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... simple and inexpensive, and works for some kids. Peppermint oil enteric-coated capsules often decrease pain in ... effective than adding fiber alone  . Enteric-coated peppermint oil While this study found that fiber and ...
... of the structures within the abdomen or the abdominal wall. In addition, pain messages originating in the chest, ... lungs) Pulmonary embolism (blood clots to the lungs) Abdominal or chest wall pain: Shingles (herpes zoster infection) Costochondritis (inflammation of ...
The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominalpain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominalpain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…
Functional abdominalpain syndrome (FAPS) differs from the other functional bowel disorders; it is less common, symptoms largely are unrelated to food intake and defecation, and it has higher comorbidity with psy- chiatric disorders. The etiology and pathophysiology are incompletely understood. Because FAPS likely repre- sents a heterogenous group of disorders, peripheral neu- ropathic pain mechanisms, alterations in endogenous pain
DOUGLAS A. DROSSMAN; EMERAN A. MAYER; QASIM AZIZ; DAN L. DUMITRASCU; HUBERT MÖNNIKES; BRUCE D. NALIBOFF
... causes that should be considered when evaluating a child with chronic abdominalpain. Some of those causes are not very serious ... none of these more severe problems cause abdominalpain in most children with chronic or recurrent bellyaches. Instead, the pain is usually “ ...
Background: Abdominal epilepsy (AE) is an uncommon cause for chronic recurrent abdominalpain in children and adults. It is characterized by paroxysmal episode of abdominalpain, diverse abdominal complaints, definite electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities and favorable response to the introduction of anti-epileptic drugs (AED). We studied 150 children with chronic recurrent abdominalpain and after exclusion of more common etiologies for the presenting complaints; workup proceeded with an EEG. We found 111 (74%) children with an abnormal EEG and 39 (26%) children with normal EEG. All children were subjected to AED (Oxcarbazepine) and 139 (92%) children responded to AED out of which 111 (74%) children had an abnormal EEG and 27 (18%) had a normal EEG. On further follow-up the patients were symptom free, which helped us to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Context: Recurrent chronic abdominalpain is a common problem encountered by pediatricians. Variety of investigations are done to come to a diagnosis but a cause is rarely found. In such children diagnosis of AE should be considered and an EEG will confirm the diagnosis and treated with AED. Aims: To find the incidence of AE in children presenting with chronic recurrent abdominalpain and to correlate EEG findings and their clinical response to empirical AEDs in both cases and control. Settings and Design: Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University, Karad, Maharashtra, India. Prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 children with chronic recurrent abdominalpain were studied by investigations to rule out common causes of abdominalpain and an EEG. All children were then started with AED oxycarbamezepine and their response to the treatment was noted. Results: 111 (74%) of the total 150 children showed a positive EEG change suggestive of epileptogenic activity and of which 75 (67.56%) were females and 36 (32.43%) were male, majority of children were in the age of group of 9-12 years. Temporal wave discharges were 39 (35.13%) of the total abnormal EEG's. All the children were started on AEDs and those with abnormal EEG showed 100% response to treatment while 27 (18%) children with normal EEG also responded to treatment. Twelve (8%) children did not have any improvement in symptoms. Conclusions: A diagnosis of AE must be considered in children with chronic recurrent abdominalpain, especially in those with suggestive history, and an EEG can save a child from lot of unnecessary investigations and suffering.
Kshirsagar, V. Y.; Nagarsenkar, Suhel; Ahmed, Minhajuddin; Colaco, Sylvia; Wingkar, K. C.
Opinion statement The diagnosis of functional abdominalpain should be made based on the Rome II symptom criteria with only limited testing\\u000a to exclude other disease. During physical examination the clinician may look for evidence of pain behavior which would be\\u000a supportive of the diagnosis. Reassurance and proper education regarding the clinical entity of functional abdominalpain is\\u000a critical for successful
Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominalpain, see if s/he can describe it to you. Here are different kinds of pain: ...
Eighty five children with recurrent abdominalpain(RAP) were studied. Organic cause was noticed in 70 cases and non-organic in 15 cases. Giardiasis was the commonest organic cause in 57 (67.0 percent), either alone or with other parasitic infestations. Other organic causes include gallstones (4.7 percent), urinary infections (4.7 percent), esophagitis/gastritis (3.5 percent) and abdominal tuberculosis (2.3 percent). Single parent, school phobia, sibling rivalry, RAP in other family members and nocturnal enuresis are significant factors associated with nonorganic causes PMID:12368527
Buch, Niyaz A; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq; Ahmed, S Zubair; Ali, Syed Wazid; Charoo, B A; Hassan, Masood Ul
An 18-year-old Asian woman with a history of substance abuse presented to the Emergency Department with right-sided abdominalpain and hematuria of several months duration. Physical examination revealed right upper quadrant and suprapubic tenderness. Liver function tests were normal. Urinalysis showed: large blood, 30-50 red blood cells/high-powered field, and no bacteria. She underwent a CT of the abdomen and pelvis following oral and intravenous contrast. PMID:24580064
A controlled study of 30 children with recurrent abdominalpain and 30 pain free children failed to show any statistically significant differences between the groups on a variety of psychological variables thought to be associated with psychogenicity. A psychogenic basis has often been assumed as the cause in diagnosis of recurrent abdominalpain when clinical examination and laboratory tests show
P J McGrath; J T Goodman; P Firestone; R Shipman; S Peters
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 65-year-old man is complaining of abdominalpain. Visitors are given the radiology, gross and microscopic descriptions, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostics, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.
Four patients, 3 women aged 39, 36 and 58 and a man aged 51, had been experiencing recurring bouts of abdominalpain for periods varying from a few months to years. The pain could be provoked by palpation of a small circumscript area in the lower abdomen. A positive Carnett's sign (pain intensification during palpation while contracting the abdominal muscles by raising the head, whilst lying flat) may aid the diagnosis. An injection ofa local anaesthetic agent confirmed the diagnosis of nerve entrapment and appeared therapeutic in one patient. The other three patients experienced long-term relief following surgical nerve excision. Establishing a diagnosis in patients with abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome is often delayed due to physicians being unaware of this condition. Most patients have to undergo numerous investigations including laparoscopies and explorative laparotomies, often to no avail. This syndrome should be considered in patients with chronic abdominalpain syndromes. PMID:16999272
OBJECTIVES--(a) to determine the efficacy of papaveretum in treating pain when administered early to patients presenting with acute abdominalpain and (b) to assess its effect on subsequent diagnosis and management. DESIGN--Prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. SETTING--Walsgrave Hospital, Coventry. SUBJECTS--100 consecutive patients with clinically significant abdominalpain who were admitted as emergencies to a surgical firm. INTERVENTIONS--Intramuscular injection of up
A. R. Attard; M. J. Corlett; N. J. Kidner; A. P. Leslie; I. A. Fraser
Symptoms of somatization were investigated in pediatric patients with recurrent abdominalpain (RAP) and comparison groups of patients with organic etiology for abdominalpain and well patients. Somatization scores were higher in RAP patients than well patients at the clinic visit, and higher than in either well patients or organic patients at a 3- month followup. Higher somatization scores in
The distribution and referral of abdominalpain in 21 patients with functional abdominalpain were investigated by performing balloon distension of the ileum, proximal jejunum, second part of the duodenum, and distal oesophagus. Pain was perceived not just in classically described sites but throughout the abdomen and was referred to several unusual extra-abdominal sites. The presenting pain was reproduced by
The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominalpain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised.
W G Thompson; G F Longstreth; D A Drossman; K W Heaton; E J Irvine; S A Müller-Lissner
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman presented with progressively worsening abdominal/pelvic pain over a period of 6 weeks. She experienced minor intermittent pain. Visitors can view both gross and microscopic descriptions, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of pathology.
The case was presented here in order to point out that an immunocompetent child might have Strongyloidiosis infection that might be misdiagnosed. A 9 year old male patient who had chronic abdominalpain with a feeling of weakness was treated several times for urinary tract infection. He had never been tested for the presence of parasites. After the patient's complaints occurred again, he presented at our hospital. Strongyloides stercoralis larvae were observed in his feces by microscopy. Albendazol (400 mg/day for three days) was prescribed. After 10 days, the feces of the patient was reexamined and no Strongyloides stercoralis larvae were detected. For this reason, it is important to investigate the possibility of intestinal parasitic infections in children with chronic abdominalpain. PMID:18645954
Focal epilepsy with ictal abdominalpain is an unusual partial epilepsy characterized by paroxysmal episodes of abdominal or visceral pain, disturbance of awareness and electroencephalographic abnormalities. We describe a new case of ictal abdominalpain in which gastrointestinal complaints were the only manifestation of seizures and review the previously described pediatric patients. In our patient clinical findings, ictal EEG abnormalities, and a good response to antiepileptic drugs allowed us to make a diagnosis of focal epilepsy with ictal abdominalpain. This is a rare epileptic phenomenon that should be suspected in patients with unexplained paroxysmal abdominalpain and migraine-like symptoms. We suggest that, after the exclusion of more common etiologies, focal epilepsy with ictal abdominalpain should be considered in patients with paroxysmal abdominalpain and ictal EEG abnormalities. PMID:24321431
Cerminara, Caterina; El Malhany, Nadia; Roberto, Denis; Curatolo, Paolo
Pain abdomen is a common pediatric complaint that brings patient to the hospital in Nepal. Knowledge about its etiology and frequency helps in its evaluation and management. The present study was undertaken to find out the causes and their frequency of pain abdomen in Nepali children. Children with pain abdomen presenting at the emergency room and pediatric outpatient department of Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu from January, 2006 to December 2007 were clinically evaluated and investigated to find out the causes and frequency of their pain abdomen. The outcomes were tabulated and analyzed for interpretation. Of 444 patients attended, 356 completed investigations and came for follow up. Cause of pain abdomen was apparent in 117 (32.9%) only. 91.5% were medical causes, comprising predominantly of diarrheal diseases (28.3%), infantile colic (9.4%), urinary tract infection (7.7%) and acid peptic disease (6.8%). 8.5% causes were related to surgical conditions, which needed operative management. Secondary or extra-abdominal causes were found in 20 cases (17.1%). Pneumonia (2), functional (5), vulvovaginitis (2) and infantile colic (11) were predominant causes. Our study showed that the causes of pain abdomen in children were predominantly medical. Gastroenteritis was the most frequent cause. Secondary causes, including functional and emotional causes were infrequent. Small percentage needing surgical management formed a diagnostic challenge. PMID:19079393
A 33-year-old previously healthy man was admitted to the hospital with a 6-day history of diffuse abdominalpain and constipation. He was afebrile, looked unwell with a pale skin and displayed an elevated blood pressure. He had no peritoneal sign, and bowel sounds were normal. Blood tests were remarkable for a hematocrit of 26 % and mean cell volume of 83 fl, bilirubin levels were slightly elevated. Abdominal radiographs, abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography showed stool throughout the colon with a non-specific bowel gas pattern. Moreover, colonoscopy and gastroscopy provided no information on the underlying cause of the patient's severe pain. He was treated with fluids and spasmolytic drugs until the result of the urinary porphyrin level was received, which showed an elevated concentration of 1608 microg/d. Consequently, the plasma lead concentration was determined showing an elevated level of 92.3 microg/d. The examination of blood slides revealed erythrocytes with basophile stippling. On physical examination, a bluish discoloration could be seen along the gums. After starting the detoxication therapy with DMPS - 1800 mg p. o. for the first two days followed by 600 mg DMPS daily - the complaints disappeared. In spite of an extensive anamnestic exploration the source of the lead intoxication could not be found until now. PMID:18810673
Egger, M; Binder, M; Wewalka, F; Dieplinger, B; Kastler, M; Lenz, K
Objective To test the hypothesis that children with abdominalpain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders have a general hypersensitivity for sensory stimuli. Study design Auditory startle reflexes were assessed in 20 children classified according to Rome III classifications of abdominalpain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (13 irritable bowel syndrome [IBS], 7 functional abdominalpain syndrome; mean age, 12.4 years; 15 girls) and 23
Mirte J. Bakker; Frits Boer; Marc A. Benninga; Johannes H. T. M. Koelman; Marina A. J. Tijssen
Chronic, refractory abdominalpain without a metabolic or structural gastroenterological etiology can be challenging for diagnosis and management. Even though it is rare, it has been reported that such a recurrent abdominalpain associated with radicular pattern can be derived from structural neurologic lesion like spinal cord tumor. We experienced an unusual case of chronic recurrent abdominalpain that lasted for two years without definite neurologic deficits in a patient, who has been harboring thoracic spinal cord tumor. During an extensive gastroenterological workup for the abdominalpain, the spinal cord tumor had been found and was resected through surgery. Since then, the inexplicable pain sustained over a long period of time eventually resolved. This case highlights the importance of taking into consideration the possibility of spinal cord tumor in differential diagnosis when a patient complains of chronic and recurrent abdominalpain without other medical abnormalities.
Chronic, refractory abdominalpain without a metabolic or structural gastroenterological etiology can be challenging for diagnosis and management. Even though it is rare, it has been reported that such a recurrent abdominalpain associated with radicular pattern can be derived from structural neurologic lesion like spinal cord tumor. We experienced an unusual case of chronic recurrent abdominalpain that lasted for two years without definite neurologic deficits in a patient, who has been harboring thoracic spinal cord tumor. During an extensive gastroenterological workup for the abdominalpain, the spinal cord tumor had been found and was resected through surgery. Since then, the inexplicable pain sustained over a long period of time eventually resolved. This case highlights the importance of taking into consideration the possibility of spinal cord tumor in differential diagnosis when a patient complains of chronic and recurrent abdominalpain without other medical abnormalities. PMID:24855624
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually performed for gallstones or polyp of the gallbladder. Multiseptate gallbladder is a rare congenital malformation. Although several asymptomatic cases have been described, patient usually present with right upper abdominalpain. We present a 29-year-old female patient with multiseptate gallbladder, cholecystectomy was performed, and her abdominalpain and gastrointestinal complaints have resolved.
This report summarizes the experience with the Computer-Assisted Medical Diagnosis of AbdominalPain project from 1 July 1982 - 30 September 1983. During this period, 30 cases of abdominalpain presenting at sea were reported to the Naval Submarine Medica...
Analgesics in patients with acute abdominalpain are often withheld for fear that they may change physical examination findings and thus may be unsafe. We conducted a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled trial to investigate changes in physical examination following the administration of placebo, 5 mg, or 10 mg of morphine to 49 patients with acute abdominalpain. One patient was withdrawn
Frank LoVecchio; Neill Oster; Kai Sturmann; Lewis S. Nelson; Scott Flashner; Ralph Finger
A 26-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with abdominalpain, diarrhoea, anorexia and haematemesis. The patient was previously diagnosed with latent tuberculosis (TB). On examination, his abdomen was diffusely tender, with localised guarding in the right iliac fossa. CT imaging of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a low volume of ascites, diffuse studding of the peritoneum, omental caking and several bulky low-density lymph nodes in the retroperitoneum. A laparoscopy was performed to obtain a peritoneal biopsy. Histology demonstrated fragments of peritoneum with necrotising granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate in keeping with an infectious process, favouring TB. He was commenced on rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and pyridoxine under the direct observed therapy by the infectious diseases team. In view of his extensive peritoneal involvement, he was empirically started on high-dose prednisolone for symptomatic control and to reduce complications related to peritoneal adhesions. PMID:22715270
A 17-year-old girl presented to a fire station complaining of severe abdominalpain one afternoon. The patient appeared acutely ill and had an initial blood pressure of 62 mmHg by palpation and a heart rate of 110 beats per minute. A flight crew was summoned to the scene. History obtained only through a Spanish-speaking interpreter revealed the patient to be approximately 6 months pregnant and without any prenatal care. Physical assessment revealed the patient to be alert and oriented but weak, pale, and diaphoretic. The abdomen examination demonstrated diffuse, severe tenderness and guarding to palpation. There was no evidence of vaginal bleeding or signs of imminent delivery. A repeat blood pressure by the flight crew was 82 mmHg by palpation. PMID:18992683
Background & Aims: Persistent abdominalpain occurs in many patients after cholecystectomy, some of whom are described as having sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD). Pain in SOD type III is thought to be of biliary origin with little objective data, and treatment is often unsatisfactory. Chronic abdominalpain without a bio- logical disease marker is similar to irritable bowel syndrome,
STEVEN G. DESAUTELS; ADAM SLIVKA; WILLIAM R. HUTSON; ANDREW CHUN; CARLOS MITRANI; CARLO DILORENZO; ARNOLD WALD
Abdominal and thoracic surgical procedures can result in significant acute postoperative pain. Present evidence shows that postoperative pain management remains inadequate especially after "minor" surgical procedures. Various therapeutic options including regional anesthesia techniques and systemic pharmacotherapy are available for effective treatment of postoperative pain. This work summarizes the pathophysiological background of postoperative pain after abdominal and thoracic surgery and discusses the indication, effectiveness, risks, and benefits of the different therapeutic options. Special focus is given to the controversial debate about the indication for epidural analgesia, as well as various alternative therapeutic options, including transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block, paravertebral block (PVB), wound infiltration with local anesthetics, and intravenous lidocaine. In additional, indications and contraindications of nonopioid analgesics after abdominal and thoracic surgery are discussed and recommendations based on scientific evidence and individual risk and benefit analysis are made. All therapeutic options discussed are eligible for clinical use and may contribute to improve postoperative pain outcome after abdominal and thoracic surgical procedures. PMID:24903040
This study was conducted to determine if use of progressive muscle relaxation could decrease pain perception, analgesic use, and anxiety in post-operative abdominal surgery patients. Review of demographic data showed the experimental and control group to ...
A patient who presented to the emergency department with severe, recurrent abdominalpain demonstrated Chilaiditi's sign, a radiographic term for interposition of the hepatic flexure of the colon between the liver and right hemidiaphragm. Workup of this clinical case revealed anomalous colonic anatomy, which led to successful laparoscopic corrective surgery. We call attention to the potential importance of this sign when associated with clinically recurrent abdominalpain (Chilaiditi's syndrome).
Glatter, Robert D.; April, Robert S.; Miskovitz, Paul; Neistadt, L. Daniel
In a prospective study of 50 children who were admitted on more than one occasion with undiagnosed abdominalpain, the serum amylase was found to be normal in every case. One case of acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in over 8000 admissions. Serum amylase estimation did not contribute to the management of children with recurrent abdominalpain, and acute pancreatitis is so rare that routine amylase estimations cannot be recommended in paediatric surgical practice.
Wheeler, R. A.; Colquhoun-Flannery, W. A.; Johnson, C. D.
Patients undergoing appendicectomy, attending a gastroenterology clinic or admitted to hospital after self-poisoning have been examined using the same reliable measures to establish whether life events and psychiatric illness preceded abdominalpain. Life events involving threat were experienced more commonly by those with organic and functional abdominal illness, compared with community comparison subjects. The greatest difference was with severe events,
. The purpose of our study is to demonstrate the value of CT in the emergency department (ED) for patients with non-traumatic\\u000a abdominalpain. Between August 1998 and April 1999, 536 consecutive patients with non-traumatic abdominalpain were entered\\u000a into our study. Using a computer order entry system, physicians were asked to identify: (a) their most likely diagnosis; (b)\\u000a their
Max P. Rosen; Bettina Siewert; Daniel Z. Sands; Rebecca Bromberg; Jonathan Edlow; Vassilios Raptopoulos
Abdominalpain is a common symptom of various diseases and conditions of different aetiology. The aim of the interpretation of abdominalpain is to reach an early and accurate diagnosis, thereby enabling appropriate treatment. Acute abdominalpain may be the result of a number of abdominal, as well as extra-abdominal causes, lead poisoning being one such extra-abdominal cause. Here, we report the case of a 73-year-old male patient, admitted for clinical investigation of a suspected tumour of the colon, due to the presence of acute convulsive abdominalpain, without propagation, constipation, and anaemia. A history provided by the patient's family indicated his exposure to lead. The absence of any abdominal pathology, increased levels of lead in the blood (5.249 micromol/l), the presence of basophilically punctuated red blood cells, as well as a ring of sideroblasts, all indicated that the patient's symptoms (abdominalpain, constipation, and anaemia) were the result of acute lead intoxication. The patient's case history, including lead exposure, the absence of pathological findings via endoscopic and x-ray examination, laboratory findings (normocytic anaemia, an increased serum lead concentration, basophilically punctuated red blood cells, and the presence of an abundant ring of sideroblasts), all indicated that his symptoms were the result of lead intoxication. After six months of chelation therapy (EDTA), his symptoms completely disappeared, and his laboratory findings returned to normal. This presentation aims to underscore the importance of meticulous history taking, as well as of the selection of suitable laboratory and other auxiliary diagnostic methods in the correct diagnosis of this rare condition. PMID:16758853
This study examined the natural history of abdominalpain and factors associated with utilization. 626 adults with abdominalpain were identified from a HMO via a telephone survey. Demographics, characteristics of the pain, social support, psychological d...
This study explores the feasibility of a decision-support system for patients seeking care for acute abdominalpain, and, specifically the diagnosis of acute diverticulitis. We used a linear support vector machine (SVM) to separate diverticulitis from all other reported cases of abdominalpain and from the important differential diagnosis non-specific abdominalpain (NSAP). On a database containing 3337 patients, the SVM obtained results comparable to those of the doctors in separating diverticulitis or NSAP from the remaining diseases. The distinction between diverticulitis and NSAP was, however, substantially improved by the SVM. For this patient group, the doctors achieved a sensitivity of 0.714 and a specificity of 0.963. When adjusted to the physicians' results, the SVM sensitivity/specificity was higher at 0.714/0.985 and 0.786/0.963 respectively. Age was found as the most important discriminative variable, closely followed by C-reactive protein level and lower left side pain.
Lipomas are common benign tumors of mature adipose tissue, enclosed by thin fibrous capsules. They can occur on any part of the body; however, peritoneal lipoma is extremely rare. We encountered a case of a 75-year-old man presenting with intermittent abdominalpain, who had undergone right hemicolectomy due to colon cancer. Abdominal computerized tomography showed a well-defined heterogenous fatty mass measuring 4.5×3.5 cm in size, suggesting fat necrosis located in the abdominal wall. Laparotomy showed a very large soft mass of peritoneum. Pathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as lipoma containing fat necrosis located in parietal peritoneum not fixed to any organs, but with small bowel adhesion. Due to its rare etiologic origin and obscure cause of development, we report on a case of lipoma of parietal peritoneum causing abdominalpain. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2014;63:369-372). PMID:24953615
Bang, Chang Seok; Kim, Yeon Soo; Baik, Gwang Ho; Han, Sang Hak
The Dutch College of General Practitioners (NHG) guideline 'Abdominalpain in children' was published in September 2012. The guideline distinguishes between children with acute abdominalpain (? 1 week) and chronic abdominalpain (> 1 week). Abdominalpain can be caused by an underlying somatic condition or can have a functional nature. The chance of finding a somatic cause is far higher in children with acute abdominalpain than in children with chronic abdominalpain. In children with acute pain the emphasis is on diagnosis, whereas in children with chronic pain it is on treatment. Additional investigations in children without indications for a somatic cause can be limited to urinary investigation. Most children with functional abdominalpain can be treated by their GP. This treatment consists of explanation and advice to the patient and his or her parents, with the aim of providing reassurance. In children with continued severe functional abdominalpain, consultation with or possible referral to the paediatrician is advised. PMID:23575296
Eizenga, Wietze H; Gieteling, Marieke J; Berger, Marjolein Y; Geijer, Roeland M M
Abdominal aortic aneurysm has a population prevalence of 2-5% and mortality in case of rupture of 80%. Up to 91% of cases is accompanied with low back pain, so it is important to include aortic aneurysm in the differential diagnosis of chronic low back pain. Low back pain is one of the most frequent reasons for consultions in Services Emergency Hospital Emergency and Primary Care Services, with an estimated 80% of population having spinal pain at some point in their lives, with 90% of them having a benign course. PMID:24095169
BACKGROUND: Functional abdominalpain syndrome (FAPS) has chronic unexplained abdominalpain and is similar to the psychiatric diagnosis of somatoform pain disorder. A patient with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) also has chronic unexplained abdominalpain, and rectal hypersensitivity is observed in a majority of the patients. However, no reports have evaluated the visceral sensory function of FAPS precisely. We aimed
Functional abdominalpain (FAP) is a common complaint among children and adolescents. For many patients, symptoms exacerbate with eating. This review discusses findings concerning the role of diet in FAP. The foods that are discussed are divided into 2 major groups: food allergies or intolerances, which focus on milk, gluten, and fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols; and functional foods, which hone in on foods that reduce abdominalpain in adolescents such as fiber, peppermint oil, and probiotics. Lastly, we discuss the role of eating habits in FAP and how the physiology of eating may be the real culprit of symptoms associated with eating. PMID:23698023
A 13-year old boy presents with pain in the lower right abdomen, showing clinical signs of appendicitis. During McBurney' incision an appendix sana was seen. Histologic examination showed penetrating enterobiasis. This was treated with mebendazol. PMID:22551758
Thomassen, Irene; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; van de Poll, Marcel C G
A 33-year-old multiparous pregnant woman at 7 weeks gestation came to our clinic after 3 days of vomiting. She had been vomiting up to 7 times a day and had right lower quadrant pain radiating into her flank. She described the pain as continuous, severe, and "crampy" in nature. The patient also complained of a loss of appetite, nonbloody diarrhea, fever, chills, night sweats, and urinary urgency. She'd tried acetaminophen without relief and repeatedly took hot showers--for up to 6 hours each day--which she said temporarily improved her symptoms. PMID:24795910
A 15-year-old boy came to the emergency department with abdominalpain in the left lower quadrant. The medical history included surgery for malrotation of bowel in two of his brothers. A CT-abdomen showed malrotation of the colon with a left-sided appendicitis and polysplenia. An emergency laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. Recovery was uneventful. PMID:24618236
Raats, Jelle W; Donker, Jeroen M W; van der Laan, Lijckle
A 42-year-old female patient presented with acute pain of the upper abdomen, postprandial vomiting and hematemesis. An operation for gastric banding had been carried out 1 month prior to presentation. The abdominal X-ray and radioscopy revealed a posterior slippage of the gastric fundus following the gastric banding operation. PMID:21512762
Simon, M; Borberg, T; Jungbluth, T; Kovács, A; Barkhausen, J; Hunold, P
Pediatric abdominalpain can be a difficult condition to accurately assess for the nurse to determine whether the child's need is for teaching, treating, or transferring. This article describes the process as well as practical tips to be used by the nurse in the school setting. Distinguishing characteristics and findings, including key physical…
Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate visceral sensitivity and psychologic profiles in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders. Study design: We measured visceral perception in the stomach and in the rectum by using an electronic barostat. Psychologic questionnaires were completed. Ten children with recurrent abdominalpain (RAP)(8 female, mean age 11.3 ± 0.8 years), 10 children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
Carlo Di Lorenzo; Nader N. Youssef; Luther Sigurdsson; Lisa Scharff; Janet Griffiths; Arnold Wald
A multicentre study of computer aided diagnosis for patients with acute abdominalpain was performed in eight centres with over 250 participating doctors and 16,737 patients. Performance in diagnosis and decision making was compared over two periods: a test period (when a small computer system was provided to aid diagnosis) and a baseline period (before the system was installed). The
I D Adams; M Chan; P C Clifford; W M Cooke; V Dallos; F T de Dombal; M H Edwards; D M Hancock; D J Hewett; N McIntyre
The present study is a follow-up of 34 cases admitted to a paediatric department with recurrent abdominalpain (RAP) in 1942 and 1943. 45 persons without a history of RAP were selected at random and included as controls. Using a questionnaire, there was a higher incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms among persons with a history of RAP during childhood than among
Objective: To review the status of empirically supported treatments for recurrent abdominalpain (RAP). Methods: We identified studies based on literature search and contact with experts in the field and evalu- ated studies based on guidelines modified from the criteria established by the Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Results: Nine published intervention studies were identified that
ABSTRACT. Objective. The prevalence of psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents with functional re- current abdominalpain (RAP) is unknown. Our aim was to determine whether RAP is associated with psychiatric symptoms and disorders, anxious temperament, and functional impairment in pediatric primary care. Methods. Children and adolescents who were 8 to 15 years of age, inclusive, and presented with RAP
David A. Brent; John V. Campo; Mary Ehmann; Sarah Altman; Amanda Lucas
The results of treatment by reassurance and explanation of 30 children with recurrent abdominalpain have been compared with those in a group of 30 children seen earlier and given no such treatment. Most of the 19 treated children who responded to treatment did so more quickly than the untreated ones, and relapse did not occur in the treated group.
The AbdominalPain Diagnostic Program is designed to aid the Independent Duty Hospital Corpsman in diagnosing and treating male patients who present with the chief complaint of acute abdominalpain. The program considers only the five most common causes o...
This study aimed to identify clinically meaningful profiles of pain coping strategies used by youth with chronic abdominalpain (CAP). Participants (n = 699) were pediatric patients (ages 8–18 years) and their parents. Patients completed the Pain Response Inventory (PRI) and measures of somatic and depressive symptoms, disability, pain severity and pain efficacy, and perceived competence. Parents rated their children’s pain severity and coping efficacy. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the 13 PRI subscales identified pain coping profiles in Sample 1 (n = 311) that replicated in Sample 2 (n = 388). Evidence was found of external validity and distinctiveness of the profiles. The findings support a typology of pain coping that reflects the quality of patients’ pain mastery efforts and interpersonal relationships associated with pain coping. Results are discussed in relation to developmental processes, attachment styles, and treatment implications.
Walker, Lynn S.; Baber, Kari Freeman; Garber, Judy; Smith, Craig A.
A prospective study was made of 73 patients presenting in one year with abdominalpain provisionally diagnosed as of spinal origin. The criteria for audit of diagnosis and treatment are defined. The diagnosis was confirmed in 53 patients, 49 of whom had been treated with a lignocaine intercostal block in the relevant segment. Thirty-three of these (67.3%) had both complete and prolonged relief. It is suggested that the block causes interruption of a vicious circle of pain and muscle spasm in a 'spinal reflex pain syndrome'.
Idiopathic stabbing headache (ISH) is a primary headache syndrome characterized by transient, sharp, stabbing pains located in the first division of the trigeminal nerve. Reports of pediatric ISH are rare, and extracephalic pain in pediatric ISH is extremely rare. Here we report the case of a 7-year-old male patient suffering from frequent, short, stabbing headache, which was occasionally associated with abdominal and lower back pain. Various investigations were normal. He was diagnosed with ISH, and valproic acid was administered to relieve his headache and accompanying symptoms. Our case demonstrates that abdominal and lower back pain may occur in pediatric ISH. This case may provide new evidence linking ISH and migraine by showing that extracephalic symptoms accompanying ISH are similar to those of migraine. We hypothesize that the mechanism underlying the headache and abdominal and lower back pain associated with ISH may be similar to that of a migraine headache. Accumulating additional cases by asking specific questions regarding the presence of the unusual symptoms presented in our case may help to establish a detailed clinical profile of these unfamiliar and peculiar symptoms in the pediatric ISH population. PMID:24298007
Pacemaker migration is a rare, but important, complication of pacemaker insertion mainly documented in children. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who was admitted with right iliac fossa pain thought to be caused by appendicitis. She was noted to have both an epicardial and endocardial pacemaker in situ. Imaging and laparoscopy revealed migration of the epicardial pacemaker to the right iliac fossa. We describe the possible mechanisms of pacemaker migration.
Li, Kathleen S; Khwaja, Haris A; Hayat, Tayyib T; Asghar, Ayesha; Alsarakbi, Will; Kelley, Chris; Babu, Ekambaram D
This user's manual is designed to accompany the Medic - AbdominalPain Program for MS-DOS computers. The manual contains introductory information, a description of equipment needed, an overview of the different parts of the system, a tutorial, a list of t...
The objective of the study was to assess the validity and reliability of the visual analog scale (VAS) in the measurement of acute abdominalpain, and to identify the minimum clinically significant difference in VAS scores among patients with acute abdominalpain. The study was undertaken in preparation for a randomized clinical trial of opioid use in acute abdominalpain.
E. John Gallagher; Polly E. Bijur; Clarke Latimer; Wendy Silver
Constipation is a common health problem in our clinics. At first, we think that a physical examination and additional tests are not necessary. This condition may be considered unimportant initially, but it can give rise to ongoing pain, discomfort, for the many who suffer from it, and sometimes can present with severe clinical symptoms. We present a case of a patient presented with this condition, and after conducting a brief anamnesis and a complete and rapid physical examination, the patient was finally treated as a surgical emergency. PMID:23618721
García García, J I; Ventura Pérez, M; Peña Forcada, E; Domingo Regany, E
Objectives To test whether children with recurrent abdominalpain (RAP) exhibit subliminal (nonconscious) and supraliminal (conscious) attentional biases to pain-related words, and to determine correlates of these biases. Previous research indicates that individuals attend to disorder-relevant threat words, and in this study, attentional biases to disorder-relevant threat (pain), alternative threat (social threat), and neutral words were compared. Methods Participants were
Margaret C. Boyer; Bruce E. Compas; Catherine Stanger; Richard B. Colletti; Brian S. Konik; Sara B. Morrow; Alexandra H. Thomsen
This article reviews the literature related to functional abdominalpain (FAP) in childhood, including the definition, etiology, contributing factors, clinical diagnosis, therapy and management, and associated long-term health effects. FAP is determined when no specific structural, infectious, inflammatory, or biochemical cause can be found in a child with chronic pain. The presence of abdominalpain as an isolated symptom is more suggestive of FAP, whereas multiple symptoms are more likely to be due to an organic or biochemical condition. While the exact cause of FAP is not completely understood, most researchers and clinicians agree that it is of multi-factorial etiology coupled with an altered brain-gut interaction. Children are highly susceptible to influences around them and can experience pain in response to normal childhood feelings and experiences. Psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression are common in both children with FAP and their parents. Children with FAP tend to have low levels of self-directedness, internalize their feelings and worries, and ruminate over issues they cannot control. The biopsychosocial model has proved to be a worthwhile framework for children with FAP, as it recognizes the interaction between social and environmental influences, psychological processes, and the state of the body. Interventions that focus on the child's cognitive processes associated with abdominalpain and the family's response to the pain have increased efficacy over standard education and reassurance. Providing children and families with techniques to use when experiencing pain decreases alterations in normal daily activities and improves long-term health outcomes. PMID:17708185
Fifty cases of chronic non-specific abdominalpain were studied prospectively. All patients were subjected to a detailed clinical examination and investigations related to gastrointestinal system. A full psychiatric assessment was done with application of Goldberg's 60 item's General Health Questionnaire. Thirty four (68%) patients had psychiatric symptoms, of whom twenty six (52%) had a definite psychiatric illness while the remaining eight patients had organic illness. Sixteen patients (32%) had a pure organic illness. Dysthymic disorder constituted the main (22%) psychiatric illness.
Kachhwaha, S.S.; Chadda, V.S.; Singhwal, A.K.; Bhardwaj, P.
This paper reports a controlled prospective unselected real-time comparison of human and computer-aided diagnosis in a series of 304 patients suffering from abdominalpain of acute onset.The computing system's overall diagnostic accuracy (91·8%) was significantly higher than that of the most senior member of the clinical team to see each case (79·6%). It is suggested as a result of these
F. T. de Dombal; D. J. Leaper; J. R. Staniland; A. P. McCann; Jane C. Horrocks
INTRODUCTION Spigelian hernias represent 0.12–2.4% of all abdominal wall hernias. Its diagnosis is elusive and requires a high level of conjecture given the disease rarity, vague associated abdominal complaints and frequent lack of consistent physical findings. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 60-year-old woman presented with a history of chronic pain in the left lower side of the abdomen. The patient was treated for several diseases with no relief of symptoms. Abdominal ultrasound showed a Spigelian hernia in the lower left abdomen and surgery was scheduled for treatment. DISCUSSION A SH is generally an inter-parietal hernia, meaning that the pre-peritoneal fat and the hernia sac penetrate the trasnversus abdominis and internal oblique muscles but remain behind the external oblique aponeurosis. In most of the patients the lack of clinical signs demands radiological investigation. That's the importance of the high grade of suspicious of the disease during the physical exam. The surgical repair is necessary due to the high risk of incarceration-related complications which can occur in up to 21% of cases. CONCLUSION It's important to think in the Spigelian hernia as cause of lower abdominalpain to prompt indicate surgical repair and provide the patient's symptom relief. Also the type of repair is dependent on the surgeon's choice and also the means available in each center.
Siosaki, Marcos Duarte; Costa, Marcia Maria Hagge Coelho; Figueiredo, Higino Felipe; da Silva Junior, Messias Froes; da Silva Junior, Rubem Alves
The importance of bidirectional brain-gut interactions in gastrointestinal (GI) illness is increasingly recognized, most prominently in the area of functional GI syndromes such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia, and functional chest pain. The brain receives a constant stream of interoceptive input from the GI tract, integrates this information with other interoceptive information from the body and with contextual information from the environment, and sends an integrated response back to various target cells within the GI tract. This system is optimized to assure homeostasis of the GI tract during physiological perturbations and to adapt GI function to the overall state of the organism. In health, the great majority of interoceptive information reaching the brain is not consciously perceived but serves primarily as input to autonomic reflex pathways. In patients with functional abdominalpain syndromes, conscious perception of interoceptive information from the GI tract, or recall of interoceptive memories of such input, can occur in the form of constant or recurrent discomfort or pain. This is often associated with alterations in autonomic nervous system output and with emotional changes. A model is proposed that incorporates reported peripheral and central abnormalities in patients with IBS, extrapolates similar alterations in brain-gut interactions to patients with other chronic abdominalpain syndromes, and provides novel treatment targets.
