation during abdominal hollowing in chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP) have altered activations patterns of the anterior trunk musculature when performing the abdominal hollowing manuvre (attempt to pull umbilicus inward and upward towards the spine). There is a subgroup of individuals with CLBP who have high neurocognitive and sensory motor deficits with associated primitive reflexes (PR). The objective of the study was to determine if orienting the head and extremities to positions, which mimic PR patterns would alter anterior trunk musculature activation during the hollowing manoeuvre. Methods This study compared surface electromyography (EMG) of bilateral rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and internal obliques (IO) of 11 individuals with CLBP and evident PR to 9 healthy controls during the hollowing manoeuvre in seven positions of the upper quarter. Results Using magnitude based inferences it was likely (>75%) that controls had a higher ratio of left IO:RA activation with supine (cervical neutral), asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) left and right, right cervical rotation and cervical extension positions. A higher ratio of right IO:RA was detected in the cervical neutral and ATNR left position for the control group. The CLBP group were more likely to show higher activation of the left RA in the cervical neutral, ATNR left and right, right cervical rotation and cervical flexion positions as well as in the cervical neutral and cervical flexion position for the right RA. Conclusions Individuals with CLBP and PR manifested altered activation patterns during the hollowing maneuver compared to healthy controls and that altering cervical and upper extremity position can diminish the group differences. Altered cervical and limb positions can change the activation levels of the IO and EO in both groups. PMID:24558971

  1. Pepper Mild Mottle Virus, a Plant Virus Associated with Specific Immune Responses, Fever, Abdominal Pains, and Pruritus in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Philippe; Richet, Hervé; Desnues, Christelle; Balique, Fanny; Moal, Valérie; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Berbis, Philippe; Lecoq, Hervé; Harlé, Jean-Robert; Berland, Yvon; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently, metagenomic studies have identified viable Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), a plant virus, in the stool of healthy subjects. However, its source and role as pathogen have not been determined. Methods and Findings 21 commercialized food products containing peppers, 357 stool samples from 304 adults and 208 stool samples from 137 children were tested for PMMoV using real-time PCR, sequencing, and electron microscopy. Anti-PMMoV IgM antibody testing was concurrently performed. A case-control study tested the association of biological and clinical symptoms with the presence of PMMoV in the stool. Twelve (57%) food products were positive for PMMoV RNA sequencing. Stool samples from twenty-two (7.2%) adults and one child (0.7%) were positive for PMMoV by real-time PCR. Positive cases were significantly more likely to have been sampled in Dermatology Units (p<10−6), to be seropositive for anti-PMMoV IgM antibodies (p = 0.026) and to be patients who exhibited fever, abdominal pains, and pruritus (p = 0.045, 0.038 and 0.046, respectively). Conclusions Our study identified a local source of PMMoV and linked the presence of PMMoV RNA in stool with a specific immune response and clinical symptoms. Although clinical symptoms may be imputable to another cofactor, including spicy food, our data suggest the possibility of a direct or indirect pathogenic role of plant viruses in humans. PMID:20386604

  2. Headache and recurrent abdominal pain: a controlled study by the means of the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL).

    PubMed

    Galli, F; D'Antuono, G; Tarantino, S; Viviano, F; Borrelli, O; Chirumbolo, A; Cucchiara, S; Guidetti, V

    2007-03-01

    Headache and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) are common disorders in children and adolescents, frequently referred to paediatricians. Both disorders show similarities in trigger and comorbid factors, their burden on family and individual life, and a paroxysmal trend with risks of chronicization over time. However, very few studies have compared directly headache and RAP. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychological profile of headache and RAP patients vs. healthy controls. A total of 210 children and adolescents [99 boys, 111 girls; age range 4-18 years; mean age (m.a.) = 11.04, SD 4.05] were assessed: 70 headache patients (m.a. 12.4 years; SD 2.9; F = 35, M = 35), 70 RAP patients (m.a. 9 years; SD 3.6; F = 30, M = 40) and 70 controls (m.a. 11.7 years; SD 4.6; F = 46, M = 24). The diagnoses had been made according to international systems of classification both for headache (ICHD-II criteria) and RAP (Rome II criteria). The psychological profile had been made according to the Child Behaviour Checklist 4-18 (CBCL). anova one-way analysis was used to compare CBCL scales and subscales between groups. Headache and RAP showed a very similar trend vs. control for the main scales of the CBCL, with a statistically significant tendency to show problems in the Internalizing scale (anxiety, mood and somatic complaints) and no problems in the Externalizing (behavioural) scale. Only for the Attention Problems subscale migraineurs showed a significant difference compared with RAP. In conclusion, headache and RAP show a very similar psychological profile that should be considered not only for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, but also from the aetiological aspect. PMID:17381555

  3. Abdominal Pain or Cramping

    MedlinePLUS

    ... premature birth Stanford University Prematurity Research Center Featured articles Accomplishments and lessons learned since the establishment of ... The impact of premature birth on society Featured articles How long should you wait before getting pregnant ...

  4. Abdominal emergencies in the geriatric patient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons that elderly people visit the emergency department (ED). In this article, we review the deadliest causes of abdominal pain in this population, including mesenteric ischemia, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and appendicitis and potentially lethal non-abdominal causes. We also highlight the pitfalls in diagnosing, or rather misdiagnosing, these clinical entities. PMID:25635203

  5. Video Capsule Endoscopy in Patients with Chronic Abdominal Pain with or without Associated Symptoms: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Egnatios, Jeremy; Kaushal, Khushboo; Kalmaz, Denise; Zarrinpar, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) is a common indication for gastroenterology referrals. More insidious causes of CAP isolated to the small bowel, such as malignancies and Crohns disease, are rising in incidence and causing more gastroenterologists to evaluate their patients with video capsule endoscopy (VCE). However, the role of VCE in patients with CAP is still unclear. Aims We assessed the efficacy of VCE in patients with CAP and whether it led to findings that contributed to disease management and meaningful interventions. Methods This retrospective study evaluated 607 capsule endoscopy studies at an open referral endoscopy unit. Ninety of the studies were for CAP. These studies were compared to those performed for other indications to compare diagnostic yield. In addition, we investigated whether VCE led to an intervention that improved clinical outcomes. Results Overall, the number of abnormal findings in CAP patients was significantly lower than VCE performed for other indications (24.4% vs 39.0%, respectively p = 0.009). When patients with CAP presented with other pertinent clinical findings (e.g. nausea, weight loss, anemia, history of in inflammatory bowel disease, etc.), the likelihood of an abnormal finding increased to a level that was not different from those who received VCE for other indications (27.1%, p = 0.10). The findings from VCE lead to changed management and improved outcomes in 16.2% of CAP patients with associated symptoms. However, the subgroup that benefited the most were those who had a prior history of Crohns disease. Patients with CAP who did not have any associated symptoms continued to have a significantly lower abnormal finding rate compared to those who received VCE for other indications (19.4%, p = 0.03) and VCE rarely led to a change in management that would improve outcomes (5.6%). Conclusions VCE for CAP has a lower rate of abnormal findings than other indications. However, VCE is a useful diagnostic tool that can help provide a possible etiology of CAP in patients with associated symptoms. However, a change in management from VCE is likely to be limited to those with a history of Crohns disease. PMID:25893440

  6. Recurrent abdominal pain as the presentation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) in an Asian girl: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Ju; Yu, Hsin-Hui; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lau, Yu-Lung; Lee, Wen-I; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is characterized by periodic fever, cutaneous rash, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, myalgia, and arthralgia. It is a rare autosomal dominant disease and strongly associated with heterozygous mutations in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor super family 1A (TNFRSF1A) gene. It is believed to be more common in Western countries than in Asian countries. Here, we present the case of a 14-year-old girl with periodic fever and abdominal pain with elevation of inflammatory markers for 2 years. After extensive work-up of infectious etiology with negative results, the diagnosis of TRAPS was made although no gene mutations were identified in the TNFRSF1A gene, MVK gene, and NALP3/CIAS1 gene. She had partial clinical response to corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents. However, the treatment response to TNF-? inhibitor etanercept was dramatic. She has remained symptom free under regular weekly to biweekly etanercept treatment for 2 years. We also reviewed the related literature and summarized the data of 10 Asian cases of TRAPS. PMID:22921805

  7. A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Epidural Clonidine vs Bupivacaine for Pain Control During and After Lower Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A.; Guirguis, Maged; DeWood, Mark S.; Zaky, Sherif S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists produce safe and effective analgesia, but most investigations studying the analgesic effect of alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists postoperatively included previous or concomitant administration of other analgesics. Because clonidine potentiates the effect of these drugs, its own intrinsic analgesic effect has been difficult to establish. This study was designed to compare the intraoperative and postoperative effects of epidural clonidine vs bupivacaine for patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Methods This randomized controlled trial included 40 patients aged 18-50 who were scheduled for elective lower abdominal surgery. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group I (n=20) received epidural clonidine; Group II (n=20) received epidural bupivacaine. Intraoperative and postoperative hemodynamics, pain scores, and complications were monitored. Results Mean pain scores were significantly lower in Group I compared to Group II (1.5 ± 0.5 compared to 3.4 ± 1.0, respectively) in the first 12 hours after surgery. Sedation was more prominent in Group I until 9 hours after surgery. Opioid requirements were significantly lower in Group I. Respiratory rate was similar in the 2 groups. Group I had larger decreases from baseline in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure than Group II. Heart rate in Group I was reduced from baseline, while it was increased in Group II. Less postoperative nausea and vomiting, urinary retention, pruritus, and shivering were observed in Group I. Conclusion Compared to bupivacaine, epidural clonidine provided effective intraoperative and postoperative analgesia in selected patients, resulting in a decreased intravenous pain medication requirement and prolonged duration of analgesia after epidural infusion was discontinued. PMID:26130975

  8. Specific alteration of rhythm in temperature-stressed rats possess features of abdominal pain in IBS patients.

    PubMed

    Itomi, Yasuo; Kawamura, Toru; Tsukimi, Yasuhiro

    2015-09-01

    It is known that specific alteration of rhythm in temperature (SART) stress produces somatic pain. However, it remains to be investigated whether SART stress induces visceral pain. In this study, we investigated the visceral hypersensitivity in the SART stress model by pharmacological tools and heterotopical nociception. Four-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to repeated cold stress. Visceral pain was measured by visceromotor response to colorectal distension, and the effects of alosetron and duloxetine on visceral pain were investigated in SART rats. Heterotopical nociception was given by capsaicin injection into the left forepaw to induce diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC). SART stress induced visceral hypersensitivity that was sustained at minimum for one week. In pharmacological analysis, alosetron and duloxetine improved SART stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. Heterotopical nociception induced DNIC in normal conditions, but was disrupted in SART rats. On the other hand, RMCP-II mRNA in distal colon was not affected by SART stress. In conclusion, SART rats exhibit several features of visceral pain in IBS, and may be a useful model for investigating the central modification of pain control in IBS. PMID:26344878

  9. An extensive DeBakey type IIIb aortic dissection with massive right pleural effusion presenting as abdominal pain and acute anemia: particular case report

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hui-Chun; Wang, Zhen-Qing; Hao, Yuan-Yuan; An, Feng-Ping; Hu, Yu-Chuan; Deng, Rui-Bing; Yu, Peng; Cui, Guang-Bin; Li, He

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 79-year-old male presented with sudden onset of abdominal pain and mild breathlessness, and complicated acute progressive anemia with haemoglobin which declined from 120 g/L to 70 g/L within five days. An urgent computed tomography angiography showed acute thoracic aortic dissection, DeBakey type IIIb, a dissecting aneurysm in the proximal descending thoracic aorta starting immediately after the origin of the left subclavian artery and extending distally below the renal arteries with evidence of rupture into the right pleural cavity for massive pleural effusion. Plasma D-dimer, brain natriuretic peptide and C reactive protein level were elevated. Our case showed that D-dimer can be used as a rule-out test in patients with suspected aortic dissection. A raised BNP may exert a protective role through anti-inflammatory endothelial actions in the systemic circulation. PMID:26089858

  10. An incidentally found inflamed uterine myoma causing low abdominal pain, using Tc-99m-tektrotyd single photon emission computed tomography-CT hybrid imaging.

    PubMed

    Zandieh, Shahin; Schtz, Matthias; Bernt, Reinhard; Zwerina, Jochen; Haller, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old woman presented with a history of right hemicolectomy due to an ileocecal neuroendocrine tumor and left breast metastasis. Owing to a slightly elevated chromogranin A-level and lower abdominal pain, single photon emission computed tomography-computer tomography (SPECT-CT) was performed. There were no signs of recurrence on the SPECT-CT scan, but the patient was incidentally found to have an inflamed intramural myoma. We believe that the slightly elevated chromogranin A-level was caused by the hypertension that the patient presented. In the clinical context, this is a report of an inflamed uterine myoma seen as a false positive result detected by TC-99m-Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide (Tektrotyd) SPECT-CT hybrid imaging. PMID:24043983

  11. Diagnostic value of CT compared to ultrasound in the evaluation of acute abdominal pain in children younger than 10years old.

    PubMed

    Simanovsky, Natalia; Dola, Tamar; Hiller, Nurith

    2016-02-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of ultrasound compared to CT in evaluating acute abdominal pain of different causes in children 10years of age and under, hospital records and imaging files of 4052 patients under age of 10 who had imaging for abdominal pain were reviewed. One-hundred-thirty-two patients (3%), (74 males/58 females) who underwent ultrasound and CT within 24h were divided by age: group I, ages 0-48months (25 patients); group II, 49-84months (53 patients); and group III, 85-120months (54 patients). Diagnoses at ultrasound, CT, and discharge were compared. Cases of a change in diagnosis following CT and impact of the changed diagnosis on patient management were assessed. Non-diagnostic ultrasound or a diagnostic conundrum was present in a small percentage (3%) of our patients. In the group of patients imaged with two modalities, CT changed the diagnosis in 73/132 patients (55.3%). Patient management changed in 63/132 patients (47.7%). CT changed the diagnosis in 46/64 patients with surgical conditions (71.8%, p?

  12. Gastrointestinal (GI) permeability is associated with trait anxiety in children with functional abdominal pain (FAP) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FAP and IBS affect 10-15% of school age children and bear many physiological similarities to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults (e.g., functional pain, visceral hyperalgesia). Animal models of IBS have suggested a relationship between neonatal stress and increased GI permeability later in life...

  13. Sex differences in brain activity during aversive visceral stimulation and its expectation in patients with chronic abdominal pain: a network analysis.

    PubMed

    Labus, J S; Naliboff, B N; Fallon, J; Berman, S M; Suyenobu, B; Bueller, J A; Mandelkern, M; Mayer, E A

    2008-07-01

    Differences in brain responses to aversive visceral stimuli may underlie previously reported sex differences in symptoms as well as perceptual and emotional responses to such stimuli in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The goal of the current study was to identify brain networks activated by expected and delivered aversive visceral stimuli in male and female patients with chronic abdominal pain, and to test for sex differences in the effective connectivity of the circuitry comprising these networks. Network analysis was applied to assess the brain response of 46 IBS patients (22 men and 24 women) recorded using [15O] water positron emission tomography during rest/baseline and expected and delivered aversive rectal distension. Functional connectivity results from partial least squares analyses provided support for the hypothesized involvement of 3 networks corresponding to: 1) visceral afferent information processing (thalamus, insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex), 2) emotional-arousal (amygdala, rostral and subgenual cingulate regions, and locus coeruleus complex) and 3) cortical modulation (frontal and parietal cortices). Effective connectivity results obtained via structural equation modeling indicated that sex-related differences in brain response are largely due to alterations in the effective connectivity of emotional-arousal circuitry rather than visceral afferent processing circuits. Sex differences in the cortico-limbic circuitry involved in emotional-arousal, pain facilitation and autonomic responses may underlie the observed differences in symptoms, and in perceptual and emotional responses to aversive visceral stimuli. PMID:18450481

  14. Abdominal and urogenital diseases can often be the cause of lower back pain and sciatic-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Paulson, John D

    2012-05-01

    SUMMARY The treatment of lower back pain and sciatic-type symptoms are often not related to spinal cord infringement, but are due to other factors such as urogenital irritation and piriformis syndrome. Other factors can exist and it behooves the physician to make a definitive diagnosis in order to prevent treating with medicines and treatments that often do not work. Medicines in high doses can lead to dependence or addiction. A normal MRI test is often a flag to the physician that something other than spinal problems may be the cause. A complete workup must be performed including imaging procedures, diagnostic testing and specialized physical examinations if initial diagnosis and treatments do not produce an amelioration of symptoms. There are many causes of chronic lower back pain and sciatica-type symptoms and if the problems and symptoms persist, they should be investigated. PMID:24654670

  15. Reconstructing apology: David Cameron's Bloody Sunday apology in the press.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Andrew; Lyons, Evanthia; Pehrson, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    While there is an acknowledgement in apology research that political apologies are highly mediated, the process of mediation itself has lacked scrutiny. This article suggests that the idea of reconstruction helps to understand how apologies are mediated and evaluated. David Cameron's apology for Bloody Sunday is examined to see how he constructs four aspects of apology: social actors, consequences, categorization, and reasons. The reconstruction of those aspects by British, Unionist, and Nationalist press along with reconstructions made by soldiers in an online forum are considered. Data analysis was informed by thematic analysis and discourse analysis which helped to explore key aspects of reconstruction and how elements of Cameron's apology are altered in subsequent mediated forms of the apology. These mediated reconstructions of the apology allowed their authors to evaluate the apology in different ways. Thus, in this article, it is suggested that the evaluation of the apology by different groups is preceded by a reconstruction of it in accordance with rhetorical goals. This illuminates the process of mediation and helps to understand divergent responses to political apologies. PMID:24286526

  16. Abdominal hernias: Radiological features

    PubMed Central

    Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

  17. Pain relief for infants undergoing abdominal surgery: comparison of infusions of i.v. morphine and extradural bupivacaine.

    PubMed

    Wolf, A R; Hughes, D

    1993-01-01

    We have undertaken a prospective, randomized double-blind study to compare extradural bupivacaine infusions with i.v. morphine infusions for postoperative analgesia in 32 infants younger than 4 yr undergoing abdominal surgery. "Sham" extradural or i.v. catheters were used to maintain the blinded nature of the study. Both techniques provided adequate analgesia for most of the 36-h postoperative period; differences in the pattern or quality of the analgesia were not detected. Patients in the i.v. morphine group were significantly more sedated; this was accompanied by slower ventilatory frequencies (26.7 (SD 1.8) b.p.m.) compared with the extradural group (33.6 (1.3) b.p.m.). Similarly, oxygen saturation was significantly less (P < 0.01) in patients receiving morphine (medians and quartiles of 94.0 (93-96)% compared with 96.0 (93-96)%). Mean systolic arterial pressure was similar in the two groups and there were no life-threatening complications. The lack of sedation was troublesome in three patients in the extradural group. PMID:8431313

  18. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    MedlinePLUS

    Infectious diarrhea - bacterial gastroenteritis; Acute gastroenteritis; Gastroenteritis - bacterial ... the sickness. All types of food poisoning cause diarrhea . Other symptoms include: Abdominal cramps Abdominal pain Bloody ...

  19. Pain.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Invasive stimulation of the motor (precentral) cortex using surgically implanted epidural electrodes is indicated for the treatment of neuropathic pain that is refractory to medical treatment. Controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of epidural motor cortex stimulation (MCS), but MCS outcome remains variable and validated criteria for selecting good candidates for implantation are lacking. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive approach that could be used as a preoperative tool to predict MCS outcome and also could serve as a therapeutic procedure in itself to treat pain disorders. This requires repeated rTMS sessions and a maintenance protocol. Other studies have also demonstrated the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in relieving chronic pain syndromes. The most studied target is the precentral cortex, but other targets, such as the prefrontal and parietal cortices, could be of interest. The analgesic effects of cortical stimulation relate to the activation of various circuits modulating neural activities in remote structures, such as the thalamus, limbic cortex, insula, or descending inhibitory controls. In addition to the treatment of refractory neuropathic pain by epidural MCS, new developments of this type of strategy are ongoing, for other types of pain syndrome and stimulation techniques. PMID:24112914

  20. Addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine in transversus abdominis plane block potentiates post-operative pain relief among abdominal hysterectomy patients: A prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Almarakbi, Waleed A.; Kaki, Abdullah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dexmedetomidine is an alpha 2 adrenergic agonist, prolongs analgesia when used in neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks. We studied the effect of addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine to perform transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were divided into two equal groups in a randomized double-blinded way. Group B patients (n = 25) received TAP block with 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine and 2 ml of normal saline while Group BD (n = 25) received 0.5 mcg/kg (2 ml) of dexmedetomidine and 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine bilaterally. Time for first analgesic administration, totally used doses of morphine, pain scores, hemodynamic data and side-effects were recorded. Results: Demographic and operative characteristics were comparable between the two groups. The time for the first analgesic dose was longer in Group BD than Group B (470 vs. 280 min, P < 0.001) and the total doses of used morphine were less among Group BD patients in comparison to those in Group B (19 vs. 29 mg/24 h, P < 0.001). Visual analog scores were significantly lower in Group BD in the first 8 h post-operatively when compared with Group B, both at rest and on coughing (P < 0.001). In Group BD, lower heart rate was noticed 60 min from the induction time and continued for the first 4 h post-operatively (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine in TAP block achieves better local anesthesia and provides better pain control post-operatively without any major side-effects. PMID:24843325

  1. Bacterial contamination of the small intestine as an important cause of chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain: diagnosis by breath hydrogen test.