The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the pathophysiologic processes of severe lower-abdominal or inguinal pain in high-performance athletes. We evaluated 276 patients; 175 underwent pelvic floor repairs. Of the 157 athletes who had not undergone previous surgery, 124 (79%) participated at a professional or other highly competitive level, and 138 patients (88%) had adductor pain that accompanied the lower-abdominal or inguinal pain. More patients underwent related adductor releases during the later operative period in the series. Evaluation revealed 38 other abnormalities, including severe hip problems and malignancies. There were 152 athletes (97%) who returned to previous levels of performance. The syndrome was uncommon in women and the results were less predictable in nonathletes. A distinct syndrome of lower-abdominal/adductor pain in male athletes appears correctable by a procedure designed to strengthen the anterior pelvic floor. The location and pattern of pain and the operative success suggest the cause to be a combination of abdominal hyperextension and thigh hyperabduction, with the pivot point being the pubic symphysis. Diagnosis of "athletic pubalgia" and surgery should be limited to a select group of high-performance athletes. The consideration of other causes of groin pain in the patient is critical. PMID:10653536
Meyers, W C; Foley, D P; Garrett, W E; Lohnes, J H; Mandlebaum, B R
Study Design Resident's case problem. Background The purpose of this report was to describe (1) the clinical reasoning that led a clinician to identify an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in a patient with low back pain requiring immediate medical referral, and (2) an evidence-based approach to clinical evaluation of patients with suspected AAA. Diagnosis The patient was unable to identify a specific mechanism of injury for his low back pain, lacked aggravating/easing factors for his symptoms, and complained of night pain and an inability to ease his symptoms with position changes. While the patient's symptoms remained unchanged during physical examination of the lumbar spine and hip, abdominal palpation revealed a strong, nontender pulsation over the midline of the upper and lower abdominal quadrants. Due to concern for an AAA, the patient was immediately referred to his physician. Subsequent computed tomography imaging revealed a prominent AAA, which measured up to 5.5 cm in greatest dimension and extended from below the renal arteries to the bifurcation of the iliac arteries. The patient initially deferred surgical intervention but eventually consented 6 months later, after repeat computed tomography imaging revealed that the AAA had progressed to 6.7 cm in greatest dimension. Discussion It is essential for physical therapists to be familiar with a diagnostic pathway to help identify AAA in patients presenting with apparent musculoskeletal complaints. Knowledge of the risk factors for AAA, understanding how to screen for nonmusculoskeletal symptoms, and a basic competence in abdominal palpation and how to interpret findings will help with the clinician's clinical decision making. Level of Evidence Differential diagnosis, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2014;44(7):500-507. Epub 25 April 2014. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.4935. PMID:24766359
Van Wyngaarden, Joshua J; Ross, Michael D; Hando, Benjamin R
This week's In the News discusses the recent decision to reopen the investigation into Bloody Sunday. The nine resources discussed provide background information, analysis, and commentary. On January 30, 1972 British paratroopers shot dead thirteen people taking part in a protest march in the Northern Ireland city of Derry. The soldiers insisted that they had come under attack by members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and only fired at those possessing weapons. This claim was and continues to be strongly denied by march participants and eyewitnesses. Bloody Sunday has remained an emotive issue in Ireland, partially because of intense dissatisfaction with the official investigation conducted at the time. In a hastily researched report, Lord Widgery granted that none of the victims could be proved to have had weapons when they were shot, but there was "a strong suspicion that some others had been firing weapons or handling bombs in the course of the afternoon." After years of prodding by Catholic nationalists in the North and the government of the Irish Republic, the British government, led by Prime Minister Tony Blair, has announced that they will reopen the investigation into Bloody Sunday as part of their larger efforts to secure a lasting peace in Northern Ireland.
Chest and abdominalpain are the most common reasons that persons aged 15 years and over visit the emergency department (ED). Because EDs provide both emergency and nonemergency care, visits for these symptoms may vary in their acuity. Advanced medical im...
Ectopic deciduosis is most often located in the ovaries, cervix and uterus, but can also be located on peritoneal surfaces of pelvic- and abdominal organs. The findings from surgical biopsies taken during pregnancy are mostly asymptomatic and incidental. Deciduosis of the appendix is rare, but it is a known differential diagnosis to acute appendicitis in pregnancy. We report a 27-year-old woman, Gravida 1, Para 0 in gestational week 35, who presented with acute right abdominalpain. She underwent an acute caesarean section for possible abruptio placentae. Acute appendicitis was a differential diagnosis. Peroperative findings revealed an inflamed and enlarged appendix suspicious for tumour. A pathological examination of the appendix showed decidual changes through the entire wall without signs of appendiceal endometriosis. In conclusion, symptomatic ectopic deciduosis in pregnancy is rare and may imitate acute appendicitis. This is an important differential diagnosis in pregnant women with tumour-suspect findings. PMID:17948611
Models of stress-induced hyperalgesia state that exposure to stress can exaggerate subsequent pain experiences. Studies using both animal and human subjects have shown evidence for hyperalgesia as a function of stress [e.g., Jorum E. Analgesia or hyperalgesia following stress correlates with emotional behavior in rats. Pain 1988;32:341-48; Peckerman A, Hurwitz BE, Saab PG, Llabre MM, McCabe PM, Schneiderman N. Stimulus dimensions of the cold pressor test and the associated patterns of cardiovascular response. Psychophysiology 1994;31:282-90; Gameiro et al. Nociception and anxiety-like behavior in rats submitted to different periods of restraint stress. Physiol. Behav. 2006;87:643-49; Lucas et al. Visceral pain and public speaking stress: neuroendocrine and immune cell responses in healthy subjects. Brain Behav. Immun. 2006;20:49-56]. However, the role of stress in pediatric pain is not well understood. This study examined stress reactivity and pain tolerance and sensitivity in a population of children with Recurrent abdominalpain (RAP). Forty-nine children meeting criteria for RAP (28 female; mean age 13years; range 9-17years) were randomly assigned to either a condition in which they completed an experimental stressor paradigm (stress interview, serial subtraction task) followed by a pain task (cold pressor) or a condition in which they received the pain task prior to the stress tasks. Children who underwent the stress tasks before the pain task exhibited lower levels of pain tolerance than those who received the pain task first (p<.01); no differences were found between the two groups in pain threshold or pain intensity ratings. Further, pain tolerance was not related to individual differences in physiological reactivity (heart rate change) to the stressor. The present research demonstrates the first evidence of the occurrence of stress-induced hyperalgesia in a pediatric pain population. PMID:17716818
Dufton, Lynette M; Konik, Brian; Colletti, Richard; Stanger, Catherine; Boyer, Margaret; Morrow, Sara; Compas, Bruce E
To assess prospectively the usefulness of hepatobiliary imaging in acute abdominalpain (72 hr or less), 36 patients were scintigraphed. Before the procedure, the referring physician completed Part I of a questionnaire indicating his differential diagnosis, diagnostic confidence (expressed as a percentage), and therapeutic plan. Immediately after the test, the same physician with knowledge of the results, completed Part II of the questionnaire indicating again his differential diagnosis, diagnostic confidence, and therapeutic plan. The impact of the imaging on the physician's diagnostic confidence was expressed as a log-likelihood-ratio (LLR).
This prospective study of children with recurrent abdominalpain (N = 133; ages 8–15 years) used path analysis to examine relations among dispositional pain beliefs and coping styles, cognitions and behavior related to a specific pain episode, and short- and long-term outcomes. Children believing they could not reduce or accept pain appraised their episode-specific coping ability as low and reported passive coping behavior. Dispositional passive coping had direct effects on both episode-specific passive coping and long-term symptoms and disability. Accommodative coping (acceptance and self-encouragement) was associated with reduced episode-specific distress, which itself predicted reduced depressive symptoms 3 months later. Results suggest that coping-skill interventions for children with chronic pain should target reductions in passive coping and consider the potential benefits of accommodative coping strategies.
The Endosonography for Right Sided and Acute Upper Intestinal Misery (EFRAIM) study indicates that the yield of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is equivalent if not superior to upper endoscopy combined with transabdominal ultrasound in patients presenting with acute discomfort. Furthermore, this strategy may be more cost effective as EUS simultaneously enables assessment of intraluminal disease as well as extra intestinal pathology. These results are in sync with prior studies demonstrating the hegemony of EUS in the assessment of pancreaticobiliary disease and its role in the assessment of enigmatic chronic abdominalpain. Nevertheless, EUS does not permit assessment for appendicitis or genitourinary catastrophe. Thus a careful history and physical examination to localize pain to the right upper quadrant and epigastrium is essential.
Introduction. Most spinal-cord-injured patients have constipation. One-third develop chronic abdominalpain 10 years or more after injury. Nevertheless, very little is known about the nature of abdominalpain after spinal cord injury (SCI). It may be neuropathic or caused by constipation. Aim. To compare characteristics of abdominalpain in SCI with able-bodied with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). Subjects and Methods. 21 SCI and 15 CIC patients were referred for treatment of bowel symptoms. Constipation-related symptoms were assessed with the Cleveland Constipation Scoring System and the International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Bowel Function Data Set. Characteristics of abdominalpain were described using the Brief Danish Pain Questionnaire. Total gastrointestinal transit times (GITT) were measured by radiopaque markers. Results. Seventeen (81%) SCI and 14 (93%) CIC patients reported abdominalpain or discomfort within the last month (P = 0.38). Pain was considered more intense by CIC than by SCI patients (P < 0.05). Only minor differences were found in patient's qualitative description of abdominalpain or in the location of pain. In neither SCI nor CIC was pain associated with GITT. Conclusion. Most characteristics of abdominalpain among SCI patients resemble those of CIC. This indicates that constipation is a major cause of pain after SCI. PMID:24159329
Faaborg, Pia Møller; Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Christensen, Peter; Krogh, Klaus
Introduction. Most spinal-cord-injured patients have constipation. One-third develop chronic abdominalpain 10 years or more after injury. Nevertheless, very little is known about the nature of abdominalpain after spinal cord injury (SCI). It may be neuropathic or caused by constipation. Aim. To compare characteristics of abdominalpain in SCI with able-bodied with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). Subjects and Methods. 21 SCI and 15 CIC patients were referred for treatment of bowel symptoms. Constipation-related symptoms were assessed with the Cleveland Constipation Scoring System and the International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Bowel Function Data Set. Characteristics of abdominalpain were described using the Brief Danish Pain Questionnaire. Total gastrointestinal transit times (GITT) were measured by radiopaque markers. Results. Seventeen (81%) SCI and 14 (93%) CIC patients reported abdominalpain or discomfort within the last month (P = 0.38). Pain was considered more intense by CIC than by SCI patients (P < 0.05). Only minor differences were found in patient's qualitative description of abdominalpain or in the location of pain. In neither SCI nor CIC was pain associated with GITT. Conclusion. Most characteristics of abdominalpain among SCI patients resemble those of CIC. This indicates that constipation is a major cause of pain after SCI.
Objective: To assess the potential efficacy, tolerability, and safety of citalopram in the treatment of functional pediatric recurrent abdominalpain and comorbid internalizing disorders. Method: Twenty-five clinically referred children and adolescents with recurrent abdominalpain aged 7 to 18 years, inclusive, participated in a 12-week,…
Campo, John V.; Perel, James; Lucas, Amanda; Bridge, Jeff; Ehmann, Mary; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Brent, David A.
Background & Aims: The mechanisms underlying abdominalpain perception in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are poorly understood. Intestinal mast cell infiltration may perturb nerve function leading to symptom perception. We assessed colonic mast cell infiltration, mediator release, and spatial interactions with mucosal innervation and their correlation with abdominalpain in IBS patients. Methods: IBS patients were diagnosed according to Rome
Giovanni Barbara; Vincenzo Stanghellini; Roberto De Giorgio; Cesare Cremon; Graeme S. Cottrell; Donatella Santini; Gianandrea Pasquinelli; Antonio M. Morselli-Labate; Eileen F. Grady; Nigel W. Bunnett; Stephen M. Collins; Roberto Corinaldesi
Objective. To determine whether medi- cally unexplained recurrent abdominalpain (RAP) in childhood predicts abdominalpain, irritable bowel syn- drome (IBS), other somatic complaints, and psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young adulthood. Methods. A sample of 28 young adults evaluated for RAP between the ages of 6 and 17 years were compared with 28 individually matched former childhood partici- pants
John V. Campo; Carlo Di Lorenzo; Laurel Chiappetta; D. Kathleen Colborn; J. Carlton Gartner; Paul Gaffney; Samuel Kocoshis; David Brent
Objective: To determine the causes of acute abdominalpain in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to compare the clinical and laboratory data, especially antiphospholipid antibodies and the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), between lupus enteritis (gastrointestinal vasculitis) and acute abdominalpain without lupus enteritis in patients with SLE.Methods: A retrospective study was carried out for all patients admitted with SLE
C-K Lee; M S Ahn; E Y Lee; J H Shin; Y-S Cho; H K Ha; B Yoo; H-B Moon
Unexplained, biliary-type abdominalpain is often attributed to an abnormal pressure profile of the sphincter of Oddi. In spite of this assumption, the true prevalence of this type of motor dysfunction among cholecystectomized patients with unexplained abdominalpain is not known. We studied 64 postcholecystectomy patients who were thought to have sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Radiologically, other than a dilated
AIM: To assess the effects of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) diet supplement in pediatric chronic abdominalpain (CAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: A randomized, double-blind pilot study was performed in sixty children (8-16 years) with functional bowel disorders, such as CAP or IBS, diagnosed according to Rome III criteria. All patients underwent ultrasound, blood and stool examinations to rule out any organic disease. Patients were allocated to receive PHGG at dosage of 5 g/d (n = 30) or placebo (fruit-juice n = 30) for 4 wk. The evaluation of the efficacy of fiber supplement included IBS symptom severity score (Birmingham IBS Questionnaire), severity of abdominalpain (Wong-Baker Face Pain Rating Score) and bowel habit (Bristol Stool Scale). Symptom scores were completed at 2, 4, and 8 wk. The change from baseline in the symptom severity scale at the end of treatment and at 4 wk follow-up after treatment was the primary endpoint. The secondary endpoint was to evaluate compliance to supplementation with the PHGG in the pediatric population. Differences within groups during the treatment period and follow-up were evaluated by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: The results of the study were assessed considering some variables, such as frequency and intensity of symptoms with modifications of the bowel habit. Both groups were balanced for baseline characteristics and all patients completed the study. Group A (PHGG group) presented a higher level of efficacy compared to group B (control group), (43% vs 5%, P = 0.025) in reducing clinical symptoms with modification of Birmingham IBS score (median 0 ± 1 vs 4 ± 1, P = 0.025), in intensity of CAP assessed with the Wong-Baker Face Pain Rating Score and in normalization of bowel habit evaluated with the Bristol Stool Scale (40% vs 13.3%, P = 0.025). In IBS subgroups, statistical analysis shown a tendency toward normalization of bowel movements, but there was no difference in the prevalence of improvement in two bowel habit subsets. PHGG was therefore better tolerated without any adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Although the cause of pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders is not known, the results show that complementary therapy with PHGG may have beneficial effects on symptom control.
Romano, Claudio; Comito, Donatella; Famiani, Annalisa; Calamara, Sabrina; Loddo, Italia
Isolated spleen metastasis (ISM) in general is very rare with a reported incidence of 2.3-7.1% for all solid cancers. Lung cancers rarely metastasise to the spleen. It is very atypical for ISM to be the initial presentation of lung cancer as well. In our case, a 55-year-old woman presented with a 3-week history of left-sided abdominal fullness and dull pain. Workup was remarkable for splenic mass that turns out to be adenocarcinoma with unknown primary tumour. Biopsy of the mass with immunohistochemistry and whole body position emission tomography scan was able to identify lung cancer as the primary tumour. The patient underwent splenectomy, wedge resection of the lung mass along with short-course of chemotherapy. She never had any recurrences since then. PMID:24835801
Eisa, Naseem; Alhafez, Bishr; Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Alraies, M Chadi
A 28-year-old Malay woman presented with recurrent abdominalpain for five years. She had delivered her child seven months earlier. She was found to have bicytopenia, with a haemoglobin level of 7.9 g/dL and a platelet count of 85 x 10(9)/L. Computed tomography revealed a wandering spleen. Complications of a wandering spleen, for which splenectomy is advocated, include functional asplenia (due to torsion of the splenic pedicle), splenic infarction or splenic vessel thrombosis. A splenectomy was performed and at operation, splenomegaly with a long mesentery was found. Splenic histology was negative for malignancy. The bicytopenia resolved postoperatively, and she remains well. PMID:17384868
Clinical diagnosis of the cause of abdominalpain in a pregnant patient is particularly difficult because of multiple confounding factors related to normal pregnancy. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is useful in evaluation of abdominalpain during pregnancy, as it offers the benefit of cross-sectional imaging without ionizing radiation or evidence of harmful effects to the fetus. MR imaging is often performed specifically for diagnosis of possible appendicitis, which is the most common illness necessitating emergency surgery in pregnant patients. However, it is important to look for pathologic processes outside the appendix that may be an alternative source of abdominalpain. Numerous entities other than appendicitis can cause abdominalpain during pregnancy, including processes of gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, genitourinary, vascular, and gynecologic origin. MR imaging is useful in diagnosing the cause of abdominalpain in a pregnant patient because of its ability to safely demonstrate a wide range of pathologic conditions in the abdomen and pelvis beyond appendicitis. PMID:22411935
Spalluto, Lucy B; Woodfield, Courtney A; DeBenedectis, Carolynn M; Lazarus, Elizabeth
Imperforate hymen is a rare condition that presents with amenorrhea, cyclical abdominalpains and urine retention among pubertal girls. A 14 year old girl with imperforate hymen underwent hymenotomy for hematocolpometra, having presented with abdominalpains and tenesmus.
Imperforate hymen is a rare condition that presents with amenorrhea, cyclical abdominalpains and urine retention among pubertal girls. A 14 year old girl with imperforate hymen underwent hymenotomy for hematocolpometra, having presented with abdominalpains and tenesmus. PMID:24009804
Background Abdominalpain is a common cause for emergency admission. While some patients have serious abdominal pathology, a significant group of those patients have no specific cause for the pain. This study was conducted to identify those who have non-specific abdominalpain who can be either admitted short term for observation or reassured and discharged for outpatient management. Patients and methods A prospective documentation of clinical and laboratory data was obtained on a consecutive cohort of 286 patients who were admitted to a surgical unit over a nine month period with symptoms of abdominalpain regarded severe enough for full assessment in the casualty department and admission to a surgical ward. The patients were followed until a definite diagnosis was made or the patient's condition and abdominalpain improved and the patient discharged. The hospital where the study took place is a small peripheral general hospital draining a population of 120,000 people in a rural area in New Zealand. Results There were 286 admissions to the emergency department. Logistic regression multivariate statistical analysis showed that guarding raised white cells count, tachycardia and vomiting were the only variables associated with significant pathology. Conclusion Patients with no vomiting, no guarding, who have normal pulse rates and normal white cell counts are unlikely to have significant pathology requiring further active intervention either medical or surgical.
A 38-year-old woman presented with 2 days history of left-flank pain. She had similar episodes of abdominalpain as well as chest pain several times, but symptoms disappeared spontaneously. Each time she developed pain, there was no fever. After ruling out common causes of recurrent abdominalpain, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) was considered as a potential diagnosis. Genetic tests revealed multiple heterozygote mutations, which may be associated with FMF. Patients with Mediterranean fever mutations may present with atypical presentations without fever, like in this case. Astute clinical suspicion is required to make an accurate diagnosis.
We describe a 47-year-old patient with chronic anaemia with basophilic stippling of erythrocytes, recurrent abdominal colics, discoloration of gums, sensitive polyneuropathy to the four limbs, hyperuricaemia, hepatosteatosis with raised transaminases, and a long ignored history of lead exposure in a battery recycling plant. The diagnosis of poisoning was confirmed by high lead levels in the blood and urine, decreased erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), raised erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZP), and elevated urinary excretion of porphyrins. Chelation with EDTA resulted in increased urinary lead excretion, gradual improvement of the clinical picture, and progressive normalization of lead biomarkers. The case highlights the importance of occupational anamnesis for the diagnosis of lead poisoning, an uncommon condition which may mimic a variety of internal and surgical diseases. Since antiquity, lead has been extensively mined, produced, and utilized in a variety of industrial settings, such as metallurgy, construction, production of plastics, ceramics, paints and pigments. Lead and its compounds are systemic toxicants, and a wide range of adverse health effects (including haematological, gastrointestinal, neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular, renal, endocrine, and reproductive disorders) has been observed in exposed workers. The general population (particularly children) may also be exposed to toxic lead levels due to air, soil, food and water contamination. Thanks to the improvement of workplace hygienic conditions, the pathological picture of occupational lead poisoning (plumbism, saturnism) has gradually become less serious, at least in the most industrialized countries, and has progressively changed into aspecific, subclinical manifestations. We describe here an unusual case (nowadays) of anaemia and recurrent abdominalpain due to lead poisoning from battery recycling. PMID:17405745
Fonte, Rodolfo; Agosti, Antonio; Scafa, Fabrizio; Candura, Stefano M
Objective: To examine relationships among coping, stress responses, pain, somatic symptoms, and anxious\\/ depressed symptoms in a sample of children and adolescents with recurrent abdominalpain (RAP). Method: We assessed parents' reports of coping and involuntary responses to stress in relation to pain, somatic symptoms, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in a sample of 174 children and adolescents with
Alexandra Harding Thomsen; Bruce E. Compas; Richard B. Colletti; Catherine Stanger; Margaret C. Boyer; Brian S. Konik
The present review summarizes many of the major research trends investigated in the past five years regarding pediatric functional abdominalpain, and also summarizes the primary related findings from the authors’ research program. Specific areas discussed based on work within the authors’ group include familial illness patterns, genetics, traits, and mechanisms or processes related to abdominalpain. Topics covered from research published in the past five years include prevalence and cost, longitudinal follow-up, overlap with other disorders, etiology and mechanisms behind functional abdominalpain and treatment studies. It is hoped that findings from this work in abdominalpain will be interpreted as a framework for understanding the processes by which other pain phenomena and, more broadly, reactions to any physical state, can be developed and maintained in children. The present article concludes with recommendations for clinical practice and research.
Abstract Objective To (i) describe the proportion of children presenting with abdominalpain diagnosed by the GP as functional abdominalpain (GPFAP); (ii) evaluate the association between patient and disease characteristics and GPFAP; (iii) describe diagnostic management by the GP in children presenting with abdominalpain, and (iv) evaluate whether children with GPFAP fulfill diagnostic criteria for functional abdominalpain (FAP) as described in current literature: chronic abdominalpain (CAP) and the Rome III criteria (PRC-III) for abdominalpain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting General practices in the Netherlands. Subjects 305 children aged 4–17 years consulting for abdominalpain. Main outcome measures GPFAP, CAP, FGIDs. Results 89.2% of children were diagnosed with GPFAP. Headaches and bloating were positively associated with GPFAP whereas fever and > 3 red flag symptoms were inversely associated. Additional diagnostic tests were performed in 26.8% of children. Less than 50% of all children with GPFAP fulfilled criteria for CAP and FGIDs; in 47.9% of patients the duration of symptoms at presentation was less than three months. Conclusions In almost 90% of children included in this study the GP suspected no organic cause for the abdominalpain. GPs diagnose FAP in children without alarm symptoms and order diagnostic testing in one out of four children presenting with abdominalpain. No difference was found in GPs’ management between children with a diagnosis of GPFAP and other diagnoses. Only about half of the children with a GP diagnosis of FAP fulfilled time-criteria of FAP as defined in the literature.
Background Factors associated with abdominalpain in gastroparesis are incompletely evaluated and comparisons of pain versus other symptoms are limited. This study related pain to clinical factors in gastroparesis and contrasted pain/discomfort- with nausea/vomiting-predominant disease. Methods Clinical and scintigraphy data were compared in 393 patients from 7 centers of the NIDDK Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium with moderate-severe (Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders Symptoms [PAGI-SYM] score ?3) vs. none-mild (PAGI-SYM <3) upper abdominalpain and predominant pain/discomfort vs. nausea/vomiting. Key Results Upper abdominalpain was moderate-severe in 261 (66%). Pain/discomfort was predominant in 81 (21%); nausea/vomiting was predominant in 172 (44%). Moderate-severe pain was more prevalent with idiopathic gastroparesis and with lack of infectious prodrome (P?0.05) and correlated with scores for nausea/vomiting, bloating, lower abdominalpain/discomfort, bowel disturbances, and opiate and antiemetic use (P<0.05) but not gastric emptying or diabetic neuropathy or control. Gastroparesis severity, quality of life, and depression and anxiety were worse with moderate-severe pain (P?0.008). Factors associated with moderate-severe pain were similar in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. Compared to predominant nausea/vomiting, predominant pain/discomfort was associated with impaired quality of life, greater opiate, and less antiemetic use (P<0.01), but similar severity and gastric retention. Conclusions & Inferences Moderate-severe abdominalpain is prevalent in gastroparesis, impairs quality of life, and is associated with idiopathic etiology, lack of infectious prodrome, and opiate use. Pain is predominant in one fifth of gastroparetics. Predominant pain has at least as great an impact on disease severity and quality of life as predominant nausea/vomiting.
Many of the abdominal foreign bodies are due to accidental ingestion. Our objective in this case report is to emphasize the importance of the enquiry about the foreign body in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominalpain. According to our knowledge, this is the first report of bowel perforation caused by paper ingestion. A 14-year-old boy with abdominalpain underwent exploratory laparotomy and was found to have abdominal pus and ileal perforation. A crumpled paper was found at the site of perforation. Postoperative enquiry revealed that the patient had ingested 10 crumpled papers. We highlight that recording the history is an important aspect in the management of patients with acute abdominalpain and that foreign bodies should be included in its differential diagnosis.
This case report describes a young male patient with recurrent abdominalpain persisting for more than 16 months. Clinical investigations showed signs of inflammation and pancytopenia. A diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) was made 9 months after the onset of the abdominalpain, following endoscopic examinations that revealed evidence of a previously unknown hemorrhage. Regular monitoring indicated that the abdominalpain was associated with elevations in lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive proteins, and D-dimer levels. The patient started treatment with the complement inhibitor eculizumab shortly after it was approved for use in Japanese PNH patients with hemolysis. Resolution of the abdominalpain and normalization of clinical parameters were noted within 3 weeks from treatment initiation. PMID:24587926
The educational objectives for this self-assessment module are for the participant to exercise, self-assess, and improve his or her understanding of the imaging evaluation of abdominalpain during pregnancy. PMID:20489115
Woodfield, Courtney A; Lazarus, Elizabeth; Chen, Karen C; Mayo-Smith, William W
As part of a large, prospective study we investigated the prevalenceHelicobacter pylori serum antibodies in children with recurrent abdominalpain (RAP). All patients suffered from recurrent bouts of abdominalpain for at least 6 months and ranged in age from 6 to 12 years.H. pylori antibodies were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence ofH. pylori antibodies in the
S. B. van der Meer; P. P. Forget; R. J. L. F. Loffeld; E. Stobberingh; R. H. Kuijten; J. W. Arends
Wandering spleen is a rare occurrence where the spleen normal fixation to the abdominal wall is lost and thus allowed to change in position. We report a case of a child who presented with acute abdominalpain secondary to a wandering spleen complicated by torsion of its vascular pedicle. The diagnosis was promptly made using computed tomography and managed with splenectomy. PMID:24791368
Llorens Marina, Carlos I; Cedeño, Alex; Lugo-Vicente, Humberto; Chapel, Cristel; Rivera, Glorimar; Diaz, Antonio
Introduction: Patients with abdominalpain often return multiple times despite no definitive diagnosis. Our objective was to determine if repeat emergency department (ED) use among patients with non-specific abdominalpain might be associated with a diagnosis of moderate to severe depressive disorder. Methods: We screened 987 ED patients for major depression during weekday daytime hours from June 2011 through November 2011 using a validated depression screening tool, the PHQ-9. Each subject was classified as either no depression, mild depression or moderate/severe depression based on the screening tool. Within this group, we identified 83 patients with non-specific abdominalpain by either primary or secondary diagnosis. Comparing depressed patients versus non-depressed patients, we analyzed demographic characteristics and number of prior ED visits in the past year. Results: In patients with non-specific abdominalpain, 61.9% of patients with moderate or severe depression (PHQ9?10) had at least one visit to our ED for the same complaint within a 365-day period, as compared to 29.2% of patients with no depression (PHQ9<5), (p=0.013). Conclusion: Repeat ED use among patients with non-specific abdominalpain is associated with moderate to severe depressive disorder. Patients with multiple visits for abdominalpain may benefit from targeted ED screening for depression. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(3):325–328.
Meltzer, Andrew Charles; Bregman, Benjamin; Blanchard, Janice
Introduction: Patients with abdominalpain often return multiple times despite no definitive diagnosis. Our objective was to determine if repeat emergency department (ED) use among patients with non-specific abdominalpain might be associated with a diagnosis of moderate to severe depressive disorder. Methods: We screened 987 ED patients for major depression during weekday daytime hours from June 2011 through November 2011 using a validated depression screening tool, the PHQ-9. Each subject was classified as either no depression, mild depression or moderate/severe depression based on the screening tool. Within this group, we identified 83 patients with non-specific abdominalpain by either primary or secondary diagnosis. Comparing depressed patients versus non-depressed patients, we analyzed demographic characteristics and number of prior ED visits in the past year. Results: In patients with non-specific abdominalpain, 61.9% of patients with moderate or severe depression (PHQ9?10) had at least one visit to our ED for the same complaint within a 365-day period, as compared to 29.2% of patients with no depression (PHQ9<5), (p=0.013). Conclusion: Repeat ED use among patients with non-specific abdominalpain is associated with moderate to severe depressive disorder. Patients with multiple visits for abdominalpain may benefit from targeted ED screening for depression. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(3):325-328.]. PMID:24868312
Meltzer, Andrew Charles; Bregman, Benjamin; Blanchard, Janice
OBJECTIVES Unexplained abdominalpain in children has been shown to be related to parental responses to symptoms. This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to improve outcomes in idiopathic childhood abdominalpain by altering parental responses to pain and children's ways of coping and thinking about their symptoms. METHODS Two hundred children with persistent functional abdominalpain and their parents were randomly assigned to one of two conditions—a three-session intervention of cognitive-behavioral treatment targeting parents' responses to their children's pain complaints and children's coping responses, or a three-session educational intervention that controlled for time and attention. Parents and children were assessed at pretreatment, and 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months post-treatment. Outcome measures were child and parent reports of child pain levels, function, and adjustment. Process measures included parental protective responses to children's symptom reports and child coping methods. RESULTS Children in the cognitive-behavioral condition showed greater baseline to follow-up decreases in pain and gastrointestinal symptom severity (as reported by parents) than children in the comparison condition (time × treatment interaction, P < 0.01). Also, parents in the cognitive-behavioral condition reported greater decreases in solicitous responses to their child's symptoms compared with parents in the comparison condition (time × treatment interaction, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS An intervention aimed at reducing protective parental responses and increasing child coping skills is effective in reducing children's pain and symptom levels compared with an educational control condition.
Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Walker, Lynn S.; Romano, Joan M.; Christie, Dennis L.; Youssef, Nader; DuPen, Melissa M.; Feld, Andrew D.; Ballard, Sheri A.; Welsh, Ericka M.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Young, Melissa; Coffey, Melissa J.; Whitehead, William E.
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a unique type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma with a constellation of clinical symptoms and signs, including weight loss, fever, chills, anemia, skin rash, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, thrombocytopenia and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. The histological features of AITL are also distinctive. Pure red cell aplasia is a bone marrow failure characterized by progressive normocytic anemia and reticulocytopenia without leucopenia or thrombocytopenia. However, AITL with abdominalpain and pure red cell aplasia has rarely been reported. Here, we report a rare case of AITL-associated pure red cell aplasia with abdominalpain. The diagnosis was verified by a biopsy of the enlarged abdominal lymph nodes with immunohistochemical staining.
There has been increasing interest within the European sports medicine community regarding the etiology and treatment of groin pain in the athlete. Groin pain is most commonly caused by musculotendinous strains of the adductors and other muscles crossing the hip joint, but may also be related to abdominal wall abnormalities. Cases may be termed \\
Dean C. Taylor; William C. Meyers; Joseph A. Moylan; John Lohnes; Frank H. Bassett; William E. Garrett
Background A 33-year-old white female with a history of cholecystectomy presented to the emergency department with intermittent severe abdominalpain radiating from the left upper quadrant to the right upper quadrant, associated with nausea and emesis. Three weeks previously the patient had presented to the emergency department with similar pain in the abdomen. Laboratory investigations had revealed elevated bilirubin, transaminase,
Background & Aims: The mechanisms underlying ab- dominal pain perception in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are poorly understood. Intestinal mast cell infiltra- tion may perturb nerve function leading to symptom perception. We assessed colonic mast cell infiltration, mediator release, and spatial interactions with mucosal innervation and their correlation with abdominalpain in IBS patients. Methods: IBS patients were diagnosed ac-
GIOVANNI BARBARA; VINCENZO STANGHELLINI; ROBERTO DE GIORGIO; CESARE CREMON; GRAEME S. COTTRELL; DONATELLA SANTINI; GIANANDREA PASQUINELLI; ANTONIO M. MORSELLI-LABATE; EILEEN F. GRADY; NIGEL W. BUNNETT; STEPHEN M. COLLINS; ROBERTO CORINALDESI
This paper reviews current knowledge regarding recurrent abdominalpain (RAP) and the physiological, dietary, and psychological variables that may have some influence in pain episodes. Emphasis is placed on psychological factors and studies that have investigated psychological treatment modalities. There is some limited evidence of physiological dysfunction in RAP patients, and while some researchers have asserted that RAP may be
Background. Posterolateral thoracotomy can produce stretching of\\/or damage to the intercostal nerves and their branches. To assess intercostal nerve impairment after operation, we measured the superficial abdominal reflexes, which are mediated, at least in part, by the most inferior intercostal nerves.Methods. Using electrophysiologic techniques, we made recordings from the left and right abdominal walls to study the responses evoked by
Fabrizio Benedetti; Martina Amanzio; Caterina Casadio; Pier Luigi Filosso; Massimo Molinatti; Alberto Oliaro; Franco Pischedda; Giuliano Maggi
Introduction Splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs) are rare (0.2-10.4%); however, they are the most common form of visceral artery aneurysms. Splenic artery aneurysms are important to identify, because up to 25% of the cases are complicated by rupture. Post- rupture mortality rate is 25% -70% based on the underlying cause. Herein we present a young patient with abdominalpain after blunt abdominal trauma due to rupture of an SAA. Case Presentation A 27-year-old male, without a remarkable medical history, who suffered from abdominalpain for 2 days after falling was admitted to the emergency department with hypovolemic shock. Upon performing emergency laparotomy a ruptured splenic artery aneurysm was found. Conclusions It is important to consider rupture of a splenic artery aneurysm in patients with abdominalpain and hypovolemic shock.
Khoshnevis, Jalalludin; Lotfollahzadeh, Saran; Sobhiyeh, Mohammad Reza; Najd Sepas, Hossein; Abbas Nejad, Masomah; Rahbari, Ali; Behnaz, Nazanin; Mahdi, Zeinab
In this article, we present an unusual case of a young boy who presented with abdominalpain and was found to have a sewing needle that had migrated through the abdominal wall into the peritoneal space. After imaging and endoscopy, the needle was extracted laparoscopically without any evidence of intra-abdominal organ injury and with a good long-term outcome for the child. There are no other such reported cases in the literature. This case highlights the subtleties in management of intra-abdominal foreign bodies in children including rare causes such noningested foreign bodies. PMID:22325414
Aarabi, Shahram; Stephenson, Jacob; Christie, Dennis L; Javid, Patrick J
Ovari an vein thrombosis (OVT) is an uncommon, life-threatening complication of pregnancy. OVT clinical presentation is similar to that of acute appendicitis, and the latter is therefore the suspected diagnosis in most cases. We describe a case of a 36-year-old woman experiencing deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism during the course of pregnancy and presenting to the emergency department with sudden pain in the right lower quadrant and severe abdominalpain. This case illustrates the difficulty in diagnosing OVT, which should be considered in any pregnant woman with unexplained lower abdominalpain suggestive of acute appendicitis. PMID:18840180
... who is an Assistant Professor of Surgery and Pediatrics at the Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. ... itself. How has abdominal surgery changed? What can patients expect post-operatively? I think that the biggest ...
Background. The differential diagnoses of acute appendicitis obstetrics, and gynecological conditions (OB-GYNc) or nonspecific abdominalpain in young adult females with lower abdominalpain are clinically challenging. The present study aimed to validate the recently developed clinical score for the diagnosis of acute lower abdominalpain in female of reproductive age. Method. Medical records of reproductive age women (15–50 years) who were admitted for acute lower abdominalpain were collected. Validation data were obtained from patients admitted during a different period from the development data. Result. There were 302 patients in the validation cohort. For appendicitis, the score had a sensitivity of 91.9%, a specificity of 79.0%, and a positive likelihood ratio of 4.39. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio in diagnosis of OB-GYNc were 73.0%, 91.6%, and 8.73, respectively. The areas under the receiver operating curves (ROC), the positive likelihood ratios, for appendicitis and OB-GYNc in the validation data were not significantly different from the development data, implying similar performances. Conclusion. The clinical score developed for the diagnosis of acute lower abdominalpain in female of reproductive age may be applied to guide differential diagnoses in these patients.
Abdominalpain can be disabling in patients with gastroparesis. The pathogenesis of pain in these individuals is poorly understood. Agents commonly used in clinical practice, including tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentin, and pregabalin, have remained largely unsatisfactory in treating this pain. We report the case of a 50-year-old woman presenting with chronic unrelenting abdominalpain due to severe diabetic gastroparesis that was managed successfully with coeliac plexus block with local anaesthesia and steroid injection. Adequate analgesia was achieved and maintained for 10 weeks following the coeliac plexus block, which allowed elimination of opiate requirements for pain management (and avoidance of narcotic associated constipation), continuation of percutaneous endoscopy jejunostomy tube feedings, and avoidance of long term parenteral nutrition.
Wu, Dennis Jason Yang; Dib, Chadi; Hoelzer, Bryan; McMahon, Molly; Mueller, Paul
Three versions of a computerized medical diagnostic assistance program for abdominalpain were tested for ease of use, ease of learning, user satisfaction, and time to complete the Pain Site screen. A higher satisfaction rating was associated with visual ...
This study assesses the proportion of patients presenting with nonvisceral chronic abdominalpain who have thoracic disk herniation as a possible cause. We designed a descriptive transversal study of patients attending our offices between February 2009 and October 2010, with a complaint of chronic abdominalpain of suspected abdominal wall source (positive Carnett sign). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the spinal column was performed on all patients. When the NMR showed thoracic disk herniation the patients were treated according to their etiology. We also evaluated the symptoms in patients with thoracic disk herniation and their response to the applied treatment. Twenty-seven patients with chronic abdominalpain were evaluated. The NMR results in 18 of these 27 patients (66.66%) showed evidence of disk herniation. We report on the results of these 18 patients, emphasizing that the symptoms are florid and varied. Many patients had been previously diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome. Thoracic disk herniation may account for chronic abdominalpain in many patients who remain undiagnosed or are diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome. Thus, this possibility needs to be taken into account to achieve a correct diagnosis and a suitable mode of treatment.