    PubMed

    Davidson, G P; Robb, T A; Kirubakaran, C P

    1984-08-01

    Unsuspected bacterial contamination of the small intestine was indicated by breath hydrogen testing in nine patients aged 2 to 34 months during physical examinations for chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain. Elevated bacterial counts of questionable significance were found in duodenal aspirates before and after antibiotic treatment. There was no evidence of bile salt deconjugation or structural changes in the small intestine by light or electron microscopy. This may indicate that the site of colonization is distal to the biopsy site. Breath testing indicated lactose malabsorption in all patients, and four of five patients tested also malabsorbed sucrose. Duodenal disaccharidase levels in all patients were within the normal ranges, but in eight patients the lactase-sucrase ratio was greatly elevated (0.80 +/- 0.36; normal less than 0.45). Dietary restriction alone did not cause complete cessation of symptoms, whereas all patients responded dramatically to oral antibiotic therapy. When patients were well, the lactase-sucrase ratio had returned to normal in those tested, and all nine had normal lactose and lactulose breath hydrogen tests. Unsuspected bacterial contamination of the small intestine, which is easily detected using the breath hydrogen test, may be more commonly associated with chronic diarrhea in children than has been previously realized. In such cases, therapy should be directed at removing the contamination. PMID:6431389

  2. Typhoid fever with severe abdominal pain: diagnosis and clinical findings using abdomen ultrasonogram, hematology-cell analysis and the Widal test.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Maripandi; Al-Salamah, Ali A

    2010-09-01

    A six-year-old boy with high-grade fever and abdominal pain in the epigastric region was examined with ultrasonogram of the abdomen. Hematology-cell analysis, serology (Widal test), urine analysis, and blood cultures were also performed. The ultrasonogram was helpful for the identification of multiple organ involvement with Salmonella typhi. The results revealed mild hepatosplenomegaly, minimal ascitis, and mesenteric lympoadenopathy. Hematological analysis showed a white blood count of 6,300 cells mL-1; a red blood cell count of 4.54 million/cu mm. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was 24 mm/1 hr; hemoglobin level of 11.5 g/dl; and a platelet count of 206,000 cells/mL. The patient's serum was agglutinated with lipopolysaccharide (TO), the titre value was 1:320 dilution, and flagellar antigen (TH) titre was 1:640. The patient was diagnosed with typhoid fever. Ceftriaxone was given intravenously for five days and the patient fully recovered. PMID:21045376

  3. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9737070

  4. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm diagnosed through non-contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chatra, Priyank S

    2013-01-01

    Rupture of an aneurysm is a rare complication although it is considered a common cause of death. Some of these patients present with the classic triad of symptoms such as abdominal pain, pulsatile abdominal mass and shock. Most symptoms are misleading and will only present as vague abdominal pain. Here we describe one such patient with an unusual presentation of a misleading abdominal mass which was eventually diagnosed as a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm after an emergency MRI. PMID:25003065

  5. Study of the effect of oral gabapentin used as preemptive analgesia to attenuate post-operative pain in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Harshel G.; Dash, Sananta Kumar; Upasani, Chitra B.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To study the effect of oral gabapentin used as preemptive analgesia to attenuate post operative pain in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: In a randomized double blind study, 60 patients were divided into two groups. Group A received 600mg gabapentin and group B oral received placebo 1 h prior to surgery. Anesthesia was induced with Propofol 2 mg/kg and Vecuronium 0.1mg/kg and maintained with 60% N2O in O2 and Vecuronium 0.02 mg/kg. All cases were given Fentanyl 2g/kg as pre medication and a repeat dose 1g/kg at the end of the first hour. Assessment of post-operative pain was made with the visual analog score (VAS) at extubation (0 h), 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h post-operatively. Post-operative analgesia was provided with intravenous Tramadol. The first dose was given in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit as 2mg/kg, and repeated at 8 and 16 h. Rescue analgesia was given with Diclofenac 1.5mg/kg, slow intravenous. The number of doses of rescue analgesia in both the groups was noted. Results: The VAS scores at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h were 1.9 vs. 2.4 (P=0.002), 2.3 vs. 3.0 (P=0.000), 3.2 vs. 3.7 (P=0.006), 2.9 vs. 4.4 (P=0.000), 3.6 vs. 4.6 (P=0.000), and 3.7 vs.4.6 (P=0.000), respectively. Numbers of patients requiring rescue analgesia with Diclofenac were 3 vs. 14 (P=0.004). Conclusion: A single oral dose of gabapentin given pre-operatively enhanced the analgesic effect of Tramadol as it also reduced the requirement of rescue analgesia with Diclofenac. PMID:21189848

  6. Idiopathic Focal Eosinophilic Enteritis (IFEE), an Emerging Cause of Abdominal Pain in Horses: The Effect of Age, Time and Geographical Location on Risk

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Debra C.; Costain, Deborah A.; Sherlock, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic focal eosinophilic enteritis (IFEE) is an emerging cause of abdominal pain (colic) in horses that frequently requires surgical intervention to prevent death. The epidemiology of IFEE is poorly understood and it is difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. The aetiology of this condition and methods of possible prevention are currently unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate temporal and spatial heterogeneity in IFEE risk and to ascertain the effect of horse age on risk. Methodology/Principal Findings A retrospective, nested case-control study was undertaken using data from 85 IFEE cases and 848 randomly selected controls admitted to a UK equine hospital for exploratory laparotomy to investigate the cause of colic over a 10-year period. Generalised additive models (GAMs) were used to quantify temporal and age effects on the odds of IFEE and to provide mapped estimates of ‘residual’ risk over the study region. The relative risk of IFEE increased over the study period (p = 0.001) and a seasonal pattern was evident (p<0.01) with greatest risk of IFEE being identified between the months of July and November. IFEE risk decreased with increasing age (p<0.001) with younger (0–5 years old) horses being at greatest risk. The mapped surface estimate exhibited significantly atypical sub-regions (p<0.001) with increased IFEE risk in horses residing in the North-West of the study region. Conclusions/Significance IFEE was found to exhibit both spatial and temporal variation in risk and is more likely to occur in younger horses. This information may help to identify horses at increased risk of IFEE, provide clues about the aetiology of this condition and to identify areas that require further research. PMID:25463382

  7. Psychological Aspects of Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Rosevelt

    1983-01-01

    Since its inception in June 1979, over 500 patients have been treated at the King/Drew Pain Center in Los Angeles. Based upon the treatment and observations of this patient group, this paper describes the psychologic aspects in patients suffering from chronic abdominal pain, low back pain, phantom limb pain, chest pain, and arthritic pain. PMID:6864816

  8. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePLUS

    Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  9. Incomplete hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Argentinean children with bloody diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Lpez, E L; Contrini, M M; Devoto, S; de Rosa, M F; Graa, M G; Aversa, L; Gmez, H F; Genero, M H; Cleary, T G

    1995-09-01

    Argentina has an exceptionally high frequency of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). We sought to define prospectively the role of verocytotoxins (Shiga-like toxins [SLTs]) in 254 Argentinean children with grossly bloody diarrhea during spring and summer. Free fecal SLTs (I/II) and/or DNA probe-positive isolates were found in 99 (39%) of the children. During the follow-up period, HUS developed in 6 patients (4 with evidence of recent SLT infection based on stool studies); another 14 patients had some, but not all, of the abnormalities seen in typical HUS. The development of HUS or incomplete HUS in these children was significantly associated with recent SLT-Escherichia coli infection (p = 0.024). The high incidence of SLT-associated bloody diarrhea in Argentina explains, at least partially, the unusually high frequency of HUS. Our data indicate that incomplete forms of HUS may be common in patients with SLT-associated bloody diarrhea. PMID:7658263

  10. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MALABSORPTION, an inability to absorb some foods, or LACTOSE INTOLERANCE or WHEAT INTOLERANCE (CELIAC DISEASE). Avoid the foods ... beverages that cause your symptoms. People who have lactose intolerance can use lactose enzyme tablets or drops to ...

  11. Serum Zinc Concentrations in Children with Acute Bloody and Watery Diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Chegini, Victoria; Sahmani, Mehdi; Oveisi, Sonia; Esmaeily, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The role of zinc in the pathogenesis of diarrhoea is controversial. This study was conducted to compare serum zinc levels in children with acute diarrhoea to those found in healthy children. Methods: This case-control study was carried out at the Qazvin Childrens Hospital in Qazvin, Iran, between July 2012 and January 2013. A total of 60 children with acute diarrhoea (12 children with bloody diarrhoea and 48 children with watery diarrhoea) and 60 healthy children were included. Zinc levels for all subjects were measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer and data were analysed and compared between groups. Results: Mean serum zinc levels in the patients with acute bloody diarrhoea, acute watery diarrhoea and the control group were 74.1 23.7 ?g/dL, 169.4 62.7 ?g/dL and 190.1 18.0 ?g/dL, respectively (P = 0.01). Hypozincaemia was observed in 50.0% of children with acute bloody diarrhoea and 12.5% of those with acute watery diarrhoea. None of the patients in the control group had hypozincaemia (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Children with acute bloody diarrhoea had significantly reduced serum zinc levels in comparison to healthy children. However, a study with a larger sample size is needed to examine the significance of this trend. PMID:26629379

  12. Abdominal splenosis

    PubMed Central

    Pirozynski, W. J.; Allan, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Abdominal splenosis was an incidental finding at laparotomy for acute appendicitis in a 39-year-old man who had had splenectomy for traumatic rupture of the spleen nine years previously. Similar cases of abdominal and intrathoracic splenosis are reviewed. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4841838

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

    1998-01-01

    A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  14. Gut-directed hypnotherapy in children with irritable bowel syndrome or functional abdominal pain (syndrome): a randomized controlled trial on self exercises at home using CD versus individual therapy by qualified therapists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain (syndrome) (FAP(S)) are common pediatric disorders, characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain. Treatment is challenging, especially in children with persisting symptoms. Gut-directed hypnotherapy (HT) performed by a therapist has been shown to be effective in these children, but is still unavailable to many children due to costs, a lack of qualified child-hypnotherapists and because it requires a significant investment of time by child and parent(s). Home-based hypnotherapy by means of exercises on CD has been shown effective as well, and has potential benefits, such as lower costs and less time investment. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to compare cost-effectiveness of individual HT performed by a qualified therapist with HT by means of CD recorded self-exercises at home in children with IBS or FAP(S). Methods/Design 260 children, aged 8-18 years with IBS or FAP(S) according to Rome III criteria are included in this currently conducted RCT with a follow-up period of one year. Children are randomized to either 6 sessions of individual HT given by a qualified therapist over a 3-month period or HT through self-exercises at home with CD for 3months. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients in which treatment is successful at the end of treatment and after one year follow-up. Treatment success is defined as at least 50% reduction in both abdominal pain frequency and intensity scores. Secondary outcomes include adequate relief, cost-effectiveness and effects of both therapies on depression and anxiety scores, somatization scores, QoL, pain beliefs and coping strategies. Discussion If the effectiveness of home-based HT with CD is comparable to, or only slightly lower, than HT by a therapist, this treatment may become an attractive form of therapy in children with IBS or FAP(S), because of its low costs and direct availability. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register number NTR2725 (date of registration: 1 February 2011) PMID:24894077

  15. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Peruvian Children with Bloody Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Alejandro; Lee, Jorge; López, Francisco; Contreras, Carmen; Barletta, Francesca; Chea-Woo, Elsa; Ugarte, Claudia; Cleary, Thomas G.; Ochoa, Theresa J.

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are not routinely sought in clinical laboratories in developing counties. Among 131 bloody diarrhea samples in Peruvian children <5y of age, STEC was found in 9.2% and was associated with absence of fever, an observation that may increase suspicion of these pathogens. Because of the significant prevalence of STEC locally, proper diagnostics methods should be implemented in the region. PMID:22315000

  16. Investigation of an outbreak of bloody diarrhea complicated with hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chokoshvili, Otar; Lomashvili, Khatuna; Malakmadze, Naile; Geleishvil, Marika; Brant, Jonas; Imnadze, Paata; Chitadze, Nazibrola; Tevzadze, Lia; Chanturia, Gvantsa; Tevdoradze, Tea; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Talkington, Deborah; Mody, Rajal K; Strockbine, Nancy; Gerber, Russell A; Maes, Edmond; Rush, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    In July-August 2009, eight patients with bloody diarrhea complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) were admitted to hospitals in Tbilisi, Georgia. We started active surveillance in two regions for bloody diarrhea and post-diarrheal HUS. Of 25 case-patients who developed HUS, including the initial 8 cases, half were ?15 years old, 67% were female and seven (28%) died. No common exposures were identified. Among 20 HUS case-patients tested, Shiga toxin was detected in the stools of 2 patients (one with elevated serum IgG titers to several Escherichia coli serogroups, including O111 and O104). Among 56 persons with only bloody diarrhea, we isolated Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O104:H4 from 2 and Shigella from 10; 2 had serologic evidence of E. coli O26 infection. These cases may indicate a previously unrecognized burden of HUS in Georgia. We recommend national reporting of HUS and improving STEC detection capacity. PMID:25455642

  17. Tumor necrosis factor concentrations in hemolytic uremic syndrome patients and children with bloody diarrhea in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lpez, E L; Contrini, M M; Devoto, S; de Rosa, M F; Graa, M G; Genero, M H; Canepa, C; Gomez, H F; Cleary, T G

    1995-07-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is thought to be a vascular endothelial injury disease. The mechanism of injury is unknown although verocytotoxins (Shiga-like toxins (SLTs)) are known to be associated with it. Recent evidence suggests that in vitro treatment of some endothelial cells with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) dramatically increases their susceptibility to SLTs. We studied 25 children with HUS, 63 children with SLT-positive bloody diarrhea, 62 children with bloody diarrhea not associated with SLTs and 39 children admitted for elective surgery, included as an age- and season-matched control group. The TNF-alpha concentrations were found to be significantly elevated in children with HUS (range, 1 to 95 pg/ml; geometric mean, 32.2 pg/ml) compared with the healthy controls (range, 0 to 53 pg/ml; mean, 12.5 pg/ml; P < 0.001). Because it is hypothesized that TNF-alpha elevation might precede development of HUS, we also studied children with blood diarrhea. The TNF-alpha serum concentrations were significantly higher during the first 10 days after onset of bloody diarrhea than after the first 10 days (P < 0.02). Such elevation could be associated with vascular endothelial glycolipid receptor up-regulation and increased susceptibility to the effects of SLTs. PMID:7567288

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Isolated from the Bloody Stool Sample of a Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Hanako; Inoue, Takashi; Yasuda, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Itoh, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Escherichia coli strain R811. This bacterium was isolated from the bloody stool sample of a common marmoset, and was categorized as enteropathogenic E.coli because it possessed eae. PMID:26450733

  19. Abdominal actinomycosis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Robert Joseph; Riela, Steven; Patel, Ravi; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old Hispanic woman presented to the emergency department, reporting worsening sharp lower right quadrant abdominal pain for 3?days. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed evidence of inflammation in the peritoneal soft tissues adjacent to an enlarged and thick-walled appendix, an appendicolith, no abscess formation and a slightly thickened caecum consistent with acute appendicitis. During laparoscopic appendectomy, the caecum was noted to be firm, raising suspicion of malignancy. Surgical oncology team was consulted and open laparotomy with right hemicolectomy was performed. Pathology reported that the ileocaecal mass was not a malignancy but was, rather, actinomycosis. The patient was discharged after 10?days of intravenous antibiotics in the hospital, with the diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis. Although the original clinical and radiological findings in this case were highly suggestive of acute appendicitis, abdominal actinomycosis should be in the differential for right lower quadrant pain as it may be treated non-operatively. PMID:26611488

  20. Do We Really Need Additional Contrast-Enhanced Abdominal Computed Tomography for Differential Diagnosis in Triage of Middle-Aged Subjects With Suspected Biliary Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, In Kyeom; Lee, Yoon Suk; Kim, Jaihwan; Lee, Yoon Jin; Park, Ji Hoon; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Enhanced computed tomography (CT) is widely used for evaluating acute biliary pain in the emergency department (ED). However, concern about radiation exposure from CT has also increased. We investigated the usefulness of pre-contrast CT for differential diagnosis in middle-aged subjects with suspected biliary pain. A total of 183 subjects, who visited the ED for suspected biliary pain from January 2011 to December 2012, were included. Retrospectively, pre-contrast phase and multiphase CT findings were reviewed and the detection rate of findings suggesting disease requiring significant treatment by noncontrast CT (NCCT) was compared with cases detected by multiphase CT. Approximately 70% of total subjects had a significant condition, including 1 case of gallbladder cancer and 126 (68.8%) cases requiring intervention (122 biliary stone-related diseases, 3 liver abscesses, and 1 liver hemangioma). The rate of overlooking malignancy without contrast enhancement was calculated to be 0% to 1.5%. Biliary stones and liver space-occupying lesions were found equally on NCCT and multiphase CT. Calculated probable rates of overlooking acute cholecystitis and biliary obstruction were maximally 6.8% and 4.2% respectively. Incidental significant finding unrelated with pain consisted of 1 case of adrenal incidentaloma, which was also observed in NCCT. NCCT might be sufficient to detect life-threatening or significant disease requiring early treatment in young adults with biliary pain. PMID:25700321

  1. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... found that eating, diet, and nutrition play a role in causing or preventing abdominal adhesions. A person with a partial intestinal obstruction may relieve symptoms with a liquid or low-fiber diet, which is more easily broken down into smaller ...

  2. Abdominal thrusts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... call 911 . If the person loses consciousness, start CPR . If you are not comfortable performing abdominal thrusts, ... American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ... Red Cross; 2014. Berg RA, Hemphill R, Abella BS, et al. Part 5: ...

  3. Abdominal rigidity

    MedlinePLUS

    Rigidity of the abdomen ... is a sore area inside the belly or abdomen, the pain will get worse when a hand ... Causes can include: Abscess inside the abdomen Appendicitis ... small intestine, large bowel, or gallbladder ( gastrointestinal ...

  4. Cosmogenic chlorine-36 chronology for glacial deposits at bloody canyon, eastern sierra nevada.

    PubMed

    Phillips, F M; Zreda, M G; Smith, S S; Elmore, D; Kubik, P W; Sharma, P

    1990-06-22

    Deposits from mountain glaciers provide an important record of Quaternary climatic fluctuations but have proved difficult to date directly. A chronology has been obtained for glacial deposits at Bloody Canyon, California, by measurement ofthe accumulation of chlorine-36 produced by cosmic rays in boulders exposed on moraine crests. The accumulation ofchlorine-36 indicates that episodes of glaciation occurred at about 21, 24, 65, 115, 145, and 200 ka (thousand years ago). Although the timing of the glaciations correlates well with peaks of global ice volume inferred from the marine oxygen isotope record, the relative magnitudes differ markedly. The lengths of the moraines dating from 115 ka and 65 ka show that the early glacial episodes were more extensive than those during the later Wisconsin and indicate that the transition from interglacial to full glacial conditions was rapid. PMID:17818313

  5. Lack of association between the presence of the pVir plasmid and bloody diarrhea in Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    PubMed

    Louwen, R P L; van Belkum, A; Wagenaar, J A; Doorduyn, Y; Achterberg, R; Endtz, H P

    2006-05-01

    The main mechanisms by which Campylobacter jejuni causes diarrhea are unknown. In contrast to a recent communication, we report here the absence of an association with the plasmid pVir in patients infected with C. jejuni who developed bloody diarrhea in The Netherlands, and we suggest a role for other virulence determinants. PMID:16672425

  6. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal wall surgery is a procedure that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. ... mini-tummy tuck to more extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which ...

  7. Multiannual abdominal pain complicated by obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract in the course of cystic form of mesenteric lymhangioma of the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Mateusz; Lorenc, Zbigniew; Krawczyk, Wiktor

    2015-04-01

    Lymphangiomas constitute a group of very rare diseases and occur with a frequency of 1/250,000 to 1/20,000 of hospitalizations. Even though they are benign lesions, their complications may turn into a life-threatening condition. They usually occur in children (90%), they are either congenital or they appear before the child's second birthday. Occassionally they are found in adults. Lymphangiomas are usually localized around neck, but also near armpits and in the groin area. Less than 1% of lymphagiomas are detected in the retroperitoneal space and intestinal mesentery. Vascular lesions derived from lymphatic vessels can be divided into ordinary ones, usually known as capillary, cavernous, and cystic. The cystic tumor (lymphangioma mesenteri) is the least common. It occurs mostly in the retroperitoneal space, mesentery of the colon, or extremely rarely in the mesentery of the small intestine. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult due to non-specific clinical symptoms and noncharacteristic image in the diagnostic tests. Lymphangioma complications, such as intestinal obstruction or perforation, and persistent pain, are the cause of exploratory laparotomy. Final diagnosis requires microscopic examination of material collected during an operation. This article presented the case of a 40-year-old female, operated due to the obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract, in whose case the lymphangioma was recognised in postoperative histopathological examination of the tumor from the jejunal mesentery. Since patients with these tumors have good chances of complete recovery - if there are no serious complications - it appears that the optimal therapeutic procedure should be early surgery, which reduces the possibility of complications. PMID:26146118

  8. Systematic pain assessment in horses.

    PubMed

    de Grauw, J C; van Loon, J P A M

    2016-03-01

    Accurate recognition and quantification of pain in horses is imperative for adequate pain management. The past decade has seen a much needed surge in formal development of systematic pain assessment tools for the objective monitoring of pain in equine patients. This narrative review describes parameters that can be used to detect pain in horses, provides an overview of the various pain scales developed (visual analogue scales, simple descriptive scales, numerical rating scales, time budget analysis, composite pain scales and grimace scales), and highlights their strengths and weaknesses for potential clinical implementation. The available literature on the use of each pain assessment tool in specific equine pain states (laminitis, lameness, acute synovitis, post-castration, acute colic and post-abdominal surgery) is discussed, including any problems with sensitivity, reliability or scale validation as well as translation of results to other clinical pain states. The review considers future development and further refinement of currently available equine pain scoring systems. PMID:26831169

  9. Cross-sectional analysis of the possible relationship between lead exposure in the storage-battery industry and changes in biochemical markers of renal, hematopoietic, and hepatic functioning and the reporting of recent abdominal pain

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenak, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    There is extensive literature documenting the physical effects, such as renal impairment and disruption of hematopoiesis, of lead exposure in occupational cohorts. In addition, a small number of case studies have suggested that lead exposure might result in hepatocellular effects. This study was undertaken to determine if these effects still existed for a population of lead storage battery workers exposed to occupational lead exposures which were lower than those experienced by most lead workers prior to 1978. The relationship between the lead exposure indices,zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and a time weighted average blood lead measure (TWA), with twelve biochemical parameters indicative of renal, hematopoietic and hepatic functioning and the reporting of recent abdominal pain was investigated. In addition, the possible modifying effects of alcohol consumption and duration of exposure on the relationship between lead exposure and the biochemical parameters were examined. The subjects for this analysis consisted of 288 lead workers form three lead storage battery plants and a group of 181 workers employed in an industry which did not involve lead exposure. The study was conducted from 1982-83. Comparisons of the lead exposure indices with the dependent variables were made through univariate correlational and hierarchical regression analyses. The lead exposure index, ZPP, was significantly associated wit BUN levels, though less than three percent of the lead and control workers had BUN levels above the normal range, In addition, NPP, was negatively associated with hemoglobin levels at probability levels between 0.052 and 0.055. Furthermore, there were no hemoglobin levels outside of the normal range for any of the sites studied. The other lead exposure index, TWA, was significantly associated with alkaline phosphatase and triglycerides. However, these analyses were not age-adjusted.

  10. [Cytotoxic effect in human colon of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli isolated from calves with bloody diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Pistone Creydt, V; Venzano, A; Vilte, D A; Mercado, E C; Ibarra, C

    2005-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) is one of the most important emergent pathogen in foods, being its main reservoir bovine cattle. STEC can cause diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The present work have studied the cytotoxic action in human colon of cultures of two STEC strains isolated from faeces of calves with bloody diarrhea. Colonic mucosa was mounted as a diaphragm in a Ussing chamber and incubated with the cultures of pathogenic strains. Net water flow (Jw) decreased and the short-circuit current (Isc) increased significantly (p < 0.01) compared to negative control. Tissues showed an erosion of the mucose, epithelial exfoliation, and presence of pseudo-membranes in the lumen. Mild circulatory lesions were observed in the lamina propia. A moderate neutrophils infiltration was observed in the lumen and into the epithelial cells. Colonic crypts were not disrupted. Both experimental strains caused a similar lesion on colon tissues. This is the first study that shows that cultures of STEC strains isolated from bovine cattle produce cytotoxic effects in vitro in human colon. PMID:16323657

  11. Sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis with bloody sputum as an initial symptom: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    WU, KAI; LU, HUI-YU

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is an extremely rare lung disease affecting females of a childbearing age. The condition occurs sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex. The diagnosis of LAM is often delayed since the clinical symptoms and signs are non-specific. The present study reports the a case of a patient with LAM, in which bloody sputum was presented as the initial symptom. The 43-year-old female had experienced a small amount of bloody sputum over the previous five years. The patient was admitted to the Department of Respiratory Medicine at Taizhou People's Hospital (Taizhou, China) in 2012, reporting symptoms of a cough, shortness of breath and bloody sputum over the previous 10 days. A high-resolution computed tomography scan revealed multiple small circular thin-walled translucent areas in both lung fields. The initial diagnosis of the patient was LAM. A biopsy was performed using a video-assisted thoracoscopy. In conclusion, increased awareness and early diagnosis and treatment were determined to be key factors in ensuring a satisfactory prognosis. PMID:26136953

  12. Sporadic bloody diarrhoea-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-haemolytic uraemic syndrome: an adult and paediatric comparison.

    PubMed

    Karpac, Charity A; Li, Xiaoning; Terrell, Deirdra R; Kremer Hovinga, Johanna A; Lämmle, Bernhard; Vesely, Sara K; George, James N

    2008-05-01

    Although diarrhoea-associated haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in children is well described, the clinical features of bloody diarrhoea-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)-HUS in adults are not documented. Twenty-one adults, 6.5% of the 322 adults in The Oklahoma TTP-HUS Registry, 1989-2006, have presented with bloody diarrhoea. There were no case clusters. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was identified in five patients, but many patients did not have appropriate studies. The annual incidence was 0.68/10(6), 10-fold less than the incidence of diarrhoea-associated HUS in children in Oklahoma. Two (13%) of 16 patients in whom ADAMTS13 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with a ThromboSpondin type 1 motif, member 13) was measured had <10% activity. Severe neurological abnormalities (67%) and renal failure (62%) were common; seven patients (33%) died; no survivors have relapsed. Compared to the 38 other Oklahoma Registry patients with ADAMTS13 <10%, frequency of severe neurological abnormalities and death was not different; frequency of renal failure was greater; frequency of relapse was less. Compared to 5999 children with sporadic diarrhoea-associated HUS in published reports, frequency of renal failure and relapse was not different; frequency of severe neurological abnormalities and death was greater (P < 0.05 for all differences). Awareness of the continuous occurrence of sporadic bloody diarrhoea-associated TTP-HUS in adults is important for prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:18422775

  13. Chronic Pain: The Impact on Academic, Social, and Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkins, Jason M.; Gfroerer, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain is persistent and recurrent pain that tends to fluctuate in severity, quality, regularity, and predictability. It can occur in a single or multiple body regions or organ systems. Some of the most frequently reported types of chronic pain include headaches, recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), and musculoskeletal pain. In contrast to acute

  14. Chronic Pain: The Impact on Academic, Social, and Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkins, Jason M.; Gfroerer, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain is persistent and recurrent pain that tends to fluctuate in severity, quality, regularity, and predictability. It can occur in a single or multiple body regions or organ systems. Some of the most frequently reported types of chronic pain include headaches, recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), and musculoskeletal pain. In contrast to acute…

  15. Pain Assessment

    MedlinePLUS

    Introduction Types of Pain Pain Assessment Pain Treatments Integrative Pain Therapy Pain Management Recommendations References March 30, 2016 Pain Assessment Effective pain management begins with a comprehensive assessment. This ...

  16. Acute appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma. Incidence or coincidence?

    PubMed Central

    Hennington, M H; Tinsley, E A; Proctor, H J; Baker, C C

    1991-01-01

    Inflammation of the appendix is a common cause of acute abdominal pain. The etiology and pathophysiology of appendicitis have been well described. The initiating factor often is obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by inspissated stool, barium, food, parasites, or hyperplastic lymphoid tissue. Two patients have been identified who developed appendicitis temporally related to blunt abdominal trauma, without other clear etiology. Although absolute documentation of trauma as an etiologic factor in these cases is difficult, theoretical mechanisms for the occurrence are discussed. In the setting of right lower quadrant pain following mild to moderate blunt abdominal trauma, acute appendicitis should be considered as a possibility. PMID:2064473

  17. Identification of the Bloody Creek structure, a possible impact crater in southwestern Nova Scotia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, Ian; Stevens, George; Morrow, Jared; Pufahl, Peir; Grieve, Richard; Raeside, Rob; Pilon, Jean; Stanley, Cliff; Barr, Sandra; McMullin, David

    2009-08-01

    An approximately 0.4 km diameter elliptical structure formed in Devonian granite in southwestern Nova Scotia, herein named the Bloody Creek structure (BCS), is identified as a possible impact crater. Evidence for an impact origin is based on integrated geomorphic, geophysical, and petrographic data. A near-continuous geomorphic rim and a 10 m deep crater that is infilled with lacustrine sediments and peat define the BCS. Ground penetrating radar shows that the crater has a depressed inner floor that is sharply ringed by a 1 m high buried scarp. Heterogeneous material under the floor, interpreted as deposits from collapse of the transient cavity walls, is overlain by stratified and faulted lacustrine and wetland sediments. Alteration features found only in rim rocks include common grain comminution, polymict lithic microbreccias, kink-banded feldspar and biotite, single and multiple sets of closely spaced planar microstructures (PMs) in quartz and feldspar, and quartz mosaicism, rare reduced mineral birefringence, and chlorite showing plastic deformation and flow microtextures. Based on their form and crystallographic orientations, the quartz PMs consist of planar deformation features that document shock-metamorphic pressures ≤25 GPa. The age of the BCS is not determined. The low depth to diameter ratio of the crater, coupled with anomalously high shock-metamorphic pressures recorded at its exposed rim, may be a result of significant post-impact erosion. Alternatively, impact onto glacier ice during the waning stages of Wisconsinian deglaciation (about 12 ka BP) may have resulted in dissipation of much impact energy into the ice, resulting in the present morphology of the BCS.

  18. Age of the Tahoe moraine at Bloody Canyon, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Soles, S. . Dept. of Geology); Sarna-Wojcicki, A.M.; Meyer, C.E.; Wan, E. )

    1993-04-01

    The age of the Tahoe moraines on the east side of the Sierra Nevada has been subject of considerable discussion over about the last 60 years. Two schools of thought prevail: that the moraines were formed about 65--75 ka BP, roughly equivalent in age to oxygen isotope stage four; or that they were formed about 135--170 ka BP, roughly equivalent to stage six. A major reason for this uncertainty is that most available dating techniques have large errors or poor reproducibility when applied to moraines, till materials, or stratigraphically related volcanic rocks within this age range. The authors attempted to bracket the age of the Tahow moraine at Bloody Canyon by (1) searching for volcanic shards in the soil formed on the moraine and in the fine fraction of the till below the soil; (2) physically separating the shads and analyzing them by electron microprobe; and (3) comparing the chemical composition of the shards to those in tephra layers of known age. They dug four pits near the crest of the moraine and sampled continuously at intervals of 15 can to depths of 2.5 m. The authors conclude that (1) the soil formed on the Tahoe moraine is at least 75 to 95 ka in age, and thus that the underlying till must be at least as old as stage six; and (2) that translocation or mechanical mixing of fine particles from the surface of the soil must extend down to at least 2.5 m in the Tahoe till.

  19. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ... High blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often seen in males over age ...

  20. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Overview What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)? The main blood vessel in your body is the aorta ( ... burst. Symptoms What are the symptoms of an AAA? As the aneurysm develops, there are usually no ...

  1. Cancer pain and current theory for pain control.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Brian

    2014-05-01

    This article discusses current trends in managing cancer pain, with specific regard to opioid transmission, descending pathway inhabitation, and ways to facilitate the endogenous antinociceptive chemicals in the human body. Various techniques for opioid and nonopioid control of potential pain situations of patients with cancer are discussed. The benefits of using pharmacogenetics to assess the appropriate medications are addressed. Finally, specific treatment of abdominal cancer pain using radiofrequency lesioning is discussed. PMID:24787342

  2. Post trauma abdominal cocoon

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Supreet; Doley, Rudra Prasad; Chabbhra, Mohinish; Kapoor, Rajeev; Wig, Jaidev

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane. PMID:25590647

  3. Abdominal Compartment Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maluso, Patrick; Olson, Jody; Sarani, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare but potentially morbid diagnoses. Clinical index of suspicion for these disorders should be raised following massive resuscitation, abdominal wall reconstruction/injury, and in those with space-occupying disorders in the abdomen. Gold standard for diagnosis involves measurement of bladder pressure, with a pressure greater than 12 mm Hg being consistent with IAH and greater than 25 mm Hg being consistent with ACS. Decompressive laparotomy is definitive therapy but paracentesis can be equally therapeutic in properly selected patients. Left untreated, ACS can lead to multisystem organ failure and death. PMID:27016163

  4. Abdominal Circulatory Interactions.

    PubMed

    Dagar, Gaurav; Taneja, Amit; Nanchal, Rahul S

    2016-04-01

    The abdominal compartment is separated from the thoracic compartment by the diaphragm. Under normal circumstances, a large portion of the venous return crosses the splanchnic and nonsplanchnic abdominal regions before entering the thorax and the right side of the heart. Mechanical ventilation may affect abdominal venous return independent of its interactions at the thoracic level. Changes in pressure in the intra-abdominal compartment may have important implications for organ function within the thorax, particularly if there is a sustained rise in intra-abdominal pressure. It is important to understand the consequences of abdominal pressure changes on respiratory and circulatory physiology. This article elucidates important abdominal-respiratory-circulatory interactions and their clinical effects. PMID:27016167

  5. Duodenal perforation as result of blunt abdominal trauma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hartholt, Klaas Albert; Dekker, Jan Willem T

    2015-01-01

    Blunt abdominal trauma may cause severe intra-abdominal injuries, while clinical findings could be mild or absent directly after the trauma. The absence of clinical findings could mislead physicians into underestimating the severity of the injury at the primary survey, and inevitably leads to a delay in the diagnosis. The Blunt Abdominal Trauma in Children (BATiC) score may help to identify children who are at a high risk for intra-abdominal injuries in an early stage and requires additional tests directly. A case of a 10-year-old girl with a duodenal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma is presented. A delay in diagnosis may lead to an increased morbidity and mortality rate. A low admission threshold for children with abdominal pain after a blunt trauma is recommended. PMID:26698210

  6. Clinical epidemiology of childhood abdominal migraine in an urban general practice.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, M J; Kay, J; Jaron, A

    1993-03-01

    The present study examined the epidemiology of abdominal migraine among 1104 children registered with a general practice. There was a similar prevalence of recurrent abdominal pain as in other studies (8.4 per cent). The prevalence of headache was higher among children with recurrent abdominal pain and significantly so among girls. Migrainous headache was not significantly more prevalent in children with recurrent abdominal pain. The prevalence of abdominal migraine with and without migrainous headache was 0.7 and 1.7 per cent, respectively. The peak prevalence of abdominal migraine without migrainous headache was between five and seven years for both sexes. When associated with migrainous headache, it peaked at five to seven years in girls and seven to nine years in boys. The syndrome was associated with travel sickness and was more common among girls and those with a maternal history of migraine. Many children were photo- and phonophobic during an attack. PMID:8462757

  7. Minimal Invasive Treatment of Abdominal Multiorgan Echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Tomu?, Claudiu; Zaharie, Florin; Mocan, Lucian; Barto?, Dana; Zaharie, Roxana; Iancu, Cornel; Nadim, Al Hajjar

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a severe zoonosis, exerting a high economic and social impact through its numerous complications, leading to disabilities, even death. Because of technical developments, especially the increasing experience of surgeons, laparoscopic surgery has been extended so that it can be successfully applied to abdominal hydatid cysts. We present the case of a 16-year-old patient who came to our clinic for upper abdominal pain. The abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed 2 cyst-like tumors, with hydatid features: one affecting the eighth liver segment and the other located at the upper pole of the spleen. We performed the surgical intervention using a laparoscopic approach, with an uneventful postoperative follow-up and the patient was discharged home on postoperative day 4. The postoperative images at 6 and 12 months showed a decrease in size of the remnant cystic cavities. PMID:23438278

  8. Minimal invasive treatment of abdominal multiorgan echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Tomu?, Claudiu; Zaharie, Florin; Mocan, Lucian; Barto?, Dana; Zaharie, Roxana; Iancu, Cornel; Nadim, Al Hajjar

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a severe zoonosis, exerting a high economic and social impact through its numerous complications, leading to disabilities, even death. Because of technical developments, especially the increasing experience of surgeons, laparoscopic surgery has been extended so that it can be successfully applied to abdominal hydatid cysts. We present the case of a 16-year-old patient who came to our clinic for upper abdominal pain. The abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed 2 cyst-like tumors, with hydatid features: one affecting the eighth liver segment and the other located at the upper pole of the spleen. We performed the surgical intervention using a laparoscopic approach, with an uneventful postoperative follow-up and the patient was discharged home on postoperative day 4. The postoperative images at 6 and 12 months showed a decrease in size of the remnant cystic cavities. PMID:23438278

  9. Abdominal Trigger Points and Psychological Function.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Roy R; Ladner, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Myofascial trigger points (TPs) are a poorly understood phenomenon involving the myofascial system and its related neural, lymphatic, and circulatory elements. Compression or massage of a TP causes localized pain and may cause referred pain and autonomic phenomena. The authors describe a 58-year-old woman who experienced precipitation of substantial psychological symptoms directly related to her treatment for a lower abdominal TP. Her symptoms resolved after 2 weeks of receiving high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation and soft tissue massage. Particularly in the abdomen, TPs may be associated with psychological reactions as well as physical aspects of bodily function. PMID:26830528

  10. Abdominal and groin injuries in tennis.

    PubMed

    Balduini, F C

    1988-04-01

    Although abdominal and groin injuries are not unique to the game of tennis, the very mechanics of the ground stroke and overhead volley predispose participants in this sport to the chronic pain and frustration of these injuries. Careful consideration must be given not only to the muscular anatomy of the region but also to the visceral and neurologic anatomy. A patient, controlled program of rehabilitation, emphasizing flexibility and subsequent strengthening, must be stressed if recurrence is to be avoided. PMID:2968851

  11. Delayed Rupture of Gallbladder Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    MOHANTY, Debajyoti; AGARWAL, Himanshu; AGGARWAL, Krittika; GARG, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A 29-year-old gentleman presented to surgery emergency with severe upper abdominal pain and vomiting. He reported to had been hit in his abdomen by a ball during a cricket match. Computerized tomogram of the abdomen revealed hematoma within the gallbladder lumen, laceration of segment six of liver, and hemoperitoneum. The patient did not agree for laparotomy advised to him, and so, managed conservatively. The patient reported back to us with high grade fever, jaundice, and painful abdominal distension after seven days of discharge from the hospital. His abdominal examination showed features of generalized peritonitis. Surgical abdominal exploration revealed a single perforation in the fundus of gallbladder with frozen calot'striangle. Subtotal cholecystectomy was done. Histopathology of excised gallbladder revealed xanthogranulomatous inflammation. The present case report highlights that early exploration and cholecystectomy should be considered in patients with gallbladder injury to obviate the risk of delayed perforation. PMID:25705289

  12. Torsion of a parasitic myoma that developed after abdominal myomectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, In Ae; Park, Ji Kwon; Song, Dae Hyun; Kim, Wan Ju; Lee, Yoon Kyoung; Park, Ji Eun; Shin, Jeong Kyu; Choi, Won Jun; Lee, Soon Ae; Lee, Jong Hak; Paik, Won Young

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic parasitic myomas are rare. The condition is defined by the presence of multiple smooth-muscle tumorous nodules in the peritoneal cavity. This may be attributable to seeding of myoma particles during uterine surgery. The clinical course is usually indolent. The disease is often asymptomatic and is usually discovered only incidentally. A 38-year-old woman who had undergone abdominal myomectomy 7 months prior presented with acute abdominal pain and a huge pelvic mass. We performed exploratory laparotomy. A parasitic mass 17 cm in diameter with a twisted omental pedicle was identified. En bloc excision of the mass and omentum was performed, followed by total abdominal hysterectomy. Histopathological examination of multiple sections revealed features compatible with an infarcted leiomyoma. Thus, we present a very rare case of an iatrogenic, rapidly growing parasitic myoma complicated by omental torsion (which caused the acute abdominal pain). We also offer a literature review. PMID:26866042

  13. [Efficiency of preemptive intravenous paracetamol analgesia in abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Borisov, D B; Levin, A V; Vyl'iurov, I V; Sokolov, A V; Nedashkovski?, E V

    2007-01-01

    In a randomized, controlled study, 50 patients underwent elective surgery for abdominal cancer lesions under perioperative epidural analgesia. All the patients were randomized to receive paracetamol in a single intravenous dose of 1 g or placebo 30 minutes prior to the start of surgery. The use of 1 g of paracetamol as a single intravenous preemptive dose in abdominal surgery with perioperative epidural analgesia does not reduce the consumption of the analgesic and the intensity of pain in the postoperative period. PMID:18051491

  14. Primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuan; Yan, Sheng; Tian, Yang; Li, Zhiwei; Pan, Jun; Zhang, Qiyi; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis is an uncommon progressive disease characterized by hamartomatous smooth muscle proliferation of the airways within the lungs as well as the lymph nodes, lymphatics, and blood vessels of the lungs, mediastinum, and abdomen. The most common manifestations of lymphangioleiomyomatosis are pulmonary symptoms. Primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis without any pathological changes in the respiratory system is extremely unusual. We report a case of primary abdominal lymphangioleiomyomatosis located between the left hepatic and gastric antrum of a 29-year-old woman. The patient had no typical symptoms of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (dyspnea, pneumothorax) or abdominal pain. All physical examination findings were normal. Laboratory test results, including routine blood examination, liver and kidney function, tumor markers, blood coagulation function, and urine and stool examinations, were all normal. She found abdominal cyst in an annual medical examination by ultrasonography and confirmed by computed tomography. For a clear diagnosis, a laparoscopic abdominal mass resection was performed. The postoperative pathohistological examination findings allowed for the definitive diagnosis. This case report may advance the understanding of primary peritoneal lymphatic leiomyoma and reduce the number of mistakenly diagnosed patients. PMID:25888993

  15. Renal Artery Embolization Controls Intractable Pain in a Patient with Polycystic Kidney Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Seong Tai; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon-Yul; Chang, Yoon Sik

    1999-09-15

    A 65-year-old man with adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) and chronic renal failure suffered from intractable abdominal pain and distension for 2 weeks. Meperidine infusion did not alleviate his pain. However, pain and abdominal distension were successfully controlled by embolization of both renal arteries.

  16. Advanced techniques in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Monson, J R

    1993-01-01

    Almost every abdominal organ is now amenable to laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic appendicectomy is a routine procedure which also permits identification of other conditions initially confused with an inflamed appendix. However, assessment of appendiceal inflammation is more difficult. Almost all colonic procedures can be performed laparoscopically, at least partly, though resection for colonic cancer is still controversial. For simple patch repair of perforated duodenal ulcers laparoscopy is ideal, and inguinal groin hernia can be repaired satisfactorily with a patch of synthetic mesh. Many upper abdominal procedures, however, still take more time than the open operations. These techniques reduce postoperative pain and the incidence of wound infections and allow a much earlier return to normal activity compared with open surgery. They have also brought new disciplines: surgeons must learn different hand-eye coordination, meticulous haemostasis is needed to maintain picture quality, and delivery of specimens may be problematic. The widespread introduction of laparoscopic techniques has emphasised the need for adequate training (operations that were straight-forward open procedures may require considerable laparoscopic expertise) and has raised questions about trainee surgeons acquiring adequate experience of open procedures. Images FIG 9 p1347-a p1347-b p1349-a p1350-a p1350-b PMID:8257893

  17. A New Etiology for the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Charles; Vaillandet, Colette; Tuech, Jean-Jacques; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare diagnosis with an incidence of 12 per million. Most cases originate from an appendix which ruptures and releases mucin into the peritoneal cavity. The progression of the disease results in obstruction and cutaneous leak. Abdominal compartment syndrome is an uncommon complication of peritoneal pseudomyxoma. In the present article, we report the case of a patient with PMP and abdominal compartment syndrome. A laparotomy to decrease the abdominal pressure was performed. Three months later, a peritonectomy with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy was performed. The patient was still alive 1 year after the procedure without any recurrence. In conclusion, acute abdominal pain and respiratory failure in patients with peritoneal PMP should lead to the measurement of the abdominal pressure but are not a contra indication for curative treatment of PMP. PMID:26483617

  18. Multiple ectopic hepatocellular carcinomas arising in the abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Toru; Hoshino, Seiichiro; Yoshida, Yoichiro; Aisu, Naoya; Tanimura, Syu; Hisano, Satoshi; Kuno, Nobuaki; Sohda, Tetsuro; Sakisaka, Shotaro; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2012-09-01

    Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodular lesions in the abdominal cavity with ascites without a possible primary tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed bloody ascites and multiple brown nodular tumors measuring approximately 10 mm in size that were disseminated on the perineum and mesentery. A postoperative PET-CT scan was performed but it did not reveal any evidence of a tumor in the liver. The tumors resected from the peritoneum were diagnosed as HCC. The present case of HCC was thought to have possibly developed from ectopic liver on the peritoneum or mesentery. PMID:23139654

  19. The Effect of Abdominal Support on Functional Outcomes in Patients Following Major Abdominal Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cheifetz, Oren; Overend, Tom J.; Crowe, Jean

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Immobility and pain are modifiable risk factors for development of venous thromboembolism and pulmonary morbidity after major abdominal surgery (MAS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abdominal incision support with an elasticized abdominal binder on postoperative walk performance (mobility), perceived distress, pain, and pulmonary function in patients following MAS. Methods: Seventy-five patients scheduled to undergo MAS via laparotomy were randomized to experimental (binder) or control (no binder) groups. Sixty (33 male, 27 female; mean age 5814.9 years) completed the study. Preoperative measurements of 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance, perceived distress, pain, and pulmonary function were repeated 1, 3, and 5 days after surgery. Results: Surgery was associated with marked postoperative reductions (p<0.001) in walk distance (?7578%, day 3) and forced vital capacity (35%, all days) for both groups. Improved 6MWT distance by day 5 was greater (p<0.05) for patients wearing a binder (80%) than for the control group (48%). Pain and symptom-associated distress remained unchanged following surgery with binder usage, increasing significantly (p<0.05) only in the no binder group. Conclusion: Elasticized abdominal binders provide a non-invasive intervention for enhancing recovery of walk performance, controlling pain and distress, and improving patients' experience following MAS. PMID:21629603

  20. Flank pain

    MedlinePLUS

    Pain - side; Side pain ... Flank pain can be a sign of a kidney problem. But, since many organs are in this area, other causes are possible. If you have flank pain and fever , chills, blood in the urine, or ...

  1. Pain (PDQ)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... moderate pain. 7 to 10 means severe pain. Acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be used to relieve mild pain. Acetaminophen and NSAIDs help relieve mild pain. They may ...

  2. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  3. Abdominal exploration - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The abdomen contains many vital organs: the stomach, the small intestine (jejunum and ileum), the large intestine (colon), the ... The surgical exploration of the abdomen, also called an ... abdominal disease from an unknown cause (to diagnose), or trauma ...

  4. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Setacci, Francesco; Galzerano, Giuseppe; DE Donato, Gianmarco; Benevento, Domenico; Guerrieri, Massimiliano W; Ruzzi, Umberto; Borrelli, Maria P; Setacci, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms has become a milestone in the treatment of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. Technological improvement allows treatment in more and more complex cases. This review summarizes all grafts available on the market. A complete review of most important trial on this topic is provided to the best of our knowledge, and technical tips and tricks for standard cases are also included. PMID:26771730

  5. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in children with functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) differs in tertiary vs. primary care and is related to mother's view of child disability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We sought to determine if CAM use was greater in children in tertiary vs. primary care, and whether child or parent report of pain characteristics, and/or child and mother's psychological characteristics differed between those who did/did not use CAM. We identified children 7-10 years of age with FA...

  6. Gastrointestinal (GI) permeability correlates with trait anxiety and urinary norepinephrine/creatinine (CR)ratio in children with functional abdominal pain (FAP)and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but not in controls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FAP and IBS affect 10–15% of school age children and bear many similarities to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults (e.g., functional pain, visceral hyperalgesia). Animal models of IBS have suggested a relationship between neonatal stress/anxiety and increased GI permeability later in life. We h...

  7. Pain management in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gachago, Cathia; Draganov, Peter V

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal pain is a major clinical problem in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The cause of pain is usually multifactorial with a complex interplay of factors contributing to a varying degree to the pain in an individual patient and, therefore, a rigid standardized approach for pain control tends to lead to suboptimal results. Pain management usually proceeds in a stepwise approach beginning with general lifestyle recommendations. Low fat diet, alcohol and smoking cessation are encouraged. Analgesics alone are needed in almost all patients. Maneuvers aimed at suppression of pancreatic secretion are routinely tried. Patients with ongoing symptoms may be candidates for more invasive options such as endoscopic therapy, and resective or drainage surgery. The role of pain modifying agents (antidepressants, gabapentin, pregabalin), celiac plexus block, antioxidants, octreotide and total pancreatectomy with islet cell auto transplantation remains to be determined. PMID:18506917

  8. Jewelry cleaners

    MedlinePLUS

    ... loss Gastrointestinal tract: Abdominal pain - severe Bloody stools Burns and possible holes of the esophagus (food pipe) ... blood acid level -- leads to organ damage Skin: Burns Holes in the skin or underlying tissues Irritation

  9. UNEXPLAINED VISCERAL PAIN IN CHILDREN: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, CLINICAL FEATURES AND MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many children experience recurrent episodes of abdominal pain, but it is unclear why this occurs. This article reviews our present understanding of this common condition and how it sometimes can relate to diet, inherent pain sensing ability, and the influence of how the parents perceive pain....

  10. Primary ovarian pregnancy mimicking abdominal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ogunbode, O O; Aremu, O O; Okolo, C A

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to emphasise that ectopic pregnancy (EP) can occasionally occur in rare sites such as the ovary, and to show that it may be difficult making the diagnosis clinically and radiologically. It also highlighted the benefit of early surgical intervention in reducing mortality and morbidity from this condition. The case was a 31-year-old nulliparous woman who presented with amenorrhoea of 20 weeks and a 2-month history of lower abdominal pain. Radiological studies suggested abdominal pregnancy coexisting with uterine fibroids for which she had an exploratory laparotomy, which revealed a primary right ovarian pregnancy necessitating the performance of right ovariectomy. Locating the sites of EP may still pose a diagnostic challenge. Despite the benefits and reliability of ultrasound scanning, there will still be situations where the definitive diagnosis can only be confirmed at surgery. PMID:26739207

  11. A 66-year-old male with lower abdominal lump: an unusual presentation of an uncommon abdominal pathology.

    PubMed

    Noormohamed, Mohamed Saleem; Neophytou, Christodoulos; Jain, Yogesh; Rawat, Saumitra

    2012-01-01

    A 66-year-old Caucasian male was admitted following symptoms of intermittent umbilical pain aggravated after meals and associated with vomiting of contents. Physical examination revealed a tender, partially reducible swelling suspicious of complicated umbilical hernia. Abdominal x-ray revealed dilated small bowel loops which appeared consistent with clinical diagnosis. He underwent a laparotomy subsequently which revealed a small defect in the linea alba with viable small bowel and two firm mesenteric masses encroaching the lumen approximately two feet from the ileocaecal junction. The histology of the excised bowel and masses revealed that the tumour composed of bland spindle cells with slender to plump nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm. Mesenteric fibromatosis are the most common primary tumours of the mesentery and constitute about 3.5% of all fibrous tissue tumours. Intra-abdominal desmoids are very rare and benign tumours but are very aggressive and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain. PMID:22605811

  12. Back Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Back Pain Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Back Pain March 2015 Handout on Health: Back Pain This publication is for people who have back ... to discuss them with your doctor. What Is Back Pain? Back pain is an all-too-familiar problem ...