Lara, F.J. Perez; Berges, A. Ferrer; Quesada, J. Quintero; Ramiro, J.A. Moreno; Toledo, R. Bustamante; Munoz, H. Oliva
Splenic infarction is a relatively uncommon diagnosis and this clinical presentation can mimic other causes of acute abdominalpain. Cardiologic and hematologic disorders are common reasons for this entity. There have been a few series and single case reports of splenic infarction published in peer-reviewed medical journals. We report a 53-year-old patient who had splenic infarction caused by celiac artery thromboembolism. The importance of this case, without any etiological predisposing factors, is that this kind of clinical situation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominalpain.
Cetinkaya, Omer Arda; Kayilioglu, Ilgaz; Karaca, Ahmet Serdar; Cipe, Gokhan; Unal, Ali Ekrem
The imperforate hymen is a congenital anomaly of the female genital development. This is a rare pathology with an estimated incidence of 0.1% in female newborns. In many cases, the diagnosis goes unnoticed until puberty, debuting with cyclical abdominalpain in adolescents who have not submitted menarche. Diagnosis is based on history and physical examination, although additional tests, especially the ultrasound that allows to confirm clinical diagnosis and to exclude other genital malformations. We report a case of a 13-year-old that was diagnosed after consulting several times for recurrent abdominalpain. PMID:24566796
Ibarrola Vidaurre, María; Arribas García, Sara; Gimeno Ballester, Juan; Gil Sáenz, Francisco José; Fonseca Pérez, Marta; Durán Urdániz, Gabriel
The investigation of acute abdominalpain in pregnancy is challenging. The use of ultrasound may be limited due to the patient's change in body habitus and computed tomography is not desirable due to fetal irradiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has thus become increasingly popular in the evaluation of such patients, due to its lack of ionizing radiation, multiplanar capability and high contrast resolution. This review will detail the MRI technique required to image the pregnant abdomen and describe the MRI features of common causes of acute abdominalpain in pregnancy. PMID:20974361
Beddy, Peter; Keogan, Mary T; Sala, Evis; Griffin, Nyree
Background: Diagnostic laparoscopy plays a significant role in the evaluation of acute and chronic abdominalpain in the era of therapeutic\\u000a laparoscopic surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: We referred to our personal series of laparoscopy for both acute and chronic abdominalpain. This is a retrospective review\\u000a of data accumulated prospectively between 1979 and the present.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results: In our series, 387 consecutive patients
Segmental omental infarction (SOI) is an unusual and rare cause of abdominalpain in children and is often mistaken for acute appendicitis preoperatively. SOI once diagnosed preoperatively should be treated conservatively. Surgical intervention, however, may be necessary in order to establish definitive diagnosis and treatment. We present 2 children with SOI diagnosed as acute appendicitis preoperatively. Laparoscopy established the diagnosis and treatment. Laparoscopy should be the procedure of choice in children presenting with right-sided abdominalpain that is not well established preoperatively. This is especially so in obese children. Laparoscopy not only establishes the diagnosis of SOI but laparoscopic omentectomy results in resolution of symptoms and faster recovery. PMID:24487175
Hamchou, Moustafa; Kothari, Mukul; Sahari, Bahjat; Swid, Adnan; Al-Salem, Ahmed H
Thoracic disc herniations (TDH) requiring surgery are rare. They usually present with pain and\\/or myelopathy. Only 6% are wide lateral, either intraforaminal or extraforaminal. A 52-year-old patient presented with chronic mid-thoracic pain, radiating along the left 9th and 10th ribs. After nephrologic and pancreatic diseases had been exclud - ed, a CT-scan showed a far-lateral calcified TDH in the left
Patrick FRANSEN; Frédéric COLLIGNON; Bernard VAN DEN HEULE
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of parent attention and distraction on symptom complaints by children with and without chronic functional abdominalpain. The water load symptom provocation task was used to induce visceral discomfort in pediatric patients with abdominalpain (N=104) and well children (N=119), ages 8–16 years. Parents were randomly assigned and trained to
Lynn S. Walker; Sara E. Williams; Craig A. Smith; Judy Garber; Deborah A. Van Slyke; Tricia A. Lipani
Background We studied whether short-term exposure to air pollution was associated with non-specific abdominalpain in epidemiologic and animal studies. Methods Patients visiting the emergency department with non-specific abdominalpain were identified in Edmonton (1992 to 2002, n?=?95,173) and Montreal (1997 to 2002, n?=?25,852). We calculated the daily concentrations for ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particles <10 (PM10) or <2.5 (PM2.5) µm. A case crossover study design was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) associated with an increase in the interquartile range of the air pollutants. We investigated differential effects by age and sex. Mice were gavaged with urban particle extracts. In animal models, colonic motility was tested, and visceral abdominalpain was measured using a writhing test, and behavioral response to oil of mustard and neostigmine. Motility and pain was measured acutely (1.5 hours after gavage) and chronically (7-days and 21-days after gavage). Results Emergency department visits for non-specific abdominalpain were primarily by women between the ages of 15–24 years. Individuals aged 15 to 24 years were at increased risk of non-specific abdominalpain in Edmonton (same day CO: OR?=?1.04, 95% CI?=?1.02–1.06; and NO2: OR?=?1.06, 95% CI?=?1.03–1.09). The risk of air pollution among 15–24 year olds in Montreal was significantly positive (same day CO: OR?=?1.11, 95% CI?=?1.05–1.17; NO2: OR?=?1.09, 95% CI?=?1.01–1.16; SO2: OR?=?1.17, 95% CI?=?1.10–1.25; PM2.5: OR?=?1.09, 95% CI?=?1.04–1.15). Abdominalpain was increased by an acute gavage of pollution extract but not to chronic exposure to pollutants. Colonic transit was delayed following chronic but not acute exposure with the pollutants. Conclusions Epidemiological and animal data suggest that short-term exposure to air pollution may trigger non-specific abdominalpain in young individuals.
Fichna, Jakub; Rowe, Brian H.; Porada, Eugeniusz; Vincent, Renaud; Madsen, Karen; Ghosh, Subrata; Storr, Martin
Background and Study Aims Chronic abdominalpain is one of the most common chief complaints, but the underlying pathophysiology often remains unknown after routine clinical evaluation. Capsule endoscopy (CE) is a new technique for the visualization of the entire small bowel. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of CE in patients with chronic abdominalpain of obscure origin. Patients and Methods Two hundred forty three patients with chronic abdominalpain with no significant lesions were enrolled in this study. CE was performed in all patients. Results A diagnosis was made in 23.0% of patients screened with CE. Of the 243 patients, 19 (7.8%) were diagnosed with Crohn's disease, 15 (6.2%) with enteritis, 11 (4.5%) with idiopathic intestinal lymphangiectasia, 5 (2.1%) with uncinariasis, and a number of other diagnoses including small bowel tumor, ascariasis, and anaphylactoid purpura. Five patients had abnormal transit time, and capsule retention occurred in two patients. Conclusions In contrast to other previous studies, we found that CE is an effective diagnostic tool for patients with abdominalpain.
This study is a preliminary investigation of the efficacy of a brief intervention for recurrent abdominalpain (RAP) via a multiple baseline across subjects design. The intervention consisted of a single 1-hour session including psychoeducation and coaching of breathing retraining; the length, duration, and content of the intervention were…
OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to determine (1) the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms including abdominalpain in a community-based population of adolescents, (2) whether a subgroup of these subjects have symptoms resembling irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and (3) whether anxiety and depression are more commonly found in adolescents with IBS-type symptoms compared with unaffected adolescents. METHODS: We collected data by
Jeffrey S. Hyams; Georgine Burke; Patricia M. Davis; Barbara Rzepski; Paul A. Andrulonis
Objectives: To assess symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in patients with recurrent abdominalpain (RAP) 5 years after their initial evaluation, to identify the relation of IBS symptoms to functional disability and health service use, and to determine the extent to which IBS symptoms are associated with life stress and poor psychosocial adjustment. Methods: Patients with RAP (n =
Lynn S. Walker; Jessica W. Guite; Maura Duke; John A. Barnard; John W. Greene
Hematocolpos should be considered in adolescent girls who present with lower abdominalpain, a pelvic mass, and primary amenorrhea. The authors describe a rare case of a young child with Down's syndrome, precocious puberty, and hematocolpos caused by a transverse vaginal septum. The diagnosis was facilitated using a combination of computed tomography and ultrasound scanning. J Pediatr Surg 36:641-643. PMID:11283897
Hematocolpos should be considered in adolescent girls who present with lower abdominalpain, a pelvic mass, and primary amenorrhea. The authors describe a rare case of a young child with Down's syndrome, precocious puberty, and hematocolpos caused by a transverse vaginal septum. The diagnosis was facilitated using a combination of computed tomography and ultrasound scanning. J Pediatr Surg 36:641-643.
Teresa Quinn; Vanessa Erickson; M. Margaret Knudson
This report presents and evaluates data collected in 1988 in an effort to verify the NSMRL abdominalpain diagnostic program. Overall diagnostic accuracy of the program was found to be 69% compared to the 80% accuracy rate of emergency room physicians. Se...
The clinical pattern of 119 children with recurrent abdominalpain, located most commonly in the periumbilical region, revealed no distinct features. The most common associated symptoms were pallor, tiredness and anorexia. The most important socioenvironmental and behavioral factors were marital turmoil in 44 per cent, school activity in 32 per cent, and perfectionism in 30 per cent. Laboratory and radiologic
Abdominalpain (AP) is a common presenting complaint in emergency department (ED) patients. A 1972 study reported that unsupervised surgical residents in a university hospital ED were unable to make a specific diagnosis in 41% of 1,000 AP patients. In the intervening time, ED availability of diagnostic technology has increased, and the reference hospital acquired full-time emergency medicine (EM) faculty.
Extensive radiographic evaluation of children with recurrent abdominalpain (RAP) is rarely diagnostic or cost-effective. The authors sought to define the role of laparoscopy in the evaluation of children with RAP. Fifteen children underwent laparoscopy for RAP in a 2-year period. Their mean age was 12 years (range, 6 to 16 years), 13 (87%) were female, and the mean duration
Steven Stylianos; James E. Stein; Laura M. Flanigan; Daniel H. Hechtman
Computing diagnoses in domains with continuously changing data is difficult but essential aspect of solving many problems. To address this task, a dynamic influence diagram (ID) construction and updating system (DYNASTY) and its application to constructing a decision-theoretic model to diagnose acute abdominalpain, which is a domain in which the findings evolve during the diagnostic process, are described. For
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Abdominalpain is the main symptom in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Glycerol is an irritant of colonic mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an intraluminal injection of glycerol on colonic motility and tone in patients with IBS and their modulation by drugs. METHODS: Colonic motility was evaluated using electromyography,
D Louvel; M Delvaux; G Staumont; F Camman; J Fioramonti; L Bueno; J Frexinos
A random retrospective review of hepatobiliary scans on 86 adult patients with abdominalpain revealed four distinct imaging patterns: normal, cystic duct obstruction, obstructive, and sick liver pattern. A normal pattern was found to exclude acute cholecystitis and was the pattern most frequently observed.
The clinical performance of junior hospital staff concerning the management of patients with acute abdominalpain may be enhanced by placing greater emphasis on teaching clinical decision-making skills during the preintern year. Final year medical students took part in a teaching session in which groups of six to eight rotated through six stations…
The systemic immune response to Helicobacter pylori was examined in 69 children with recurrent abdominalpain and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Twenty one (30%) children were histologically positive for H pylori. Eighteen of the 21 positive subjects and two H pylori negative subjects (one with normal mucosa, one with lymphocytic gastritis) were positive for H pylori IgG antibodies by enzyme linked
J E Crabtree; M J Mahony; J D Taylor; R V Heatley; J M Littlewood; D S Tompkins
In this case report, we present a case of young male with left sided acute appendicitis who presented with left upper quadrant abdominalpain. The purpose of this report is to increase awareness in the emergency physicians and young surgeons of this rare presentation, with high suspicion of index could lead to facilitate early recognition and decrease morbidity and mortality. PMID:24034196
Background The acute abdomen is a frequent entity at the Emergency Department (ED), which usually needs rapid and accurate diagnostic work-up. Diagnostic work-up with imaging can consist of plain X-ray, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and even diagnostic laparoscopy. However, no evidence-based guidelines exist in current literature. The actual diagnostic work-up of a patient with acute abdominalpain presenting to the ED varies greatly between hospitals and physicians. The OPTIMA study was designed to provide the evidence base for constructing an optimal diagnostic imaging guideline for patients with acute abdominalpain at the ED. Methods/design Thousand consecutive patients with abdominalpain > 2 hours and < 5 days will be enrolled in this multicentre trial. After clinical history, physical and laboratory examination all patients will undergo a diagnostic imaging protocol, consisting of plain X-ray (upright chest and supine abdomen), US and CT. The reference standard will be a post hoc assignment of the final diagnosis by an expert panel. The focus of the analysis will be on the added value of the imaging modalities over history and clinical examination, relative to the incremental costs. Discussion This study aims to provide the evidence base for the development of a diagnostic algorithm that can act as a guideline for ED physicians to evaluate patients with acute abdominalpain.
Lameris, Wytze; van Randen, Adrienne; Dijkgraaf, Marcel GW; Bossuyt, Patrick MM; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of small-bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) as a cause of chronic digestive symptoms in a large cohort of children, using the glucose breath hydrogen test (BHT). DESIGN: Patients were 53 children (aged 2 months to 12 years) with chronic diarrhea, abdominalpain, or both. Diagnosis of SBBO was defined with a BHT by a change in
D. de Boissieu; M. Chaussain; J. Badoual; J. Raymond; C. Dupont
A 29-year-old man was brought to an emergency department by the United States Coast Guard with chief complaints of severe abdominalpain, right leg paresthesia and weakness following four deep air dives. Physical examination before recompression treatment was remarkable for diffuse abdominal tenderness and right leg weakness. The patient was diagnosed in the emergency room with type II decompression sickness (DCS) and underwent standard recompression therapy. He experienced complete resolution of weakness after hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy, but his abdominalpain was persistent. Further investigation led to the diagnosis of acute appendicitis with perforation. The patient underwent appendectomy and intravenous antibiotic therapy and was discharged to his home on hospital day five without complications. This case reinforces the importance of careful clinical assessment of divers and illustrates the potentially wide differential diagnosis of DCS. This is the first reported case of recompression treatment of a diver with acute appendicitis and type II DCS. PMID:12797665
Pulmonary embolism is considered as a great masquerader due to its frequent nonspecific signs and symptoms. Typically pulmonary embolism is under-diagnosed or over-diagnosed. In this study a patient with pulmonary embolism is reported in which the patient exhibited two unusual manifestations namely; right upper quadrant abdominalpain and ST-T elevation in anterior precordial leads. Due to the fact that the patient did not display typical pulmonary embolism symptoms and its major risk factors, extensive workup to discern the cause was carried out. The examination included abdominal sonography, kidney ureter and bladder Computed Tomography scan (CT-scan) and coronary angiography. Eventually after a six-day delay, pulmonary embolism was diagnosed by spiral chest CT scan. This case and several other similar reports underlines the fact that while various other common causes may exist for right upper abdominalpain, one should always consider pulmonary embolism as a possible cause especially when backed up with ECG finding.
Fallahi, Mohammad Javad; Masoompour, Seyed Masoom; Mirzaee, Mehdi
A 47-year-old man presented with a 4 day history of severe right upper quadrant pain with no radia- tion to the back or shoulder. There was some asso- ciated nausea, but no signi¢cant past history. The patient was afebrile. On examination, there was tenderness below the right costal margin and towards the epigastrium. Blood tests showed a normal white cell
Objective: Asymptomatic dilatation of bile duct and symptomatic sphincter of Oddi dysfunction have been reported in opium addicts. Except one case report, there is no report in the literature on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) study of pancreato-biliary system in opium addicts. The aim of the present study was to report the EUS features of pancreato-biliary system in opium addicts presenting with abdominalpain. Patients and Methods: A total of 15 opium addicts presenting with upper abdominalpain and dilated common bile duct (CBD) and or pancreatic duct (PD) on abdominal ultrasound were included in this study. EUS findings of pancreato-biliary system were analyzed in these patients. Results: All the 15 patients were males (mean age 53.3 years) presented with upper abdominalpain. Mean duration of opium addiction was 20.1 years. On EUS CBD was dilated in all the patients while PD was dilated in six patients. Gall bladder, liver and pancreatic parenchyma was normal in all these patients. Surface area of papilla of Vater (SPV) was increased in 12 patients. Conclusion: Opium addiction causes obstruction at ampulla and produces dilatation of bile duct and PD. Bile duct dilatation was seen in all the patients while PD dilatation was seen in few patients. Increase in SPV was a peculiar finding and appears to be as a result of direct effect of opium on ampulla.
Background. Obstetrics and gynecological conditions (OB-GYNc) are difficult to be differentiated from appendicitis in young adult females presenting with acute lower abdominalpain. Timely and correct diagnosis is clinically challenging. Method. A retrospective data analysis was performed on 542 female patients who were admitted to a tertiary care hospital with a chief complaint of acute lower abdominalpain. Diagnostic indicators of appendicitis and OB-GYNc were identified by stepwise multivariable polytomous logistic regression. Diagnostic performances of the scores were tested. Result. The developed clinical score is comprised of (1) guarding or rebound tenderness, (2) pregnancy, (3) sites of abdominal tenderness, (4) leukocytosis, (5) peripheral neutrophils ?75%, and (6) presence of diarrhea. For diagnosis of appendicitis, the area under the ROC curve was 0.8696, and the sensitivity and specificity were 89.25% and 70.00%. For OB-GYNc, the corresponding values were 0.8450, 66.67%, and 94.85%, respectively. Conclusion. The clinical scoring system can differentiate the diagnosis of acute lower abdominalpain in young adult females. Time spent for diagnosis at the emergency room may be shortened, and the patients would be admitted to the appropriate departments in less time.
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of heme biosynthesis in liver due to deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase enzyme. Clinically, AIP is dominated by a colicky type pain, which does not subside after taking usual analgesics. Additional frequent symptoms are vomiting, hypertension, peripheral neuropathy, seizures, depression, delirium and coma. This paper reported a case of a twenty-five- year-old female patient, who had undergone a period of six days between the first presentation to the medical department and the diagnosis confirmation. It has accentuated possible mistakes in symptomatic therapy administration as well as dangers of a delayed diagnosis. PMID:21849959
There has been increasing interest within the European sports medicine community regarding the etiology and treatment of groin pain in the athlete. Groin pain is most commonly caused by musculotendinous strains of the adductors and other muscles crossing the hip joint, but may also be related to abdominal wall abnormalities. Cases may be termed "pubalgia" if physical examination does not reveal inguinal hernia and there is an absence of other etiology for groin pain. We present nine cases of patients who underwent herniorrhaphies for groin pain. Two patients had groin pain without evidence of a hernia preoperatively (pubalgia). In the remaining seven patients we determined the presence of a hernia by physical examination. At operation, eight patients were found to have inguinal hernias. One patient had no hernia but had partial avulsion of the internal oblique fibers from their insertion at the public tubercle. The average interval from operation to return to full activity was 11 weeks. All patients returned to full activity within 3 months of surgery. One patient had persistent symptoms of mild incisional tenderness, but otherwise there were no recurrences, complications, or persistence of symptoms. Abnormalities of the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernias and microscopic tears or avulsions of the internal oblique muscle, can be an overlooked source of groin pain in the athlete. Operative treatment of this condition with herniorrhaphy can return the athlete to his sport within 3 months. PMID:1831010
Taylor, D C; Meyers, W C; Moylan, J A; Lohnes, J; Bassett, F H; Garrett, W E
Choristoma is development of a normal tissue in an aberrant location. This report describes jejunal salivary choristoma (JSC) causing recurring episodes of abdominal discomfort in a 5-year-old girl. Exploratory laporatomy revealed a pale yellow subserosal jejunal lesion. Wedge resection of the lesion and repair of the bowel were performed. The child did well postoperatively and has since that time been free of pain at follow-up. Histopathological examination of the resected lesion revealed salivary gland choriostoma. Literature review (PUBMED search engine) revealed no previous report of this rare clinicopathologic entity. We conclude that choriostoma should be considered a possible differential when evaluating abdominal complaint in children. PMID:24511408
Olajide, T A; Agodirin, S O; Ojewola, R W; Akanbi, O O; Solaja, T O; Odesanya, Johnson Oluremi; Ariyibi, O O
Background: A randomised study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of surgeon-performed ultrasound in the emergency department for patients presenting with abdominalpain. Methods: Surgeons responsible for the examination of study patients underwent 4 weeks of ultrasound training. 800 patients who were attending the emergency department for abdominalpain were randomised to undergo or not undergo surgeon-performed ultrasound as a complement to standard examination. The preliminary diagnosis made by the surgeon, with or without ultrasound, was compared with the final diagnosis made by a senior surgeon 6–8 weeks later. Results: Diagnostic accuracy was significantly higher in the group examined with ultrasound (64.7% vs 56.8%, p?=?0.027). Ultrasound proved to be helpful in making or confirming a correct diagnosis in 24.1% of cases receiving ultrasound and to contribute in 2.9%. In 22.3% of patients the diagnosis of non-specific pain was confirmed by normal findings. Ultrasound was misleading in 10.2% of cases and had no influence on the diagnosis in 40.0%. Conclusion: For patients with acute abdominalpain, higher diagnostic accuracy is achieved when surgeons use ultrasound as a diagnostic complement to standard examination. The use of bedside ultrasound should be considered in emergency departments.
Abdominal cramping and pain is a frequent problem in the adult population of Western countries, with an estimated prevalence of < or =30%. Hyoscine butylbromide (scopolamine butylbromide) [Buscopan/Buscapina] is an antispasmodic drug indicated for the treatment of abdominalpain associated with cramps induced by gastrointestinal (GI) spasms. It was first registered in Germany in 1951 and marketed in 1952, and has since become available worldwide both as a prescription drug and as an over-the-counter medicine in many countries. This article reviews the pharmacology and pharmacokinetic profile of hyoscine butylbromide, and summarises efficacy and safety data from clinical trials of this drug for abdominal cramping and pain. Pharmacological studies have revealed that hyoscine butylbromide is an anticholinergic drug with high affinity for muscarinic receptors located on the smooth-muscle cells of the GI tract. Its anticholinergic action exerts a smooth-muscle relaxing/spasmolytic effect. Blockade of the muscarinic receptors in the GI tract is the basis for its use in the treatment of abdominalpain secondary to cramping. Hyoscine butylbromide also binds to nicotinic receptors, which induces a ganglion-blocking effect. Several pharmacokinetic studies in humans have consistently demonstrated the low systemic availability of hyoscine butylbromide after oral administration, with plasma concentrations of the drug generally being below the limit of quantitation. The bioavailability of hyoscine butylbromide, estimated from renal excretion, was generally <1%. However, because of its high tissue affinity for muscarinic receptors, hyoscine butylbromide remains available at the site of action in the intestine and exerts a local spasmolytic effect.Ten placebo-controlled studies have evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral or rectal hyoscine butylbromide. Hyoscine butylbromide was considered beneficial in all of these trials, which supports its use in the treatment of abdominalpain caused by cramping. Hyoscine butylbromide is barely absorbed and detectable in the blood and does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier, and is, therefore, generally well tolerated. Few adverse events have been reported; in particular, no significant increases in the incidence of anticholinergic-related adverse effects have been observed. In summary, hyoscine butylbromide appears to be a valuable treatment option for patients with symptoms of abdominalpain or discomfort associated with cramping. PMID:17547475
Although pediatric functional abdominalpain (FAP) has been linked to abdominalpain later in life, childhood predictors of long-term outcomes have not been identified. This study evaluated whether distinct FAP profiles based on patterns of pain and adaptation in childhood could be identified and whether these profiles predicted differences in clinical outcomes and central sensitization (wind-up) on average 9 years later. In 843 pediatric FAP patients, cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups at initial FAP evaluation based on profiles of pain severity, gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI symptoms, pain threat appraisal, pain coping efficacy, catastrophizing, negative affect, and activity impairment. Three profiles were identified: High Pain Dysfunctional, High Pain Adaptive, and Low Pain Adaptive. Logistic regression analyses controlling for age and sex showed that, compared to pediatric patients with the Low Pain Adaptive profile, those with the High Pain Dysfunctional profile were significantly more likely at long-term follow-up to meet criteria for pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) (OR: 3.45; CI: 1.95–6.11), FGID with comorbid non-abdominal chronic pain (OR: 2.6; CI:1.45–4.66), and FGID with comorbid anxiety or depressive psychiatric disorder (OR: 2.84; CI: 1.35–6.00). Pediatric patients with the High Pain Adaptive profile had baseline pain severity comparable to the High Pain Dysfunctional profile, but had outcomes as favorable as the Low Pain Adaptive profile. In laboratory pain testing at follow-up, High Pain Dysfunctional patients exhibited significantly greater thermal wind-up than Low Pain Adaptive patients, suggesting that a subgroup of FAP patients has outcomes consistent with widespread effects of heightened central sensitization.
A 63-year-old lady presented with suprapelvic pain, weight loss and night sweats. On examination, she was noted to be hypertensive with a distended abdomen. Imaging (CT) revealed a 9.5 cm retroperitoneal mass with a high degree of vascularity and necrotic centre. The patient’s urinary and plasma catecholamines were significantly raised and subsequent radio-isotope scan suggested the tumour was likely to be of a neuroendocrine nature. A diagnosis of a malignant paraganglioma was made. Malignant paragangliomas derive from sympathetic tissue and secrete catecholamines. Diagnostic uncertainty might lead to biopsy of tumour but this carries a high-risk of catecholamine-induced complications such as hypertensive crisis, cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac ischaemia and must be avoided.
Lee, Lennard; Sung, Wei Lin; Akhtar, Mohammed Majid; Whyte, Martin
A subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) phenol injection was performed on a patient with refractory cancer pain due a metastatic involvement of the abdominal wall. A diagnostic block with local anesthetic was performed under ultrasound guidance (USG), resulting in a decrease of 80% and 100% in dynamic and static visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, respectively, for 20 hours. A phenol injection was then performed under USG. The patient reported 70% and 100% reduction in the dynamic and static VAS for pain and had a 50% decrease in the opioid requirement that was maintained for 2 months. TAP blocks offer an interesting tool for either diagnosis or therapeutic purpose in chronic pain management. USG provides an optimal approach to soft-tissue lesions where fluoroscopy techniques are not useful. PMID:23560547
Restrepo-Garces, Carlos Eduardo; Asenjo, Juan Francisco; Gomez, Carlos Mario; Jaramillo, Santiago; Acosta, Nathalia; Ramirez, Lizeth Jazmin; Lopera, Luz Maria; Vargas, Juan Felipe
Recurrent abdominalpain (RAP) in children is generally believed to be functional. In practice, many children with RAP become pain-free with laxative therapy. The aims of the study were to establish the role of (occult) constipation in RAP and to investigate whether patients diagnosed with (occult) constipation could be identified by history and physical examination. During 2 years, all patients (age 4-16 years, secondary referral) fulfilling Apley criteria of RAP were included. After exclusion of gastrointestinal infections and food intolerance, laxatives were advised when pain persisted. (Occult) constipation was defined as 'abdominalpain disappearing with laxative treatment and not reappearing within a 6 month follow up period'; 'occult constipation' was diagnosed in patients who did not fulfil the Rome criteria of constipation. Two hundred children (87 M; median age 8.8 years) were evaluated. (Occult) constipation was found in 92 patients (46 %). Of these, 18 had considerable relief of pain when treated for a somatic cause but experienced complete relief only after laxative measures; they were considered to have two diagnoses. Using multivariate analysis, a simple model was developed with cystitis in past history, early satiety and flatulence as predictors for (occult) constipation. The risk of (occult) constipation ranged from 18/58 if no predictor was present to 4/4 if all three were present. Conclusion: Laxatives played a pivotal role in the recovery of patients with RAP. We developed a simple model to identify patients at risk of having (occult) constipation. PMID:24384798
Gijsbers, Carolien F M; Kneepkens, C M Frank; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Büller, Hans A
We report a case of a 33-year-old previously healthy Haitian immigrant with a 7-month history of abdominalpain, fever and ascites. He had a history of positive tuberculin skin test but never underwent treatment for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. Initial examination showed abdominal distension. Abdominal CT scan showed mild ascites, abnormal soft tissue in the greater omentum and small bowel mesentery, retroperitoneal adenopathy, peritoneal thickening and dilated loops of small bowel. Paracentesis and thoracentesis were initially non-diagnostic. HIV testing was negative. The differential diagnosis included lymphoma and TB peritonitis. The omental mass was biopsied under ultrasound guidance, and histopathology revealed non-necrotising granulomas. Sputum cultures and omental biopsy cultures subsequently grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and a diagnosis was made of pulmonary TB with TB peritonitis. The patient responded well to the initiation of anti-TB treatment. PMID:25008341
Farhadian, Shelli; Shenoi, Sheela V; Villanueva, Merceditas S
Functional abdominalpain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are both associated with recurrent abdominalpain and are among the most commonly diagnosed medical problems in pediatrics. The majority of patients with mild complaints improve with reassurance and time. For a distinct subset of patients with more severe and disabling illness, finding effective treatment for these disorders remains a challenge. Based on the biopsychosocial model of functional disease, the Rome III criteria have helped frame FAP and IBS in terms of being a positive diagnosis and not a diagnosis of exclusion. However, the lack of a single, proven intervention highlights the complex interplay of pathologic mechanisms likely involved in the development of childhood FAP and IBS and the need for a multidisciplinary, integrated approach. This article discusses the epidemiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical approach and therapeutic options for the management of FAP and IBS in children and adolescents.
A 32-year-old woman complained of acute lower abdominalpain. Computed tomography showed a complex multilocular cystic mass at the right adnexal region. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the origin of the mass to be the small bowel mesentery. Chemical-shift images detected septal fat of the cystic mass and suggested a small amount of fat within the locules of the cyst. A cystic tumor of the mesentery such as cystic lymphangioma, hemangioma, cystic mesothelioma, and dermoid was included in the differential diagnoses. The diagnosis of a hemorrhagic mesenteric cystic lymphangioma was confirmed at surgery and pathologic analysis. Cystic lymphangioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominalpain. The detection of septal fat may be helpful in the diagnosis of cystic lymphangioma when it shows unusual radiological appearances. PMID:18604575
Jejunal diverticula have a prevalence of approximately 1% in the general population. Perforation of jejunal diverticulum is a rare. Clinically this diagnosis may be easily confused with other causes of an acute abdomen. In the article, we discuss a 74-year–old man with a 2-day history of constipation and left–sided abdominalpain. The day before admission he developed an abrupt exacerbation his symptoms with pain localized to periumbilical and left lower quadrant. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed soft tissue stranding within the left upper quadrant, bilateral plural effusions , larger on the left, an opacity with the right and left pulmonary lobes and polypoid lesion with in stomach. Physical examination revealed left upper quadrant fullness. An emergency laparotomy was carried out. This revealed multiple jejunal diverticula, one of which had perforated 40 centimeters distal to the ligament of Treitz.
Akbari, Mohammad Esmail; Atqiaee, Khashayar; Lotfollahzadeh, Saran; Moghadam, Amir Naser Jadbbaeey
In the present study, we examined the effects of preoperative electroacupuncture (EA) at classical bilateral acupuncture points (Zusanli, also known as ST-36) on postoperative pain and opioid-related side effects. One hundred healthy consenting women undergoing lower abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to four treatment regimens: Group I (n=25), control; Group II (n=25), sham-EA (needle insertion without electrical stimulation); Group III
The authors report a rare, unusual case of an isolated fallopian tube torsion in a young woman presenting with acute lower abdominalpain and a negative pregnancy test. The patient who initially presented with clinical and biochemical features suggestive of acute appendicitis was found to have a large necrotic pelvic mass at laparoscopy, discovered to be a torted fallopian tube with no ipsilateral ovarian involvement. The patient had a laparoscopic removal of the necrotic tube and recovered well postoperatively.
Bora, Shabana Ashraf; Kanapathippillai, Raj; Backos, May
OBJECTIVES:Although colon dysmotility is recognized as a pathophysiological factor in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), it has not been characterized. We have investigated motility patterns in IBS patients with abdominalpain and frequent defecation or diarrhea and in healthy volunteers.METHODS:A recording catheter that had six polyvinyl tubes with infusion ports was placed in the transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon under fluoroscopy.
William Y. Chey; Hai Ou Jin; Mun Ho Lee; Sung Wu Sun; Kae Yol Lee
Background: The surgical treatment of patients with chronic abdominalpain resulting from intraabdominal adhesions is controversial.\\u000a We report our experience with treatment of this challenging patient population using laparoscopic lysis of adhesions (LOA)\\u000a and placement of Seprafilm (Genzyme, Cambridge, MA, USA). Methods: The participants in this study were 19 consecutive patients\\u000a (2 men and 17 women) who underwent laparoscopic LOA
L. Khaitan; S. Scholz; H. L. Houston; W. O. Richards
A 32-year-old woman complained of acute lower abdominalpain. Computed tomography showed a complex multilocular cystic mass\\u000a at the right adnexal region. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the origin of the mass to be the small bowel mesentery.\\u000a Chemical-shift images detected septal fat of the cystic mass and suggested a small amount of fat within the locules of the\\u000a cyst. A
Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency is a rare cause of secondary adrenal insufficiency and its presentation with adrenal crisis is rather rare. Acute adrenal insufficiency (adrenal crisis) can be an elusive diagnosis, particularly in previously undiagnosed patients. As in this patient, the presentation of adrenal crisis with acute abdominalpain was misdiagnosed as an acute surgical abdomen, leading to a delay in the diagnosis and in the initiation of life saving treatment. PMID:24115716
Elasha, Hassan Mohamed Saeed; Anjum, Farees; Almalki, Mussa H
A 44-year-old woman presented to our Emergency Department with a 4-day history of severe, sharp left upper quadrant abdominalpain associated with nausea and vomiting. She had been seen 3 days prior at another Emergency Department, and had a negative work-up including a normal non-contrast computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen\\/pelvis for possible kidney stone. Vital signs were: temperature
Nicole J. Watring; Corbett M. Smith; Gordon K. Stokes; Francis L. Counselman
This study investigated attentional biases for pain and social threat versus neutral stimuli in 54 youth with functional abdominalpain (FAP) and 53 healthy control subjects (ages 10 to 16 years). We assessed attentional bias using a visual probe detection task (PDT) that presented pain and social threat words in comparison to neutral words at conscious (1250 ms) and preconscious (20 ms) presentation rates. We administered the PDT before and after random assignment of participants to a laboratory stressor--failure versus success feedback regarding their performance on a challenging computer game. All analyses controlled for trait anxiety. At the conscious rate of stimulus presentation, FAP patients exhibited preferential attention toward pain compared with neutral stimuli and compared with the control group. FAP patients maintained preferential attention toward conscious pain stimuli after performance feedback in both failure and success conditions. At the preconscious rate of stimulus presentation, FAP patients' attention was neutral at baseline but increased significantly toward pain stimuli after performance feedback in both failure and success conditions. FAP patients' somatic symptoms increased in both failure and success conditions; control youth's somatic symptoms only increased after failure. Regarding social threat, neither FAP nor control youth exhibited attentional bias toward social threat compared with neutral stimuli at baseline, but both FAP and control youth in the failure condition significantly increased attention away from social threat after failure feedback. Results suggest that FAP patients preferentially attend to pain stimuli in conscious awareness. Moreover, performance evaluation may activate their preconscious attention to pain stimuli. PMID:21420789
Beck, Joy E; Lipani, Tricia A; Baber, Kari F; Dufton, Lynette; Garber, Judy; Smith, Craig A; Walker, Lynn S
This study investigated attentional biases for pain and social threat versus neutral stimuli in 54 youth with functional abdominalpain (FAP) and 53 healthy control subjects (ages 10 to 16 years). We assessed attentional bias using a visual probe detection task (PDT) that presented pain and social threat words in comparison to neutral words at conscious (1250 ms) and preconscious (20 ms) presentation rates. We administered the PDT before and after random assignment of participants to a laboratory stressor—failure versus success feedback regarding their performance on a challenging computer game. All analyses controlled for trait anxiety. At the conscious rate of stimulus presentation, FAP patients exhibited preferential attention toward pain compared with neutral stimuli and compared with the control group. FAP patients maintained preferential attention toward conscious pain stimuli after performance feedback in both failure and success conditions. At the preconscious rate of stimulus presentation, FAP patients’ attention was neutral at baseline but increased significantly toward pain stimuli after performance feedback in both failure and success conditions. FAP patients’ somatic symptoms increased in both failure and success conditions; control youth’s somatic symptoms only increased after failure. Regarding social threat, neither FAP nor control youth exhibited attentional bias toward social threat compared with neutral stimuli at baseline, but both FAP and control youth in the failure condition significantly increased attention away from social threat after failure feedback. Results suggest that FAP patients preferentially attend to pain stimuli in conscious awareness. Moreover, performance evaluation may activate their preconscious attention to pain stimuli.
Beck, Joy E.; Lipani, Tricia A.; Baber, Kari F.; Dufton, Lynette; Garber, Judy; Smith, Craig A.; Walker, Lynn S.
Introduction Chronic abdominalpain (CAP) may be a manifestation of diseases involving many intra-abdominal organs. Beside diseases affecting subjects without diabetes mellitus, diabetic patients may have CAP due to diabetes-related complications like neuritis, motor diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and autonomic dysfunction. Atherosclerosis is 2–4 times more common in patients with diabetes and affects mainly carotid, coronary, iliac and lower limb arteries as well as aorta. Another less common complication is chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI, intestinal angina), caused by atherosclerotic obstruction of the celiac artery and its branches and results in episodic or constant intestinal hypoperfusion. Case presentation We present a case of a diabetic patient with CMI in whom the diagnosis was delayed by almost 5 years. The dominant symptoms were crampy abdominal postprandial pain, anorexia, changes in bowel habits and cachexia. Conventional angiography revealed significant stenosis of the celiac artery and complete obstruction of the inferior mesenteric artery. Noteworthy, no significant stenoses in carotids or limbs' arteries were found. Revascularization resulted in clinical improvement 1 week post-intervention. Conclusion CAP in patients with diabetes may be due to CMI. The typical presentation is crampy postprandial abdominalpain in a heavy smoker male patient with long-standing diabetes, accompanied by anorexia, changes in bowel habits and mild to moderate weight loss. At least two of the three main splanchnic arteries must be significantly occluded in order CMI to be symptomatic. The diagnostic procedure of choice is conventional angiography and revascularization of the occluded arteries is the radical treatment.