  13. Ulcerative Colitis Presented as Fever and Bloody Diarrhea at Initiation of Dialysis in an Elderly Patient with End-Stage Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Kanazawa, Yuka; Nakamura, Noriko; Masutani, Kosuke; Esaki, Motohiro; Kitazono, Takanari; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disorder that mainly affects the colon and rectum. Immunological derangements are associated with the pathogenesis of UC. Many patients with UC also have chronic kidney disease, associated with immunological disorders and/or pharmacotherapy for UC. Some patients with UC may develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and require renal replacement therapy. However, little is known clinically about ESRD patients who develop UC or about patients with UC who develop ESRD. This report describes an elderly patient with ESRD who presented with fever and bloody diarrhea and was finally diagnosed as UC (pancolitis type) at dialysis initiation. The patient was successfully treated with a series of immunosuppressive agents. This report highlights the importance of considering UC as a potential cause of bloody stool and fever in patients with ESRD. PMID:26617642

  14. Is all pain is treated equally? A multicenter evaluation of acute pain care by age.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ula; Belland, Laura K; Handel, Daniel A; Yadav, Kabir; Heard, Kennon; Rivera-Reyes, Laura; Eisenberg, Amanda; Noble, Matthew J; Mekala, Sudha; Valley, Morgan; Winkel, Gary; Todd, Knox H; Morrison, R Sean

    2014-12-01

    Pain is highly prevalent in health care settings; however, disparities continue to exist in pain care treatment. Few studies have investigated if differences exist based on patient-related characteristics associated with aging. The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in acute pain care for older vs younger patients. This was a multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional observation study of 5 emergency departments across the United States evaluating the 2 most commonly presenting pain conditions for older adults, abdominal and fracture pain. Multivariable adjusted hierarchical modeling was completed. A total of 6,948 visits were reviewed. Older (? 65 years) and oldest (? 85 years) were less likely to receive analgesics compared to younger patients (<65 years), yet older patients had greater reductions in final pain scores. When evaluating pain treatment and final pain scores, differences appeared to be based on type of pain. Older patients with abdominal pain were less likely to receive pain medications, while older patients with fracture were more likely to receive analgesics and opioids compared to younger patients. Differences in pain care for older patients appear to be driven by the type of presenting pain. PMID:25244947

  15. Is all pain is treated equally? A multicenter evaluation of acute pain care by age

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ula; Belland, Laura K; Handel, Daniel A; Yadav, Kabir; Heard, Kennon; Rivera, Laura; Eisenberg, Amanda; Noble, Matthew; Mekala, Sudha; Valley, Morgan; Winkel, Gary; Todd, Knox H; Morrison, R Sean

    2014-01-01

    Pain is highly prevalent in healthcare settings, however disparities continue to exist in pain care treatment. Few studies have investigated if differences exist based on patient related characteristics associated with aging. The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in acute pain care for older versus younger patients. This was a multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional observation study of 5 emergency departments across the US evaluating the 2 most commonly presenting pain conditions for older adults - abdominal and fracture pain. Multivariable adjusted hierarchical modeling was completed. A total of 6,948 visits were reviewed. Older (?65 years) and oldest (?85 years) were less likely to receive analgesics when compared to younger patients (<65 years), yet older patients had greater reductions in final pain scores. When evaluating pain treatment and final pain scores, differences appeared to be based on type of pain. Older abdominal pain patients were less likely to receive pain medications, while older fracture patients were more likely to receive analgesics and opioids when compared to younger patients. Differences in pain care for older patients appear to be driven by type of presenting pain. PMID:25244947

  16. Foetal pain?

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Stuart W G

    2010-10-01

    The majority of commentary on foetal pain has looked at the maturation of neural pathways to decide a lower age limit for foetal pain. This approach is sensible because there must be a minimal necessary neural development that makes pain possible. Very broadly, it is generally agreed that the minimal necessary neural pathways for pain are in place by 24 weeks gestation. Arguments remain, however, as to the possibility of foetal pain before or after 24 weeks. Some argue that the foetus can feel pain earlier than 24 weeks because pain can be supported by subcortical structures. Others argue that the foetus cannot feel pain at any stage because it is maintained in a state of sedation in the womb and lacks further neural and conceptual development necessary for pain. Much of this argument rests on the definition of terms such as 'wakefulness' and 'pain'. If a behavioural and neural reaction to a noxious stimulus is considered sufficient for pain, then pain is possible from 24 weeks and probably much earlier. If a conceptual subjectivity is considered necessary for pain, however, then pain is not possible at any gestational age. Regardless of how pain is defined, it is clear that pain for conceptual beings is qualitatively different than pain for non-conceptual beings. It is therefore a mistake to draw an equivalence between foetal pain and pain in the older infant or adult. PMID:20356798

  17. Pain Relievers

    MedlinePLUS

    Pain relievers are medicines that reduce or relieve headaches, sore muscles, arthritis, or other aches and pains. There ... also have a slightly different response to a pain reliever. Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are good for ...

  18. Elbow pain

    MedlinePLUS

    Pain - elbow ... Elbow pain can be caused by many problems. A common cause in adults is tendinitis . This is inflammation and ... a partial dislocation ). Other common causes of elbow pain are: Bursitis -- inflammation of a fluid-filled cushion ...

  19. Heel pain

    MedlinePLUS

    Pain - heel ... Heel pain is most often the result of overuse. Rarely, it may be caused by an injury. Your heel ... on the heel Conditions that may cause heel pain include: When the tendon that connects the back ...

  20. Neck pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... causes of neck pain: Take over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB) or acetaminophen ( ... prescribe a muscle relaxant or a more powerful pain reliever. Over-the-counter medications often work as well ...

  1. Knee pain

    MedlinePLUS

    Pain - knee ... Knee pain can have different causes. Being overweight puts you at greater risk for knee problems. Overusing your knee can trigger knee problems that cause pain. If you have a history of arthritis, it ...

  2. Depression, Pain, and Pain Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the degree to which depression predicted pain and pain behavior. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to 207 low back pain patients. Depression and physical findings were the most important predictors of pain and pain behavior. Depression proved significant even after controlling for important demographic and medical status

  3. Depression, Pain, and Pain Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the degree to which depression predicted pain and pain behavior. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to 207 low back pain patients. Depression and physical findings were the most important predictors of pain and pain behavior. Depression proved significant even after controlling for important demographic and medical status…

  4. Intra-abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Holliday, R L

    1976-01-01

    Intra-abdominal sepsis remains one of the major challenges to the surgeon. With a proper appreciation of the bacteriology and pathophysiology involved and an awareness of new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, hopefully, mortality and morbidity rates can be reduced. PMID:1048948

  5. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers a one-time abdominal aortic aneurysm ultrasound. You must get a referral for it ...

  6. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation ...

  7. Systematic review of blunt abdominal trauma as a cause of acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Toumi, Zaher; Chan, Anthony; Hadfield, Matthew B; Hulton, Neil R

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute appendicitis commonly presents as an acute abdomen. Cases of acute appendicitis caused by blunt abdominal trauma are rare. We present a systematic review of appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma. The aim of this review was to collate and report the clinical presentations and experience of such cases. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A literature review was performed using PubMed, Embase and Medline and the keywords appendicitis, abdominal and trauma. RESULTS The initial search returned 381 papers, of which 17 articles were included. We found 28 cases of acute appendicitis secondary to blunt abdominal trauma reported in the literature between 1991 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury included road-traffic accidents, falls, assaults and accidents. Presenting symptoms invariably included abdominal pain, but also nausea, vomiting and anorexia. Only 12 patients had computed tomography scans and 10 patients had ultrasonography. All reported treatment was surgical and positive for appendicitis. CONCLUSIONS Although rare, the diagnosis of acute appendicitis must be considered following direct abdominal trauma especially if the patient complains of abdominal right lower quadrant pain, nausea and anorexia. Haemodynamically stable patients who present shortly after blunt abdominal trauma with right lower quadrant pain and tenderness should undergo urgent imaging with a plan to proceed to appendicectomy if the imaging suggested an inflammatory process within the right iliac fossa. PMID:20513274

  8. Coexistence of expanding abdominal aortic aneurysm and aggravated intervertebral disc extrusion -a case report-

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nan Seol; Kang, Sung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is included in the differential diagnosis of lower back pain. Although rare, this important disease can cause potentially lethal complications. In this case, expanding abdominal aortic aneurysm coexisted with intervertebral disc extrusion. The diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm was delayed, putting the patient at risk of aneurysmal rupture. In the management of patients with degenerative spinal diseases, we should not overlook the possibility of comorbidities such as an abdominal aortic aneurysm. We also suggest the importance of interpreting images more carefully, especially for elderly male patients. PMID:24228150

  9. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven R.; Nikolajsen, Lone; Finnerup, Nanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after a number of common surgical procedures, such as amputation, thoracotomy, and inguinal hernia repair. Less is known about persistent pain after cosmetic surgical procedures. We, therefore, decided to study the incidence and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. Methods: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. Results: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire. Fourteen patients (8.2%) reported pain within the past 7 days related to the abdominoplasty. Abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common and reported by 138 patients (81%). Sensory hypersensitivity was associated with the presence of persistent pain. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 149 (88%) patients. The majority of patients reported improvement on all physical and psychological factors. Patients with pain were more often disappointed with the surgery and unwilling to recommend the surgery. Conclusions: Overall, patients were satisfied with the procedure, although abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common. However, there is a risk of developing persistent neuropathic pain after abdominoplasty, and patients should be informed about this before surgery.

  10. Spontaneous reduction of ileoileal adult intussusception after blunt abdominal injury.

    PubMed

    Emet, Mucahit; Kocak, Abdullah Osman; Akbas, Ilker; Karaman, Adem; Arslan, Sukru

    2015-10-01

    This is the first case report of an adult who had spontaneous reduction of ileoileal intussusception occurred after punching to the abdomen. A 40-year-old man was brought to our emergency department by ground ambulance due to pounding and punching a few hours ago. Physical examination showed multiple dermabrasions on his face, abdomen, and lower extremities. All other examinations were unremarkable except that of mild abdominal pain. Laboratory results gave no clues. On abdominal x-ray, paucity of intestinal gas, pseudomass and surrounding gas appearances were visible. No nausea or vomiting occurred during observation. His abdominal pain resolved gradually. On the 24th hour after admission, control computed tomography showed that the findings of intussusception disappeared. He was discharged after 1 day of observation. Outpatient follow-up did not show any abnormality. We suggest that, in patients with mild to moderate trauma, even if the patient has mild abdominal pain, physicians should rule out invagination. Computed tomography is the suggested imaging modality. These patients should be kept in close follow-up. If symptoms resolve and intussusception findings disappear in computed tomography, no further treatment is required. PMID:26299690

  11. Shoulder pain

    MedlinePLUS

    Pain - shoulder ... changes around the rotator cuff can cause shoulder pain. You may have pain when lifting the arm above your head or ... The most common cause of shoulder pain occurs when rotator cuff tendons ... The tendons become inflamed or damaged. This condition ...

  12. Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    Pelvic pain occurs mostly in the lower abdomen area. The pain might be steady, or it might come and go. If the pain is severe, it might get in the way ... re a woman, you might feel a dull pain during your period. It could also happen during ...

  13. Back Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Back Pain Information Page Condensed from Low Back Pain Fact ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Back Pain? Acute or short-term low back pain generally ...

  14. An Infected Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Caused by Helicobacter cinaedi

    PubMed Central

    Niino, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm due to Helicobacter cinaedi that was detected by blood culture. A 79-year-old man with lumbago and left lower quadrant pain was admitted for the treatment of an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm. H. cinaedi was isolated from a blood culture, which was obtained on admission. The aneurysm was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy, aneurysmectomy, debridement, replacement of a bifurcated Dacron prosthesis, and omental wrapping. Our present case suggests that H. cinaedi should be considered as the causative agent of an infected aortic aneurysm. PMID:26730258

  15. Abdominal foreign body: late presentation as a rectus sheath abscess.

    PubMed

    Noushif, M; Sivaprasad, S; Prashanth, A

    2011-05-01

    Intra-abdominal ingested foreign bodies are usually an incidental finding, typically encountered in mentally challenged patients. We present the case of a 65-year-old mentally sound woman who presented with recurrent abdominal pain and a lump in the hypogastrium. Evaluation revealed a rectus sheath abscess extending to the peritoneum, with a foreign body in situ. On enquiry, the patient revealed that she had accidentally ingested a tailoring needle 17 years ago. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an ingested foreign body as a rectus sheath abscess after a long duration. PMID:21633760

  16. The abdominal circulatory pump.

    PubMed

    Aliverti, Andrea; Bovio, Dario; Fullin, Irene; Dellac, Raffaele L; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, Peter T

    2009-01-01

    Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50-75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4-6% and an output of 750-1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61+/-0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57+/-0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart. PMID:19440240

  17. The Abdominal Circulatory Pump

    PubMed Central

    Aliverti, Andrea; Bovio, Dario; Fullin, Irene; Dellac, Raffaele L.; Lo Mauro, Antonella; Pedotti, Antonio; Macklem, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs) is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 5075 ml with an ejection fraction of 46% and an output of 7501500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.610.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.570.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart. PMID:19440240

  18. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M

    2010-06-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management. PMID:20668419

  19. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. PMID:26527261

  20. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, IA; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. Case report. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Conclusion. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated. PMID:25914739

  1. Abdominal trauma by ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Usurelu, Sergiu; Bettencourt, Vanessa; Melo, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ostriches typically avoid humans in the wild, since they correctly assess humans as potential predators, and, if approached, often run away. However, ostriches may turn aggressive rather than run when threatened, especially when cornered, and may also attack when they feel the need to defend their offspring or territories. Presentation of case A 71-year-old male patient presented with intra abdominal injury sustained from being kicked in the abdominal wall by an ostrich. During laparotomy, were found free peritoneal effusion and perforation of the small intestine. Discussion The clinical history and physical examination are extremely important for diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. CT-scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and is always indicated when there is injury to the hollow viscera. In general it is possible to suture the defect. Conclusion In cases of blunt abdominal trauma by animals is necessary to have a low threshold of suspicion for acute abdomen. PMID:25685344

  2. Bloody or tarry stools

    MedlinePLUS

    ... small intestine Diverticulosis (abnormal pouches in the colon) Hemorrhoids (common cause of bright red blood) Inflammatory bowel ... have an exam even if you think that hemorrhoids are causing the blood in your stool. In ...

  3. Post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy pain: effects of intraperitoneal local anesthetics on pain control--a randomized prospective double-blinded placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Bestoun H; Ahmed, Aryan; Tan, Dongfeng; Awad, Ziad T; Al-Aali, Ali Yousef; Kilkenny, John; Orlando, Frank A; Al-Chalabi, Abbas; Crass, Richard; Alrawi, Sadir J

    2008-03-01

    Postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is generally less than open cholecystectomy; however, the postoperative shoulder and abdominal pain experienced by patients still causes preventable distress. Intraperitoneal irrigation of the diaphragmatic surface and gallbladder fossa using normal saline, bupivacaine, or lignocaine may effectively control visceral abdominal pain after an LC. Two hundred patients with similar demographics undergoing elective LC were randomized to one of four groups of 50 patients each, including Group A placebo control, Group B with isotonic saline irrigation, Group C with bupivacaine irrigation, and Group D with lignocaine irrigation. All patients received preperitoneal abdominal wall infiltration with 0.25 per cent bupivacaine to control parietal (somatic) abdominal pain. The visual analogue and verbal rating pain scores at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours for both shoulder and abdominal pain were recorded in a prospective double-blind fashion at four points during the first 24 postoperative hours. Analgesia requirements, vital signs, blood glucose, and incidence of nausea and vomiting were also recorded. Patients in each group demonstrated a significant difference in visual analogue and verbal rating pain scores and analgesic consumption when compared with controls. Lignocaine controlled pain significantly better than saline or bupivacaine. Bowel function recovery was similar in all patients, and there were no significant complications. We conclude that intraperitoneal irrigation with either saline, bupivacaine, or lignocaine can significantly reduce visceral abdominal pain after LC. Lignocaine was the most efficacious local anesthetic in this trial and has a high safety profile when used at recommended doses. PMID:18376682

  4. Current understanding of the neuropathophysiology of pain in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Atsawarungruangkit, Amporn; Pongprasobchai, Supot

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pancreas. The main symptom of patients with CP is chronic and severe abdominal pain. However, the pathophysiology of pain in CP remains obscure. Traditionally, researchers believed that the pain was caused by anatomical changes in pancreatic structure. However, treatment outcomes based on such beliefs are considered unsatisfactory. The emerging explanations of pain in CP are trending toward neurobiological theories. This article aims to review current evidence regarding the neuropathophysiology of pain in CP and its potential implications for the development of new treatments for pain in CP. PMID:26600977

  5. Contralateral Abdominal Pocketing in Salvation of Replanted Fingertips with Compromised Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Hyung-Sup; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pocketing is one of the most useful methods in salvation of compromised replanted fingertips. Abdominal pocketing has generally been performed in the ipsilateral lower abdominal quadrant, but we have also performed contralateral pocketing at our institute. To determine which approach is more beneficial, a total of 40 patients underwent an abdominal pocketing procedure in either the ipsilateral or contralateral lower abdominal quadrant after fingertip replantation. Dates of abdominal pocketing after initial replantation, detachment after abdominal pocketing, range of motion (ROM) before abdominal pocketing, and sequential ROM after the detachment operation and date of full ROM recovery and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH) score were recorded through medical chart review. Mean detachment date, mean abduction of shoulder after the detachment operation, and mean days to return to full ROM were not significantly different between the ipsilateral and contralateral pocketing groups. However, the mean DASH score was significantly lower in the contralateral group than the ipsilateral group. There were also fewer postoperative wound complications in the contralateral group than in the ipsilateral group. We, therefore, recommend contralateral abdominal pocketing rather than ipsilateral abdominal pocketing to increase patient comfort and reduce pain and complications. PMID:25379539

  6. Abdominal imaging: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures.

  7. [Abdominal penetrating trauma].

    PubMed

    Kring, Sren; Helligse, Per; Kg, Lise

    2009-06-22

    A 19-year-old female was brought to the Emergency Room as a trauma patient. During a tilting contest she fell off the horse and was penetrated by a spear used for tilting the ring. She was respiratorically as well as haemodynamically stable. The spear was supported but not removed by the paramedics. The spear penetrated the patient near the left iliac crest pointing at the heart. Further investigation at the Emergency Room is described briefly and guidelines for penetrating, impaled foreign bodies in the (thoraco)abdominal region are outlined. PMID:19671404

  8. Intraoperative Dexmedetomidine Promotes Postoperative Analgesia in Patients After Abdominal Colectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Dong-Jian; Qi, Bin; Tang, Gang; Li, Jin-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Surgery-induced acute postoperative pain may lead to prolonged convalescence. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of intraoperative dexmedetomidine on postoperative analgesia following abdominal colectomy surgeries. Eighty patients scheduled for abdominal colectomy surgery under general anesthesia were divided into 2 groups, which were maintained using propofol/remifentanil/dexmedetomidine (PRD) or propofol/remifentanil/saline (PRS). During surgery, patients in the PRD group had a lower bispectral index (BIS) value, which indicated a deeper anesthetic state, and a higher sedation score right after extubation than patients in the PRS group. During the first 24 hours post surgery, PRD patients consumed less morphine in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and had a lower score in the visual analog scale (VAS) testing than their controls from the PRS group. Intraoperative administration of dexmedetomidine appears to promote the analgesic property of morphine-based PCA in patients after abdominal colectomy. PMID:26376397

  9. Low back pain - acute

    MedlinePLUS

    Backache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain - back; Acute back pain; Back pain - new; Back pain - short-term; Back strain - new ... back supports most of your body's weight. Low back pain is the number two reason that Americans see ...

  10. Isolated perforation of a duodenal diverticulum following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Matthew J; Rashid, Tanwir G; Bird, Richard le R

    2010-01-01

    Only 10% of duodenal diverticula are symptomatic. We present the case of a man who fell from a height of 6 ft, landing on his abdomen and presenting 4 h later with severe back pain and a rigid abdomen. At laparotomy, a perforated retroperitoneal duodenal diverticulum was found and repaired with an omental patch. No other injury was noted. Not only is this perforation unusual, but the absence of other injuries sustained during this minor blunt trauma makes this case unique. This case highlights the need for a high index of suspicion when managing patients with back or abdominal pain following minor trauma. PMID:20165728

  11. Neck Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... over-the counter medicine, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, to relieve pain, and apply heat to the ... an injury. Use anti-inflammatory medicines, such as ibuprofen and aspirin, to relieve pain and discomfort, and ...

  12. Finger pain

    MedlinePLUS

    Pain - finger ... Nearly everyone has had finger pain at some time. You may have: Tenderness Burning Stiffness Numbness Tingling Coldness Swelling Change in skin color Redness Many conditions, such ...

  13. Orofacial Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Neck, shoulder or back pain Dizziness ?xml:namespace> Sleep disorders ; If you have gone through treatment and still experience orofacial pain, you may have a sleep disorder, such as bruxism, or a sleep-related breathing ...

  14. Chest pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your jaw, left arm, or between your shoulder blades. You have nausea, dizziness, sweating, a racing heart, ... such as: Is the pain between the shoulder blades? Under the breast bone? Does the pain change ...

  15. Ribcage pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not cause the pain in someone who has pleurisy (swelling of the lining of the lungs) or ... Inflammation of cartilage near the breastbone ( costochondritis ) Osteoporosis Pleurisy (the pain is worse when breathing deeply)

  16. Breast pain

    MedlinePLUS

    Pain - breast; Mastalgia; Mastodynia; Breast tenderness ... There are many possible causes for breast pain. For example, hormone level changes from menstruation or pregnancy often cause breast tenderness. Some swelling and tenderness just before your period ...

  17. Belly Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Words En Espaol What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, ... cause pain in your belly or abdomen. Keep reading to find out what belly pain is, what ...

  18. Back Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Oh, my aching back!", you are not alone. Back pain is one of the most common medical problems, ... 10 people at some point during their lives. Back pain can range from a dull, constant ache to ...

  19. Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... practice bulletin no. 51. Chronic pelvic pain. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 103 ,589–605. [top] UCSF Medical Center. (2012). ... women with chronic pelvic pain. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 33 ,130–136 [top] What are common symptoms? » ...

  20. Penis pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pain. If penis pain is caused by a sexually transmitted disease, it is important for your sexual partner to ... Are you at risk for exposure to any sexually transmitted diseases? What other symptoms do you have? The physical ...

  1. Abdominal MR Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Meng; Chen, Jun; Glaser, Kevin J.; Talwalkar, Jayant A.; Ehman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    MR Elastography (MRE) is an MRI-based technique for quantitatively assessing the mechanical properties of tissues, based on the propagation of shear waves. Multiple studies have described many potential applications of MRE, from characterizing tumors to detecting diffuse disease processes. Studies have shown that MRE can be successfully implemented to assess abdominal organs. The first clinical application MRE to be well documented is the detection and characterization of hepatic fibrosis, which systematically increases the stiffness of liver tissue. In this diagnostic role, offers a safer, and less expensive, and potentially more accurate alternative to invasive liver biopsy. Emerging results suggest that measurements of liver and spleen stiffness may provide an indirect way to assess portal hypertension. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that is possible to use MRE to evaluate the mechanical properties of other abdominal structures, such as the pancreas and kidneys. Steady technical progress in developing practical protocols for applying MRE in the abdomen and pelvis provides opportunities to explore many other potential applications of this emerging technology. PMID:20010062

  2. Patellofemoral Pain.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Rebecca A; Khadavi, Michael J; Fredericson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Patellofemoral pain is characterized by insidious onset anterior knee pain that is exaggerated under conditions of increased patellofemoral joint stress. A variety of risk factors may contribute to the development of patellofemoral pain. It is critical that the history and physical examination elucidate those risk factors specific to an individual in order to prescribe an appropriate and customized treatment plan. This article aims to review the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of patellofemoral pain. PMID:26616176

  3. Pain management in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: insights for the clinician

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Arvind Iyengar; Walter, Chelsea; Newara, Melissa C.

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal pain is a common symptom in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and has a profound negative impact on patients’ lives. There are growing data suggesting that pain is variably related to the degree of active inflammation. Given the multifactorial etiologies underlying the pain, the treatment of abdominal pain in the IBD population is best accomplished by individualized plans. This review covers four clinically relevant categories of abdominal pain in patients with IBD, namely, inflammation, surgical complications, bacterial overgrowth, and neurobiological processes and how pain management can be addressed in each of these cases. The role of genetic factors, psychological factors, and psychosocial stress in pain perception and treatment will also be addressed. Lastly, psychosocial, pharmacological, and procedural pain management techniques will be discussed. An extensive review of the existing literature reveals a paucity of data regarding pain management specific to IBD. In addition, there is growing consensus suggesting a spectrum between IBD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Thus, this review for adult and pediatric clinicians also incorporates the literature for the treatment of functional abdominal pain and the clinical consensus from IBD and IBS experts on pharmacological, behavioral, and procedural methods to treat abdominal pain in this population. PMID:22973418

  4. [Mechanical ileus in children with no prior history of abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    van Poll, Daan; de Beer, Sjoerd A; de Jong, Justin R; Heij, Hugo A

    2015-01-01

    In children with no prior history of abdominal surgery and no signs of intussusception or incarcerated inguinal hernia, mechanical ileus may have a congenital cause such as malrotation with volvulus or a persistent omphalomesenteric duct. Acquired causes include sigmoid volvulus. We present two cases of mechanical ileus in children. The first case involved a 6-year-old boy who presented with acute abdominal pain and vomiting. An emergency laparotomy was performed, with resection of the omphalomesenteric duct. Recovery was uneventful. The other case concerned a 9-year-old boy who presented with increasing abdominal pain, bilious vomiting and general clinical deterioration. An emergency laparotomy was performed, revealing malrotation with volvulus and intestinal ischaemia. Children with no prior abdominal history who present with symptoms that may be caused by mechanical obstruction should be managed with a view to surgery and without delay, in order to prevent a catastrophic outcome resulting from a congenital or acquired mechanical obstruction. PMID:26443112

  5. Back Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... being overweight, poor physical conditioning, smoking, whole body vibration, and improper lifting technique and body mechanics, including ... core body strength (back and abdominal muscles). •Decrease vibrations by installing air cushions or upgrade seat to ...

  6. A mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm caused by Listeria monocytogenes in a patient with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Gunst, Jesper Damsgaard; Jensen-Fangel, Søren

    2014-01-01

    A 65-year-old man with HIV infection presented with acute severe abdominal pain radiating to the back. A CT scan revealed an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, and an aortobifemoral bypass was undertaken. Subsequently, tissue specimens from the aortic wall grew Listeria monocytogenes. The patient received 8 weeks of intravenous antibiotic treatment followed by oral sulfotrim as secondary prophylaxis and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:24443338

  7. How I Manage Abdominal Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycock, Christine E.

    1986-01-01

    In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)

  8. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    MedlinePLUS

    Open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is surgery to fix a widened part in your aorta. This is called an aneurysm. The ... Open surgery to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm is sometimes ... is bleeding inside your body from the aneurysm. You may have an ...

  9. CT of abdominal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, B.M.; Mann, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.

  10. Drug Management of Visceral Pain: Concepts from Basic Research

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mellar P.

    2012-01-01

    Visceral pain is experienced by 40% of the population, and 28% of cancer patients suffer from pain arising from intra- abdominal metastasis or from treatment. Neuroanatomy of visceral nociception and neurotransmitters, receptors, and ion channels that modulate visceral pain are qualitatively or quantitatively different from those that modulate somatic and neuropathic pain. Visceral pain should be recognized as distinct pain phenotype. TRPV1, Na 1.8, and ASIC3 ion channels and peripheral kappa opioid receptors are important mediators of visceral pain. Mu agonists, gabapentinoids, and GABAB agonists reduce pain by binding to central receptors and channels. Combinations of analgesics and adjuvants in animal models have supra-additive antinociception and should be considered in clinical trials. This paper will discuss the neuroanatomy, receptors, ion channels, and neurotransmitters important to visceral pain and provide a basic science rationale for analgesic trials and management. PMID:22619712

  11. Abdominal wall extraction using constrained deformable model and abdominal context.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weimin; Quan, Lijie; Lin, Zhiping; Duan, Yuping; Zhou, Jiayin; Yang, Yongzhong; Xiong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Information about abdominal wall can be used for many applications from organ segmentation, registration, and surgical simulation. The challenges exist in abdominal wall extraction due to its varieties in shapes, connection to the internal organs and anterior layer edge formed between the muscle and fascia/fatty layer, which may distract the shape model. In this paper we present an approach to the posterior abdominal wall extraction using the shape model and other abdominal context, particularly with the rib-spine bone information and the wall image features. The shape model is constructed based on the training abdominal walls that are delineated manually. After bone information being extracted, the wall shape deforms from the prior shape model using the snake, which is constrained by the bone context and guided by the processed image energy map with the aim of removing distracted image features of anterior abdominal wall and the outer region from the original map. Meanwhile, an overall convex shape is maintained by limiting the angles of the contour points. The proposed approach is tested on abdominal CT data which provides encouraging results. PMID:25571041

  12. Intra-abdominal gossypiboma: a report of two cases and a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kpolugbo, J; Alili, U; Abubakar, M

    2010-01-01

    Post operative foreign body in the abdominal cavily, though rare continues to occur in surgical practice. Symptoms may start early with abdominal pain but usually have a varying course, ofter leading 10 the formation of gossypiboma. This is usually a great source of embarrassment to the surgeon and the centre, and of serious detrimental effect to the patient. A case report of a 27-year-old trader with intra-abdominal foreign body is presented to highlig at the similarity in presentation with abdominal lymphoma and the need to explore carefully masses in the abdominal cavity especially in patients who have had surgery in the past. A high index of suspicious is required on the part of the clinician in addition to appropriate radiological and sonologic assessment. Prompt diagnosis and treatment ameliorates the patients suffering and brings them back to life. PMID:23457869

  13. Emergency thoracic aortic stent grafting for acute complicated type B aortic dissection after a previous abdominal endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Yoshiga, Ryosuke; Morisaki, Koichi; Matsubara, Yutaka; Yoshiya, Keiji; Inoue, Kentaro; Matsuda, Daisuke; Aoyagi, Yukihiko; Tanaka, Shinichi; Okadome, Jun; Matsumoto, Takuya; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2015-12-01

    We report a case of acute type B aortic dissection with the complication of bowel ischemia and abdominal stent graft compression treated by emergency thoracic aortic stent grafting after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). A 69-year-old male was admitted to our hospital for sudden thoraco-abdominal pain. He had past treatment history of EVAR for AAA half a year ago. A computed tomography (CT) showed acute type B aortic dissection, and conservative treatment was initially performed. Three days after occurrence of aortic dissection, worsened abdominal pain and melena were observed. CT showed that the true lumen and abdominal stent graft was compressed by the false lumen. Emergency thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR) was performed to close the entry tear. After the operation, the image views and the symptoms were improved. The state was still stable 6 months later. TEVAR for acute type B aortic dissection can become one of the effective treatments. PMID:26943423

  14. Intra-abdominal insertion of sewing needles: a rare method of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Alshamrani, Hussain; Bakhswain, Amal; Habib, Zakaria; Kattan, Hoda

    2013-01-01

    The insertion of sewing needles into the abdominal cavity is an uncommon form of child abuse. We report a 2-and-a-half-year-old boy with 2 intra-abdominal sewing needles that were discovered during the evaluation of chronic abdominal pain and vomiting. This case report illustrates the wide range with which abusive injury can present in children. Pediatricians need to be alerted to this newly-recognized and the increasing form of child abuse so that they examine and diagnose their patients appropriately. PMID:24188948

  15. Rare presentation of multi-organ abdominal echinococcosis: report of a case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaoyan; Zou, Yang; Yin, Chenghong

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid disease, which is also known as cystic echinococcosis, is a zoonotic infection caused by the cestode tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus and rarely by Echinococcus multilocularis. In this report we describe an unusual case of a 19-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital for abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed multi-organ abdominal echinococcosis. The patient recovered after undergoing surgery to excise the cyst. The diagnosis, clinical features, treatment, and prevention in this case of multi-organ abdominal echinococcosis are discussed, in light of the relevant literature. PMID:26617932

  16. Sonography of Abdominal Wall Masses and Masslike Lesions: Correlation With Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung Eun; Park, Seong Jin; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Lee, Dong Ho; Lim, Joo Won

    2016-01-01

    Sonography is usually regarded as a first-line imaging modality for masses and masslike lesions in the abdominal wall. A dynamic study focusing on a painful area or palpable mass and the possibility of ultrasound-guided aspiration or biopsy are the major advantages of sonography. On the other hand, cross-sectional imaging clearly shows anatomy of the abdominal wall; thereby, it is valuable for diagnosing and evaluating the extent of diseases. Cross-sectional imaging can help differentiate neoplastic lesions from non-neoplastic lesions. This pictorial essay focuses on sonographic findings of abdominal wall lesions compared with computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings. PMID:26657747

  17. [A men with a Salmonella dublin-infected aneurysm of the abdominal aorta].

    PubMed

    Jacobs, P P M; van Elsacker-Niele, A M W; Visser, I J R

    2002-03-16

    A 71-year-old male was diagnosed with a Salmonella dublin infection. He presented with abdominal pain with no diarrhoea, and sepsis, and was found to have an infected aneurysm of the infrarenal abdominal aorta. He was treated surgically with resection of the aneurysm and implantation of an extra-anatomic axillobifemoral bypass, followed by long-term antibiotic treatment. Nine months after the primary treatment, the patient died as a result of rupture of the aortic stump. S. dublin-infected aneurysm of the abdominal aorta is a rare condition with high mortality. Human S. dublin infections are associated with the consumption of unpasteurised dairy products from infected animals. PMID:11925803

  18. Pain perception in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A

    2005-11-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by chronic abdominal discomfort or pain in the absence of detectable organic disease. IBS is common and is associated with a significant impairment in health-related quality of life. Enhanced perception of visceral stimuli ("visceral hypersensitivity") appears to be an important pathophysiological mechanism. Early IBS studies using functional brain imaging techniques suggest an alteration in central pain modulation circuits, rather than an increased sensitivity of peripheral visceral pain pathways. The frequent comorbidity with psychiatric disorders suggests the possibility of shared pathophysiological mechanisms and etiologic factors. PMID:16273016

  19. Low back pain - chronic

    MedlinePLUS

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause ...

  20. Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Costigan, Michael; Scholz, Joachim; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2009-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is triggered by lesions to the somatosensory nervous system that alter its structure and function so that pain occurs spontaneously and responses to noxious and innocuous stimuli are pathologically amplified. The pain is an expression of maladaptive plasticity within the nociceptive system, a series of changes that constitute a neural disease state. Multiple alterations distributed widely across the nervous system contribute to complex pain phenotypes. These alterations include ectopic generation of action potentials, facilitation and disinhibition of synaptic transmission, loss of synaptic connectivity and formation of new synaptic circuits, and neuroimmune interactions. Although neural lesions are necessary, they are not sufficient to generate neuropathic pain; genetic polymorphisms, gender, and age all influence the risk of developing persistent pain. Treatment needs to move from merely suppressing symptoms to a disease-modifying strategy aimed at both preventing maladaptive plasticity and reducing intrinsic risk. PMID:19400724

  1. Psychosocial factors associated with chronic pain in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Merlijn, Vivian P B M; Hunfeld, Joke A M; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A number of psychosocial factors have been associated with the onset, exacerbation and/or maintenance of chronic pain in adolescents. The present study was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of vulnerability, reinforcement, and modeling. We compared 222 adolescents with chronic pain and no documented physiological etiology (headache, back, limb and abdominal pain) with 148 controls and their (respectively 183 vs. 127) parents. Analyses showed that adolescents with chronic pain are more vulnerable in terms of neuroticism, negative fear of failure, and (less) experienced social acceptance. Contrary to our expectations, the chronic pain group experienced less reinforcement for their pain behavior by both parents and peers than the control group. While the number of pain models was higher in the chronic pain group, no differences were found between their parents and those of the adolescents without chronic pain in pain experience, pain parameters, and pain coping. Regression analyses on the contribution of psychosocial factors to chronic pain and its parameters sustained the positive relation between vulnerability, (less) pain reinforcement, pain models and coping with pain. Furthermore, we also found evidence that gender differences have to be taken into account. PMID:12507698

  2. Abdominopelvic computerized tomography and open peritoneal lavage in patients with blunt abdominal trauma: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pagliarello, G; Hanna, S S; Gregory, W D; McKee, J D; Harrison, A W; Taylor, G A; Miller, H A; Maggisano, R

    1987-01-01

    This prospective trial compares abdominopelvic computerized tomography and open peritoneal lavage in the diagnosis of blunt abdominal trauma. Fifteen patients (group 1) were evaluated by both methods. Another 15 patients (group 2) had only computerized tomography. Criteria for a "positive" scan were hemoperitoneum and evidence of solid organ injury. Criteria for "positive" lavage were a grossly bloody return, erythrocyte count greater than 20.0 X 10(9)/L and leukocyte count greater than 0.5 X 10(9)/L. At laparotomy, only injuries requiring repair or excision were considered "true positive". Patients who did not have laparotomy and had an uncomplicated clinical course were considered "true negative". With tomographic criteria alone for diagnosis there would have been one false-positive and three false-negative results, compared with three false positive and no false negatives for open peritoneal lavage alone. None of the three patients who had negative findings on laparotomy suffered any morbidity or died. Results of computerized tomography and open peritoneal lavage agreed in 8 of 15 patients (kappa value = 0.52), indicating a low level of agreement between the two. The authors believe that open peritoneal lavage remains the diagnostic procedure of choice in blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:3815173

  3. Updates in abdominal wall management.

    PubMed

    Hope, W W; Williams, Z

    2015-10-01

    The field of abdominal wall hernia surgery continues to evolve at a rapid pace. Surgeons dealing with abdominal wall hernias must constantly stay abreast as new biomaterials and surgical techniques evolve. Increasing knowledge related to hernia formation and factors affecting outcomes will help surgeons prevent hernias and individualize hernia repair techniques and biomaterials based on specific clinical situations and patient characteristics. This review outlines some new advances in abdominal wall hernia management focusing on hernia prevention, preoperative strategies to improve outcomes, available biomaterials and mesh products used in hernia repair, new surgical techniques, and improving ways to evaluate outcomes and perform continuous quality improvement in hernia repair. PMID:26149522

  4. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surgery in some cases to achieve minimally invasive treatment. However, strict adherence to the indications and contraindications is still required. PMID:25489584

  5. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. PMID:25398912

  6. CT of abdominal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Epstein, B M; Mann, J H

    1982-11-01

    Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1)irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trail of antituberculous therapy) be instituted. PMID:6981966

  7. Abdominal pain with anorexia in patients with breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Van Trappen, P; Serreyn, R; Elewaut, A E; Cocquyt, V; Van Belle, S

    1998-11-01

    Breast cancer is the second commonest primary tumour responsible for gastrointestinal metastases after malignant melanoma. The real incidence of gastrointestinal metastases in breast cancer patients is probably underestimated owing to the non-specific presenting symptoms and death of patients caused by other more obvious metastases. The predominant histological subtype of gastrointestinal metastases of breast cancer is invasive lobular carcinoma and the median interval from diagnosis of primary breast cancer to gastrointestinal metastases is five years. We report two cases of disseminated breast cancer with gastrointestinal involvement with a rather long survival. PMID:9862056

  8. Abdominal aortic aneurysm presenting as a claudication.

    PubMed

    Son, Si-Hoon; Chung, Seok-Won; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Cho, Dae-Chul

    2013-12-01

    Back pain and radiating pain to the legs are the most common symptoms encountered in routine neurosurgical practice and usually originates from neurogenic causes including spinal stenosis. The clinial symptoms are often confused with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, musculo-skeletal disease and vascular disease in elderly patients. Because it is not easy to distinguish out the cause of symptoms by only physical examination, routine spinal MRI is checked first to rule out the spinal diseases in most outpatient clinics. Although it is obvious that spinal MRI is a very strong tool to investigate the spinal circumferences, most spine surgeons ignore the importance of looking at all aspects of their imaging and of remembering the extra-spinal causes of radiculopathy. A 68-year-old man who presented with a sudden aggravated both leg claudication. Although his symptom was mimicked for his long standing neurogenic claudication due to spinal stenosis diagnosed previously, abdominal aortic aneurysm(AAA) was found on routine lumbar MRI and it was repaired successfully. We emphasize to spinal surgeons the importance of remembering to look wider on routine MRI images when considering differential diagnoses in the outpatient clinic and to remember the extra-spinal causes of radiculopathy, especially when encountering in elderly patients. PMID:24891862

  9. Development of real-time PCR assays for the detection of Moraxella macacae associated with bloody nose syndrome in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Chris A.; Chase, Kitty; Embers, Monica E.; Kulesh, David A.; Ladner, Jason T.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Minogue, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Moraxella macacae is a recently described bacterial pathogen that causes epistaxis or so-called bloody nose syndrome in captive macaques. The aim of this study was to develop specific molecular diagnostic assays for M. macacae and to determine their performance characteristics. Methods We developed six real-time PCR assays on the Roche LightCycler. The accuracy, precision, selectivity, and limit of detection (LOD) were determined for each assay, in addition to further validation by testing nasal swabs from macaques presenting with epistaxis at the Tulane National Primate Research Center. Results All assays exhibited 100% specificity and were highly sensitive with an LOD of 10 fg for chromosomal assays and 1 fg for the plasmid assay. Testing of nasal swabs from 10 symptomatic macaques confirmed the presence of M. macacae in these animals. Conclusions We developed several accurate, sensitive, and species-specific real-time PCR assays for the detection of M. macacae in captive macaques. PMID:26365904

  10. Pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain

    PubMed Central

    Kjgx, Heidi; Zachariae, Robert; Pfeiffer-Jensen, Mogens; Kasch, Helge; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels S.; Vase, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pain frequency has been shown to influence sensitization, psychological distress, and pain modulation. The present study examined if pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain. Method: A non-clinical (247 students) and a clinical (223 pain patients) sample completed the Danish versions of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Beck Depression Inventory, and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and rated pain intensity, unpleasantness and frequency. Results: In both samples, high pain frequency was found to moderate the association between pain catastrophizing and pain intensity, whereas low pain frequency did not. The psychometric properties and the factor structure of the Danish version of the PCS were confirmed. Conclusions: This is the first study to validate the Danish version of the PCS and to show that pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and reported pain in both non-clinical and clinical populations. PMID:25646089

  11. Abdominal intrauterine vacuum aspiration.

    PubMed

    Tjalma, W A A

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating and "cleaning" of the uterine cavity is probably the most performed operation in women. It is done for several reasons: abortion, evaluation of irregular bleeding in premenopausal period, and postmenopausal bleeding. Abortion is undoubtedly the number one procedure with more than 44 million pregnancies terminated every year. This procedure should not be underestimated and a careful preoperative evaluation is needed. Ideally a sensitive pregnancy test should be done together with an ultrasound in order to confirm a uterine pregnancy, excluding extra-uterine pregnancy, and to detect genital and/or uterine malformations. Three out of four abortions are performed by surgical methods. Surgical methods include a sharp, blunt, and suction curettage. Suction curettage or vacuum aspiration is the preferred method. Despite the fact that it is a relative safe procedure with major complications in less than one percent of cases, it is still responsible for 13% of all maternal deaths. All the figures have not declined in the last decade. Trauma, perforation, and bleeding are a danger triage. When there is a perforation, a laparoscopy should be performed immediately, in order to detect intra-abdominal lacerations and bleeding. The bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible in order to not destabilize the patient. When there is a perforation in the uterus, this "entrance" can be used to perform the curettage. This is particularly useful if there is trauma of the isthmus and uterine wall, and it is difficult to identify the uterine canal. A curettage is a frequent performed procedure, which should not be underestimated. If there is a perforation in the uterus, then this opening can safely be used for vacuum aspiration. PMID:25134300

  12. Effect of both preoperative andpostoperative cryoceutical treatment on hemostasis and postoperative pain following total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Desteli, Engin Eren; Imren, Yunus; Aydın, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to evaluate the hemostatic effects and the clinical outcomes of preoperative and postoperative cryoceutical treatment (C-tx) following total knee arthroplasty. Patients and method: 42 patients received C-tx both preoperatively, and postoperatively. In the control group, 45 patients did not receive any C-tx. Amount of bloody drainage and verbal rating pain scores were noted. Results: We found significant difference in both the preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin levels and blood drainage (P<0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the average verbally rated pain scores (P>0.05). Conclusion: C-tx performed preoperatively and postoperatively for total knee arthroplasty is effective in decreasing perioperative and postoperative hemorrhage. However, it had no superior effect on the control of postoperative pain. PMID:26770547

  13. Spinal pain.

    PubMed

    Izzo, R; Popolizio, T; D'Aprile, P; Muto, M

    2015-05-01

    The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic pain, much more difficult to treat. The clinical assessment of pain source can be a challenge because of the complex anatomy and function of the spine; the advanced imaging methods are often not sufficient for a definitive diagnosis because similar findings could be present in either asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects: a clinical correlation is always mandatory and the therapy cannot rely uniquely upon any imaging abnormalities. Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. Special attention will be done to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. PMID:25824642

  14. An unusual cause of intra-abdominal calcification: A lithopedion

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Andrade, Daniel; Ruivo, Catarina; Portilha, M. Antnia; Brito, Jorge B.; Caseiro-Alves, Filipe; Curvo-Semedo, Lus

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 77-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency department complaining of diffuse abdominal pain for five days, associated with nausea, vomiting and constipation. Physical examination disclosed a large incarcerated umbilical hernia, which was readily apparent on supine abdominal plain films. These also showed a calcified heterogeneous mass in the mid-abdominal region, which was further characterized by CT as a lithopedion (calcified ectopic pregnancy). This is one of the few cases studied on a MDCT equipment, and it clearly enhances the post-processing abilities of this imaging method which allows diagnostic high-quality MIP images. Lithopedion is a rare entity, with less than 300 cases previously described in the medical literature. However, many reported cases corresponded to cases of skeletonization or collections of fetal bone fragments discovered encysted in the pelvic region at surgery or autopsy. It is thus estimated that true lithopedion is a much rarer entity. The diagnosis may be reached by a suggestive clinical history and a palpable mass on physical examination, while the value of modern cross-sectional techniques is still virtually unknown. Ultrasonography may depict an empty uterine cavity and a calcified abdominal mass of non-specific characteristics, and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are able to reach a conclusive diagnosis and may additionally define the involvement of adjacent structures. The differential diagnosis includes other calcified pathologic situations, including ovarian tumors, uterine fibroids, urinary tract neoplasms, inflammatory masses or epiploic calcifications.

  15. Rare etiology of mechanical intestinal obstruction: Abdominal cocoon syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Uzunoglu, Yener; Altintoprak, Fatih; Yalkin, Omer; Gunduz, Yasemin; Cakmak, Guner; Ozkan, Orhan V; Celebi, Fehmi

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon syndrome is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction with unknown etiology. Diagnosis of this syndrome, which can be summarized as the small intestine being surrounded by a fibrous capsule not containing the mesothelium, is difficult in the preoperative period. A 47-year-old male patient was referred to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting for two days. The abdominal computed tomography examination detected dilated small intestinal loops containing air-fluid levels clustered in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen and surrounded by a thick, saclike, contrast-enhanced membrane. During exploratory surgery, a capsular structure was identified in the upper left quadrant with a regular surface that was solid-fibrous in nature. Abdominal cocoon syndrome is a rarely seen condition, for which the preoperative diagnosis is difficult. The combination of physical examination and radiological signs, and the knowledge of recurrent characteristics of the complaints that can be learned by a careful history, may be helpful in diagnosis. PMID:25405199

  16. Fetal pain?

    PubMed

    Vanhatalo, S; van Nieuwenhuizen, O

    2000-05-01

    During the last few years a vivid debate, both scientifically and emotionally, has risen in the medical literature as to whether a fetus is able to feel pain during abortion or intrauterine surgery. This debate has mainly been inspired by the demonstration of various hormonal or motor reactions to noxious stimuli at very early stages of fetal development. The aims of this paper are to review the literature on development of the pain system in the fetus, and to speculate about the relationship between "sensing" as opposed to "feeling" pain and the number of reactions associated with painful stimuli. While a cortical processing of pain theoretically becomes possible after development of the thalamo-cortical connections in the 26th week of gestation, noxious stimuli may trigger complex reflex reactions much earlier. However, more important than possible painfulness is the fact that the noxious stimuli, by triggering stress responses, most likely affect the development of an individual at very early stages. Hence, it is not reasonable to speculate on the possible emotional experiences of pain in fetuses or premature babies. A clinically relevant aim is rather to avoid and/or treat any possibly noxious stimuli, and thereby prevent their potential adverse effects on the subsequent development. PMID:10814894

  17. [Musculoskeletal pain].