Panagoulias, George; Tentolouris, Nicholas; Ladas, Spiros S
AIM: To characterize the antinociceptive action of the novel melatonin receptor (MT) agonists, Neu-P11 and Neu-P12 in animal models of visceral pain. METHODS: Visceral pain was induced by intracolonic (ic) application of mustard oil or capsaicin solution or by intraperitoneal (ip) administration of acetic acid. Neu-P11, Neu-P12, or melatonin were given ip or orally and their effects on pain-induced behavioral responses were evaluated. To identify the receptors involved, the non-selective MT1/MT2 receptor antagonist luzindole, the MT2 receptor antagonist 4-P-PDOT, or the ?-opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were injected ip or intracerebroventricularly (icv) prior to the induction of pain. RESULTS: Orally and ip administered melatonin, Neu-P11, and Neu-P12 reduced pain responses in a dose-dependent manner. Neu-P12 was more effective and displayed longer duration of action compared to melatonin. The antinociceptive effects of Neu-P11 or Neu-P12 were antagonized by ip or icv. administered naloxone. Intracerebroventricularly, but not ip administration of luzindole or 4-P-PDOT blocked the antinociceptive actions of Neu-P11 or Neu-P12. CONCLUSION: Neu-P12 produced the most potent and long-lasting antinociceptive effect. Further development of Neu-P12 for future treatment of abdominalpain seems promising.
Chen, Chunqiu; Fichna, Jakub; Laudon, Moshe; Storr, Martin
Objectives To determine GI permeability and fecal calprotectin concentration in children 7–10 years of age with functional abdominalpain and irritable bowel syndrome (FAP/IBS) vs Controls and ascertain potential relationships with pain symptoms and stooling. Study design GI permeability and fecal calprotectin concentration were measured. Children kept a two-week diary of pain episodes and stooling pattern. Results Proximal GI permeability was greater in the FAP/IBS group (n = 93) compared with controls (n = 52) (0.59 ± 0.50 vs. 0.36 ± 0.26, respectively; mean ± SD; P < 0.001) as was colonic permeability (1.01 ± 0.67 vs. 0.81 ± 0.43, respectively; P < 0.05). Gastric and small intestinal permeability were similar. Fecal calprotectin concentration was greater in children with FAP/IBS compared with control children (65.5 ± 75.4 µg/g stool vs. 43.2 ± 39.4, respectively; P < 0.01). Fecal calprotectin concentration correlated with pain interference with activities (P = 0.01, r2 = 0.36). There was no correlation between GI permeability and pain related symptoms. Neither permeability nor fecal calprotectin correlated with stool form. Conclusions Children with FAP/IBS have evidence of increased GI permeability and low grade GI inflammation with the latter relating to the degree to which pain interferes with activities.
Background To determine within one tertiary care center: 1) the variation between providers in testing for celiac disease in children with chronic abdominalpain; 2) the characteristics of those children who were more likely to be tested, and 3) the prevalence of celiac disease in those evaluated. Methods Retrospective review of children with a primary complaint of chronic abdominalpain referred to a tertiary care children’s hospital for pediatric gastroenterology evaluation over a 2-year period was conducted. Children with at least two visits and without an identified organic etiology for the pain were included. Results 160 children were evaluated by 16 pediatric gastroenterologists and one nurse practitioner. Celiac serologic testing was completed in 63 (39.4%) children. There was no significant variance in the frequency of celiac serologic testing between providers. Child age, gender, body mass index, and baseline gastrointestinal symptoms did not predict whether celiac serologic testing occurred, though Caucasians (P?0.01) were more likely to be tested. Eighty-two (51.3%) children underwent either serologic testing and/or esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Four (4.9%, 95% CI: 1.6-11.3%) of the 82 tested were diagnosed with celiac disease. Conclusions Though interprovider variation for celiac disease testing in children with chronic abdominalpain did not occur, a large number of these children were not evaluated for celiac disease. Children’s race/ethnicity but not their associated gastrointestinal symptoms predicted whether celiac testing was undertaken. In those tested, celiac disease was identified in a higher percentage than that expected in the general population.
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Background We document clinical manifestations of 21 patients heavily infected with S. stercoralis (more than 250 larvae in a single Baermann test) from a community in rural Cambodia, both before and three weeks after ivermectin (200 ?g/kg BW, single oral dose) treatment. Findings Out of 21 patients, 20 (95.2%), 18 (85.7%) and 14 (66.7%) reported frequent abdominalpain, diarrhea and periods of sensation of itching, respectively, during the previous six months; epigastric (11, 55.0%) and peri-umbilical (13, 65.0%) pains were most frequent. Five patients (23.8%) reported having experienced urticaria the week preceding the examination. One patient suffered from extended urticaria. Three weeks after treatment, most symptoms had been almost entirely resolved. Conclusions In rural communities of Cambodia, strongyloidiasis with high parasite load is endemic. It is associated with substantial symptoms and clinical signs, particularly abdominalpain, diarrhea and urticaria. Access to adequate diagnosis and treatment is a pressing issue that needs attention.
The report is given about 154 patients, who were operated because of chronic abdominalpain in the lower abdomen 27 (17.5%), suspicion of adhesion 43 (27.9%), of an adnexal tumor 56 (33.8%), of endometriosis 5 (3.2%), sterility 11 (10%), or irreversible contraception 16 (7.2%). 112 patients had to be laparotomized once or several times. 105 women had only adhesion; adhesion and an adnexal tumor were found in 27 patients, 22 women had adhesion and endometriosis. Predominant were adhesions of second graduation, 72 women had these adhesions, nine of 105 patients had adhesions of first graduation, adhesions of third graduation had 24 patients. In the last group there was the greatest number of laparotomies. 95 patients answered the questionnaires six months later. 35 (36.8%) were free from pain, 13 (13.8%) stated a clear improvement, 38 (40%) were temporarily free from pain, and 9 (8.2%) stated unchanged pain. One woman complained postoperatively about clear aggravation of pain. PMID:7709676
We present the first patient in New Zealand to undergo Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) for intractable upper abdominalpain. The patient was a 53-year-old man with a 20-year history of debilitating upper abdominalpain associated with chronic pancreatitis secondary to pancreatic divisum. Prior to the SCS, he was prescribed 680 mg of morphine sulphate equi-analgesia a day. Despite the intense analgesia, he still suffered monthly attacks of upper abdominalpain requiring hospitalisation. Nine months after implanting a Spinal Cord Stimulator, the monthly attacks ceased, his background pain was effectively controlled and the need for opioids decreased to 510 mg of morphine sulphate equi-analgesia a day. PMID:23321890
Al-Mahrouqi, Haitham; Munro, Zea; Acland, Richard H; MacFarlane, Martin R
Accessory spleen is defined as one, two, or three nodules of additional ectopic splenic parenchyma hung by a vascular pedicle generally near the spleen. Despite a relatively high frequency (from 10 to 30 % of the population based on autopsy studies), most accessory spleens are asymptomatic. Although cases of accessory spleen were clearly described in the literature, this perplexing diagnosis is often delayed and rarely made preoperatively. We report episodic recurrences of abdominalpain in a 66-year-old man attributed to iterative sub-torsions of an accessory spleen, as well as a comprehensive review of the literature. PMID:23760734
Constipation is a common problem in children and adolescents, accounting for over 25% of all visits to pediatric gastroenterologists. Approximately 95% of childhood constipation is functional in nature. Primary gastrointestinal malignancies are rare in childhood and adolescence. When present in the gastrointestinal tract, Burkitt's lymphoma is typically located in the ileocecal region. We present a case of primary Burkitt's lymphoma of the transverse colon in an adolescent presenting with acute exacerbation of constipation, abdominalpain, and later, rectal bleeding and progressive weight loss. PMID:22417079
Meyer, Caroline T; Wilsey, Michael J; Hale, Gregory A; Monforte, Hector L; Danielson, Paul D
A 73-year-old woman presented with a six-day history of abdominalpain that had started in the epigastrium, but recently had become more intense in the right lower quadrant. Peptic ulcer had been diagnosed three years prior to presentation and had been managed medically. On physical examination, epigastric tenderness as well as guarding and rebound tenderness in the right lower quandrant were present. Mild leukocytosis was reported. Computed tomography demonstrated a 5-cm retrocecal mass with low attenuation (fluid content) surrounded by an irregularly thickened uncalcified wall. Multiple areas of tissue debris were seen extending into the mass, but no true separation was present.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abdominal bracing with low extremity movement on changes in thickness of abdominal muscles and lumbar strength. [Subjects] Sixteen patients with chronic low back pain were randomly assigned to two groups: an abdominal bracing with active straight leg raise (ABSLR) group and abdominal bracing with ankle dorsiflexion (ABDF) group. [Methods] All subjects were evaluated for their abdominal muscle strength using a MedX Lumbar Extension Machine and thickness of external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) muscles using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging. Subjects in both groups were instructed to perform Abdominal bracing (AB). Simultaneously, those in the ABSLR group performed active SLR, and those in the ABDF group performed ankle dorsiflexion. [Results] In comparison between the ABSLR and ABDF groups, significant differences in the thickness of the IO and TrA muscles were observed after the intervention in the ABSLR group. Also, lumbar strength was showed a significant increase in both groups after interventions. [Conclusion] The results of this study demonstrated that ABSLR is a more effective method than ABDF for improvement of abdominal stabilization by increasing the thicknesses of the TrA and IO.
Objective?To compare anxiety symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents with recurrent abdominalpain (RAP), anxiety disorders, and healthy control children.?Methods?Twenty-one children with RAP (nine males, mean age = 11.05) were compared to 21 children with anxiety disorders (11 males, mean age = 12.29), and 21 children without pain or anxiety (nine males, mean age = 11.57) using diagnostic interviews and continuous measures of anxiety and other internalizing symptoms.?Results?Sixty-seven percent of children with RAP met criteria for an anxiety disorder. Children with RAP were higher than well children but not significantly different from children with anxiety on total internalizing and anxiety symptoms.?Conclusions?RAP and anxiety are closely related. Further understanding between these disorders is essential to understanding the development and progression of RAP, and to inform the prevention and treatment of the disorder.
... is one of the most common reasons for abdominalpain. If you haven't had a bowel movement ( ... disease , or inflammatory bowel disease also can cause abdominalpain. Food. Some kids get abdominalpain because they ...
Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBP) is one of the most common bariatric surgeries, which is being performed using various techniques like gastrojejunostomy by hand swen, linear or circular stapler. Abdominalpain is a common complaint following laparoscopic gastric bypass procedure (LGBP), which has different aetiologies, such as overeating, adhesion, internal herniation, bile reflux and many more. In this study LGBP was performed in an ante-colic ante-gastric pattern in a double loop manner and the prevalence and distribution of pain in morbidly obese patients undergoing LGBP was assessed. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and frequency of post LGBP pain in morbidly obese patients. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 190 morbidly obese patients referred to Hazrat Rasoul Hospital in Tehran. After LGBP, pain was measured in the following intervals: 24 hours, one week and one month after the operation. Before the operation onset, 2 mg Keflin and 5000 IU subcutaneous heparin were administered as prophylaxis. LGBP was performed using five ports including: one 11 mm port was placed 15-20 cm far from the xiphoid, one 12-mm port in mid-clavicular line at the level of camera port, one 5-mm port in subcostal area in ante-axillary region in the left, another 5-mm port in the right mid-clavicular area and a 5-mm port in sub-xyphoid. All operations were done by the same team. Staple was used for all anastomoses and hand sewn technique to close the staple insertion site. The mesenteric defect was left open and no effort was made to repair it. Results: The results of this study showed that 99.94 % of the patients had complains of pain in the first 24 hours of post operation, about 60% after one week and 29.5 % still had pain after one month. In addition, left upper quadrant (LUQ) was found to be the most prevalent site for the pain in 53.7% of the patients in the first 24 hours, 59.6% after one week and 16.8% after one month (except for obscure pain) with a significance of < 0.05. Conclusions: In this study, the authors analyzed the location and disturbance level of pain after LGBP, which could serve as a cornerstone for further researches. The authors suggest that long-term follow-up (for more than a year after operation) should be considered in future studies and also the relationship between the drainage site and pain should be investigated.
Well-known causes of blood-tinged epiphora are conjunctival lesions, tumors of the lacrimal apparatus, and systemic bleeding disorders. We describe an unusual patient who presented with recurrent episodes of bloody tearing which began following an erythema multiforme-like drug eruption. He experienced chronic conjunctivitis which resulted in a few minor symblephara. One year later, the patient developed attacks of bloody tearing. All clinical, radiologic, and laboratory investigations related to bloody epiphora were within normal limits except for a mild, nonspecific chronic inflammatory reaction in the perivascular tissues of the lacrimal gland and orbital soft tissues. Also, an increase in vascular permeability and contrast extravasation on carotid angiography was detected. High-dose vitamin C was administered. The patient continued to have unilateral bloody tears intermittently for two years, but the episodes became much less frequent and had resolved by three years. It is conceivable that increased vascular permeability following the systemic inflammatory process could have played a role in the etiology of recurrent bloody tears in this atypical patient.
An 85-year-old female, with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome, underwent a colonoscopy and endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of a 25-mm proximal ascending colon polyp (Paris classification 0-Is). Post-procedure, the patient developed abdominalpain in the right iliac fossa which settled 1 h later. An urgent computed tomography (CT) scan of her abdomen was organised which happened 6 h post onset of abdominalpain. She had radiological evidence of perforation on the CT scan but clinically remained well and was managed conservatively. The exact aetiology of this patient's symptoms is not known. We suspect the radiological findings are probably due to a combination of injectate within the colonic wall and leakage of insufflated air or CO2 following transmural passage of the EMR needle. As EMR is becoming an increasingly effective treatment modality in the management of large sessile polyps, clinicians need to be aware of potential complications of treatment. It is also important to recognise that radiological features of perforation can be seen post EMR in the absence of an EMR associated perforation. PMID:24044046
An 85-year-old female, with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome, underwent a colonoscopy and endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of a 25-mm proximal ascending colon polyp (Paris classification 0-Is). Post-procedure, the patient developed abdominalpain in the right iliac fossa which settled 1 h later. An urgent computed tomography (CT) scan of her abdomen was organised which happened 6 h post onset of abdominalpain. She had radiological evidence of perforation on the CT scan but clinically remained well and was managed conservatively. The exact aetiology of this patient’s symptoms is not known. We suspect the radiological findings are probably due to a combination of injectate within the colonic wall and leakage of insufflated air or CO2 following transmural passage of the EMR needle. As EMR is becoming an increasingly effective treatment modality in the management of large sessile polyps, clinicians need to be aware of potential complications of treatment. It is also important to recognise that radiological features of perforation can be seen post EMR in the absence of an EMR associated perforation.
Objective: Little is known about prevalence and usual treatment of childhood and adolescent recurrent abdominalpain (RAP) in outpatient paediatricians’ practice. This study’s primary objective was to acquire insights into the usual paediatricians’ treatment and their estimation of prevalence, age and gender of RAP patients. Further objectives were to assess to which extent family members of patients report similar symptoms, how paediatricians rate the strain of parents of affected children and adolescents and how paediatricians estimate the demand for psychological support. Methods: Provided by a medical register, 437 outpatient paediatricians received a questionnaire to assess their perception of several psychosomatic problems and disorders including recurrent abdominalpain. Results: According to paediatricians’ estimation, 15% of all visits are caused by patients with RAP. In 22% of these cases of RAP, at least one family member has similar problems. In about 15% of all RAP cases, parents ask for professional psychological support concerning their children’s issues, whereas 40% of paediatricians wish for psychological support considering this group of patients. Conclusions: Estimated frequencies and paediatricians’ demands show the need for evidence-based psychological interventions in RAP to support usual medical treatment.
Schlarb, Angelika A.; Gulewitsch, Marco D.; Bock genannt Kasten, Inga; Enck, Paul; Hautzinger, Martin
The aim of this study was to examine the frequency and the relationship of H. pylori infection and giardiasis in children with recurrent abdominalpain. The study group included 98 patients and 88 healthy controls. Patients' sera were examined for anti-H. pylori specific IgG antibodies using H. pylori IgG ELISA. Analysis of stool samples was carried out by the H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) enzyme immunoassay. For the diagnosis of giardiasis, all stool samples were examined by saline-Lugol and formalin-ethyl-acetate sedimentation methods. H. pylori was detected in 40 (49.0%) patients and 40 (45.5%) controls. G. intestinalis was detected in 30 (30.6%) patients and 18 (20.4%) controls. There was no significant difference in frequency between the groups in the distribution of H. pylori (p=0.6) and giardiasis (p=0.4). The frequency of the combination of H. pylori infection and giardiasis in the patient groups was 22.4% compared to 6.8% in the control groups and this result was statistically significant (p=0.002). It seems that the relationship of H. pylori infection and giardiasis represent an important ethiologic factor in children with recurrent abdominalpain. PMID:18351542
AIM: To study possible gynecological organ pathologies in the differential diagnosis of acute right lower abdominalpain in patients of reproductive age. METHODS: Following Clinical Trials Ethical Committee approval, the retrospective data consisting of physical examination and laboratory findings in 290 patients with sudden onset right lower abdominalpain who used the emergency surgery service between April 2009 and September 2013, and underwent surgery and general anesthesia with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis were collated. RESULTS: Total data on 290 patients were obtained. Two hundred and twenty-four (77.2%) patients had acute appendicitis, whereas 29 (10%) had perforated appendicitis and 37 (12.8%) had gynecological organ pathologies. Of the latter, 21 (7.2%) had ovarian cyst rupture, 12 (4.2%) had corpus hemorrhagicum cyst rupture and 4 (1.4%) had adnexal torsion. Defense, Rovsing’s sign, increased body temperature and increased leukocyte count were found to be statistically significant in the differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis and gynecological organ pathologies. CONCLUSION: Gynecological pathologies in women of reproductive age are misleading in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.
Hatipoglu, Sinan; Hatipoglu, Filiz; Abdullayev, Ruslan
Introduction Presentations of abdominalpain in patients on peritoneal dialysis deserve maximal attention and careful differential diagnosis on admittance to medical care. In this case report a gangrenous appendicitis in a patient on automated peritoneal dialysis is presented. Case presentation We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian man with end-stage renal disease who was on automated peritoneal dialysis and developed acute abdominalpain and cloudy peritoneal dialysate. Negative microbiological cultures of the peritoneal dialysis fluid and an abdominal ultrasonography misleadingly led to a diagnosis of culture negative peritonitis. It was decided to remove the peritoneal catheter but the clinical situation of the patient did not improve. An explorative laparotomy was then carried out; diffuse peritonitis and gangrenous appendicitis were found. An appendectomy was performed. Myocardial infarction and sepsis developed, and the outcome was fatal. Conclusion A peritoneal dialysis patient with abdominalpain that persists for more than 48?hours after the usual antibiotic protocol for peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis should immediately alert the physician to the possibility of peritonitis caused by intra-abdominal pathology. Not only peritoneal catheter removal is indicated in patients whose clinical features worsen or fail to resolve with the established intra-peritoneal antibiotic therapy but, after 72?hours, an early laparoscopy should be done and in a case of correct indication (intra-abdominal pathology) an early explorative laparotomy.
The medical issues that arise in the isolated environment of a submarine can occasionally be grave. While crewmembers are carefully screened for health problems, they are still susceptible to serious acute illness. Currently, the submarine medical department representative, the hospital corpsman, utilizes a history and physical examination, clinical acumen, and limited laboratory testing in diagnosis. The application of a Bayesian method of analysis to an abdominalpain diagnostic system utilizing an onboard microcomputer is described herein. Early results from sea trials show an appropriate diagnosis in eight of 10 cases of abdominalpain, but the program should still be viewed as an extended "laboratory test" until proved effective at sea. PMID:6368770
Chest and abdominalpain are the most common reasons that persons aged 15 years and over visit the emergency department (ED). Because EDs provide both emergency and nonemergency care visits for these symptoms may vary in their acuity. Advanced medical ima...
A 44-year-old woman presented to our Emergency Department with a 4-day history of severe, sharp left upper quadrant abdominalpain associated with nausea and vomiting. She had been seen 3 days prior at another Emergency Department, and had a negative work-up including a normal non-contrast computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen/pelvis for possible kidney stone. Vital signs were: temperature 36.3°C (97.3°F), pulse 100 beats/min, respiratory rate 18 breaths/min, and blood pressure 141/80 mm Hg. Physical examination was remarkable for marked tenderness in the left upper and middle quadrants and voluntary guarding. Bowel sounds were normal. Although laboratory studies were normal, a CT scan of the abdomen/pelvis with intravenous contrast suggested a superior mesenteric artery dissection. This was confirmed with arteriography. The clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management of superior mesenteric artery dissection are reviewed. PMID:18180132
Watring, Nicole J; Smith, Corbett M; Stokes, Gordon K; Counselman, Francis L
Background Lymphangiomas are rare tumours usually found in the paediatric population in extra abdominal sites.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim To report on a patient with a hepatic lymphangioma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Result A 30-year-old woman presented with a 4-year history of right upper quadrant pain. Ultrasound and CT imaging demonstrated a\\u000a cystic mass adjacent to the gallbladder. Histology of the resected specimen conferred a diagnosis of hepatic lymphangioma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Conclusion We
H. Stunell; P. F. Ridgway; W. C. Torreggiani; P. Crotty; K. C. Conlon
Inferior vena cava filters are considered a valuable therapeutic option in patients with deep vein thrombosis, subsequent pulmonary emboli, and contraindication for anticoagulation. However, these filters bear the risk of rare but serious complications (e.g., symptomatic caval perforation). We report our experiences with retrievable vena cava filters by means of an actual case and review the recent literature with special regard to filter-dependent delayed symptomatic vena cava perforations. Here, an inferior vena cava filter could be identified as the source of a patient's abdominalpain; after an interventional retrieval approach had failed, open surgical removal became necessary and led to the instant relief of this patient's symptoms. Retrievable vena cava filter removal should be performed in all cases as soon as no longer needed to avoid fatal complications. PMID:23498323
Meyer, Alexander; Schönleben, Frank; Heinz, Marco; Lang, Werner
Somatoform disorders (SD) or medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are a group of disorders that represent a group of symptoms that cannot be explained by an organic or physical pathology. These disorders are widely prevalent, and, if unrecognised, SD may lead medical professionals to embark on tests or procedures which may inflict unnecessary iatrogenic complications. Despite the high prevalence, they are only poorly included in medical training curricula, at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. In this article, we review the literature and present two cases. The first one presented with a recurrent acute abdomen had an unnecessary CT abdomen. The second case had laparoscopy for acute right-sided abdominalpain which turned out to be normal, and was readmitted again after a short period with acute urine retention which resolved spontaneously following discussion with the patient and family. Both cases were referred for psychiatric assessment and their family doctors were informed. PMID:22922916
Abd Elwahab, Sami Medani; Doherty, Eva; Elsheikh, Hashim
Functional abdominalpain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are among the most commonly diagnosed medical problems in pediatrics. Symptom-based Rome III criteria for FAP and IBS have been validated and help the clinician in making a positive diagnosis. The majority of patients with mild complaints improve with reassurance and time. For a distinct subset of patients with more severe and disabling illness, finding effective treatment for these disorders remains a challenge. Over the years, a wide range of therapies have been proposed and studied. The lack of a single, proven intervention highlights the complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors probably involved in the development of childhood FAP and IBS, and the need for a multidisciplinary, integrated approach. This article reviews the current literature on the efficacy of pharmacologic, dietary and psychosocial interventions for FAP and IBS in children and adolescents.
A 16-year-old boy presented with a 6-day history of fevers and myalgias and a 4-day history of diffuse crampy abdominalpain. On admission, his sclerae were icteric and he had diffuse abdominal tenderness. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated to 40; the ?-glutamyl transferase level was elevated to 168 U/L; indirect bilirubin was 5.6 mg/dL; and direct bilirubin was 3.3 mg/dL. During the next 2 days, he developed many stigmata of Kawasaki disease (KD), including conjunctivitis, desquamating rash, mucosal changes, swelling of the hands and feet, and lymphadenopathy. KD is commonly seen in young children but can also occur in adolescents and adults. Providers should be aware that these age-groups are at risk for KD and may present with atypical symptoms. Delays in diagnosis can put these adolescents at increased risk of coronary artery aneurysms, and, accordingly, a high index of suspicion is essential. PMID:23260847
Objective: To assess whether parental psychological and physical factors and child factors measured in the first year of life were associated with recurrent abdominalpain (RAP) in children at age 6 3/4 years. Method: A longitudinal cohort study (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children), followed 8,272 children from pregnancy to age 6…
Ramchandani, Paul G.; Stein, Alan; Hotopf, Matthew; Wiles, Nicola J.
Objective: This prospective study characterizes trajectories of symptoms and impairment in pediatric patients with abdominalpain not associated with identifiable organic disease. Method: The Children's Somatization Inventory and the Functional Disability Inventory were administered four times over 5 years to 132 patients (6-18 years old) seen in…
Mulvaney, Shelagh; Lambert, E. Warren; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S.
Recurrent abdominalpain (RAP) affects a significant number of children each year. We reviewed our experience over a 2-year period to determine the outcome of patients who were referred for pediatric gastroenterology consultation. We identified 356 patients, 149 (42%) male and 207 (58%) female. All patients underwent a thorough interview and complete physical examination. Patients suspected of having irritable bowel
Joseph M. Croffie; Joseph F. Fitzgerald; Sonny K. F. Chong
A computer program designed to aid the Independent Duty (8402) Corpsman in diagnosis and management of abdominalpain has been placed aboard submarines for Test and Evaluation. In July 1982 the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory launched a five-y...
PurposeRecurrent angioedema, characterized by skin swelling, colicky attacks of abdominalpain, and life-threatening laryngeal edema, can be either hereditary or acquired. According to anecdotal reports, it may be associated with use of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. We investigated potential interactions between these medications and various types of recurrent angioedema in a large cohort of women.
Adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported to have alterations in autonomic nervous system function as measured by vagal activity via heart rate variability. Whether the same is true for children is unknown. We compared young children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominalpain (FAP) or IBS to healthy children (HC) and explored the relationship of vagal activity and sympathovagal balance to psychological distress and stool type. Children completed questionnaires, kept a 2-week pain/stool diary, and wore a 24-hour Holter monitor to assess vagal activity. Group comparisons on vagal activity were controlled for age and body mass index. Indicators of vagal activity and sympathovagal balance did not differ between FAP/IBS children (70 girls, 30 boys) and HC (44 girls, 18 boys). Psychological distress measures were generally higher in FAP/IBS than HC, primarily in girls. Exploratory analyses suggest a potential negative correlation between vagal activity and psychological distress in FAP/IBS girls but not boys. In contrast to reports in women, no differences were found in vagal activity between FAP/IBS and HC. Preliminary findings suggest that in girls with FAP/IBS there is an inverse relationship between vagal activity and psychological distress. Perspective The results from this study suggest a possible relationship between emotional state and vagal activity in prepubertal girls (but not boys) with FAP/IBS. Age and/or duration of symptoms may explain our contrasting findings versus adults with IBS.
Jarrett, Monica; Heitkemper, Margaret; Czyzewski, Danita; Zeltzer, Lonnie; Shulman, Robert J.
Background: Postoperative pain is one of the most important complications encountered after surgery. A number of options are available for treating pain following surgery. One of those options is the use of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Ketamine is an anesthetic drug relieving pain with its NMDA receptor antagonistic effect. Objectives: This study is aiming at better pain management after abdominal surgery; the effects of adding ketamine to intravenous fentanyl plus acetaminophen PCA were evaluated. Patients and Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trial 100 patients, ASA I or II, 20 - 60 years old were divided into two groups. These patients were abdominal surgery candidates. In order to control postoperative pain in the control group an IV patient-control analgesia (PCA) containing fentanyl 10 ?g/mL plus acetaminophen 10 mg/mL was instructed to be used for the patients, but the patients in ketamine group received ketamine 0.5 mg/mL plus control group PCA content. During the first 48 hours after surgery, ketamine patients were evaluated every 8 hours (at rest, while moving and coughing) to determine their pain scores using VAS scale, sedation score, additional analgesics, nausea and vomiting. Results: There were no significant demographic differences between two groups. Pain scores (at rest, while moving and coughing) during the first 48 hours were not significantly different between two groups (P values = 0.361, 0.367 and 0.204, respectively). Nausea scores were significantly lower in the ketamine group (P = 0.026). Conclusions: The addition of ketamine to intravenous fentanyl plus acetaminophen PCA had not extra effects in relieving post abdominal surgery pain.
The purpose of this study was to effects of abdominal draw-in maneuver and core exercise with 4 weeks using the musculoskeletal ultrasonography on muscle thickness and disability in subjects with low back pain. Twenty patients with nonspecific back pain (abdominal draw-in maneuver group: n= 10, core exercise group: n= 10) were recruited in the study. Both group received exercise intervention 3 times a week for 4weeks. The test were based on muscle thickness (transversus abdominis; Tra, internal oblique; IO and external oblique; EO), disability (Oswestry disability index; ODI) measured immediately before and after intervention. The data was measured by SPSS program 12.0 version and analyzed by Paired t-test and Independent t-test. The following results were obtained. The thickness of IO, EO for both group significantly improved except for muscle thickness of Tra. The ODI were significant difference for both groups. As the results of this study, we suggest that it may be effective method to apply to increase for the thickness of Tra, EO using abdominal draw-in maneuver and thickness of IO using core exercise.
Conducted controlled clinical trial involving 44 children with recurrent abdominalpain randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral family intervention (CBFI) or standard pediatric care (SPC). Both treatments resulted in significant improvements on measures of pain intensity and pain behavior. CBFI group had higher rate of complete elimination of…
AIM: To investigate whether seasonal changes had an effect on the incidence of acute appendicitis (AA) or nonspecific abdominalpain (NSAP). METHODS: We carried out a national register study of all patients with a hospital discharge diagnosis of AA and acute NSAP in Finland. Data were analyzed for the whole country and correlated to seasonal and weather parameters (temperature, humidity). Moreover, additional sub-analyses were performed for five geographically different area of Finland. RESULTS: The observation period spanned 21 years, with 186558 appendectomies, of which 137528 (74%) cases were reported as AA. The incidence of AA declined for 32% over the study period. The average incidence of the NSAP was 34/10000 per year. The mean annual temperature, but not relative humidity, showed clear geographical variations. The incidence of AA decreased significantly during the cold months of the year. No correlation was detected between temperature and incidence of NSAP. Humidity had a statistically significant impact on NSAP. CONCLUSION: The incidence of acute appendicitis is declining in Finland. We detected a clear seasonality in the incidence of AA and NSAP.
Background. Frequent abdominalpain (AP) in children and adolescents is often designated as functional gastrointestinal disorder. In contrast to research on psychological and social influences on the experience of AP in this population, psychophysiological features such as function of the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, or the endocrine system have rarely been studied. Methods. We conducted a systematic literature search for peer-reviewed journal articles referring to children with AP between 4 and 18 years. Studies on experimental baseline characteristics or reactivity of psychophysiological outcome parameters (autonomous nervous system, central nervous system, and endocrine parameters) were included. Key Results. Twelve of 18 included studies found psychophysiological differences between children with AP and healthy ones. These studies indicate a possible autonomic dysregulation and hypersensitivity of the central nervous system in children with AP following stimulation with stress or other intense stimuli. Mainly conflicting results were found regarding baseline comparisons of autonomic and endocrine parameters. Conclusions and Inferences. Frequent AP in children may be associated with an altered psychophysiological reaction on intense stimuli. It has to be considered that the current literature on psychophysiological characteristics of childhood AP is small and heterogeneous. In particular, multiparameter studies using validated experimental paradigms are lacking.
Incisional hernias following abdominal operations are a common complication. Mesh is frequently employed in repair of these hernias. Mesh migration is an infrequent occurrence. We present the case of transmural mesh migration from the abdominal wall into the ceacum presenting as chronic abdominalpain. Given the popularity of minimally invasive surgery utilizing polypropylene mesh for incisional hernia repair, related complications such as postoperative hematoma and seroma, foreign body reaction, organ injury, infection, mesh rejection and fistula are increasingly being noted. Most of the mesh migrations reported in the literature involve the urinary bladder. We present a case of delayed mesh migration into the ceacum. Mesh migration is a rare and peculiar complication that is rarely reported in the literature. A review of the literature shows that there are no other cases of mesh migration into ceacum several years after open type incisional hernia repair. PMID:24578759
Pain - groin; Lower abdominalpain; Genital pain; Perineal pain ... Common causes of groin pain include: Pulled muscle, tendon, or ligaments in the leg. This problem often occurs in people who play sports such as ...
Introduction Adrenal lipomas are rare, small, benign, non-functioning tumors, which must be histopathologically differentiated from other\\u000a tumors such as myelolipomas or liposarcomas. They are usually identified incidentally during autopsy, imaging, or laparotomy.\\u000a Occasionally, they may present acutely due to complications such as abdominalpain from retroperitoneal bleeding, or systemic\\u000a symptoms of infection. We report a giant adrenal lipoma (to the best
Stylianos Kapetanakis; Ioannis Drygiannakis; Anastasios Tzortzinis; Nikolaos Papanas; Aliki Fiska
A case study of a medical emergency aboard the International Space Station is reviewed. The case involves a female crewmember who is experiencing acute abdominalpain. The interplay of the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) and the NASA Flight Surgeon is given. Possible diagnoses, and advised medical actions are reviewed. Along the case study questions are posed to the reader, and at the end answers are given.
Hamilton, Douglas R.; Scheuring, Richard; Jones, Jeffery
This paper reports a controlled trial of human and computer-aided diagnosis in a series of 552 patients with acute abdominalpain. The overall diagnostic accuracy of the computer-aided system was 91·5% and that of the senior clinician to see each case was 81·2%. However, the clinician's diagnostic performance improved markedly during the period of the trial. The proportion of appendices
F. T. de Dombal; D. J. Leaper; Jane C. Horrocks; John R. Staniland; A. P. McCann
This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an elderly woman experienced bloody vaginal discharge long after menopause. Visitors are given both the microscopic pap smear and biopsy findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.
Dickson, H.; Mahood, L.; Manlucu, E. D.; Nath, Manju E.
Introduction: In emergency department (ED) patients with upper abdominalpain, management includes ruling out serious diseases and providing symptomatic relief. One of the major causes of upper abdominalpain is an ulcer caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which can be treated and cured with antibiotics. We sought to estimate the prevalence of H. pylori infection in symptomatic patients using a convenience sample at a single urban academic ED and demonstrate the feasibility of ED-based testing. Methods: We prospectively enrolled patients with a chief complaint of pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen for 1 year from February 2011 until February 2012 at a single academic urban ED. Enrolled subjects were tested for H. pylori using a rapid point of care 13C Urea Breath Test (UBT) [Exalenz Bioscience]. We compared patient characteristics between those who tested positive versus negative for the disease. Results: A total of 205 patients with upper abdominalpain were tested over 12 months, and 24% (95% confidence interval: 19% to 30%) tested positive for H. pylori. Black subjects were more likely to test positive than white subjects (28% v. 6%, P < 0.001). Other factors, such as age and sex, were not different between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In our ED, H. pylori infection was present in 1 in 4 patients with epigastric pain, and testing with a UBT was feasible. Further study is needed to determine the risk factors associated with infection, the prevalence of H. pylori in other EDs, the effect of the test on ED length of stay and the costeffectiveness of an ED-based test-and-treat strategy.
Meltzer, Andrew C.; Pierce, Rebecca; Cummings, Derek A.T.; Pines, Jesse M.; May, Larissa; Smith, Meaghan A.; Marcotte, Joseph; McCarthy, Melissa L.
Introduction: In emergency department (ED) patients with upper abdominalpain, management includes ruling out serious diseases and providing symptomatic relief. One of the major causes of upper abdominalpain is an ulcer caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which can be treated and cured with antibiotics. We sought to estimate the prevalence of H. pylori infection in symptomatic patients using a convenience sample at a single urban academic ED and demonstrate the feasibility of ED-based testing. Methods: We prospectively enrolled patients with a chief complaint of pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen for 1 year from February 2011 until February 2012 at a single academic urban ED. Enrolled subjects were tested for H. pylori using a rapid point of care (13)C Urea Breath Test (UBT) [Exalenz Bioscience]. We compared patient characteristics between those who tested positive versus negative for the disease. Results: A total of 205 patients with upper abdominalpain were tested over 12 months, and 24% (95% confidence interval: 19% to 30%) tested positive for H. pylori. Black subjects were more likely to test positive than white subjects (28% v. 6%, P < 0.001). Other factors, such as age and sex, were not different between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In our ED, H. pylori infection was present in 1 in 4 patients with epigastric pain, and testing with a UBT was feasible. Further study is needed to determine the risk factors associated with infection, the prevalence of H. pylori in other EDs, the effect of the test on ED length of stay and the costeffectiveness of an ED-based test-and-treat strategy. PMID:23687549
Meltzer, Andrew C; Pierce, Rebecca; Cummings, Derek A T; Pines, Jesse M; May, Larissa; Smith, Meaghan A; Marcotte, Joseph; McCarthy, Melissa L
The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of mechanical abdominal massage on postoperative pain and ileus after\\u000a colectomy. We hypothesized that parietal abdominal stimulation could counteract induced pain and postoperative ileus, through\\u000a common spinal-sensitive pathways, with nociceptive visceral messages. After preoperative randomization, 25 patients (age 52\\u000a ± 5 years) underwent active mechanical massage by intermittent negative pressure
Isabelle Le Blanc-Louvry; Bruno Costaglioli; Catherine Boulon; Anne-Marie Leroi; Philippe Ducrotte
Background Organophosphate (OP) poisoning is the most common cause (27.64%) and has the highest death rate (13.88%) of poisoning in Bangladesh. It leads to three main syndromes notably acute cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, and delayed polyneuropathy. It rarely causes cardiac arrhythmia, pancreatitis and hepatic dysfunction. We present the case of a middle-aged Asian woman suffering from organophosphate poisoning with dual complications. Case presentation A middle aged Asian woman with depression was brought to emergency attention after drinking of 60 milliliter of organophosphate insecticide in a suicidal attempt. She had vomiting, excessive retching, diarrhoea, miosis, hypersalivation and bilateral crepitation on chest during admission. After immediate resuscitation, atropinization was done and it required total of 36 milligram. The patient also received pralidoxime. While on maintenance, features of toxicity re-appeared and she again required atropine in bolus dose. On the fifth day of management she complained of generalized weakness, inability to control her neck and to sit or stand without support. But there was no respiratory muscle involvement and all deep tendon reflexes were normal. On the same day the patient also developed severe upper abdominalpain along with nausea and vomiting. Investigations revealed neutrophilic leucocytosis (30,000/cubic millimeter; 86%) with high serum lipase (770 Unit/Liter) and alanine transaminase (379 Unit/Liter) and low serum potassium (3.0 millimol/Liter). On the basis of above mentioned features organophosphate induced intermediate syndrome and pancreatitis was diagnosed. The patient recovered completely with appropriate management. Conclusion Organophosphate poisonings causes up to 25% mortality worldwide. A major contributing factor for that are different complications. Awareness of these complications can reduce both mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of complications and timely therapeutic measures can improve prognosis.