    PubMed

    Casser, H-R; Schaible, H-G

    2015-10-01

    Among the clinically relevant pain conditions, pain in the musculoskeletal system is most frequent. This article reports extensive epidemiological data on musculoskeletal system pain in Germany and worldwide. Since back pain is most frequent, the diagnostics and therapeutic algorithms of acute, recurring, and chronic lower back pain in Germany will be particularly addressed. The importance of the physiologic-organic, the cognitive-emotional, the behavioral, and the social level to diagnostics and treatment will be discussed. We will also focus on osteoarthritic pain and address its epidemiology, clinical importance, and significance for the health care system. This article will list some reasons why the musculoskeletal system in particular is frequently the site of chronic pain. The authors believe that these reasons are to be sought in the complex structures of the musculoskeletal system; in the particular sensitivity of the deep somatic nociceptive system for long-term sensitization processes, as well as the ensuing nervous system reactions; and in the interactions between the nervous and immune systems. The article will give some insights into the research carried out on this topic in Germany. PMID:26351130

  18. What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains KidsHealth > For Kids > What a Pain! Kids and ... something doctors call growing pains . What Are Growing Pains? Growing pains aren't a disease. You probably ...

  19. Imaging of non-traumatic abdominal emergencies in adults.

    PubMed

    Dubuisson, V; Voglio, E J; Grenier, N; Le Bras, Y; Thoma, M; Launay-Savary, M V

    2015-12-01

    Non-traumatic abdominal pathology is one of the most common reasons for consultation in emergency care services. Abdominal pain is the presenting symptom for many diseases, which often requires urgent care. Clinical history and physical examination are rarely sufficient to establish a definite diagnosis and imaging is usually necessary. The choice of imaging modality is oriented by the clinical context and guided by the institutional capabilities, safety and cost-effectiveness of the available tests. Plain radiographs have little or no place in the evaluation of the acute abdomen. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) still has limited availability in many hospitals, thus narrowing the imaging choice to ultrasound (US) and computerized tomography (CT). No scientific evidence exists to allow the imposition of one single strategy. At the present time, the clinician may choose either routine US evaluation complemented by CT in case the US is inconclusive or first-line CT (except for the evaluation of right lower quadrant [RLQ] pain, right upper quadrant [RUQ] pain and in pregnant women where ultrasound is the first-line study). PMID:26527259

  20. Hypertrygliceridemia-induced Acute Pancreatitis Following Hyperlipidemic Abdominal Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Serhat; Ardic, Murat Enis; Erkan, Nazif

    2011-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a well established cause of acute pancreatitis (AP). Multiple mechanism are proposed to explain this phenomenon, but the exact mechanism is unknown. Clinical manifestations are similar to other forms of AP. Although amylase and lipase levels exclude the diagnosis of AP in normolipidemic patients, they may be normal in hypertriglyceridemia-induced AP. Further evaluation with imaging studies are needed for diagnosis. A less known entity hyperlipidemic abdominal crisis is a prior clinical state before development to AP. We describe a young male patient without any previously diagnosed metabolic disorder presenting to emergency department with abdominal pain and vomiting where normal amylase in lactescent serum was detected. His abdomen computed tomography (CT) was reported as normal. His symptoms were relieved with antiemetic and histamine-2 blocker and he was diagnosed with hypertriglyceridemia and dyspepsia. Readmission with recurrence of symptoms after 3 hours resulted in hospitalization where the second CT showed edematous AP. PMID:25610177

  1. Schistosomiasis--An unusual cause of abdominal pseudotumor.

    PubMed Central

    Segun, Akintayo Oguntona; Alebiosu, Christopher Olutayo; Agboola, A. O. J.; Banjo, A. A. F.

    2006-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease in the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, South America and the Caribbean. It is the second most common parasitic infection of humans after malaria. Acute and chronic clinical presentations of S. monsoni are well described. Presentation as a pseudotumor is considered rare. We present a case of a 58-year-old Nigerian who presented with recurrent abdominal pain and abdominal mass of one-year duration. Stool was negative for schisostomal eggs, but histological specimen obtained from surgical resection of part of the caecum showed S. mansoni. The case was treated successfully by excisional biopsy and praziquantel therapy. A review of the literature is discussed. Images Figure 1 PMID:16916140

  2. Chronic pain - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- www.theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org ...

  3. Leg pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... usually seen in boys and overweight children between ages 11 and 15 ... as much as possible. Elevate your leg. Apply ice for up to 15 minutes. ... Other homecare will depend on the cause of your leg pain.

  4. Face pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the body. Abscessed tooth (ongoing throbbing pain on one side of the lower face that gets worse with eating or touching) Cluster headache Herpes zoster (shingles) or herpes simplex (cold sores) infection Injury to the face Migraine ...

  5. Joint pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... both rest and exercise are important. Warm baths, massage, and stretching exercises should be used as often ... Does keeping the joint elevated help? Do medicines, massage, or applying heat reduce the pain? What other ...

  6. Neuropathic Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... know that it can erode quality of life. Communication Tools View All Everyday Tools During Your Visit ... pain. Online Tool Printable Tool (PDF) Show More Communication Tools Where Does It Hurt? / Nerve Man With ...

  7. Wrist pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... wrist; Pain - carpal tunnel; Injury - wrist; Arthritis - wrist; Gout - wrist; Pseudogout - wrist ... 37.7°C), and recent illness. Other Causes Gout : This occurs when your body produces too much ...

  8. Urination Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... small masses of minerals) in the urinary tract. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common cause of painful ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Urinary Tract Infections A to Z: Dysuria Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections ...

  9. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Psychological Therapies for Children With Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Lauren; Palermo, Tonya M.; de C Williams, Amanda C; Lau, Jennifer; Eccleston, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives?This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effects of psychological therapies for management of chronic pain in children.?Methods?Randomized controlled trials of psychological interventions treating children (<18 years) with chronic pain conditions including headache, abdominal, musculoskeletal, or neuropathic pain were searched for. Pain symptoms, disability, depression, anxiety, and sleep outcomes were extracted. Risk of bias was assessed and quality of the evidence was rated using GRADE.?Results?35 included studies revealed that across all chronic pain conditions, psychological interventions reduced pain symptoms and disability posttreatment. Individual pain conditions were analyzed separately. Sleep outcomes were not reported in any trials. Optimal dose of treatment was explored. For headache pain, higher treatment dose led to greater reductions in pain. No effect of dosage was found for other chronic pain conditions.?Conclusions?Evidence for psychological therapies treating chronic pain is promising. Recommendations for clinical practice and research are presented. PMID:24602890

  10. Peritoneal Response to Abdominal Surgery: The Role of Equine Abdominal Adhesions and Current Prophylactic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Juliana de Moura; Alves, Ana Liz Garcia; Watanabe, Marcos Jun; Rodrigues, Celso Antonio; Hussni, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Intra-abdominal adhesions constitute a significant clinical and surgical problem that can lead to complications such as pain and bowel occlusion or subocclusion. These adhesions are frustrating and potentially fatal, representing a major postoperative complication in abdominal surgery. It is estimated that 32% of horses undergoing laparotomy will present clinical symptoms due to adhesions, but the true prevalence is not known because a large proportion of animals with postoperative recurrent colics are medically treated or submitted to euthanasia without necropsy. Adhesions are highly cellular, vascularized, dynamic structures that are influenced by complex signaling mechanisms. Understanding their pathogenesis could assist in applying better therapeutic strategies and in developing more effective antiadhesion products. Currently, there are no definitive strategies that prevent adhesion formation, and it is difficult to interpret the results of existing studies due to nonstandardization of an induction model and evaluation of their severity. The best clinical results have been obtained from using minimally traumatic surgical techniques, anti-inflammatory agents, antimicrobials, anticoagulants, and mechanical separation of serosal surfaces by viscous intraperitoneal solutions or physical barriers. This paper aims to review adhesion formation pathogenesis, guide the understanding of major products and drugs used to inhibit adhesion formation, and address their effectiveness in the equine species. PMID:24587939

  11. Characteristics of highly impaired children with severe chronic pain: a 5-year retrospective study on 2249 pediatric pain patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevalence of pain as a recurrent symptom in children is known to be high, but little is known about children with high impairment from chronic pain seeking specialized treatment. The purpose of this study was the precise description of children with high impairment from chronic pain referred to the German Paediatric Pain Centre over a 5-year period. Methods Demographic variables, pain characteristics and psychometric measures were assessed at the first evaluation. Subgroup analysis for sex, age and pain location was conducted and multivariate logistic regression applied to identify parameters associated with extremely high impairment. Results The retrospective study consisted of 2249 children assessed at the first evaluation. Tension type headache (48%), migraine (43%) and functional abdominal pain (11%) were the most common diagnoses with a high rate of co-occurrence; 18% had some form of musculoskeletal pain disease. Irrespective of pain location, chronic pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors was diagnosed frequently (43%). 55% of the children suffered from more than one distinct pain diagnosis. Clinically significant depression and general anxiety scores were expressed by 24% and 19% of the patients, respectively. Girls over the age of 13 were more likely to seek tertiary treatment compared to boys. Nearly half of children suffered from daily or constant pain with a mean pain value of 6/10. Extremely high pain-related impairment, operationalized as a comprehensive measure of pain duration, frequency, intensity, pain-related school absence and disability, was associated with older age, multiple locations of pain, increased depression and prior hospital stays. 43% of the children taking analgesics had no indication for pharmacological treatment. Conclusion Children with chronic pain are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge as they often have two or more different pain diagnoses, are prone to misuse of analgesics and are severely impaired. They are at increased risk for developmental stagnation. Adequate treatment and referral are essential to interrupt progression of the chronic pain process into adulthood. PMID:22591492

  12. [Pain therapy].

    PubMed

    Donnadieu, S; Djian, M C

    1998-12-12

    NEW OPIOID ANALGESICS: Progress in pain reliet has recently been achieved with the introduction of new opioid analgesics such as tramadol and the pediatric preparation of codeine phosphate as well as powerful long-release opioids which can be administered per os, or percutaneously for transdermal fentanyl. CO-ANALGESICS: Other drugs, mainly antidepressants and anti-convulsants, can be usefully combined with analgesics. New serotonin uptake inhibitors and anticonvulsants (gabapentin and lamotrigin) have the advantage of better tolerance. None of these drugs has marketing approval in France for their pain relieving effects. The same is true for clonidine and neostigmine which, after spinal infusion, potentialize opioids and for ketamine which can relieve neuropathy pain by dissociative anesthesia. NEW ANTI-MIGRAINE DRUGS: New drugs have been developed for specific types of pain such as migraine. The new "triptans" are tolerated better than sumatriptan and is reimbursed by the national social security. REFRACTORY NEUROPATHY PAIN: Indications for electrical stimulation techniques conducted in a neurosurgery unit have been identified. Stimulators may be implanted in spinal or supra-spinal localizations. REGULATORY ASPECTS: New legislation has reorganized health care for pain relief in France. The new texts take into consideration personnel training, the health care network and progress in therapeutics. PMID:9893699

  13. Neonatal pain

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Suellen M

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of procedural and postoperative pain in neonates is required to minimize acute physiological and behavioral distress and may also improve acute and long-term outcomes. Painful stimuli activate nociceptive pathways, from the periphery to the cortex, in neonates and behavioral responses form the basis for validated pain assessment tools. However, there is an increasing awareness of the need to not only reduce acute behavioral responses to pain in neonates, but also to protect the developing nervous system from persistent sensitization of pain pathways and potential damaging effects of altered neural activity on central nervous system development. Analgesic requirements are influenced by age-related changes in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response, and increasing data are available to guide safe and effective dosing with opioids and paracetamol. Regional analgesic techniques provide effective perioperative analgesia, but higher complication rates in neonates emphasize the importance of monitoring and choice of the most appropriate drug and dose. There have been significant improvements in the understanding and management of neonatal pain, but additional research evidence will further reduce the need to extrapolate data from older age groups. Translation into improved clinical care will continue to depend on an integrated approach to implementation that encompasses assessment and titration against individual response, education and training, and audit and feedback. PMID:24330444

  14. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Cruz, C P; Drouilhet, J C; Southern, F N; Eidt, J F; Barnes, R W; Moursi, M M

    2001-01-01

    Newer, minimally invasive catheter-based endovascular technology utilizing stent grafts are currently being evaluated for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. A retrospective review of all (3 years) consecutive, non-ruptured elective AAA repairs was undertaken to document the results of AAA surgical repair in a modern cohort of patients to allow a contemporary comparison with the evolving endoluminal data. One hundred twenty-one AAAs were identified in a male veteran population. Mean age was 68.5 +/-7.7 years. Medical history review showed hypertension in 55%, heart disease in 73.5%, peripheral vascular disease in 21%, stroke and transient ischemic attacks in 22%, diabetes mellitus in 7%, renal insufficiency in 10%, and smoking history in 80%. The AAA size was documented with ultrasound (5.2 +/-1.3 cm, n=40) and computed tomography (5.6 +/-1.3 cm, n=100). Fifty-nine percent had angiography. Intraoperative end points included an operative time of 165 +/-6.3 minutes from incision to dressing placement. A Dacron tube graft was used in 78%, the remaining were Dacron bifurcated grafts. A suprarenal clamp was used in 8% for proximal aortic control with juxtarenal aneurysms. A pulmonary-artery catheter was placed in 69%. A transverse incision was used in 69% of patients and a midline incision was used in the rest. Estimated blood loss was 1505 +/-103 mL; cell saver blood returned 754 +/-53 mL; crystalloid/Hespan 4771 +/-176 mL; banked packed red blood cells 0.75 +/-0.11 U. Time to extubation was, in the operating room (78.5%), on the day of the operation (5.0%), postoperative day (POD) 1 (12.4%), POD2 (1.7%), POD3 (0.8%), and one case was performed with epidural anesthesia only. Postoperative end points included a 30-day mortality rate of 1.6% (two patients). Postoperative morbidity included wound dehiscence 0.8%; sepsis, urinary tract infection, wound infection, leg ischemia, ischemic colitis, and stroke each had an incidence of 1.6%; myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, pneumonia, re-operation for suspected bleeding, and ileus or bowel obstruction occurred with an incidence of 3.3%. No significant increase in serum creatinine levels was noted. Time to enteral fluids/nutrition was 3.5 +/-0.08 days. Patients were out of bed to a chair or walking by 1.3 +/-0.06 days postoperatively. The length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) was 2.0 +/-0.12 days and postoperative hospital stay was 6.6 +/- 0.33 days. Transfusion requirement for the hospital stay was 1.6 +/-0.2 U per patient. This review highlights a cohort of male veteran patients with significant cardiac co-morbidity who have undergone repair with a conventional open technique and low mortality and morbidity rates. This group had rapid extubation, time to oral intake, and ambulation. In addition, ICU and hospital stays were relatively short. PMID:11565037

  15. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  16. Abdominal cocoon as a presenting feature of systemic lupus erythematosus. A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Rinkesh K; Kumar, Ashish; Bansal, Naresh; Arora, Anil

    2013-11-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ disorder, which can involve any system of the body, single, or in combination. In the gastrointestinal tract, it can present as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, gastroesophageal reflux, dysphagia, constipation, diarrhea, fecal incontinence, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, perforation, and hemorrhage. Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing-encapsulated peritonitis is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, resulting from the encasement of variable lengths of bowel by a dense fibrocollagenous membrane that gives the appearance of a cocoon. It is often seen in adolescent girls. We hereby present a case of abdominal cocoon with repeated vomiting and subacute intestinal obstruction as presenting features of SLE in a young girl. The abdominal features responded well to steroids and immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:24252899

  17. Abdominal Bloating: Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seo, A Young; Oh, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is a very common and troublesome symptom of all ages, but it has not been fully understood to date. Bloating is usually associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders or organic diseases, but it may also appear alone. The pathophysiology of bloating remains ambiguous, although some evidences support the potential mechanisms, including gut hypersensitivity, impaired gas handling, altered gut microbiota, and abnormal abdominal-phrenic reflexes. Owing to the insufficient understanding of these mechanisms, the available therapeutic options are limited. However, medical treatment with some prokinetics, rifaximin, lubiprostone and linaclotide could be considered in the treatment of bloating. In addition, dietary intervention is important in relieving symptom in patients with bloating. PMID:24199004

  18. Functional abdominal bloating with distention.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Stephen Norman

    2012-01-01

    Ten to 25% of healthy persons experience bloating. It is particularly common in persons with the irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. While the cause of bloating remains unknown old explanations such as a excessive intestinal gas, exaggerated lumbar lordosis and psychiatric problems have been disproved. New suggestions include recent weight gain, weak or inappropriately relaxed abdominal muscles, an inappropriately contracted diaphragm and retained fluid in loops of distal small bowel. No treatment is of unequivocal benefit but a low FODMAPs diet, probiotics and the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin offer some hope. Treatment by weight loss, abdominal exercise, prokinetics and girdles need more study. PMID:22778978

  19. Tissue reactions of abdominal integuments to surgical sutures in sonography

    PubMed Central

    Starzy?ska, Teresa; Ko?aczyk, Katarzyna; K?adny, Jzef

    2014-01-01

    Classical abdominal surgeries usually require long incisions of the abdominal integuments followed by tight closure with adequate suturing material. Nonabsorbable sutures may cause various reactions, including granuloma reactions, both sterile and inflammatory. The aim of the study The aim of the study was to analyze prospective ultrasound examinations of the abdominal integuments in order to detect tissue reactions to surgical sutures. Material and methods For 10 years, ultrasound examinations of the abdominal integuments involved the assessment of surgical scars in all patients who underwent open or closed surgeries for various reasons (in total 2254 patients). Ultrasound examinations were performed only with the use of linear probes with the frequency ranging from 7 to 12 MHz. Each scar in the abdominal integuments was scanned in at least two planes. When a lesion was detected, the image was enlarged and the transducer was rotated by approximately 180 in order to capture the dimensions of the granuloma and the most characteristic image of the suture. Moreover, vascularization of the lesion was also assessed with the use of color Doppler mode set to detect the lowest flows. Results All granulomas (19 lesions, two in one patient) created hypoechoic oval or round nodules, were relatively well-circumscribed and their size ranged from 8 4 mm to 40 14 mm. In the center of the lesion, it was possible to notice a thread that was coiled to various degrees and presented itself as a double, curved hyperechoic line. In 9 out of 19 granulomas, slight peripheral vascularization was observed. The substantial majority of the lesions (n = 15) were in contact with the fascia. In seven patients, compression with the transducer induced known local pain (n = 4) or intensified pain that had already been present (n = 3); all of these granulomas infiltrated the fascia and showed slight peripheral vascularization. Cutaneous fistulae developed in two patients with purulent reactions to the running stitch (in one patient two fistulae). Conclusions Suture granulomas in the abdominal integuments manifest themselves as nodular hypoechoic lesions, usually localized at the edge of the fascia subcutaneous fat. A pathognomonic sign of this type of granulomas is the presence of a thread in their center that usually manifests itself as a chaotically shaped, double hyperechoic line. In some granulomas, particularly those with clinical presentation, slight peripheral vascularization is observed. PMID:26675029

  20. A case report of abdominal splenosis - a practical mini-review for a gastroenterologist.

    PubMed

    Ksi?dzyna, Dorota

    2011-09-01

    Splenosis is a benign condition caused by ectopic autotransplantation of splenic tissues after splenic trauma or surgery. It is usually diagnosed accidentally. However, occasionally splenosis poses a significant diagnostic dilemma, especially when this condition presents as a metastatic malignant disease on abdominal imaging. This is the case report of a 54-year-old woman, who underwent post-traumatic splenectomy at the age of 12 years. The physical examination of this patient complaining of epigastric and low back pain, except for postoperative abdominal scar, as well as laboratory tests were normal. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed chronic gastritis. Abdominal ultrasound revealed no spleen, enlarged lymph nodes in the right retroperitoneum and a focal lesion in the uterus. In addition, the CT scan disclosed enlarged left hepatic lobe, numerous oval tumors between intestinal loops, in the caecal region, under the diaphragm and abdominal wall, periaortic enlarged lymph nodes and an osteolytic lesion in the first lumbar vertebra, suggesting disseminated malignant disease. The exploratory laparotomy showed multiple abdominal nodules, a tumor of the ileum, the greater omentum and the uterus. Except for the last one (leiomyoma), all excised tumors proved to have histological structure typical for the spleen and, finally, abdominal splenosis was diagnosed. Splenosis should be considered when a differential diagnosis of tumor-like lesions disclosed on abdominal imaging occurs in a patient with a splenic injury in the past. PMID:21961104

  1. Pain management.

    PubMed

    Wild, L

    1990-12-01

    Postoperative pain management in the critically ill patient is a challenge for nurses. Knowing the basis of pain transmission and mechanisms of action of interventions can assist the critical care nurse in making clinical decisions regarding pain control for individual patients. There are a number of modalities available to treat postoperative pain including both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions. Techniques such as PCA not only can provide good analgesia, but allow the critically ill patient at least one aspect of control in the otherwise highly controlled environment of the critical care unit. Epidural or intrathecal analgesia, using either opioids or LAAs alone or in combination, provides excellent analgesic effect (with minimal side effects) and may improve patient outcomes. Nonpharmacologic techniques, unfortunately, are commonly overlooked as adjuncts to traditional analgesia routines because of the nature of the illness in the critically ill patient. Nonpharmacologic techniques of pain management have a place in the care of the critically ill when applied based on the assessment of an individual patient's needs and abilities to participate in his or her care. Ensuring optimal patient comfort can benefit critically ill patients and improve clinical outcomes. PMID:2096859

  2. Pain management.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, C I

    2012-09-01

    Despite published guidelines and educational programs on the assessment and treatment of cancer-related pain, in any stage of oncological disease, unrelieved pain continues to be a substantial worldwide public health concern either in patients with solid and haematological malignancies. The proper and regular self-reporting assessment of pain is the first step for an effective and individualized treatment. Opioids are the mainstay of analgesic therapy and can be associated with non-opioids drugs such as paracetamol or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and to adjuvant drugs (for neuropathic pain and symptom control). The role and the utility of weak opioids (i.e. codeine, dihydrocodeine, tramadol) are a controversy point. Morphine has been placed by World Health Organization on its Essential Drug List. In the comparative study with other strong opioids (hydromorphone, oxycodone), there is no evidence to show superiority or inferiority with morphine as the first choice opioid. Oral methadone is a useful and safe alternative to morphine. Methadone presents the potential to control pain difficult to manage with other opioids. although the oral route of opioid administration is considered the one of choice, intravenous, subcutaneous, rectal, transdermal, sublingual, intranasal, and spinal routes must be used in particular situation. Transdermal opioids such as fentanyl and buprenorphine are best reserved for patients whose opioid requirements are stable. Switching from one opioid to another can improve analgesia and tolerability. PMID:22987980

  3. Psychological distress and stressful life events in pediatric complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Julia; Brehmer, Hannah; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Zernikow, Boris

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is little knowledge regarding the association between psychological factors and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) in children. Specifically, it is not known which factors precipitate CRPS and which result from the ongoing painful disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as the experience of stressful life events in children with CRPS compared with children with chronic primary headaches and functional abdominal pain. METHODS: A retrospective chart study examined children with CRPS (n=37) who received intensive inpatient pain treatment between 2004 and 2010. They were compared with two control groups (chronic primary headaches and functional abdominal pain; each n=37), who also received intensive inpatient pain treatment. Control groups were matched with the CRPS group with regard to admission date, age and sex. Groups were compared on symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as stressful life events. RESULTS: Children with CRPS reported lower anxiety and depression scores compared with children with abdominal pain. A higher number of stressful life events before and after the onset of the pain condition was observed for children with CRPS. CONCLUSIONS: Children with CRPS are not particularly prone to symptoms of anxiety or depression. Importantly, children with CRPS experienced more stressful life events than children with chronic headaches or abdominal pain. Prospective long-term studies are needed to further explore the potential role of stressful life events in the etiology of CRPS. PMID:26035287

  4. Transversus abdominis plane block following abdominally based breast reconstruction: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast reconstruction using the free muscle-sparing transversus abdominus myocutaneous or deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps are common methods for restoring mastectomy defects for breast cancer patients. Despite its increasing popularity and safety, the abdominal donor site remains a major source of postoperative pain. Conventional postoperative pain relief protocol consists primarily of a patient-controlled anesthesia device delivering intravenous opioids. Opioids can cause numerous side effects such as sedation, headache, nausea, vomiting, breathing difficulties and bladder and bowel dysfunction. A promising approach to provide postoperative pain control of the abdominal incision is the newly developed transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block. Methods/Design This study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial designed to rigorously test the effectiveness of a transversus abdominis plane catheter delivering intermittent local anesthetic in reducing postoperative abdominal pain following abdominal tissue breast reconstruction. The primary objective of this study is compare the mean total opioid consumption in the first postoperative 48hours between the control and study groups including the patient-controlled anesthesia amounts and oral narcotic doses converted to intravenous morphine equivalent units. The secondary outcome measures include the following parameters: total in-hospital cumulative opioid consumption; daily patient-reported pain scores; total in-hospital cumulative anti-nausea consumption; nausea and sedation scores; and Quality of Recovery score; time to first bowel movement, ambulation, and duration of hospital stay. Discussion Autologous breast reconstruction using abdominal tissue is rapidly becoming the reconstructive option of choice for postmastectomy patients across North America. A substantial component of the pain experienced by patients after this abdominally based procedure is derived from the abdominal wall incision. By potentially decreasing the need for systemic opioids and their associated side effects, this transversus abdominis plane block study will utilize the most scientifically rigorous double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial methodology to potentially improve both clinical care and health outcomes in breast cancer surgery patients. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01398982 PMID:24325953

  5. An Abdominal Wall Desmoid Tumour Mimicking Cesarean Scar Endometriomas: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Vural, Birol; Vural, Fisun; Müezzinoglu, Bahar

    2015-09-01

    Abdominal wall desmoid tumours (DT) are rare, slow-growing benign muscular-aponeurotic fibrous tumours with the tendency to locally invade and recur. They constitute 0.03% of all neoplasms and high infiltration and recurrence rate, but there is no metastatic potential. Although surgery is the primary treatment modality, the optimal treatment remains unclear. Abdominal wall endometriosis is also an unusual disease, and preoperative clinical diagnosis is not always easy. The preoperative radiologic imaging modalities may not aid all the time. Herein, we report an abdominal mass presenting as cyclic pain. Forty-two years old woman who gave birth by cesarean section admitted the complaints of painful abdominal mass (78x45 mm in size) under her cesarean incision scar. She had severe pain, particularly during menstruation. The clinical and radiological imaging findings mimicking endometrioma. We performed wide surgical excision of mass with a 1 cm tumor-free margin with the diagnosis of a benign mesenchymal tumor in the frozen section. The postoperative course was uneventful and recovered without any complication and recurrence three years after surgery. This report presents a case of abdominal wall desmoid tumor mimicking endometrioma. In this paper, shortcomings in diagnosis, abdominal wall endometriomas, and DTs were discussed in the view of literature. PMID:26500967

  6. An Abdominal Wall Desmoid Tumour Mimicking Cesarean Scar Endometriomas: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Fisun; Mezzinoglu, Bahar

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal wall desmoid tumours (DT) are rare, slow-growing benign muscular-aponeurotic fibrous tumours with the tendency to locally invade and recur. They constitute 0.03% of all neoplasms and high infiltration and recurrence rate, but there is no metastatic potential. Although surgery is the primary treatment modality, the optimal treatment remains unclear. Abdominal wall endometriosis is also an unusual disease, and preoperative clinical diagnosis is not always easy. The preoperative radiologic imaging modalities may not aid all the time. Herein, we report an abdominal mass presenting as cyclic pain. Forty-two years old woman who gave birth by cesarean section admitted the complaints of painful abdominal mass (78x45 mm in size) under her cesarean incision scar. She had severe pain, particularly during menstruation. The clinical and radiological imaging findings mimicking endometrioma. We performed wide surgical excision of mass with a 1 cm tumor-free margin with the diagnosis of a benign mesenchymal tumor in the frozen section. The postoperative course was uneventful and recovered without any complication and recurrence three years after surgery. This report presents a case of abdominal wall desmoid tumor mimicking endometrioma. In this paper, shortcomings in diagnosis, abdominal wall endometriomas, and DTs were discussed in the view of literature. PMID:26500967

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Abdominal wall defect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... main types of abdominal wall defects: omphalocele and gastroschisis. Omphalocele is an opening in the center of ... same protective membrane that covers the umbilical cord. Gastroschisis is a defect in the abdominal wall, usually ...

  8. Painful menstrual periods

    MedlinePLUS

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... a few days during each menstrual cycle. Painful menstruation is the leading cause of lost time from ...

  9. Centrifuge man-rating of a conceptual internal abdominal bladder restraint in an extended coverage anti-G suit.

    PubMed

    Balldin, U I; Krock, L P; Danielsson, C H; Johansson, S A

    1996-07-01

    An extended coverage anti-G suit, has been demonstrated to improve +Gz tolerance substantially. In some pilots/subjects, however, the abdominal bladder of the anti-G suit may expand excessively upward and inward causing discomfort and pain. This man-rating was performed to evaluate the effects on +Gz protection of an internal abdominal bladder restraint in the Swedish Tactical Flight Combat Suit (TFCS) used in conjunction with pressure breathing during G (PBG). The tests were executed in the Armstrong Laboratory Centrifuge at Brooks AFB with four Swedish test fighter pilots. The centrifuge profiles included gradual onset runs (GOR, relaxed) and rapid onset runs (ROR, with straining), as well as simulated aerial combat maneuver (SACM) runs up to +9 Gz until subjects experienced light loss or fatigue or surpassed 228 s. All subjects withstood 60 s at +9 Gz during GOR and ROR runs with and without abdominal bladder restraint. No difference There was no difference in SACM duration times. In three of four subjects, abdominal pain or discomfort experienced without abdominal bladder restraint disappeared with the addition of a bladder restraint. Ratings of perceived exertion (after 5 peaks at +9 Gz in the SACM), subjective +Gz tolerance, overall comfort, fatigue, and heat stress demonstrated no relevant differences with and without abdominal bladder restraint. Therefore, to enhance comfort, it seems possible to modify the TFCS by adding an abdominal bladder internal restraint without compromising its operational +Gz protection. PMID:11543403

  10. Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:25239980

  11. Asthma May Raise Risk for Abdominal Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to be at an increased risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm, a new study suggests. An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a weak spot in the body's main ... those without recent asthma activity. "People with abdominal aortic aneurysm who were diagnosed with asthma within the past ...

  12. Facts and Figures on Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... adults. Common chronic pain complaints include headache, low back pain, cancer pain, arthritis pain, neurogenic pain (pain resulting ... Institute of Health Statistics survey indicated that low back pain was the most common (27%), followed by severe ...

  13. [Using Acupressure to Improve Abdominal Bloating in a Hemicolectomy Patient: A Nursing Experience].

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yi-Ling; Hsu, Chun-Hung; Tseng, Hui-Chen

    2015-10-01

    This article describes a nursing experience applying the protocol of bilateral Zusanli (ST-36) acupressure to reduce abdominal bloating in a colon cancer patient who had undergone a right hemicolectomy. The period of care was between November 13 and November 23, 2014. Data were collected through direct care, interviews, observation, and physical assessment. The main health problems of the patient included anxiety, surgical wound pain, and abdominal bloating. We provided pre- and postoperative routine nursing care, wound pain management, and the protocol of Zusanli (ST-36) acupressure for reducing abdominal bloating. Results of care recorded the first passage of flatus and intestinal motility during the second postoperative day, with no complaints of bloating from the fourth postoperative day. The subject exhibited a relaxed mood and slept soundly following each acupressure session. Furthermore, the subject reported experiencing no abdominal bloating during the week following discharge, during which he continued to follow the acupressure protocol. This article provides support via an instance of nursing care for the effectiveness of the Zusanli (ST-36) acupressure in improving abdominal bloating and thus reducing the complications of hemicolectomy surgery. PMID:26507632

  14. Mechanical small bowel obstruction following a blunt abdominal trauma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zirak-Schmidt, Samira; El-Hussuna, Alaa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal obstruction following abdominal trauma has previously been described. However, in most reported cases pathological finding was intestinal stenosis. Presentation of the case A 51-year-old male was admitted after a motor vehicle accident. Initial focused abdominal sonogram for trauma and enhanced computerized tomography were normal, however there was a fracture of the tibia. Three days later, he complained of abdominal pain, constipation, and vomiting. An exploratory laparotomy showed bleeding from the omentum and mechanical small bowel obstruction due to a fibrous band. Discussion The patient had prior abdominal surgery, but clinical and radiological findings indicate that the impact of the motor vehicle accident initiated his condition either by causing rotation of a bowel segment around the fibrous band, or by formation of a fibrous band secondary to minimal bleeding from the omentum. Conclusion High index of suspicion of intestinal obstruction is mandatory in trauma patients presenting with complaints of abdominal pain, vomiting, and constipation despite uneventful CT scan. PMID:26566436

  15. Achilles Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Five ailments which can cause pain in the achilles tendon area are: (1) muscular strain, involving the stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon fibers; (2) a contusion, inflammation or infection called tenosynovitis; (3) tendonitis, the inflammation of the tendon; (4) calcaneal bursitis, the inflammation of the bursa between the achilles tendon…

  16. Shoulder Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in my shoulder? A common cause of shoulder pain is soreness of the tendon (a cord that attaches a muscle to a bone) of the rotator cuff (the part of the shoulder that helps circular motion). Another common cause is soreness of the subacromial bursa (a sac of fluid under the highest ...

  17. Achilles Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Five ailments which can cause pain in the achilles tendon area are: (1) muscular strain, involving the stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon fibers; (2) a contusion, inflammation or infection called tenosynovitis; (3) tendonitis, the inflammation of the tendon; (4) calcaneal bursitis, the inflammation of the bursa between the achilles tendon

  18. Managing Chronic Pain in Children and Adolescents: A Clinical Review.

    PubMed

    Landry, Bradford W; Fischer, Philip R; Driscoll, Sherilyn W; Koch, Krista M; Harbeck-Weber, Cynthia; Mack, Kenneth J; Wilder, Robert T; Bauer, Brent A; Brandenburg, Joline E

    2015-11-01

    Chronic pain in children and adolescents can be difficult for a single provider to manage in a busy clinical setting. Part of this difficulty is that pediatric chronic pain not only impacts the child but also the families of these children. In this review article, we discuss etiology and pathophysiology of chronic pain, along with variables that impact the severity of chronic pain and functional loss. We review diagnosis and management of selected chronic pain conditions in pediatric patients, including headache, low back pain, hypermobility, chronic fatigue, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, abdominal pain, fibromyalgia, and complex regional pain syndrome. For each condition, we create a road map that contains therapy prescriptions, exercise recommendations, and variables that may influence pain severity. Potential medications for these pain conditions and associated symptoms are reviewed. A multidisciplinary approach for managing children with these conditions, including pediatric pain rehabilitation programs, is emphasized. Lastly, we discuss psychological factors and interventions for pediatric chronic pain and potential complementary and alternative natural products and interventions. PMID:26568508

  19. Dezocine Prevents Postoperative Hyperalgesia in Patients Undergoing Open Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fang; Zhou, Jie; Xia, Suyun; Xu, Huan; Wang, Xiangrui

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Postoperative hyperalgesia is very frequent and hard to treat. Dezocine is widely used and has a modulatory effect for thermal hyperalgesia in animal models. So, this study was designed to investigate the potential role of dezocine in decreasing postoperative hyperalgesia for patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. Methods. This is a randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled trial. 50 patients for elective open gastrectomy were randomly allocated to either a true treatment group (0.15?mg/kg intravenous dezocine at the end of surgery) or a sham treatment group (equivalent volume of saline) in a 1?:?1 ratio. Patients were followed up for 48 hours postoperatively and pain threshold to Von Frey filaments, pain scores, PCIA consumption, rescue analgesics use, sedation score, and occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting were recorded. Results. Patients in the true treatment group experienced statistically significantly higher pain threshold on forearm and smaller extent of peri-incisional hyperalgesia than the sham treatment group. Rescue analgesic use, cumulative PCIA consumption, and pain scores were statistically significantly decreased in the true treatment group compared to the sham treatment group. Conclusions. Dezocine offers a significant antihyperalgesic and analgesic effect in patients undergoing elective open gastrectomy for up to 48 hours postoperatively. PMID:26170890

  20. What Is Chronic Pain?

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Management Tools Videos What Is Chronic Pain? What Is Chronic Pain? View Transcript Download Transcript If you ... with chronic pain, you know that chronic pain is different. Ed Covington, MD, director of the Cleveland ...

  1. Somatoform pain disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Pain disorder ... thought to be related to emotional stress. The pain was often said to be "all in their head." However, patients with somatoform pain disorder seem to experience painful sensations in a ...

  2. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  3. Fighting Chronic Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... earache, toothache, sore throat, sinus pain, facial numbness Muscles and Bones: Arthritis, back pain, bone pain from spread of cancer, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome Neurologic: "Phantom limb" pain after amputation, nerve ...

  4. American Chronic Pain Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ACPA Contact Us Shop FAQs The Art of Pain Management Resources Going to the ER Glossary Surveys What We Have Learned Communication Tools Videos Pain Management Programs Resource Guide to Chronic Pain Treatments Pain ...

  5. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back ... Pain During Pregnancy FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during ...

  6. Prevent Back Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Back Pain Print This Topic En español Prevent Back Pain Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Back ... 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Types of Back Pain There are different kinds of back pain. Back ...

  7. When Sex Is Painful

    MedlinePLUS

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  8. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms and Risk Factors for Adverse Events.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Raheel; Ghoorah, Kuldeepa; Kunadian, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a focal full thickness dilatation of the abdominal aorta, greater than 1.5 times its normal diameter. Although some patients with AAA experience back or abdominal pain, most remain asymptomatic until rupture. The prognosis after AAA rupture is poor. Management strategies for patients with asymptomatic AAAs include risk factor reduction, such as smoking cessation, optimizing antihypertensive treatment, and treating dyslipidemia, as well as surveillance by ultrasound. Currently, aneurysm diameter alone is often used to assess risk of rupture. Once the aneurysm diameter reaches 5.5 cm, the risk of rupture is considered greater than the risk of intervention and elective aneurysm repair is undertaken. There is increasing interest in detecting AAAs early, and national screening programs are now in place. Furthermore, there is increasing research interest in biomarkers, genetics, and functional imaging to improve detection of AAAs at risk of progression and rupture. In this review, we discuss risk factors for AAA rupture, which should be considered during the management process, to advance current deficiencies in management pathways. PMID:25580705

  9. Candida albicans spondylodiscitis following an abdominal stab wound: forensic considerations.

    PubMed

    Savall, Frederic; Dedouit, Fabrice; Telmon, Norbert; Roug, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Candida albicans spondylodiscitis is a fungal infection of the spine which is still unusual in spite of the increasing frequency of predisposing factors. A 22-year-old man received an abdominal stab wound during a physical assault. Initial medical care included surgery, prolonged use of indwelling vascular catheters with administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics, and hospitalization in intensive care. Two months after the event, the victim experienced back pain in the right lumbar region and septic spondylodiscitis secondary to C. albicans was diagnosed three weeks later. This case is noteworthy because of its clinical forensic context. In France, the public prosecutor orders a medico-legal assessment after an assault for all living victims in order to establish a causal relationship between the assault and its complications. In our case, the patient presented numerous risk factors for candidemia and the forensic specialist reasonably accepted that the causal relationship was certain but indirect. We have only found one published case of spondylodiscitis after an abdominal penetrating injury and the pathogenic agent was not mentioned. We have found no case reported in a forensic context. This unusual observation shows that it may be genuinely difficult to prove the causal relationship between an abdominal penetrating injury and an unusual infectious complication such as fungal spondylodiscitis. PMID:24661694

  10. Primary abdominal nocardiosis masquerading as tubercular pelvic inflammatory disease in an immunocompetent individual

    PubMed Central

    Naha, Kushal; Dasari, Sowjanya; Vivek, G; Prabhu, Mukhyaprana

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 30-year-old housewife who presented with fever and lower abdominal pain, and was diagnosed with an adnexal collection. Initial evaluation was suggestive of tubercular pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Subsequently, from a culture of pus aspirated from the collection grew out Nocardia species. She was treated with amikacin and cotrimoxazole and made a complete recovery. Clinical and laboratory evaluation for immunosuppression was negative. Primary abdominal nocardiosis is an unusual cause for PID and an important differential diagnosis for tuberculosis. PMID:23355581

  11. Rapunzel syndrome in a Thai girl with an asymptomatic abdominal mass: a case report.

    PubMed

    Phavichitr, Nopaorn; Vathanasanti, Chanvit

    2012-05-01

    Rapunzel syndrome is an uncommon form of trichobezoar (a collection of ingested hair in the stomach that fails to pass through the intestine) with an extension of hair into the small bowel. The authors report in the present article a case of Rapunzel syndrome in a 10-year-old Thai girl with an asymptomatic abdominal mass incidentally detected during a hospital visit. She did not have nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, weight loss, or any other symptoms. A movable, firm and smooth epigastric mass 10 x 12 cm in size was found upon examination. Eventually the trichobezoar mass was surgically removed after a failed endoscopic removal. PMID:22934466

  12. Crossed Renal Ectopia without Fusion: An Uncommon Cause of Abdominal Mass

    PubMed Central

    Ratola, Ana; Almiro, Maria Miguel; Lacerda Vidal, Rita; Neves, Nuno; Bicho, Adelaide; Figueiredo, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Crossed renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly usually associated with fused kidneys (90%). Most cases are asymptomatic and remain undiagnosed. We report an unusual case of nonfused crossed renal ectopia. The 11-year-old adolescent female patient was admitted with abdominal pain, anorexia, weight loss, and periumbilical mass. Although the initial clinical suspicion was a tumoral lesion, abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance examination revealed crossed renal ectopia without fusion. The renal ectopy was incidentally diagnosed, as described in 20 to 30% of cases. In this case, the associated nonspecific symptoms were a coincidence. PMID:26290762

  13. Effect of intraperitoneal local anesthetic on pain characteristics after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Geun Joo; Kang, Hyun; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Kim, Dong Rim

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To systematically evaluate the effect of intraperitoneal local anesthetic on pain characteristics after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Randomized controlled trials in English that compared the effect of intraperitoneal administration of local anesthetics on pain with that of placebo or nothing after elective LC under general anesthesia were included. The primary outcome variables analyzed were the combined scores of abdominal, visceral, parietal, and shoulder pain after LC at multiple time points. We also extracted pain scores at resting and dynamic states. RESULTS: We included 39 studies of 3045 patients in total. The administration of intraperitoneal local anesthetic reduced pain intensity in a resting state after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: abdominal [standardized mean difference (SMD) = -0.741; 95%CI: -1.001 to -0.48, P < 0.001]; visceral (SMD = -0.249; 95%CI: -0.493 to -0.006, P = 0.774); and shoulder (SMD = -0.273; 95%CI: -0.464 to -0.082, P = 0.097). Application of intraperitoneal local anesthetic significantly reduced the incidence of shoulder pain (RR = 0.437; 95%CI: 0.299 to 0.639, P < 0.001). There was no favorable effect on resting parietal or dynamic abdominal pain. CONCLUSION: Intraperitoneal local anesthetic as an analgesic adjuvant in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy exhibited beneficial effects on postoperative abdominal, visceral, and shoulder pain in a resting state. PMID:26715824

  14. Latent Variable Analysis of Coping, Anxiety/Depression, and Somatic Symptoms in Adolescents with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Boyer, Margaret C.; Stanger, Catherine; Colletti, Richard B.; Thomsen, Alexandra H.; Dufton, Lynette M.; Cole, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Reports of adolescents' coping with recurrent pain, symptoms of anxiety/depression, and somatic complaints were obtained from a sample of 164 adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain and their parents. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that coping consisted of 3 nonorthogonal factors: Primary Control Engagement Coping (problem solving,

  15. Does flexible small-diameter colonoscope reduce insertion pain during colonoscopy?

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ying; Uno, Yoshiharu; Munakata, Akihiro

    2000-01-01

    AIM: It is well known that colonoscopy can be difficult due to abdominal pain induced during colonoscope insertion, if sedative agents are not given. Recently, an extra-flexible, small-diameter colonoscope (CF-SV, Olympus Inc., Japan) was developed in order to improve safety and comfort. The aim of this study was to access the usefulness of the CF-SV. METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing sigmoidoscopy were recruited and colonoscopy was performed by one experienced colonoscopist. First, a routine-type colonoscope (CF-230I) was inserted into the colon without sedation. When the patient complained of abdominal pain (even if mild), the scope was not advanced further and was withdrawn after the anatomic location of its tip was determined fluoroscopically. Then, the CF-SV was inserted until it reached the cecun or the site where abdominal pain occurred. Previous abdominal surgery and a bdominal disease were considered as unfavorable factors (UF) and the relationship between abdominal pain and UF, age and gender were investigated. Furthermore, the colonic insertion pressures in 36 patients with abdominal pain were measured with a force gauge. RESULTS: Thirty-four cases (34%) felt no pain with the CF-230I and successful pancolon-oscopies to the cecum were performed. Sixty-six cases (66%) complained of abdominal pain. The procedure was painless for 47% of men and 24% of women, respectively. The CF-230I scope failed to reach the sigmoid-descending colon junctions in 59 (89.4%) of the 66 patients complaining of abdominal pain. However, CF-SV reached proximal area in 94.9% of those who failed with CF-230I. The median pressure for pain-inducing was 700 g/cm2. CONCLUSION: Unsedated patients with UF were prone to complain of pain when the standard-type CF-230I scope was used. The newly developed extra-flexible CF-SV is useful for the aged and for those with UF or being prone to suffer from abdominal pain. Sedative agents may be unnecessary if this new type of colonoscope is used. PMID:11819670

  16. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: pathophysiology and definitions

    PubMed Central

    Cheatham, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    "Intra-abdominal hypertension", the presence of elevated intra-abdominal pressure, and "abdominal compartment syndrome", the development of pressure-induced organ-dysfunction and failure, have been increasingly recognized over the past decade as causes of significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill surgical and medical patients. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure can cause significant impairment of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and central nervous system function. The significant prognostic value of elevated intra-abdominal pressure has prompted many intensive care units to adopt measurement of this physiologic parameter as a routine vital sign in patients at risk. A thorough understanding of the pathophysiologic implications of elevated intra-abdominal pressure is fundamental to 1) recognizing the presence of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, 2) effectively resuscitating patients afflicted by these potentially life-threatening diseases, and 3) preventing the development of intra-abdominal pressure-induced end-organ dysfunction and failure. The currently accepted consensus definitions surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome are presented. PMID:19254364

  17. Pain and pressure pain thresholds in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy controls: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Winger, Anette; Kvarstein, Gunnvald; Wyller, Vegard Bruun; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Smstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Helseth, Slvi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although pain is a significant symptom in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), pain is poorly understood in adolescents with CFS. The aim of this study was to explore pain distribution and prevalence, pain intensity and its functional interference in everyday life, as well as pressure pain thresholds (PPT) in adolescents with CFS and compare this with a control group of healthy adolescents (HC). Methods This is a casecontrol, cross-sectional study on pain including 120 adolescents with CFS and 39 HCs, aged 1218?years. We measured pain frequency, pain severity and pain interference using self-reporting questionnaires. PPT was measured using pressure algometry. Data were collected from March 2010 until October 2012 as part of the Norwegian Study of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Adolescents: Pathophysiology and Intervention Trial. Results Adolescents with CFS had significantly lower PPTs compared with HCs (p<0.001). The Pain Severity Score and the Pain Interference Score were significantly higher in adolescents with CFS compared with HCs (p<0.001). Almost all adolescents with CFS experienced headache, abdominal pain and/or pain in muscles and joints. Moreover, in all sites, the pain intensity levels were significantly higher than in HCs (p<0.001). Conclusions We found a higher prevalence of severe pain among adolescents with CFS and lowered pain thresholds compared with HCs. The mechanisms, however, are still obscure. Large longitudinal population surveys are warranted measuring pain thresholds prior to the onset of CFS. Trial registration number Clinical Trials, NCT01040429; The Norwegian Study of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Adolescents: Pathophysiology and Intervention Trial (NorCAPITAL) http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:25287104