Introduction Anisakidosis, human infection with nematodes of the family Anisakidae, is caused most commonly by Anisakis simplex. Acquired by the consumption of raw or undercooked marine fish or squid, anisakidosis occurs where such dietary customs are practiced, including Japan, the coastal regions of Europe and the United States. Rupture of the spleen is a relatively common complication of trauma and many systemic disorders affecting the reticuloendothelial system, including infections and neoplasias. A rare subtype of rupture occurring spontaneously and arising from a normal spleen has been recognized as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Herein we discuss the case of a woman who presented to our institution with appendicitis secondary to Anisakis and spontaneous spleen rupture. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with hemorrhagic shock and abdominalpain and was subsequently found to have spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. She underwent open surgical resection of the splenic rupture and the appendicitis without any significant postoperative complications. Histopathologic examination revealed appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex and splenic rupture of undetermined etiology. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first of a woman with the diagnosis of spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. Digestive anisakiasis may present as an acute abdomen. Emergency physicians should know and consider this diagnosis in patients with ileitis or colitis, especially if an antecedent of raw or undercooked fish ingestion is present. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen is an extremely rare event. Increased awareness of this condition will enhance early diagnosis and effective treatment. Further research is required to identify the possible risk factors associated with spontaneous rupture of the spleen.
We report a case of thoracic wall myositis ossificans (MO) located anterior to the ninth rib, causing right lower thoracic-upper abdominalpain. The diagnosis was based on the findings of ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT). Numerous disorders can be included in the differential diagnosis of right lower thoracic-upper abdominalpain, so we must first establish if the pain is somatic or visceral in origin. Somatic pain in this region can be caused by traumatic muscle pain, overuse myalgia, costochondritis, or thoracic wall malignancies. Although rare, MO should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of pain and thoracic wall masses in this region. As the calcifications may not be seen on a plain chest X-ray in the early course of this condition, superficial tissue US or CT should be performed to establish the diagnosis. PMID:18820877
Hydatid disease is an endemic disease in certain areas of the world. It is located mostly in the liver. Spontaneous rupture of the hydatid cyst into the peritoneum is a rare condition, which is accompanied by serious morbidity and mortality generally. We present herein a case with a spontaneous rupture of a hepatic hidatid disease into the peritoneum without any serious symptoms. A 15-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency room with a mild abdominalpain lasting for a day. Physical examination revealed only mild abdominal tenderness. There was no history of trauma or complaints related to hydatid diseases. Ultrasonography showed a large amount of free fluid and a cystic lesion with irregular borders in the liver. He was operated on. Postoperative albendazol therapy was given for 2 mo. No recurrence or secondary hydatidosis was seen on CT investigation in the 3rd, 6th and 12th mo following surgery.
Hydatid disease is an endemic disease in certain areas of the world. It is located mostly in the liver. Spontaneous rupture of the hydatid cyst into the peritoneum is a rare condition, which is accompanied by serious morbidity and mortality generally. We present herein a case with a spontaneous rupture of a hepatic hidatid disease into the peritoneum without any serious symptoms. A 15-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency room with a mild abdominalpain lasting for a day. Physical examination revealed only mild abdominal tenderness. There was no history of trauma or complaints related to hydatid diseases. Ultrasonography showed a large amount of free fluid and a cystic lesion with irregular borders in the liver. He was operated on. Postoperative albendazol therapy was given for 2 mo. No recurrence or secondary hydatidosis was seen on CT investigation in the 3rd, 6th and 12th mo following surgery. PMID:17278209
This study describes the results of a controlled clinical trial involving 44 7- to 14-year-old children with recurrent abdominalpain who were randomly allocated to either cognitive-behavioral family intervention (CBFI) or standard pediatric care (SPC). Both treatment conditions resulted in significant improvements on measures of pain intensity and pain behavior. However, the children receiving CBFI had a higher rate of
Matthew R. Sanders; Ross W. Shepherd; Geoffrey Cleghorn; Hugh Woolford
Symptomatic caval injury is rare after inferior vena cava (IVC) filter insertion. A 39-year-old woman developed acute abdominalpain after uneventful placement of a retrievable Option IVC Filter (Angiotech Pharmaceuticals, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada). Two days after placement, computed tomography showed a right-sided retroperitoneal hematoma, and three-dimensional C-arm rotational venography confirmed limb penetration beyond the caval wall. This is the first report of this complication despite two recent studies highlighting the safety profile of this relatively new filter. PMID:21170529
Background Ultrasound (US) imaging has been considered as a non-invasive technique to measure thickness and estimate relative abdominal muscle activity. Although some studies have assessed the reliability of US imaging, no study has assessed the reliability of US measurement of automatic activity of abdominal muscles in positions with different levels of stability in participants with chronic low back pain (cLBP). The purpose of this study was to investigate within-day and between-days reliability of US thickness measurements of automatic activity of the abdominal muscles in asymptomatic participants and within-day reliability in those with cLBP. Methods A total of 20 participants (10 with cLBP, 10 healthy) participated in the study. The reliability of US thickness measurements at supine lying and sitting positions (sitting on a chair, sitting on a gym ball with both feet on the ground or lifting one foot off the floor) were assessed. We evaluated within-day reliability in all participants and between-days reliability in asymptomatic participants. Results We found high ICC scores (0.85-0.95) and also small SEM and MDC scores in both groups. The reliability of the measurements was comparable between participants with and without LBP in each position but the SEMs and MDCs was slightly higher in patient group compared with healthy group. It indicates high intra-tester reliability for the US measurement of the thickness of abdominal muscles in all positions. Conclusion US imaging can be used as a reliable method for assessment of automatic activity of abdominal muscles in positions with low levels of stability in participants with and without LBP.
Dysmenorrhea is a common cause of sickness absenteeism from both classes and work. This study investigated the effect of aromatherapy massage on a group of nursing students who are suffering of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized blind clinical trial of crossover design was used. In the first treatment phase, group 1 (n = 48) received aromatherapy abdominal massage once daily for seven days prior to menstruation using the essential oils (cinnamon, clove, rose, and lavender in a base of almond oil). Group 2 (n = 47) received the same intervention but with placebo oil (almond oil). In the second treatment phase, the two groups switched to alternate regimen. Level and duration of pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were evaluated at the baseline and after each treatment phase. During both treatment phases, the level and duration of menstrual pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group than in the placebo group. These results suggests that aromatherapy is effective in alleviating menstrual pain, its duration and excessive menstrual bleeding. Aromatherapy can be provided as a nonpharmacological pain relief measure and as a part of nursing care given to girls suffering of dysmenorrhea, or excessive menstrual bleeding. PMID:23662151
Marzouk, Tyseer M F; El-Nemer, Amina M R; Baraka, Hany N
Dysmenorrhea is a common cause of sickness absenteeism from both classes and work. This study investigated the effect of aromatherapy massage on a group of nursing students who are suffering of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized blind clinical trial of crossover design was used. In the first treatment phase, group 1 (n = 48) received aromatherapy abdominal massage once daily for seven days prior to menstruation using the essential oils (cinnamon, clove, rose, and lavender in a base of almond oil). Group 2 (n = 47) received the same intervention but with placebo oil (almond oil). In the second treatment phase, the two groups switched to alternate regimen. Level and duration of pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were evaluated at the baseline and after each treatment phase. During both treatment phases, the level and duration of menstrual pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group than in the placebo group. These results suggests that aromatherapy is effective in alleviating menstrual pain, its duration and excessive menstrual bleeding. Aromatherapy can be provided as a nonpharmacological pain relief measure and as a part of nursing care given to girls suffering of dysmenorrhea, or excessive menstrual bleeding.
Marzouk, Tyseer M. F.; El-Nemer, Amina M. R.; Baraka, Hany N.
Campylobacter upsaliensis is a zoonotic, emerging pathogen that is not readily recovered in traditional stool culture. This case represents the first report of persistent bloody diarrhea with C. upsaliensis that was confirmed by filtration culture, PCR, and sequencing.
This is a report of a 57-year-old female patient who sought treatment for multiple episodes of bloody epiphora. A CT of her orbits revealed enhancement and enlargement of her left lacrimal sac and duct. A biopsy was then performed, which showed a varix involving the wall of the lacrimal sac. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a lacrimal sac varix causing bloody epiphora. PMID:23446307
Fear conditioning is relevant for elucidating the pathophysiology of anxiety, but may also be useful in the context of chronic pain syndromes which often overlap with anxiety. Thus far, no fear conditioning studies have employed aversive visceral stimuli from the lower gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, we implemented a fear conditioning paradigm to analyze the conditioned response to rectal pain stimuli using fMRI during associative learning, extinction and reinstatement. In N?=?21 healthy humans, visual conditioned stimuli (CS+) were paired with painful rectal distensions as unconditioned stimuli (US), while different visual stimuli (CS?) were presented without US. During extinction, all CSs were presented without US, whereas during reinstatement, a single, unpaired US was presented. In region-of-interest analyses, conditioned anticipatory neural activation was assessed along with perceived CS-US contingency and CS unpleasantness. Fear conditioning resulted in significant contingency awareness and valence change, i.e., learned unpleasantness of a previously neutral stimulus. This was paralleled by anticipatory activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, the somatosensory cortex and precuneus (all during early acquisition) and the amygdala (late acquisition) in response to the CS+. During extinction, anticipatory activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the CS? was observed. In the reinstatement phase, a tendency for parahippocampal activation was found. Fear conditioning with rectal pain stimuli is feasible and leads to learned unpleasantness of previously neutral stimuli. Within the brain, conditioned anticipatory activations are seen in core areas of the central fear network including the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex. During extinction, conditioned responses quickly disappear, and learning of new predictive cue properties is paralleled by prefrontal activation. A tendency for parahippocampal activation during reinstatement could indicate a reactivation of the old memory trace. Together, these findings contribute to our understanding of aversive visceral learning and memory processes relevant to the pathophysiology of chronic abdominalpain.
Examined discriminative validity of the Parent Rating Scale (PRS) of the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992, Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services). Two groups were compared: a cohort with recurrent abdominalpain (RAP) (n = 49) and children from the BASC-PRS standardization sample (n = 49) matched on…
Robins, Paul M.; Schoff, Kristin M.; Glutting, Joseph J.; Abelkop, A. Shayne
Objective To investigate whether the combination of standard medical care (SMC) and short-term cognitive-behavioral family treatment (CBT) in the treatment of recurrent abdom- inal pain (RAP) was more effective than SMC alone. Methods Children recently diagnosed with RAP via physician examination were randomized into SMC (n = 29) and SMC plus CBT (n = 40) groups. Outcome measures included multiple
Paul M. Robins; Suzanne M. Smith; Joseph J. Glutting; Chanelle T. Bishop
Elevated resting blood pressure (BP) is hypoalgesic in healthy individuals, but this effect is absent in adults with chronic somatic pain. This study tested whether BP-related hypoalgesia is similarly altered in individuals with a history of chronic visceral pain in childhood. Resting BP was assessed in 94 adolescents and young adults with a known history of childhood functional abdominalpain (FAP) and 55 comparable healthy controls. Responses to an acute heat pain stimulus were then evaluated following exposure to two laboratory stressors. A significant Participant Type X Systolic BP (SBP) interaction (p<.005) revealed that elevated resting SBP was associated with significantly higher heat pain threshold (p<.001) in healthy controls, but was unrelated to pain threshold in the FAP group. A similar pattern was observed for heat pain tolerance, with elevated SBP linked to significantly higher pain tolerance (p<.05) in healthy controls, but unrelated to tolerance in the FAP group. Dysfunction in BP-related hypoalgesia associated with FAP was evident regardless of whether childhood FAP had resolved or still persisted at the time of laboratory testing. Subgroup analyses indicated that BP-related hypoalgesia (in healthy controls) and FAP-linked absence of this hypoalgesia was observed only among females. Result suggest that childhood visceral chronic pain may be associated with relatively long-lasting dysfunction in overlapping systems modulating pain and BP that persists even after FAP resolves. Potential implications for later hypertension risk are discussed.
Bruehl, Stephen; Dengler-Crish, Christine M.; Smith, Craig A.; Walker, Lynn S.
A 21-year-old female crew member experienced a number of medical conditions during a summer cruise to the Antarctic Peninsula. At one point symptoms and signs strongly suggested acute appendicitis. She was monitored and treated conservatively on board and recovered uneventfully without surgery. Later she had a biliary colic attack and then an allergic reaction to the pain medication given. The pre-employment medical fitness certificate cannot always be trusted regarding previous history of allergies and medical conditions. PMID:22972550
Mammary duct ectasia is a rare disease in children and often presents as a cystic mass with bloody nipple discharge. The pathophysiology of mammary duct ectasia is unclear, and the differential diagnosis of other cystic masses with hemorrhage, such as complicated lymphangioma, is necessary. Here, we report a 14-month-old boy who exhibited unilateral mammary duct ectasia with bloody nipple discharge that was treated with surgical excision. Because some authors have reported that mammary duct ectasia can be often be resolved without surgery, conservative therapy should be considered first when a child presents with a cystic mass with bloody nipple discharge. However, the optimal duration of follow-up and timing of surgical excision have not yet been established.
Complications secondary to oxygen-ozone therapy are rare, but they have been described in medical literature. There are only two cases of infectious complications after oxygen-ozone therapy. Our aim is to describe a rare case of purulent complication that was secondary to oxygen-ozone therapy for the treatment of lower back pain. We report the clinical improvement with conservative treatment for a local complication after percutaneous oxygen-ozone treatment. According to the clinical improvement of our patient, conservative treatment should be considered before any aggressive surgery. PMID:24071048
Objective The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) population is heterogeneous, harbouring a variety of abdominal symptoms. Therefore, IBS is often termed a ‘diagnosis of exclusion’. Chronic abdominal wall pain (CAWP) is a poorly recognized entity, frequently caused by the anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES). Some patients may be misdiagnosed because IBS and CAWP share symptoms. Aim of this study was to construct and validate a questionnaire to distinguish patients with CAWP (including ACNES) patients with IBS. Design A questionnaire was designed of 17 ACNES characteristic items obtained from ACNES patients (n=33) and expert opinion of two specialized surgeons. Eleven IBS-related items (‘Rome III’ criteria) were added leading to a questionnaire containing 28 items. This was validated in a ‘gold standard’ ACNES group (successfully operated ACNES patients, n=68) and a ‘prospective’ IBS group (n=64) as well as in a ‘prospective’ ACNES group (n=47). Distinctive power of individual items was analyzed by ?2. Reliability was tested with Crohnbach's ?. ROC curve was used to determine cut-off values. Results Eighteen of 28 items were significantly distinctive (p<0.01) between ACNES and IBS patients leading to an 18-point ACNES score with good internal consistency (?=0.85). Cut-off value of 10 points resulted in 94% sensitivity, 92% specificity and areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.98. Evaluation of the prospective ACNES group led to 85% sensitivity, 92% specificity and AUC 0.95 indicating high discriminative properties of the questionnaire. Conclusions This novel questionnaire may be useful and valid as a simple tool distinguishing patients harbouring a CAWP syndrome from those having IBS.
van Assen, Tijmen; Boelens, Oliver B; Kamphuis, Jan T; Scheltinga, Marc R; Roumen, Rudi M
Background Pancreatic Stone Protein (PSP) is a protein naturally produced mainly in the pancreas and the gut. There is evidence from experimental and clinical trials that blood PSP levels rise in the presence of inflammation or infection. However, it is not known whether PSP is superior to other established blood tests (e.g. White Blood Count, Neutrophils or C - reactive protein) in predicting appendicitis in patients presenting with abdominalpain and a clinical suspicion of appendicitis at the emergency room. Methods/design The PSP Appendix Trial is a prospective, multi-center, cohort study to assess the value of PSP in the diagnostic workup of acute appendicitis. 245 patients will be prospectively recruited. Interim analysis will be performed once 123 patients are recruited. The primary endpoint of the study concerns the diagnostic accuracy of PSP in predicting acute appendicitis and therefore the evidence of appendicitis on the histopathological specimen after appendectomy. Discussion The PSP Appendix Trial is a prospective, multi-center, cohort study to assess the value of PSP in the diagnostic workup of acute appendicitis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01610193; Institution Ethical Board Approval ID: KEKZH- Nr. 2011–0501
Background Quality assessment and continuous quality feedback to the staff is crucial for safety and efficiency of teleconsultation and triage. This study evaluates whether it is feasible to use an already existing telephone triage protocol to assess the appropriateness of point-of-care and time-to-treat recommendations after teleconsultations. Methods Based on electronic patient records, we retrospectively compared the point-of-care and time-to-treat recommendations of the paediatric telephone triage protocol with the actual recommendations of trained physicians for children with abdominalpain, following a teleconsultation. Results In 59 of 96 cases (61%) these recommendations were congruent with the paediatric telephone protocol. Discrepancies were either of organizational nature, due to factors such as local referral policies or gatekeeping insurance models, or of medical origin, such as milder than usual symptoms or clear diagnosis of a minor ailment. Conclusions A paediatric telephone triage protocol may be applicable in healthcare systems other than the one in which it has been developed, if triage rules are adapted to match the organisational aspects of the local healthcare system.
We report a 54-year-old man who developed visceral varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (auto-PBSCT) without using immunosuppressive agents for multiple myeloma. He suffered from severe abdominalpain 2 months after auto-PBSCT, and morphine chloride was needed to control it. Since the characteristic skin rash of VZV infection appeared over his entire body on the seventh hospital day, aciclovir was immediately started with favorable results. It is extremely difficult to diagnose VZV infection when severe abdominalpain proceeds and the eruptions characteristic of VZV infections are absent. This may also result in devastating delays in effective antiviral treatment. The increase in fat density around the celiac trunk and the root of the superior mesenteric artery on computed tomography shown in this case may has contributed to the correct diagnosis of visceral VZV infection. PMID:21139364
There is a paucity of data regarding emergency department (ED) provider type and computed tomography (CT) scan use in the evaluation of pediatric patients with abdominalpain without trauma. The purpose of this retrospective single community hospital study was to determine if there was a difference in CT use between emergency medicine physicians (EMPs) and pediatricians (PEDs) in all patients younger than 18 years with abdominalpain without trauma who presented to the ED during the study period. The study included 165 patients. EMPs saw 83 patients and used CT in 31 compared with PEDs who saw 82 patients and used CT in 12 (P = .002). EMPs used CT significantly more frequently than PEDs in the designated sample. Economic pressures may cause changes in ED provider type in community and rural hospitals and this study shows that ED provider type may affect medical decision making, including CT use. PMID:24391124
We studied a patient with edema secondary to protein losing enteropathy, and recurrent bouts of bloating and abdominalpain secondary to intestinal subocclusion episodes. After the clinical study, the patient was diagnosed of cryptogenic multifocal ulcerous stenosing enteritis (CMUSE), that is a rare disease, probably caused by mutations in the gene PLA2G4A, and characterized by multiple short stenosis of the small bowel with superficial ulcers, which do not exceed the submucosa layer. Inflammatory bowel disease (Chron's disease), intestinal tuberculosis and intestinal ulcers secondary to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the main differential diagnosis. To sum up, physicians should included CMUSE in the differential diagnosis of recurrent abdominalpain, iron deficiency anaemia, occult intestinal bleeding, edema and protein losing enteropathy. PMID:24035666
Background The Meigs' syndrome is a rare but well-known syndrome defined as the triad of benign solid ovarian tumor, ascites, and pleural effusion. Meigs' syndrome always requires surgical treatment. However, the optimal approach for its management has not been sufficiently investigated. Case presentation We report a patient with a large twisted ovarian fibroma associated with Meigs’ syndrome, abdominalpain and severe hemolytic anemia that was treated by laparoscopic surgery. This case highlights the difficulties that may be encountered in the management of patients with Meigs’ syndrome, including potential misdiagnosis of the tumor as a malignant ovarian neoplasm that may influence the medical and surgical approach and the adverse impact that Meigs’ syndrome can have on the patient’s condition, especially if it is associated with acute pain and severe anemia. Considering the patient’s serious clinical condition and assuming that she had Meigs' syndrome with a twisted large ovarian mass and possible hemolytic anemia, we first concentrated on effective medical management of our patient and chose the most appropriate surgical treatment after laparoscopic examination. The main aim of our initial approach was preoperative management of the anemia. Blood transfusions and glucocorticoid therapy resulted in stabilization of the hemoglobin level and normalization of the bilirubin levels, which confirmed the appropriateness of this approach. Laparoscopic surgery 4 days after admission enabled definitive diagnosis of the tumor, confirmed torsion and removed the bulky ovarian fibroma, resulting in timely resolution of symptoms, short hospitalization, relatively low morbidity and a rapid return to her social and professional life. Conclusions This case highlights the difficulties that may be encountered in the management of patients with Meigs' syndrome, including potential misdiagnosis of the tumor as a malignant ovarian neoplasm that may influence the medical and surgical approach, and the adverse impact that Meigs' syndrome can have on the patient's condition, especially if it is associated with acute pain and severe anemia. The present case suggests that laparoscopic surgery for potentially large malignant tumors is feasible and safe, but requires an appropriate medical and gynecological oncology expertise.
Background & Aims Regional reductions in gray matter (GM) have been reported in several chronic somatic and visceral pain conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic pancreatitis. Reported GM reductions include insular and anterior cingulate cortices, even though subregions are generally not specified. The majority of published studies suffer from limited sample size, heterogeneity of populations, and lack of analyses for sex differences. We aimed to characterize regional changes in cortical thickness (CT) in a large number of well phenotyped IBS patients, taking into account the role of sex related differences. Methods Cortical GM thickness was determined in 266 subjects (90 IBS [70 predominantly premenopausal female] and 176 healthy controls (HC) [155 predominantly premenopausal female]) using the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging (LONI) Pipeline. A combined region of interest (ROI) and whole brain approach was used to detect any sub-regional and vertex-level differences after removing effects of age and total GM volume. Correlation analyses were performed on behavioral data. Results While IBS as a group did not show significant differences in CT compared to HCs, sex related differences were observed both within the IBS and the HC groups. When female IBS patients were compared to female HCs, whole brain analysis showed significant CT increase in somatosensory and primary motor cortex, as well as CT decrease in bilateral subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). The ROI analysis showed significant regional CT decrease in bilateral subregions of insular cortex, while CT decrease in cingulate was limited to left sgACC, accounting for the effect of age and GM volume. Several measures of IBS symptom severity showed significant correlation with CT changes in female IBS patients. Conclusions Significant, sex related differences in CT are present in both HCs and in IBS patients. The biphasic neuroplastic changes in female IBS patients are related to symptom severity.
Jiang, Zhiguo; Dinov, Ivo D.; Labus, Jennifer; Shi, Yonggang; Zamanyan, Alen; Gupta, Arpana; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Hong, Jui-Yang; Tillisch, Kirsten; Toga, Arthur W.; Mayer, Emeran A.
Background. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently the most effective agents for acid-related disorders. However, studies show that 25–75% of patients receiving intravenous PPIs had no appropriate justification, indicating high rates of inappropriate prescribing. Objective. To examine the appropriate use of intravenous PPIs in accordance with guidelines and the efficacy of a prescribing awareness intervention at an Asian teaching institution. Setting. Prospective audit in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Method. Every 4th intravenous PPI prescription received in the pharmacy was screened against hospital guidelines. Interventions for incorrect indication/dose/duration were performed. Patients’ demographic data, medical history and the use of intravenous PPI were collected. Included were all adult inpatients prescribed intravenous PPI. Main Outcome Measure. Proportion of appropriate IV PPI prescriptions. Results. Data for 106 patients were collected. Most patients were male [65(61.3%)], Chinese [50(47.2%)], with mean age ± SD = 60.3 ± 18.0 years. Most intravenous PPI prescriptions were initiated by junior doctors from the surgical [47(44.3%)] and medical [42(39.6%)] departments. Only 50/106(47.2%) patients had upper gastrointestinal endoscopy/surgery performed to verify the source of bleeding. Unexplained abdominalpain [81(76.4%)] was the main driver for prescribing intravenous PPIs empirically, out of which 73(68.9%) were for suspected upper gastrointestinal bleed. Overall, intravenous PPI was found to be inappropriately prescribed in 56(52.8%) patients for indication, dose or duration. Interventions on the use of intravenous PPI were most effective when performed by senior doctors (100%), followed by clinical pharmacists (50%), and inpatient pharmacists (37.5%, p = 0.027). Conclusion. Inappropriate intravenous PPI usage is still prevalent despite the enforcement of hospital guidelines. The promotion of prescribing awareness and evidence-based prescribing through education of medical staff could result in more judicious use of intravenous PPI and dose-optimization.
... ulcers Something stuck in the throat (for example, fish or chicken bones) Tooth infection or abscess ... with the painful swallowing, including: Abdominalpain Chills Cough Fever Heartburn Nausea or vomiting Sour taste in ...
Introduction Acute surgical abdomen is one of the most common emergency surgical causes all over the world and also one of the most important abdominalpain causes which is sometimes intolerable for the patients referring to the emergency departments. Diagnosis and planning for operation in these cases is based on time-demanding serial examinations and results of paraclinical data. In this waiting period, patients have to tolerate pain.Therefore, we aimed to study the hypothesis that relieving pain has no influence on valuable findings in physical examination. Methods This double blind randomized clinical trial was carried out on 120 patients above 12 years old referred to an emergency department of a referral hospital with acute abdomen. Patients were divided into two groups of receiving intravenous placebo and Morphine randomly. Pain score, change in tenderness as well as change in rebound tenderness before and after receiving morphine or placebo were measured based on Numeric Pain Assessment Scale. Results Statistically significant difference was observed between both groups regarding the mean pain score. Prevalence of tenderness and rebound tenderness after medication administration revealed a significant difference between two groups. Furthermore, pain and tenderness showed a significant decrease in patients receiving morphine also a significant difference occurred in rebound tenderness between two groups. Conclusion Despite the fact that opioid analgesics decrease pain in patients with acute surgical abdomen, they do not tend to eliminate required diagnostic data being obtained from physical examination like tenderness and rebound tenderness. Surprisingly, all the acute abdomen cases had rebound tenderness after morphine administration. Therefore, this research advises a cautious usage of morphine in patients with acute abdomen.
Aghamohammadi, Dawood; Gholipouri, Changiz; Hosseinzadeh, Hamzeh; Khajehee, Mohammad Ali; Ghabili, Kamyar; Golzari, Samad EJ
... the second trimester, the muscles and ligaments (tough bands of tissue) that support your uterus stretch. This ... your stomach or throw up . Your breasts are big and sore . The area around your nipples gets ...
We reviewed our experience to compare the effectiveness of epidural analgesia and total intravenous analgesia on postoperative pain control in patients undergoing endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Records of 32 patients during a 2-year period were retrospectively investigated. TIVA group (n = 18) received total intravenous anesthesia, and EA group (n = 14) received epidural anesthesia and sedation. Pain assessment was performed on all patients on a daily basis during rest and activity on postoperative days until discharge from ward using the numeric rating scale. Data for demographic variables, required anesthetic level, perioperative hemodynamic variables, postoperative pain, and morbidities were recorded. There were no relevant differences concerning hospital stay (TIVA group: 14.1?±?7.0, EA group: 13.5?±?7.1), perioperative blood pressure variability (TIVA group: 15.6?±?18.1, EA group: 14.8?±?11.5), and perioperative hemodynamic complication rate (TIVA group: 17%, EA group: 14%). Postoperative pain scores differed significantly (TIVA group: 5.4?±?0.9, EA group: 1.8?±?0.8, P < 0.001). Epidural anesthesia and postoperative epidural analgesia better reduce postoperative pain better compared with general anesthesia and systemic analgesia, with similar effects on hemodynamic status.
We reviewed our experience to compare the effectiveness of epidural analgesia and total intravenous analgesia on postoperative pain control in patients undergoing endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Records of 32 patients during a 2-year period were retrospectively investigated. TIVA group (n = 18) received total intravenous anesthesia, and EA group (n = 14) received epidural anesthesia and sedation. Pain assessment was performed on all patients on a daily basis during rest and activity on postoperative days until discharge from ward using the numeric rating scale. Data for demographic variables, required anesthetic level, perioperative hemodynamic variables, postoperative pain, and morbidities were recorded. There were no relevant differences concerning hospital stay (TIVA group: 14.1?±?7.0, EA group: 13.5?±?7.1), perioperative blood pressure variability (TIVA group: 15.6?±?18.1, EA group: 14.8?±?11.5), and perioperative hemodynamic complication rate (TIVA group: 17%, EA group: 14%). Postoperative pain scores differed significantly (TIVA group: 5.4?±?0.9, EA group: 1.8?±?0.8, P < 0.001). Epidural anesthesia and postoperative epidural analgesia better reduce postoperative pain better compared with general anesthesia and systemic analgesia, with similar effects on hemodynamic status. PMID:24804201
Sen, Ahmet; Erdivanl?, Ba?ar; Ozdemir, Abdullah; Kazdal, H?z?r; Tu?cugil, Ersagun
Background Previous research shows that surgeon-performed ultrasound for patients presenting with abdominalpain in the emergency department leads both to higher diagnostic accuracy and to other benefits. We have evaluated the level of patient satisfaction, health condition and further health care consumption after discharge from the emergency department. Methods A total of 800 patients who attended the emergency department for abdominalpain were randomized to surgeon-performed ultrasound or not as a complement to standard examination. All patients were interviewed by telephone six weeks after the visit to the emergency department using a structured questionnaire including information about health condition, satisfaction and medical examinations. A regional health register was used to check health care consumption over two years and mortality was checked for in the personal data register. Results We found a higher self-rated patient satisfaction in the ultrasound group when leaving the emergency department. After six weeks the figures were equal. There were fewer patients in the ultrasound group with completed or planned complementary examinations after six weeks (31.1%) compared with the control group (41.4%), p = 0.004. There was no difference found in the two-year health care consumption or mortality between the groups. Conclusion For patients with acute abdominalpain, bedside ultrasound examination is related to higher satisfaction and decreased short-term health care consumption. No major effects were revealed when evaluating effects on a long-term basis, including mortality. The previously proven benefit together with the lack of adverse effects from the method makes ultrasound well worth considering for implementation in emergency departments. Trial registration The study has been registered in ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT00550511.
Spine stabilisation exercises, in which patients are taught to preferentially activate the transversus abdominus (TrA) during\\u000a “abdominal hollowing” (AH), are a popular treatment for chronic low back pain (cLBP). The present study investigated whether\\u000a performance during AH differed between cLBP patients and controls to an extent that would render it useful diagnostic tool.\\u000a 50 patients with cLBP (46.3 ± 12.5 years) and 50 healthy controls
N. Pulkovski; A. F. Mannion; F. Caporaso; V. Toma; D. Gubler; D. Helbling; H. Sprott
... of Orthropaedic and Sports Physical Therapy) [ PDF] Chronic Pain Management (Anesthesiology) [699KB PDF] Diagnosis and Treatment of Low- ... Journal of the American Osteopathic Association) [340KB PDF] Pain Management Task Force Final Report (Office of The Army ...
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative pain scores and morphine requirements between spinal anesthesia (SA) with hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% and general anesthesia (GA) with 1 Minimal alveolar concentration minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in 50% N2O and O2 after elective lower abdominal surgery. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 68 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I or II undergoing lower abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to have elective lower abdominal surgery under SA (n = 34) or GA (n = 34). The SA group received 3 cc of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (15 mg), at L3–L4 interspace intrathecally and also 2 mic/kg fentanyl and 0.15 mg/kg morphine intravenously for intraoperative analgesia. In the GA group, induction of anesthesia was carried out with Na thiopental 6 mg/kg body weight, fentanyl 2 mic/kg body weight, morphine 0.15 mg/kg, and atracurium 0.6 mg/kg body weight, and then, trachea was intubated. The primary outcome was postoperative pain scores at rest and under stress on a visual analog scale and the secondary outcome was morphine requirement by the patients. Outcome measures were recorded at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h postoperatively. The duration of postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and hospital stay were recorded. Intraoperative parameters, postoperative pain scores, complications, recovery time, and the duration of hospital stay at follow up were compared between the two groups. Results: Patients in SA group had significantly lower scores of a postoperative pain at rest (3.4 ± 1.6 and 4.1 ± 1.2 at 2 and 4 h postoperatively vs. 5.2 ± 1.5 and 5.8 ± 0.9 in the GA group with P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences between both groups for scores of postoperative pain at 6, 12, and 24 h. The amount of morphine requirement in 6 h postoperatively was significantly lower in the SA group (10.2 ± 4.3 mg vs. 15.6 ± 5.6 mg in the GA group with P < 0.05), but there were not significant differences between the two groups after 6 h postoperatively. The duration of PACU stay was shorter for the GA group than the SA group (75 ± 6 vs. 126 ± 12 min, P < 0.001), but there was no significant differences between the duration of hospital stay between the two groups (1.8 ± 0.6 vs. 2.1 ± 0.8 days). Conclusion: Although in patients undergoing elective lower abdominal surgery with SA may have lower pain scores and also lower morphine requirement in the first 6 h postoperatively, but after that there were no significant differences between SA and GA regarding postoperative pain scores and analgesic requirements and so more attention should be given to their postoperation pain relief.
[Purpose] This study was performed to assess the influence of applying dual pressure biofeedback units (DPBUs) on the angle of pelvic rotation and abdominal muscle activity during the active straight leg raise (ASLR). [Subjects] Seventeen patients with low-back pain (LBP) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to perform an active straight leg raise (ASLR) without a PBU, with a single PBU, and with DPBUs. The angles of pelvic rotation were measured using a three-dimensional motion-analysis system, and the muscle activity of the bilateral internal oblique abdominis (IO), external oblique abdominis (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA) was recorded using surface electromyography (EMG). One-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to determine the rotation angles and muscle activity under the three conditions. [Results] The EMG activity of the ipsilateral IO, contralateral EO, and bilateral RA was greater and pelvic rotation was lower with the DPBUs than with no PBU or a single PBU. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that applying DPBUs during ASLR is effective in decreasing unwanted pelvic rotation and increasing abdominal muscle activity in women with chronic low back pain.
Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Ha, Sung-Min; Oh, Jae-Seop
[Purpose] This study was performed to assess the influence of applying dual pressure biofeedback units (DPBUs) on the angle of pelvic rotation and abdominal muscle activity during the active straight leg raise (ASLR). [Subjects] Seventeen patients with low-back pain (LBP) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to perform an active straight leg raise (ASLR) without a PBU, with a single PBU, and with DPBUs. The angles of pelvic rotation were measured using a three-dimensional motion-analysis system, and the muscle activity of the bilateral internal oblique abdominis (IO), external oblique abdominis (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA) was recorded using surface electromyography (EMG). One-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to determine the rotation angles and muscle activity under the three conditions. [Results] The EMG activity of the ipsilateral IO, contralateral EO, and bilateral RA was greater and pelvic rotation was lower with the DPBUs than with no PBU or a single PBU. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that applying DPBUs during ASLR is effective in decreasing unwanted pelvic rotation and increasing abdominal muscle activity in women with chronic low back pain. PMID:24926138
Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Ha, Sung-Min; Oh, Jae-Seop
Serious abdominal injuries resulting from sport are rare. The potential for misdiagnosis is significant and the consequences may be serious. Patients with abdominalpain should be taken very seriously and investigated with appropriate diagnostic equipment. Sporting bodies have a responsibility to address safety within a particular sport and to change the rules where necessary as injury patterns are identified. ?????
The opioid and cannabinoid systems play a crucial role in multiple physiological processes in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Selective opioid as well as cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists exert a potent inhibitory action on gastrointestinal (GI) motility and pain. In this study, we examined (in vitro and in vivo) whether PR-38 (2-O-cinnamoylsalvinorin B), a novel analog of salvinorin A, can interact with both systems and demonstrate therapeutic effects. We used mouse models of hypermotility, diarrhea, and abdominalpain. We also assessed the influence of PR-38 on the central nervous system by measurement of motoric parameters and exploratory behaviors in mice. Subsequently, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of PR-38 in mouse blood samples after intraperitoneal and oral administration. PR-38 significantly inhibited mouse colonic motility in vitro and in vivo. Administration of PR-38 significantly prolonged the whole GI transit time, and this effect was mediated by µ- and ?-opioid receptors and the CB1 receptor. PR-38 reversed hypermotility and reduced pain in mouse models mimicking functional GI disorders. These data expand our understanding of the interactions between opioid and cannabinoid systems and their functions in the GI tract. We also provide a novel framework for the development of future potential treatments of functional GI disorders. PMID:24891526
Sa?aga, M; Polepally, P R; Sobczak, M; Grzywacz, D; Kamysz, W; Sibaev, A; Storr, M; Do Rego, J C; Zjawiony, J K; Fichna, J
... or pain in at least 11 of 18 “tender points,” specific spots on the neck, shoul- ders, ... other symptoms: • fatigue • trouble sleeping • morning stiffness Fibromyalgia Tender Points Treatment • • • • • Pregabalin (pre-gaB-uh-lin) and ...
We report the case of a 50-year-old woman presented with a history of right hemicolectomy due to an ileocecal neuroendocrine tumor and left breast metastasis. Owing to a slightly elevated chromogranin A-level and lower abdominalpain, single photon emission computed tomography-computer tomography (SPECT-CT) was performed. There were no signs of recurrence on the SPECT-CT scan, but the patient was incidentally found to have an inflamed intramural myoma. We believe that the slightly elevated chromogranin A-level was caused by the hypertension that the patient presented. In the clinical context, this is a report of an inflamed uterine myoma seen as a false positive result detected by TC-99m-Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide (Tektrotyd) SPECT-CT hybrid imaging.
Background: There are important inter-individual variations in the incidence and severity of acute pancreatitis in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Several genes involved in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism or serine proteases pathways are known to influence the risk of pancreatitis. Aim: To evaluate the association between genes regulating serine proteases, chymotrypsin C (CTRC) and serine peptidase inhibitor kazal type1 (SPINK1), and recurrence of hospitalizations for acute pancreatitis or severe abdominalpain in patients with Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency (LPLD), a rare and extreme monogenic model of severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis. Method: The CTRC and SPINK1 genes promoter and coding regions sequencing has been performed in a sample of 38 LPLD adults (22 men and 16 women) and 100 controls (53 men and 47 women). Estimation of the association of CTRC and SPINK1 gene variants or combinations of variants with history of hospitalizations for pancreatitis or acute abdominalpain in LPLD was investigated using non-parametric analyses with correction for multiple testing and logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, family history, and life habits. Results: Gene sequencing followed by genotype-stratified analyses of the CTRC and SPINK1 genes in LPLD and controls revealed a positive association between recurrence of hospitalizations and the rs545634 (CTRC)—rs11319 (SPINK1) combination [OR = 41.4 (CI: 2.0–848.0); p = 0.016]. In all models, a positive family history of pancreatitis was a significant predictor of recurrent hospitalizations independently of the contribution of SPINK1 or CTRC (p < 0.001). Conclusion: These results suggest that a positive family history of pancreatitis and genetic markers in the serine protease pathways could be associated with a risk of recurrent hospitalization for acute pancreatitis in severe hypertriglyceridemia due to LPLD.
Tremblay, Karine; Dubois-Bouchard, Camelia; Brisson, Diane; Gaudet, Daniel
Did you mean: Campo Lucian FRANCISCO LIMBERGER LEO TETELBOM STEIN AIRMON NOCCHI Kolola ANTONIO Postoperative pain preoperative outcomes after laparoscopic radical hysterectomy abdominal radical hysterectomy patients w with early cervical cancer: randomised controlled trial. Trials (London). v.14 p.293 - 2013. ?
... cavity to stick together. What is the abdominal cavity? The abdominal cavity is the internal area of the body between ... adhesions cause tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity to stick together. • Abdominal surgery is the most ...
... tissues and organs. [ Top ] What is the abdominal cavity? The abdominal cavity is the internal area of the body between ... adhesions cause tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity to stick together. Abdominal surgery is the most ...
As the Canadian province of Alberta has adopted neoliberal prescriptions for government, it has increasingly attributed workplace injuries to worker carelessness. Blaming workers for their injuries appears to be part of a broader strategy (which includes under-reporting injury levels and masking ineffective state enforcement with public condemnation of injurious work) to contain the potential political consequences associated with unsafe workplaces. This reflects the state's sometimes conflicting goals of maintaining the production process and the political legitimacy of the government and the capitalist social formation. This case study considers the political dynamics of occupational health and safety in Alberta to understand the escalating use of the careless worker myth over time. Alberta's emphasis on employer self-regulation has resulted in a large number of annual workplace injuries. The 2008 "Bloody Lucky" safety awareness campaign intensified this attribution of blame via gory videos aimed at young workers. This case study examines the validity of this attribution to reveal that this campaign provides workers, particularly young workers, with inaccurate information about injury causation, which may impede their ability and motivation to mitigate workplace risks. PMID:22762494
SUMMARY The treatment of lower back pain and sciatic-type symptoms are often not related to spinal cord infringement, but are due to other factors such as urogenital irritation and piriformis syndrome. Other factors can exist and it behooves the physician to make a definitive diagnosis in order to prevent treating with medicines and treatments that often do not work. Medicines in high doses can lead to dependence or addiction. A normal MRI test is often a flag to the physician that something other than spinal problems may be the cause. A complete workup must be performed including imaging procedures, diagnostic testing and specialized physical examinations if initial diagnosis and treatments do not produce an amelioration of symptoms. There are many causes of chronic lower back pain and sciatica-type symptoms and if the problems and symptoms persist, they should be investigated. PMID:24654670
Inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement has increased dramatically over the past 2 decades. Symptomatic duodenal perforation by IVC filters with involvement of the aorta is a very rare, but challenging, complication. We report a case of persistent atypical right upper quadrant pain secondary to duodenal and aortic perforation by an IVC filter treated with cavotomy for filter removal, primary repair of the duodenum, and extraction of prongs from the aorta. PMID:22627053
Malgor, Rafael D; Hines, George L; Terrana, Lisa; Labropoulos, Nicos
...Therapeutic Devices Â§ 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike...patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominalpain during pregnancy or labor....
...Therapeutic Devices Â§ 884.5225 Abdominal decompression chamber. (a) Identification. An abdominal decompression chamber is a hoodlike...patient's abdomen for the relief of abdominalpain during pregnancy or labor....
Background Mast cells reside within the connective tissue of a variety of tissues and all vascularized organs. Since 1996, few studies have been performed on mast cell density in gastrointestinal biopsies, mainly in adult age group. We recently studied mast cell density in pediatric age group on rather larger number of cases in a referral children hospital. Mast cell density was 12.6 ± 0.87 in 0.25 mm2 (range: 0-81) in our study. Since we frequently encounter cases with rather normal gastric biopsies with no H.pylori, which mainly complain of chronic abdominalpain, we gathered those cases with mast cell density more than 30/0.25 mm2. from 895 gastric biopsies and wanted to study their clinical and endoscopic findings and propose a new entity. Methods Between April 2005 and May 2008, 895 children (< 14 years old), with gastrointestinal complaints who underwent endoscopy were selected and antral biopsies were obtained for histological examination. Among these children, those who had normal or erythematous (but not nodular or ulcerative) gastric mucosa on endoscopic view, plus pathologic report of normal mucosa or mild gastritis in addition to mast cell count more than 30/25 mm2, were chosen and a questionnaire was filled for each patient including clinical, endoscopic and pathologic findings. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 13 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results Over a 3 year period of study, of 895 selected children, 86 patients fulfilled the entrance criteria. The major complaint of patients was recurrent abdominalpain. The mean mast cell density was 45.59 ± 13.81 in 0.25 mm2 (range: 30-93). Among our cases, about 67.4% (n = 58) had 30 to 49, 23.3% (n = 20) had 50 to 69, 8.1% (n = 7) had 70 to 89 and 1.2% (n = 1) had 93 mast cells/0.25 mm2 in their specimens Discussion In 29% of our cases, neither endoscopic nor pathologic change was detected and only increase in mast cell number was reported and in others endoscopic and histopathological findings were negligible except increase in mast cells. In updated Sydney system (classification and grading of gastritis), no term is introduced which is in concordance with this group but we think that increased density of mast cells in these cases should not be overlooked and it may contribute to clinical manifestations in some way. We hope that further studies will direct us to institute therapeutic measurements in this regard.
Alterations in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling pathways have been implicated in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) pathophysiology. We aimed to: 1) determine the effect of the selective CRF receptor 1 antagonist (CRF1), GW876008, relative to placebo, on regional activation and effective connectivity of a stress-related emotional-arousal circuit during expectation of abdominalpain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in human subjects with a diagnosis of IBS and healthy controls (HCs), and 2) examine GW876008 effects on state-trait anxiety and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response. While there were no drug-related effects on peripheral HPA activity, significant central effects were observed in brain regions associated with the stress response. Effective connectivity analysis showed drug-induced normalizations between key regions of the emotional-arousal circuit in patients. During pain expectation, orally administered GW876008 relative to placebo produced significant blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal reductions in the amygdala, hippocampus, insula, anterior cingulate and orbitomedial prefrontal cortices across groups. Patients showed significantly greater BOLD responses in the left locus coeruleus and hypothalamus following placebo compared to HCs, and BOLD signal decreases in the left hypothalamus following drug. The inhibitory effects of GW876008 in the hypothalamus in patients were moderated by anxiety; patients having average and high levels of state anxiety showed drug-related BOLD decreases. GW876008 represents a novel tool for elucidating the neuronal mechanisms and circuitry underlying hyperactivation of CRF/CRF1 signaling and its role in IBS pathophysiology. The unique state anxiety effects observed suggest a potential pathway for therapeutic benefit of CRF1 receptor antagonism for patients with stress-sensitive disorders.
Hubbard, Catherine S.; Labus, Jennifer S.; Bueller, Joshua; Stains, Jean; Suyenobu, Brandall; Dukes, George E.; Kelleher, Dennis L.; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce D.; Mayer, Emeran A.
Background: Dexmedetomidine is an alpha 2 adrenergic agonist, prolongs analgesia when used in neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks. We studied the effect of addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine to perform transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were divided into two equal groups in a randomized double-blinded way. Group B patients (n = 25) received TAP block with 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine and 2 ml of normal saline while Group BD (n = 25) received 0.5 mcg/kg (2 ml) of dexmedetomidine and 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine bilaterally. Time for first analgesic administration, totally used doses of morphine, pain scores, hemodynamic data and side-effects were recorded. Results: Demographic and operative characteristics were comparable between the two groups. The time for the first analgesic dose was longer in Group BD than Group B (470 vs. 280 min, P < 0.001) and the total doses of used morphine were less among Group BD patients in comparison to those in Group B (19 vs. 29 mg/24 h, P < 0.001). Visual analog scores were significantly lower in Group BD in the first 8 h post-operatively when compared with Group B, both at rest and on coughing (P < 0.001). In Group BD, lower heart rate was noticed 60 min from the induction time and continued for the first 4 h post-operatively (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine in TAP block achieves better local anesthesia and provides better pain control post-operatively without any major side-effects.
Spontaneous dissection of the celiac trunk is uncommon and rarely considered in patients presenting with acute onset of epigastric pain. We report the case of a 48-year old male, diagnosed with a spontaneous dissection of the celiac trunk extending towards the common hepatic artery. He was treated conservatively and remained asymptomatic after two years of follow-up. Conservative treatment seems justified in the absence of bowel ischemia or signs of hemorrhage. Initial Computed Tomography angiography revealed the presence of a dissection with a pseudoaneurysm that remained stable and regressed towards a normal Computed Tomography angiography after 7 months of follow-up. Radiologic follow-up is warranted as progression of the dissection and/or total occlusion with or without symptoms can occur. The risk factors, the natural course and optimal treatment remain unclear due to the rarity of the disorder. Our patient had no predisposing cardiovascular risk factors. Nevertheless, we observed a hypertrophic ligamentum arcuatum on Computed Tomography, possibly facilitating the evolution towards a dissection. Next to the case report, we provide a review of the available literature. PMID:24261029
Schrijvers, Rik; Van De Mierop, Frank; De Schepper, Bart; Sprengers, Dirk; Dero, Isabel; D'Archambeau, Olivier; Botelberge, Thomas
Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations.
Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto
Background and aims: This study assessed whether childhood and current adversities: (a) were more prevalent in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) or non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) than in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) or ischaemic heart disease (IHD); and (b) predicted health related quality of life in these disorders. Patients: Cohort study of consecutive attenders to gastroenterology and cardiology clinics in a secondary/tertiary referral centre. Methods: Patients were interviewed using the childhood experience of care and abuse and life events and difficulties schedules. Distress was assessed by questionnaire. Outcome was assessed using SF36 at the index clinic visit and six months later. Results: A total of 133 patients were included (40 NCCP, 43 FD, 29 GORD, and 21 IHD) (67% response rate). The diagnostic groups did not differ significantly in the proportion reporting childhood adversity (30%), ongoing social stress (40%), lack of a close confidant (14%), or level of psychological distress. Reported childhood adversity was associated with poor outcome at the index visit (SF36 physical component score: 36.6 (SEM 1.8) v 42.3 (SEM 1.2) for the remainder; p?=?0.014). In multiple regression analysis, childhood adversity was a significant independent predictor for patients with functional disorders (NCCP and FD) but not organic disorders (GORD or IHD). Change in SF36 score at six months was determined by age and distress score at the index visit in both groups. Conclusion: Childhood adversity was common among this consecutive sample but was associated directly with poor outcome only in patients with functional gastrointestinal syndromes. Distress is an important predictor of outcome in all patients. Greatest impairment occurs when lack of social support accompanies reported childhood adversity.
Rupture of an aneurysm is a rare complication although it is considered a common cause of death. Some of these patients present with the classic triad of symptoms such as abdominalpain, pulsatile abdominal mass and shock. Most symptoms are misleading and will only present as vague abdominalpain. Here we describe one such patient with an unusual presentation of a misleading abdominal mass which was eventually diagnosed as a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm after an emergency MRI.
... for proper digestion. This condition is called PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY. Call your doctor. He or she may ask ... sample of your bowel movements to confirm pancreatic insufficiency. No 15. Do you have excess gas that ...
Background Emergency laparoscopic exploration can be used to identify the causative pathology of acute abdominalpain. Laparoscopic surgery\\u000a also allows treatment of many intraabdominal disorders. This report was prepared to describe the effectiveness of laparoscopic\\u000a surgery compared to laparotomy or nonoperative treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A panel of European experts in abdominal and gynecological surgery was assembled and participated in a consensus conference\\u000a using
S. Sauerland; F. Agresta; R. Bergamaschi; G. Borzellino; A. Budzynski; G. Champault; A. Fingerhut; A. Isla; M. Johansson; P. Lundorff; B. Navez; S. Saad; E. A. M. Neugebauer
A 28-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominalpain, weight loss and a palpable intra-abdominal mass. A CT scan revealed a tumor with a diameter of 7 cm with sharp margins, intra-tumoral fatty components and enhancing soft tissue. After initial workup, which suggested an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT), she underwent laparotomy with complete resection. Pathological examination indeed revealed IMT. IMT is a rare benign neoplasm and has been described in nearly the entire body. It presents with nonspecific symptoms. The therapy of abdominal IMT consists of radical surgery because of high local recurrence rates. In this case report clinical, surgical, radiological and histological features with a review of the relevant literature are described.
Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominalpain (syndrome) (FAP(S)) are common pediatric disorders, characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominalpain. Treatment is challenging, especially in children with persisting symptoms. Gut-directed hypnotherapy (HT) performed by a therapist has been shown to be effective in these children, but is still unavailable to many children due to costs, a lack of qualified child-hypnotherapists and because it requires a significant investment of time by child and parent(s). Home-based hypnotherapy by means of exercises on CD has been shown effective as well, and has potential benefits, such as lower costs and less time investment. The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to compare cost-effectiveness of individual HT performed by a qualified therapist with HT by means of CD recorded self-exercises at home in children with IBS or FAP(S). Methods/Design 260 children, aged 8-18 years with IBS or FAP(S) according to Rome III criteria are included in this currently conducted RCT with a follow-up period of one year. Children are randomized to either 6 sessions of individual HT given by a qualified therapist over a 3-month period or HT through self-exercises at home with CD for 3 months. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients in which treatment is successful at the end of treatment and after one year follow-up. Treatment success is defined as at least 50% reduction in both abdominalpain frequency and intensity scores. Secondary outcomes include adequate relief, cost-effectiveness and effects of both therapies on depression and anxiety scores, somatization scores, QoL, pain beliefs and coping strategies. Discussion If the effectiveness of home-based HT with CD is comparable to, or only slightly lower, than HT by a therapist, this treatment may become an attractive form of therapy in children with IBS or FAP(S), because of its low costs and direct availability. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register number NTR2725 (date of registration: 1 February 2011)
This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NORWTH00120010 on town highway 12 crossing Bloody Brook, Norwich, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). A Level I study is included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I study provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, available from VTAOT files, was compiled prior to conducting the Level I and Level II analyses and can be found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland physiographic province in east-central Vermont. The 8.98-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the left bank upstream and the left and right banks downstream are forested. The immediate right bank upstream is covered by shrub and brush with pasture on the overbank. Town Highway 12 runs along the valley of Bloody Brook; however, at structure NORWTH00120010 the road crosses Bloody Brook at a 90-degree angle. In the study area, Bloody Brook has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.014 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 41 ft and an average channel depth of 3 ft. The predominant channel bed materials are gravel and cobble (D50 is 51.0 mm or 0.167 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I site visit on October 31, 1994, indicated that the reach was unstable. The town highway 12 crossing of Bloody Brook is a 34-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 30-foot clear span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written commun., July 29, 1994). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The right abutment is protected by sparse type-2 stone fill (less than 24 inches diameter). The channel is skewed 0 degrees to the opening and the opening-skew-to-roadway is 0 degrees. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E. Scour depths and rock rip-rap sizes were computed using the general guidelines described in Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 (Richardson and others, 1993). Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. The scour analysis results are presented in tables 1 and 2 and a graph of the scour depths is presented in figure 8.
... Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen J. Schueler, MD How it Works Testimonials FAQ ... should you do to care for yourself? About Stephen J. Schueler, M.D News Advertising How It ...
The Authors report the case of a patient symptomatic for fever, weight loss and abdominalpain submitted to abdominal sonography and CT which identified a mass of the pancreatic head. The patient underwent laparotomy plus biopsy; the istologic and bacteriological diagnosis demonstrated a tuberculous lymphoadenitis in spite of a normal cutaneous tuberculin test. Abdominal localization of TBC infection therefore is increasing in epidemiological studies, and thus it must be included in the differential diagnosis of subdiaphragmatic disease. PMID:9296597
Casolino, V; Arcuri, V; Fontana, I; Tommasi, G V; Manolitsi, O; Valente, R; Valente, U
Intra-abdominal and extraperitoneal actinomycosis are rare infections, caused by different Actinomyces species. However, they have been diagnosed more frequently in the last ten years. We report three cases of abdominal actinomycosis and a literature review of the last eight years. All three patients were diagnosed by means of histopathologic examination only. In one case, an intrauterine device (IUD) was associated with the infection. Therapy consisted of surgical resection of the inflammatory, infected tissue, and long-term antibiotic therapy. All patients are free of recurrence. Abdominal actinomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of an abdominal pathology of insidious onset, especially when an IUD is in place. Even when infection had spread extensively, combined operative and antibiotic therapy cured most of the cases. PMID:14616714
Wagenlehner, F M E; Mohren, B; Naber, K G; Männl, H F K
Morphine is the first choice of treatment of severe post-operative pain, despite the occurrence of often discomforting (post-operative nausea or vomiting (PONV)) and sometimes dangerous (sedation, respiratory depression) side effects. Literature data indicate that morphine's active metabolite, morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), is a powerful analgesic with a possibly more favourable side-effect profile. In this multi-centre randomised controlled clinical trial patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were randomised to M6G or morphine treatment. Treatment started 30-60 min prior to the end of surgery and was continued postoperatively, after patients were titrated to comfort, via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for 24-48 h. Pain intensity, nausea, vomiting and sedation scores were collected at regular intervals. In the study 268 patients were randomised to M6G and 249 to morphine. Withdrawal due to insufficient pain relief occurred predominantly just after surgery and was higher in the M6G group (16.8%) than in the morphine group (8.8%), suggesting a slower onset of analgesia for M6G compared to morphine. Subjects who continued on PCA remained equi-analgesic throughout the study. During the first 24h, nausea levels showed a 27% difference in favour of M6G which narrowly failed to reach statistical significance (P=0.052). Sub-analysis showed a significant reduction in nausea levels in females on M6G (30% difference, P=0.034). In all patients, similar reductions of 30-35% were observed in anti-emetic use, vomiting, PONV (a combined measure of nausea and vomiting) in favour of M6G, persisting for the first 24h postoperatively. Reductions in sedation were observed in the first 4h post-operative period for M6G patients. PMID:21041105
Binning, Alexander R; Przesmycki, Krzysztof; Sowinski, Piotr; Morrison, Lachlan M M; Smith, Terry W; Marcus, Paul; Lees, James P; Dahan, Albert
Confirmatory factor analysis was used to derive and cross-validate the factor structure of the Pain Response Inventory (PRI), a measure of children's coping responses to recurrent pain, with 688 school children, 120 children with abdominalpain, and 175 former abdominalpain patients. Results suggest that different health outcomes are predicted by…
Walker, Lynn S.; Smith, Craig A.; Garber, Judy; Van Slyke, Deborah A.
In January 2005, a 64-year-old man who had previously been a chronic smoker and who had a history of hypercholesterol- emia, hypertension, and myocardial infarction was admitted to the Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Nancy for persistent abdominalpain with intermittent fever. During the preceding 3 weeks he had experienced recurrent episodes of pain of the right iliac fossa, with
Shewanella algae is an emerging bacteria rarely implicated as a human pathogen. It was infrequently recovered from clinical specimens probably because of inadequate processing of non-fermenting oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli. We report here isolation of S. algae in pure culture and mixed with E. coli from two cases of acute gastroenteritis with bloody mucous containing diarrhea occurring at the same time. As this organism is not a normal flora of the gut, the possible source of infection may be fish contaminated with the organism. Whether this bacterium can be considered an enteric pathogen needs to be evaluated. The cases were clinically diagnosed as acute bacillary dysentery. The bacterium was identified by 16S r-RNA gene sequence analysis. PMID:22120808
Blood contamination, such as bloody ascites or hemorrhages during surgery, is a potential hazard for clinical application of fluorescence imaging. In order to overcome this problem, we investigate if fluorescence-lifetime imaging helps to overcome this problem. Samples were prepared at concentrations ranging 0.3-2.4 ?m and mixed with 0-10% of blood. Fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of samples were measured using a time-domain fluorescence imager. Ovarian cancer SHIN3 cells overexpressing the D-galactose receptor were injected into the peritoneal cavity 2.5 weeks before the experiments. Galactosyl serum albumin-rhodamine green (GSA-RhodG), which bound to the D-galactose receptor and was internalized thereafter, was administered intraperitoneally to peritoneal ovarian cancer-bearing mice with various degrees of bloody ascites. In vitro study showed a linear correlation between fluorescence intensity and probe concentration (r(2) > 0.99), whereas the fluorescence lifetime was consistent (range, 3.33 ± 0.15-3.75 ± 0.04 ns). By adding 10% of blood to samples, fluorescence intensities decreased to <1%, while fluorescence lifetimes were consistent. In vivo fluorescence lifetime of GSA-RhodG stained tumors was longer than the autofluorescence lifetime (threshold, 2.87 ns). Tumor lesions under hemorrhagic peritonitis were not depicted using fluorescence intensity imaging; however, fluorescence-lifetime imaging clearly detected tumor lesions by prolonged lifetimes. In conclusion, fluorescence-lifetime imaging with GSA-RhodG depicted ovarian cancer lesions, which were invisible in intensity images, in hemorrhagic ascites. PMID:24479901
An adhesion occurs when two tissues that normally freely move past each other attach via a fibrous bridge. Abdominal adhesions place a tremendous clinical and financial burden on public health. Adhesions develop after nearly every abdominal surgery, commonly causing female infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and, most frequently, small bowel obstruction. A National Hospital Discharge Survey of hospitalizations between 1998 and 2002 reported that 18.1% of hospitalizations were related to abdominal adhesions annually accounting for 948,000 days of inpatient care at an estimated cost of $1.18 billion. This review discusses the current or proposed therapies for abdominal adhesions. While many therapies for abdominal adhesions have been attempted, the need for a definitive therapy to prevent or even reduce abdominal adhesions still exists. PMID:20036389
Schistosomiasis presenting as an abdominal mass with chronic pain in a child is not common. This report presents case of child presenting with schistosomiasis presenting as an abdominal mass with chronic pain. Abdominal ultrasonography did not particularly contribute to definitive pre-operative diagnosis. However, pathological examination of surgical specimen confirmed Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the biospy. A decrease in the mass volume was noticed under medical treatment (Biltricide). The aim of this report was to intimate clinicians on possible abdominal schistosomiasis as differential diagnosis of childhood abdominal mass. This is a clarion call for a high index of suspicion of childhood abdominal schistosomiasis in children presenting with abdominal mass in a tropical setting. PMID:24841027
Napon, A M; Bandré, E; Nikiéma, Z; Diallo, O; Ouédraogo, I; Kaboret, S Douamba; Lougué Sorgho, L C; Alfidja, A; Boyer, L
Acute porphyrias are rare diseases with varying incidences worldwide. These diseases are disorders of heme biosynthesis characterized by acute attacks of neurological symptoms. Acute porphyria should be considered in patients with unexplained abdominalpain or neurological damage. Clinical manifestations of acute porphyria are nonspecific and are associated with multiple organ systems. This report examines a rare case of an uncommon type of acute porphyria in a patient with an initial presentation of abdominalpain and progressive polyneuropathy.
A 55-year-old man with an abdominal aortic aneurysm presented with fever and abdominalpain 3 weeks after an episode of Salmonella gastroenteritis. His symptoms persisted despite antimicrobial therapy. Two abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans showed no evidence of aortitis. His abdominalpain worsened and further investigation including a third CT scan demonstrated a leaking aortic aneurysm. The wall of the aorta was shown to contain Gram-negative bacilli. This case illustrates the difficulty in diagnosing bacterial aortitis.???Keywords: Salmonella; aortitis
\\u000a Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and the abdominal compartment syndrome are life-threatening complications in severely injured\\u000a patients. They may trigger a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome with subsequent fatal outcome. Early identification of high-risk\\u000a patients, close monitoring including repeated measuring of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), and early or even prophylactic\\u000a surgical decompression of the abdomen may effectively lower morbidity and mortality. Following abdominal decompression,
INTRODUCTION: The objective is to describe the incidence and nature of significant abdominal pathologies in patients with diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) and abdominalpain. METHODS: Retrospective chart review (N = 86) of patients with DKA from January 1, 2005, to January 31, 2010, was performed. Data included demographics, comorbidities, compliance, chief complaints and physical findings, blood count, metabolic profile, lactic acid, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), amylase, lipase, anion gap, arterial gases, imaging and final diagnosis. Continuous variables were described as mean ± standard deviation and compared with the Student's t test. Categorical variables were expressed as percentages (%) and compared with the Mantel-Haenszel ? test. Univariate analysis was conducted among patients with and without significant abdominalpain and also with and without significant abdominal pathology. Two lipase strata were created at 400 U. Multivariate model to identify limits (confidence interval) of the estimated risk imposed by the predictor found significant in univariate analysis. A P value of ?0.05 was considered significant. Stat View 5.0 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) was used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In patients with abdominalpain, 17% had significant abdominal pathology mainly acute pancreatitis (AP). Serum amylase and lipase level were found to be an indicator of significant underlying pathology (both P values ?0.001). The logistic model created showed that patients with lipase level ?400 U have a 7% increased risk of having AP with confidence interval of 0.01 to 0.6. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DKA and abdominalpain with lipase >400 U have an increased risk of significant underlying abdominal pathology (AP). PMID:22270401
Pant, Nicole; Kadaria, Dipen; Murillo, Luis C; Yataco, Jose C; Headley, Arthur S; Freire, Amado X
Tuberculosis has staged a global comeback and forms a dangerous combination with AIDS. The abdomen is one of the common sites of extrapulmonary involvement. Patients with abdominal tuberculosis have a wide range and spectrum of symptoms and signs; the disease is therefore a great mimic. Diagnosis, mainly radiological and supported by endoscopy, is difficult to make and laparotomy is required in a large number of patient. Management involves judicious combination of antitubercular therapy and surgery which may be required to treat complications such as intestinal obstruction and perforation. The disease, though potentially curable, carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13
Abdominal wall surgery is surgery that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. ... mini-tummy tuck" to more complicated, extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which ...
Chronic pain is persistent and recurrent pain that tends to fluctuate in severity, quality, regularity, and predictability. It can occur in a single or multiple body regions or organ systems. Some of the most frequently reported types of chronic pain include headaches, recurrent abdominalpain (RAP), and musculoskeletal pain. In contrast to acute…
Summary Total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been indicated as the surgical intervention with greatest improvement in pain and physical function. However some patients continue to experience hip pain after elective surgery. We investigate prognostic factors that negatively affect treatment effectiveness and the patient outcome. The “hip region” constitutes the groin, buttock, upper lateral thigh, greater trochanteric area, and the iliac crest. Pain originating from various sources and not directly linked to prosthesis may be perceived here and includes the lumbosacral spine, referred pain from abdominal organs and soft tissue sources such as trochanteric bursitis, tendinitis, hip abductor dysfunction, and inguinal hernia. An accurate assessment of the pain cause is extremely difficult to construct and a complete differential diagnosis is fundamental. We assess all the possible causes of hip pain after THA and we divide them depending on the presence or absence of radiographic signs.
A 58-year-old man who has cancer of the pancreas metastatic to lung and liver and who was initially diagnosed 8 months previously and treated with a Whipple procedure and chemotherapy presents to the emergency department with severe abdominalpain. His pain is located in the epigastrium and radiates bilaterally around to his back. He describes it as squeezing and rates
Myofascial trigger points (TrPs) are posited to be an element in the etiology of both musculoskeletal and visceral pain. However, the recognition of TrPs as a causative factor in a patient's pain presentation varies amongst physicians and therapists. When myofascial pain syndrome is responsible for a patient's condition and is not recognized by the patient's medical advisors, the patient may be put through a plethora of testing procedures to find the cause of the patient's pain, and prescribed medications in an effort to treat the patient's symptoms. The case review presented here involves a patient with severe anterior abdominalpain, with a history of Crohn's disease, who experienced a long and difficult medical process before a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome was made. PMID:23561860
A 7-year-old boy with a jejunal duplication had been asymptomatic until he developed severe abdominalpain following a fall. Preoperative radiographs, CT scan, and abdominal ultrasonography revealed a huge cystic lesion of the small bowel with a tear in the adjacent intestinal wall. Immediate laparotomy disclosed a severely inflamed enteric cyst attached to the dilated jejunum 120 cm distal to
Takashi Shimotake; Kazuaki Tokiwa; Jun Yanagihara; Naomi Iwai
Pain is the most common symptom of pathological process in childhood, presenting with different clinical symptoms. Pain can produce physical and psychical distress in the child, and its management is rarely practiced in pediatric population. The aim of this review is to present patophysiological mechanism of acute and chronic pain in childhood, its clinical signs, the causes of pain, and also differential diagnosis regarding organ systems: headache, chest pain, abdominalpain, and neck pain. PMID:17489515
The use of Thorotrast (25% thorium dioxide), a radiologic contrast agent used up until the mid-1950s, was associated with a wide range of malignancies, mainly of hepatic origin. We report a case of Thorotrast-induced hepatocarcinoma in an 82-year-old woman. PMID:7644401
Anecdotes and animal experiments alike suggest that physiological and psychological stress can profoundly alter gastrointestinal function. However, few studies have examined, in humans, real-world stress to see if free-living persons exhibit gut alterations similar to those produced in the laboratory. To investigate this possibility, we studied 16 medical and premedical students during final written examinations. As compared to a control
This study has produced the following results. All the children with RAP show an excessive excitability and timidness, a strong insecurity and apprehension towards the society. The majority of the children show a strong dependence upon their relatives, they are not able to place themselves, as active subjects, in the present trality and to make plans for their future life (absence of interests and/or programmes about their autorealization). These children have a psychological maturity not corresponding to the physical one, even if there is no real strongly marked mental insufficiency. About 50% of the subjects have difficult relations with their siblings, friends and teachers, unlike the group examined (infact these difficulties are not seen). PMID:8190029
Pompeo, F; Pannaccione, V; Vincenti, V; Gentili, P
Abdominal compartment syndrome is a consequence of increased intraabdominal pressure. It can be triggered by inflammation, hemorrhage, chemical peritonitis, or prolonged insufflations during laparoscopy. It is a well-known phenomenon for intensive care specialists, but gynecologists are relatively unfamiliar with its occurrence. A woman with heterotopic pregnancy underwent urgent laparoscopy because of abdominal hemorrhage. The postoperative course was complicated by abdominalpain, ascites, bowel dysfunction, and renal failure, which resolved rapidly after catheterization and paracentesis. In this case, abdominal compartment syndrome developed after unremarkable laparoscopy, and appeared to be triggered by change of progesterone formulation. Decompression by paracentesis was lifesaving, and led to rapid resolution of the symptoms. PMID:18602054
In order to provide data on human tolerance to blunt abdominal impact a literature study and laboratory tests were carried out to determine the major causes of abdominal injury, injury mechanisms, a quantitative relationship between input and occurrence o...
D. L. Beckman J. H. McElhaney R. L. Stalnaker V. L. Roberts
... to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ... blood pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often seen in males over age ...
IBS with constipation (IBS-C) and chronic constipation (CC) can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The Rome III criteria create mutual exclusion between IBS-C and CC, based on the presence of abdominalpain, which is a defining criterion for IBS-C. Previous surveys found that up to 45% of CC patients have abdominalpain and other IBS features. A Spanish general population study proposes a subclassification of patients with CC based on abdominalpain and other features of IBS. As the Rome criteria evolve, these and other observations provide the basis for further efforts in discerning key features of IBS-C and CC. PMID:24896758
Abdominal tuberculosis is a rare disease, with non-specific findings. Peritoneal tuberculosis is a frequent cause of low gradient ascites. The records of 22 patients (Il males, 11 females, mean age 41,17 years, and range 17-74 years) diagnosed with abdominal tuberculosis (TBC) in First Surgical Clinic, "St. Spiridon" University Hospital Ia?i between 1995 and 2006 were analyzed retrospectively and the literature was reviewed. From these 22 patients diagnosed with abdominal tuberculosis, there were: peritoneal TBC in 16 cases, intestinal TBC in 5 cases, mesenteric lymph nodes TBC in 1 case. The patients with intestinal TBC, were presented with complications, 2 perforations with peritonitis, 1 intestinal obstruction, and 2 as ileo-cecal "tumors" solved by right colectomy, 4 enterectomy (3 entero-enterostomies and 1 ileo-colic anastomosis). The patients with peritoneal TBC were diagnosed by laparoscopy and peritoneal biopsy in 13 cases, and by laparotomy in 3 cases. In peritoneal tuberculosis ascites was present in 15 cases. Other common findings were weight loss (12 cases), weakness (5 cases), abdominalpain (15 cases), anorexia (5 cases) and night sweat (2 cases). Only two patients had chest radiography suggestive of a new TBC lesion. In those patients with peritoneal tuberculosis, subjected to operation, the findings were multiple diffuse involvements of the visceral and parietal peritoneum, white "miliary nodules" or plaques, enlarged lymph nodes, ascites, "violin string" fibrinous strands, and omental thickening. Biopsy specimens showed granulomas, while ascitic fluid showed numerous lymphocytes. Post operatory evolution and management were applied by the TBC Medical System and the patients were treated 6 months by tuberculostatics, with favorable evolution. Abdominal tuberculosis should be considered for diagnosis, in patients with non-specific symptoms of abdominalpain, fever, loss of appetite, abdominal distension and even symptoms of acute abdomen. Laparoscopy is the best approach for peritoneal tuberculosis, and emergency surgery is necessary for acute complication like obstruction and peritonitis. Specific antituberculosis drugs are indicated in postoperative period. PMID:17687859
OBJECTIVE:Abdominalpain is thought to be a hallmark of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although currently used symptom criteria do not differentiate between abdominalpain and discomfort. By focusing on viscerosensory symptoms, we sought to determine: 1) which type of symptoms are most commonly reported by IBS patients, and 2) whether patients who report pain as their most bothersome symptom
Tony Lembo; Bruce Naliboff; Julie Munakata; Steve Fullerton; Lynn Saba; Scott Tung; Max Schmulson; Emeran A Mayer
Pain - side; Side pain ... Flank pain can be a sign of a kidney problem. However, since many organs are in this area, other causes are possible. If you have flank pain and fever , chills, blood in the urine, or ...
Chronic pain is an important clinical problem affecting significant numbers of children and their families. The severity and impact of chronic pain on everyday function is shaped by the complex interaction of biological, psychological and social factors that determine the experience of pain for each individual, rather than a straightforward reflection of the severity of disease or extent of tissue damage. In this article we present the research findings that strongly support a biopsychosocial concept of chronic pain, describe the current best evidence for management strategies and suggest a common general pathway for all types of chronic pain. The principles of management of some of the most important or frequently encountered chronic pain problems in paediatric practice; neuropathic pain, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), musculoskeletal pain, abdominalpain and headache are also described. PMID:24554056
Rajapakse, Dilini; Liossi, Christina; Howard, Richard F
Duodenal perforation after a blunt abdominal trauma is a rare emergency situation that can result in life-threatening complications. We report on a woman who had a perforation of the duodenum after a supposed mild blunt abdominal trauma. Unremarkable at the initial presentation, the patient presented with acute abdominalpain and a retroperitoneal abscess five days after the initial trauma. The duodenal repair was performed with a Roux-Y anastomosis. Difficulties in diagnosis are very common, but the early recognition of the rupture is essential. The contrast-enhanced CT scan is the gold standard for diagnosis. Surgical management depends on the severity of the trauma and must be chosen on an individual basis. PMID:20020392
A 30-year old man with no trauma history presented to our department of dermatology with a 2-year history of abdominalpainful masses. The spontaneous pain and tenderness in the abdominal region gradually worsened. Physical examination revealed 3 firm, irregular subcutaneous nodules measuring 1 x 0.5 cm, which were movable and unattached to the overlying skin. One of the nodules was ulcerated (Figure 1). Histopathologic examination showed spindle-shaped fibroblast cells intermingled with gangliocyte-like giant cells in the hypodermis with an infiltrate made of lymphocytes and histiocytes (Figure 2 and Figure 3). The immunohistochemical staining showed the negativity of the fusiform cells and the gangliocyte-like cells to anti-S100 protein and to anti-smooth muscle actin. PMID:24933852
Zaraa, Ines; Zaouak, Anissa; El Euch, Dalenda; Chelly, Ines; Haouet, Slim; Mokni, Mourad; Ben Osman, Amel
A 38 year old lady who had total abdominal hysterectomy, for chronic pelvic pain, presented with profuse vaginal discharge per vaginum along with a cystic pelvic mass of 10 week size. There was a polypoidal fleshy growth present in the vault. It was diagnosed to be a fallopian tube on histopathology. Patient was treated with bilateral salpingo-ophorectomy through an open laparotomy. PMID:15455626
Patient: Female, 65 Final Diagnosis: Ruptured abdominal aorta aneursym Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: After surgery the patient was discharged without sequelae Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is the most frightening and potentially life threatening complication of an abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). Patients present with atypical symptoms such as abdominal or flank pain, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, or shock. Case Report: A 65-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with gradually increasing left flank pain for 4–5 days. Her laboratory, radiologic, and physical examination revealed no significant pathology, so she was discharged, but 3 days later she was readmitted because her symptoms returned. Further research revealed a ruptured AAA and the patient was hospitalized for surgical intervention. Conclusions: Emergency physicians should keep in mind that AAA and its rupture can present with a wide range of symptoms that appear to be simple.