  18. Abdominal manifestations in childhood‐onset systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Richer, O; Ulinski, T; Lemelle, I; Ranchin, B; Loirat, C; Piette, J C; Pillet, P; Quartier, P; Salomon, R; Bader‐Meunier, B

    2007-01-01

    Background Childhood‐onset lupus erythematosus is a rare disorder of unknown origin. Objectives To describe the frequency of gastrointestinal manifestations at presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus SLE and at follow‐up, and discuss the specific causes of these manifestations. Methods Medical records of 201 patients with childhood‐onset SLE followed up in French paediatric nephrological, haematological and rheumatological centres were reviewed and abstracted for gastrointestinal manifestations. Results Gastrointestinal involvement was recorded in 39 (19%) children. The median (range) age at the time of initial gastrointestinal manifestations was 11.3 (4.5–16) years. Gastrointestinal symptoms were present at or occurred within 1 month after diagnosis in 32% patients. Abdominal pain was the most frequent symptom, present in 34 (87%) patients. It was mostly related to lupus involvement, especially ascites (n = 14) and pancreatitis (n = 12), more rarely to treatment‐induced events (n = 1) or infection (n = 1) and never to events unrelated to SLE. Three children with surgical abdomen underwent a laparotomy before SLE was diagnosed, with a final diagnosis of lupus peritonitis and lupus acalculous cholecystitis. C reactive protein values were <40 mg/l in all but two patients who had surgical abdomen. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography scans were abnormal in 58% and 83% of the evaluated patients, respectively. Corticosteroids, associated with intravenous cyclophospamide in eight patients, led to complete remission of gastrointestinal involvement in 30 of 31 treated patients. Conclusion Gastrointestinal involvement is common in children with SLE, and is mainly due to primary lupus involvement. Corticoidsteroid treatment should be promptly considered in children with lupus presenting with abdominal pain after infectious disease; side effects of treatment and intestinal perforation have been excluded. PMID:16818463

  19. Abdominal compartment syndrome caused by tension pneumoperitoneum in a scuba diver

    PubMed Central

    Bunni, J; Bryson, PJ; Higgs, SM

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency caused by a raised intra-abdominal pressure, which may lead to respiratory, cardiovascular and renal compromise. It is most commonly seen in post-operative and trauma patients and it has a variety of causes. Tension pneumoperitoneum (TP) is a rare cause of abdominal compartment syndrome most often seen after gastrointestinal endoscopy with perforation. We present the case of a fit 52-year-old experienced female diver who developed TP and shock following a routine training dive to 27m. Following accidental inhalation of water, she had an unstaged ascent and, on reaching the surface, developed severe acute abdominal pain and distension. She was brought to our emergency department by air ambulance for assessment. Clinical and radiological examination revealed a shocked patient with dramatic free intra-abdominal gas and signs of abdominal compartment syndrome, which was treated with needle decompression. Symptoms and signs resolved quickly with no need for further surgical intervention. TP is a surgical emergency where surgery can be avoided with prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23131212

  20. Ultrasound presentation of abdominal non-Hodgkin lymphomas in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Wo?niak, Magdalena Maria; Dudkiewicz, Ewa; Grabowski, Dominik; Stefaniak, Jolanta; Wieczorek, Andrzej Pawe?; Kowalczyk, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Burkitt's lymphoma accounts for approximately 25% of lymphomas diagnosed in children of developmental age. The tumor is localized mainly in the intestine (usually in the ileocecal region), mesenteric lymph nodes and extraperitoneal space. The clinical symptoms are non-specific and include: abdominal pain, vomiting, gastrointestinal bleeding, and acute abdomen suggesting appendicitis or intestinal intussusception. On ultrasound examination, Burkitt's lymphoma may manifest itself in various ways, depending on the origin of the lesion. Aim The aim of this paper was to review the ultrasound manifestation of abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma in children. Material and methods The analysis included 15 pediatric patients with Burkitt's non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the abdominal cavity. The mean age of the patients was 9.5. Abdominal and gastrointestinal ultrasound examinations were conducted using a Siemens scanner with a convex transducer of 3.55 MHz and linear array transducer of L4 7.5 MHz. Results Ultrasound examinations conducted in the group of 15 patients revealed pathological masses localized in the gastric wall in 3 patients (20%), in the ileocecal region in 10 patients (67%) and a disseminated process in 2 patients (13%). In 12 patients with a diagnosed Burkitt's non-Hodgkin lymphoma in an extragastric localization, differences in the morphology of the lesions were observed. Conclusions The clinical and ultrasound picture of abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma in children is variable. A careful ultrasound assessment of all abdominal organs conducted with the use of convex and linear probes increases the chances of establishing an adequate diagnosis. PMID:26672593

  1. Neck pain

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Non-specific neck pain has a postural or mechanical basis and affects about two thirds of people at some stage, especially in middle age. Acute neck pain resolves within days or weeks, but may become chronic in about 10% of people. Whiplash injuries follow sudden acceleration–deceleration of the neck, such as in road traffic or sporting accidents. Up to 40% of people continue to report symptoms 15 years after the accident, although this varies between countries. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for people with non-specific neck pain without severe neurological deficit? What are the effects of treatments for acute whiplash injury? What are the effects of treatments for chronic whiplash injury? What are the effects of treatments for neck pain with radiculopathy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 91 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of the evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, biofeedback, drug treatments (analgesics, antidepressants, epidural steroid injections, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]), early mobilisation, early return to normal activity, exercise, heat or cold, manipulation (alone or plus exercise), mobilisation, multimodal treatment, patient education, percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy, physical treatments, postural techniques (yoga, pilates, Alexander technique), pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatment, soft collars and special pillows, spray and stretch, surgery, traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). PMID:19445809

  2. Traumatic rupture of a Meckel’s diverticulum due to blunt abdominal trauma in a soccer game: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Tummers, W.S.; van der Vorst, J.R.; Swank, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction a Meckel’s diverticulum is one of the most common congenital anomalies of the digestive tract. The reported lifetime complication rate is 4%, mostly due to hemorrhage, obstruction, perforation or inflammation. A symptomatic Meckel’s diverticulum due to rupture after blunt abdominal trauma is very rare. We believe this case report is the first reporting a rupture of a Meckel’s diverticulum after a low velocity blunt abdominal trauma and outlining the importance of a thorough and complete examination of the patient after blunt abdominal trauma. Presentation of case a 17-year-old male presented with abdominal pain after blunt abdominal trauma during a soccer game. Physical examination showed signs of peritonitis in all quadrants of the abdomen. During admission the patient deteriorated with decreasing blood pressure and raising pulse rate. A CT-scan showed free abdominal fluid. Our patient was scheduled for an emergent laparotomy where a perforated Meckel’s diverticulum with fecal spill was found. A segmental ileal resection was performed. Post-operative, patient developed a pneumonia and also intra-abdominal abscesses treated with percutaneous drainage. After an admission period of 17-days the patient was discharged. Conclusion perforation of a Meckel’s diverticulum is rarely suspected as a cause of acute deterioration following blunt abdominal trauma. This case shows the importance of awareness of this kind of injury especially in male patients. PMID:26701844

  3. Sleep problems and pain: a longitudinal cohort study in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Janssens, Karin A M

    2016-04-01

    Sleep and pain are thought to be bidirectional related on a daily basis in adolescents with chronic pain complaints. In addition, sleep problems have been shown to predict the long-term onset of musculoskeletal pain in middle-aged adults. Yet, the long-term effects of sleep problems on pain duration and different types of pain severity in emerging adults (age: 18-25) are unknown. This study investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between sleep problems and chronic pain, and musculoskeletal pain, headache, and abdominal pain severity in a general population of emerging adults. We studied whether these relationships were moderated by sex and whether symptoms of anxiety and depression, fatigue, or physical inactivity mediated these effects. Data of participants from the longitudinal Dutch TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey were used. Follow-up data were collected in 1753 participants who participated in the fourth (N = 1668, mean age: 19.0 years [SD = 0.6]) and/or fifth (N = 1501, mean age: 22.3 years [SD = 0.6]) assessment wave. Autoregressive cross-lagged models were used for analyses. Sleep problems were associated with chronic pain, musculoskeletal pain, headache and abdominal pain severity, and predicted chronic pain and an increase in musculoskeletal pain severity at 3 years of follow-up. This prospective effect was stronger in females than in males and was mediated by fatigue but not by symptoms of anxiety and depression or physical inactivity. Only abdominal pain had a small long-term effect on sleep problems. Our results suggest that sleep problems may be an additional target for treatment in female emerging adults with musculoskeletal pain complaints. PMID:26683236

  4. Pain Management: Post-Amputation Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    Pain Management Post-Amputation Pain Volume 8 · Issue 2 · March/April 1998 Text size Larger text Smaller text Java Required Print page Save and share ... by G. Edward Jeffries, MD, FACS Post-Amputation Pain Post-amputation pain is one of the most ...

  5. [Pain during peritoneum pinching, a pathognomonic sign of peritoneal disease. Clinical research. Semiological value].

    PubMed

    Beda, B Y; Adom, A H; Boutros-Toni, F; Diallo, A D; Niamkey, E K; Odi, A R; Ouattara, D; Yangni-Angate, Y; Kadjo, K; Djakoure, S

    1993-02-01

    Pain induced by pinching the peritoneum betrays a pathology of that membrane. It is absent when the peritoneum is perfectly healthy. Pain is elicited by a special palpation technique. Clinically and statistically, the presence of this pain is pathognomonic, but it does not inform on the aetiology. In the present study the most frequent causes of positive abdominal peritoneal pinching test were peritoneal tuberculosis, followed by portal hypertension with or without liver cirrhosis. PMID:8378631

  6. Pain and Hand Function.

    PubMed

    Howland, Nicholas; Lopez, Mariela; Zhang, Andrew Y

    2016-02-01

    Pain is a unique somatosensory perception that can dramatically affect our ability to function. It is also a necessary perception, without which we would do irreparable damage to ourselves. In this article, the authors assess the impact of pain on function of the hand. Pain can be categorized into acute pain, chronic pain, and neuropathic pain. Hand function and objective measurements of hand function are analyzed as well as the impact of different types of pain on each of these areas. PMID:26611383

  7. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Mussa, Firas F

    2015-09-01

    Guidelines are systematically developed statements to assist patients and providers in choosing appropriate health care for specific clinical conditions. Consensus exists across guidelines on one-time screening of elderly men to detect and treat abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) ≥5.5 cm. However, the recommendations regarding other age groups, imaging intervals for small AAAs, inclusion of women, and cost-effectiveness have not been universally adopted. As many countries are considering the initiation of an AAA screening program, this is an overview on the current status of such programs. PMID:26169012

  8. A rare pediatric case of grossly dilated ureter presenting as abdominal mass.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Madhur Kumar; Govindarajan, Krishna Kumar; Chakkalakkoombil, Sunitha Vellathussery; Halanaik, Dhanapathi

    2016-01-01

    Renal masses account for 55% of cases presenting as palpable abdominal mass in children.[1] An eight year male presented with palpable abdominal mass and pain. The patient underwent renal dynamic scan, which raised possibility of left duplex kidney with non-functioning moiety, as the size of left kidney was smaller than seen on Ultrasonography (USG). Magnetic resonance (MR)urography confirmed the findings with patient undergoing left hemi-nephrectomy and is doing well. In case of discrepancy in size of kidney on USG and renal scan, duplex kidney should be considered as differential, other causes being, renal cyst, benign/malignant mass and renal calculi. Gross hydro-ureter presenting as palpable abdominal mass is very rare with few reported cases.[234]. PMID:26917905

  9. A rare pediatric case of grossly dilated ureter presenting as abdominal mass

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Madhur Kumar; Govindarajan, Krishna Kumar; Chakkalakkoombil, Sunitha Vellathussery; Halanaik, Dhanapathi

    2016-01-01

    Renal masses account for 55% of cases presenting as palpable abdominal mass in children.[1] An eight year male presented with palpable abdominal mass and pain. The patient underwent renal dynamic scan, which raised possibility of left duplex kidney with non-functioning moiety, as the size of left kidney was smaller than seen on Ultrasonography (USG). Magnetic resonance (MR)urography confirmed the findings with patient undergoing left hemi-nephrectomy and is doing well. In case of discrepancy in size of kidney on USG and renal scan, duplex kidney should be considered as differential, other causes being, renal cyst, benign/malignant mass and renal calculi. Gross hydro-ureter presenting as palpable abdominal mass is very rare with few reported cases.[234] PMID:26917905

  10. Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis due to dislodged percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube

    PubMed Central

    Artul, Suheil; Nseir, William; Assaf, Victor; Abboud, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Accessing the stomach via a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube is the preferred (and sometimes the only) method for providing enteral nutritional support in disabled patients. However, it is associated with serious and potentially lethal complications which must be completely recognised by physicians, by nurses and especially by radiologists. Abdominal wall necrotising fasciitis of a dislodged or leaking PEG tube could be a lethal complication. We present a case of a 74-year-old bed bound woman who was admitted to our hospital with fever and abdominal pain. On presentation, the patients temperature was 36C and laboratory tests showed leucocytosis. Physical examination revealed extensive redness of the abdominal wall, diffuse tenderness of the abdomen and yellowish discharge around the gastrostomy. PMID:24591380

  11. Small Bowel Bacterial Overgrowth Associated with Persistence of Abdominal Symptoms in Children Treated with a Proton Pump Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Sieczkowska, Agnieszka; Landowski, Piotr; Zagozdzon, Pawel; Kaminska, Barbara; Lifschitz, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) was diagnosed in 22.5% of 40 children treated for 3 months with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Compared with those without SBBO, children with SBBO had higher frequency of abdominal pain, bloating, eructation, and flatulence. Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms after PPI treatment should be evaluated for SBBO rather than empirically prolonging PPI therapy. PMID:25681195

  12. Neuroanatomy of lower gastrointestinal pain disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Wim; De Man, Joris G; Pelckmans, Paul A; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2014-01-01

    Chronic abdominal pain accompanying intestinal inflammation emerges from the hyperresponsiveness of neuronal, immune and endocrine signaling pathways within the intestines, the peripheral and the central nervous system. In this article we review how the sensory nerve information from the healthy and the hypersensitive bowel is encoded and conveyed to the brain. The gut milieu is continuously monitored by intrinsic enteric afferents, and an extrinsic nervous network comprising vagal, pelvic and splanchnic afferents. The extrinsic afferents convey gut stimuli to second order neurons within the superficial spinal cord layers. These neurons cross the white commissure and ascend in the anterolateral quadrant and in the ipsilateral dorsal column of the dorsal horn to higher brain centers, mostly subserving regulatory functions. Within the supraspinal regions and the brainstem, pathways descend to modulate the sensory input. Because of this multiple level control, only a small proportion of gut signals actually reaches the level of consciousness to induce sensation or pain. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients, however, long-term neuroplastic changes have occurred in the brain-gut axis which results in chronic abdominal pain. This sensitization may be driven on the one hand by peripheral mechanisms within the intestinal wall which encompasses an interplay between immunocytes, enterochromaffin cells, resident macrophages, neurons and smooth muscles. On the other hand, neuronal synaptic changes along with increased neurotransmitter release in the spinal cord and brain leads to a state of central wind-up. Also life factors such as but not limited to inflammation and stress contribute to hypersensitivity. All together, the degree to which each of these mechanisms contribute to hypersensitivity in IBD and IBS might be disease- and even patient-dependent. Mapping of sensitization throughout animal and human studies may significantly improve our understanding of sensitization in IBD and IBS. On the long run, this knowledge can be put forward in potential therapeutic targets for abdominal pain in these conditions. PMID:24574773

  13. [FUNCTIONAL PLASTIC OF ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIAS].

    PubMed

    Grubnik, V V; Parfentyeva, N D; Parfentyev, R S

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve the treatment efficacy of postoperative anterior abdominal wall hernias the method of plastic with restoration of anatomical and physiological properties of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall was used. After the intervention by the improved method, regardless of the location of the hernia defect yielded promising results for the conservation of anterior abdominal wall muscle function in 75% of cases completely restored functional ability of muscles recti abdomini. PMID:26591212

  14. Unrecognized clozapine-related constipation leading to fatal intra-abdominal sepsis – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Oke, Vikram; Schmidt, Frances; Bhattarai, Bikash; Basunia, Md; Agu, Chidozie; Kaur, Amrit; Enriquez, Danilo; Quist, Joseph; Salhan, Divya; Gayam, Vijay; Mungikar, Prajakta

    2015-01-01

    Clozapine is the preferred antipsychotic used for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia with suicidal ideation. The drug is started at a low dose and gradually increased to a target dose of 300–450 mg/day. It is well known to cause agranulocytosis and neutropenia. Several cases of fatal sepsis have been reported in neutropenic patients and emphasis is placed on monitoring for agranulocytosis; however, clozapine also causes intestinal hypomotility and constipation, which if unrecognized can lead to intestinal obstruction, bowel necrosis, and intra-abdominal sepsis. Reduced behavioral pain reactivity in schizophrenics may alter the ability to express pain, potentially leading to a delay in the presentation for medical attention. We report a case of fatal intra-abdominal sepsis secondary to an unrecognized case of clozapine-related constipation. PMID:26392790

  15. Central Neuropathic Pain Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Watson, James C; Sandroni, Paola

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pain is common in patients with neurologic complications of a central nervous system insult such as stroke. The pain is most commonly musculoskeletal or related to obligatory overuse of neurologically unaffected limbs. However, neuropathic pain can result directly from the central nervous system injury. Impaired sensory discrimination can make it challenging to differentiate central neuropathic pain from other pain types or spasticity. Central neuropathic pain may also begin months to years after the injury, further obscuring recognition of its association with a past neurologic injury. This review focuses on unique clinical features that help distinguish central neuropathic pain. The most common clinical central pain syndromes-central poststroke pain, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and spinal cord injury-related pain-are reviewed in detail. Recent progress in understanding of the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain is reviewed, and pharmacological, surgical, and neuromodulatory treatments of this notoriously difficult to treat pain syndrome are discussed. PMID:26944242

  16. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and diastasis recti.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Ian

    Midline abdominal incisional hernias are common following open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. These may be caused by the weakness of connective tissue. This study sought to determine the prevalence of diastasis recti among unoperated Caucasian males with abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to a control group with atherosclerotic lower extremity peripheral arterial disease. Forty-two consecutive white males referred for evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (n = 18) or peripheral arterial disease (n = 24) were examined by a single examiner at the Mayo Clinic. Both groups were similar in terms of age and smoking history, 2 major risk factors for both abdominal aortic aneurysm and peripheral arterial disease. Abdominal aortic aneurysm patients ranged in age from 59 to 89 (mean, 73.2) years. Seventeen of 18 (94.4%) had a history of smoking. Peripheral arterial disease patients ranged in age from 52 to 93 (mean, 70.8) years. Twenty-one of 24 (87.5%) had a history of smoking. Diastasis recti were present in 12 of 18 (66.7%) subjects with abdominal aortic aneurysm versus 4 of 24 (16.7%) subjects with peripheral arterial disease (P = .001, 2-tailed Fisher exact test). Diastasis recti are significantly more common in males with abdominal aortic aneurysm than peripheral arterial disease and may provide an important clue to screen for abdominal aortic aneurysm in those at risk. PMID:18550558

  17. Low Back Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Low Back Pain Overview What is low back pain? Low back pain is a common problem for many people. It can be caused by many ... lift and exercise correctly. Symptoms When is low back pain serious? Call your family doctor if: Pain goes ...

  18. Abdominal infections in patients with acute leukaemia: a prospective study applying ultrasonography and microbiology.

    PubMed

    Gorschlüter, Marcus; Marklein, Günter; Höfling, Katja; Clarenbach, Ricarda; Baumgartner, Stefanie; Hahn, Corinna; Ziske, Carsten; Mey, Ulrich; Heller, Ricarda; Eis-Hübinger, Anna Maria; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H; Glasmacher, Axel

    2002-05-01

    A prospective study of 62 chemotherapy-induced neutropenic episodes in patients with acute leukaemia was conducted to determine the incidence and causes of abdominal infections, and to assess the diagnostic value of the combined use of ultrasonography (US) and microbiology. Each patient underwent US of liver, gallbladder and complete bowel before chemotherapy, on days 2-4 after the end of chemotherapy and in cases of fever, diarrhoea or abdominal pain. US was combined with a standardized clinical examination and a broad spectrum of microbiological investigations. From January to August 2001, 243 US examinations were performed. The overall incidence of abdominal infectious diseases was 17.7% (11 out of 62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 9-29%). Four patients (6.5%) developed neutropenic enterocolitis; two of them died, two survived. Bowel wall thickening (BWT) > 4 mm in these four patients ranged from 5.8 to 23.6 mm and was detected only in one patient with mucositis. In three other patients (4.8%) Clostridium difficile, and in one patient (1.6%) Campylobacter jejuni, caused enterocolitis without BWT. Cholecystitis was diagnosed in three patients (4.8%) and hepatic candidiasis was strongly suspected in one patient. Abdominal infections caused by gastroenteritis viruses, cytomegalovirus (CMV) or Cryptosporidium were not observed. We conclude that in neutropenic patients with acute leukaemia receiving chemotherapy: (i) BWT is not a feature of chemotherapy-induced mucositis and should therefore be considered as sign of infectious enterocolitis; (ii) viruses, classic bacterial enteric pathogens (Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Aeromonas, Vibrio subsp., enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli) and Cryptosporidium have a very low incidence; and (iii) abdominal infections may be underestimated when US is not used in every patient with abdominal pain. PMID:11972517

  19. Reclosure of disrupted abdominal incisions.

    PubMed

    Walters, M D; Dombroski, R A; Davidson, S A; Mandel, P C; Gibbs, R S

    1990-10-01

    We evaluated prospectively a technique of delayed reclosure of disrupted abdominal incisions. Forty-one consecutive postoperative obstetric and gynecologic patients with abdominal incisions that had opened because of infection, hematoma, or seroma and had intact fascia participated in the study. All wounds were first managed identically, with surgical drainage and debridement, for a minimum of 4 days. The patients then were randomized to either wound reclosure by a standardized en bloc technique (35) or healing by second intention (six). Reclosure was successful in 30 of 35 cases (85.7%). The mean time to complete healing was 15.8 days in successful cases, 67.2 days in failed cases, and 23.2 days for all patients who were reclosed. Failure to heal after reclosure was due to subcutaneous infection in two patients and seroma in three; these women were significantly heavier than those in whom reclosure was successful. There were no other major complications of wound reclosure. Patients randomized to healing by second intention required a mean of 71.8 days of wound care. The time to complete healing in the wound-reclosure group was significantly shorter compared with the group that healed by second intention (P = .002, log rank test). We conclude that en bloc reclosure of disrupted surgical incisions, compared with nonsurgical treatment, significantly decreases the time required for wound healing and has minimal morbidity. PMID:2216186

  20. Successful management of a combined abdominal and thoracic trauma with rectal impalement: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kasapas, Konstantinos; Daskalaki, Anna; Kaimasidis, George; Chalkiadakis, George

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Combined abdominal and thoracic impalement injuries are a rare form of penetrating trauma. Nowadays, they occur more frequently as an accident and not so often as a deliberate violent action. Case Report. A 35-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department with chest pain and respiratory distress after he had reportedly slipped in his bathtub. Abdominal and thoracic imaging, including computed tomography (CT), confirmed a right-sided pneumothorax and a liver laceration without bleeding or further endoperitoneal trauma. A chest tube was placed. During his hospitalization in the first 24-hour period, he complained of abdominal and right shoulder pain accompanied by fever. A new abdominal and thoracic CT scanning revealed a rupture of the rectosigmoid, a rupture of right hemidiaphragm, and a foreign body in the thoracic cavity. The patient admitted that a broomstick was violently placed through his rectum, and he underwent a thoracotomy with an exploratory laparotomy. The foreign object was removed, the diaphragmatic rupture was repaired, and a Hartmann's procedure was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion. In cases of combined thoracoabdominal trauma, high index of suspicion is required when medical history is misleading and the injuries are not obvious immediately. A coordinated team effort in a well-organized trauma center is also very important. PMID:23844309