We describe a young woman with complete cervical spinal cord transsection, who developed significant abdominalpain, triggered by gastric distension and deep abdominal palpation. On the basis of the nature of her spinal cord injury, her brain-gut axis was limited to vagal pathways. Studies in mammalian models of human visceral sensation consistently showed that the subdiaphragmatic vagus contains a homogeneous population of afferents that are activated by low-intensity stimuli, which are generally believed to be important in regulating autonomic function and perhaps contributing to visceral sensory experiences triggered by such low-intensity stimuli (e.g. fullness, nausea), but not pain, although many fibers encode stimuli well into the noxious range. In contrast, spinal afferent pathways include fibers with high-activation thresholds that are thought to represent specialized nociceptors. This illustrative case argues against an exclusive role of specialized nociceptive pathways in visceral pain, but supports a concept of intensity coding with the composite of vagal and spinal input contributing to conscious perception and pain. PMID:22266836
Abdominalpain is a principal and in many cases, the only observable symptom of chronic pancreatitis. Like all chronic pain conditions, managing abdominalpain in chronic pancreatitis remains an onerous task for health care providers. Different mechanisms have been postulated in trying to better understand the pathogenesis of pain in chronic pancreatitis. This review seeks to take a broad look at the various options that are available to providers in trying to achieve pain relief and a better quality of life for chronic pancreatitis patients.
... the intestines are involved, the ulcers may cause: AbdominalpainBloody stools Diarrhea Fever Weight loss More severe infections can result in gastrointestinal bleeding or a hole through the wall of the bowel.
This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Importance of the Problem; Neurophysiology and Biochemistry of Pain; Assessment of Pain in Patients with Cancer; Drug Therapy; Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for Cancer Pain; Sympton Control as it Relates to Pain Control; and Palliative Surgery in Cancer Pain Treatment.
The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) was first described in surgical patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, trauma, bleeding, or infection, but in recent years it has also been described in patients with other pathologies such as burn injury and sepsis and in medical patients. This F1000 Medicine Report is intended to provide critical care physicians a clear insight into the current state of knowledge regarding intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and ACS, and will focus primarily on the recent literature as well as on the definitions and recommendations published by the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. The definitions regarding increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) will be listed, followed by a brief but comprehensive overview of the different mechanisms of organ dysfunction associated with IAH. The gold standard measurement technique for IAP as well as recommendations for organ function support in patients with IAH and options for medical and surgical treatment of IAH and ACS will be discussed.
Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodular lesions in the abdominal cavity with ascites without a possible primary tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed bloody ascites and multiple brown nodular tumors measuring approximately 10 mm in size that were disseminated on the perineum and mesentery. A postoperative PET-CT scan was performed but it did not reveal any evidence of a tumor in the liver. The tumors resected from the peritoneum were diagnosed as HCC. The present case of HCC was thought to have possibly developed from ectopic liver on the peritoneum or mesentery. PMID:23139654
Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodular lesions in the abdominal cavity with ascites without a possible primary tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed bloody ascites and multiple brown nodular tumors measuring approximately 10 mm in size that were disseminated on the perineum and mesentery. A postoperative PET-CT scan was performed but it did not reveal any evidence of a tumor in the liver. The tumors resected from the peritoneum were diagnosed as HCC. The present case of HCC was thought to have possibly developed from ectopic liver on the peritoneum or mesentery.
Pain - heel ... Heel pain is most often the result of overuse. Rarely, it may be caused by an injury. Your heel ... awkwardly on the heel Conditions related to heel pain include: Achilles tendinitis, inflammation of the large tendon ...
Pain relievers are medicines that reduce or relieve headaches, sore muscles, arthritis, or other aches and pains. There ... also have a slightly different response to a pain reliever. Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are good for ...
... by: Anterior knee pain Arthritis -- including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and gout Baker's cyst -- a fluid-filled swelling ... This may reduce swelling and provide support. Take acetaminophen for pain or ibuprofen for pain and swelling. ...
Abdominalpain is a common symptom of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD: Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis). Pain may arise from different mechanisms, which can include partial blockage and gut distention as well as severe intestinal inflammation. A majority of patients suffering from acute flares of IBD will experience pain, which will typically improve as disease activity decreases. However, a significant percentage of IBD patients continue experiencing symptoms of pain despite resolving inflammation and achieving what appears to be clinical remission. Current evidence suggests that sensory pathways sensitize during inflammation, leading to persistent changes in afferent neurons and central nervous system pain processing. Such persistent pain is not only a simple result of sensory input. Pain processing and even the activation of sensory pathways is modulated by arousal, emotion, and cognitive factors. Considering the high prevalence of iatrogenic as well as essential neuropsychiatric comorbidities including anxiety and depression in IBD patients, these central modulating factors may significantly contribute to the clinical manifestation of chronic pain. The improved understanding of peripheral and central pain mechanisms is leading to new treatment strategies that view pain as a biopsychosocial problem. Thus, improving the underlying inflammation, decreasing the excitability of sensitized afferent pathways, and altering emotional and/or cognitive functions may be required to more effectively address the difficult and disabling disease manifestations.
ABSTRACT Purpose: Immobility and pain are modifiable risk factors for development of venous thromboembolism and pulmonary morbidity after major abdominal surgery (MAS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abdominal incision support with an elasticized abdominal binder on postoperative walk performance (mobility), perceived distress, pain, and pulmonary function in patients following MAS. Methods: Seventy-five patients scheduled to undergo MAS via laparotomy were randomized to experimental (binder) or control (no binder) groups. Sixty (33 male, 27 female; mean age 58±14.9 years) completed the study. Preoperative measurements of 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance, perceived distress, pain, and pulmonary function were repeated 1, 3, and 5 days after surgery. Results: Surgery was associated with marked postoperative reductions (p<0.001) in walk distance (?75–78%, day 3) and forced vital capacity (35%, all days) for both groups. Improved 6MWT distance by day 5 was greater (p<0.05) for patients wearing a binder (80%) than for the control group (48%). Pain and symptom-associated distress remained unchanged following surgery with binder usage, increasing significantly (p<0.05) only in the no binder group. Conclusion: Elasticized abdominal binders provide a non-invasive intervention for enhancing recovery of walk performance, controlling pain and distress, and improving patients' experience following MAS.
Rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm is a high lethal risk pathology, which requires precise diagnosis and urgent and efficient surgical treatment. Despite improved diagnostic capabilities (echoscopy, in specialized departments--angiography, computed tomography, magnetic nucleus resonance), mortality related to this pathology remains high in intensive care units. In the present article data concerning prevalence and clinical outcomes of the rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysm for 1999-2001 is presented in detail. During this period 22 patients have undergone surgery due to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Described are most prevalent complications, mortality rates and causes, analyzed are treatment strategy and tactics. PMID:12474751
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) associated with organ dysfunction\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 defines the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Elevated intra-abdominal\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 pressure (IAP) adversely impacts pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, splanchnic,\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 musculoskeletal\\/integumentary, and central nervous system physiology. The\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 combination of IAH and disordered physiology results in a clinical syndrome\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 with significant morbidity and mortality. The onset of the ACS requires prompt\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009 recognition and appropriately timed and staged intervention
This CME-review is about the clinical importance of the abdominal lymph node diagnostic with special attention to various ultrasound techniques. This includes innovative techniques like contrast enhanced ultrasound and elastography. The clinical importance of ultrasound in relation to cross sectional imaging will be the target of the article as well as anatomic- topographic aspects. The article deals as well with endosonographic techniques because of the upmost importance of the technique for diagnosing mediastinal and abdominal lymphnode swellings. In conclusion of the article different clinical scenarios and clinical algorithms are presented to help the reader to diagnose abdominal lymphadenopathy correctly in an efficient way. PMID:23633280
Recurrent or chronic abdominalpain can be a challenging problem when conventional diagnostic studies fail to identify the\\u000a cause. It is estimated that up to one-third of children suffer from abdominalpain, and in this population recurrent pain\\u000a can be even more challenging. Although recurrent right lower quadrant (RLQ) or periumbilical pain may be attributed to chronic\\u000a appendicitis, this diagnosis
Male athletes seeking improvement in the detail of their abdominal musculature have traditionally utilized vigorous exercise and a tightly controlled diet. Abdominal etching is a technique devised to enhance the appearance of the abdominal musculature by removing fat with liposuction at variable levels. The abdominal musculature is topographically visualized as the linea alba, linea semilunaris, and the transverse tendinous intersections
Henry A. Mentz; Mark D. Gilliland; Christopher K. Patronella
Background: The effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure in various organ systems have been noted over the past century. The concept of abdominal compartment syndrome has gained more attention in both trauma and general surgery in the last decade. This article reviews the current understanding and management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. Methods: Relevant information was gathered from a
A 31-year-old man presented with sudden abdominalpain. Computed tomography showed type B aortic dissection and a huge retroperitoneal hematoma. Accordingly, we diagnosed rupture of the abdominal aorta which was of almost normal caliber. Emergency open abdominal aortic repair was performed successfully. Pathology of the aortic wall revealed diffuse medial degeneration with severe elastin fragmentation, but gene analysis found no gene mutation that could lead to a connective tissue disorder. PMID:24771739
... exploration of the abdomen, also called an exploratory laparotomy, may be recommended when there is abdominal disease ... trauma"). Diseases that may be discovered by exploratory laparotomy include: inflammation of the appendix (acute appendicitis) inflammation ...
Set of normal abdominal CT images with various important anatomic structures outlined, for cine viewing to gain a 3D view of the structure and its relationship to adjacent organs.Annotated: trueDisease diagnosis: Normal
We report a case of fatal abdominal thorotrast granuloma seen in a 65-year-old man who had undergone a femoral angiography of thorotrast with some accidental extravasation 49 years previously. As the thorotrast granuloma gradually increased in size, it caused ureteral obstruction, venous thrombosis, and perforation of the urinary bladder and rectum. Symptomatic abdominal thorotrast granuloma is quite rare and this is the first reported case of the granuloma associated with perforation through the urinary bladder and rectum. PMID:1286232
Three cases of blunt abdominal trauma are presented to exemplify the mechanism of trauma and the problems of diagnosis associated with any linear blow to the abdomen. The mechanisms of visceral injury are reviewed, and special attention is directed to the abdominal wall injury that can be present in these patients. This injury has special implications in directing the operative approach and repair. An unusual aortic occlusion is described which is peculiar to this type of injury. PMID:130499
... are not usually advisable for acute back pain. Chronic Back Pain Treatment for chronic back pain falls into two basic categories: the ... some of the more commonly used treatments for chronic back pain. Nonsurgical Treatments Hot or cold: Hot or cold packs—or ...
Isolated spontaneous dissection of the abdominal aorta is such a rare entity and there are only a few cases reported in literature up to date. A 42-year old male was admitted to the hospital with mild pain in the lower abdomen and back that had began seven days prior to admission together with the sudden onset of the ischemic symptoms of the left leg (ischemic ulcers of the calf gangrenous toe and pallor foot). Patient denied any trauma, hypertension history was negative, while he was active cigarette smoker. MSCT and digital subtracted angiography have shown a dissection of the abdominal aorta approximately two centimeters below the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery extending in the left common iliac artery, with no sign of the aneurysmatic dilatation of the abdominal aorta. Emergent surgery was performed with aorto-biiliacal bypass graft interposition, amputation of the left toe and necrectomy of the left calf Postoperative follow up and local vascular condition were satisfied. Even though is rare entity, isolated abdominal aorta dissection accounts for approximately 2-4% of all aortic dissection. Nowadays therapeutic regimen includes endovascular, open surgery or conservative treatment. PMID:24611358
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an elevated intraabdominal pressure with evidence of organ dysfunction. The majority of published reports of ACS are in neonates with abdominal wall defects and in adults following trauma or burns, but it is poorly described in children. We describe the unusual presentation of an 11-year-old boy with a long history of chronic constipation who developed acute ACS requiring resuscitative measures and emergent disimpaction. He presented with a 2-week history of increasing abdominalpain, nausea, diminished appetite and longstanding encopresis. On exam, he was emaciated with a massively distended abdomen with a palpable fecaloma. Abdominal XR confirmed these findings. Within 24 hours of presentation, he became tachycardic and oliguric with orthostatic hypotension. Following two enemas, he acutely deteriorated with severe hypotension, marked tachycardia, acute respiratory distress, and a declining mental status. Endotracheal intubation, fluid boluses, and vasopressors were commenced, followed by emergent surgical fecal disimpaction. This resulted in rapid improvement in vital signs. He has been thoroughly investigated and no other condition apart from functional constipation has been identified. Although ACS secondary to constipation is extremely unusual, this case illustrates the need to actively treat constipation and what can happen if it is not.
Flageole, Helene; Ouahed, Jodie; Walton, J. Mark; Yousef, Yasmin
Abdominal compartment syndrome is defined as sustained intra-abdominal pressure greater than 20 mm Hg (with or without abdominal perfusion pressure <60 mm Hg) associated with new organ failure or dysfunction. The syndrome is associated with 90% to 100% mortality if not recognized and treated in a timely manner. Nurses are responsible for accurately measuring intra-abdominal pressure in children with abdominal compartment syndrome and for alerting physicians about important changes. This article provides relevant definitions, outlines risk factors for abdominal compartment syndrome developing in children, and discusses an instructive case involving an adolescent with abdominal compartment syndrome. Techniques for measuring intra-abdominal pressure, normal ranges, and the importance of monitoring in the critical care setting for timely identification of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome also are discussed. PMID:23203955
Intense abdominalpain is a prominent feature of chronic pancreatitis and its treatment remains a major clinical challenge. Basic studies of pancreatic nerves and experimental human pain research have provided evidence that pain processing is abnormal in these patients and in many cases resembles that seen in neuropathic and chronic pain disorders. An important ultimate outcome of such aberrant pain processing is that once the disease has advanced and the pathophysiological processes are firmly established, the generation of pain can become self-perpetuating and independent of the initial peripheral nociceptive drive. Consequently, the management of pain by traditional methods based on nociceptive deafferentation (e.g., surgery and visceral nerve blockade) becomes difficult and often ineffective. This novel and improved understanding of pain aetiology requires a paradigm shift in pain management of chronic pancreatitis. Modern mechanism based pain treatments taking into account altered pain processing are likely to increasingly replace invasive therapies targeting the nociceptive source, which should be reserved for special and carefully selected cases. In this review, we offer an overview of the current available pharmacological options for pain management in chronic pancreatitis. In addition, future options for pain management are discussed with special emphasis on personalized pain medicine and multidisciplinarity.
Olesen, S?ren S; Juel, Jacob; Graversen, Carina; Kolesnikov, Yuri; Wilder-Smith, Oliver HG; Drewes, Asbj?rn M
Endometriosis is the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus. Spontaneous abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) is any ectopic endometrium found superficial to the peritoneum without the presence of any previous scar. Rarely, endometriosis represents a disease of specific interest to the general surgeon, on account of its extrapelvic localisations. We describe a case with spontaneous AWE presenting as a painful mass with cyclic symptoms. A 28-year-old woman presented to the day-surgery division of our department, suffering from a painful mass in the left lower abdominal quadrant. A mobile mass of 5 x 4 cm was identified. The initial diagnosis was lipoma and excision was planned. During the operation two masses were spotted, very close to one another, and were excised within healthy limits. Pathology revealed endometrial glands surrounded by a disintegrating mantle of endometrial stroma and fibrous scar tissue in which there was a scattering of leucocytes. The woman had no scars. She was discharged from hospital after 2 hours. Two years after the excision she is free of disease and no recurrence has been observed. Spontaneous AWE is rare, accounting for 20% of all AWEs. The triad ; mass, pain and cyclic symptomatology helps in the diagnosis, but unfortunately it is not present in all cases. Spontaneous endometriomas are usually diagnosed by pathology and the treatment of choice is surgical excision. PMID:20184068
Papavramidis, Th S; Sapalidis, K; Michalopoulos, N; Karayanopoulou, G; Raptou, G; Tzioufa, V; Kesisoglou, I; Papavramidis, S T
Imperforate hymen in an adolescent usually presents with cyclic abdominalpain or with pelvic mass associated with primary amenorrhea. We present a 13-year-old girl with chronic lower back pain of 6 months' duration as the only complaint. On physical examination, multiple trigger points were detected in the quadratus lumborum and gluteus medius muscles bilaterally. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hematometrocolpos secondary to an imperforate hymen. Hymenectomy was performed, with complete resolution of the back pain. Myofascial pain syndrome with a viscerosomatic reflex is a possible explanation for the clinical presentation of our patient. PMID:23958769
Domany, Erel; Gilad, Oded; Shwarz, Michael; Vulfsons, Simon; Garty, Ben Zion
Background The presentation of two cases with tuberculous enteritis and tuberculous peritonitis respectively. Patients and methods: Cases 1 ? 53 year old immigrant male, with a past medical history of pulmonary tuberculosis and previous treatment, presented with anorexia, fatigue, intermittent abdominalpain, hoarseness and loss of weight during the past month. Chest radiography showed fibrotic scars and volume loss of the left upper lobe, while laryngoscopy revealed ulceration and oedema at the left aryepiglottic fold. On day 2 of his hospitalization in ENT clinic, patient presented acute abdominalpain, requiring surgical intervention. Surgical findings were a perforation of the small intestine, an edematous and friable mucosa and a widespread of ulcers. Bowel resection and end-to-end anastomosis were performed. Pathology results of the obtained biopsy samples from the small intestine and larynx revealed the presence of chronic caseating granuloma. Anti-tuberculous treatment with INH, RIF, PZ and EMB was administrated and patient improved gradually. Case 2. A 69 year old female with a medical history of end-stage renal disease treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, presented with fever, fatigue and abdominalpain during the past weeks. Chest radiography showed fibrotic scars of the upper lobes and CT of the abdomen was normal. The number of cells in peritoneal dialysis fluid was increased with a predominance of polymorphonuclear cells. An initial diagnosis of bacterial peritonitis was made and broad-spectrum antibiotics were administrated, without improvement. The cultures of the peritoneal fluid were negative for common bacteria. Tuberculin sensitivity test was positive. The Ziehl-Neelsen stain of the peritoneal fluid was positive for acid-fast bacilli and culture identified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. ?nti-tuberculous treatment with INH, RIF, PZ and EMB was started and patient responded promptly with resolution of abdominalpain and remission of fever. Conclusions A high index of suspicion must be maintained for abdominal tuberculosis in high-risk for tuberculosis patients who present with abdominal symptoms.
INTRODUCTION Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH) is a rare entity. Most cases occur in children, following an injury from the bicycle handle bar. In adults, it usually results from road traffic accidents (RTA). We present one of the largest reported cases of TAWH following RTA managed by delayed mesh repair. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 35 yr old obese male with RTA was diagnosed with TAWH with 19 cm × 15 cm defect in left flank. As there were no intra abdominal injuries and overlying skin was abraded, he was planned for elective repair after 6 months. On exploration a defect of 30 cm × 45 cm was found extending from midline anteriorly to 8 cm short of midline posteriorly in transverse axis and costal margin to iliac crest in craniocaudal axis. After restoration of bowel into abdominal cavity, primary closure or even approximation of muscular defect was not possible thus a mesh closure using 60 cm × 60 cm prolene mesh in subcutaneous plane was done. After 4 months follow up, patient is healthy and has no recurrence. DISCUSSION Emergent surgical management of TAWH is usually favoured due to high incidence of associated intra abdominal injuries. Delayed repair may be undertaken in selected cases. CONCLUSION TAWH, although rare, should be suspected in cases of RTA with abdominal wall swellings. With time, the hernia defect may enlarge and muscles may undergo atrophy making delayed repair difficult.
Pylephlebitis is defined as an inflamed thrombosis of the portal vein. It is a rare complication of an intra-abdominal infection, and the diagnosis is often missed due to its nonspecific clinical presentation. Symptoms may include abdominalpain, fever, chills, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. It is important to consider this differential when a patient presents with signs of abdominal sepsis since it has a high mortality rate and is often diagnosed postmortem. Pylephlebitis can be diagnosed via abdominal ultrasound or CT demonstrating a thrombus in the portal vein, and it must be treated early and aggressively with broad-spectrum antibiotics. We are presenting a case of pylephlebitis as well as discussing the diagnosis and treatment of this potentially lethal condition.
Wong, Katherine; Weisman, David S.; Patrice, Kelly-Ann
The aim of the article was to present and discuss the phenomenon of delayed fatal spleen rupture case. A 13-year-old boy was referred to hospital because of his poor general condition, convulsions, tachypnea, shallow breathing, severe paleness, abdominal tenderness, decrease in blood pressure, low blood hemoglobin levels, leukocytosis. Abdominalpain complaints began second day night, after abdominal trauma during soccer game with classmates. Autopsy macroscopic examination revealed coagulated blood in abdominal cavity and large perisplenic haematama. Spleen with a big subcapsular and intrasplenic hematoma was observed on dissection. It is concluded that early diagnosis is the most important measure to reduce mortality. In terms of autopsy examination, proper investigation during forensic autopsy will contribute in understanding the pathophysiology of this phenomenon. PMID:22870831
Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain. PMID:20393420
A 65-year-old man presented with a history of acute onset pain in toes of the right foot immediately after an abdominal massage by a 'local healer'. General physical examination and systemic examination were normal except for discolouration of the fourth and fifth toes and cold toes. Investigations including complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, renal function tests, liver profile, lipid profile, antinuclear antibody, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, ECG, chest X-ray, ultrasound abdomen, cardiac echocardiography, lower limb Doppler and CT scan of the abdomen were normal. The patient was treated with regular heparin infusion, aspirin and tramadol. Recovery was complete in 5?days. PMID:24928926
Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is an exciting new minimally invasive treatment option for patients with this disease. Ochsner Clinic has been the only institution in the Gulf South participating in FDA clinical trials of these investigational devices. Early results with endovascular AAA repair demonstrate a trend towards lower mortality and morbidity when compared with traditional open surgery. Length of stay has been reduced by two-thirds with a marked reduction in postoperative pain and at-home convalescence. If the long-term data on efficacy and durability of these devices are good, most AAAs in the future will be treated with this minimally invasive technique.
Sternbergh, W. Charles; Yoselevitz, Moises; Money, Samuel R.
The most common fetal abdominal wall defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, both with a prevalence of about three in 10,000 births. Prenatal ultrasound has a high sensitivity for these abnormalities already at the time of the first-trimester nuchal scan. Major unrelated defects are associated with gastroschisis in about 10% of cases, whereas omphalocele is associated with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities in a much higher proportion of cases. Challenges in management of gastroschisis are related to the prevention of late intrauterine death, and the prediction and treatment of complex forms. With omphalocele, the main difficulty is the exclusion of associated conditions, not all diagnosed prenatally. An outline of the postnatal treatment of abdominal wall defects is given. Other rarer forms of abdominal wall defects are pentalogy of Cantrell, omphalocele, bladder exstrophy, imperforate anus, spina bifida complex, prune-belly syndrome, body stalk anomaly, and bladder and cloacal exstrophy; they deserve multidisciplinary counselling and management. PMID:24342556
... iron pills, bismuth medicines like Pepto-Bismol, or blueberries can also cause black stools. Beets and tomatoes ... you eaten black licorice, lead, Pepto-Bismol, or blueberries? Have you had more than one episode of ...
Persistent pain is common following thoracotomy. A 64-year-old retired electrician with Type 2 diabetes presented with chest wall and abdominalpain 3 months following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Postoperatively the patient had suffered pain despite a functioning thoracic epidural catheter. Following investigation, his persistent pain was due to diabetic thoracic radiculopathy (DTR). The disorder is characterized by pain, sensory loss, abdominal and thoracic muscle weakness in patients with diabetes. As in this patient, the pain and sensory loss usually resolve within one year after onset. The disorder may be distinguished from intercostal neuralgia based upon clinical and electromyographic features. PMID:12749978
Intra-abdominal infections are more common in the elderly and carry greater associated morbidity and mortality.\\u000a \\u000a Intra-abdominal infections in the elderly have atypical presentations, frequently resulting in delayed diagnosis. The absence\\u000a of any one symptom or sign rarely excludes a diagnosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Obstruction of a hollow viscus, followed by distension, ischemia, and bacterial proliferation is a common pathophysiologic\\u000a evolution in the infections
Aneurysms are common in our increasingly elderly population, and are a major threat to life and limb. Until the advent of vascular reconstructive techniques, aneurysm patients were subject to an overwhelming risk of death from exsanguination. The first successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm using an interposed arterial homograft was reported by Dubost in 1952. A milestone in the evolution of vascular surgery, this event and subsequent diagnostic, operative and prosthetic graft refinements have permitted patients with an unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to enjoy a better prognosis than patients with almost any other form of major systemic illness. Images
... taking, including over-the-counter medications, supplements and herbal remedies. Sometimes there can be serious interactions. Your ... or call our Information Specialists for a copy. Side Effects of Pain Medication Some pain medications have ...
\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients suffering with chronic diffuse pain who lack objective clinical and laboratory findings (e.g., fibromyalgia) frequently\\u000a are dismissed as not having real pain, which only perpetuates their illness.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a There are four principal categories of pain: nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain, chronic pain of complex etiology, and psychogenic\\u000a pain.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Pain assessment should include attention to possible psychological and sociocultural
... ACOG practice bulletin no. 51. Chronic pelvic pain. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 103 ,589–605. [top] UCSF Medical Center. ( ... profile of women with chronic pelvic pain. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 33 ,130–136 [top] What are ...
... over-the counter medicine, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, to relieve pain, and apply heat to the ... an injury. Use anti-inflammatory medicines, such as ibuprofen and aspirin, to relieve pain and discomfort, and ...
Paroxysmal orofacial pains can cause diagnostic problems, especially when different clinical pictures occur simultaneously. Pain due to pulpitis, for example, may show the same characteristics as pain due to trigeminal neuralgia would. Moreover, the trigger point of trigeminal neuralgia can either be located in a healthy tooth or in the temporomandibular joint. Neuralgic pain is distinguished into trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, Horton's neuralgia, cluster headache and paroxysmal hemicrania. In 2 cases trigeminal neuralgia is successfully managed with a neurosurgical microvascular decompression procedure according to Jannetta. Characteristic pain attacks resembling neuralgic pain result from well understood pathophysiological mechanisms. Consequently, adequate therapy, such as a Janetta procedure and specific pharmacological therapy, is available. PMID:17147031
Joint pain may result from traumas or repeated microtraumas, as in sports injuries. Pain in osteoarthritis starts before any\\u000a objective finding. It has been demonstrated that in the first stages of this disease, pain is due to intraosseous venous engorgement\\u000a for the earlier thickening of the cortical bone under the articular cartilage. The mechanisms of inflammatory pain are more\\u000a complex
Objective: To evaluate the incidence of wound complications after the retroperitoneal approach for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair, and to ascertain the cause of abdominal bulge (AB). Subjects and Methods: Forty-three patients with AAA repair via the retroperitoneal space were retrospectively investigated. Wound complications and their incidence were studied by chart review. The thickness of the abdominal wall muscle was measured by follow-up computed tomography films. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) of the abdominal rectus muscle were examined for three bulge patients and three non-bulge patients. Results: Wound hypoesthesia (30%), wound numbness (21%), AB (7%), and wound pain (2%) were found in these patients. The thickness of the abdominal wall muscle was reduced in the incision side. CMAP of abdominal rectus muscle in the incision side disappeared only in AB patients. Conclusions: (1) Wound hypoesthesia and numbness displayed a high incidence. (2) Atrophy of the abdominal wall muscle in the incision side was found in these patients. (3) The cause of AB is considered to be muscle atrophy induced by denervation injury of an 11th intercostal nerve. (4) To avoid an eleventh intercostal nerve injury must be deemed the most effective method for preventing AB.
Pain - neck; Neck stiffness ... this as having a stiff neck. If neck pain involves nerves, you may feel numbness, tingling, or ... A common cause of neck pain is muscle strain or tension. Usually, ... Such activities include: Bending over a desk for hours Poor ...
When a new student first begins to push flies, an immediate skill that must be learned is sorting the sexes. In Drosophila melanogaster several sexually dimorphic characters can be used to readily distinguish males from females including abdominal pigmentation, male sex combs and genital morphology. Another, often-overlooked, sexual dimorphism is adult abdominal segment number. Externally, adult Drosophila males possess one fewer abdominal segment than females; the terminal pre-genital segment apparently either absent or fused with the next-most anterior segment. Beyond known roles for the homeotic protein Abdominal-B (Abd-B) and the sex-determining transcription factor Doublesex (Dsx) as key regulators of this trait, surprisingly little is known about either the morphogenetic processes or the downstream genetics responsible for patterning these events. We have explored both and found that rapid epithelial reorganization during pupation eliminates a nascent terminal male segment. We found this Abd-B-dependent process results from sex- and segment-specific regulation of diverse developmental targets including the wingless gene and surprisingly, dsx itself.1,2 Here, I review our observations and discuss this trait as a model to explore both dynamics of epithelial morphogenesis as well as the evolution of developmental mechanisms.
Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume
Andrea Aliverti; Dario Bovio; Irene Fullin; Raffaele L. Dellacà; Antonella Lo Mauro; Antonio Pedotti; Peter T. Macklem; Fabien Tell
... covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers a one-time abdominal aortic aneurysm ultrasound. You must get a referral for it ...
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is an important cause of acute kidney injury in children often caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) enterocolitis. In a screening program for STEC infection in children with bloody diarrhea in northern Italy for early diagnosis of HUS, co-infection with Salmonella or Campylobacter was documented in as many as 35.6% of Shiga toxin-positive patients. It is speculated that infection by Salmonella or Campylobacter may increase the risk of STEC enterocolitis and therefore of HUS. The isolation of microorganisms (other then STEC) in HUS should not be necessarily regarded as the etiological agent for the thrombotic microangiopathy. PMID:24824362
\\u000a Chronic pain in children and adolescents can be diffi cult to treat. Many parents and children are turning to complementary\\u000a and alternative medicine (CAM) to gain relief for conditions as varied as migraines, juvenile arthritis, sickle cell disease,\\u000a and functional abdominalpain (FAP). This chapter highlights some of the more well-known, safe, and effi cacious CAM treatments\\u000a for children and
The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the clinical efficacy and cost/effectiveness of Saccharomyces boulardii compared with yogurt fluid (YF) in acute non-bloody diarrhea in children. This randomized, prospective open-label clinical trial includes 55 children (36 boys, 19 girls; mean age 21.2 ± 28.2 months). Group A (N = 28) received lyophilized S. boulardii and group B (N = 27) received YF. The duration of diarrhea was shorter with S. boulardii but the hospital stay was reduced with YF, although these differences were not significant. However, diarrhea had resolved in significantly more children on day 3 in the S. boulardii group (48.5% versus 25.5%; P < 0.05). In outpatient cases, yogurt treatment was cheaper than S. boulardii whereas in hospitalized patients, treatment cost was similar. In conclusion, the effect of daily freshly prepared YF was comparable to S. boulardii in the treatment of acute non-bloody diarrhea in children. The duration of diarrhea was shorter in the S. boulardii group, expressed as a significantly higher number of patients with normal stools on day 3.
As a whole, abdominal surgeons possess excellent videoendoscopic surgical skills. However, the limitations of laparoscopy—such as reduced range of motion and instrument dexterity and 2-dimensional view of the operative field—have inspired even the most accomplished laparoscopists to investigate the potential of surgical robotics to broaden their application of the minimally invasive surgery paradigm. This review discusses data obtained from articles
Neuropathic pain is triggered by lesions to the somatosensory nervous system that alter its structure and function so that pain occurs spontaneously and responses to noxious and innocuous stimuli are pathologically amplified. The pain is an expression of maladaptive plasticity within the nociceptive system, a series of changes that constitute a neural disease state. Multiple alterations distributed widely across the nervous system contribute to complex pain phenotypes. These alterations include ectopic generation of action potentials, facilitation and disinhibition of synaptic transmission, loss of synaptic connectivity and formation of new synaptic circuits, and neuroimmune interactions. Although neural lesions are necessary, they are not sufficient to generate neuropathic pain; genetic polymorphisms, gender, and age all influence the risk of developing persistent pain. Treatment needs to move from merely suppressing symptoms to a disease-modifying strategy aimed at both preventing maladaptive plasticity and reducing intrinsic risk.
Costigan, Michael; Scholz, Joachim; Woolf, Clifford J.
Pregnancy, especially the later stages, is fertile ground for back pain. Your center of gravity shifts because your uterus expands. Your abdominal muscles lose tone. And hormonal changes temporarily loosen important support structures - ligaments and tendons - leaving you with joints and muscles in the back and pelvis that seem to groan under the stress of increased weight. PMID:20087008
Gastric perforation was found at laparotomy for acute abdominalpain in a woman treated with pelvic and abdominal radiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix metastatic to the para-aortic nodes. This case may provide additional evidence suggesting that risks involved in para-aortic radiation may outweigh the benefits. PMID:6655724
Gastric perforation was found at laparotomy for acute abdominalpain in a woman treated with pelvic and abdominal radiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix metastatic to the para-aortic nodes. This case may provide additional evidence suggesting that risks involved in para-aortic radiation may outweigh the benefits.
Visceral pain is experienced by 40% of the population, and 28% of cancer patients suffer from pain arising from intra- abdominal metastasis or from treatment. Neuroanatomy of visceral nociception and neurotransmitters, receptors, and ion channels that modulate visceral pain are qualitatively or quantitatively different from those that modulate somatic and neuropathic pain. Visceral pain should be recognized as distinct pain phenotype. TRPV1, Na 1.8, and ASIC3 ion channels and peripheral kappa opioid receptors are important mediators of visceral pain. Mu agonists, gabapentinoids, and GABAB agonists reduce pain by binding to central receptors and channels. Combinations of analgesics and adjuvants in animal models have supra-additive antinociception and should be considered in clinical trials. This paper will discuss the neuroanatomy, receptors, ion channels, and neurotransmitters important to visceral pain and provide a basic science rationale for analgesic trials and management.
It is well known that different surgical procedures like amputation, thoracotomy, inguinal herniotomy, and mastectomy are associated with a risk of developing chronic postsurgical pain. Hysterectomy is the most frequent gynecological procedure with an annual frequency of 5000 hysterectomies for a benign indication in Denmark, but is has not previously been documented in detail to what extent this procedure leads to chronic pain. The aim of this PhD thesis was therefore to describe the epidemiology, type of pain, risk factors, and predictive factors associated with chronic pain after hysterectomy for a benign indication. The thesis includes four papers, of which one is based on a questionnaire study, two are based on a prospective clinical study, and one is a review of chronic pain after hysterectomy. The questionnaire paper included 1135 women one year after hysterectomy. A postal questionnaire about pain before and after hysterectomy was combined with data from the Danish Hysterectomy Database. Chronic postoperative pain was described by 32%, and the identified risk factors were preoperative pelvic pain, previous cesarean section, other pain problems and pain as an indication for hysterectomy. Spinal anesthesia was associated with a decreased risk of having pain after one year. The type of surgery (i.e. abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy) did not influence chronic pain. The prospective paper included 90 women referred for a hysterectomy on benign indication. The tests were performed before, on day 1, and 4 months after surgery and included questionnaires about pain, coping, and quality of life together with quantitative sensory testing of pain thresholds. Seventeen percent had pain after 4 months, and the risk factors were preoperative pain problems elsewhere and a high intensity of acute postoperative pain. Type of surgery was not a risk factor. Preoperative brush-evoked allodynia, pinprick hyperalgesia, and vaginal pain threshold were associated with a high intensity of acute postoperative pain, and preoperative brush-evoked allodynia was also associated with pelvic pain after 4 months. This PhD thesis shows that chronic postoperative pain is present after hysterectomy in 17-32% of women. The identified main risk factors are described above. The findings indicate that it is not the nerve injury itself, but more likely the underlying individual susceptibility to pain that is important for the development of chronic pain after hysterectomy. PMID:22239844
Nitrous oxide is an antagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and may prevent the development of chronic postsurgical pain. We conducted a follow-up study in the Evaluation of Nitrous Oxide in the Gas Mixture for Anaesthesia (ENIGMA) trial patients to evaluate the preventive analgesic efficacy of nitrous oxide after major surgery. The ENIGMA trial was a randomized controlled trial of nitrous oxide-based or nitrous oxide-free general anesthesia in patients presenting for noncardiac surgery lasting more than 2 hours. Using a structured telephone interview, we contacted all ENIGMA trial patients recruited in Hong Kong (n=640). We recorded the severity of postsurgical pain of at least 3 months' duration that was not due to disease recurrence or a pre-existing pain syndrome, using the modified Brief Pain Inventory. The impact of postsurgical pain on quality of life was also measured. Pain intensity, opioid and other analgesic requirements during the first week of surgery, were retrieved from the trial case report form and medical records. A total of 46 (10.9%) patients reported pain that persisted from the index surgery, and 39 (9.2%) patients had severe pain. In addition, patients with chronic pain rated poorly in all attributes of the quality-of-life measures compared with those who were pain free. In a multivariate analysis, nitrous oxide decreased the risk of chronic postsurgical pain. In addition, severe pain in the first postoperative week, wound complication, and abdominal incision increased the risk of chronic pain. In conclusion, chronic postsurgical pain was common after major surgery in the ENIGMA trial. Intraoperative nitrous oxide administration was associated with a reduced risk of chronic postsurgical pain. PMID:21889262
Chan, Matthew T V; Wan, Alex C M; Gin, Tony; Leslie, Kate; Myles, Paul S
A case of actinomycosis of the abdomen ten years after surgery for acute appendicitis is reported. The patient, a 2 1/2 years old girl at the time of operation, presented with acute abdominalpain ten years after appendectomy. Computed tomography (CT) showed a mass in the region of the right psoas muscle. Fine needle aspiration revealed pus which on culture was found to contain Actinomyces israeli. Since surgery is a well known probable cause of abdominal actinomycosis, we must assume the appendectomy and the formation of the actinomycotic abscess to be related. Discovery of an abdominal mass even years after violation of the gastrointestinal tract should arouse suspicion of an abscess involving these otherwise infrequent pathogens. PMID:1412325
Management of complex abdominal defects remains a significant challenge for many surgeons, especially in contaminated fields. Currently, available biosynthetic grafts include human cadaveric dermis (AlloDerm), porcine dermal (Permacol and Strattice), and submucosal (Surgisis) sources. All these grafts are composed of an acellular collagen scaffold to provide a bridge for tissue incorporation and neovascularization. The authors describe a case report of a woman who required dual mesh explantation and successive reparative surgery using a porcine dermal matrix for a complex and infected abdominal wound. Twelve months postdischarge the patient remains well, she is pain free, and she returned home to full activities with complete wound closure and without any evidence of residual or recurrent hernia. The patient was satisfied with her cosmetic results. In conclusion, the authors' experience shows that the use of Permacol, a porcine dermal matrix, has been successful in treating an infected abdomen and a vast abdominal wall defect. PMID:22006210
Pain, which afflicts up to 20% of the population at any time, provides both a massive therapeutic challenge and a route to understanding mechanisms in the nervous system. Specialised sensory neurons (nociceptors) signal the existence of tissue damage to the central nervous system (CNS), where pain is represented in a complex matrix involving many CNS structures. Genetic approaches to investigating
Recent reports suggest an increased incidence of abdominal tuberculosis in the United States, particularly in high-risk groups.\\u000a The aim of this study was to review the spectrum of abdominal tuberculosis and its surgical management at a tertiary referral\\u000a center in the United States. The medical records of patients treated for abdominal tuberculosis at our institution between\\u000a January 1992 and June
Imran Hassan; Emmanouil S. Brilakis; Rodney L. Thompson; Florencia G. Que
Purpose. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks have been shown to reduce pain and opioid requirements after abdominal surgery. The aim of the present case series was to demonstrate the use of TAP catheter injections of bupivacaine after major abdominal surgery. Methods. Fifteen patients scheduled for open colonic resection surgery were included. After induction of anesthesia, bilateral TAP catheters were placed, and all patients received a bolus dose of 20?mL bupivacaine 2.5?mg/mL with epinephrine 5??g/mL through each catheter. Additional bolus doses were injected bilaterally 12, 24, and 36?hrs after the first injections. Supplemental pain treatment consisted of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and gabapentin. Intravenous morphine was used as rescue analgesic. Postoperative pain was rated on a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0–10) at regular predefined intervals after surgery, and consumption of intravenous morphine was recorded. Results. The TAP catheters were placed without any technical difficulties. NRS scores were ?3 at rest and ?5 during cough at 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, and 36?hrs after surgery. Cumulative consumption of intravenous morphine was 28 (23–48)?mg (median, IQR) within the first 48?postoperative hours. Conclusion. TAP catheter bolus injections can be used to prolong analgesia after major abdominal surgery.
Bjerregaard, Nils; Nikolajsen, Lone; Bendtsen, Thomas Fichtner; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a magnetic resonance imaging-based technique for quantitatively assessing the mechanical properties of tissues based on the propagation of shear waves. Multiple studies have described many potential applications of MRE, from characterizing tumors to detecting diffuse disease processes. Studies have shown that MRE can be successfully implemented to assess abdominal organs. The first clinical application of MRE to be well documented is the detection and characterization of hepatic fibrosis, which systematically increases the stiffness of liver tissue. In this diagnostic role, it offers a safer, less expensive, and potentially more accurate alternative to invasive liver biopsy. Emerging results suggest that measurements of liver and spleen stiffness may provide an indirect way to assess portal hypertension. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that it is possible to use MRE to evaluate the mechanical properties of other abdominal structures, such as the pancreas and kidneys. Steady technical progress in developing practical protocols for applying MRE in the abdomen and the pelvis provides opportunities to explore many other potential applications of this emerging technology. PMID:20010062
Yin, Meng; Chen, Jun; Glaser, Kevin J; Talwalkar, Jayant A; Ehman, Richard L
Eighty two aortic replacements of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms have been performed during the last 6 years. There were 72 male and 10 female patients, and the average age was 71.33 years. Hemorrhagic shock on the admission was observed in 45 patients, and 13 have been operated urgently without any diagnostic procedures. The transperitoneal approach have been used for the operation. Two aorto duodenal and one aorto caval fistulas, have been found. Only exploration (three patients died immediately after laparotomy and 6 after cross clamping) has been done in 9 cases, and the aortic replacement in 70 cases (27 with tubular, and 43 with bifurcated graft). In 3 cases and axillobifemoral bypass had to be done. During the operation eleven patients died, and 30 in postoperative period, during the period between one and 40 days. Total intrahospital mortality rate was 50%, compared with 3.5% for 250 electively operated patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms in same period. In postoperative period the most important cause of death was multiple organs failures. Statistically significant greater mortality rate (p > 0.01%) was found in cases of late operative treatment, hemorrhagic shock, intra-operational bleeding, ruptured front wall, suprarenal cross clamping and in patients older than 75 year. In complicated cases such as juxtarenal aneurysm, 3 sutures parachute technique for proximal anastomosis, a temporary transection of the left renal vein, and intraaortal balloon occlusive catheter for proximal bleeding control are recommended. PMID:10951761
Lotina, S I; Davidovi?, L B; Kosti?, D M; Stojanov, P L; Velimirovi?, D B; Djuki?, P L; Cinara, I S; Vojnovi?, B M; Savi?, D V
Intra-abdominal adhesions are normally found after most surgical procedures. Many of the adhesions are asymptomatic, but in about 5% they will lead to readmission due to adhesion-related disorders, such as small bowel obstruction, pelvic pain and infertility. This review discusses possible ways to prevent abdominal adhesions and provides an update as comes to where we stand today in research regarding
B. Tingstedt; K. Isaksson; E. Andersson; R. Andersson
This article discusses the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the abdomen, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneum, mesentery, omentum, abdominal lymph nodes, solid abdominal organs, the genital system and the abdominal aorta. Abdominal TB is a diagnostic challenge, particularly when pulmonary TB is absent. It may mimic many other abdominal diseases, both clinically and radiologically. An
F. M. Vanhoenacker; A. I. De Backer; B. Op de Beeck; M. Maes; R. Van Altena; D. Van Beckevoort; P. Kersemans; A. M. De Schepper
Extra-abdominal periosteal desmoid tumors are uncommon nonmetastatic tumors of the extremities with a propensity for local recurrence. Lesions in the distal extremities are rare; a majority of extra-abdominal lesions occur in more proximal portions of the upper and lower extremities. This article reports a patient with an extra-abdominal periosteal desmoid tumor in the toe. A 37-year-old woman had a mass in her left third distal phalanx that was originally noted 3 years prior to presenting to the authors' institution. She reported the mass expanded during pregnancy. The toe was red and elongated and had expanded to approximately the same size as her great toe. The plantar aspect of the toe was thick and callused, and the toenail was slightly elevated. Marginal excision with retention of the nail was performed without complication. The mass was determined to be an extra-abdominal periosteal desmoid tumor and was successfully removed without recurrence. To date, the patient remains asymptomatic, with no pain and complete sensation in her third toe. Although extra-abdominal periosteal desmoid tumors have been identified in the extremities, to the authors' knowledge none have been reported as far distal as the toe. Identifying this lesion in the distal extremity will allow a hasty diagnosis and treatment in future cases of similar presentation. Knowledge of the existence of this type of tumor in the distal extremity may also assist in narrowing differential diagnoses. PMID:24025015
... or damaged. This condition is called rotator cuff tendinitis . Shoulder pain may also be caused by: Arthritis ... recommend such exercises. If you are recovering from tendinitis, continue to do range-of-motion exercises to ...
... damaged, dysfunctional, or injured. These damaged nerve fibers send incorrect signals to other pain centers. The impact ... this short relaxation experience, you may want to send for the longer audio version, available in our ...
... illness. Other common causes of wrist pain include: Gout -- this occurs when you produce too much uric ... care provider thinks that you have an infection, gout, or pseudogout, fluid may be removed from the ...
... protective mechanism, alerting it to potential or actual damage to the body’s tissues. In the example of ... the pain receptors in the skin detect tissue damage from the bee sting. Then, the peripheral nerves ...
Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association - www.theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association - www.fmcpaware.org ...
Abdominal infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nearly all bacteria causing abdominal infections are derived from the endogenous flora of the alimentary tract. The resulting infection is typically polymicrobial and comprised of both aerobic and anaerobic microbes. They can be classified by their severity as uncomplicated and complicated or by their origin as community or hospital acquired. Escherichia
Dietrich Hasper; Joerg C. Schefold; Daniel C. Baumgart
Background and Purpose: A ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is one of the most urgent surgical conditions with high mortality. The aim of the present study was to define relevant prognostic predictors for the outcome of surgical treatment. Patients and Methods: This study included 229 subsequent patients (83% males, 17% females, age 67.0 ± 7.5 years) with a ruptured abdominal aortic
Miroslav Markovi?; Lazar Davidovi?; Živan Maksimovi?; Dušan Kosti?; Ilijas ?inara; Slobodan Cvetkovi?; Radomir Sindjelic; Petar M. Seferovi?; Arsen D. Risti?
In sports, abdominal injuries occur most frequently in cycling, horseback riding, and skiing. Most involve children, not adults. Any athlete sustaining a severe blow to the abdomen should be examined. Guidelines are provided for recognizing and treating injuries to the abdominal muscles, kidneys, spleen, and liver. (Author/MT)
Authors inform about the group of 8 patients with abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) occurred as a compli- cation in large blunt injury of abdominal cavity. To the ACS diagnose, the measurement of intracystic pressure is used routinely, whose values correlate fully with values of intraabdominal pressure (IAP). In case of increasing values of IAP over 25 mm Hg with positive
A 54-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 24 h after undergoing abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting at a private plastic surgery clinic. She presented with the classic evolution of a bowel perforation secondary to abdominal liposuction. A computed tomography (CT) scan found free air in her abdominal cavity. Based on the CT scan and the persistent pain experienced by the patient, an abdominal laparatomy was urgently performed. A jejunum perforation was found and was treated with a resection of the affected segment followed by intestinal anastomosis. The patient had a successful recovery and was discharged seven days later. The present article also reviews the classical presentation of a bowel perforation following abdominal liposuction.
Coronado-Malagon, Martin; Tauffer-Carrion, Luis Tomas
Post operative foreign body in the abdominal cavily, though rare continues to occur in surgical practice. Symptoms may start early with abdominalpain but usually have a varying course, ofter leading 10 the formation of gossypiboma. This is usually a great source of embarrassment to the surgeon and the centre, and of serious detrimental effect to the patient. A case report of a 27-year-old trader with intra-abdominal foreign body is presented to highlig at the similarity in presentation with abdominal lymphoma and the need to explore carefully masses in the abdominal cavity especially in patients who have had surgery in the past. A high index of suspicious is required on the part of the clinician in addition to appropriate radiological and sonologic assessment. Prompt diagnosis and treatment ameliorates the patients suffering and brings them back to life. PMID:23457869
Enterobius vermicularis is the most common helminthic infection in the US. It is usually considered an innocuous parasite that at the most causes perianal itching. We report a case of an 84-year-old female patient from an assisted living facility who presented with symptoms of colitis for 2 months. On detailed history and exam, she was found to have E. vermicularis infection. All her symptoms resolved dramatically within 2 days after a single dose of albendazole. We want to emphasize the importance of including parasitic infections such as E. vermicularis in the differential diagnoses of patients presenting with symptoms of colitis. PMID:19219921
Rajamanickam, Anitha; Usmani, Ali; Suri, Sanjeev; Dimov, Vesselin
Acute hepatic porphyrias stand for a group of rare genetic defects in the metabolism of heme biosynthesis, whereof acute intermittent porphyria is the most frequent one. Factors like drugs, infections, fasting, alcohol, or stress can provoke an acute crisis. The symptoms are very variable; however gastrointestinal and neuro-psychiatric symptoms are common. Furthermore darkening urine might be an important diagnostic sign. We describe the case of a 33-year-old psychiatric nurse presenting with stomach ache, hypertension, delirium and red spots in his underwear. PMID:21365564
Gräni, Ch; Walder, A; Vogt, M; Ramsay, D; Minder, E
An analysis of 35 consecutive episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis confirmed the frequent high levels of serum amylase in this condition. Serum amylase was raised during 21 episodes (60%), and in six instances (17%) the peak level exceeded 1,000 Somogyi units per 100 ml. Hyperamylasaemia was more often found when the initial blood sugar exceeded 500 mg\\/100 ml, or when the
A. H. Knight; D. N. Williams; G. Ellis; D. M. Goldberg
Gastrointestinal manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are common, occurring in about 50% of cases. They are usually mild, in the form of mouth ulcers, nausea, heartburn and mild abdominalpain, but they can be severe in cases of gastrointestinal vasculitis. In this report we describe an unusual combination of SLE complications, namely superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) and reversible acute obstructive renal failure. This was attributed to raised intra-abdominal pressure and hence intra-abdominal compartment syndrome (IACS) following weight loss secondary to an acute presentation of SLE with gastrointestinal vasculitis. PMID:24335010
Hysterectomy is one of the most frequently performed operations in the world, accounting for 500,000-600,000 procedures annually in the USA; the abdominal route for hysterectomy is the preferred route in 60-80% of these operations. Although the number of total abdominal hysterectomies performed annually has decreased, the number of subtotal abdominal hysterectomies increased by >400%. The major indications for abdominal hysterectomy include abnormal uterine bleeding, myomata uteri, adenomyosis, endometriosis, neoplasia, and chronic salpingitis. The basis for selection for subtotal versus total hysterectomy has little in the way of factual data to support it and may actually present some significant disadvantages, such as continued menstruation and cervical prolapse. The detailed technique for performing intrafascial abdominal hysterectomy relies heavily on precise knowledge of pelvic anatomy and compulsive detail to tissue handling. The consistent and correct usage of prophylactic antimicrobials, measures to prevent thromboemboli, and procedures to avoid urinary retention are key to the overall success of the surgery. PMID:15985251
A 51 year-old man presented with acute abdominalpain in our emergency room. The first examination revealed no pathological findings except coprostasis and after an enteroclysis the patient was sent home without any complaints. During a recent episode of abdominalpain a computer tomography was performed, showing dissection of the superior mesenteric and the celiac artery. Without any signs of mesenteric ischemia additional examinations like laboratory studies, x-rays, and abdominal ultrasound might be normal and therefore not helpful for diagnosis. In patients presenting with persistent abdominalpain and unspecific clinical and laboratory findings rare causes of abdominal symptoms should be considered. Despite the rarity of visceral artery dissection, awareness of this pathology is crucial because of its possible lifethreatening complications. Appropriate diagnostic imaging tests may avoid postmortem diagnosis by the pathologist. PMID:15032139
Background and Objective: Chronic pelvic pain affects 15% of women. Our objective was to evaluate empiric laparoscopic inguinal exploration and mesh placement in this population. Methods: Retrospective cohort with follow-up questionnaire of women with lateralizing chronic pelvic pain (right or left), ipsilateral inguinal tenderness on pelvic examination, no clinical hernia on abdominal examination, and ipsilateral empiric laparoscopic inguinal exploration with mesh placement (2003–2009). Primary outcome was pain level at the last postoperative visit. Secondary outcomes were pain level and SF-36 scores from the follow-up questionnaire. Results: Forty-eight cases met the study criteria. Surgery was done empirically for all patients, with only 7 patients (15%) found to have an ipsilateral patent processus vaginalis (shallow peritoneal dimple or a deeper defect (occult hernia)). Of 43 cases informative for the primary outcome, there was pain improvement in 15 patients (35%); pain improvement then return of the pain in 18 patients (42%); and pain unchanged in 9 patients (21%) and worse in 1 patient (2%). Improvement in pain was associated with a positive Carnett's test in the ipsilateral abdominal lower quadrant (P = .024). Thirteen patients returned the questionnaire (27%), and the pain was now described as improved in 9 patients (69%), unchanged in 4 patients (31%), and worse in none. Three SF-36 subscales showed improvement (physical functioning, social functioning, and pain). Conclusion: In select women with chronic pelvic pain, empiric laparoscopic inguinal exploration and mesh placement results in moderate improvement in outcome. A positive Carnett's test in the ipsilateral abdominal lower quadrant is a predictor of better outcome.
Background This protocol is for a study of a new program to improve outcomes in children suffering from chronic pain disorders, such\\u000a as fibromyalgia, recurrent headache, or recurrent abdominalpain. Although teaching active pain self-management skills through\\u000a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or a complementary program such as hypnotherapy or yoga has been shown to improve pain\\u000a and functioning, children with low expectations
Laura B Allen; Jennie CI Tsao; Loran P Hayes; Lonnie K Zeltzer
Back pain and radiating pain to the legs are the most common symptoms encountered in routine neurosurgical practice and usually originates from neurogenic causes including spinal stenosis. The clinial symptoms are often confused with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, musculo-skeletal disease and vascular disease in elderly patients. Because it is not easy to distinguish out the cause of symptoms by only physical examination, routine spinal MRI is checked first to rule out the spinal diseases in most outpatient clinics. Although it is obvious that spinal MRI is a very strong tool to investigate the spinal circumferences, most spine surgeons ignore the importance of looking at all aspects of their imaging and of remembering the extra-spinal causes of radiculopathy. A 68-year-old man who presented with a sudden aggravated both leg claudication. Although his symptom was mimicked for his long standing neurogenic claudication due to spinal stenosis diagnosed previously, abdominal aortic aneurysm(AAA) was found on routine lumbar MRI and it was repaired successfully. We emphasize to spinal surgeons the importance of remembering to look wider on routine MRI images when considering differential diagnoses in the outpatient clinic and to remember the extra-spinal causes of radiculopathy, especially when encountering in elderly patients.
Back pain and radiating pain to the legs are the most common symptoms encountered in routine neurosurgical practice and usually originates from neurogenic causes including spinal stenosis. The clinial symptoms are often confused with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, musculo-skeletal disease and vascular disease in elderly patients. Because it is not easy to distinguish out the cause of symptoms by only physical examination, routine spinal MRI is checked first to rule out the spinal diseases in most outpatient clinics. Although it is obvious that spinal MRI is a very strong tool to investigate the spinal circumferences, most spine surgeons ignore the importance of looking at all aspects of their imaging and of remembering the extra-spinal causes of radiculopathy. A 68-year-old man who presented with a sudden aggravated both leg claudication. Although his symptom was mimicked for his long standing neurogenic claudication due to spinal stenosis diagnosed previously, abdominal aortic aneurysm(AAA) was found on routine lumbar MRI and it was repaired successfully. We emphasize to spinal surgeons the importance of remembering to look wider on routine MRI images when considering differential diagnoses in the outpatient clinic and to remember the extra-spinal causes of radiculopathy, especially when encountering in elderly patients. PMID:24891862
Son, Si-Hoon; Chung, Seok-Won; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Cho, Dae-Chul
Shoulder pain is a frequent complaint encountered in the emergency setting. A brief review of shoulder anatomy and physical examination sets the foundation for evaluation of shoulder pain. Considerations of patient's age are helpful to predict injuries. Fractured clavicles are often seen in traumatic injuries in children and young adults, whereas fractures of the humeral head are more often seen in the elderly from traumatic injuries. Shoulder dislocations are more common in teens to fourth decade. This article reviews specific acute injuries, chronic conditions, and radiologic considerations of patients with shoulder complaints encountered in emergency settings. PMID:21543907
The contribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease to human morbidity and mortality has increased in the aging, industrialized world. In response, extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of the diseased aorta. This work aims to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit AAA expansion and, ultimately, rupture. Contributions from multiple research groups have uncovered a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory milieu, which is believed to be essential for maintaining aortic vascular homeostasis. Recently, novel small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, have been identified as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional inhibitors of gene expression. MicroRNAs are thought to "fine tune" the translational output of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. With the discovery that microRNAs act as powerful regulators in the context of a wide variety of diseases, it is only logical that microRNAs be thoroughly explored as potential therapeutic entities. This current review summarizes interesting findings regarding the intriguing roles and benefits of microRNA expression modulation during AAA initiation and propagation. These studies utilize disease-relevant murine models, as well as human tissue from patients undergoing surgical aortic aneurysm repair. Furthermore, we critically examine future therapeutic strategies with regard to their clinical and translational feasibility. PMID:23852016
Maegdefessel, Lars; Spin, Joshua M; Adam, Matti; Raaz, Uwe; Toh, Ryuji; Nakagami, Futoshi; Tsao, Philip S
AIM: To systematically characterize specific pain patterns in the most frequent pancreatic diseases. METHODS: Pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis (n = 314), pancreatic cancer (n = 469), and other pancreatic tumors (n = 249) including mucinous (n = 20) and serous cystadenoma (n = 31), invasive (n = 37) and non-invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN; n = 48), low stage (n = 18) and high stage neuroendocrine neoplasia (n = 44), and ampullary cancer (n = 51) was registered and correlated with clinicopathological data. Survival times were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients alive at the follow-up time were censored. Survival curves were compared statistically using the log-rank test. RESULTS: Forty-nine point one percent of pancreatic cancer patients revealed no pain, whereas in chronic pancreatitis only 18.3% were pain free. In contrary, moderate/severe pain was registered in 15.1% in pancreatic cancer patients that was increased in chronic pancreatitis with up to 34.2%. Serous cystadenoma was asymptomatic in most cases (58.1%), whereas 78.9% of all mucinous cystadenoma patients suffered pain. In neuroendocrine neoplasia pain was not a key clinical symptom since 64% of low stage neuroendocrine neoplasia and 59% of high stage neuroendocrine neoplasia patients were pain free. Cancer localization in the pancreatic body and patients with malignant pancreatic neoplasms were associated with more severe pain. Tumor grading and stage did not show any impact on pain. Only in pancreatic cancer, pain was directly associated with impaired survival. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic pain depicts different patterns of abdominalpain sensation according to the respective pancreatic disorder and does not allow a unification of the term pancreatic pain.
D'Haese, Jan G; Hartel, Mark; Demir, Ihsan Ekin; Hinz, Ulf; Bergmann, Frank; Buchler, Markus W; Friess, Helmut; Ceyhan, Guralp O
ObjectiveTo assess the effectiveness of aerosolized intraperitoneal bupivacaine in reducing postoperative pain in children. Laparoscopic surgery has decreased the severity of postoperative pain in children. However, children often experience abdominal and shoulder pain requiring significant amounts of opioids, potentially prolonging their hospitalization.
D. A. Freilich; C. S. Houck; P. M. Meier; C. C. Passerotti; A. B. Retik; H. T. Nguyen
Chronic pelvic pain occurs commonly in the adolescent and can be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the clinician, the adolescent, and her family. Defined as lower quadrant or lower abdominalpain lasting 3-6 months or longer, chronic pelvic pain can lead to missed school and activities, decreased functioning, and decreased quality of life in the adolescent. Both the primary care clinician and the pediatric gynecologist need to be aware of the most common causes of chronic pelvic pain in the adolescent, including surgical and nonsurgical, gynecologic versus other pathology including the psychosomatic, and the role of the mind in control of somatic pain in the adolescent. Adding to this complexity is the standard adolescent sense of invulnerability; a knowledge of adolescent development remains essential to the delivery of appropriate gynecologic care for this age group. Education and communication with both the adolescent and her family requires sensitivity, especially in cultures where adolescent sexuality is taboo or discouraged. This chapter will discuss the developmental stages of adolescence and how that impacts care of the patient with chronic pelvic pain at the varying ages, the issue of confidentiality when obtaining a sexual history on the adolescent, and etiologies of chronic pelvic pain specific to the adolescent, including gynecologic and nongynecologic causes. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for chronic pelvic pain in the adolescent will also be addressed. PMID:22846533
Background: Pain management in the Emergency Department is challenging. Do we need to ask patients specifically about their pain scores, or does our observational scoring suffice? The objective of this study was to determine the inter-rater differences in pain scores between patients and emergency healthcare (EHC) providers. Pain scores upon discharge or prior to ward admission were also determined. Methods: A prospective study was conducted in which patients independently rated their pain scores at primary triage; EHC providers (triagers and doctors) separately rated the patients’ pain scores, based on their observations. Results: The mean patient pain score on arrival was 6.8 ± 1.6, whereas those estimated by doctors and triagers were 5.6±1.8 and 4.3±1.9, respectively. There were significant differences among patients, triagers and doctors (P< 0.001). There were five conditions (soft tissue injury, headache, abdominalpain, fracture and abscess/cellulites) that were significantly different in pain scores between patients and EHC providers (P<0.005). The mean pain score of patients upon discharge or admission to the ward was 3.3 ± 1.9. Conclusions: There were significant differences in mean patient pain scores on arrival, compared to those of doctors and triagers. Thus, asking for pain scores is a very important step towards comprehensive pain management in emergency medicine.
Baharuddin, Kamarul Aryffin; Mohamad, Nasir; Nik Abdul Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin; Ahmad, Rashidi; Nik Him, Nik Ahmad Shaiffudin
Despite multiple theories on the pathogenesis of pain in chronic pancreatitis, no uniform and consistently successful treatment strategy exists and abdominalpain still remains the dominating symptom for most patients and a major challenge for clinicians. Traditional theories focussed on a mechanical cause of pain related to anatomical changes and evidence of increased ductal and interstitial pressures. These observations form the basis for surgical and endoscopic drainage procedures, but the outcome is variable and often unsatisfactory. This underscores the fact that other factors must contribute to pathogenesis of pain, and has shifted the focus towards a more complex neurobiological understanding of pain generation. Amongst other explanations for pain, experimental and human studies have provided evidence that pain perception at the peripheral level and central pain processing of the nociceptive information is altered in patients with chronic pancreatitis, and resembles that seen in neuropathic and chronic pain disorders. However, pain due to e.g., complications to the disease and adverse effects to treatment must not be overlooked as an additional source of pain. This review outlines the current theories on pain generation in chronic pancreatitis which is crucial in order to understand the complexity and limitations of current therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, it may also serve as an inspiration for further research and development of methods that can evaluate the relative contribution and interplay of different pain mechanisms in the individual patients, before they are subjected to more or less empirical treatment.
Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Olesen, S?ren Schou; Malver, Lasse Paludan; Fr?kjaer, Jens Br?ndum; Drewes, Asbj?rn Mohr
Primary intra-abdominal malignant mesenchymal tumours are very rare and there are not many cases of visceral malignant fibrous histiocytoma in the English literature. We report a new case of abdominal malignant fibrous histiocytoma presenting as abdominalpain and pyrexia of unknown origin in a 54 year old female followed by a brief review of literature. Presentation with pyrexia of unknown origin is extremely rare in this condition.
Qureshi, NA; Hallissey, MT; Fielding, JW; Gourevitch, D
... blood pressure • Localized infection at the puncture site • Abdominal wall blood clots or bruises • Bleeding • Injury to organs in the abdomen Downloaded From: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/ by a ...
Five ailments which can cause pain in the achilles tendon area are: (1) muscular strain, involving the stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon fibers; (2) a contusion, inflammation or infection called tenosynovitis; (3) tendonitis, the inflammation of the tendon; (4) calcaneal bursitis, the inflammation of the bursa between the achilles tendon…
... itching to the hospice nurse. Often such side effects can be treated and may stop after taking the medication for a few days. • Other things that might make the pain better are: - Relaxing activities - Distracting activities such as watching TV, listening to music or playing a game - Heat (such as a ...
This chapter focuses on what social pain is and how it should be managed. In order to understand social pain in a cancer patient, it is necessary to recognize the change in the patient's daily life after the diagnosis of cancer. Because the degree of suffering and the relationships with family members and the people he or she worked with differ from patient to patient, it is important to note that the context of social pain is different in each patient. Five points shown below are essential in managing social pain. 1. Economical suffering may be alleviated by utilization of the social security system while taking into account each patient's standard of living. 2. Burdens on family members should be lessened, such as by not having them stay at the patient's bedside every day and letting them go home occasionally. 3. The normal patterns of communication, support, and conflict in the family should be identified, and the extent to which they have been disrupted by the illness should be assessed. 4. It is important to understand the ethnic, cultural, and religious background of the patient and the potential impact of their influence on the individual and the illness. 5. Practical or emotional unfinished business that the patient has needs to be identified, and efforts should be made to support fulfillment. PMID:21950034
During an abdominal surgery, life-threatening events such as severe bradycardia and massive hemorrhage may occur. Reflex bradycardia may arise with surgical manipulation of abdominal contents. Anesthetic agents such as propofol or remifentanil increase the risk of bradycardia. Epidural analgesia using local anesthetics during an abdominal surgery also increases the occurrence of bradycardia and hypotension. Combination of these three factors causes severe bradycardia during the abdominal surgery. Anesthesiologist has to pay close attention to heart rate during the abdominal surgery. The surveillance of Anesthesia-Related Critical Incidents in Japan conducted by Japan Society of Anesthesiologist (JSA) shows that life-threatening events due to hemorrhage during abdominal surgery accounted for 43.9% of all perioperative life-threatening events due to hemorrhage. When we find critical hemorrhage, we have to manage the condition in accordance with "The guideline for critical intraoperative hemorrhage" published by JSA and the Japan Society of Transfusion Medicine and Cell Therapy. The pneumoperitoneum required for laparoscopy induces physiologic changes that complicate anesthetic management and could cause CO2-subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, endobronchial intubation, and gas embolism. During laparoscopy, blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiogram, end-tidal CO2, and oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry must be continuously monitored. PMID:19462794
Objective Abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART) is one of the fertility-sparing procedures in women with early-stage cervical cancer. The published results of ART, in comparison with vaginal radical trachelectomy, so far are limited. Materials and Methods This retrospective study comprises all cases of female patients referred to ART with early-stage cervical cancer from 2 gynecologic oncology centers in Romania. Results A total of 29 women were referred for ART, but subsequently, fertility could not be preserved in 3 of them. Eleven women had stage IA2 disease (42.3%), 14 (53.8%) women had stage IB1 disease, and 1 (3.8%) woman had stage IB2 disease. Histologic subtypes were 15 (57.6%) squamous, 8 (30.7%) adenocarcinoma, and 3 (11.5%) adenosquamous. There were no major intraoperative complications in both hospitals. Early postoperative complications were mainly related to the type C parametrectomy—bladder dysfunction for more than 7 days (8 [30.7%] women) and prolonged constipation (6 [23.0%] women). Other complications consisted in symptomatic lymphocele in 2 (7.6%) patients, which were drained. Median follow-up time was 20 months (range, 4–43 months). Up to the present time, there has been 1 (3.8%) recurrence in our series. Most patients did not experience late postoperative complications. Three (11.5%) women are amenorrheic, and 1 (3.8%) woman developed a cervical stenosis. Of the 23 women who have normal menstruation and maintained their fertility, a total of 7 (30.4%) women have attempted pregnancy, and 3 (42.8%) of them achieved pregnancy spontaneously. These pregnancies ended in 2 first trimester miscarriages and 1 live birth at term by cesarean delivery. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that ART preserves fertility and maintains excellent oncological outcomes with low complication rates.
Capilna, Mihai Emil; Ioanid, Nicolae; Scripcariu, Viorel; Gavrilescu, Madalina Mihaela; Szabo, Bela
Constipation is a disorder of gastrointestinal motility characterized by difficult or decreased bowel movements, and is a common condition in Western countries. Laxatives are the most common strategy for managing constipation. However, long-term use of some laxatives may be associated with harmful side-effects including increased constipation and fecal impaction. Abdominal massage, once an accepted method of treating constipation, is no longer standard of care, but may be a desirable therapy for this condition because it is inexpensive, non-invasive, free of harmful side-effects, and can be performed by patients themselves. However, until recently, evidence for its effectiveness was not strong enough to make a recommendation for its use in constipated patients. In 1999, Ernst reviewed all available controlled clinical trials, and found that there was no sound evidence for the effectiveness of abdominal massage in the treatment of chronic constipation. This article reviews scientific evidence from 1999 to the present, regarding abdominal massage as an intervention for chronic constipation. Since that time, studies have demonstrated that abdominal massage can stimulate peristalsis, decrease colonic transit time, increase the frequency of bowel movements in constipated patients, and decrease the feelings of discomfort and pain that accompany it. There is also good evidence that massage can stimulate peristalsis in patients with post-surgical ileus. Individual case reports show that massage has been effective for patients with constipation due to a variety of diagnosed physiologic abnormalities, as well as in patients with long-term functional constipation. PMID:21943617
Malignant schwannoma of the anterior abdominal wall nerves is extremely rare. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) represent approximately 10% of all soft tissue sarcomas and it is found in 4% of patients with neurofibromatosis 1. We present a case of malignant schwannoma in a 28-year-old female patient with neurofibromatosis 1. She presented with a painful mass in the right upper quadrant of her abdomen. The tumor location was in the abdominal wall in explorative laparatomy and malignant schwannoma was diagnosed in pathologic assessment. The tumor recurred in 3 months and computed tomography showed two masses in the right side of abdominopelvic cavity. Thereafter, second complete surgical resection was performed and pathologic finding was the same. In spite of administering chemotherapy after second surgery,the tumor recurred and magnetic resonance imaging finding showed a huge heterogeneously enhancing mass with adhesion to the inner side of the abdominal wall. The patient died because of acute respiratory failure due to multiple bilateral pulmonary metastases. Tumor location and rapid recurrence was unique in our patient. Keywords Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor; Malignant schwannoma; Abdominal wall
Two and one-half years after having had silicone fluid injected into her breasts, a 22-year-old woman noticed two painful masses in the subcutaneous tissue of her abdominal wall. Similar lesions appeared four months later in both breasts and in the inguin...
Organophosphate insecticides are the potent inhibitors of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme which lead to an increased acetylcholine activity, which are responsible for symptoms such as abdominalpain, diarrhoea, vomiting and hypersalivation. We are reporting on a young male with acute organophosphate poisoning, who presented with unusual complications like toxic pancreatitis with an intraabdominal abscess.
L, Venugopal; Rao V, Dharma; Rao M, Srinivas; Y, Mallikarjuna
The aim of this study was to determine if preemptive ad- ministration of systemic ketamine decreases postopera- tive pain when compared with postwound closure ad- ministration of ketamine. Patients undergoing abdominal procedures were randomized into a preemptive or post- wound closure ketamine administration group. Before surgical incision, patients in the preemptive group (n = 20) were given 0.5 mg\\/ kg
The erosion of the lumbar vertebral bodies by a chronic contained rupture of an infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm is a rare event. Chronic contained rupture can cause diagnostic difficulties as there are many clinical presentations, such as: back pain, sciatic pain or an expansive abdominal mass. The diagnosis is sometimes made following an incidental finding on radiological examination. Currently a CT scan is the gold standard diagnostic tool. The outcome following urgent surgical or endovascular repair is equivalent to that of an elective aneurysm repair. We report a case of a 59 year old man admitted for septic rupture of a cutaneous fistula resulting from a false aneurysm in the left groin. Pre-operative CT scan revealed a 6 cm abdominal aortic aneurysm, with chronic contained rupture. This had caused bone erosion of the vertebral body of the third lumbar vertebrae. PMID:16840951
Clinical palpation of a pulsating abdominal mass alerts the clinician to the presence of a possible abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Generally an arterial aneurysm is defined as a localized arterial dilatation ?50% greater than the normal diameter. Imaging studies are important in diagnosing the cause of a pulsatile abdominal mass and, if an AAA is found, in determining its size and involvement of abdominal branches. Ultrasound (US) is the initial imaging modality of choice when a pulsatile abdominal mass is present. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) may be substituted in patients for whom US is not suitable. When aneurysms have reached the size threshold for intervention or are clinically symptomatic, contrast-enhanced multidetector CT angiography (CTA) is the best diagnostic and preintervention planning study, accurately delineating the location, size, and extent of aneurysm and the involvement of branch vessels. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) may be substituted if CT cannot be performed. Catheter arteriography has some utility in patients with significant contraindications to both CTA and MRA. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:22644671
Desjardins, Benoit; Dill, Karin E; Flamm, Scott D; Francois, Christopher J; Gerhard-Herman, Marie D; Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Mansour, M Ashraf; Mohler, Emile R; Oliva, Isabel B; Schenker, Matthew P; Weiss, Clifford; Rybicki, Frank J
[Purpose] The leg angles that are the most effective for abdominal muscle activation were investigated by performing abdominal drawing-in exercises at different leg angles with a biofeedback pressure unit. [Methods] Subjects were asked to adopt a supine position, and the tip of the biofeedback pressure unit was placed under the posterior superior iliac spine. Then, the pressure was adjusted to 40 mmHg while referring to the pressure gauge connected to the biofeedback pressure unit. Subjects were instructed to increase the pressure by 10 mmHg using the drawing-in technique upon the oral instruction, “Start,” and to maintain the drawn-in state. The time during which the pressure was maintained within an error range of ±1–2mmHg was measured in seconds. [Result] During the abdominal drawing-in exercises, the activity of the rectus abdominis, the internal and external obliques, and the transverse abdominis increased as the knee joint flexion angle increased from 45° to 120°. [Conclusion] When trunk stabilization exercises are performed at the same pressure to reduce damage after the acute phase of low back pain, trunk muscle strength can be efficiently increased by increasing the knee joint angle gradually, while performing abdominal drawing-in exercises with a biofeedback pressure unit.
A middle aged, non-addict male presented with right upper abdominalpain and swelling with respiratory distress. Examination revealed central cyanosis, bipedal pitting edema with prominent epigastric and back veins. Liver was enlarged, tender, spanned 20 cm without any splenomegaly or ascites. Other systems were clinically normal. Laboratory investigations showed polymorphonuclear leucocytosis with slightly deranged liver function. Abdominal ultrasonography showed an abscess in the right lobe of the liver with compressed inferior vena cava (IVC), middle and left hepatic veins. Arterial blood gas (ABG) documented hypoxia with orthodeoxia and air-contrast echocardiography was suggestive of an intrapulmonary shunt. A diagnosis of hepato-pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was made with near normal liver function secondary to amebic liver abscess. It reversed completely following successful treatment of the liver abscess. PMID:16810774
Intraabdominal fat is a metabolically active tissue that may undergo necrosis through a number of mechanisms. Fat necrosis is a common finding at abdominal cross-sectional imaging, and it may cause abdominalpain, mimic findings of acute abdomen, or be asymptomatic and accompany other pathophysiologic processes. Common processes that are present in fat necrosis include torsion of an epiploic appendage, infarction of the greater omentum, and fat necrosis related to trauma or pancreatitis. In addition, other pathologic processes that involve fat may be visualized at computed tomography, including focal lipohypertrophy, pathologic fat paucity (lipodystrophies), and malignancies such as liposarcoma, which may mimic benign causes of fat stranding. Because fat necrosis and malignant processes such as liposarcoma and peritoneal carcinomatosis may mimic one another, knowledge of a patient's clinical history and prior imaging studies is essential for accurate diagnosis. PMID:22084185
Emphysematous cholecystitis is a rare variant of acute cholecystitis with a high mortality rate. The combination of emphysematous cholecystitis and pneumoperitoneum is also rare. We herein describe a case of emphysematous cholecystitis with massive gas in the abdominal cavity. A 77-year-old male presented with epigastric pain and lassitude lasting for one week. A computed tomography scan demonstrated massive gas in the abdominal cavity. Gas was also detectable inside the gallbladder. Massive ascites as well as a pleural effusion were also detected. Under the diagnosis of perforation of the digestive tract, we performed emergency surgery. Beyond our expectations, the perforation site was not in the alimentary tract, but rather in the gallbladder. We then diagnosed the patient with emphysematous cholecystitis with perforation, and performed cholecystectomy. A pathological examination of the resected gallbladder revealed necrosis in the mucosa and thinning of the wall. Cultures of the ascites detected Clostridium pe